WorldWideScience

Sample records for demonstrating computational fluency

  1. VBOT: Motivating computational and complex systems fluencies with constructionist virtual/physical robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Matthew W.

    As scientists use the tools of computational and complex systems theory to broaden science perspectives (e.g., Bar-Yam, 1997; Holland, 1995; Wolfram, 2002), so can middle-school students broaden their perspectives using appropriate tools. The goals of this dissertation project are to build, study, evaluate, and compare activities designed to foster both computational and complex systems fluencies through collaborative constructionist virtual and physical robotics. In these activities, each student builds an agent (e.g., a robot-bird) that must interact with fellow students' agents to generate a complex aggregate (e.g., a flock of robot-birds) in a participatory simulation environment (Wilensky & Stroup, 1999a). In a participatory simulation, students collaborate by acting in a common space, teaching each other, and discussing content with one another. As a result, the students improve both their computational fluency and their complex systems fluency, where fluency is defined as the ability to both consume and produce relevant content (DiSessa, 2000). To date, several systems have been designed to foster computational and complex systems fluencies through computer programming and collaborative play (e.g., Hancock, 2003; Wilensky & Stroup, 1999b); this study suggests that, by supporting the relevant fluencies through collaborative play, they become mutually reinforcing. In this work, I will present both the design of the VBOT virtual/physical constructionist robotics learning environment and a comparative study of student interaction with the virtual and physical environments across four middle-school classrooms, focusing on the contrast in systems perspectives differently afforded by the two environments. In particular, I found that while performance gains were similar overall, the physical environment supported agent perspectives on aggregate behavior, and the virtual environment supported aggregate perspectives on agent behavior. The primary research questions

  2. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  3. Visual perception can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and computational fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinlin; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yiyun; Cui, Jiaxin; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that numerosity processing (e.g., comparison of numbers of dots in two dot arrays) is significantly correlated with arithmetic performance. Researchers have attributed this association to the fact that both tasks share magnitude processing. The current investigation tested an alternative hypothesis, which states that visual perceptual ability (as measured by a figure-matching task) can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and arithmetic performance (computational fluency). Four hundred and twenty four third- to fifth-grade children (220 boys and 204 girls, 8.0-11.0 years old; 120 third graders, 146 fourth graders, and 158 fifth graders) were recruited from two schools (one urban and one suburban) in Beijing, China. Six classes were randomly selected from each school, and all students in each selected class participated in the study. All children were given a series of cognitive and mathematical tests, including numerosity comparison, figure matching, forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrices reasoning, mental rotation, choice reaction time, arithmetic tests and curriculum-based mathematical achievement test. Results showed that figure-matching ability had higher correlations with numerosity processing and computational fluency than did other cognitive factors (e.g., forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrix reasoning, mental rotation, and choice reaction time). More important, hierarchical multiple regression showed that figure matching ability accounted for the well-established association between numerosity processing and computational fluency. In support of the visual perception hypothesis, the results suggest that visual perceptual ability, rather than magnitude processing, may be the shared component of numerosity processing and arithmetic performance.

  4. Instructional Supports for Representational Fluency in Solving Linear Equations with Computer Algebra Systems and Paper-and-Pencil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonger, Nicole L.; Davis, Jon D.; Rohwer, Mary Lou

    2018-01-01

    This research addresses the issue of how to support students' representational fluency--the ability to create, move within, translate across, and derive meaning from external representations of mathematical ideas. The context of solving linear equations in a combined computer algebra system (CAS) and paper-and-pencil classroom environment is…

  5. Computed tomography demonstration of a hypothalamic metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakeres, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    This case report describes a patient who presented with panhypopituitarism secondary to hypothalamic metastasis. A primary hypothalamic abnormality was suggested by computed tomographic (CT) demonstration of a small enhancing circular mass centered within the hypothalamus. Sellar radiographs and cerebral angiography were normal. (orig.)

  6. Computed tomography demonstration of a hypothalamic metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakeres, D.W.

    1983-05-01

    This case report describes a patient who presented with panhypopituitarism secondary to hypothalamic metastasis. A primary hypothalamic abnormality was suggested by computed tomographic (CT) demonstration of a small enhancing circular mass centered within the hypothalamus. Sellar radiographs and cerebral angiography were normal.

  7. Minamata disease demonstrated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, S.C.; Okajima, T.; Inayoshi, S.; Ueno, H.

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography was studied in the patients with Minamata disease, a methylmercury poisoning caused by the ingestion of contaminated sea foods. The characteristic changes in the acquired cases were atrophy of the visual calcarine cortex and of the cerebellar vermis and or hemisphere. Marked atrophy of the calcarine cortex produced the sac-shaped low density areas between the occipital lobes and diffuse and marked cerebellar atrophy with enlargement of the fourth ventricle and cisterns of the posterior fossa produced a shrunken image on CT. Morphometric analysis confirmed these findings. In the fetal cases, the changes on CT were slight and no definite atrophy was demonstrated in either the calcarine cortex or the cerebellum. Morphometric analysis disclosed an increase of size of the middle portions of the lateral ventricle and the third and fourth ventricles. (orig.)

  8. Rethinking spoken fluency

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article re-examines the notion of spoken fluency. Fluent and fluency are terms commonly used in everyday, lay language, and fluency, or lack of it, has social consequences. The article reviews the main approaches to understanding and measuring spoken fluency and suggest that spoken fluency is best understood as an interactive achievement, and offers the metaphor of ‘confluence’ to replace the term fluency. Many measures of spoken fluency are internal and monologue-based, whereas evidence...

  9. Semantic organization in children with Cochlear Implants: Computational analysis of verbal fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoed Nissan Kenett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cochlear implants (CIs enable children with severe and profound hearing impairments to perceive the sensation of sound sufficiently to permit oral language acquisition. So far, studies have focused mainly on technological improvements and general outcomes of implantation for speech perception and spoken language development. This study quantitatively explored the semantic networks of children with CIs in comparison to those of age-matched normal hearing (NH peers.Method: Twenty seven children with CIs and twenty seven age- and IQ-matched NH children ages 7-10 were tested on a timed animal verbal fluency task (Name as many animals as you can. The responses were analyzed using correlation and network methodologies. The structure of the animal category semantic networks for both groups were extracted and compared.Results: Children with CIs appeared to have a less-developed semantic lexicon structure compared to age-matched NH peers. The average shortest path length and the network diameter measures were larger for the NH group compared to the CIs group. This difference was consistent for the analysis of networks derived from animal names generated by each group (sample-matched correlation networks and for the networks derived from the common animal names generated by both groups (word-matched correlation networks.Conclusions: The main difference between the semantic networks of children with CIs and NH children lies in the network structure. The semantic network of children with CIs is under-developed compared to the semantic network of the age-matched NH children. We discuss the practical and clinical implications of our findings.

  10. Experimental Demonstrations of Optical Neural Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Ken; Brady, David; Psaltis, Demetri

    1988-01-01

    We describe two experiments in optical neural computing. In the first a closed optical feedback loop is used to implement auto-associative image recall. In the second a perceptron-like learning algorithm is implemented with photorefractive holography.

  11. An industrial demonstration of computer assisted tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, L.R.

    1985-09-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) is a nondestructive testing technique for generating quantitative density (linear attenuation coefficient) maps of a cross section through an object. By using a series of parallel tomographic images taken at different elevations, a three-dimensional (3-D) map of the object can be obtained. To demonstrate the power of tomography, a 3-D region of a motorcycle carburetor has been imaged using twenty-four parallel two-dimensional images. From these data, new images in planes orthogonal to the original planes have been generated, thereby improving the user's ability to visualize the position of components within the carburetor. The data have also been used to demonstrate the relationship between tomography and radiography

  12. Venous abnormalities demonstrated by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T; Tsukune, Y; Ashida, H; Tokuda, M; Oyama, Y [St. Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1980-05-01

    CT is capable of demonstrating various venous changes. However, little have been described on this subject in the literature. Examples of various venous abnormalities such as obstructed jugular vein, superior and inferior vena cava (IVC), tumor invasion of IVC and renal vein and venous changes in portal hypertension were presented. It was stressed that noninvasive CT is a good tool in diagnosis of some of venous changes and may be able to eliminate angiography in such cases.

  13. Computer tomographic demonstration of the popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, W.; Zwicker, H.

    1979-01-01

    The popliteal artery entrapment syndrome can be diagnosed by computer tomography with a greater degree of certainty than by angiography. The advantage of computer tomography depends on the simultaneous demonstration of the position of the vessel and of the surrounding muscles and their abnormal situation. (orig.) [de

  14. Does Emotional Arousal Influence Swearing Fluency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Richard; Zile, Amy

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the effect of experimentally manipulated emotional arousal on swearing fluency. We hypothesised that swear word generation would be increased with raised emotional arousal. The emotional arousal of 60 participants was manipulated by having them play a first-person shooter video game or, as a control, a golf video game, in a randomised order. A behavioural measure of swearing fluency based on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test was employed. Successful experimental manipulation was indicated by raised State Hostility Questionnaire scores after playing the shooter game. Swearing fluency was significantly greater after playing the shooter game compared with the golf game. Validity of the swearing fluency task was demonstrated via positive correlations with self-reported swearing fluency and daily swearing frequency. In certain instances swearing may represent a form of emotional expression. This finding will inform debates around the acceptability of using taboo language.

  15. Unsuspected organic disease in chronic schizophrenia demonstrated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham Owens, D.G.; Johnstone, E.C.; Bydder, G.M.; Kreel, L.

    1980-01-01

    Unsuspected intracranial pathology was demonstrated in 12 of 136 chronic schizophrenic patients examined by computed tomography (CT). Seven cases of cerebral infarction were found, and one each of porencephalic cyst, meningioma, cystic enlargement of the pineal body, and two of subdural haematoma. Attention is drawn to the value of CT in demonstrating organic disease in schizophrenia. (author)

  16. Demonstration of measurement-only blind quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greganti, Chiara; Roehsner, Marie-Christine; Barz, Stefanie; Walther, Philip; Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Blind quantum computing allows for secure cloud networks of quasi-classical clients and a fully fledged quantum server. Recently, a new protocol has been proposed, which requires a client to perform only measurements. We demonstrate a proof-of-principle implementation of this measurement-only blind quantum computing, exploiting a photonic setup to generate four-qubit cluster states for computation and verification. Feasible technological requirements for the client and the device-independent blindness make this scheme very applicable for future secure quantum networks. (paper)

  17. Demonstration of measurement-only blind quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greganti, Chiara; Roehsner, Marie-Christine; Barz, Stefanie; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Walther, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Blind quantum computing allows for secure cloud networks of quasi-classical clients and a fully fledged quantum server. Recently, a new protocol has been proposed, which requires a client to perform only measurements. We demonstrate a proof-of-principle implementation of this measurement-only blind quantum computing, exploiting a photonic setup to generate four-qubit cluster states for computation and verification. Feasible technological requirements for the client and the device-independent blindness make this scheme very applicable for future secure quantum networks.

  18. Demonstrating Operating System Principles via Computer Forensics Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Davis, Martin H., Jr.; Sethi, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    We explore the feasibility of sparking student curiosity and interest in the core required MIS operating systems course through inclusion of computer forensics exercises into the course. Students were presented with two in-class exercises. Each exercise demonstrated an aspect of the operating system, and each exercise was written as a computer…

  19. Identifying controlling variables for math computation fluency through experimental analysis: the interaction of stimulus control and reinforcing consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstadter-Duke, Kristi L; Daly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated a method for conducting experimental analyses of academic responding. In the experimental analyses, academic responding (math computation), rather than problem behavior, was reinforced across conditions. Two separate experimental analyses (one with fluent math computation problems and one with non-fluent math computation problems) were conducted with three elementary school children using identical contingencies while math computation rate was measured. Results indicate that the experimental analysis with non-fluent problems produced undifferentiated responding across participants; however, differentiated responding was achieved for all participants in the experimental analysis with fluent problems. A subsequent comparison of the single-most effective condition from the experimental analyses replicated the findings with novel computation problems. Results are discussed in terms of the critical role of stimulus control in identifying controlling consequences for academic deficits, and recommendations for future research refining and extending experimental analysis to academic responding are made. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. G-computation demonstration in causal mediation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Aolin; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has considerably advanced the definition, identification and estimation of controlled direct, and natural direct and indirect effects in causal mediation analysis. Despite the various estimation methods and statistical routines being developed, a unified approach for effect estimation under different effect decomposition scenarios is still needed for epidemiologic research. G-computation offers such unification and has been used for total effect and joint controlled direct effect estimation settings, involving different types of exposure and outcome variables. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of parametric g-computation in estimating various components of the total effect, including (1) natural direct and indirect effects, (2) standard and stochastic controlled direct effects, and (3) reference and mediated interaction effects, using Monte Carlo simulations in standard statistical software. For each study subject, we estimated their nested potential outcomes corresponding to the (mediated) effects of an intervention on the exposure wherein the mediator was allowed to attain the value it would have under a possible counterfactual exposure intervention, under a pre-specified distribution of the mediator independent of any causes, or under a fixed controlled value. A final regression of the potential outcome on the exposure intervention variable was used to compute point estimates and bootstrap was used to obtain confidence intervals. Through contrasting different potential outcomes, this analytical framework provides an intuitive way of estimating effects under the recently introduced 3- and 4-way effect decomposition. This framework can be extended to complex multivariable and longitudinal mediation settings

  1. Demonstration of optical computing logics based on binary decision diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiyun; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Wada, Kazumi

    2012-01-16

    Optical circuits are low power consumption and fast speed alternatives for the current information processing based on transistor circuits. However, because of no transistor function available in optics, the architecture for optical computing should be chosen that optics prefers. One of which is Binary Decision Diagram (BDD), where signal is processed by sending an optical signal from the root through a serial of switching nodes to the leaf (terminal). Speed of optical computing is limited by either transmission time of optical signals from the root to the leaf or switching time of a node. We have designed and experimentally demonstrated 1-bit and 2-bit adders based on the BDD architecture. The switching nodes are silicon ring resonators with a modulation depth of 10 dB and the states are changed by the plasma dispersion effect. The quality, Q of the rings designed is 1500, which allows fast transmission of signal, e.g., 1.3 ps calculated by a photon escaping time. A total processing time is thus analyzed to be ~9 ps for a 2-bit adder and would scales linearly with the number of bit. It is two orders of magnitude faster than the conventional CMOS circuitry, ~ns scale of delay. The presented results show the potential of fast speed optical computing circuits.

  2. Sexual-orientation-related differences in verbal fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Abrahams, Sharon; Wilson, Glenn D

    2003-04-01

    This study examined the performance of 60 heterosexual men, 60 gay men, 60 heterosexual women, and 60 lesbians on 3 tests of verbal fluency known to show gender differences: letter, category, and synonym fluency. Gay men and lesbians showed opposite-sex shifts in their profile of scores. For letter fluency, gay men outperformed all other groups; lesbians showed the lowest scores. For category fluency, gay men and heterosexual women jointly outperformed lesbians and heterosexual men. Finally, gay men outperformed all other groups on synonym fluency, whereas lesbians and heterosexual men performed similarly. A difference between heterosexual men and women was demonstrated on category and synonym fluency only. The findings implicate within-sex differences in the functioning of the prefrontal and temporal cortices.

  3. A computational linguistic measure of clustering behavior on semantic verbal fluency task predicts risk of future dementia in the nun study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Hemmy, Laura S

    2014-06-01

    Generative semantic verbal fluency (SVF) tests show early and disproportionate decline relative to other abilities in individuals developing Alzheimer's disease. Optimal performance on SVF tests depends on the efficiency of using clustered organization of semantically related items and the ability to switch between clusters. Traditional approaches to clustering and switching have relied on manual determination of clusters. We evaluated a novel automated computational linguistic approach for quantifying clustering behavior. Our approach is based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) for computing strength of semantic relatedness between pairs of words produced in response to SVF test. The mean size of semantic clusters (MCS) and semantic chains (MChS) are calculated based on pairwise relatedness values between words. We evaluated the predictive validity of these measures on a set of 239 participants in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of aging. All were cognitively intact at baseline assessment, measured with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery, and were followed in 18-month waves for up to 20 years. The onset of either dementia or memory impairment were used as outcomes in Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age and education and censored at follow-up waves 5 (6.3 years) and 13 (16.96 years). Higher MCS was associated with 38% reduction in dementia risk at wave 5 and 26% reduction at wave 13, but not with the onset of memory impairment. Higher [+1 standard deviation (SD)] MChS was associated with 39% dementia risk reduction at wave 5 but not wave 13, and association with memory impairment was not significant. Higher traditional SVF scores were associated with 22-29% memory impairment and 35-40% dementia risk reduction. SVF scores were not correlated with either MCS or MChS. Our study suggests that an automated approach to measuring clustering behavior can be used to estimate dementia risk in cognitively normal

  4. Facilitating English-Language Learners' Oral Reading Fluency with Digital Pen Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Tan, Chia-Chen; Lo, Bey-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Oral reading fluency is an indicator of overall reading competence. Many studies have claimed that repeated reading can promote oral reading fluency. Currently, novel Web- or computer-based reading technologies offer interactive digital materials that promote English oral reading fluency using the repeated reading strategy; however, paper-based…

  5. Paradoxical emboli: demonstration using helical computed tomography of the pulmonary artery associated with abdominal computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delalu, P.; Ferretti, G.R.; Bricault, I.; Ayanian, D.; Coulomb, M.

    2000-01-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old woman with a recent history of a cerebrovascular accident. Because of clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism and negative Doppler ultrasound findings of the lower limbs, spiral computed tomography of the pulmonary artery was performed and demonstrated pulmonary emboli. We emphasize the role of computed tomography of the abdomen, performed 3 min after the thoracic acquisition, which showed an unsuspected thrombus within the abdominal aorta and the left renal artery with infarction of the left kidney. Paradoxical embolism was highly suspected on computed tomography data and confirmed by echocardiography which demonstrated a patent foramen ovale. (orig.)

  6. Experimental demonstration of reservoir computing on a silicon photonics chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoorne, Kristof; Mechet, Pauline; van Vaerenbergh, Thomas; Fiers, Martin; Morthier, Geert; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Dambre, Joni; Bienstman, Peter

    2014-03-01

    In today’s age, companies employ machine learning to extract information from large quantities of data. One of those techniques, reservoir computing (RC), is a decade old and has achieved state-of-the-art performance for processing sequential data. Dedicated hardware realizations of RC could enable speed gains and power savings. Here we propose the first integrated passive silicon photonics reservoir. We demonstrate experimentally and through simulations that, thanks to the RC paradigm, this generic chip can be used to perform arbitrary Boolean logic operations with memory as well as 5-bit header recognition up to 12.5 Gbit s-1, without power consumption in the reservoir. It can also perform isolated spoken digit recognition. Our realization exploits optical phase for computing. It is scalable to larger networks and much higher bitrates, up to speeds >100 Gbit s-1. These results pave the way for the application of integrated photonic RC for a wide range of applications.

  7. Demonstration of brain tumors by computer-aided image intensification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froeder, M.; Herbst, M.; Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen

    1987-01-01

    It is possible to distinguish cerebral tumours from brain tissue after the injection of contrast by using an X-ray-video chain. Weak contrast situated behind strongly absorbing bone can be demonstrated by a non-tomographic method by reducing the noise level and by using a special subtraction technique designed for optimal iodine contrast. For this examination, four series of images are prepared and stored (one before the administration of contrast and three subsequently). Dynamic studies of the distribution of contrast in the intra- and extra-vascular spaces of brain and tumour are produced by subtracting the stored images. The demonstration of blood-flow dynamics improves the differentiation of the tumour and, in particular, makes it possible to distinguish the tumour from cerebral oedema. The current input into the X-ray tube is low and the skin dose on the entry side is less than 0.6 R for each series. The usefulness of the method in complementing computer tomography for surgical and radiation treatment is illustrated from various types of tumour. Up to the present 35 patients have been examined by this method. (orig.) [de

  8. Reactor safety research - visible demonstrations and credible computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenstein, W B; Divakaruni, S M

    1985-11-01

    EPRI has been conducting nuclear safety research for a number of years with the primary goal of assuring the safety and reliability of the nuclear plants. The visibility is emphasized by sponsoring or participating in large scale test demonstrations to credibly support the complex computations that are the basis for quantification of safety margins. Recognizing the success of the airline industry in receiving favorable public perception, the authors compare the design and operation practices of the airline industry with those of the nuclear industry practices to identify the elements contributing to public concerns and unfavorable perceptions. In this paper, authors emphasize the importance of proper communications of research results to the public in a manner that non-specialists understand. Further, EPRI supported research and results in the areas of source term, seismic and structural engineering research, analysis using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), quantification of safety margins, digital technology development and implementation, and plant transient and performance evaluations are discussed in the paper. (orig./HP).

  9. Reactor safety research - visible demonstrations and credible computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewenstein, W.B.; Divakaruni, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    EPRI has been conducting nuclear safety research for a number of years with the primary goal of assuring the safety and reliability of the nuclear plants. The visibility is emphasized by sponsoring or participating in large scale test demonstrations to credibly support the complex computations that are the basis for quantification of safety margins. Recognizing the success of the airline industry in receiving favorable public perception, the authors compare the design and operation practices of the airline industry with those of the nuclear industry practices to identify the elements contributing to public concerns and unfavorable perceptions. In this paper, authors emphasize the importance of proper communications of research results to the public in a manner that non-specialists understand. Further, EPRI supported research and results in the areas of source term, seismic and structural engineering research, analysis using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), quantification of safety margins, digital technology development and implementation, and plant transient and performance evaluations are discussed in the paper. (orig./HP)

  10. It felt fluent, and I liked it: subjective feeling of fluency rather than objective fluency determines liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Michael; Leder, Helmut; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    According to the processing-fluency explanation of aesthetics, more fluently processed stimuli are preferred (R. Reber, N. Schwarz, & P. Winkielman, 2004, Processing fluency and aesthetic pleasure: Is beauty in the perceiver's processing experience? Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol. 8, pp. 364-382.). In this view, the subjective feeling of ease of processing is considered important, but this has not been directly tested in perceptual processing. In two experiments, we therefore objectively manipulated fluency (ease of processing) with subliminal perceptual priming (Study 1) and variations in presentation durations (Study 2). We assessed the impact of objective fluency on feelings of fluency and liking, as well as their interdependence. In line with the processing-fluency account, we found that objectively more fluent images were indeed judged as more fluent and were also liked more. Moreover, differences in liking were even stronger when data were analyzed according to felt fluency. These findings demonstrate that perceptual fluency is not only explicitly felt, it can also be reported and is an important determinant of liking. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Software for Distributed Computation on Medical Databases: A Demonstration Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Narasimhan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bringing together the information latent in distributed medical databases promises to personalize medical care by enabling reliable, stable modeling of outcomes with rich feature sets (including patient characteristics and treatments received. However, there are barriers to aggregation of medical data, due to lack of standardization of ontologies, privacy concerns, proprietary attitudes toward data, and a reluctance to give up control over end use. Aggregation of data is not always necessary for model fitting. In models based on maximizing a likelihood, the computations can be distributed, with aggregation limited to the intermediate results of calculations on local data, rather than raw data. Distributed fitting is also possible for singular value decomposition. There has been work on the technical aspects of shared computation for particular applications, but little has been published on the software needed to support the "social networking" aspect of shared computing, to reduce the barriers to collaboration. We describe a set of software tools that allow the rapid assembly of a collaborative computational project, based on the flexible and extensible R statistical software and other open source packages, that can work across a heterogeneous collection of database environments, with full transparency to allow local officials concerned with privacy protections to validate the safety of the method. We describe the principles, architecture, and successful test results for the site-stratified Cox model and rank-k singular value decomposition.

  12. Putting the Fun Back into Fluency Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Mary Ann; Gregory, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Based on recent research in fluency instruction, the authors present a scenario in which a teacher focuses her fluency instruction on authentic fluency tasks based in performance. Beginning with establishing a student-friendly definition of fluency and culminating with student engagement in fun fluency activities, this article explores the…

  13. Numerical demonstration of neuromorphic computing with photonic crystal cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Floris; Katumba, Andrew; Dambre, Joni; Bienstman, Peter

    2018-04-02

    We propose a new design for a passive photonic reservoir computer on a silicon photonics chip which can be used in the context of optical communication applications, and study it through detailed numerical simulations. The design consists of a photonic crystal cavity with a quarter-stadium shape, which is known to foster interesting mixing dynamics. These mixing properties turn out to be very useful for memory-dependent optical signal processing tasks, such as header recognition. The proposed, ultra-compact photonic crystal cavity exhibits a memory of up to 6 bits, while simultaneously accepting bitrates in a wide region of operation. Moreover, because of the inherent low losses in a high-Q photonic crystal cavity, the proposed design is very power efficient.

  14. Exploring EFL fluency in Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, T; Brown, P; Herder, S

    2014-01-01

    In EFL contexts, an absence of chances to develop fluency in the language classroom can lead to marked limitations in English proficiency. This volume explores fluency development from a number of different perspectives, investigating measurements and classroom strategies for promoting its development.

  15. Image Ambiguity and Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakesch, Martina; Leder, Helmut; Forster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ambiguity is often associated with negative affective responses, and enjoying ambiguity seems restricted to only a few situations, such as experiencing art. Nevertheless, theories of judgment formation, especially the “processing fluency account”, suggest that easy-to-process (non-ambiguous) stimuli are processed faster and are therefore preferred to (ambiguous) stimuli, which are hard to process. In a series of six experiments, we investigated these contrasting approaches by manipulating fluency (presentation duration: 10ms, 50ms, 100ms, 500ms, 1000ms) and testing effects of ambiguity (ambiguous versus non-ambiguous pictures of paintings) on classification performance (Part A; speed and accuracy) and aesthetic appreciation (Part B; liking and interest). As indicated by signal detection analyses, classification accuracy increased with presentation duration (Exp. 1a), but we found no effects of ambiguity on classification speed (Exp. 1b). Fifty percent of the participants were able to successfully classify ambiguous content at a presentation duration of 100 ms, and at 500ms even 75% performed above chance level. Ambiguous artworks were found more interesting (in conditions 50ms to 1000ms) and were preferred over non-ambiguous stimuli at 500ms and 1000ms (Exp. 2a - 2c, 3). Importantly, ambiguous images were nonetheless rated significantly harder to process as non-ambiguous images. These results suggest that ambiguity is an essential ingredient in art appreciation even though or maybe because it is harder to process. PMID:24040172

  16. Fluency Effects in Recognition Memory: Are Perceptual Fluency and Conceptual Fluency Interchangeable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M.; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2014-01-01

    On a recognition memory test, both perceptual and conceptual fluency can engender a sense of familiarity and elicit recognition memory illusions. To date, perceptual and conceptual fluency have been studied separately but are they interchangeable in terms of their influence on recognition judgments? Five experiments compared the effect of…

  17. Specialty Board on Fluency Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or large groups of speech-language pathologists. Speech-language pathologists who are Board Certified Specialists in Fluency may be found on this website by searching name, city(location) or zip code. ...

  18. Using an Intelligent Tutor and Math Fluency Training to Improve Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Ivon; Royer, James M.; Woolf, Beverly P.

    2011-01-01

    This article integrates research in intelligent tutors with psychology studies of memory and math fluency (the speed to retrieve or calculate answers to basic math operations). It describes the impact of computer software designed to improve either strategic behavior or math fluency. Both competencies are key to improved performance and both…

  19. Experimental demonstration of deterministic one-way quantum computing on a NMR quantum computer

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Chenyong; Zhu, Jing; Peng, Xinhua; Chong, Bo; Zhou, Xianyi; Du, Jiangfeng

    2008-01-01

    One-way quantum computing is an important and novel approach to quantum computation. By exploiting the existing particle-particle interactions, we report the first experimental realization of the complete process of deterministic one-way quantum Deutsch-Josza algorithm in NMR, including graph state preparation, single-qubit measurements and feed-forward corrections. The findings in our experiment may shed light on the future scalable one-way quantum computation.

  20. Computed tomographic demonstration of a spontaneous subcapsular hematoma due to a small renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, S.; Bosniak, M.A.; Megibow, A.J.; Ambos, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was able to demonstrate a small renal cell carcinoma as the cause of a spontaneous subcapsular hematoma. Angiographic and pathologic correlation were obtained. A review of the causes for nontraumatic renal subcapsular hematoma is included

  1. Oral Reading Fluency as a Predictor of Silent Reading Fluency at Secondary and Postsecondary Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated oral reading fluency as a predictor of silent reading fluency at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Several measures were used, including the Gray Oral Reading Test, the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency, the Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency, and the Reading Observation Scale. A total of 223 students…

  2. Verbal fluency in bilingual Spanish/English Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatierra, Judy; Rosselli, Monica; Acevedo, Amarilis; Duara, Ranjan

    2007-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that in verbal fluency tests, monolinguals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show greater difficulties retrieving words based on semantic rather than phonemic rules. The present study aimed to determine whether this difficulty was reproduced in both languages of Spanish/English bilinguals with mild to moderate AD whose primary language was Spanish. Performance on semantic and phonemic verbal fluency of 11 bilingual AD patients was compared to the performance of 11 cognitively normal, elderly bilingual individuals matched for gender, age, level of education, and degree of bilingualism. Cognitively normal subjects retrieved significantly more items under the semantic condition compared to the phonemic, whereas the performance of AD patients was similar under both conditions, suggesting greater decline in semantic verbal fluency tests. This pattern was produced in both languages, implying a related semantic decline in both languages. Results from this study should be considered preliminary because of the small sample size.

  3. Investigating Patterns of Errors for Specific Comprehension and Fluency Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriakin, Taylor A.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2017-01-01

    Although word reading has traditionally been viewed as a foundational skill for development of reading fluency and comprehension, some children demonstrate "specific" reading comprehension problems, in the context of intact word reading. The purpose of this study was to identify specific patterns of errors associated with reading…

  4. Development and functional demonstration of a wireless intraoral inductive tongue computer interface for severely disabled persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N S Andreasen Struijk, Lotte; Lontis, Eugen R; Gaihede, Michael; Caltenco, Hector A; Lund, Morten Enemark; Schioeler, Henrik; Bentsen, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with tetraplegia depend on alternative interfaces in order to control computers and other electronic equipment. Current interfaces are often limited in the number of available control commands, and may compromise the social identity of an individual due to their undesirable appearance. The purpose of this study was to implement an alternative computer interface, which was fully embedded into the oral cavity and which provided multiple control commands. The development of a wireless, intraoral, inductive tongue computer was described. The interface encompassed a 10-key keypad area and a mouse pad area. This system was embedded wirelessly into the oral cavity of the user. The functionality of the system was demonstrated in two tetraplegic individuals and two able-bodied individuals Results: The system was invisible during use and allowed the user to type on a computer using either the keypad area or the mouse pad. The maximal typing rate was 1.8 s for repetitively typing a correct character with the keypad area and 1.4 s for repetitively typing a correct character with the mouse pad area. The results suggest that this inductive tongue computer interface provides an esthetically acceptable and functionally efficient environmental control for a severely disabled user. Implications for Rehabilitation New Design, Implementation and detection methods for intra oral assistive devices. Demonstration of wireless, powering and encapsulation techniques suitable for intra oral embedment of assistive devices. Demonstration of the functionality of a rechargeable and fully embedded intra oral tongue controlled computer input device.

  5. The pedagogical toolbox: computer-generated visual displays, classroom demonstration, and lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockoven, Jerry

    2004-06-01

    This analogue study compared the effectiveness of computer-generated visual displays, classroom demonstration, and traditional lecture as methods of instruction used to teach neuronal structure and processes. Randomly assigned 116 undergraduate students participated in 1 of 3 classrooms in which they experienced the same content but different teaching approaches presented by 3 different student-instructors. Then participants completed a survey of their subjective reactions and a measure of factual information designed to evaluate objective learning outcomes. Participants repeated this factual measure 5 wk. later. Results call into question the use of classroom demonstration methods as well as the trend towards devaluing traditional lecture in favor of computer-generated visual display.

  6. Computed tomographic demonstration of rapid changes in fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashist, B.; Hecht, H.L.; Harely, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    Two alcoholic patients in whom computed tomography (CT) demonstrated reversal of fatty infiltration of the liver are described. The rapid reversibility of fatty infiltration can be useful in monitoring alcoholics with fatty livers. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat scans can be utilized to assess changes in CT attenuation values when this condition is suspected

  7. An X-ray computed tomography demonstrator using a CZT solid-state detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claesson, Th.; Kerek, A.; Molnar, J.; Novak, D.

    2002-01-01

    A demonstrator of Computed Tomography (CT) has been designed and built for educational purposes. The system is based on a solid-state CdZnTe detector and a standard PC. The mechanics of the system is controlled and data is acquired by programs written in LabVIEW. CT images are reconstructed using MATLAB programs

  8. Using a Virtual Class to Demonstrate Computer-Mediated Group Dynamics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Timothy M.; Vicker, Lauren A.

    2010-01-01

    We report about an active learning demonstration designed to use a virtual class to present computer-mediated group communication course concepts to show that students can learn about these concepts in a virtual class. We designated 1 class period as a virtual rather than face-to-face class, when class members "attended" virtually using…

  9. Neural correlates of rhyming vs. lexical and semantic fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Tilo; Nagels, Arne; Kirner-Veselinovic, André; Krach, Sören

    2011-05-19

    Rhyming words, as in songs or poems, is a universal feature of human language across all ages. In the present fMRI study a novel overt rhyming task was applied to determine the neural correlates of rhyme production. Fifteen right-handed healthy male volunteers participated in this verbal fluency study. Participants were instructed to overtly articulate as many words as possible either to a given initial letter (LVF) or to a semantic category (SVF). During the rhyming verbal fluency task (RVF), participants had to generate words that rhymed with pseudoword stimuli. On-line overt verbal responses were audiotaped in order to correct the imaging results for the number of generated words. Fewer words were generated in the rhyming compared to both the lexical and the semantic condition. On a neural level, all language tasks activated a language network encompassing the left inferior frontal gyrus, the middle and superior temporal gyri as well as the contralateral right cerebellum. Rhyming verbal fluency compared to both lexical and semantic verbal fluency demonstrated significantly stronger activation of left inferior parietal region. Generating novel rhyme words seems to be mainly mediated by the left inferior parietal lobe, a region previously found to be associated with meta-phonological as well as sub-lexical linguistic processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Emotion Decoding and Incidental Processing Fluency as Antecedents of Attitude Certainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocelli, John V; Whitmire, Melanie B

    2017-07-01

    Previous research demonstrates that attitude certainty influences the degree to which an attitude changes in response to persuasive appeals. In the current research, decoding emotions from facial expressions and incidental processing fluency, during attitude formation, are examined as antecedents of both attitude certainty and attitude change. In Experiment 1, participants who decoded anger or happiness during attitude formation expressed their greater attitude certainty, and showed more resistance to persuasion than participants who decoded sadness. By manipulating the emotion decoded, the diagnosticity of processing fluency experienced during emotion decoding, and the gaze direction of the social targets, Experiment 2 suggests that the link between emotion decoding and attitude certainty results from incidental processing fluency. Experiment 3 demonstrated that fluency in processing irrelevant stimuli influences attitude certainty, which in turn influences resistance to persuasion. Implications for appraisal-based accounts of attitude formation and attitude change are discussed.

  11. Challenging the Superiority of Phonological Fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The results of three laboratory experiments contribute to our understanding of effects of phonological fluency on correct recognition and recall of novel brand names, being relevant to the areas of information processing, memory, and branding. Employing the full range of fluency, the results offer...

  12. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text readi...

  13. A comparison of methods for demonstrating artificial bone lesions; conventional versus computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Wenk, M.; Jend, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    Conventional tomography (T) and computer tomography (CT) were used for examining 97 artificial bone lesions at various sites. The purpose of the study was to determine how far CT can replace T in the diagnosis of skeletal abnormalities. The results have shown that modern CT, particularly in its high resolution form, equals T and provides additional information (substrate of a lesion, its relationship to neighbouring tissues, simultaneous demonstration of soft tissue etc.). These cannot be shown successfully by T. It follows that CT is indicated as the primary method of examination for lesions of the facial skeleton, skull base, spine, pelvis and, to some extent, extremities. (orig.) [de

  14. A case of alcoholic hepatitis demonstrating focal fatty infiltration of the liver on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, Toshihiro; Kato, Masayoshi; Nagai, Tadayuki; Kametani, Tomio; Horigami, Tateyuki; Takimoto, Hiroaki; Tanino, Mikio

    1985-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is a newly recognized entity that may be confused with primary neoplasm or tumor metastasis on computed tomography. We report a 31-year-old woman with a history of chronic alcoholism. Physical examination revealed jaundice, marked hepatomegaly and ascites. Laboratory studies revealed mild elevation of bilirubin, AlP, GOT, γ-GTP and marked leukocytosis. Abdominal CT showed a large area of decreased density in the right lobe. The radionuclide scan demonstrated the area of diminished activity located in the central portion of the right lobe. Ultrasonography demonstrated high echoic mass shadows in the right lobe. The rapid disappearance of the low density area on CT was recognized. The liver biopsy specimen revealed fatty metamorphosis, alcoholic hyaline bodies, pericellular fibrosis and mild lobular disorganization. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat CT scans are useful in diagnosis. (author)

  15. Using computer-assisted demonstrations of optical phenomena in an undergraduate optics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvin, John T.; Cobb, Stephen H.; Beyer, Louis M.

    1995-10-01

    A set of computer programs has been developed for the visual presentation of introductory optical phenomena. These computer simulations were created to serve a dual purpose: as demonstration aids in an NSF-sponsored Optics Demonstration Laboratory, and as teaching aids in undergraduate geometrical and physical optics courses. In the field of diffractive optics, simulations include the calculation of intensity patterns for unobscured and obscured apertures in both rectangular and circular geometries. These patterns can be compared to those measured in the laboratory with a CCD camera. A program for calculating the diffraction pattern for a two-dimensional aperture of arbitrary shape has also been developed. These programs, when coordinated with homework assignments, allow students to compare their theoretical derivations with a correct numerical solution for the same problem. In the field of geometrical optics, a ray-trace program appropriate for gradient-index fibers with cylindrical symmetry has been developed. This program enables the student to study the focusing properties of such fibers, and to predict how such properties depend on the index profile and on the length of the optical fiber. Examples of these programs will be presented, along with a report on the success of these programs as a vehicle for imparting a conceptual understanding of the physical principles involved.

  16. Demonstration of Intelligent Control and Fan Improvements in Computer Room Air Handlers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Greenberg, Steve [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Vita, Corinne [Vigilent, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This report documents a demonstration of the energy-efficiency improvement provided by a new control system for computer room air handling devices. It also analyzes measured and reported air handling device fan power associated with changing the fan type. A 135,000 square foot commercial data center was used for the demonstration. All air handling units were upgraded with improved efficiency fans, and a control system that automatically adjusts the fan speed for the air handling units was added. Power measurements were collected for a baseline and for a period with the fan speed control system active. Changing the fan type resulted in a savings of 47 percent of energy used by the air handling equipment and associated chiller plant energy needed to cool the air handlers themselves. The addition of the fan speed control resulted in an additional 37 percent savings in the same two categories. The combined savings for the two improvements for the same categories was 66 percent compared to the data center fitted with the original fans without a control system. The energy use reduction provided by the complete air handling device improvement program for the whole data center site is estimated to be 2.9 million kilowatt hours per year—an overall data center site savings of 8.0 percent. The reduced electrical energy use at the site provides a 1.9 million pound yearly reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This demonstration showed that fan upgrades and a control system addition provide cost-effective improvements for data centers, with a payback reported to be under two years without utility incentives. In addition to the control system providing energy savings, the data collection and visual analysis capabilities provided immediate and long-term benefits. It is recommended that data center operators consider investing in fan upgrades and/or adding fan speed control for computer room air handlers.

  17. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)-how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children ( N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development.

  18. How Reading Volume Affects both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. ALLINGTON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires about 15 minutes of reading activity daily. The remaining 75 minute of reading lessons is filled with many other activities such as completing workbook pages or responding to low-level literal questions about what has been read. Studies designed to enhance the volume of reading that children do during their reading lessons demonstrate one way to enhance reading development. Repeated readings have been widely used in fostering reading fluency but wide reading options seem to work faster and more broadly in developing reading proficiencies, including oral reading fluency.

  19. Interactive computer-based instruction: Basic material control and accounting demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisch, B.

    1993-01-01

    The use of interactive, computer-based training (CBT) courses can be a time- and resource-saving alternative to formal instruction in a classroom milieu. With CBT, students can proceed at their own pace, fit the study course into their schedule, and avoid the extra time and effort involved in travel and other special arrangements. The demonstration given here is an abbreviated, annotated version of a recently developed course in basic material control and accounting designed for the MC and A novice. The system used is ''Quest'' which includes multi-media capabilities, individual scoring, and built-in result-reporting capabilities for the course administrator. Efficient instruction and training are more important than ever because of the growing numbers of relatively inexperienced persons becoming active in safeguards

  20. Demonstration of arterioportal shunt by dynamic computed tomography and its diagnostic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Takatsune; Hiyama, Yoshiaki; Saitoh, Masayuki

    1983-11-01

    Sixty-one patients, 41 with hepatocellular carcinoma and 20 with liver cirrhosis, were examined by dynamic computed tomography (CT) and all but one with hepatocellular carcinoma were examined by celiac angiography. Dynamic CT disclosed arterioportal shunting in eleven cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and in one of cirrhotics. All of them were confirmed by angiography except one case in which angiography could not be performed. In ten of these eleven cases arterooportal shunt was adjacent to a mass lesion on dynamic CT, suggesting tumor invasion into the portal branch. In one with hepatocellular carcinoma, the shunt was remote from the mass. In one with cirrhosis, there was no mass. In these last two cases, the shunt might have been caused by prior percutaneus needle puncture. In another case of hepatocellular carcinoma, celiac angiography but not CT demonstrated an arterioportal shunt. Thus dynamic CT was nearly as diagnostic as celiac arterigraphy for the demonstration of arterioportal shunt due to portal invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma and percutaneus needle puncture.

  1. Utilizing photon number parity measurements to demonstrate quantum computation with cat-states in a cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, A.; Ofek, N.; Vlastakis, B.; Sun, L.; Leghtas, Z.; Heeres, R.; Sliwa, K. M.; Mirrahimi, M.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2015-03-01

    Realizing a working quantum computer requires overcoming the many challenges that come with coupling large numbers of qubits to perform logical operations. These include improving coherence times, achieving high gate fidelities, and correcting for the inevitable errors that will occur throughout the duration of an algorithm. While impressive progress has been made in all of these areas, the difficulty of combining these ingredients to demonstrate an error-protected logical qubit, comprised of many physical qubits, still remains formidable. With its large Hilbert space, superior coherence properties, and single dominant error channel (single photon loss), a superconducting 3D resonator acting as a resource for a quantum memory offers a hardware-efficient alternative to multi-qubit codes [Leghtas et.al. PRL 2013]. Here we build upon recent work on cat-state encoding [Vlastakis et.al. Science 2013] and photon-parity jumps [Sun et.al. 2014] by exploring the effects of sequential measurements on a cavity state. Employing a transmon qubit dispersively coupled to two superconducting resonators in a cQED architecture, we explore further the application of parity measurements to characterizing such a hybrid qubit/cat state architecture. In so doing, we demonstrate the promise of integrating cat states as central constituents of future quantum codes.

  2. Demonstration of arterioportal shunt by dynamic computed tomography and its diagnostic value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Takatsune; Hiyama, Yoshiaki; Saitoh, Masayuki

    1983-01-01

    Sixty-one patients, 41 with hepatocellular carcinoma and 20 with liver cirrhosis, were examined by dynamic computed tomography (CT) and all but one with hepatocellular carcinoma were examined by celiac angiography. Dynamic CT disclosed arterioportal shunting in eleven cases of hepatocellular carcinima and in one of cirrhotics. All of them were confirmed by angiography except one case in which angiography could not be performed. In ten of these eleven cases arterioportal shunt was adjacent to a mass lesion on dynamic CT, suggesting tumor invasion into the portal branch. In one with hepatocellular carcinoma, the shunt was remote from the mass. In one with cirrhosis, there was no mass. In these last two cases, the shunt might have been caused by prior percutaneus needle puncture. In another case of hepatocellular carcinoma, celiac angiography but not CT demonstrated an arterioportal shunt. Thus dynamic CT was nearly as diagnostic as celiac arterigraphy for the demonstration of arterioportal shunt due to portal invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma and percutaneus needle puncture. (author)

  3. Master of Puppets: An Animation-by-Demonstration Computer Puppetry Authoring Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yaoyuan; Mousas, Christos

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents Master of Puppets (MOP), an animation-by-demonstration framework that allows users to control the motion of virtual characters (puppets) in real time. In the first step, the user is asked to perform the necessary actions that correspond to the character's motions. The user's actions are recorded, and a hidden Markov model is used to learn the temporal profile of the actions. During the runtime of the framework, the user controls the motions of the virtual character based on the specified activities. The advantage of the MOP framework is that it recognizes and follows the progress of the user's actions in real time. Based on the forward algorithm, the method predicts the evolution of the user's actions, which corresponds to the evolution of the character's motion. This method treats characters as puppets that can perform only one motion at a time. This means that combinations of motion segments (motion synthesis), as well as the interpolation of individual motion sequences, are not provided as functionalities. By implementing the framework and presenting several computer puppetry scenarios, its efficiency and flexibility in animating virtual characters is demonstrated.

  4. Demonstration of feed-forward control for linear optics quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittman, T.B.; Jacobs, B.C.; Franson, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    One of the main requirements in linear optics quantum computing is the ability to perform single-qubit operations that are controlled by classical information fed forward from the output of single-photon detectors. These operations correspond to predetermined combinations of phase corrections and bit flips that are applied to the postselected output modes of nondeterministic quantum logic devices. Corrections of this kind are required in order to obtain the correct logical output for certain detection events, and their use can increase the overall success probability of the devices. In this paper, we report on the experimental demonstration of the use of this type of feed-forward system to increase the probability of success of a simple nondeterministic quantum logic operation from approximately (1/4) to (1/2). This logic operation involves the use of one target qubit and one ancilla qubit which, in this experiment, are derived from a parametric down-conversion photon pair. Classical information describing the detection of the ancilla photon is fed forward in real time and used to alter the quantum state of the output photon. A fiber-optic delay line is used to store the output photon until a polarization-dependent phase shift can be applied using a high-speed Pockels cell

  5. Preoperative cardiac computed tomography for demonstration of congenital cardiac septal defect in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Hye-Joung; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae-Hee; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Cardiology and Heart Institute, Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Cardiothoracic surgery, Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the role of preoperative cardiac computed tomography (CT) for adults with congenital cardiac septal defect (CSD). Sixty-five consecutive patients who underwent preoperative CT and surgery for CSD were included. The diagnostic accuracy of CT and the concordance rate of the subtype classification of CSD were evaluated using surgical findings as the reference standard. Sixty-five patients without CSD who underwent cardiac valve surgery were used as a control group. An incremental value of CT over echocardiography was described retrospectively. Sensitivity and specificity of CT for diagnosis of CSD were 95 % and 100 %, respectively. The concordance rate of subtype classification was 91 % in CT and 92 % in echocardiography. The maximum size of the defect measured by CT correlated well with surgical measurement (r = 0.82), and the limit of agreement was -0.9 ± 7.42 mm. In comparison with echocardiography, CT was able to detect combined abnormalities in three cases, and exclusively provided correct subtype classification or clarified suspected abnormal findings found on echocardiography in seven cases. Cardiac CT can accurately demonstrates CSD in preoperative adult patients. CT may have an incremental role in preoperative planning, particularly in those with more complex anatomy. (orig.)

  6. Three-dimensional demonstration of liver and spleen by computer graphics technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Toru; Azuma, Masayoshi; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Yoshioka, Hiroaki; Ishizu, Hiromi; Mitsutani, Natsuki; Koizumi, Takao; Takayama, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional demonstration system of the liver and spleen has been developed using computer graphics technique. Three-dimensional models were constructed from CT images of the organ surface. The three-dimensional images were displayed as wire-frame and/or solid models on the color CRT. The anatomical surface of the liver and spleen was realistically viewed from any direction. In liver cirrhosis, atrophy of the right lobe, hypertrophy of the left lobe and splenomegaly were displayed vividly. The liver and hepatoma were displayed as wire-frame and solid models respectively on the same image. This combined display clarified the intrahepatic location of hepatoma together with configuration of liver and hepatoma. Furthermore, superimposed display of three dimensional models and celiac angiogram enabled us to understand the location and configuration of lesions more easily than the original CT data or angiogram alone. Therefore, it is expected that this system is clinically useful for noninvasive evaluation of patho-morphological changes of the liver and spleen. (author)

  7. On Which Abilities Are Category Fluency and Letter Fluency Grounded A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of 53 Alzheimer's Dementia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Bizzozero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In Alzheimer's dementia (AD, letter fluency is less impaired than category fluency. To check whether category fluency and letter fluency depend differently on semantics and attention, 53 mild AD patients were given animal and letter fluency tasks, two semantic tests (the Verbal Semantic Questionnaire and the BORB Association Match test, and two attentional tests (the Stroop Colour-Word Interference test and the Digit Cancellation test. Methods: We conducted a LISREL confirmatory factor analysis to check the extent to which category fluency and letter fluency tasks were related to semantics and attention, viewed as latent variables. Results: Both types of fluency tasks were related to the latent variable Semantics but not to the latent variable Attention. Conclusions: Our findings warn against interpreting the disproportionate impairment of AD patients on category and letter fluency as a contrast between semantics and attention.

  8. The role of selected lexical factors on confrontation naming accuracy, speed, and fluency in adults who do and do not stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle S; Bernstein Ratner, Nan

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lexical access in adults who stutter (AWS) differs from that in people who do not stutter. Specifically, the authors examined the role of 3 lexical factors on naming speed, accuracy, and fluency: word frequency, neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency. If stuttering results from an impairment in lexical access, these factors were hypothesized to differentially affect AWS performance on a confrontation naming task. Twenty-five AWS and 25 normally fluent comparison speakers, matched for age and education, participated in a confrontation naming task designed to explore within-speaker performance on naming accuracy, speed, and fluency based on stimulus word frequency and neighborhood characteristics. Accuracy, fluency, and reaction time (from acoustic waveform analysis) were computed. In general, AWS demonstrated the same effects of lexical factors on their naming as did adults who do not stutter. However, accuracy of naming was reduced for AWS. Stuttering rate was influenced by word frequency but not other factors. Results suggest that AWS could have a fundamental deficit in lexical retrieval, but this deficit is unlikely to be at the level of the word's abstract phonological representation. Implications for further research are discussed.

  9. Do Dispositional Characteristics Influence Reading? Examining the Impact of Personality on Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krach, S. Kathleen; McCreery, Michael P.; Loe, Scott A.; Jones, W. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates specific relationships between personality traits and general academic performance. In addition, research studies have demonstrated relationships among personality and variables related to reading fluency (i.e. speed, accuracy, automaticity, and prosody). However, little investigation has examined specific links…

  10. The effect of topic selection on writing fluency among Japanese high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lin Lubold

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Written fluency and fluency building activities have been shown to promote linguistic choice and student voice development, increased ability to express ideas using complex grammatical structures and greater intrinsic motivation in English language learners. Since the 1970’s, process-oriented writing has been emphasized, yielding an amplified focus on meaning of student content over linguistic form precision. Current research of writing fluency must delve deeper into questions of student ownership of topic and the outcomes for low-risk activities that support fluency practice and encourage confidence building in students. The purpose of this replication study is to further explore previous findings on the effects of topic selection on writing fluency for high school English as foreign language learners. Building off of the work of Bonzo (2008, this study focused on a timed, non-graded writing activity administered to groups of Japanese engineering students in three departments: mechanical, electrical, and global engineering. The six subsequent samples for each participating student were analyzed using online text-analysis for total and unique word counts, providing data used to perform a t-test. Responses to bi-lingual student questionnaires, with prompts on self-perceived written English ability, self-efficacy and strategies for success while writing, provided additional insight into the facets of fluency. The results of these writing sessions offer both confirmation of and contrast to Bonzo’s original work, demonstrate increased student meaning making, and support the use of free writing activities in English language classrooms as a means by which student written fluency may be improved.

  11. Can a "Shouting" Digital Game Help Learners Develop Oral Fluency in a Second Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Jennica; Cardoso, Walcir; Waddington, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the development of oral fluency in a Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) environment that uses a "shouting" digital game as a pedagogical tool: Spaceteam ESL4. Spaceteam ESL is a game for mobile devices that involves time-sensitive aural exchanges among players (English learners), with great potential to promote…

  12. Progress Monitoring Instrument Development: Silent Reading Fluency, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension. Technical Report #1110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nese, Joseph F. T.; Anderson, Daniel; Hoelscher, Kyle; Tindal, Gerald; Alonzo, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is designed to measure students' academic status and growth so the effectiveness of instruction may be evaluated. In the most popular forms of reading CBM, the student's oral reading fluency is assessed. This behavior is difficult to sample in a computer-based format, a limitation that may be a function of the…

  13. Ultrasound and computed tomographic demonstration of portal vein thrombosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauls, C H

    1981-07-15

    Two cases of multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in which ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) revealed portal vein thrombosis are presented. The diagnostic value of determining the presence of portal vein thrombosis in patients with suspected HCC is discussed.

  14. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Breast Cancer: A Multi-Center Demonstrator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Floyd, Carey

    2000-01-01

    .... The focus has been to gather data from multiple sites in order to verify and whether the artificial neural network computer aid to the diagnosis of breast cancer can be translated between locations...

  15. Recurrent ovarian endodermal sinus tumor: demonstration by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, J.A.; Kim, E.E.; Tresukosol, D.; Kudelka, A.P.; Edwards, C.L.; Kavanagh, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of recurrent endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary that was identified and/or clearly depicted by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. The potential roles of various imaging modalities in the detection of recurrent endodermal sinus tumor are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Oral Reading Fluency with iPods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Karla; Gove, Mary K.; Abate, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that oral reading fluency frees up working memory so readers can focus on the meaning of a text, but traditional instruction in oral reading can be problematic in classrooms with students at different reading levels. Differentiating instruction, providing motivation to practice, as well as timely corrective feedback are practical…

  17. Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, and Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Carl F.

    1980-01-01

    Suggests that creating a second-language semantic network can be conceived as developing a plan for retrieving second-language word forms. Characteristics of linguistic performance which will promote fluency are discussed in light of the distinction between episodic and semantic memory. (AMH)

  18. Analysis of Speech Fluency in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Sampaio, Adriana; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Giacheti, Celia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder, often referred as being characterized by dissociation between verbal and non-verbal abilities, although the number of studies disputing this proposal is emerging. Indeed, although they have been traditionally reported as displaying increased speech fluency, this topic has not been…

  19. Affect intensity and processing fluency of deterrents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The theory of emotional intensity (Brehm, 1999) suggests that the intensity of affective states depends on the magnitude of their current deterrents. Our study investigated the role that fluency--the subjective experience of ease of information processing--plays in the emotional intensity modulations as reactions to deterrents. Following an induction phase of good mood, we manipulated both the magnitude of deterrents (using sets of photographs with pre-tested potential to instigate an emotion incompatible with the pre-existent affective state--pity) and their processing fluency (normal vs. enhanced through subliminal priming). Current affective state and perception of deterrents were then measured. In the normal processing conditions, the results revealed the cubic effect predicted by the emotional intensity theory, with the initial affective state being replaced by the one appropriate to the deterrent only in participants exposed to the high magnitude deterrence. In the enhanced fluency conditions the emotional intensity pattern was drastically altered; also, the replacement of the initial affective state occurred at a lower level of deterrence magnitude (moderate instead of high), suggesting the strengthening of deterrence emotional impact by enhanced fluency.

  20. Verbal fluency in idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thut, G.; Antonini, A.; Roelcke, U.; Missimer, J.; Maguire, R.P.; Leenders, K.L.; Regard, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, the relationship between resting metabolism and verbal fluency, a correlate of frontal lobe cognition, was examined in 33 PD patients. We aimed to determine brain structures involved in frontal lobe cognitive impairment with special emphasis on differences between demented and non-demented PD patients. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs

  1. Runway exit designs for capacity improvement demonstrations. Phase 2: Computer model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, A. A.; Hobeika, A. G.; Kim, B. J.; Nunna, V.; Zhong, C.

    1992-01-01

    The development is described of a computer simulation/optimization model to: (1) estimate the optimal locations of existing and proposed runway turnoffs; and (2) estimate the geometric design requirements associated with newly developed high speed turnoffs. The model described, named REDIM 2.0, represents a stand alone application to be used by airport planners, designers, and researchers alike to estimate optimal turnoff locations. The main procedures are described in detail which are implemented in the software package and possible applications are illustrated when using 6 major runway scenarios. The main output of the computer program is the estimation of the weighted average runway occupancy time for a user defined aircraft population. Also, the location and geometric characteristics of each turnoff are provided to the user.

  2. Classroon demonstration: Foucault s currents explored by the computer hard disc (HD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Roberto Pimentel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper making an experimental exploration of Foucault s currents (eddy currents through a rotor magnetically coupled to computer hard disc (HD that is no longer being used. The set-up allows to illustrate in a stimulating way electromagnetism classes in High Schools for mean of the qualitative observations of the currents which are created as consequence of the movement of an electric conductor in a region where a magnetic field exists.

  3. The Impact of Computer Simulations as Interactive Demonstration Tools on the Performance of Grade 11 Learners in Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoka, Jonas; Kriek, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    The impact of computer simulations on the performance of 65 grade 11 learners in electromagnetism in a South African high school in the Mpumalanga province is investigated. Learners did not use the simulations individually, but teachers used them as an interactive demonstration tool. Basic concepts in electromagnetism are difficult to understand…

  4. Google and the mind: predicting fluency with PageRank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas L; Steyvers, Mark; Firl, Alana

    2007-12-01

    Human memory and Internet search engines face a shared computational problem, needing to retrieve stored pieces of information in response to a query. We explored whether they employ similar solutions, testing whether we could predict human performance on a fluency task using PageRank, a component of the Google search engine. In this task, people were shown a letter of the alphabet and asked to name the first word beginning with that letter that came to mind. We show that PageRank, computed on a semantic network constructed from word-association data, outperformed word frequency and the number of words for which a word is named as an associate as a predictor of the words that people produced in this task. We identify two simple process models that could support this apparent correspondence between human memory and Internet search, and relate our results to previous rational models of memory.

  5. DEMONSTRATION COMPUTER MODELS USE WHILE SOLVING THE BUILDING OF THE CUT OF THE CYLINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna O. Gulivata

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of material presented in the article is the use of effective methods to illustrate the geometric material for the development of spatial imagination of students. As one of the ways to improve problem solving offer to illustrate the use of display computer model (DCM investigated objects created by the software environment PowerPoint. The technique of applying DCM while solving the problems to build a section of the cylinder makes it allows to build effective learning process and promotes the formation of spatial representations of students taking into account their individual characteristics and principles of differentiated instruction.

  6. Transdiaphragmatic peritoneal hernia complicating peritoneal dialysis: demonstration with spiral computed tomography peritoneography and peritoneal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coche, Emmanuel; Lonneux, Max; Goffin, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe a rare case of peritoneal transdiaphragmatic hernia discovered immediately after a car accident in a young male patient on peritoneal dialysis. The potential role of CT peritoneography and peritoneal scintigraphy to demonstrate and understand thoracic complications of ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is discussed. (orig.)

  7. Case report 396: Osseous sequelae of tuberculous spondylitis as demonstrated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, F.M.; Harris, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    A case has been presented of tuberculous spondylitis in a 41-year-old woman from Saudi Arabia. CT studies, demonstrating large exostoses projecting from the involved fourth lumbar vertebral body, were obtained nine months after treatment was given for tuberculous spondylitis. The CT scans obtained before and after treatment showed significant change between the two studies nine months apart. The large psoas abscesses and the the abscesses tracking longitudinally beneath the anterior spinal ligament at the time of the initial involvement were demonstrated dramatically. A plain film of the lumbar spine before treatment showed involvement of the vertebral bodies of L3 and L4 as well as the intervening disk cartilage. The differential diagnosis in such a pattern of osteophytosis was considered. The issue of hyperostosis developing in tuberculous spondylitis and the possible cause were discussed and the authors speculated that the chronicity of the tuberculous process permits reparative woven bone to be deposited on the scaffolding of dead bone, thus giving a sclerotic appearance which is secondary to ischemic necrosis of the affected bone. The authors also stressed that the extreme hyperostosis in this case may relate to successful chemotherapy. According to the authors no previous report of such changes as demonstrated on CT following successful chemotherapy are available in the literature. (orig.)

  8. Bicuspid aortic valve demonstrated with multislice computed tomography - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, M.; Lasek, W.; Serafin, Z.; Laskowska, K.; Swiatkiewicz, I.; Kubica, J.

    2004-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is one of the most common congenital heart defects and often coexists with other congenital abnormalities of the heart and great vessels. A standard diagnostic technique for valve imaging is echocardiography. However, suboptimal images may cause a diagnostic problem, especially in obese patients, women and in case of significant valve calcifications. The paper reports a case of a 27-year-old male patient with recurrent chest pain, appearing regardless of exertion. Routine physical examination, laboratory tests and echocardiography were negative. Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) showed normal coronary arteries and bicuspid aortic valve. The diagnostics of bicuspid aortic valve and the diagnostic value of MSCT are discussed. MSCT seems to be an important point in cardiac diagnostic algorithms, being an alternative modality for MR in BAV imaging. The presented case emphasizes the potential of MSCT for the diagnostics of cardiac valve congenital diseases. (author)

  9. Experimental Demonstration of a Self-organized Architecture for Emerging Grid Computing Applications on OBS Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Hong, Xiaobin; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    As Grid computing continues to gain popularity in the industry and research community, it also attracts more attention from the customer level. The large number of users and high frequency of job requests in the consumer market make it challenging. Clearly, all the current Client/Server(C/S)-based architecture will become unfeasible for supporting large-scale Grid applications due to its poor scalability and poor fault-tolerance. In this paper, based on our previous works [1, 2], a novel self-organized architecture to realize a highly scalable and flexible platform for Grids is proposed. Experimental results show that this architecture is suitable and efficient for consumer-oriented Grids.

  10. Demonstration of a computer model for residual radioactive material guidelines, RESRAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1989-01-01

    A computer model was developed to calculate residual radioactive material guidelines for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This model, called RESRAD, can be run on IBM or IBM-compatible microcomputer. Seven potential exposure pathways from contaminated soil are analyzed, including external radiation exposure and internal radiation exposure from inhalation and food digestion. The RESRAD code has been applied to several DOE sites to derive soil cleanup guidelines. The experience gained indicates that a comprehensive set of site-specific hydrogeologic and geochemical input parameters must be used for a realistic pathway analysis. The RESRAD code is a useful tool; it is easy to run and very user-friendly. 6 refs., 12 figs

  11. [Profile, competencies and digital fluency of nurses in the Professional Improvement Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Lyvia Pini; Kobayashi, Rika Miyahara

    2013-08-01

    A descriptive exploratory study conducted in the city of São Paulo, which aimed to identify the profile, competencies and digital fluency of nurses in the Professional Improvement Program in handling technology at work. The population, composed by 60 nurses in the program, answered a questionnaire with data about profile, digital fluency and professional competencies. The participants were found to be: 95.0% female, 61.7% between 23 and 25 years old, 75.0% from public schools, 58.3% enrolled in cardiovascular nursing, 98.3% had contact with computing resources during graduation, 100.0% had a computer at home, 86.7% accessed the internet daily, 96.7% used Messenger and 58.3% had an intermediate level of knowledge and skill in computing. Professional competencies required for technology management referred to knowing how to be innovative, creative, and updated to identify and manage software and to use technological resources.

  12. Implicit Recognition Based on Lateralized Perceptual Fluency

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Iliana M.; Voss, Joel L.; Paller, Ken A.

    2012-01-01

    In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this “implicit recognition” results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention enc...

  13. Behavioral fluency: Evolution of a new paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Carl

    1996-01-01

    Behavioral fluency is that combination of accuracy plus speed of responding that enables competent individuals to function efficiently and effectively in their natural environments. Evolving from the methodology of free-operant conditioning, the practice of precision teaching set the stage for discoveries about relations between behavior frequency and specific outcomes, notably retention and maintenance of performance, endurance or resistance to distraction, and application or transfer of tra...

  14. The Relationship between Temporal Measures of Oral Fluency and Ratings of Fluency: A Case of Iranian Advanced EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Farahani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective fluency judgment has always been a formidable task in language testing. Nonetheless, temporal fluency is the type of fluency which can be measured and quantified. Given that, temporal fluency is also known as temporal measures of fluency (Luoma, 2004. Furthermore, it has aroused considerable interest in analyzing speech of language learners in terms of quantitative measures (Kormos & Denes, 2004; Freed, 1995; Riggenbach, 1991; Lennon, 1990. They suggested that certain measures of fluency can more objectively specify fluency level and that perceptual understanding of fluency to a high extent correlate with these measures. Following these studies, the present study was an endeavor to relate quantitative measures of fluency and assessment of fluency in oral speech of L2 learners. To do so 30 advanced EFL learners whose speaking score on TOEFL iBT scale was between 19 to 22, i.e. B2 on CEFR scale, were selected. Then, they were given a picture strip as the elicitation task and asked to make up a story based on that. Their voice was recorded, transcribed and further analyzed by voice analysis software called PRAAT to calculate seven measures of fluency. Meanwhile, two trained listeners were required to rate the recordings, scoring them from 1 to 9. Finally, the relationship between these variables was calculated. The results showed that judge listeners’ ratings of fluency were highly correlated with speech rate, phonation time ratio, and mean length of runs. Moreover, among the measures of temporal fluency speech rate proved significantly correlated with articulation rate, phonation time ratio, and mean length of runs.

  15. A case of dual ectopy thyroid along the thyroglossal tract demonstrated on 99mTc-Pertechnatate hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Karunanithi, Sellam; Jain, Sachin; Tripathi, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) refers to the presence of thyroid tissue in locations other than the normal anterior neck region between the second and fourth tracheal cartilages. Multiple ectopia of the thyroid is extremely rare. Here we report a case of 10-year-old girl with anterior midline neck swelling and hypothyroidism with dual ectopia of thyroid gland without orthotopic thyroid gland. Planar 99 m-technetium pertechnatate scan identified ETT corresponding to the palpable neck swelling. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) demonstrated ETT in two locations, one corresponding to the palpable mass and another in the in the sublingual location. This case thus demonstrates the important role of hybrid SPECT/CT in the identification of dual ectopia along the thyroglossal tract

  16. Visiting digital fluency for pre-service teachers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Demir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital literacy is to know how to use digital tools, however digital fluency is a new concept. Beyond the digital literacy, digital fluency requires skills to know when to use the technology and even why to use the technology. The technology advances rapidly; as a result, education and instruction are getting digitalized. So it could be estimated that; pre-service teachers who are future teachers, should have digital skills. This is the main point of this study which aims to visit pre-service teachers in Turkey from the perspective of digital fluency, give insights about digital fluency, scrutinize its difference from digital literacy and provide literature review on the previous studies about digital fluency. Accordingly; a through literature review was performed. At first, the connection between digital fluency and the 21st century analyzed, then the differences between digital literacy and digital fluency are described. Worldwide and specifically Turkish literature review revealed that, certain studies foresaw the increasing importance of digital fluency based on development of digital devices, and Turkish literature was limited to some scale development and descriptive studies solely determining the digital literacy level of the participants. Thus, it could be stated that further and up-to-date studies are required, which would be conducted with pre-service teachers and current assessment instruments should be developed to determine digital fluency level, considering the rapid advances in technology.

  17. Perceptual Fluency, Auditory Generation, and Metamemory: Analyzing the Perceptual Fluency Hypothesis in the Auditory Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besken, Miri; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2014-01-01

    Judgments of learning (JOLs) are sometimes influenced by factors that do not impact actual memory performance. One recent proposal is that perceptual fluency during encoding affects metamemory and is a basis of metacognitive illusions. In the present experiments, participants identified aurally presented words that contained inter-spliced silences…

  18. Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna A Christodoulou

    Full Text Available Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.

  19. Fluency Training in the ESL Classroom: An Experimental Study of Fluency Development and Proceduralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, N. de; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of speech repetition in oral fluency development. Twenty-four students enrolled in English-as-a-second-language classes performed three training sessions in which they recorded three speeches, of 4, 3, and 2 min, respectively. Some students spoke about the

  20. Linguistic Skills and Speaking Fluency in a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how individual differences in linguistic knowledge and processing skills relate to individual differences in speaking fluency. Speakers of Dutch as a second language ("N" = 179) performed eight speaking tasks, from which several measures of fluency were derived such as measures for pausing, repairing, and speed…

  1. A Strategic Necessity: Building Senior Leadership's Fluency in Digital Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomitz, Kara; Cabellon, Edmund T.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the opportunity for senior student affairs officers (SSAOs) to develop an increased digital fluency to meet the needs of various constituencies in the digital age. The authors explore what a digital fluency is, how it might impact SSAOs' leadership potential, and the benefits for their respective divisions.

  2. What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor

  3. Developing Mathematical Fluency: Comparing Exercises and Rich Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Achieving fluency in important mathematical procedures is fundamental to students' mathematical development. The usual way to develop procedural fluency is to practise repetitive exercises, but is this the only effective way? This paper reports three quasi-experimental studies carried out in a total of 11 secondary schools involving altogether 528…

  4. Comparison of Animal, Action and Phonemic Fluency in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Milman, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Background: The ability to generate words that follow certain constraints, or verbal fluency, is a sensitive indicator of neurocognitive impairment, and is impacted by a variety of variables. Aims: To investigate the effect of post-stroke aphasia, elicitation category and linguistic variables on verbal fluency performance. Methods &…

  5. Evaluating lexical characteristics of verbal fluency output in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Barbara J; Chambers, Destinee; Shesler, Leah W; Haber, Alix; Kurtz, Matthew M

    2012-12-30

    Standardized lexical analysis of verbal output has not been applied to verbal fluency tasks in schizophrenia. Performance of individuals with schizophrenia on both a letter (n=139) and semantic (n=137) fluency task was investigated. The lexical characteristics (word frequency, age-of-acquisition, word length, and semantic typicality) of words produced were evaluated and compared to those produced by a healthy control group matched on age, gender, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) vocabulary scores (n=20). Overall, individuals with schizophrenia produced fewer words than healthy controls, replicating past research (see Bokat and Goldberg, 2003). Words produced in the semantic fluency task by individuals with schizophrenia were, on average, earlier acquired and more typical of the category. In contrast, no differences in lexical characteristics emerged in the letter fluency task. The results are informative regarding how individuals with schizophrenia access their mental lexicons during the verbal fluency task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Personality traits prospectively predict verbal fluency in a lifespan sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa H; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B

    2011-12-01

    In a community-dwelling sample (N = 4,790; age range 14-94), we examined whether personality traits prospectively predicted performance on a verbal fluency task. Open, extraverted, and emotionally stable participants had better verbal fluency. At the facet level, dispositionally happy and self-disciplined participants retrieved more words; those prone to anxiety and depression and those who were deliberative retrieved fewer words. Education moderated the association between conscientiousness and fluency such that participants with lower education performed better on the fluency task if they were also conscientious. Age was not a moderator at the domain level, indicating that the personality-fluency associations were consistent across the life span. A disposition toward emotional vulnerability and being less open, less happy, and undisciplined may be detrimental to cognitive performance.

  7. Perceptual fluency and judgments of vocal aesthetics and stereotypicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; McGuire, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual dimorphism and the apparent size of a talker, as reconstructed from the acoustic signal, despite evidence that gender-specific speech patterns are learned social behaviors. In this study, we report on a series of three experiments using 60 voices (30 females) to compare the relationship between judgments of vocal attractiveness, stereotypicality, and gender categorization fluency. Our results indicate that attractiveness and stereotypicality are highly correlated for female and male voices. Stereotypicality and categorization fluency were also correlated for male voices, but not female voices. Crucially, stereotypicality and categorization fluency interacted to predict attractiveness, suggesting the role of perceptual fluency is present, but nuanced, in judgments of human voices. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Processing fluency and impressions of joy and pride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko Yu.E.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mere exposure effect consists in the increasing of affective preference (sympathy/ liking for a previously encountered stimulus. Many researches connect it with processing fluency and effort savings (hedonic marking hypothesis [17]. The present study investigates, whether processing fluency connects with other positive emotions. We supposed higher processing fluency correlates with grater intensity of pride and joy. In 1 Experiment participants (n = 98 recognize 10 well-known proverbs in guessing game. Then they marked proverbs about that they would brag to their friends and ranked all proverbs from the most to the lest pleasant. In 2 Experiment 4 groups each of that concluded 24 different complicated joy statements were pairwise compared. Participants (n = 55 chosen most funny and marked unfunny statements. Results shows most sympathy is connect with higher processing fluency, but pride and joy appear more often in connection with more complicated stimuli required lower processing fluency.

  9. Implicit Recognition Based on Lateralized Perceptual Fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana M. Vargas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this “implicit recognition” results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention encoding. Presentation in the same visual hemifield at test produced higher recognition accuracy than presentation in the opposite visual hemifield, but only for guess responses. These correct guesses likely reflect a contribution from implicit recognition, given that when the stimulated visual hemifield was the same at study and test, recognition accuracy was higher for guess responses than for responses with any level of confidence. The dramatic difference in guessing accuracy as a function of lateralized perceptual overlap between study and test suggests that implicit recognition arises from memory storage in visual cortical networks that mediate repetition-induced fluency increments.

  10. Implicit recognition based on lateralized perceptual fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Iliana M; Voss, Joel L; Paller, Ken A

    2012-02-06

    In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this "implicit recognition" results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention encoding. Presentation in the same visual hemifield at test produced higher recognition accuracy than presentation in the opposite visual hemifield, but only for guess responses. These correct guesses likely reflect a contribution from implicit recognition, given that when the stimulated visual hemifield was the same at study and test, recognition accuracy was higher for guess responses than for responses with any level of confidence. The dramatic difference in guessing accuracy as a function of lateralized perceptual overlap between study and test suggests that implicit recognition arises from memory storage in visual cortical networks that mediate repetition-induced fluency increments.

  11. Semantic, phonologic, and verb fluency in Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Jardim Azambuja

    Full Text Available Abstract Verbal fluency tasks have been identified as important indicators of executive functioning impairment in patients with frontal lobe dysfunction. Although the usual evaluation of this ability considers phonologic and semantic criteria, there is some evidence that fluency of verbs would be more sensitive in disclosing frontostriatal physiopathology since frontal regions primarily mediate retrieval of verbs. Huntington's disease usually affects these circuitries. Objective: To compare three types of verbal fluency task in the assessment of frontal-striatal dysfunction in HD subjects. Methods: We studied 26 Huntington's disease subjects, divided into two subgroups: mild (11 and moderate (15 along with 26 normal volunteers matched for age, gender and schooling, for three types of verbal fluency: phonologic fluency (F-A-S, semantic fluency and fluency of verbs. Results: Huntington's disease subjects showed a significant reduction in the number of words correctly generated in the three tasks when compared to the normal group. Both controls and Huntington's disease subjects showed a similar pattern of decreasing task performance with the greatest number of words being generated by semantic elicitation followed by verbs and lastly phonologic criteria. We did not find greater production of verbs compared with F-A-S and semantic conditions. Moreover, the fluency of verbs distinguished only the moderate group from controls. Conclusion: Our results indicated that phonologic and semantic fluency can be used to evaluate executive functioning, proving more sensitive than verb fluency. However, it is important to point out that the diverse presentations of Huntington's disease means that an extended sample is necessary for more consistent analysis of this issue.

  12. Investigating the Prospective Sense of Agency: Effects of Processing Fluency, Stimulus Ambiguity, and Response Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidarus, Nura; Vuorre, Matti; Metcalfe, Janet; Haggard, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    How do we know how much control we have over our environment? The sense of agency refers to the feeling that we are in control of our actions, and that, through them, we can control our external environment. Thus, agency clearly involves matching intentions, actions, and outcomes. The present studies investigated the possibility that processes of action selection, i.e., choosing what action to make, contribute to the sense of agency. Since selection of action necessarily precedes execution of action, such effects must be prospective. In contrast, most literature on sense of agency has focussed on the retrospective computation whether an outcome fits the action performed or intended. This hypothesis was tested in an ecologically rich, dynamic task based on a computer game. Across three experiments, we manipulated three different aspects of action selection processing: visual processing fluency, categorization ambiguity, and response conflict. Additionally, we measured the relative contributions of prospective, action selection-based cues, and retrospective, outcome-based cues to the sense of agency. Manipulations of action selection were orthogonally combined with discrepancy of visual feedback of action. Fluency of action selection had a small but reliable effect on the sense of agency. Additionally, as expected, sense of agency was strongly reduced when visual feedback was discrepant with the action performed. The effects of discrepant feedback were larger than the effects of action selection fluency, and sometimes suppressed them. The sense of agency is highly sensitive to disruptions of action-outcome relations. However, when motor control is successful, and action-outcome relations are as predicted, fluency or dysfluency of action selection provides an important prospective cue to the sense of agency. PMID:28450839

  13. Writing fluency and quality in kindergarten and first grade: The role of attention, reading, transcription, and oral language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students’ reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language component skills. Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that a model including attention was better fitting than a model with only language and literacy factors. Attention, a higher-order literacy factor related to reading and spelling proficiency, and automaticity in letter-writing were uniquely and positively related to compositional fluency in kindergarten. Attention and higher-order literacy factor were predictive of both composition quality and fluency in first grade, while oral language showed unique relations with first grade writing quality. Implications for writing development and instruction are discussed. PMID:25132722

  14. Performances on five verbal fluency tests in a healthy, elderly Danish sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper; Vogel, Asmus

    2013-01-01

    Verbal fluency tests are widely used as measures of language and executive functions. This study presents data for five tests; semantic fluency (animals, supermarket items and alternating between cities and professions), lexical fluency (s-words), and action fluency (verbs) based on a sample of 100...

  15. Bringing the frame into focus: the influence of regulatory fit on processing fluency and persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angela Y; Aaker, Jennifer L

    2004-02-01

    This research demonstrates that people's goals associated with regulatory focus moderate the effect of message framing on persuasion. The results of 6 experiments show that appeals presented in gain frames are more persuasive when the message is promotion focused, whereas loss-framed appeals are more persuasive when the message is prevention focused. These regulatory focus effects suggesting heightened vigilance against negative outcomes and heightened eagerness toward positive outcomes are replicated when perceived risk is manipulated. Enhanced processing fluency leading to more favorable evaluations in conditions of compatibility appears to underlie these effects. The findings underscore the regulatory fit principle that accounts for the persuasiveness of message framing effects and highlight how processing fluency may contribute to the "feeling right" experience when the strategy of goal pursuit matches one's goal.

  16. Computational fluid dynamics: a suitable assessment tool for demonstrating the antiobstructive effect of drugs in the therapy of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, N; Pasch, N; Lintermann, A; Schröder, W; Mösges, R

    2013-02-01

    This systematic review aims first to summarize the previous areas of application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and then to demonstrate that CFD is also a suitable instrument for generating three-dimensional images that depict drug effects on nasal mucosa. Special emphasis is placed on the three-dimensional visualization of the antiobstructive effect of nasal steroids and antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. In the beginning, CFD technology was only used to demonstrate physiological and pathophysiological airflow conditions in the nose and to aid in preoperative planning and postoperative monitoring of surgical outcome in the field of rhinosurgery. The first studies using CFD examined nasal respiratory physiology, important functions of the nose, such as conditioning and warming of inspired air, and the influence of pathophysiological changes on nasal breathing. Also, postoperative outcome of surgical procedures could be "predicted" using the nasal airflow model. Later studies focused on the three-dimensional visualization of the effect of nasal sprays in healthy subjects and postoperative patients. A completely new approach, however, was the use of CFD in the area of allergic rhinitis and the treatment of its cardinal symptom of nasal obstruction. In two clinical trials, a suitable patient with a positive history of allergic rhinitis was enrolled during a symptom-free period after the pollen season. The patient developed typical allergic rhinitis symptoms after provocation with birch pollen. The 3-D visualization showed that the antiallergic treatment successfully counteracted the effects of nasal allergen provocation on nasal airflow. These observations were attributed to the antiobstructive effect of a nasal steroid (mometasone furoate) and a systemic antihistamine (levocetirizine), respectively. CFD therefore constitutes a non-invasive, precise, reliable and objective examination procedure for generating three-dimensional images that

  17. The effect of Phonological Encoding Complexity on Speech Fluency of Stuttering and Non-Stuttering Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ramezani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stuttering is a fairly common speech disorder. However, the etiology is poorly understood and is likely to be heterogeneous. The aim of this research is to investigate phonological encoding complexity on speech fluency in 6-9 year old stuttering children in comparison with non-stutterers in Tehran. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive analytic research was done on 18 stuttering children with profound and severe level and 18 non-stuttering children. The stuttering subjects were selected by convenience and normal subjects were matched to stuttering subjects by gender, age and geographics. A non-word test comprising 87 non-words was used to investigate phonological encoding and phonological complexity effects on speech fluency. Stimuli were presented in random order with approximately 5 seconds between items, using a computer via external Toshiba SOMIC SM-818 headphone and requested subject was asked to repeat them.  Results: The results indicated that speech fluency decreased significantly (P<0.05 by increasing phonological complexity comparing to controls. Conclusion: The findings of the present research seem to suggest that, stuttering children may have deficits in phonological encoding. The deficit has been increased with phonological encoding complexity. Based on covert repair hypothesis, phonological difficulty may cause covert self- repair and leads to different patterns of stuttering.

  18. The visual attention span deficit in Chinese children with reading fluency difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Menglian; Liu, Hanlong; Huang, Chen

    2018-02-01

    With reading development, some children fail to learn to read fluently. However, reading fluency difficulty (RFD) has not been fully investigated. The present study explored the underlying mechanism of RFD from the aspect of visual attention span. Fourteen Chinese children with RFD and fourteen age-matched normal readers participated. The visual 1-back task was adopted to examine visual attention span. Reaction time and accuracy were recorded, and relevant d-prime (d') scores were computed. Results showed that children with RFD exhibited lower accuracy and lower d' values than the controls did in the visual 1-back task, revealing a visual attention span deficit. Further analyses on d' values revealed that the attention distribution seemed to exhibit an inverted U-shaped pattern without lateralization for normal readers, but a W-shaped pattern with a rightward bias for children with RFD, which was discussed based on between-group variation in reading strategies. Results of the correlation analyses showed that visual attention span was associated with reading fluency at the sentence level for normal readers, but was related to reading fluency at the single-character level for children with RFD. The different patterns in correlations between groups revealed that visual attention span might be affected by the variation in reading strategies. The current findings extend previous data from alphabetic languages to Chinese, a logographic language with a particularly deep orthography, and have implications for reading-dysfluency remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Computer programs of information processing of nuclear physical methods as a demonstration material in studying nuclear physics and numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateev, A. B.; Filippov, V. P.

    2017-01-01

    The principle possibility of using computer program Univem MS for Mössbauer spectra fitting as a demonstration material at studying such disciplines as atomic and nuclear physics and numerical methods by students is shown in the article. This program is associated with nuclear-physical parameters such as isomer (or chemical) shift of nuclear energy level, interaction of nuclear quadrupole moment with electric field and of magnetic moment with surrounded magnetic field. The basic processing algorithm in such programs is the Least Square Method. The deviation of values of experimental points on spectra from the value of theoretical dependence is defined on concrete examples. This value is characterized in numerical methods as mean square deviation. The shape of theoretical lines in the program is defined by Gaussian and Lorentzian distributions. The visualization of the studied material on atomic and nuclear physics can be improved by similar programs of the Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence Analyzer or X-ray diffraction analysis.

  20. Do language fluency and other socioeconomic factors influence the use of PubMed and MedlinePlus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, L; Gavino, A; Callaghan, F; Fontelo, P

    2013-01-01

    Increased usage of MedlinePlus by Spanish-speakers was observed after introduction of MedlinePlus in Spanish. This probably reflects increased usage of MEDLINE and PubMed by those with greater fluency in the language in which it is presented; but this has never been demonstrated in English speakers. Evidence that lack of English fluency deters international healthcare personnel from using PubMed could support the use of multi-language search tools like Babel-MeSH. This study aims to measure the effects of language fluency and other socioeconomic factors on PubMed MEDLINE and MedlinePlus access by international users. We retrospectively reviewed server pageviews of PubMed and MedlinePlus from various periods of time, and analyzed them against country statistics on language fluency, GDP, literacy rate, Internet usage, medical schools, and physicians per capita, to determine whether they were associated. We found fluency in English to be positively associated with pageviews of PubMed and MedlinePlus in countries with high literacy rates. Spanish was generally found to be positively associated with pageviews of MedlinePlus en Español. The other parameters also showed varying degrees of association with pageviews. After adjusting for the other factors investigated in this study, language fluency was a consistently significant predictor of the use of PubMed, MedlinePlus English and MedlinePlus en Español. This study may support the need for multi-language search tools and may increase access of health information resources from non-English speaking countries.

  1. Reading Fluency in the Middle and Secondary Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. PAIGE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss the specifics of reading fluency and provide suggestions for identifying when reading is fluent and when it is not. We then discuss the important role that reading fluency plays in the attainment of literacy achievement and briefly review research results that highlight the relationship between fluency and comprehension. This is followed by a discussion of reading fluency and comprehension data gathered by one of the authors in India that highlight the possibilities for the acquisition of fluent reading in those learning English as a second language. Following a review of strategies to assist middle and secondary teachers with the development of fluent reading in their students, we conclude with a discussion of word study strategies that promote syllabic and morphemic analysis. Such strategies aid readers in the development of word automaticity and encourage the development of fluent reading.

  2. Integration of Computational and Preparative Techniques to Demonstrate Physical Organic Concepts in Synthetic Organic Chemistry: An Example Using Diels-Alder Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David R. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Diels-Alder reaction is used as an example for showing the integration of computational and preparative techniques, which help in demonstrating the physical organic concepts in synthetic organic chemistry. These experiments show that the students should not accept the computational results without questioning them and in many Diels-Alder…

  3. Action verbal fluency in Parkinson’s patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Tello Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared the performance of 31 non-demented Parkinson´s disease (PD patients to 61 healthy controls in an action verbal fluency task. Semantic and phonemic fluencies, cognitive impairment and behavioural dysfunction were also assessed. The mean disease duration of PD was 9.8 years (standard deviation (SD = 6.13. There were no age (U = 899.5, p = 0.616, gender(chi-square = 0.00, p = 1.00 or literacy (U = 956, p = 0.96 differences between the two groups. A significant difference was observed between the two groups in the action verbal fluency task (U = 406.5, p < 0.01 that was not found in the other fluency tasks. The education level was the only biographical variable that influenced the action (verb fluency outcomes, irrespective of disease duration. Our findings suggest a correlation between the disease mechanisms in PD and a specific verb deficit, support the validity of the action (verb fluency as an executive function measure and suggest that this task provides unique information not captured with traditional executive function tasks.

  4. The role of auditory temporal cues in the fluency of stuttering adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Furini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to compare the frequency of disfluencies and speech rate in spontaneous speech and reading in adults with and without stuttering in non-altered and delayed auditory feedback (NAF, DAF. Methods: participants were 30 adults: 15 with Stuttering (Research Group - RG, and 15 without stuttering (Control Group - CG. The procedures were: audiological assessment and speech fluency evaluation in two listening conditions, normal and delayed auditory feedback (100 milliseconds delayed by Fono Tools software. Results: the DAF caused a significant improvement in the fluency of spontaneous speech in RG when compared to speech under NAF. The effect of DAF was different in CG, because it increased the common disfluencies and the total of disfluencies in spontaneous speech and reading, besides showing an increase in the frequency of stuttering-like disfluencies in reading. The intergroup analysis showed significant differences in the two speech tasks for the two listening conditions in the frequency of stuttering-like disfluencies and in the total of disfluencies, and in the flows of syllable and word-per-minute in the NAF. Conclusion: the results demonstrated that delayed auditory feedback promoted fluency in spontaneous speech of adults who stutter, without interfering in the speech rate. In non-stuttering adults an increase occurred in the number of common disfluencies and total of disfluencies as well as reduction of speech rate in spontaneous speech and reading.

  5. Imitated prosodic fluency predicts reading comprehension ability in good and poor high school readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Breen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have established a relationship between beginning readers’ silent comprehension ability and their prosodic fluency, such that readers who read aloud with appropriate prosody tend to have higher scores on silent reading comprehension assessments. The current study was designed to investigate this relationship in two groups of high school readers: Specifically Poor Comprehenders (SPCs, who have adequate word level and phonological skills but poor reading comprehension ability, and a group of age- and decoding skill-matched controls. We compared the prosodic fluency of the two groups by determining how effectively they produced prosodic cues to syntactic and semantic structure in imitations of a model speaker’s production of syntactically and semantically varied sentences. Analyses of pitch and duration patterns revealed that speakers in both groups produced the expected prosodic patterns; however, controls provided stronger durational cues to syntactic structure. These results demonstrate that the relationship between prosodic fluency and reading comprehension continues past the stage of early reading instruction. Moreover, they suggest that prosodically fluent speakers may also generate more fluent implicit prosodic representations during silent reading, leading to more effective comprehension.

  6. The impact of pushed output on accuracy and fluency of Iranian EFL learners’ speaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Reza Sadeghi Beniss

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study attempted to establish baseline quantitative data on the impacts of pushed output on two components of speaking (i.e., accuracy and fluency. To achieve this purpose, 30 female EFL learners were selected from a whole population pool of 50 based on the standard test of IELTS interview and were randomly assigned into an experimental group and a control group. The participants in the experimental group received pushed output treatment while the students in the control group received non-pushed output instruction. The data were collected through IELTS interview and then the interview of each participant was separately tape-recorded and later transcribed and coded to measure accuracy and fluency. Then, the independent samples t-test was employed to analyze the collected data. The results revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in accuracy. In contrast, findings substantiated that pushed output had no impact on fluency. The positive impact of pushed output demonstrated in this study is consistent with the hypothesized function of Swain’s (1985 pushed output. The results can provide some useful insights into syllabus design and English language teaching.

  7. Effect of low fluencies of near-ultraviolet radiation on Bacteroides fragilis survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slade, H.J.K.; Jones, D.T.; Woods, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is a convenient obligate anaerobe for an investigation on the effect of near-UV irradiation since the authors have shown that it can be maintained in aerobic solutions for at least 6 h without loss in viability. Furthermore, they recently demonstrated that B. fragilis differs from other bacteria in that it is more sensitive to far-UV (254 nm) radiation in the presence of oxygen. The role of oxygen on near-UV survival in B. fragilis, was investigated. The effect of chloramphenicol was also studied. Survival curves are presented. B. fragilis Bf-2 cells irradiated with increasing fluencies of near-UV light under anaerobic conditions showed no loss in viability. A 'V'-shaped survival curve was obtained when cells were irradiated aerobically. After the initial reduction in viability with fluencies up to 1.5 kJ/m 2 further irradiation resulted in the recovery of colony-forming ability which was maximal at 2.6 kJ/m 2 and remained at this level up to fluencies of 4 kJ/m 2 . (Auth.)

  8. Second language as a compensatory resource for maintaining verbal fluency in bilingual immigrants with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, D; Walters, J; Fine, J; Muchnik-Rozanov, Y; Paz, M; Lerner, V; Belmaker, R H; Bersudsky, Y

    2015-08-01

    Due to the large migrations over the past three decades, large numbers of individuals with schizophrenia are learning a second language and being seen in clinics in that second language. We conducted within-subject comparisons to clarify the contribution of clinical, linguistic and bilingual features in the first and second languages of bilinguals with schizophrenia. Ten bilingual Russian(L1) and Hebrew(L2) proficient patients, who developed clinical schizophrenia after achieving proficiency in both languages, were selected from 60 candidates referred for the study; they were resident in Israel 7-32 years with 3-10 years from immigration to diagnosis. Clinical, linguistic and fluency markers were coded in transcripts of clinical interviews. There was a trend toward more verbal productivity in the first language (L1) than the second language (L2). Clinical speech markers associated with thought disorder and cognitive impairment (blocking and topic shift) were similar in both languages. Among linguistic markers of schizophrenia, Incomplete syntax and Speech role reference were significantly more frequent in L2 than L1; Lexical repetition and Unclear reference demonstrated a trend in the same direction. For fluency phenomena, Discourse markers were more prevalent in L1 than L2, and Codeswitching was similar across languages, showing that the patients were attuned to the socio-pragmatics of language use. More frequent linguistic markers of schizophrenia in L2 show more impairment in the syntactic/semantic components of language, reflecting greater thought and cognitive dysfunction. Patients are well able to acquire a second language. Nevertheless, schizophrenia finds expression in that language. Finally, more frequent fluency markers in L1 suggests motivation to maintain fluency, evidenced in particular by codeswitched L2 lexical items, a compensatory resource. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pattern of neural responses to verbal fluency shows diagnostic specificity for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walshe Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impairments in executive function and language processing are characteristic of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Their functional neuroanatomy demonstrate features that are shared as well as specific to each disorder. Determining the distinct pattern of neural responses in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may provide biomarkers for their diagnoses. Methods 104 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scans while performing a phonological verbal fluency task. Subjects were 32 patients with schizophrenia in remission, 32 patients with bipolar disorder in an euthymic state, and 40 healthy volunteers. Neural responses to verbal fluency were examined in each group, and the diagnostic potential of the pattern of the neural responses was assessed with machine learning analysis. Results During the verbal fluency task, both patient groups showed increased activation in the anterior cingulate, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right putamen as compared to healthy controls, as well as reduced deactivation of precuneus and posterior cingulate. The magnitude of activation was greatest in patients with schizophrenia, followed by patients with bipolar disorder and then healthy individuals. Additional recruitment in the right inferior frontal and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was observed in schizophrenia relative to both bipolar disorder and healthy subjects. The pattern of neural responses correctly identified individual patients with schizophrenia with an accuracy of 92%, and those with bipolar disorder with an accuracy of 79% in which mis-classification was typically of bipolar subjects as healthy controls. Conclusions In summary, both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with altered function in prefrontal, striatal and default mode networks, but the magnitude of this dysfunction is particularly marked in schizophrenia. The pattern of response to verbal fluency is highly

  10. Exploring "fringe" consciousness: the subjective experience of perceptual fluency and its objective bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Rolf; Wurtz, Pascal; Zimmermann, Thomas D

    2004-03-01

    Perceptual fluency is the subjective experience of ease with which an incoming stimulus is processed. Although perceptual fluency is assessed by speed of processing, it remains unclear how objective speed is related to subjective experiences of fluency. We present evidence that speed at different stages of the perceptual process contributes to perceptual fluency. In an experiment, figure-ground contrast influenced detection of briefly presented words, but not their identification at longer exposure durations. Conversely, font in which the word was written influenced identification, but not detection. Both contrast and font influenced subjective fluency. These findings suggest that speed of processing at different stages condensed into a unified subjective experience of perceptual fluency.

  11. The relationship between different measures of oral reading fluency and reading comprehension in second-grade students who evidence different oral reading fluency difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Justin C; Sevcik, Rose A; Morris, Robin D; Lovett, Maureen W; Wolf, Maryanne; Kuhn, Melanie; Meisinger, Beth; Schwanenflugel, Paula

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether different measures of oral reading fluency relate differentially to reading comprehension performance in two samples of second-grade students: (a) students who evidenced difficulties with nonsense-word oral reading fluency, real-word oral reading fluency, and oral reading fluency of connected text (ORFD), and (b) students who evidenced difficulties only with oral reading fluency of connected text (CTD). Participants (ORFD, n = 146 and CTD, n = 949) were second-grade students who were recruited for participation in different reading intervention studies. Data analyzed were from measures of nonsense-word oral reading fluency, real-word oral reading fluency, oral reading fluency of connected text, and reading comprehension that were collected at the pre-intervention time point. Correlational and path analyses indicated that real-word oral reading fluency was the strongest predictor of reading comprehension performance in both samples and across average and poor reading comprehension abilities. Results of this study indicate that real-word oral reading fluency was the strongest predictor of reading comprehension and suggest that real-word oral reading fluency may be an efficient method for identifying potential reading comprehension difficulties.

  12. Neurophysiological evidence that perceptions of fluency produce mere exposure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leynes, P Andrew; Addante, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    Recent exposure to people or objects increases liking ratings, the "mere exposure effect" (Zajonc in American Psychologist, 35, 117-123, 1968), and an increase in processing fluency has been identified as a potential mechanism for producing this effect. This fluency hypothesis was directly tested by altering the trial-by-trial image clarity (i.e., fluency) while Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded. In Experiment 1, clarity was altered across two trial blocks that each had homogenous trial-by-trial clarity, whereas clarity varied randomly across trials in Experiment 2. Blocking or randomizing image clarity across trials was expected to produce different levels of relative fluency and alter mere exposure effects. The mere exposure effect (i.e., old products liked more than new products) was observed when stimulus clarity remained constant across trials, and clear image ERPs were more positive than blurry image ERPs. Importantly, these patterns were reversed when clarity varied randomly across test trials, such that participants liked clear images more than blurry (i.e., no mere exposure effect) and clear image ERPs were more negative than blurry image ERPs. The findings provide direct experimental support from both behavioral and electrophysiological measures that, in some contexts, mere exposure is the product of top-down interpretations of fluency.

  13. Auditory hindsight bias: Fluency misattribution versus memory reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Philip A; Neil, Greg J; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2017-06-01

    We report 4 experiments investigating auditory hindsight bias-the tendency to overestimate the intelligibility of distorted auditory stimuli after learning their identity. An associative priming manipulation was used to vary the amount of processing fluency independently of prior target knowledge. For hypothetical designs, in which hindsight judgments are made for peers in foresight, we predicted that judgments would be based on processing fluency and that hindsight bias would be greater in the unrelated- compared to related-prime context (differential-fluency hypothesis). Conversely, for memory designs, in which foresight judgments are remembered in hindsight, we predicted that judgments would be based on memory reconstruction and that there would be independent effects of prime relatedness and prior target knowledge (recollection hypothesis). These predictions were confirmed. Specifically, we found support for the differential-fluency hypothesis when a hypothetical design was used in Experiments 1 and 2 (hypothetical group). Conversely, when a memory design was used in Experiments 2 (memory group), 3A, and 3B, we found support for the recollection hypothesis. Together, the results suggest that qualitatively different mechanisms create hindsight bias in the 2 designs. The results are discussed in terms of fluency misattributions, memory reconstruction, anchoring-and-adjustment, sense making, and a multicomponent model of hindsight bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Demonstrating the Usefulness of CAELinux for Computer Aided Engineering using an Example of the Three Dimensional Reconstruction of a Pig Liver

    OpenAIRE

    P., Kirana Kumara

    2012-01-01

    CAELinux is a Linux distribution which is bundled with free software packages related to Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). The free software packages include software that can build a three dimensional solid model, programs that can mesh a geometry, software for carrying out Finite Element Analysis (FEA), programs that can carry out image processing etc. Present work has two goals: 1) To give a brief description of CAELinux 2) To demonstrate that CAELinux could be useful for Computer Aided En...

  15. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis. Modeling Operator Performance During Flooding Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Boring, Ronald Laurids; Herberger, Sarah Elizabeth Marie; Mandelli, Diego; Smith, Curtis Lee

    2015-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has the overall objective to help sustain the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To accomplish this program objective, there are multiple LWRS 'pathways,' or research and development (R&D) focus areas. One LWRS focus area is called the Risk-Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway. Initial efforts under this pathway to combine probabilistic and plant multi-physics models to quantify safety margins and support business decisions also included HRA, but in a somewhat simplified manner. HRA experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been collaborating with other experts to develop a computational HRA approach, called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER), for inclusion into the RISMC framework. The basic premise of this research is to leverage applicable computational techniques, namely simulation and modeling, to develop and then, using RAVEN as a controller, seamlessly integrate virtual operator models (HUNTER) with 1) the dynamic computational MOOSE runtime environment that includes a full-scope plant model, and 2) the RISMC framework PRA models already in use. The HUNTER computational HRA approach is a hybrid approach that leverages past work from cognitive psychology, human performance modeling, and HRA, but it is also a significant departure from existing static and even dynamic HRA methods. This report is divided into five chapters that cover the development of an external flooding event test case and associated statistical modeling considerations.

  16. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis. Modeling Operator Performance During Flooding Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Herberger, Sarah Elizabeth Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has the overall objective to help sustain the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To accomplish this program objective, there are multiple LWRS “pathways,” or research and development (R&D) focus areas. One LWRS focus area is called the Risk-Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway. Initial efforts under this pathway to combine probabilistic and plant multi-physics models to quantify safety margins and support business decisions also included HRA, but in a somewhat simplified manner. HRA experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been collaborating with other experts to develop a computational HRA approach, called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER), for inclusion into the RISMC framework. The basic premise of this research is to leverage applicable computational techniques, namely simulation and modeling, to develop and then, using RAVEN as a controller, seamlessly integrate virtual operator models (HUNTER) with 1) the dynamic computational MOOSE runtime environment that includes a full-scope plant model, and 2) the RISMC framework PRA models already in use. The HUNTER computational HRA approach is a hybrid approach that leverages past work from cognitive psychology, human performance modeling, and HRA, but it is also a significant departure from existing static and even dynamic HRA methods. This report is divided into five chapters that cover the development of an external flooding event test case and associated statistical modeling considerations.

  17. Mere exposure effect: A consequence of direct and indirect fluency-preference links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Sylvie; Van der Linden, Martial

    2006-06-01

    In three experiments, picture quality between test items was manipulated to examine whether subjects' expectations about the fluency normally associated with these different stimuli might influence the effects of fluency on preference or familiarity-based recognition responses. The results showed that fluency due to pre-exposure influenced responses less when objects were presented with high picture quality, suggesting that attributions of fluency to preference and familiarity are adjusted according to expectations about the different test pictures. However, this expectations influence depended on subjects' awareness of these different quality levels. Indeed, imperceptible differences seemed not to induce expectations about the test item fluency. In this context, fluency due to both picture quality and pre-exposure influenced direct responses. Conversely, obvious, and noticed, differences in test picture quality did no affect responses, suggesting that expectations moderated attributions of fluency only when fluency normally associated with these different stimuli was perceptible but difficult to assess.

  18. Working memory influences processing speed and reading fluency in ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Lisa A; Ryan, Matthew; Martin, Rebecca B; Ewen, Joshua; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark

    2011-01-01

    Processing-speed deficits affect reading efficiency, even among individuals who recognize and decode words accurately. Children with ADHD who decode words accurately can still have inefficient reading fluency, leading to a bottleneck in other cognitive processes. This "slowing" in ADHD is associated with deficits in fundamental components of executive function underlying processing speed, including response selection. The purpose of the present study was to deconstruct processing speed in order to determine which components of executive control best explain the "processing" speed deficits related to reading fluency in ADHD. Participants (41 ADHD, 21 controls), ages 9-14 years, screened for language disorders, word reading deficits, and psychiatric disorders, were administered measures of copying speed, processing speed, reading fluency, working memory, reaction time, inhibition, and auditory attention span. Compared to controls, children with ADHD showed reduced oral and silent reading fluency and reduced processing speed-driven primarily by deficits on WISC-IV Coding. In contrast, groups did not differ on copying speed. After controlling for copying speed, sex, severity of ADHD-related symptomatology, and GAI, slowed "processing" speed (i.e., Coding) was significantly associated with verbal span and measures of working memory but not with measures of response control/inhibition, lexical retrieval speed, reaction time, or intrasubject variability. Further, "processing" speed (i.e., Coding, residualized for copying speed) and working memory were significant predictors of oral reading fluency. Abnormalities in working memory and response selection (which are frontally mediated and enter into the output side of processing speed) may play an important role in deficits in reading fluency in ADHD, potentially more than posteriorally mediated problems with orienting of attention or perceiving the stimulus.

  19. [Text mining, a method for computer-assisted analysis of scientific texts, demonstrated by an analysis of author networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, P; Dullweber, F; Unglaub, F; Spies, C K

    2014-06-01

    Searching for relevant publications is becoming more difficult with the increasing number of scientific articles. Text mining as a specific form of computer-based data analysis may be helpful in this context. Highlighting relations between authors and finding relevant publications concerning a specific subject using text analysis programs are illustrated graphically by 2 performed examples. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Radiographic and computed tomographic demonstration of pseudotumor cerebri due to rapid weight gain in a child with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdon, W.E.; Barker, D.H.; Barash, F.S.

    1982-06-01

    Rapid weight gain in a malnourished child can be associated with suture diastasis in the pattern of pseudotumor cerebri; this has been previously reported in deprivational dwarfism and cystic fibrosis. In a child with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma, skull radiographs and cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans were available prior to a period of rapid weight gain induced by hyperalimentation. Suture diastasis developed and repeat CT scans showed this to be accompanied by smaller ventricles.

  1. Imaging pitfalls, normal anatomy, and anatomical variants that can simulate disease on cardiac imaging as demonstrated on multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terpenning, Silanath; White, Charles S

    2015-01-01

    Advances in computed tomography have led to continuous improvement in cardiac imaging. Dedicated postprocessing capabilities, faster scan times, and cardiac gating methods reveal details of normal cardiac anatomy and anatomic variants that can mimic pathologic conditions. This article will review normal cardiac anatomy and variants that can mimic disease. Radiologists should be familiar with normal cardiac anatomy and anatomic variants to avoid misinterpretation of normal findings for pathologic processes

  2. Radiographic and computed tomographic demonstration of pseudotumor cerebri due to rapid weight gain in a child with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdon, W.E.; Barker, D.H.; Barash, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid weight gain in a malnourished child can be associated with suture diastasis in the pattern of pseudotumor cerebri; this has been previously reported in deprivational dwarfism and cystic fibrosis. In a child with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma, skull radiographs and cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans were available prior to a period of rapid weight gain induced by hyperalimentation. Suture diastasis developed and repeat CT scans showed this to be accompanied by smaller ventricles

  3. Linguistic Phenomena in Men and Women - TOT, FOK, Verbal Fluency

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Szepietowska; Barbara Gawda; Agnieszka Gawda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the differences between women and men in the phenomena of feeling of knowing/know (FOK), tip of the tongue (TOT), and verbal fluency. Two studies are presented. The first included a group of 60 participants and focused on the analysis of FOK and TOT in men and women. The second study described the performance of 302 participants in verbal fluency tasks. Both studies showed that sex is not a significant predictor of linguistic abilities. Rather, the main fa...

  4. Visiting digital fluency for pre-service teachers in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir Demir; Betül Aydın; Nazife Şen Ersoy; Aydın Kelek; İsmail Tatar; Abdullah Kuzu; Hatice Ferhan Odabaşı

    2015-01-01

    Digital literacy is to know how to use digital tools, however digital fluency is a new concept. Beyond the digital literacy, digital fluency requires skills to know when to use the technology and even why to use the technology. The technology advances rapidly; as a result, education and instruction are getting digitalized. So it could be estimated that; pre-service teachers who are future teachers, should have digital skills. This is the main point of this study which aims to visit pre-ser...

  5. Mirror Asymmetry of Category and Letter Fluency in Traumatic Brain Injury and Alzheimer's Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Erminio; Rosci, Chiara; Saetti, Maria Cristina; Laiacona, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    In this study we contrasted the Category fluency and Letter fluency performance of 198 normal subjects, 57 Alzheimer's patients and 57 patients affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim was to check whether, besides the prevalence of Category fluency deficit often reported among Alzheimer's patients, the TBI group presented the opposite…

  6. Understanding Oral Reading Fluency among Adults with Low Literacy: Dominance Analysis of Contributing Component Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Anthony, Jason L.; Woods, Kari L.

    2012-01-01

    This study extends the literature on the component skills involved in oral reading fluency. Dominance analysis was applied to assess the relative importance of seven reading-related component skills in the prediction of the oral reading fluency of 272 adult literacy learners. The best predictors of oral reading fluency when text difficulty was…

  7. Preliminary validation of FastaReada as a measure of reading fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zena eElhassan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluent reading is characterized by speed and accuracy in the decoding and comprehension of connected text. Although a variety of measures are available for the assessment of reading skills most tests do not evaluate rate of text recognition as reflected in fluent reading. Here we evaluate FastaReada, a customized computer-generated task that was developed to address some of the limitations of currently available measures of reading skills. FastaReada provides a rapid assessment of reading fluency quantified as words read per minute for connected, meaningful text. To test the criterion validity of FastaReada, 124 mainstream school children with typical sensory, mental and motor development were assessed. Performance on FastaReada was correlated with the established Neale Analysis of Reading Ability (NARA measures of text reading accuracy, rate and comprehension, and common single word measures of pseudoword (non-word reading, phonetic decoding, phonological awareness and mode of word decoding (i.e., visual or eidetic versus auditory or phonetic. The results demonstrated strong positive correlations between FastaReada performance and NARA reading rate (r = .75, accuracy (r = .83 and comprehension (r = .63 scores providing evidence for criterion-related validity. Additional evidence for criterion validity was demonstrated through strong positive correlations between FastaReada and both single word eidetic (r = .81 and phonetic decoding skills (r = .68. The results also demonstrated FastaReada to be a stronger predictor of eidetic decoding than the NARA rate measure, with FastaReada predicting 14.4% of the variance compared to 2.6% predicted by NARA rate. FastaReada was therefore deemed to be a valid tool for educators, clinicians, and research related assessment of reading accuracy and rate. As expected, analysis with hierarchical regressions also highlighted the closer relationship of fluent reading to rapid visual word recognition than to

  8. Fluência tecnológica, comportamento e complexidades: um laboratório de informática, o tempo, as pessoas e outras coisas Fluidez tecnológica, comportamiento e complejidades: un laboratorio de informática, el tiempo, las personas e otras cosas Technological fluency, behavior and complexities: a computers lab, the time, the people and other things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Pastre de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    prescriciones, abre otras questiones cuya investigación es fundamental para la comprensión de las nuevas formas de aprender en la sociedad contemporánea, así como inquietaciones relacionadas al tiempo y a la alteridad.This article relates a field experience that used participative observation in order to underline evident some behaviors related to the use of new technologies of information and communication (NTIC by postgraduating students. The research was accomplished in a computers laboratory which is used by master's/doctoral's degree students and tried to verify some questions related to fluency in use of NTIC and some personal trajectories fulfilled by high-level users on their technological learning. Other questions appeared during this research: the students behavior in respect to their colleagues, the relation time/new technologies, the non-formal resources of digital technologies learning. The analisys of data obtained, far from to obtain definitive answers, it opens other questions whose investigation is fundamental in order to understanding new ways of learning in contemporary society, as well as preoccupations related to the time and the alterity.

  9. Cerebral perfusion inhomogeneities in schizophrenia demonstrated with single photon emission computed tomography and Tc99m-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajc, M.; Basic, M.; Topuzovic, N.; Babic, C.; Medved, V.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow was measured in relative terms with Tc99m-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxim (HMPAO) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 28 female schizophrenic patients (20 acute and 8 chronic) classified according to DSM-III. Eleven normals served as controls. The acute patients were classified according to positive and negative symptoms. Patients with predominantly positive symptoms showed by and large normal and homogeneous cerebral isotope uptake. Those with negative symptoms, and the chronic patients, showed inhomogeneous tracer uptake with multiple regions of hypoperfusion in slices 4-6 cm above the orbitomeatal line. The findings support in principle the notion that schizophrenia with negative or chronic symptoms does not affect the whole brain homogeneously. Brain imaging with Tc99m-HMPAO and SPECT might be used to distinguish various types of schizophrenia. (author)

  10. Shielding computations for solution transfer lines from Analytical Lab to process cells of Demonstration Fast Reactor Plant (DFRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskar, S.; Jose, M.T.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2018-01-01

    The diluted virgin solutions (both aqueous and organic) and aqueous analytical waste generated from experimental analysis of process solutions, pertaining to Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) and Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), in glove boxes of active analytical Laboratory (AAL) are pumped back to the process cells through a pipe in pipe arrangement. There are 6 transfer lines (Length 15-32 m), 2 for each type of transfer. The transfer lines passes through the area inside the AAL and also the operating area. Hence it is required to compute the necessary radial shielding requirement around the lines to limit the dose rates in both the areas to the permissible values as per the regulatory requirement

  11. The Relationship between Reading Fluency and Lexile Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Joshua Steve

    2017-01-01

    With increasing emphasis being placed on teachers to show an improvement in student achievement, schools are relying on indicators such as reading fluency and reading comprehension to gauge student progress throughout the year. Since the growth on these assessments are used in calculating teachers and administrators' yearly job evaluations, the…

  12. Fluency: an aim in teaching and a criterion in assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aud Marit Simensen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the concept ‘fluency’ from different perspectives. When fluency is an aim in teaching, a thorough comprehension of the concept among teachers is a prerequisite for appropriate planning of instruction, including the choice of appropriate classroom activities. When fluency is an assessment criterion, it is even more important that examiners have a shared perception of the concept. The present article starts by presenting common perceptions of the concept and goes on to explore some of the current research. Next, it provides a historical overview of the place of fluency in teaching theory and explains some of the preconditions for the inclusion of this concept among teaching objectives and assessment criteria. It will also, as an illustration, give an outline of the position of the concept over time in the Norwegian school system on the basis of an analysis of the relevant syllabuses. Finally, the article explicates the notion of language use as a complex cognitive skill and explores current method¬ological ideas about teaching towards fluency.

  13. Boosting Reading Fluency: An Intervention Case Study at Subword Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairaluoma, Leila; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Holopainen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    This study is an intervention case study of fluency in Finnish-speaking children with dyslexia. Two 7-year-old children, a girl and a boy, were selected from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia. The intervention emphasised syllables as reading units, and proceeded from reading syllables to reading words and text. Letter knowledge, reading…

  14. Specificity and Overlap in Skills Underpinning Reading and Arithmetical Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daal, Victor; van der Leij, Aryan; Ader, Herman

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine unique and common causes of problems in reading and arithmetic fluency. 13- to 14-year-old students were placed into one of five groups: reading disabled (RD, n = 16), arithmetic disabled (AD, n = 34), reading and arithmetic disabled (RAD, n = 17), reading, arithmetic, and listening comprehension disabled…

  15. Is Earlier Better? Mastery of Reading Fluency in Early Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yonghan; Chaparro, Erin A.; Preciado, Jorge; Cummings, Kelli D.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of the present study was to provide empirical evidence for the importance of mastering reading fluency in early schooling. Study participants were 1,322 students in 3rd grade in 42 schools in a northwestern state. These students were assessed using a battery of reading skill tests as well as comprehensive tests of more…

  16. Two Mechanisms of Constructive Recollection: Perceptual Recombination and Conceptual Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Manoj K.; Bluestone, Maximilian R.; Gallo, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Recollection is constructive and prone to distortion, but the mechanisms through which recollections can become embellished with rich yet illusory details are still debated. According to the conceptual fluency hypothesis, abstract semantic or conceptual activation increases the familiarity of a nonstudied event, causing one to falsely attribute…

  17. Remediation of fluency: Word specific or generalised training effects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, I.E.; Reitsma, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines whether reading fluency benefits more from repeated reading of a limited set of words or from practicing reading with many different words. A group of 37 reading delayed Dutch children repeatedly read the same 20 words with limited exposure duration, whereas another group

  18. Teachers Engaging Parents as Tutors to Improve Oral Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupzyk, Sara S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the application of evidence-based tutoring for oral reading fluency (ORF) to a natural setting, using teachers as parent trainers. Measures used to determine the impact of parent tutoring included treatment integrity, student reading outcomes, attitudes towards involvement and reading, and social validity. Six teachers…

  19. Reading Fluency Instruction for Students at Risk for Reading Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Jeremiah J.; Barefoot, Lexie C.; Avrit, Karen J.; Brown, Sasha A.; Black, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    The important role of reading fluency in the comprehension and motivation of readers is well documented. Two reading rate intervention programs were compared in a cluster-randomized clinical trial of students who were considered at-risk for reading failure. One program focused instruction at the word level; the second program focused instruction…

  20. Scrutinizing the Factors Affecting Fluency of English among Arab Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghazali, Fawzi

    2017-01-01

    This research study investigates the cognitive, psychological and personal factors affecting the accuracy and fluency of English language usage among Arab learners. Early research led by Chomsky (1965) and Krashen (1981) suggested that an individual's Language Acquisition Device once triggered at the appropriate time and supported with adequate…

  1. Influences of early English language teaching on oral fluency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolf, Stephana; Smit, Nienke; Lowie, Wander

    2017-01-01

    Elementary-level foreign language education is currently receiving a lot of attention in the literature on second language learning, and has emerged as an important educational policy issue. The present study aims to contribute to this discussion by focusing on the fluency benefits gained from early

  2. Influences of Early English Language Teaching on Oral Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, Stephana; Smit, Nienke; Lowie, Wander

    2017-01-01

    Elementary-level foreign language education is currently receiving a lot of attention in the literature on second language learning, and has emerged as an important educational policy issue. The present study aims to contribute to this discussion by focusing on the fluency benefits gained from early foreign language teaching. The participants were…

  3. Oral Reading Fluency Testing: Pitfalls for Children with Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Karole; Scaler Scott, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    As school districts nationwide have moved toward data driven intervention, oral reading fluency measures have become a prevalent means to monitor progress by assessing the degree to which a child is becoming a fast (and therefore fluent) reader. This article reviews results of a survey of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working with children…

  4. Improving English Speaking Fluency: The Role of Six Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Shahini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study, using an open interview, set out to investigate the roles six factors, including age, university education, teachers of English Language institutes, teaching English, dictionary, and note-taking, played in improving English speaking fluency of seventeen fluent Iranian EFL speakers. The participants were chosen purposefully based on the speaking scale of Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL. The findings indicated that early age had a great impact on the participants’ speaking fluency. They mentioned that they could not pick up fluency if they had started learning English at older ages. Moreover, university education had no effect on enhancing their fluency. They stated that not having enough opportunities to speak English in classrooms, being exposed to wrong amounts of input from their classmates or even from some university instructors, having no access to English native speakers in English Language Departments, professors’ talking in native language out of classes, in their offices or even sometimes in classes all led to their losing motivation after entering the university. In contrast, teachers in English language institutes had a supportive role in increasing the participants’ English learning. Although two participants quit teaching English since it had a negative influence on their speaking, it had a positive impact on improving speaking ability of the rest. And finally, fruitful strategies were suggested on how to use dictionaries and note-takings.

  5. Specificity and overlap in skills underpinning reading and arithmetical fluency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daal, V.; van der Leij, A.; Adèr, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine unique and common causes of problems in reading and arithmetic fluency. 13- to 14-year-old students were placed into one of five groups: reading disabled (RD, n = 16), arithmetic disabled (AD, n = 34), reading and arithmetic disabled (RAD, n = 17), reading,

  6. Processing the Order of Symbolic Numbers: A Reliable and Unique Predictor of Arithmetic Fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan E. Vogel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A small but growing body of evidence suggests a link between individual differences in processing the order of numerical symbols (e.g., deciding whether a set of digits is arranged in ascending/descending order or not and arithmetic achievement. However, the reliability of behavioral correlates measuring symbolic and non-symbolic numerical order processing and their relationship to arithmetic abilities remain poorly understood. The present study aims to fill this knowledge gap by examining the behavioral correlates of numerical and non-numerical order processing and their unique associations with arithmetic fluency at two different time points within the same sample of individuals. Thirty-two right-handed adults performed three order judgment tasks consisting of symbolic numbers (i.e., digits, non-symbolic numbers (i.e., dots, and letters of the alphabet. Specifically, participants had to judge as accurately and as quickly as possible whether stimuli were ordered correctly (in ascending/descending order, e.g., 2-3-4; ●●●●-●●●-●●; B-C-D or not (e.g., 4-5-3; ●●●●-●●●●●-●●●; D-E-C. Results of this study demonstrate that numerical order judgments are reliable measurements (i.e., high test-retest reliability, and that the observed relationship between symbolic number processing and arithmetic fluency accounts for a unique and reliable portion of variance over and above the non-symbolic number and the letter conditions. The differential association of symbolic and non-symbolic numbers with arithmetic support the view that processing the order of symbolic and non-symbolic numbers engages different cognitive mechanisms, and that the ability to process ordinal relationships of symbolic numbers is a reliable and unique predictor of arithmetic fluency.

  7. Postmortem computed tomographic (PMCT) demonstration of the relation between gastrointestinal (GI) distension and hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Seiji; Kohno, Mototsugu; Ohashi, Noriyoshi; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Watanabe, Ko

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between gastrointestinal (GI) distension and hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) on postmortem computed tomography (PMCT). Our subjects were 190 PMCT obtained within two hours of non-traumatic death [175 patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and 15 patients did not undergo CPR]. We evaluated the incidence and location of GI distension (0=no distension, 1=stomach and duodenum, 2=more distal than 1) and HPVG (0=no gas, 1=left lobe, 2=1+right anterior lobe, 3=2+right posterior lobe). GI distension (grade 0/1/2=58/55/62 patients) and HPVG (grade 0/1/2/3=114/10/28/23 patients) were observed in 175 patients who underwent CPR. The grade of HPVG increased significantly in accordance with the advancement of GI distension. Fifteen patients without undergoing CPR showed no GI distension but one patient showed grade 1 HPVG. PMCT indicates the presence of a relation between GI distension and HPVG. (author)

  8. Air pollution-induced health impacts on the national economy of China: demonstration of a computable general equilibrium approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yue; Yang, Hongwei; Masui, Toshihiko

    2005-01-01

    At the present time, ambient air pollution is a serious public health problem in China. Based on the concentration-response relationship provided by international and domestic epidemiologic studies, the authors estimated the mortality and morbidity induced by the ambient air pollution of 2000. To address the mechanism of the health impact on the national economy, the authors applied a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, named AIM/Material China, containing 39 production sectors and 32 commodities. AIM/Material analyzes changes of the gross domestic product (GDP), final demand, and production activity originating from health damages. If ambient air quality met Grade II of China's air quality standard in 2000, then the avoidable GDP loss would be 0.38%o of the national total, of which 95% was led by labor loss. Comparatively, medical expenditure had less impact on national economy, which is explained from the aspect of the final demand by commodities and the production activities by sectors. The authors conclude that the CGE model is a suitable tool for assessing health impacts from a point of view of national economy through the discussion about its applicability.

  9. Quantitative myocardial thallium single-photon emission computed tomography in normal women: demonstration of age-related differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Touzery, C.; Cottin, Y.; Benoit, T.; Athis, P. d'; Roy, S.; Louis, P.; Wolf, J.E.; Rigo, P.; Brunotte, F.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is the development of a database of normal women for quantitative analysis of exercise and reinjection myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPET). We studied 101 subjects (40 males and 61 females) with less than 5% likelihood of coronary artery disease. All patients underwent stress and rest thallium-201 myocardial SPET. Myocardial stress was induced by bicycle exercise test (n=51), dipyridamole infusion (n=27) or a combined test (n=23). Multivariate ANOVA showed that the type of stress did not influence the percentage of thallium uptake for each region. Significant differences between men and women were found for the percentage of uptake in the inferior and the anterior wall. The most original finding of this study is the correlation between age and thallium uptake in the three regions of the anterior wall, showing an increase in measured thallium uptake with age for women. Consequently, two groups of women, those under and those over 55 years old, were separated, with a significantly lower tracer uptake in the anterior wall in the younger age group. (orig./MG)

  10. Mathematics Preservice Teachers Are Literacy Educators Too: Learning How to Administer and Use Data from the Texas Middle School Fluency Assessment to Plan Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks. Benita R.

    2017-01-01

    House Bill (HB) 2237 (80th Legislature), Section 6: Adolescent Reading Assessment requires districts and public charter schools to administer the Texas Middle School Fluency Assessment (TMSFA) or some other state approved alternative assessment to students in grade seven who do not demonstrate reading proficiency on the grade six state reading…

  11. Stuttering, induced fluency, and natural fluency: a hierarchical series of activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Kristin S; Barron, Daniel S; Fox, Peter T

    2014-12-01

    Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder most likely due to a heritable form of developmental dysmyelination impairing the function of the speech-motor system. Speech-induced brain-activation patterns in persons who stutter (PWS) are anomalous in various ways; the consistency of these aberrant patterns is a matter of ongoing debate. Here, we present a hierarchical series of coordinate-based meta-analyses addressing this issue. Two tiers of meta-analyses were performed on a 17-paper dataset (202 PWS; 167 fluent controls). Four large-scale (top-tier) meta-analyses were performed, two for each subject group (PWS and controls). These analyses robustly confirmed the regional effects previously postulated as "neural signatures of stuttering" (Brown, Ingham, Ingham, Laird, & Fox, 2005) and extended this designation to additional regions. Two smaller-scale (lower-tier) meta-analyses refined the interpretation of the large-scale analyses: (1) a between-group contrast targeting differences between PWS and controls (stuttering trait); and (2) a within-group contrast (PWS only) of stuttering with induced fluency (stuttering state). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Systems-level computational modeling demonstrates fuel selection switching in high capacity running and low capacity running rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Nathan R.

    2018-01-01

    High capacity and low capacity running rats, HCR and LCR respectively, have been bred to represent two extremes of running endurance and have recently demonstrated disparities in fuel usage during transient aerobic exercise. HCR rats can maintain fatty acid (FA) utilization throughout the course of transient aerobic exercise whereas LCR rats rely predominantly on glucose utilization. We hypothesized that the difference between HCR and LCR fuel utilization could be explained by a difference in mitochondrial density. To test this hypothesis and to investigate mechanisms of fuel selection, we used a constraint-based kinetic analysis of whole-body metabolism to analyze transient exercise data from these rats. Our model analysis used a thermodynamically constrained kinetic framework that accounts for glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and mitochondrial FA transport and oxidation. The model can effectively match the observed relative rates of oxidation of glucose versus FA, as a function of ATP demand. In searching for the minimal differences required to explain metabolic function in HCR versus LCR rats, it was determined that the whole-body metabolic phenotype of LCR, compared to the HCR, could be explained by a ~50% reduction in total mitochondrial activity with an additional 5-fold reduction in mitochondrial FA transport activity. Finally, we postulate that over sustained periods of exercise that LCR can partly overcome the initial deficit in FA catabolic activity by upregulating FA transport and/or oxidation processes. PMID:29474500

  13. Recall strategies for the verbal fluency test in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Cardoso, J; Marosi-Holczberger, E; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Yañez-Tellez, G; Chávez-Oliveros, M

    2014-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by inflammation and demyelination. It generates irreversible myelin changes, which in turn give rise to physical and cognitive disorders. The verbal fluency test (VF) has been shown to be a sensitive tool for detecting cognitive impairment in these patients. To compare quantitative and qualitative aspects of performance on semantic and phonological fluency tests between MS patients and healthy controls by analysing total words produced and strategies used (clusters and switching). We evaluated 46 patients with MS and 33 healthy controls using the VF test. The semantic VF task revealed no significant differences between groups; for the phonological task, patients demonstrated reduced word production (F [77]=2.286 P<.001) and poorer use of grouping strategies, resulting in more frequent switching (F [77]=3.808 P<.005). These results support using qualitative analysis for recall strategies, since the technique provides data about which components of the task are affected by brain damage. Clusters depend on the integrity of semantic memory, while switching has to do with developing effective search strategies, cognitive flexibility, and the ability to modify responses. Frontal lobe damage has been reported in MS, and this is consistent with results from the phonological VF test. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Examining Predictive Validity of Oral Reading Fluency Slope in Upper Elementary Grades Using Quantile Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunsoo; Capin, Philip; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon

    2017-07-01

    Within multitiered instructional delivery models, progress monitoring is a key mechanism for determining whether a child demonstrates an adequate response to instruction. One measure commonly used to monitor the reading progress of students is oral reading fluency (ORF). This study examined the extent to which ORF slope predicts reading comprehension outcomes for fifth-grade struggling readers ( n = 102) participating in an intensive reading intervention. Quantile regression models showed that ORF slope significantly predicted performance on a sentence-level fluency and comprehension assessment, regardless of the students' reading skills, controlling for initial ORF performance. However, ORF slope was differentially predictive of a passage-level comprehension assessment based on students' reading skills when controlling for initial ORF status. Results showed that ORF explained unique variance for struggling readers whose posttest performance was at the upper quantiles at the end of the reading intervention, but slope was not a significant predictor of passage-level comprehension for students whose reading problems were the most difficult to remediate.

  15. Measuring autobiographical fluency in the self-memory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbone, Clare J; Moulin, Chris J A

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memory is widely considered to be fundamentally related to concepts of self and identity. However, few studies have sought to test models of self and memory directly using experimental designs. Using a novel autobiographical fluency paradigm, the present study investigated memory accessibility for different levels of self-related knowledge. Forty participants generated 20 "I am" statements about themselves, from which the 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th, and 20th were used as cues in a two-minute autobiographical fluency task. The most salient aspects of the self, measured by both serial position and ratings of personal significance, were associated with more accessible sets of autobiographical memories. This finding supports theories that view the self as a powerful organizational structure in memory. Results are discussed with reference to models of self and memory.

  16. Maintaining students’ Speaking Fluency through Exhibition Examination in Sociolinguistic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusnul Qhotimah Yuliatuty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Using exhibition for the final project in Sociolinguistic study is really interesting for Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional students, especially for 2011 English Department students. Exhibition becomes interesting because this is the new thing to conduct the final project for English Department students’ cohort 2011 at Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional. The lecturer divides the students into pairs and each pairs should master one content or topic in Sociolinguistic study.  The students will do the exhibition about the topic that they get in a pairs. The lecturer also gives the students rubric sheet to fill by the visitors. The exhibition will make the students prepare themselves well because they will face many questions about the content which will be delivered by them. Beside, this exhibition also maintains students’ fluency in speaking English because they will explain and answer the questions from visitors with English. This paper tries to focus on how exhibition examination can maintain students’ fluency in speaking English.

  17. The fluency of social hierarchy: the ease with which hierarchical relationships are seen, remembered, learned, and liked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitek, Emily M; Tiedens, Larissa Z

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that social hierarchies are fluent social stimuli; that is, they are processed more easily and therefore liked better than less hierarchical stimuli. In Study 1, pairs of people in a hierarchy based on facial dominance were identified faster than pairs of people equal in their facial dominance. In Study 2, a diagram representing hierarchy was memorized more quickly than a diagram representing equality or a comparison diagram. This faster processing led the hierarchy diagram to be liked more than the equality diagram. In Study 3, participants were best able to learn a set of relationships that represented hierarchy (asymmetry of power)--compared to relationships in which there was asymmetry of friendliness, or compared to relationships in which there was symmetry--and this processing ease led them to like the hierarchy the most. In Study 4, participants found it easier to make decisions about a company that was more hierarchical and thus thought the hierarchical organization had more positive qualities. In Study 5, familiarity as a basis for the fluency of hierarchy was demonstrated by showing greater fluency for male than female hierarchies. This study also showed that when social relationships are difficult to learn, people's preference for hierarchy increases. Taken together, these results suggest one reason people might like hierarchies--hierarchies are easy to process. This fluency for social hierarchies might contribute to the construction and maintenance of hierarchies.

  18. Memory, verbal fluency, and response inhibition in normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Thapliyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concepts of aging-related cognitive changes have appeared to be a major challenge in the society. In this context, the present study was planned to find out the functioning of aging population on different neurocognitive measures. Aims: The aim of the study was to find out the neurocognitive functioning, namely memory, verbal fluency, and response inhibition of normal aging population. Materials and Methods: Following purposive sampling technique, a total of 50 healthy subjects (30 males and 20 females in the age range of 60-70 years were recruited from Jaipur city of Rajasthan. Mini-mental state Examination, PGI memory scale, animal names test, and Stroop test were administered. Results: The findings reveal dysfunction in almost all the domains of memory, namely mental balance, attention and concentration, delayed recall, verbal retention for dissimilar pairs, visual retention and recognition, immediate recall, verbal retention for similar pairs, and visual retention. In domain of verbal fluency, all subjects gave low responses on the animal names test. In domain of response inhibition, all the subjects took less time in color test as compared to color word test on the Stroop task. Conclusions: Findings suggest that there are dysfunction in the area of memory, verbal fluency, and response inhibition in persons aged 60-70 years. However, recent and remote memory were found to be intact.

  19. Fluency profile: comparison between Brazilian and European Portuguese speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Blenda Stephanie Alves e; Martins-Reis, Vanessa de Oliveira; Baptista, Ana Catarina; Celeste, Letícia Correa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the speech fluency of Brazilian Portuguese speakers with that of European Portuguese speakers. The study participants were 76 individuals of any ethnicity or skin color aged 18-29 years. Of the participants, 38 lived in Brazil and 38 in Portugal. Speech samples from all participants were obtained and analyzed according to the variables of typology and frequency of speech disruptions and speech rate. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed to assess the association between the fluency profile and linguistic variant variables. We found that the speech rate of European Portuguese speakers was higher than the speech rate of Brazilian Portuguese speakers in words per minute (p=0.004). The qualitative distribution of the typology of common dysfluencies (pPortuguese speakers is not available, speech therapists in Portugal can use the same speech fluency assessment as has been used in Brazil to establish a diagnosis of stuttering, especially in regard to typical and stuttering dysfluencies, with care taken when evaluating the speech rate.

  20. Impairments of speech fluency in Lewy body spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G; Cook, Philip; Gunawardena, Delani; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray

    2012-03-01

    Few studies have examined connected speech in demented and non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We assessed the speech production of 35 patients with Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including non-demented PD patients, patients with PD dementia (PDD), and patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), in a semi-structured narrative speech sample in order to characterize impairments of speech fluency and to determine the factors contributing to reduced speech fluency in these patients. Both demented and non-demented PD patients exhibited reduced speech fluency, characterized by reduced overall speech rate and long pauses between sentences. Reduced speech rate in LBSD correlated with measures of between-utterance pauses, executive functioning, and grammatical comprehension. Regression analyses related non-fluent speech, grammatical difficulty, and executive difficulty to atrophy in frontal brain regions. These findings indicate that multiple factors contribute to slowed speech in LBSD, and this is mediated in part by disease in frontal brain regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of graphomotor fluency in adults with ADHD: Evidence of attenuated procedural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Thomas A; Casey, Joseph E; McNevin, Nancy

    2015-12-01

    The present study sought to determine if adults with ADHD demonstrate reduced graphomotor learning relative to controls. Twenty-eight control adults (n=14) and adults with ADHD (n=14) were recruited and wrote a novel grapheme on a digitizing tablet 30 times. Participants with ADHD were counterbalanced on and off stimulant medication. Control participants, F(1,13)=13.786, p=.003, ω(2)partial=.460, and participants with ADHD on medication, F(1,13)=10.462, p=.007, ω(2)partial=.387, demonstrated significant improvement in graphomotor fluency with equivalent practice whereas participants with ADHD off medication did not, F(1,12)=0.166, NS. Results indicate that graphomotor program learning in adults with ADHD may occur more slowly than typically developing peers. Findings have implications for providing accommodations to adults with ADHD, potential benefits of stimulant medication, and using digitizing technology as a neuropsychological assessment instrument. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Paradoxical embolism: computed tomography demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, J.; Hayward, M.

    2001-01-01

    Paradoxical emboli are rare and often presumptively diagnosed. A case of paradoxical embolism, in which both the arterial and venous emboli were documented on CT, is described. While paradoxical emboli are not infrequently diagnosed clinically on a presumptive basis, it is rare to document them with imaging such as CT which, in the present case, confirmed the diagnosis. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction During the past six months, Computing participated in the STEP09 exercise, had a major involvement in the October exercise and has been working with CMS sites on improving open issues relevant for data taking. At the same time operations for MC production, real data reconstruction and re-reconstructions and data transfers at large scales were performed. STEP09 was successfully conducted in June as a joint exercise with ATLAS and the other experiments. It gave good indication about the readiness of the WLCG infrastructure with the two major LHC experiments stressing the reading, writing and processing of physics data. The October Exercise, in contrast, was conducted as an all-CMS exercise, where Physics, Computing and Offline worked on a common plan to exercise all steps to efficiently access and analyze data. As one of the major results, the CMS Tier-2s demonstrated to be fully capable for performing data analysis. In recent weeks, efforts were devoted to CMS Computing readiness. All th...

  4. Case report 353: Giant cell tumor of distal end of the femur, containing a fluid level as demonstrated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnik, C.S.; Steffe, J.W.; Wang, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    In summary, a 22-year-old man presented after sustaining a minor injury to his left knee while playing football. Radiological studies showed the characteristic stigmata of a giant cell tumor in the distal end of the femur involving the medial femoral condyle. On computed tomography with the proper window settings a fluid level was demonstrated in the osteolytic lesion. At surgery, yellowish sanguinous fluid was aspirated from the lesion which was completely curetted. Pathological studies showed the typical stigmata of a giant cell tumor. (orig./SHA)

  5. Examining the relationship between rapid automatized naming and arithmetic fluency in Chinese kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiaxin; Georgiou, George K; Zhang, Yiyun; Li, Yixun; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Xinlin

    2017-02-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been found to predict mathematics. However, the nature of their relationship remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine how RAN (numeric and non-numeric) predicts a subdomain of mathematics (arithmetic fluency) and (b) to examine what processing skills may account for the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship. A total of 160 third-year kindergarten Chinese children (83 boys and 77 girls, mean age=5.11years) were assessed on RAN (colors, objects, digits, and dice), nonverbal IQ, visual-verbal paired associate learning, phonological awareness, short-term memory, speed of processing, approximate number system acuity, and arithmetic fluency (addition and subtraction). The results indicated first that RAN was a significant correlate of arithmetic fluency and the correlations did not vary as a function of type of RAN or arithmetic fluency tasks. In addition, RAN continued to predict addition and subtraction fluency even after controlling for all other processing skills. Taken together, these findings challenge the existing theoretical accounts of the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship and suggest that, similar to reading fluency, multiple processes underlie the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Computing Team successfully completed the storage, initial processing, and distribution for analysis of proton-proton data in 2011. There are still a variety of activities ongoing to support winter conference activities and preparations for 2012. Heavy ions The heavy-ion run for 2011 started in early November and has already demonstrated good machine performance and success of some of the more advanced workflows planned for 2011. Data collection will continue until early December. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Operational and deployment support for WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request Manager components, routinely used in production by Data Operations, are provided. The GlideInWMS and components installation are now deployed at CERN, which is added to the GlideInWMS factory placed in the US. There has been new operational collaboration between the CERN team and the UCSD GlideIn factory operators, covering each others time zones by monitoring/debugging pilot jobs sent from the facto...

  7. UVC fluencies for preventative treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contaminated polymer tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jimmy; Ladefoged, Søren D; Begovic, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Exposing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm grown on the inner surface of Teflon and silicone tubes to UVC light (265 nm) from light emitting diodes (LED) has previously been shown to substantially reduce biofilm growth. Smaller UVC fluencies were required to disinfect Teflon tubes compared to silicone...... tubes. Light propagation enhancement in tubes can be obtained if the refractive index of the intra-luminal saline solution is higher than that of the polymer. This condition is achieved by using Teflon tubes with a low refractive index (1.34) instead of the polymers with a high refractive index (1...... is demonstrated to be a preventative disinfection treatment on tubes made of Teflon, which enhances the UVC light propagation, and on tubes made of a softer material, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), which is suitable for catheters but much less suitable for UVC light propagation. Simulating an aseptic breach (~10...

  8. Using Arabic word identification fluency to monitor first-grade reading progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the applicability, reliability and validity of the Arabic version of the curriculum-based measurement word identification fluency (CBM WIF) measure in Jordanian students. A sample of 75 first-grade students, 50 average readers and 25 with reading difficulties, were recruited from two public primary schools. Results indicated that the CBM WIF is a reliable, valid and cost-effective measure. A 15-week trial demonstrated the effectiveness of using CBM WIF with the first-grade students. In addition, CBM WIF was a good predictor of grade point average in the native language. Moreover, students who were struggling with reading scored significantly lower on CBM WIF probes than did average readers. Results suggest that the CBM WIF measures may be useful for evaluating and predicting reading performance in Arabic. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The Role of Reading Fluency in Children's Text Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a written text requires some higher cognitive abilities that not all children have. Some children have these abilities, since they understand oral texts; however, they have difficulties with written texts, probably due to problems in reading fluency. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of reading fluency are related to reading comprehension. Four expositive texts, two written and two read by the evaluator, were presented to a sample of 103 primary school children (third and sixth grade). Each text was followed by four comprehension questions. From this sample we selected two groups of participants in each grade, 10 with good results in comprehension of oral and written texts, and 10 with good results in oral and poor in written comprehension. These 40 subjects were asked to read aloud a new text while they were recorded. Using Praat software some prosodic parameters were measured, such as pausing and reading rate (number and duration of the pauses and utterances), pitch and intensity changes and duration in declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences and also errors and duration in words by frequency and stress. We compared the results of both groups with ANOVAs. The results showed that children with less reading comprehension made more inappropriate pauses and also intersentential pauses before comma than the other group and made more mistakes in content words; significant differences were also found in the final declination of pitch in declarative sentences and in the F0 range in interrogative ones. These results confirm that reading comprehension problems in children are related to a lack in the development of a good reading fluency.

  10. Predicting short-term stock fluctuations by using processing fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Adam L.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies investigated the impact of the psychological principle of fluency (that people tend to prefer easily processed information) on short-term share price movements. In both a laboratory study and two analyses of naturalistic real-world stock market data, fluently named stocks robustly outperformed stocks with disfluent names in the short term. For example, in one study, an initial investment of $1,000 yielded a profit of $112 more after 1 day of trading for a basket of fluently named shares than for a basket of disfluently named shares. These results imply that simple, cognitive approaches to modeling human behavior sometimes outperform more typical, complex alternatives. PMID:16754871

  11. Fluency Effects on Brand Name Recognition and Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Existing research has not provided a clear understanding of processing fluency effects on memory. In a laboratory experiment with novel non-words, we found a recognition advantage of fluent non-words over moderately fluent and disfluent non-words. This advantage diminished when non-words were...... presented as novel brand names in different product contexts. We further tested a preference reversal in favor of disfluency and found that disfluent brand names (non-words) were equally disliked across different products contexts. A preference reversal could be observed when fluent names were preferred...

  12. From fluency to comprehension powerful instruction through authentic reading

    CERN Document Server

    Rasinski, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Helping teachers move beyond fluency as measured by speed alone, this book focuses on building the skills that students need to read accurately, meaningfully, and expressively--the essential components of reading comprehension. Each concise chapter presents a tried-and-true instructional or assessment strategy and shows how K-12 teachers can apply it in their own classrooms, using a wide variety of engaging texts. Special features include classroom examples, ""Your Turn"" activities, and 24 reproducible forms, in a large-size format for easy photocopying. Purchasers also get access to a

  13. Effects of a Mathematics Fluency Program on Mathematics Performance of Students with Challenging Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Todd; Hirn, Regina G.; Lingo, Amy S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of a fluency-building mathematics program called Great Leaps Math on fluency of basic addition mathematics facts zero to nine and word problem solving using a multiple probe design across participants. Three elementary students with challenging behaviors and mathematics difficulty participated in the…

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study of Fluency and Reading Comprehension in Spanish Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The importance of prosodic elements is recognised in most definitions of fluency. Although speed and accuracy have been typically considered the constituents of reading fluency, prosody is emerging as an additional component. The relevance of prosody in comprehension is increasingly recognised in the latest studies. The purpose of this research is…

  15. Considering the Context and Texts for Fluency: Performance, Readers Theater, and Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Nageldinger, James

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the importance of teaching reading fluency and all of its components, including automaticity and prosody. The authors explain how teachers can create a context for reading fluency instruction by engaging students in reading performance activities. To support the instructional contexts, the authors suggest particular…

  16. Voice and Fluency Changes as a Function of Speech Task and Deep Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana; Rogers, Tiffany; Godier, Violette; Tagliati, Michele; Sidtis, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Speaking, which naturally occurs in different modes or "tasks" such as conversation and repetition, relies on intact basal ganglia nuclei. Recent studies suggest that voice and fluency parameters are differentially affected by speech task. In this study, the authors examine the effects of subcortical functionality on voice and fluency,…

  17. So Long, Robot Reader! A Superhero Intervention Plan for Improving Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Barclay; Ferraro, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an engaging means for turning disfluent readers into prosody superstars. Each week students align with Poetry Power Man and his superhero friends to battle the evil Robot Reader and his sidekicks. The Fluency Foursome helps students adhere to the multidimensional aspects of fluency where expression and comprehension are…

  18. Picture-Perfect Is Not Perfect for Metamemory: Testing the Perceptual Fluency Hypothesis with Degraded Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besken, Miri

    2016-01-01

    The perceptual fluency hypothesis claims that items that are easy to perceive at encoding induce an illusion that they will be easier to remember, despite the finding that perception does not generally affect recall. The current set of studies tested the predictions of the perceptual fluency hypothesis with a picture generation manipulation.…

  19. Phonological fluency strategy of switching differentiates relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, L; Kosmidis, M H; Vlahou, C; Malegiannaki, A C; Gatzounis, G; Dimisianos, N; Karra, A; Kiosseoglou, G; Gourzis, P; Papathanasopoulos, P

    2013-01-01

    The strategies used to perform a verbal fluency task appear to be reflective of cognitive abilities necessary for successful daily functioning. In the present study, we explored potential differences in verbal fluency strategies (switching and clustering) used to maximize word production by patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) versus patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). We further assessed impairment rates and potential differences in the sensitivity and specificity of phonological versus semantic verbal fluency tasks in discriminating between those with a diagnosis of MS and healthy adults. We found that the overall rate of impaired verbal fluency in our MS sample was consistent with that in other studies. However, we found no differences between types of MS (SPMS, RRMS), on semantic or phonological fluency word production, or the strategies used to maximize semantic fluency. In contrast, we found that the number of switches differed significantly in the phonological fluency task between the SPMS and RRMS subtypes. The clinical utility of semantic versus phonological fluency in discriminating MS patients from healthy controls did not indicate any significant differences. Further, the strategies used to maximize performance did not differentiate MS subgroups or MS patients from healthy controls.

  20. The Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning Activities in Enhancing EFL Learners' Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrayah, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    This research-paper aims at examining the effectiveness of cooperative learning activities in enhancing EFL learners' fluency. The researcher has used the descriptive approach, recorded interviews for testing fluency as tools of data collection and the software program SPSS as a tool for the statistical treatment of data. Research sample consists…

  1. When Does Modality Matter? Perceptual versus Conceptual Fluency-Based Illusions in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeremy K.; Lloyd, Marianne E.; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that illusions of recognition memory based on enhanced perceptual fluency are sensitive to the perceptual match between the study and test phases of an experiment. The results of the current study strengthen that conclusion, as they show that participants will not interpret enhanced perceptual fluency as a sign of…

  2. Event-Related Potential (ERP) Evidence for Fluency-Based Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leynes, P. Andrew; Zish, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of perceptual fluency on recognition memory. Words were studied using a shallow encoding task to decrease the contribution of recollection on recognition. Fluency was manipulated by blurring half of the test probes. Clarity varied randomly across trials in one experiment and was grouped into two blocks…

  3. Development of Speech Fluency over a Short Period of Time: Effects of Pedagogic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Parvaneh; Campbell, Colin; McCormack, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a short-term pedagogic intervention on development of second language (L2) fluency among learners studying English for academic purposes at a UK university. It also examines the interaction between development of fluency and complexity and accuracy. Through a pretest and posttest design, data were collected…

  4. Examining Oral Reading Fluency Trajectories Among English Language Learners and English Speaking Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane R. Jimerson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Students’ oral reading fluency growth from first through fourth grade was used to predict their achievement on the Stanford Achievement Test (9th ed.; SAT-9 Reading using a latent growth model. Two conditional variables related to student status were used to determine the effects on reading performance - English language learners (ELLs with low socioeconomic status and low socioeconomic (SES status alone. Results revealed that both types of student status variables reliably predicted low performance on initial first grade oral reading fluency, which later predicted fourth grade performance on the SAT-9. However, the reading fluency trajectories of the ELLs and monolingual English students were not significantly different. In addition, when both student status variables and letter naming fluency were used to predict initial oral reading fluency, letter naming fluency dominated the prediction equation, suggesting that an initial pre-reading skill, letter naming fluency, better explained fourth grade performance on the SAT-9 than either ELL with low SES or low SES alone. The discussion focuses on how to better enable these readers and how oral reading fluency progress monitoring can be used to assist school personnel in determining which students need additional instructional assistance.

  5. Incorporating Vocabulary Instruction in Individual Reading Fluency Interventions with English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lauren E.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Geres-Smith, Rhonda

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine whether incorporating vocabulary instruction in individual reading fluency interventions for English Language Learners (ELLs) would improve reading comprehension. Two vocabulary instructional procedures were contrasted with a fluency-building only condition in an alternating-treatments design…

  6. Linguistic and Cultural Factors Associated with Phonemic Fluency Performance in Bilingual Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Verbal fluency tasks are used extensively in clinical settings because of their sensitivity to a wide variety of disorders, including cognitive decline and dementia, and their usefulness in differential diagnoses. However, the effects of bilingualism on neuropsychological assessment, and verbal fluency in particular, are currently not completely…

  7. Lexical factors and cerebral regions influencing verbal fluency performance in MCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D G; Wadley, V G; Kapur, P; DeRamus, T P; Singletary, B; Nicholas, A P; Blanton, P D; Lokken, K; Deshpande, H; Marson, D; Deutsch, G

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate assumptions regarding semantic (noun), verb, and letter fluency in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) using novel techniques for measuring word similarity in fluency lists and a region of interest (ROI) analysis of gray matter correlates. Fifty-eight individuals with normal cognition (NC, n=25), MCI (n=23), or AD (n=10) underwent neuropsychological tests, including 10 verbal fluency tasks (three letter tasks [F, A, S], six noun categories [animals, water creatures, fruits and vegetables, tools, vehicles, boats], and verbs). All pairs of words generated by each participant on each task were compared in terms of semantic (meaning), orthographic (spelling), and phonemic (pronunciation) similarity. We used mixed-effects logistic regression to determine which lexical factors were predictive of word adjacency within the lists. Associations between each fluency raw score and gray matter volumes in sixteen ROIs were identified by means of multiple linear regression. We evaluated causal models for both types of analyses to specify the contributions of diagnosis and various mediator variables to the outcomes of word adjacency and fluency raw score. Semantic similarity between words emerged as the strongest predictor of word adjacency for all fluency tasks, including the letter fluency tasks. Semantic similarity mediated the effect of cognitive impairment on word adjacency only for three fluency tasks employing a biological cue. Orthographic similarity was predictive of word adjacency for the A and S tasks, while phonemic similarity was predictive only for the S task and one semantic task (vehicles). The ROI analysis revealed different patterns of correlations among the various fluency tasks, with the most common associations in the right lower temporal and bilateral dorsal frontal regions. Following correction with gray matter volumes from the opposite hemisphere, significant associations persisted for animals, vehicles, and a composite

  8. Reading Fluency Techniques from the Bottom-up: A Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Ostovar-Namaghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In many EFL contexts, including language education milieu in Iran, reading fluency is usually taken for granted since language education in public high schools mainly focuses on reading comprehension. Taking the detrimental effect of fluency deficiency into account, some practitioners foreground reading fluency and try to develop it early on. To give voice to their theories of practice, this qualitative study interviewed teachers who were willing to share their experience with the researchers. In line with grounded theory, the iterative process of data collection and analysis continued until the conceptualization of fluency development techniques was saturated. The techniques emerged are conducive to fluency development and as such the findings have clear implications for practitioners and policy makers nation-wide.

  9. Coping with stress in adults with speech fluency disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Pietraszek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Stuttering is a developmental speech disorder that affects the fluency of speech. Persons who stutter perceive speaking situations and social interactions as threatening. Participants and procedure Nineteen (47.50% adults with speech fluency disorders (SFD and 21 (52.50% without participated in the study. All participants completed the following measures individually: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS, and an informational survey. Results Our study confirmed that persons with SFD experience more stressful situations in life and feel greater anxiety, both as a trait and as a state, which influences their daily life. The negative affect experienced contributed to their preferred use of Emotion-Oriented Coping strategies, at the expense of more proactive Task-Oriented Coping. Experienced stress and anxiety influenced and consolidated their habitual stress coping styles, devoted mainly to dealing with negative emotions. Conclusions Stuttering affects daily activities, interpersonal relationships, and the quality of life. Therefore, professional support should include adaptive, task-oriented coping.

  10. Transcranial direct current stimulation over left inferior frontal cortex improves speech fluency in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesters, Jennifer; Möttönen, Riikka; Watkins, Kate E

    2018-04-01

    See Crinion (doi:10.1093/brain/awy075) for a scientific commentary on this article.Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental condition affecting 5% of children, and persisting in 1% of adults. Promoting lasting fluency improvement in adults who stutter is a particular challenge. Novel interventions to improve outcomes are of value, therefore. Previous work in patients with acquired motor and language disorders reported enhanced benefits of behavioural therapies when paired with transcranial direct current stimulation. Here, we report the results of the first trial investigating whether transcranial direct current stimulation can improve speech fluency in adults who stutter. We predicted that applying anodal stimulation to the left inferior frontal cortex during speech production with temporary fluency inducers would result in longer-lasting fluency improvements. Thirty male adults who stutter completed a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over left inferior frontal cortex. Fifteen participants received 20 min of 1-mA stimulation on five consecutive days while speech fluency was temporarily induced using choral and metronome-timed speech. The other 15 participants received the same speech fluency intervention with sham stimulation. Speech fluency during reading and conversation was assessed at baseline, before and after the stimulation on each day of the 5-day intervention, and at 1 and 6 weeks after the end of the intervention. Anodal stimulation combined with speech fluency training significantly reduced the percentage of disfluent speech measured 1 week after the intervention compared with fluency intervention alone. At 6 weeks after the intervention, this improvement was maintained during reading but not during conversation. Outcome scores at both post-intervention time points on a clinical assessment tool (the Stuttering Severity Instrument, version 4) also showed significant improvement in the group receiving

  11. On the safety and performance demonstration tests of Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor and validation and verification of computational codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Jeong, Ji Young; Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Sung Kyun; Euh, Dong Jin; Joo, Hyung Kook

    2016-01-01

    The design of Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR) has been developed and the validation and verification (V and V) activities to demonstrate the system performance and safety are in progress. In this paper, the current status of test activities is described briefly and significant results are discussed. The large-scale sodium thermal-hydraulic test program, Sodium Test Loop for Safety Simulation and Assessment-1 (STELLA-1), produced satisfactory results, which were used for the computer codes V and V, and the performance test results of the model pump in sodium showed good agreement with those in water. The second phase of the STELLA program with the integral effect tests facility, STELLA-2, is in the detailed design stage of the design process. The sodium thermal-hydraulic experiment loop for finned-tube sodium-to-air heat exchanger performance test, the intermediate heat exchanger test facility, and the test facility for the reactor flow distribution are underway. Flow characteristics test in subchannels of a wire-wrapped rod bundle has been carried out for safety analysis in the core and the dynamic characteristic test of upper internal structure has been performed for the seismic analysis model for the PGSFR. The performance tests for control rod assemblies (CRAs) have been conducted for control rod drive mechanism driving parts and drop tests of the CRA under scram condition were performed. Finally, three types of inspection sensors under development for the safe operation of the PGSFR were explained with significant results

  12. On the safety and performance demonstration tests of Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor and validation and verification of computational codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Jeong, Ji Young; Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Sung Kyun; Euh, Dong Jin; Joo, Hyung Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The design of Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR) has been developed and the validation and verification (V and V) activities to demonstrate the system performance and safety are in progress. In this paper, the current status of test activities is described briefly and significant results are discussed. The large-scale sodium thermal-hydraulic test program, Sodium Test Loop for Safety Simulation and Assessment-1 (STELLA-1), produced satisfactory results, which were used for the computer codes V and V, and the performance test results of the model pump in sodium showed good agreement with those in water. The second phase of the STELLA program with the integral effect tests facility, STELLA-2, is in the detailed design stage of the design process. The sodium thermal-hydraulic experiment loop for finned-tube sodium-to-air heat exchanger performance test, the intermediate heat exchanger test facility, and the test facility for the reactor flow distribution are underway. Flow characteristics test in subchannels of a wire-wrapped rod bundle has been carried out for safety analysis in the core and the dynamic characteristic test of upper internal structure has been performed for the seismic analysis model for the PGSFR. The performance tests for control rod assemblies (CRAs) have been conducted for control rod drive mechanism driving parts and drop tests of the CRA under scram condition were performed. Finally, three types of inspection sensors under development for the safe operation of the PGSFR were explained with significant results.

  13. Computational Testing for Automated Preprocessing 2: Practical Demonstration of a System for Scientific Data-Processing Workflow Management for High-Volume EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Benjamin U; Korpela, Jussi

    2018-01-01

    Existing tools for the preprocessing of EEG data provide a large choice of methods to suitably prepare and analyse a given dataset. Yet it remains a challenge for the average user to integrate methods for batch processing of the increasingly large datasets of modern research, and compare methods to choose an optimal approach across the many possible parameter configurations. Additionally, many tools still require a high degree of manual decision making for, e.g., the classification of artifacts in channels, epochs or segments. This introduces extra subjectivity, is slow, and is not reproducible. Batching and well-designed automation can help to regularize EEG preprocessing, and thus reduce human effort, subjectivity, and consequent error. The Computational Testing for Automated Preprocessing (CTAP) toolbox facilitates: (i) batch processing that is easy for experts and novices alike; (ii) testing and comparison of preprocessing methods. Here we demonstrate the application of CTAP to high-resolution EEG data in three modes of use. First, a linear processing pipeline with mostly default parameters illustrates ease-of-use for naive users. Second, a branching pipeline illustrates CTAP's support for comparison of competing methods. Third, a pipeline with built-in parameter-sweeping illustrates CTAP's capability to support data-driven method parameterization. CTAP extends the existing functions and data structure from the well-known EEGLAB toolbox, based on Matlab, and produces extensive quality control outputs. CTAP is available under MIT open-source licence from https://github.com/bwrc/ctap.

  14. Classification of user performance in the Ruff Figural Fluency Test based on eye-tracking features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive assessment in neurological diseases represents a relevant topic due to its diagnostic significance in detecting disease, but also in assessing progress of the treatment. Computer-based tests provide objective and accurate cognitive skills and capacity measures. The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT provides information about non-verbal capacity for initiation, planning, and divergent reasoning. The traditional paper form of the test was transformed into a computer application and examined. The RFFT was applied in an experiment performed among 70 male students to assess their cognitive performance in the laboratory environment. Each student was examined in three sequential series. Besides the students’ performances measured by using in app keylogging, the eye-tracking data obtained by non-invasive video-based oculography were gathered, from which several features were extracted. Eye-tracking features combined with performance measures (a total number of designs and/or error ratio were applied in machine learning classification. Various classification algorithms were applied, and their accuracy, specificity, sensitivity and performance were compared.

  15. Effect of aging, education, reading and writing, semantic processing and depression symptoms on verbal fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Moraes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Verbal fluency tasks are widely used in (clinical neuropsychology to evaluate components of executive functioning and lexical-semantic processing (linguistic and semantic memory. Performance in those tasks may be affected by several variables, such as age, education and diseases. This study investigated whether aging, education, reading and writing frequency, performance in semantic judgment tasks and depression symptoms predict the performance in unconstrained, phonemic and semantic fluency tasks. This study sample comprised 260 healthy adults aged 19 to 75 years old. The Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression models were used for data analysis. The variables under analysis were associated in different ways and had different levels of contribution according to the type of verbal fluency task. Education had the greatest effect on verbal fluency tasks. There was a greater effect of age on semantic fluency than on phonemic tasks. The semantic judgment tasks predicted the verbal fluency performance alone or in combination with other variables. These findings corroborate the importance of education in cognition supporting the hypothesis of a cognitive reserve and confirming the contribution of lexical-semantic processing to verbal fluency.

  16. The appropriacy of fluency tests in assessing epileptic seizure lateralization in children with partial epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to asses executive functions. The literature data are not unequivocal although in a great number of papers is pointed out the importance of the left hemisphere, specially of the left frontal lobes in the mediation of phonological fluency and the right hemisphere in the mediation of nonverbal fluency. This paper considers the suitability of fluency tests for the detection of left versus right seizure laterality. The sample consisted of thirty-two epilepsy patients divided into two groups: LHF-participants with the seizure focus in the left hemisphere (n=16, and DHF-participants with the seizure focus in the right hemisphere (n=16, and K-the control group of t age-matched healthy children (n=50 aged 7-11 years. The qualitative and quantitative comparison of the phonological and nonverbal fluency performance was carried out in consideration of the seizure laterality as well as compared to the healthy controls. The results of phonological fluency performance revealed that the performance of the LHF group was significantly reduced as compared to both DHF and K group. The analysis of nonverbal fluency performance revealed that the performance of the DHF group was significantly reduced as compared to both LHF and K group The qualitative analysis obtained valuable data, which could additionally contribute to the neuropsychological evaluation of the left versus right seizure laterality.

  17. Apathy and Reduced Speed of Processing Underlie Decline in Verbal Fluency following DBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltynie, Tom; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hyam, Jonathan A.; Limousin, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Reduced verbal fluency is a strikingly uniform finding following deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD). The precise cognitive mechanism underlying this reduction remains unclear, but theories have suggested reduced motivation, linguistic skill, and/or executive function. It is of note, however, that previous reports have failed to consider the potential role of any changes in speed of processing. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine verbal fluency changes with a particular focus on the role of cognitive speed. Method. In this study, 28 patients with PD completed measures of verbal fluency, motivation, language, executive functioning, and speed of processing, before and after DBS. Results. As expected, there was a marked decline in verbal fluency but also in a timed test of executive functions and two measures of speed of processing. Verbal fluency decline was associated with markers of linguistic and executive functioning, but not after speed of processing was statistically controlled for. In contrast, greater decline in verbal fluency was associated with higher levels of apathy at baseline, which was not associated with changes in cognitive speed. Discussion. Reduced generativity and processing speed may account for the marked reduction in verbal fluency commonly observed following DBS. PMID:28408788

  18. Apathy and Reduced Speed of Processing Underlie Decline in Verbal Fluency following DBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Foley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Reduced verbal fluency is a strikingly uniform finding following deep brain stimulation (DBS for Parkinson’s disease (PD. The precise cognitive mechanism underlying this reduction remains unclear, but theories have suggested reduced motivation, linguistic skill, and/or executive function. It is of note, however, that previous reports have failed to consider the potential role of any changes in speed of processing. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine verbal fluency changes with a particular focus on the role of cognitive speed. Method. In this study, 28 patients with PD completed measures of verbal fluency, motivation, language, executive functioning, and speed of processing, before and after DBS. Results. As expected, there was a marked decline in verbal fluency but also in a timed test of executive functions and two measures of speed of processing. Verbal fluency decline was associated with markers of linguistic and executive functioning, but not after speed of processing was statistically controlled for. In contrast, greater decline in verbal fluency was associated with higher levels of apathy at baseline, which was not associated with changes in cognitive speed. Discussion. Reduced generativity and processing speed may account for the marked reduction in verbal fluency commonly observed following DBS.

  19. Update on Didactic and Clinical Education in Fluency Disorders: 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Yaruss, J; Lee, Jieun; Kikani, Kaya B; Leslie, Paula; Herring, Caryn; Ramachandar, Sujini; Tichenor, Seth; Quesal, Robert W; McNeil, Malcolm R

    2017-02-01

    This study surveyed didactic and clinical education in fluency disorders at undergraduate and graduate institutions in the United States that provide education in speech-language pathology to determine whether a previously observed reduction in requirements has continued since prior surveys (Yaruss, 1999; Yaruss & Quesal, 2002). The study involved a detailed questionnaire that was sent to 282 communication science and disorders departments. Questions examined didactic and clinical education, as well as faculty knowledge about fluency disorders. Comparisons with prior surveys revealed several findings, including (a) on average, programs have increased academic coursework and incorporated more practical sessions and competency-based testing in the classroom; (b) the number of faculty who possess extensive clinical experience with fluency disorders has decreased; and (c) although an increase in clinical requirements in fluency disorders was detected, the number of programs providing minimal education about fluency disorders remains high. Given an expanding scope of practice, many programs have continued to try to provide adequate education about fluency disorders. Still, direct clinical experiences are limited, and faculty expertise in this area has continued to decrease. To raise students' confidence and competence in fluency disorders, efforts beyond graduate work-or systemic changes in the profession-may be necessary.

  20. Apathy and Reduced Speed of Processing Underlie Decline in Verbal Fluency following DBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Jennifer A; Foltynie, Tom; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hyam, Jonathan A; Limousin, Patricia; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Objective . Reduced verbal fluency is a strikingly uniform finding following deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD). The precise cognitive mechanism underlying this reduction remains unclear, but theories have suggested reduced motivation, linguistic skill, and/or executive function. It is of note, however, that previous reports have failed to consider the potential role of any changes in speed of processing. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine verbal fluency changes with a particular focus on the role of cognitive speed. Method . In this study, 28 patients with PD completed measures of verbal fluency, motivation, language, executive functioning, and speed of processing, before and after DBS. Results . As expected, there was a marked decline in verbal fluency but also in a timed test of executive functions and two measures of speed of processing. Verbal fluency decline was associated with markers of linguistic and executive functioning, but not after speed of processing was statistically controlled for. In contrast, greater decline in verbal fluency was associated with higher levels of apathy at baseline, which was not associated with changes in cognitive speed. Discussion . Reduced generativity and processing speed may account for the marked reduction in verbal fluency commonly observed following DBS.

  1. Verbal and Non-verbal Fluency in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia: Phonological Processing or Executive Control Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Spark, James H; Henry, Lucy A; Messer, David J; Zięcik, Adam P

    2017-08-01

    The executive function of fluency describes the ability to generate items according to specific rules. Production of words beginning with a certain letter (phonemic fluency) is impaired in dyslexia, while generation of words belonging to a certain semantic category (semantic fluency) is typically unimpaired. However, in dyslexia, verbal fluency has generally been studied only in terms of overall words produced. Furthermore, performance of adults with dyslexia on non-verbal design fluency tasks has not been explored but would indicate whether deficits could be explained by executive control, rather than phonological processing, difficulties. Phonemic, semantic and design fluency tasks were presented to adults with dyslexia and without dyslexia, using fine-grained performance measures and controlling for IQ. Hierarchical regressions indicated that dyslexia predicted lower phonemic fluency, but not semantic or design fluency. At the fine-grained level, dyslexia predicted a smaller number of switches between subcategories on phonemic fluency, while dyslexia did not predict the size of phonemically related clusters of items. Overall, the results suggested that phonological processing problems were at the root of dyslexia-related fluency deficits; however, executive control difficulties could not be completely ruled out as an alternative explanation. Developments in research methodology, equating executive demands across fluency tasks, may resolve this issue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Gender effects of the COMT Val 158 Met genotype on verbal fluency in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro-De-Souza, Marcio Gerhardt; Bio, Danielle Soares; David, Denise Petresco; Missio, Giovani; Lima, Bruno; Fernandes, Fernando; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Moreno, Ricardo Alberto

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive performance in healthy individuals is associated with gender differences in specific tests; a female advantage has been demonstrated in language tests, whereas a male advantage has been demonstrated in spatial relation examinations. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) mediates important cognitive domains and is influenced by dopamine (DA) activity. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 in the catechol‑O‑methyltransferase (COMT) gene results in an amino acid substitution from valine (Val) to methionine (Met). The Met allele has been demonstrated to decrease COMT enzyme activity and improve PFC cognitive function. COMT regulates DA activity in the PFC and exhibits gender effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the gender‑specific effects of the COMT genotype on cognition in healthy young adults. Seventy‑six healthy subjects were genotyped for COMT rs4680 and submitted to an extensive range of neuropsychological tests assessing aspects of PFC function. The COMT Met allele influenced the performance of executive function. The results revealed gender effects of the COMT rs4680 Met allele on verbal fluency, with positive effects in males and negative effects in females. This suggested that DA activity affects cognitive function in different ways, according to gender.

  3. Crown traits of coniferous trees and their relation to shade tolerance can differ with leaf type: a biophysical demonstration using computed tomography scanning data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutilleul, Pierre; Han, Liwen; Valladares, Fernando; Messier, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Plant light interception and shade tolerance are intrinsically related in that they involve structural, morphological and physiological adaptations to manage light capture for photosynthetic utilization, in order to sustain survival, development and reproduction. At the scale of small-size trees, crown traits related to structural geometry of branching pattern and space occupancy through phyllotaxis can be accurately evaluated in 3D, using computed tomography (CT) scanning data. We demonstrate this by scrutinizing the crowns of 15 potted miniature conifers of different species or varieties, classified in two groups based on leaf type (10 needlelike, 5 scalelike); we also test whether mean values of crown traits measured from CT scanning data and correlations with a shade tolerance index (STI) differ between groups. Seven crown traits, including fractal dimensions (FD1: smaller scales, FD2: larger scales) and leaf areas, were evaluated for all 15 miniature conifers; an average silhouette-to-total-area ratio was also calculated for each of the 10 needlelike-leaf conifers. Between-group differences in mean values are significant (P conifers with scalelike leaves, which had lower STI and higher FD1 on average in our study; the positive correlation between STI and ĀD is significant (P < 0.05) for the scalelike-leaf group, and very moderate for the needlelike-leaf one. A contrasting physical attachment of the leaves to branches may explain part of the between-group differences. Our findings open new avenues for the understanding of fundamental plant growth processes; the information gained could be included in a multi-scale approach to tree crown modeling.

  4. On the Safety and Performance Demonstration Tests of Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor and Validation and Verification of Computational Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Bum Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR has been developed and the validation and verification (V&V activities to demonstrate the system performance and safety are in progress. In this paper, the current status of test activities is described briefly and significant results are discussed. The large-scale sodium thermal-hydraulic test program, Sodium Test Loop for Safety Simulation and Assessment-1 (STELLA-1, produced satisfactory results, which were used for the computer codes V&V, and the performance test results of the model pump in sodium showed good agreement with those in water. The second phase of the STELLA program with the integral effect tests facility, STELLA-2, is in the detailed design stage of the design process. The sodium thermal-hydraulic experiment loop for finned-tube sodium-to-air heat exchanger performance test, the intermediate heat exchanger test facility, and the test facility for the reactor flow distribution are underway. Flow characteristics test in subchannels of a wire-wrapped rod bundle has been carried out for safety analysis in the core and the dynamic characteristic test of upper internal structure has been performed for the seismic analysis model for the PGSFR. The performance tests for control rod assemblies (CRAs have been conducted for control rod drive mechanism driving parts and drop tests of the CRA under scram condition were performed. Finally, three types of inspection sensors under development for the safe operation of the PGSFR were explained with significant results.

  5. Demonstration of iodine K-edge imaging by use of an energy-discrimination X-ray computed tomography system with a cadmium telluride detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Kameda, Masashi; Sato, Eiichi; Abderyim, Purkhet; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Hitomi, Keitaro; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Kiyomi; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2010-07-01

    An energy-discrimination K-edge X-ray computed tomography (CT) system is useful for increasing the contrast resolution of a target region by utilizing contrast media. The CT system has a cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector, and a projection curve is obtained by linear scanning with use of the CdTe detector in conjunction with an X-stage. An object is rotated by a rotation step angle with use of a turntable between the linear scans. Thus, CT is carried out by repetition of the linear scanning and the rotation of an object. Penetrating X-ray photons from the object are detected by the CdTe detector, and event signals of X-ray photons are produced with use of charge-sensitive and shaping amplifiers. Both the photon energy and the energy width are selected by use of a multi-channel analyzer, and the number of photons is counted by a counter card. For performing energy discrimination, a low-dose-rate X-ray generator for photon counting was developed; the maximum tube voltage and the minimum tube current were 110 kV and 1.0 microA, respectively. In energy-discrimination CT, the tube voltage and the current were 60 kV and 20.0 microA, respectively, and the X-ray intensity was 0.735 microGy/s at 1.0 m from the source and with a tube voltage of 60 kV. Demonstration of enhanced iodine K-edge X-ray CT was carried out by selection of photons with energies just beyond the iodine K-edge energy of 33.2 keV.

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  9. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  10. The Effects of the Use of Renzulli Learning on Student Achievement in Reading Comprehension, Reading Fluency, Social Studies, and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gara B Field

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Renzulli Learning is an on-line educational profile and educational learning system designed to match student interests, learning styles, and expression styles with a vast array of educational activities and resources designed to enrich and engage students’ learning process. In this experimental study, quantitative procedures were used to investigate the use of Renzulli Learning on oral reading fluency, reading comprehension, science achievement, social studies achievement of 383 elementary and middle schools students. The research took place in two schools, an urban middle school in Georgia where half of all students are considered to be at risk due to poverty or other factors, and a suburban elementary school in southern California. Students in grades 3 5 (n = 185 and grades 6 8 (n = 198 were randomly assigned to use Renzulli Learning for 2-3 hours each week for a 16-week period. Students in the treatment groups were compared to students who did not have the opportunity to use Renzulli Learning in control classes in the same schools. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to explore differences between treatment and control students. After 16 weeks, students who participated in Renzulli Learning demonstrated significantly higher growth in reading comprehension (p < .001, significantly higher growth in oral reading fluency (p = .016, and significantly higher growth in social studies achievement (p = .013 than those students who did not participate in Renzulli Learning.

  11. Less is more? Think again! A cognitive fluency-based more-less asymmetry in comparative communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorens, Vera; Bruckmüller, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Differences between groups, individuals, or objects can be framed in multiple ways. One can, for instance, say that men generally earn more than women or that women generally earn less than men. Showing that these logically equivalent expressions are not psychologically equivalent, we demonstrate a robust more-less asymmetry in the use of and responses to comparative statements. More specifically, we show that people use "more than" statements more often than "less than" statements (Study 1); like "more than" statements better (Studies 2 and 3), agree more with opinions expressed through "more than" statements (Studies 4 and 5), and are more likely to consider factual "more than" statements to be true (Study 6). Supporting a cognitive fluency explanation, a manipulation that makes people expect disfluency while processing "less than" statements reduces this otherwise robust more-less asymmetry (Study 7). By combining comparative framing effects with cognitive fluency, the present research brings together 2 research fields in social cognition, shedding new light on both. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Phonological Fluency Strategy of Switching Differentiates Relapsing-Remitting and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Messinis, L.; Kosmidis, M. H.; Vlahou, C.; Malegiannaki, A. C.; Gatzounis, G.; Dimisianos, N.; Karra, A.; Kiosseoglou, G.; Gourzis, P.; Papathanasopoulos, P.

    2013-01-01

    The strategies used to perform a verbal fluency task appear to be reflective of cognitive abilities necessary for successful daily functioning. In the present study, we explored potential differences in verbal fluency strategies (switching and clustering) used to maximize word production by patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) versus patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). We further assessed impairment rates and potential differences in the sensi...

  13. Crown traits of coniferous trees and their relation to shade tolerance can differ with leaf type: a biophysical demonstration using computed tomography scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutilleul, Pierre; Han, Liwen; Valladares, Fernando; Messier, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Plant light interception and shade tolerance are intrinsically related in that they involve structural, morphological and physiological adaptations to manage light capture for photosynthetic utilization, in order to sustain survival, development and reproduction. At the scale of small-size trees, crown traits related to structural geometry of branching pattern and space occupancy through phyllotaxis can be accurately evaluated in 3D, using computed tomography (CT) scanning data. We demonstrate this by scrutinizing the crowns of 15 potted miniature conifers of different species or varieties, classified in two groups based on leaf type (10 needlelike, 5 scalelike); we also test whether mean values of crown traits measured from CT scanning data and correlations with a shade tolerance index (STI) differ between groups. Seven crown traits, including fractal dimensions (FD1: smaller scales, FD2: larger scales) and leaf areas, were evaluated for all 15 miniature conifers; an average silhouette-to-total-area ratio was also calculated for each of the 10 needlelike-leaf conifers. Between-group differences in mean values are significant (P < 0.05) for STI, FD1, FD2, and the average leaf area displayed (ĀD). Between-group differences in sign and strength of correlations are observed. For example, the correlation between STI and FD1 is negative and significant (P < 0.10) for the needlelike-leaf group, but is positive and significant (P < 0.05) for the miniature conifers with scalelike leaves, which had lower STI and higher FD1 on average in our study; the positive correlation between STI and ĀD is significant (P < 0.05) for the scalelike-leaf group, and very moderate for the needlelike-leaf one. A contrasting physical attachment of the leaves to branches may explain part of the between-group differences. Our findings open new avenues for the understanding of fundamental plant growth processes; the information gained could be included in a multi-scale approach to tree crown

  14. Crown traits of coniferous trees and their relation to shade tolerance can differ with leaf type: A biophysical demonstration using computed tomography scanning data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre eDutilleul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant light interception and shade tolerance are intrinsically related in that they involve structural, morphological and physiological adaptations to manage light capture for photosynthetic utilization, in order to sustain survival, development and reproduction. At the scale of small-size trees, crown traits related to structural geometry of branching pattern and space occupancy through phyllotaxis can be accurately evaluated in 3D, using computed tomography (CT scanning data. We demonstrate this by scrutinizing the crowns of 15 potted miniature conifers of different species or varieties, classified in two groups based on leaf type (10 needlelike, 5 scalelike; we also test whether mean values of crown traits measured from CT scanning data and correlations with a shade tolerance index (STI differ between groups. Seven crown traits, including fractal dimensions (FD1: smaller scales, FD2: larger scales and leaf areas, were evaluated for all 15 miniature conifers; an average silhouette-to-total-area ratio was also calculated for each of the 10 needlelike-leaf conifers. Between-group differences in mean values are significant (P < 0.05 for STI, FD1, FD2, and average leaf area displayed (A_D. Between-group differences in sign and strength of correlations are observed. For example, the correlation between STI and FD1 is negative and significant (P < 0.10 for the needlelike-leaf group, but is positive and significant (P < 0.05 for the miniature conifers with scalelike leaves, which had lower STI and higher FD1 on average in our study; the positive correlation between STI and A_D is significant (P < 0.05 for the scalelike-leaf group, and very moderate for the needlelike-leaf one. A contrasting physical attachment of leaves to branches may explain part of the between-group differences. Our findings open new avenues for the understanding of fundamental plant growth processes; the information gained could be included in a multi-scale approach to tree crown

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing activity had ramped down after the completion of the reprocessing of the 2012 data and parked data, but is increasing with new simulation samples for analysis and upgrade studies. Much of the Computing effort is currently involved in activities to improve the computing system in preparation for 2015. Operations Office Since the beginning of 2013, the Computing Operations team successfully re-processed the 2012 data in record time, not only by using opportunistic resources like the San Diego Supercomputer Center which was accessible, to re-process the primary datasets HTMHT and MultiJet in Run2012D much earlier than planned. The Heavy-Ion data-taking period was successfully concluded in February collecting almost 500 T. Figure 3: Number of events per month (data) In LS1, our emphasis is to increase efficiency and flexibility of the infrastructure and operation. Computing Operations is working on separating disk and tape at the Tier-1 sites and the full implementation of the xrootd federation ...

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  18. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for verbal fluency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-01-01

    Lexical fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to assess language and executive function. As part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project), we provide age- and education-adjusted normative data for 3 semantic fluency tasks (animals, fruits and vegetables, and kitchen tools), three formal lexical fluency tasks (words beginning with P, M and R), three excluded-letter fluency tasks (words excluding A, E and S) and a verb fluency task. The sample consisted of 179 participants who are cognitively normal and range in age from 18 to 49 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to scaled scores. Age- and education-adjusted scores are provided by applying linear regression techniques. The results show that education impacted most of the verbal fluency test scores, with no effects related to age and only minimal effects related to sex. The norms obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion An activity that is still in progress is computing for the heavy-ion program. The heavy-ion events are collected without zero suppression, so the event size is much large at roughly 11 MB per event of RAW. The central collisions are more complex and...

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann P. McBride Edited by M-C. Sawley with contributions from: P. Kreuzer D. Bonacorsi S. Belforte F. Wuerthwein L. Bauerdick K. Lassila-Perini M-C. Sawley

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the comput...

  1. Decoding human mental states by whole-head EEG+fNIRS during category fluency task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omurtag, Ahmet; Aghajani, Haleh; Onur Keles, Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Concurrent scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which we refer to as EEG+fNIRS, promises greater accuracy than the individual modalities while remaining nearly as convenient as EEG. We sought to quantify the hybrid system’s ability to decode mental states and compare it with its unimodal components. Approach. We recorded from healthy volunteers taking the category fluency test and applied machine learning techniques to the data. Main results. EEG+fNIRS’s decoding accuracy was greater than that of its subsystems, partly due to the new type of neurovascular features made available by hybrid data. Significance. Availability of an accurate and practical decoding method has potential implications for medical diagnosis, brain-computer interface design, and neuroergonomics.

  2. Semantic verbal fluency in elderly Mexican adults: Reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Oliveros, M; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Acosta-Castillo, I; García-Ramírez, N; Rojas de la Torre, G; Sosa-Ortiz, A L

    2015-05-01

    The semantic verbal fluency test (SVF) is sensitive to detecting cognitive decline. It is fast and easy to use in any cultural context; therefore, it is included in most of the neuropsychological assessment protocols. To estimate normative values for the SVF test (animals), in an elderly population aged 65 years and over. 1233 subjects who were healthy, cognitively preserved, residents of two areas (rural and urban) of Mexico were assessed. A neurological and neuropsychological exploration battery was applied, including SVF. The age average was 73+6 and schooling was 4.0+3.9 years, with 59% women. The average of the words generated in the SVF test was 14+5, and a correlation of 0.16 of these scores with age, education, and gender was found (pimportant contribution provided by this study was that the data analysis enabled normative values to be obtained for an elderly Mexican population aged 65 years and over. It was also confirmed, as other neuropsychological assessment studies have done, that the SVF test is influenced by socio-demographic variables, such as age and education, aspects to be considered at the time of obtaining normative values. Finally, it was noted that the average scores obtained were lower than other published reference values, due to the low educational level of our sample. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing reading fluency in Kenya: Oral or silent assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Benjamin; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the Education for All movement has focused more intensely on the quality of education, rather than simply provision. Many recent and current education quality interventions focus on literacy, which is the core skill required for further academic success. Despite this focus on the quality of literacy instruction in developing countries, little rigorous research has been conducted on critical issues of assessment. This analysis, which uses data from the Primary Math and Reading Initiative (PRIMR) in Kenya, aims to begin filling this gap by addressing a key assessment issue - should literacy assessments in Kenya be administered orally or silently? The authors compared second-grade students' scores on oral and silent reading tasks of the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) in Kiswahili and English, and found no statistically significant differences in either language. They did, however, find oral reading rates to be more strongly related to reading comprehension scores. Oral assessment has another benefit for programme evaluators - it allows for the collection of data on student errors, and therefore the calculation of words read correctly per minute, as opposed to simply words read per minute. The authors therefore recommend that, in Kenya and in similar contexts, student reading fluency be assessed via oral rather than silent assessment.

  4. Speech rate and fluency in children with phonological disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Priscila Maronezi; Nicolielo-Carrilho, Ana Paola; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    To identify and describe the speech rate and fluency of children with phonological disorder (PD) with and without speech-language therapy. Thirty children, aged 5-8 years old, both genders, were divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (G1) — 10 children with PD in intervention; experimental group 2 (G2) — 10 children with PD without intervention; and control group (CG) — 10 children with typical development. Speech samples were collected and analyzed according to parameters of specific protocol. The children in CG had higher number of words per minute compared to those in G1, which, in turn, performed better in this aspect compared to children in G2. Regarding the number of syllables per minute, the CG showed the best result. In this aspect, the children in G1 showed better results than those in G2. Comparing children's performance in the assessed groups regarding the tests, those with PD in intervention had higher time of speech sample and adequate speech rate, which may be indicative of greater auditory monitoring of their own speech as a result of the intervention.

  5. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    It has been a very active year for the computing project with strong contributions from members of the global community. The project has focused on site preparation and Monte Carlo production. The operations group has begun processing data from P5 as part of the global data commissioning. Improvements in transfer rates and site availability have been seen as computing sites across the globe prepare for large scale production and analysis as part of CSA07. Preparations for the upcoming Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 are progressing. Ian Fisk and Neil Geddes have been appointed as coordinators for the challenge. CSA07 will include production tests of the Tier-0 production system, reprocessing at the Tier-1 sites and Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 sites. At the same time there will be a large analysis exercise at the Tier-2 centres. Pre-production simulation of the Monte Carlo events for the challenge is beginning. Scale tests of the Tier-0 will begin in mid-July and the challenge it...

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion The Tier 0 infrastructure was able to repack and promptly reconstruct heavy-ion collision data. Two copies were made of the data at CERN using a large CASTOR disk pool, and the core physics sample was replicated ...

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Computing continued with a high level of activity over the winter in preparation for conferences and the start of the 2012 run. 2012 brings new challenges with a new energy, more complex events, and the need to make the best use of the available time before the Long Shutdown. We expect to be resource constrained on all tiers of the computing system in 2012 and are working to ensure the high-priority goals of CMS are not impacted. Heavy ions After a successful 2011 heavy-ion run, the programme is moving to analysis. During the run, the CAF resources were well used for prompt analysis. Since then in 2012 on average 200 job slots have been used continuously at Vanderbilt for analysis workflows. Operations Office As of 2012, the Computing Project emphasis has moved from commissioning to operation of the various systems. This is reflected in the new organisation structure where the Facilities and Data Operations tasks have been merged into a common Operations Office, which now covers everything ...

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CCRC’08 challenges and CSA08 During the February campaign of the Common Computing readiness challenges (CCRC’08), the CMS computing team had achieved very good results. The link between the detector site and the Tier0 was tested by gradually increasing the number of parallel transfer streams well beyond the target. Tests covered the global robustness at the Tier0, processing a massive number of very large files and with a high writing speed to tapes.  Other tests covered the links between the different Tiers of the distributed infrastructure and the pre-staging and reprocessing capacity of the Tier1’s: response time, data transfer rate and success rate for Tape to Buffer staging of files kept exclusively on Tape were measured. In all cases, coordination with the sites was efficient and no serious problem was found. These successful preparations prepared the ground for the second phase of the CCRC’08 campaign, in May. The Computing Software and Analysis challen...

  9. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The first data taking period of November produced a first scientific paper, and this is a very satisfactory step for Computing. It also gave the invaluable opportunity to learn and debrief from this first, intense period, and make the necessary adaptations. The alarm procedures between different groups (DAQ, Physics, T0 processing, Alignment/calibration, T1 and T2 communications) have been reinforced. A major effort has also been invested into remodeling and optimizing operator tasks in all activities in Computing, in parallel with the recruitment of new Cat A operators. The teams are being completed and by mid year the new tasks will have been assigned. CRB (Computing Resource Board) The Board met twice since last CMS week. In December it reviewed the experience of the November data-taking period and could measure the positive improvements made for the site readiness. It also reviewed the policy under which Tier-2 are associated with Physics Groups. Such associations are decided twice per ye...

  10. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the co...

  11. Text-fading based training leads to transfer effects on children’s sentence reading fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telse eNagler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies used a text-fading procedure as a training tool with the goal to increase silent reading fluency (i.e., proficient reading rate and comprehension. In recently published studies, this procedure resulted in lasting reading enhancements for adult and adolescent research samples. However, studies working with children reported mixed results. While reading rate improvements were observable for Dutch reading children in a text-fading training study, reading fluency improvements in standardized reading tests post-training attributable to the fading manipulation were not detectable. These results raise the question of whether text-fading training is not effective for children or whether research design issues have concealed possible transfer effects. Hence, the present study sought to investigate possible transfer effects resulting from a text-fading based reading training program, using a modified research design. Over a period of three weeks, two groups of German third-graders read sentences either with an adaptive text-fading procedure or at their self-paced reading rate. A standardized test measuring reading fluency at the word, sentence, and text level was conducted pre- and post-training. Text level reading fluency improved for both groups equally. Post-training gains at the word level were found for the text-fading group, however, no significant interaction between groups was revealed for word reading fluency. Sentence level reading fluency gains were found for the text-fading group, which significantly differed from the group of children reading at their self-paced reading routine. These findings provide evidence for the efficacy of text-fading as a training method for sentence reading fluency improvement also for children.

  12. Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin eDuke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift towards a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked.

  13. Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M; Köhler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked.

  14. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Just two months after the “LHC First Physics” event of 30th March, the analysis of the O(200) million 7 TeV collision events in CMS accumulated during the first 60 days is well under way. The consistency of the CMS computing model has been confirmed during these first weeks of data taking. This model is based on a hierarchy of use-cases deployed between the different tiers and, in particular, the distribution of RECO data to T1s, who then serve data on request to T2s, along a topology known as “fat tree”. Indeed, during this period this model was further extended by almost full “mesh” commissioning, meaning that RECO data were shipped to T2s whenever possible, enabling additional physics analyses compared with the “fat tree” model. Computing activities at the CMS Analysis Facility (CAF) have been marked by a good time response for a load almost evenly shared between ALCA (Alignment and Calibration tasks - highest p...

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Contributions from I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The start of the 2012 run has been busy for Computing. We have reconstructed, archived, and served a larger sample of new data than in 2011, and we are in the process of producing an even larger new sample of simulations at 8 TeV. The running conditions and system performance are largely what was anticipated in the plan, thanks to the hard work and preparation of many people. Heavy ions Heavy Ions has been actively analysing data and preparing for conferences.  Operations Office Figure 6: Transfers from all sites in the last 90 days For ICHEP and the Upgrade efforts, we needed to produce and process record amounts of MC samples while supporting the very successful data-taking. This was a large burden, especially on the team members. Nevertheless the last three months were very successful and the total output was phenomenal, thanks to our dedicated site admins who keep the sites operational and the computing project members who spend countless hours nursing the...

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction A large fraction of the effort was focused during the last period into the preparation and monitoring of the February tests of Common VO Computing Readiness Challenge 08. CCRC08 is being run by the WLCG collaboration in two phases, between the centres and all experiments. The February test is dedicated to functionality tests, while the May challenge will consist of running at all centres and with full workflows. For this first period, a number of functionality checks of the computing power, data repositories and archives as well as network links are planned. This will help assess the reliability of the systems under a variety of loads, and identifying possible bottlenecks. Many tests are scheduled together with other VOs, allowing the full scale stress test. The data rates (writing, accessing and transfer¬ring) are being checked under a variety of loads and operating conditions, as well as the reliability and transfer rates of the links between Tier-0 and Tier-1s. In addition, the capa...

  17. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Matthias Kasemann

    Overview The main focus during the summer was to handle data coming from the detector and to perform Monte Carlo production. The lessons learned during the CCRC and CSA08 challenges in May were addressed by dedicated PADA campaigns lead by the Integration team. Big improvements were achieved in the stability and reliability of the CMS Tier1 and Tier2 centres by regular and systematic follow-up of faults and errors with the help of the Savannah bug tracking system. In preparation for data taking the roles of a Computing Run Coordinator and regular computing shifts monitoring the services and infrastructure as well as interfacing to the data operations tasks are being defined. The shift plan until the end of 2008 is being put together. User support worked on documentation and organized several training sessions. The ECoM task force delivered the report on “Use Cases for Start-up of pp Data-Taking” with recommendations and a set of tests to be performed for trigger rates much higher than the ...

  18. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. MacBride

    The Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 has been the main focus of the Computing Project for the past few months. Activities began over the summer with the preparation of the Monte Carlo data sets for the challenge and tests of the new production system at the Tier-0 at CERN. The pre-challenge Monte Carlo production was done in several steps: physics generation, detector simulation, digitization, conversion to RAW format and the samples were run through the High Level Trigger (HLT). The data was then merged into three "Soups": Chowder (ALPGEN), Stew (Filtered Pythia) and Gumbo (Pythia). The challenge officially started when the first Chowder events were reconstructed on the Tier-0 on October 3rd. The data operations teams were very busy during the the challenge period. The MC production teams continued with signal production and processing while the Tier-0 and Tier-1 teams worked on splitting the Soups into Primary Data Sets (PDS), reconstruction and skimming. The storage sys...

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing operation has been lower as the Run 1 samples are completing and smaller samples for upgrades and preparations are ramping up. Much of the computing activity is focusing on preparations for Run 2 and improvements in data access and flexibility of using resources. Operations Office Data processing was slow in the second half of 2013 with only the legacy re-reconstruction pass of 2011 data being processed at the sites.   Figure 1: MC production and processing was more in demand with a peak of over 750 Million GEN-SIM events in a single month.   Figure 2: The transfer system worked reliably and efficiently and transferred on average close to 520 TB per week with peaks at close to 1.2 PB.   Figure 3: The volume of data moved between CMS sites in the last six months   The tape utilisation was a focus for the operation teams with frequent deletion campaigns from deprecated 7 TeV MC GEN-SIM samples to INVALID datasets, which could be cleaned up...

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

      Introduction Computing activity has been running at a sustained, high rate as we collect data at high luminosity, process simulation, and begin to process the parked data. The system is functional, though a number of improvements are planned during LS1. Many of the changes will impact users, we hope only in positive ways. We are trying to improve the distributed analysis tools as well as the ability to access more data samples more transparently.  Operations Office Figure 2: Number of events per month, for 2012 Since the June CMS Week, Computing Operations teams successfully completed data re-reconstruction passes and finished the CMSSW_53X MC campaign with over three billion events available in AOD format. Recorded data was successfully processed in parallel, exceeding 1.2 billion raw physics events per month for the first time in October 2012 due to the increase in data-parking rate. In parallel, large efforts were dedicated to WMAgent development and integrati...

  1. Crown traits of coniferous trees and their relation to shade tolerance can differ with leaf type: a biophysical demonstration using computed tomography scanning data

    OpenAIRE

    Dutilleul, Pierre; Han, Liwen; Valladares, Fernando; Messier, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Plant light interception and shade tolerance are intrinsically related in that they involve structural, morphological and physiological adaptations to manage light capture for photosynthetic utilization, in order to sustain survival, development and reproduction. At the scale of small-size trees, crown traits related to structural geometry of branching pattern and space occupancy through phyllotaxis can be accurately evaluated in 3D, using computed tomography (CT) scanning data. We demonstrat...

  2. Crown traits of coniferous trees and their relation to shade tolerance can differ with leaf type: A biophysical demonstration using computed tomography scanning data

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre eDutilleul; Liwen eHan; Fernando eValladeres; Christian eMessier; Christian eMessier

    2015-01-01

    Plant light interception and shade tolerance are intrinsically related in that they involve structural, morphological and physiological adaptations to manage light capture for photosynthetic utilization, in order to sustain survival, development and reproduction. At the scale of small-size trees, crown traits related to structural geometry of branching pattern and space occupancy through phyllotaxis can be accurately evaluated in 3D, using computed tomography (CT) scanning data. We demonstrat...

  3. Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment Using the SCALE Computer Code Package. A demonstration based on an independent review of a real application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennerdahl, Dennis

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to instruct a young scientist from the Lithuanian Energy Institute (LEI) on how to carry out an independent review of a safety report. In particular, emphasis, was to be put on how to use the personal computer version of the calculation system SCALE 4.3 in this process. Nuclear criticality safety together with radiation shielding from gamma and neutron sources were areas of interest. This report concentrates on nuclear criticality safety aspects while a separate report covers radiation shielding. The application was a proposed storage cask for irradiated fuel assemblies from the Ignalina RBMK reactors in Lithuania. The safety report contained various documents involving many design and safety considerations. A few other documents describing the Ignalina reactors and their operation were available. The time for the project was limited to approximately one month, starting 'clean' with a SCALE 4.3 CD-ROM, a thick safety report and a fast personal computer. The results should be of general interest to Swedish authorities, in particular related to shielding where experience in using advanced computer codes like those available in SCALE is limited. It has been known for many years that criticality safety is very complicated, and that independent reviews are absolutely necessary to reduce the risk from quite common errors in the safety assessments. Several important results were obtained during the project. Concerning use of SCALE 4.3, it was confirmed that a young scientist, without extensive previous experience in the code system, can learn to use essentially all options. During the project, it was obvious that familiarity with personal computers, operating systems (including network system) and office software (word processing, spreadsheet and Internet browser software) saved a lot of time. Some of the Monte Carlo calculations took several hours. Experience is valuable in quickly picking out input or source document errors. Understanding

  4. Semantic Verbal Fluency test in dementia: Preliminary retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lopes

    Full Text Available Abstract The Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF test entails the generation of words from a given category within a pre-set time of 60 seconds. Objectives: To verify whether socio-demographic and clinical data of individuals with dementia correlate with the performance on the SVF test and to ascertain whether differences among the criteria of number of answers, clusters and data spread over the intervals, predict clinical results. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 49 charts of demented patients classified according to the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR scale. We correlated education, age and gender, as well as CDR and Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE scores with the number of answers, clustering and switching distributed over four 15-second intervals on the SVF test. Results: The correlation between number of answers and quartiles was weak (r=0.407, p=0.004; r=0.484, p<0.001 but correlation between the number of clusters and responses was strong (r=0.883, p<0.001. The number of items on the SVF was statistically significant with MMSE score (p=0.01 and there was a tendency for significance on the CDR (p=0.06. The results indicated little activity regarding what we propose to call cluster recalling in the two groups. Discussion: The SVF test, using number of items generated, was found to be more effective than classic screening tests in terms of speed and ease of application in patients with CDR 2 and 3.

  5. Shall we use non-verbal fluency in schizophrenia? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Romina; Trappeniers, Julie; Lefebvre, Laurent

    2014-05-30

    Over the last few years, numerous studies have attempted to explain fluency impairments in people with schizophrenia, leading to heterogeneous results. This could notably be due to the fact that fluency is often used in its verbal form where semantic dimensions are implied. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of fluency deficits, a non-verbal fluency task - the Five-Point Test (5PT) - was proposed to 24 patients with schizophrenia and to 24 healthy subjects categorized in terms of age, gender and schooling. The 5PT involves producing as many abstract figures as possible within 1min by connecting points with straight lines. All subjects also completed the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) while those with schizophrenia were further assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results show that the 5PT evaluation differentiates patients from healthy subjects with regard to the number of figures produced. Patients׳ results also suggest that the number of figures produced is linked to the "overall executive functioning" and to some inhibition components. Although this study is a first step in the non-verbal efficiency research field, we believe that experimental psychopathology could benefit from the investigations on non-verbal fluency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Emotional verbal fluency: a new task on emotion and executive function interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Katharina; Fetz, Karolina; Oetken, Sarah; Habel, Ute; Heim, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    The present study introduces "Emotional Verbal Fluency" as a novel (partially computerized) task, which is aimed to investigate the interaction between emotionally loaded words and executive functions. Verbal fluency tasks are thought to measure executive functions but the interaction with emotional aspects is hardly investigated. In the current study, a group of healthy subjects (n = 21, mean age 25 years, 76% females) were asked to generate items that are either part of a semantic category (e.g., plants, toys, vehicles; standard semantic verbal fluency) or can trigger the emotions joy, anger, sadness, fear and disgust. The results of the task revealed no differences between performance on semantic and emotional categories, suggesting a comparable task difficulty for healthy subjects. Hence, these first results on the comparison between semantic and emotional verbal fluency seem to highlight that both might be suitable for examining executive functioning. However, an interaction was found between the category type and repetition (first vs. second sequence of the same category) with larger performance decrease for semantic in comparison to emotional categories. Best performance overall was found for the emotional category "joy" suggesting a positivity bias in healthy subjects. To conclude, emotional verbal fluency is a promising approach to investigate emotional components in an executive task, which may stimulate further research, especially in psychiatric patients who suffer from emotional as well as cognitive deficits.

  7. Alternative Text Types to Improve Reading Fluency for Competent to Struggling Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V. Rasinski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers instructional suggestions and strategies based on research and theoretical literature for developing reading fluency through the use of rhyming poetry and other texts beyond the narrative and informational texts that have been traditionally used for reading instruction. Readers’ lack of fluency in reading can be a monumental impediment to proficiency in good comprehension and overall reading competency. For all readers it is well established that as they progress in reading competence their reading ability grows (Stanovich, 1993/1994. This continued reading success begets continued reading growth; however, many struggling readers have difficulty in moving to a level of automaticity and fluency in their reading that enables them to engage in a successful practice. Lack of practice inhibits their reading comprehension. Readers’ abilities to effectively comprehend texts are significantly affected by their proficiency in accurate and automatic word recognition and prosody (May, 1998; Stanovich, 1993/1994; LaBerge & Samuels, 1974; Schreiber, 1991. Repeated reading practice has been shown to be a powerful way to improve these important fluency competencies. Certain texts are particularly well suited for repeated reading that improves both aspects of fluency

  8. Is semantic verbal fluency impairment explained by executive function deficits in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur A. Berberian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate if verbal fluency impairment in schizophrenia reflects executive function deficits or results from degraded semantic store or inefficient search and retrieval strategies. Method: Two groups were compared: 141 individuals with schizophrenia and 119 healthy age and education-matched controls. Both groups performed semantic and phonetic verbal fluency tasks. Performance was evaluated using three scores, based on 1 number of words generated; 2 number of clustered/related words; and 3 switching score. A fourth performance score based on the number of clusters was also measured. Results: SZ individuals produced fewer words than controls. After controlling for the total number of words produced, a difference was observed between the groups in the number of cluster-related words generated in the semantic task. In both groups, the number of words generated in the semantic task was higher than that generated in the phonemic task, although a significant group vs. fluency type interaction showed that subjects with schizophrenia had disproportionate semantic fluency impairment. Working memory was positively associated with increased production of words within clusters and inversely correlated with switching. Conclusion: Semantic fluency impairment may be attributed to an inability (resulting from reduced cognitive control to distinguish target signal from competing noise and to maintain cues for production of memory probes.

  9. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  10. Cargo Data Management Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    Delays in receipt and creation of cargo documents are a problem in international trade. The work described demonstrates some of the advantages and capabilities of a computer-based cargo data management system. A demonstration system for data manageme...

  11. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CMS relies on a well functioning, distributed computing infrastructure. The Site Availability Monitoring (SAM) and the Job Robot submission have been very instrumental for site commissioning in order to increase availability of more sites such that they are available to participate in CSA07 and are ready to be used for analysis. The commissioning process has been further developed, including "lessons learned" documentation via the CMS twiki. Recently the visualization, presentation and summarizing of SAM tests for sites has been redesigned, it is now developed by the central ARDA project of WLCG. Work to test the new gLite Workload Management System was performed; a 4 times increase in throughput with respect to LCG Resource Broker is observed. CMS has designed and launched a new-generation traffic load generator called "LoadTest" to commission and to keep exercised all data transfer routes in the CMS PhE-DEx topology. Since mid-February, a transfer volume of about 12 P...

  12. Effects of literacy on semantic verbal fluency in an immigrant population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T. Rune; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A significant impact of limited schooling and illiteracy has been found on numerous neuropsychological tests, which may partly be due to the ecological relevance of the tests in the context of illiteracy. The aims of this study were to compare the performance of illiterate and literate...... and acculturation score did not affect this interaction effect. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results are in line with previous studies comparing semantic fluency in illiterate and literate individuals. The results lend further support to the strong associations between literacy, semantic verbal fluency performance...... immigrants on two semantic criteria for the verbal fluency test, and examine the influence of acculturation on test performances. METHOD: Performances of 20 cognitively unimpaired illiterate and 21 literate Turkish immigrants aged ≥50 years were compared on an animal and supermarket criterion...

  13. Using video self- and peer modeling to facilitate reading fluency in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Martha M; Buggey, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The authors compared the effects of video self-modeling and video peer modeling on oral reading fluency of elementary students with learning disabilities. A control group was also included to gauge general improvement due to reading instruction and familiarity with researchers. The results indicated that both interventions resulted in improved fluency. Students in both experimental groups improved their reading fluency. Two students in the self-modeling group made substantial and immediate gains beyond any of the other students. Discussion is included that focuses on the importance that positive imagery can have on student performance and the possible applications of both forms of video modeling with students who have had negative experiences in reading.

  14. SEMANTIC VERBAL FLUENCY OF THE BILINGUAL CHILDREN WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad GLUMBIKJ

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Semantic verbal fluency test is reliable instrument for detection of various kinds of neuropsychological deficits. Participants’ attainments in this test are influenced by array of socio-cultural factors. The occurrence of “twofold semilingualism” belongs to these cultural factors.The objective of this research is to determine differences between monolingual and bilingual children with mild mental retardation in semantic verbal fluency test.The sample consisted of 90 participants with mild mental retardation, of both sexes, aged from 12 to 15. The whole sample was divided into three subsets: 30 monolingual children (M1, who speak only Serbian, 30 monolingual Roma children who do not speak Romany (M2 and 30 bilingual Roma children who speak both, Romany and Serbian language (B.It was found that both groups of monolingual children have better performances in semantic fluency tasks than bilingual children.

  15. Reading fluency: implications for the assessment of children with reading disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, Elizabeth B; Bloom, Juliana S; Hynd, George W

    2010-06-01

    The current investigation explored the diagnostic utility of reading fluency measures in the identification of children with reading disabilities. Participants were 50 children referred to a university-based clinic because of suspected reading problems and/or a prior diagnosis of dyslexia, where children completed a battery of standardized intellectual, reading achievement, and processing measures. Within this clinical sample, a group of children were identified that exhibited specific deficits in their reading fluency skills with concurrent deficits in rapid naming speed and reading comprehension. This group of children would not have been identified as having a reading disability according to assessment of single word reading skills alone, suggesting that it is essential to assess reading fluency in addition to word reading because failure to do so may result in the under-identification of children with reading disabilities.

  16. Delayed decrease in hemispheric cerebral blood flow during Wada test demonstrated by 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryding, E.; Sjoeholm, H.; Skeidsvoll, H.; Elmqvist, D.

    1989-01-01

    We describe how brain regions with a flow (and metabolism) decrease can be visualized after an injection of short-acting barbiturate in one of the internal carotid arteries during a Wada test. An intravenous administration of 99mTc-HMPAO was used to mark the relative flow distribution. The 99mTc-HMPAO distribution in the brain was recorded three-dimensionally about 1 h later, by means of a single photon emission computer tomograph. We show that the timing of the intravenous 99mTc-HMPAO administration during the Wada test is important for the visualization of the low-flow regions. The administration of the tracer substance should be delayed at least 30 s after the first signs of the barbiturate effect. The rCBF decrease in the barbiturate-injected cerebral hemisphere was associated with a simultaneous decrease in the contralateral, pharmacologically not directly affected, cerebellar hemisphere (crossed cerebellar diaschisis). (author)

  17. Fluency-dependent cortical activation associated with speech production and comprehension in second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K; Hirotani, M; Yokokawa, H; Yoshida, H; Makita, K; Yamazaki-Murase, M; Tanabe, H C; Sadato, N

    2015-08-06

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the brain regions underlying language task performance in adult second language (L2) learners. Specifically, we identified brain regions where the level of activation was associated with L2 fluency levels. Thirty Japanese-speaking adults participated in the study. All participants were L2 learners of English and had achieved varying levels of fluency, as determined by a standardized L2 English proficiency test, the Versant English Test (Pearson Education Inc., 2011). When participants performed the oral sentence building task from the production tasks administered, the dorsal part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG) showed activation patterns that differed depending on the L2 fluency levels: The more fluent the participants were, the more dIFG activation decreased. This decreased activation of the dIFG might reflect the increased automaticity of a syntactic building process. In contrast, when participants performed an oral story comprehension task, the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) showed increased activation with higher fluency levels. This suggests that the learners with higher L2 fluency were actively engaged in post-syntactic integration processing supported by the left pSTG. These data imply that L2 fluency predicts neural resource allocation during language comprehension tasks as well as in production tasks. This study sheds light on the neural underpinnings of L2 learning by identifying the brain regions recruited during different language tasks across different modalities (production vs. comprehension). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. On the (elusive) role of oral motor-movements in fluency-based memory illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Deanne L; Klin, Celia M; Lanska, Meredith

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that the ease with which a stimulus is processed affects many different types of evaluative judgments. Recently, it has been proposed that for verbal stimuli the effect of fluency on such judgments is mediated by the muscles that are involved in speech (Topolinski & Strack, 2009, 2010). Evidence for this claim can be found in studies that have shown that fluency effects are eliminated if such judgments are made while these muscles are otherwise engaged (such as while chewing gum or eating). Additional research has found that oral-motor tasks block familiarity-based responding on recognition memory tasks (Topolinski, 2012). The current study investigated the effect of an oral-motor task on recognition memory. Of particular interest was whether the fluency-blocking effects of an oral-motor task would extend to fluency-based illusions of recognition memory. Although we found robust fluency-based illusions of familiarity, we did not find that the effects were modulated by the nature of the concurrent task (gum-chewing vs. a manual-motor task). Moreover, we found no evidence that oral-motor tasks affected recognition more generally, nor did we find that an oral-motor task modulated affective ratings to repeated stimuli. We were also unable to replicate the finding that an oral-motor task blocks the false fame effect (Topolinski & Strack, 2010). These results call into question the assertion that oral-motor movements mediate fluency effects in recognition memory and other evaluative judgments. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Auditory Masking Effects on Speech Fluency in Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia: Comparison to Altered Auditory Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacks, Adam; Haley, Katarina L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of masked auditory feedback (MAF) on speech fluency in adults with aphasia and/or apraxia of speech (APH/AOS). We hypothesized that adults with AOS would increase speech fluency when speaking with noise. Altered auditory feedback (AAF; i.e., delayed/frequency-shifted feedback) was included as a control condition not…

  20. Verbal Fluency and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Adults with Down Syndrome and Unspecified Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavroussi, Panayiota; Andreou, Georgia; Karagiannopoulou, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine verbal fluency and verbal short-term memory in 12 adults with Down syndrome (DS) and 12 adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) of unspecified origin, matched for receptive vocabulary and chronological age. Participants' performance was assessed on two conditions of a verbal fluency test, namely, semantic…

  1. An Exploration of the Relationships among Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Theory-Aligned Cognitive Abilities and Math Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piselli, Katherine D.

    2017-01-01

    Math fluency, which refers to the ability to solve single digit arithmetic problems quickly and accurately, is a foundational mathematical skill. Recent research has examined the role of phonological processing, executive control, and number sense in explaining differences in math fluency performance in school-aged children. Identifying the links…

  2. Using an iPad® App to Improve Sight Word Reading Fluency for At-Risk First Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musti-Rao, Shobana; Lo, Ya-yu; Plati, Erin

    2015-01-01

    We used a multiple baseline across word lists design nested within a multiple baseline across participants design to examine the effects of instruction delivered using an iPad® app on sight word fluency and oral reading fluency of six first graders identified as at risk for reading failure. In Study 1, three students participated in…

  3. Using a Technology-Supported Approach to Preservice Teachers' Multirepresentational Fluency: Unifying Mathematical Concepts and Their Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Daniel; Moore-Russo, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    A test project at the University of Puerto Rico in Mayagüez used GeoGebra applets to promote the concept of multirepresentational fluency among high school mathematics preservice teachers. For this study, this fluency was defined as simultaneous awareness of all representations associated with a mathematical concept, as measured by the ability to…

  4. Verbal fluency as a prefrontal activation probe: a validation study using 99mTc-ECD brain SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenaert, K.; Brans, B.; Laere, K. van; Versijpt, J.; Dierckx, R.; Lahorte, P.; Heeringen, K. van

    2000-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) in the letter and category fluency paradigm of the Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA) test in healthy volunteers. Two groups each comprising ten right-handed healthy volunteers were injected twice with 370 MBq technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer following a split-dose paradigm (resting and activation condition). Statistical parametric mapping (SPM96) was used to determine voxelwise significant changes. The letter fluency and the category fluency activation paradigm had a differential brain activation pattern. The posterior part of the left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPC) was activated in both paradigms, with the category fluency task having an extra activation in the anterior LIPC. In the category fluency task, but not the letter fluency task, an activation in the right inferior prefrontal cortex was found. These findings confirm to a large extent the results of previous functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies in semantic and phonological activation paradigms. The choice and validity of various methodological characteristics of the experimental design leading to these results are critically discussed. It is concluded that brain SPET activation with the letter fluency and category fluency paradigm under standard neuropsychological conditions in healthy volunteers is both technically and practically feasible. (orig.)

  5. Fluent, Fast, and Frugal? A Formal Model Evaluation of the Interplay between Memory, Fluency, and Comparative Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Pohl, Rudiger F.

    2011-01-01

    A new process model of the interplay between memory and judgment processes was recently suggested, assuming that retrieval fluency--that is, the speed with which objects are recognized--will determine inferences concerning such objects in a single-cue fashion. This aspect of the fluency heuristic, an extension of the recognition heuristic, has…

  6. Verbal fluency as a prefrontal activation probe: a validation study using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital and Ghent University (Belgium); Brans, B.; Laere, K. van; Versijpt, J.; Dierckx, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Lahorte, P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Laboratory of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, Ghent University (Belgium); Heeringen, K. van [Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital and Ghent University (Belgium)

    2000-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) in the letter and category fluency paradigm of the Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA) test in healthy volunteers. Two groups each comprising ten right-handed healthy volunteers were injected twice with 370 MBq technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer following a split-dose paradigm (resting and activation condition). Statistical parametric mapping (SPM96) was used to determine voxelwise significant changes. The letter fluency and the category fluency activation paradigm had a differential brain activation pattern. The posterior part of the left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPC) was activated in both paradigms, with the category fluency task having an extra activation in the anterior LIPC. In the category fluency task, but not the letter fluency task, an activation in the right inferior prefrontal cortex was found. These findings confirm to a large extent the results of previous functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies in semantic and phonological activation paradigms. The choice and validity of various methodological characteristics of the experimental design leading to these results are critically discussed. It is concluded that brain SPET activation with the letter fluency and category fluency paradigm under standard neuropsychological conditions in healthy volunteers is both technically and practically feasible. (orig.)

  7. Computed Tomography-Guided Core-Needle Biopsy Specimens Demonstrate Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutations in Patients with Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.M.; Chang, J.W.C.; Cheung, Y.C.; Lin, G.; Hsieh, J.J.; Hsu, T.; Huang, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Target therapy with a new class of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors shows improved clinical response in EGFR gene-mutated lung cancers. Purpose: To evaluate the use of computed tomography (CT)-guided core-needle biopsy specimens for the assessment of EGFR gene mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Material and Methods: Seventeen (nine males, eight females) patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent CT-guided core-needle biopsy of the lung tumor prior to treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib. There were no life-threatening complications of biopsy. The specimens were sent fresh-frozen for EGFR mutation analysis and histopathological study. Results: There were 12 (70.6%) EGFR gene mutants and five (29.4%) nonmutants. The objective response rate to gefitinib therapy was 73.3% (11 of 15 patients), with 91.7% (11 of 12 mutants) for the mutant group and 0% for the nonmutant group. Conclusion: CT-guided core-needle biopsy of advanced NSCLC enables the acquisition of sufficient tissue for EGFR gene mutation analysis

  8. Change in size, shape and radiocolloid uptake of the alcoholic liver during alcohol withdrawal, as demonstrated by single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomquist, L.; Yansen Wang; Jacobsson, H.; Kimiaei, S.

    1994-01-01

    The volume of the total liver and separate right and left lobes was studied before and after 1 week of alcohol withdrawal in 16 consecutive alcoholics by means of single photon emission computed tomography after intravenous injection of 99 Tc m -human albumin colloid; the relative tissue distribution of radioactivity was also followed. The left liver lobe increased in volume more than the right lobe during drinking and decreased more rapidly after alcohol withdrawal. Median volume reductions during 1 week of alcohol withdrawal were: total liver 12%, left lob 26%, and right lobe 8%, indicating that half of the reduction to values of a control group was achieved during this first week. The volume of the right but not of the left lobe was significantly correlated to body size in alcoholics and in controls. The left lobe had a lower capacity to concentrate the radiocolloid than the right lobe in alcoholics and in controls. The liver/spleen, liver/bone marrow and liver/background radioactivity concentration ratios in the alcoholics increased during alcohol withdrawal We conclude that heavy drinking causes both an increased total liver volume and a change in liver shape, with a relatively more enlarged left right lobe, as well as a decreased capacity to concentrate radiocolloid. These changes are rapidly reversible during abstinence from alcohol. (au) (26 refs.)

  9. Reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds in dyslexic children scales with individual differences in reading fluency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojko Žarić

    Full Text Available The acquisition of letter-speech sound associations is one of the basic requirements for fluent reading acquisition and its failure may contribute to reading difficulties in developmental dyslexia. Here we investigated event-related potential (ERP measures of letter-speech sound integration in 9-year-old typical and dyslexic readers and specifically test their relation to individual differences in reading fluency. We employed an audiovisual oddball paradigm in typical readers (n = 20, dysfluent (n = 18 and severely dysfluent (n = 18 dyslexic children. In one auditory and two audiovisual conditions the Dutch spoken vowels/a/and/o/were presented as standard and deviant stimuli. In audiovisual blocks, the letter 'a' was presented either simultaneously (AV0, or 200 ms before (AV200 vowel sound onset. Across the three children groups, vowel deviancy in auditory blocks elicited comparable mismatch negativity (MMN and late negativity (LN responses. In typical readers, both audiovisual conditions (AV0 and AV200 led to enhanced MMN and LN amplitudes. In both dyslexic groups, the audiovisual LN effects were mildly reduced. Most interestingly, individual differences in reading fluency were correlated with MMN latency in the AV0 condition. A further analysis revealed that this effect was driven by a short-lived MMN effect encompassing only the N1 window in severely dysfluent dyslexics versus a longer MMN effect encompassing both the N1 and P2 windows in the other two groups. Our results confirm and extend previous findings in dyslexic children by demonstrating a deficient pattern of letter-speech sound integration depending on the level of reading dysfluency. These findings underscore the importance of considering individual differences across the entire spectrum of reading skills in addition to group differences between typical and dyslexic readers.

  10. Impact of Cover, Copy, and Compare on Fluency Outcomes for Students with Disabilities and Math Deficits: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, James D., Jr.; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Fluency, a combination of response accuracy and speed, enables students to work efficiently through academic tasks. Students with disabilities and math deficits often struggle to learn math facts fluently. Although issues with fluency frequently coexist with a disability, problems gaining fluency also stem from a lack of practice and appropriate…

  11. TU-A-9A-05: First Experimental Demonstration of the Anisotropic Detection Principle in X-Ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M; Bazalova, M; Fahrig, R; Xing, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the sensitivity of X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) for in vivo molecular imaging. Is the maximum sensitivity achieved with an isotropic (4π) detector configuration? We prove that this is not necessarily true, and that a greater sensitivity is possible with anisotropic detector configuration. Methods: An XFCT imaging system was constructed consisting of 1) a collimated pencil beam x-ray source using a fluoroscopy grade x-ray tube; 2) a CdTe x-ray photon counting detector to detect fluorescent x-rays; and 3) a rotation/translation stage for tomographic imaging. We created a 6.5-cm diameter water phantom with 2-cm inserts of low gold concentration (0.25%–1%) to simulate tumors targeted by gold nano-particles. The placement of x-ray fluorescence detector were chosen to minimize scatter x-rays. XFCT imaging was performed at three different detector positions (60°, 90°, 145°) to determine the impact of forward-scatter, side-scatter, and back-scatter on imaging performance. The three data sets were also combined to estimate the imaging performance with an isotropic detector. Results: The highest imaging performance was achieved when the XF detector was in the backscatter 145° configuration. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was 5.5 for the 0.25% gold concentration compared to SNRs of 1.4, 0, and 2.4 for 60°, 90°, and combined (60°+90°+145°) datasets. Only the 145° detector arrangement alone could detect the 0.25% concentration. The imaging dose was 14 mGy for each detector arrangement experiment. Conclusion: This study experimentally proves, for the fist time, the Anisotropic Detection Principle in XF imaging, which holds that optimized anisotropic x-ray fluorescence detection provides greater sensitivity than isotropic detection. The optimized detection arrangement was used to improve the sensitivity of the XFCT experiment. The achieved XFCT sensitivity is the highest ever for a phantom at least this large using a benchtop x

  12. Science As A Second Language: Acquiring Fluency through Science Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, R.; EcoVoices Expedition Team

    2013-05-01

    exploring, solving problems, seeking answers to questions, playing, reading for pleasure, conversing, discussing, where the focus is not specifically on language development, but on the activity, which is of interest to the participant. Language Learning is a formal education process, the language arts aspect of the school day: the direct teaching of reading, writing, grammar, spelling, and speaking. Fluency results primarily from language acquisition and secondarily from language learning. We can view the problem of science education and communication as similar to language acquisition. Science Learning is a formal education process, the school science aspect of the school day: the direct teaching of standards-aligned science content. Science Acquisition is an informal process that occurs in the midst of exploring, solving problems, seeking answers to questions, playing, experimenting for pleasure, conversing, discussing, where the focus is not specifically on science content development, but on the inquiry activity, driven by the curiosity of the participant. Treating Science as a Second Language shifts the evaluation of science learning to include gauging the extent to which students choose to deepen their pursuit of science learning.

  13. Typography and color: effects of salience and fluency on conscious recollective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Thomas; Wippich, Werner

    2004-12-01

    Within one experiment the central assumptions of the distinctiveness/fluency account of recollective experience were tested and contrasted with predictions of processing theory. To manipulate perceptual salience, the typography of words was varied. Effects of conceptual salience were induced by a variation of word color. In the study phase participants generated different word or object images according to presented words. To manipulate perceptual and conceptual fluency one test group underwent a priming procedure in the test phase, consisting of a recognition test, whereby some primes were identical to the target words typographically or by color and others were not. Additionally, all participants were asked to make judgments of recollective experience (remember, know, guess) after the old/new decisions. The results of the data analyses confirm the distinctiveness/fluency account. Words written in an unusual typography or color were judged significantly more often as "remembered" than normal words. The priming procedure uncovered some effects of fluency on reaction times: old/new decisions took less time if prime and target words were perceptually or conceptually identical.

  14. General Chemistry Students' Conceptual Understanding and Language Fluency: Acid-Base Neutralization and Conductometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine college general chemistry students' conceptual understanding and language fluency in the context of the topic of acids and bases. 115 students worked in groups of 2-4 to complete an activity on conductometry, where they were given a scenario in which a titration of sodium hydroxide solution and dilute…

  15. Conceptual fluency at test shifts recognition response bias in Alzheimer's disease: implications for increased false recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Carl A; Marchant, Natalie L; Koutstaal, Wilma; Schacter, Daniel L; Budson, Andrew E

    2007-09-20

    The presence or absence of conceptual information in pictorial stimuli may explain the mixed findings of previous studies of false recognition in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To test this hypothesis, 48 patients with AD were compared to 48 healthy older adults on a recognition task first described by Koutstaal et al. [Koutstaal, W., Reddy, C., Jackson, E. M., Prince, S., Cendan, D. L., & Schacter D. L. (2003). False recognition of abstract versus common objects in older and younger adults: Testing the semantic categorization account. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 499-510]. Participants studied and were tested on their memory for categorized ambiguous pictures of common objects. The presence of conceptual information at study and/or test was manipulated by providing or withholding disambiguating semantic labels. Analyses focused on testing two competing theories. The semantic encoding hypothesis, which posits that the inter-item perceptual details are not encoded by AD patients when conceptual information is present in the stimuli, was not supported by the findings. In contrast, the conceptual fluency hypothesis was supported. Enhanced conceptual fluency at test dramatically shifted AD patients to a more liberal response bias, raising their false recognition. These results suggest that patients with AD rely on the fluency of test items in making recognition memory decisions. We speculate that AD patients' over reliance upon fluency may be attributable to (1) dysfunction of the hippocampus, disrupting recollection, and/or (2) dysfunction of prefrontal cortex, disrupting post-retrieval processes.

  16. ADHD and Adolescent EFL Learners' Speaking Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashi, Hamid; Dolatdoost, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was an attempt to investigate the relationships among Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and speaking complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) among Iranian EFL learners. To fulfill the purpose of this study, the teachers and parents of 593 male students were given the Farsi version of the CSI-4 ADHD diagnostic…

  17. Corrective Feedback, Spoken Accuracy and Fluency, and the Trade-Off Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehr Azad, Mohammad Hassan; Farrokhi, Farahman; Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    The current study was an attempt to investigate the effects of different corrective feedback (CF) conditions on Iranian EFL learners' spoken accuracy and fluency (AF) and the trade-off between them. Consequently, four pre-intermediate intact classes were randomly selected as the control, delayed explicit metalinguistic CF, extensive recast, and…

  18. Distinguishing familiarity from fluency for the compound word pair effect in associative recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fahad N; Hockley, William E

    2017-09-01

    We examined whether processing fluency contributes to associative recognition of unitized pre-experimental associations. In Experiments 1A and 1B, we minimized perceptual fluency by presenting each word of pairs on separate screens at both study and test, yet the compound word (CW) effect (i.e., hit and false-alarm rates greater for CW pairs with no difference in discrimination) did not reduce. In Experiments 2A and 2B, conceptual fluency was examined by comparing transparent (e.g., hand bag) and opaque (e.g., rag time) CW pairs in lexical decision and associative recognition tasks. Lexical decision was faster for transparent CWs (Experiment 2A) but in associative recognition, the CW effect did not differ by CW pair type (Experiment 2B). In Experiments 3A and 3B, we examined whether priming that increases processing fluency would influence the CW effect. In Experiment 3A, CW and non-compound word pairs were preceded with matched and mismatched primes at test in an associative recognition task. In Experiment 3B, only transparent and opaque CW pairs were presented. Results showed that presenting matched versus mismatched primes at test did not influence the CW effect. The CW effect in yes-no associative recognition is due to reliance on enhanced familiarity of unitized CW pairs.

  19. A normative study of lexical verbal fluency in an educationally-diverse elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Jo; Lee, Cheol Soon; Oh, Byoung Hoon; Hong, Chang Hyung; Lee, Kang Soo; Son, Sang Joon; Han, Changsu; Park, Moon Ho; Jeong, Hyun-Ghang; Kim, Tae Hui; Park, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Ki Woong

    2013-12-01

    Lexical fluency tests are frequently used to assess language and executive function in clinical practice. We investigated the influences of age, gender, and education on lexical verbal fluency in an educationally-diverse, elderly Korean population and provided its' normative information. We administered the lexical verbal fluency test (LVFT) to 1676 community-dwelling, cognitively normal subjects aged 60 years or over. In a stepwise linear regression analysis, education (B=0.40, SE=0.02, standardized B=0.506) and age (B=-0.10, SE=0.01, standardized B=-0.15) had significant effects on LVFT scores (p0.05). Education explained 28.5% of the total variance in LVFT scores, which was much larger than the variance explained by age (5.42%). Accordingly, we presented normative data of the LVFT stratified by age (60-69, 70-74, 75-79, and ≥80 years) and education (0-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, and ≥13 years). The LVFT norms should provide clinically useful data for evaluating elderly people and help improve the interpretation of verbal fluency tasks and allow for greater diagnostic accuracy.

  20. The Effects of Divided Attention on Speech Motor, Verbal Fluency, and Manual Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromey, Christopher; Shim, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate aspects of the "functional distance hypothesis," which predicts that tasks regulated by brain networks in closer anatomic proximity will interfere more with each other than tasks controlled by spatially distant regions. Speech, verbal fluency, and manual motor tasks were examined to ascertain whether…

  1. The impact of language co-activation on L1 and L2 speech fluency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann, Christopher; Sprenger, Simone A.; Schmid, Monika S.

    2015-01-01

    Fluent speech depends on the availability of well-established linguistic knowledge and routines for speech planning and articulation. A lack of speech fluency in late second-language (12) learners may point to a deficiency of these representations, due to incomplete acquisition. Experiments on

  2. Assessment of Working Memory in Individuals With Stuttering in Comparison With Individuals With Normal Fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswarya Liz Varghese

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is common in literature to relate stuttering with some other deficit that interferes with communicative functions. Working memory comprises the system of human memory dedicated to both temporary storages of phonological detail and allocation of cognitive resources necessary for forming lasting memories. In this study we have analyzed the performance of individuals with stuttering on various working memory tasks. The aim of study is to compare the working memory abilities in individuals with stuttering and individuals with normal fluency on various working memory tasks. A total of 30 individuals with stuttering and 30 individuals with normal fluency in the age range of 18 – 40 years participated in the study. The Working Memory domain will be assessed using The Manipal Manual for Cognitive Linguistic Abilities (MMCLA which consists of auditory word retrieval, auditory letter and number recall, auditory word list recall, auditory delayed sentence recall, visual practice recall, visual letter and number recall, visual word list recall and visual delayed sentence recall. Results revealed that the individuals with normal fluency had superior performance compared to the individuals with stuttering. Hence, it’s helpful to understand the involvement of working memory in stuttering and incorporate working memory training along with the conventional fluency therapy.

  3. Characteristics of Fluency and Speech in Two Families with High Incidences of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, Sheila V.; Freeman, Frances J.; Braun, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents data from 2 families with high incidence of stuttering, comparing methods of phenotype assignment and exploring the presence of other fluency disorders and corresponding speech characteristics. Method: Three methods for assigning phenotype of stuttering were used: self-identification, family identification, and expert…

  4. Phonemic verbal fluency and severity of anxiety disorders in young children

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    Rudineia Toazza

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Previous studies have implicated impaired verbal fluency as being associated with anxiety disorders in adolescents. Objectives: To replicate and extend previously reported evidence by investigating whether performance in phonemic verbal fluency tasks is related to severity of anxiety symptoms in young children with anxiety disorders. We also aim to investigate whether putative associations are independent from co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms. Methods: Sixty children (6-12 years old with primary diagnoses of anxiety disorders participated in this study. Severity of symptoms was measured using clinician-based, parent-rated and self-rated validated scales. Verbal fluency was assessed using a simple task that measures the number of words evoked in 1-minute with the letter F, from which we quantified the number of isolated words, number of clusters (groups of similar words and number of switches (transitions between clusters and/or between isolated words. Results: There was a significant association between the number of clusters and anxiety scores. Further analysis revealed associations were independent from co-occurring ADHD symptoms. Conclusion: We replicate and extend previous findings showing that verbal fluency is consistently associated with severity in anxiety disorders in children. Further studies should explore the potential effect of cognitive training on symptoms of anxiety disorders.

  5. Role of route previewing strategies on climbing fluency and exploratory movements

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    Seifert, Ludovic; Cordier, Romain; Orth, Dominic; Courtine, Yoan; Croft, James L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of route previewing strategies on climbing fluency and on exploratory movements of the limbs, in order to understand whether previewing helps people to perceive and to realize affordances. Eight inexperienced and ten experienced climbers previewed a 10 m high route of 5b

  6. Reading with Ease: The Impact of an Oral Reading Fluency Intervention with Adolescent Struggling Readers

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    Van Wig, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to investigate the impact of a repeated reading fluency intervention focused on prosody, counterbalanced with an intervention focused on reading strategies. Both of these interventions were designed to promote feelings of achievement through participation in activities intended to…

  7. Reading Fluency and Students with Reading Disabilities: How Fast Is Fast Enough to Promote Reading Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of improving reading rate and fluency is to positively impact reading comprehension; however, it is unclear how fast students with learning disabilities (LD) need to read to reap this benefit. The purpose of this research was to identify the point of diminishing return for students who were dysfluent readers. Participants included 337…

  8. Investigating the Representational Fluency of Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers in a Modelling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delice, Ali; Kertil, Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study that investigated pre-service mathematics teachers' modelling processes in terms of representational fluency in a modelling activity related to a cassette player. A qualitative approach was used in the data collection process. Students' individual and group written responses to the mathematical modelling…

  9. Medio-lateral knee fluency in anterior cruciate ligament-injured athletes during dynamic movement trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panos, Joseph A; Hoffman, Joshua T; Wordeman, Samuel C; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-03-01

    Correction of neuromuscular impairments after anterior cruciate ligament injury is vital to successful return to sport. Frontal plane knee control during landing is a common measure of lower-extremity neuromuscular control and asymmetries in neuromuscular control of the knee can predispose injured athletes to additional injury and associated morbidities. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of anterior cruciate ligament injury on knee biomechanics during landing. Two-dimensional frontal plane video of single leg drop, cross over drop, and drop vertical jump dynamic movement trials was analyzed for twenty injured and reconstructed athletes. The position of the knee joint center was tracked in ImageJ software for 500 milliseconds after landing to calculate medio-lateral knee motion velocities and determine normal fluency, the number of times per second knee velocity changed direction. The inverse of this calculation, analytical fluency, was used to associate larger numerical values with fluent movement. Analytical fluency was decreased in involved limbs for single leg drop trials (P=0.0018). Importantly, analytical fluency for single leg drop differed compared to cross over drop trials for involved (Pinjury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Emotional Verbal Fluency: A New Task on Emotion and Executive Function Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Oetken

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study introduces “Emotional Verbal Fluency” as a novel (partially computerized task, which is aimed to investigate the interaction between emotionally loaded words and executive functions. Verbal fluency tasks are thought to measure executive functions but the interaction with emotional aspects is hardly investigated. In the current study, a group of healthy subjects (n = 21, mean age 25 years, 76% females were asked to generate items that are either part of a semantic category (e.g., plants, toys, vehicles; standard semantic verbal fluency or can trigger the emotions joy, anger, sadness, fear and disgust. The results of the task revealed no differences between performance on semantic and emotional categories, suggesting a comparable task difficulty for healthy subjects. Hence, these first results on the comparison between semantic and emotional verbal fluency seem to highlight that both might be suitable for examining executive functioning. However, an interaction was found between the category type and repetition (first vs. second sequence of the same category with larger performance decrease for semantic in comparison to emotional categories. Best performance overall was found for the emotional category “joy” suggesting a positivity bias in healthy subjects. To conclude, emotional verbal fluency is a promising approach to investigate emotional components in an executive task, which may stimulate further research, especially in psychiatric patients who suffer from emotional as well as cognitive deficits.

  11. Motor skills and verbal fluency in HIV positive older adults in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Finger Tapping Test of the Developmental Neuropsychological Test Battery was also used. Results: Tests of motor skill were less sensitive to HIV infection (F (1, 48) = 1.134, p= .292) than verbal fluency tests-Hopkins Verbal Learning (F (1, 48) = 42.994, p=.000, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test- delay (F (1, 48) = 45.886, ...

  12. Using a Multimedia-Based Program for Developing Student Teachers' EFL Speaking Fluency Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diyyab, Eman Aly; Abdel-Haq, Eman Muhamad; Aly, Mahsoub Abdel-Sadeq

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of using a multimedia-based program for developing EFL speaking fluency skills among second year, English section student teachers. The sample of the present study consisted of thirty students at Sadat Faculty of Education, Minufiya University, Egypt. The study sample was…

  13. The Impact of Pushed Output on Accuracy and Fluency of Iranian EFL Learners' Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Beniss, Aram Reza; Edalati Bazzaz, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    The current study attempted to establish baseline quantitative data on the impacts of pushed output on two components of speaking (i.e., accuracy and fluency). To achieve this purpose, 30 female EFL learners were selected from a whole population pool of 50 based on the standard test of IELTS interview and were randomly assigned into an…

  14. Measurement Properties of DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency in Grade 2: Implications for Equating Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoolmiller, Michael; Biancarosa, Gina; Fien, Hank

    2013-01-01

    Lack of psychometric equivalence of oral reading fluency (ORF) passages used within a grade for screening and progress monitoring has recently become an issue with calls for the use of equating methods to ensure equivalence. To investigate the nature of the nonequivalence and to guide the choice of equating method to correct for nonequivalence,…

  15. Biological Dialogues: How to Teach Your Students to Learn Fluency in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, S. Randolph; Cook, David L.; May, Marilyn K.

    2013-01-01

    Biology courses have thousands of words to learn in order to intelligently discuss the subject and take tests over the material. Biological fluency is an important goal for students, and practical methods based on constructivist pedagogies can be employed to promote it. We present a method in which pairs of students write dialogues from…

  16. Effect of Music-Integrated Instruction on First Graders' Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Kerry G.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined music-integrated (MI) instruction, framed by automatic information processing theory and elements of prosody. A quasi-experimental, pre- and posttest design was utilized to ascertain the effect of MI instruction on reading fluency among first grade students. Subjects were students in two public elementary schools in Georgia. To…

  17. Developing L2 Listening Fluency through Extended Listening-Focused Activities in an Extensive Listening Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna C-S.; Millett, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects on developing L2 listening fluency through doing extended listening-focused activities after reading and listening to audio graded readers. Seventy-six EFL university students read and listened to a total of 15 graded readers in a 15-week extensive listening programme. They were divided into three groups (Group…

  18. The Use of Profanity During Letter Fluency Tasks in Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringman, John M.; Kwon, Eunice; Flores, Deborah L.; Rotko, Carol; Mendez, Mario F.; Lu, Po

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the production of profanity during letter fluency testing distinguishes frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Background Alterations in language and social behavior typify FTD spectrum disorders. Nonetheless, in can be difficult to distinguish pathologically-defined frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) from AD clinically. Assessing verbal fluency by having patients generate as many words as they can beginning with specific letters in a given period of time can yield diverse information of diagnostic utility. Method Words produced during FAS letter fluency testing were reviewed and instances of the use of "f*ck", "*ss", and "sh*t" and other words felt to be inappropriate were sought. The frequency of these words was compared between clinically diagnosed FTD and AD patients using chi-square tests. Results We found that 6/32 (18.8%) patients with FTD generated the word "f*ck" during the "F" trial as opposed to none of 38 patients with AD (p = 0.007). Patients who said "f*ck" had diagnoses of either behavioral variant FTD (3/15), progressive non-fluent aphasia (2/8), or semantic dementia (1/3). Conclusions Though the specific neuropathology in these cases is uncertain, generation of "f*ck" during letter fluency testing appears to have utility in differentiating FTD from AD. PMID:20829665

  19. Predictors of Response to Intervention of Word Reading Fluency in Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltinga, Femke; van der Leij, Aryan; Struiksma, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of rapid digit naming, phonological memory, letter sound naming, and orthographic knowledge to the prediction of responsiveness to a school-based, individual intervention of word reading fluency problems of 122 Dutch second and third graders whose reading scores were below the 10th…

  20. Event-related potentials indicate that fluency can be interpreted as familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruett, Heather; Leynes, P Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that fluency may be capable of supporting recognition independently of familiarity. This hypothesis was further tested in the present study. 29 participants encoded name-brand and off-brand products in an incidental task. Participants then judged whether the product was old or new during two tests with products from one category (i.e., only name-brand or only off-brand products) and a mixed test (where both name-brand and off-brand products were shown). The ERP data elicited by off-brand products varied as a function of test format. During the mixed test, off-brand products were correlated with a FN400 effect, whereas a fluency ERP (old ERPs were more negative than new at parietal electrodes 225-400ms) was observed during the other test. Importantly, no FN400 was detected during this test. The ERP results suggest that viewing the off-brand products during the mixed test produced a familiarity experience; however, fluency supported recognition when viewing off-brand products on the other test. The results are strong evidence that top-down processing of visual features during recognition interprets the information relative to the context. This process results in either fluency or, in other contexts, it is interpreted as familiarity as the Discrepancy-Attribution Hypothesis (Whittlesea and Williams, 2001a, 2001b) contends. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reading Fluency as a Predictor of Reading Proficiency in Low-Performing, High-Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Scott K.; Smolkowski, Keith; Katz, Rachell; Fien, Hank; Seeley, John R.; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Beck, Carrie Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine oral reading fluency (ORF) in the context of a large-scale federal reading initiative conducted in low performing, high poverty schools. The objectives were to (a) investigate the relation between ORF and comprehensive reading tests, (b) examine whether slope of performance over time on ORF predicted…

  2. Modeling Oral Reading Fluency Development in Latino Students: A Longitudinal Study across Second and Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Petscher, Yaacov; Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Williams, Rihana S.; Dyrlund, Allison K.; Connor, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This study examines growth in oral reading fluency across 2nd and 3rd grade for Latino students grouped in 3 English proficiency levels: students receiving English as a second language (ESL) services (n = 2,182), students exited from ESL services (n = 965), and students never designated as needing services (n = 1,857). An important focus was to…

  3. Influence of Verbal Working Memory Depends on Vocabulary: Oral Reading Fluency in Adolescents with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, L. Todd; Rouhani, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Most research on dyslexia to date has focused on early childhood, while comparatively little is known about the nature of dyslexia in adolescence. The current study had two objectives. The first was to investigate the relative contributions of several cognitive and linguistic factors to connected-text oral reading fluency in a sample of…

  4. Using Supplementary Readings (Short Stories) in Increasing the Conceptual Fluency, the Case of Idioms in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Elahe; Talebinezhad, Mohammed Reza

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to probed whether using supplementary readings (short stories containing idioms) increase conceptual fluency of L2 learners. In line with the goal of the study, first, the researcher selected a sample of 30 female lower-intermediate L2 learners from Sadr Private Language Centre in Isfahan. She selected them based on…

  5. Direct and Indirect Effects of Print Exposure on Silent Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Quintino R.; Guerin, Julia M.

    2018-01-01

    Print exposure is an important causal factor in reading development. Little is known, however, of the mechanisms through which print exposure exerts an effect onto reading. To address this gap, we examined the direct and indirect effects of print exposure on silent reading fluency among college students (n = 52). More specifically, we focused on…

  6. The Quality of Evidence in Reading Fluency Intervention for Korean Readers with Reading Difficulties and Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yujeong; Kim, Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide information about the quality of the evidence on reading fluency instruction for at-risk students and students with reading/learning disabilities as a way to evaluate whether an instructional strategy is evidence-based and has potential for classroom use. An extensive search process with inclusion and exclusion criteria…

  7. Predictive Validity and Accuracy of Oral Reading Fluency for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwood, Michael L.; Tung, Catherine Y.; Checca, C. Jason

    2014-01-01

    The predictive validity and accuracy of an oral reading fluency (ORF) measure for a statewide assessment in English language arts was examined for second-grade native English speakers (NESs) and English learners (ELs) with varying levels of English proficiency. In addition to comparing ELs with native English speakers, the impact of English…

  8. The Development of L2 Fluency during Study Abroad: A Cross-Language Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Silvio, Francesca; Diao, Wenhao; Donovan, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Examining speech samples from 75 American university students learning 1 of 3 languages (Mandarin, Russian, and Spanish), this article reports on a study of second language (L2) learners' oral fluency development and its relationship with their gains in holistic proficiency ratings during a semester abroad. In study abroad research, there is a…

  9. The limited use of the fluency heuristic: Converging evidence across different procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Rüdiger F; Erdfelder, Edgar; Michalkiewicz, Martha; Castela, Marta; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2016-10-01

    In paired comparisons based on which of two objects has the larger criterion value, decision makers could use the subjectively experienced difference in retrieval fluency of the objects as a cue. According to the fluency heuristic (FH) theory, decision makers use fluency-as indexed by recognition speed-as the only cue for pairs of recognized objects, and infer that the object retrieved more speedily has the larger criterion value (ignoring all other cues and information). Model-based analyses, however, have previously revealed that only a small portion of such inferences are indeed based on fluency alone. In the majority of cases, other information enters the decision process. However, due to the specific experimental procedures, the estimates of FH use are potentially biased: Some procedures may have led to an overestimated and others to an underestimated, or even to actually reduced, FH use. In the present article, we discuss and test the impacts of such procedural variations by reanalyzing 21 data sets. The results show noteworthy consistency across the procedural variations revealing low FH use. We discuss potential explanations and implications of this finding.

  10. The Word Writing CAFE: Assessing Student Writing for Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Dorothy J.

    2005-01-01

    The Word Writing CAFE is a new assessment tool designed for teachers to evaluate objectively students' word-writing ability for fluency, accuracy, and complexity. It is designed to be given to the whole class at one time. This article describes the development of the CAFE and provides directions for administering and scoring it. The author also…

  11. Improving Science Student Teachers' Self-Perceptions of Fluency with Innovative Technologies and Scientific Inquiry Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalik, Muammer; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Özsevgeç, Tuncay; Küçük, Zeynel; Artun, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of "Environmental Chemistry" elective course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry (TESI) model on senior science student teachers' (SSSTs) self-perceptions of fluency with innovative technologies (InT) and scientific inquiry abilities. The study was conducted with 117 SSSTs (68…

  12. The Relationship between Reading Comprehension, Decoding, and Fluency in Greek: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padeliadu, Susana; Antoniou, Faye

    2014-01-01

    Experts widely consider decoding and fluency as the basis of reading comprehension, while at the same time consistently documenting problems in these areas as major characteristics of students with learning disabilities. However, scholars have developed most of the relevant research within phonologically deep languages, wherein decoding problems…

  13. Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

  14. Electrophysiological signals associated with fluency of different levels of processing reveal multiple contributions to recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Taylor, Jason R; Wang, Wei; Gao, Chuanji; Guo, Chunyan

    2017-08-01

    Processing fluency appears to influence recognition memory judgements, and the manipulation of fluency, if misattributed to an effect of prior exposure, can result in illusory memory. Although it is well established that fluency induced by masked repetition priming leads to increased familiarity, manipulations of conceptual fluency have produced conflicting results, variously affecting familiarity or recollection. Some recent studies have found that masked conceptual priming increases correct recollection (Taylor & Henson, 2012), and the magnitude of this behavioural effect correlates with analogous fMRI BOLD priming effects in brain regions associated with recollection (Taylor, Buratto, & Henson, 2013). However, the neural correlates and time-courses of masked repetition and conceptual priming were not compared directly in previous studies. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify and compare the electrophysiological correlates of masked repetition and conceptual priming and investigate how they contribute to recognition memory. Behavioural results were consistent with previous studies: Repetition primes increased familiarity, whereas conceptual primes increased correct recollection. Masked repetition and conceptual priming also decreased the latency of late parietal component (LPC). Masked repetition priming was associated with an early P200 effect and a later parietal maximum N400 effect, whereas masked conceptual priming was only associated with a central-parietal maximum N400 effect. In addition, the topographic distributions of the N400 repetition priming and conceptual priming effects were different. These results suggest that fluency at different levels of processing is associated with different ERP components, and contributes differentially to subjective recognition memory experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduced verbal fluency for proper names in nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Eric M; Delis, Dean C; Paul, Brianna M; Filoteo, J Vincent

    2011-02-01

    There has been an increasing interest within neuropsychology in comparing verbal fluency for different grammatical classes (e.g., verb generation vs. noun generation) in neurological populations, including Parkinson's disease (PD). However, to our knowledge, few studies have compared verbal fluency for common nouns and proper names in PD. Common nouns and proper names differ in terms of their semantic characteristics, as categories of common nouns are organized hierarchically based on semantics, while categories of proper nouns lack a well-defined semantic organization. In addition, there is accumulating evidence that the retrieval of these distinct grammatical classes are subserved by somewhat distinct neural systems. Given that verbal fluency deficits are among the first impairments to emerge in PD, and that such deficits are predictors of future cognitive decline, it is important to examine all aspects of verbal fluency in this population. For the current study, we compared the performance of a group of 32 nondemented PD patients with 32 healthy participants (HP) on verbal fluency tasks for common nouns (animals) and proper names (boys' first names). A significant interaction between verbal fluency task and diagnostic status emerged, as the PD group performed significantly worse on only the proper name fluency task. This finding may reflect the absence of well-defined semantic organization that structures the verbal search for first names, thus placing a greater onus on strategic or "executive" verbal retrieval processes.

  16. Computerized Analysis of Verbal Fluency: Normative Data and the Effects of Repeated Testing, Simulated Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Woods

    Full Text Available In verbal fluency (VF tests, subjects articulate words in a specified category during a short test period (typically 60 s. Verbal fluency tests are widely used to study language development and to evaluate memory retrieval in neuropsychiatric disorders. Performance is usually measured as the total number of correct words retrieved. Here, we describe the properties of a computerized VF (C-VF test that tallies correct words and repetitions while providing additional lexical measures of word frequency, syllable count, and typicality. In addition, the C-VF permits (1 the analysis of the rate of responding over time, and (2 the analysis of the semantic relationships between words using a new method, Explicit Semantic Analysis (ESA, as well as the established semantic clustering and switching measures developed by Troyer et al. (1997. In Experiment 1, we gathered normative data from 180 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 82 years in semantic ("animals" and phonemic (letter "F" conditions. The number of words retrieved in 90 s correlated with education and daily hours of computer-use. The rate of word production declined sharply over time during both tests. In semantic conditions, correct-word scores correlated strongly with the number of ESA and Troyer-defined semantic switches as well as with an ESA-defined semantic organization index (SOI. In phonemic conditions, ESA revealed significant semantic influences in the sequence of words retrieved. In Experiment 2, we examined the test-retest reliability of different measures across three weekly tests in 40 young subjects. Different categories were used for each semantic ("animals", "parts of the body", and "foods" and phonemic (letters "F", "A", and "S" condition. After regressing out the influences of education and computer-use, we found that correct-word z-scores in the first session did not differ from those of the subjects in Experiment 1. Word production was uniformly greater in semantic than

  17. THE CONTRIBUTION OF COMPLEXITY, ACCURACY AND FLUENCY TO LANGUAGE FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Rausch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper will outline an instructional approach that proposes a Complexity, Accuracy, Fluency (CAF paradigm as a means of providing learners with the CAF-based communication consciousness and CAF-oriented manipulative skills that are increasingly important in language use in Language for Specific Purposes. Given the complex combinations of communicative tasks, communicative formats and communicative circumstances that accompany the wide-ranging and various contexts of contemporary professional communication, communicative competence demands a combinative consciousness and informed application of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency as a communication paradigm. Viewed as a combination of its three components, a CAF paradigm constitutes a fundamental ‘information, language and communication’ triad that can guide professional language use in any communicative circumstance. Viewed as a communicative skill set, the CAF triad implies the capability to adjust specific elements and aspects of information, language and communication as needed for a communicative task, whether in oral or print communication and regardless of task category. Adjusting complexity in this context refers to both content and language complexity. Adjusting accuracy refers to the conventions that dictate appropriate or acceptable language in a given context. Finally, adjusting fluency refers to a sense of communicative fluency, that which yields either smooth and persuasive language as in a native-speaker normative view or explicit and clearly explanatory language as necessary in some communicative encounters. The need to manipulate these three components depends on circumstance variables such as objective, available time, audience characteristics and the degree of detail desired. This paper will outline this combinative CAF notion as background to a materials development project being undertaken in a Japanese university, introducing the specifics of an Extended Reading Aloud

  18. An online three-class Transcranial Doppler ultrasound brain computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Anuja; Samadani, Ali-Akbar; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie; Chau, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Brain computer interfaces (BCI) can provide communication opportunities for individuals with severe motor disabilities. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) measures cerebral blood flow velocities and can be used to develop a BCI. A previously implemented TCD BCI system used verbal and spatial tasks as control signals; however, the spatial task involved a visual cue that awkwardly diverted the user's attention away from the communication interface. Therefore, vision-independent right-lateralized tasks were investigated. Using a bilateral TCD BCI, ten participants controlled online, an on-screen keyboard using a left-lateralized task (verbal fluency), a right-lateralized task (fist motor imagery or 3D-shape tracing), and unconstrained rest. 3D-shape tracing was generally more discernible from other tasks than was fist motor imagery. Verbal fluency, 3D-shape tracing and unconstrained rest were distinguished from each other using a linear discriminant classifier, achieving a mean agreement of κ=0.43±0.17. These rates are comparable to the best offline three-class TCD BCI accuracies reported thus far. The online communication system achieved a mean information transfer rate (ITR) of 1.08±0.69bits/min with values reaching up to 2.46bits/min, thereby exceeding the ITR of previous online TCD BCIs. These findings demonstrate the potential of a three-class online TCD BCI that does not require visual task cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  19. The Role of Cognitive Processes, Foundational Math Skill, and Calculation Accuracy and Fluency in Word-Problem Solving versus Pre-Algebraic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Powell, Sarah R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Tolar, Tammy D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine child-level pathways in development of pre-algebraic knowledge versus word-problem solving, while evaluating the contribution of calculation accuracy and fluency as mediators of foundational skills/processes. Children (n = 962; mean 7.60 years) were assessed on general cognitive processes and early calculation, word-problem, and number knowledge at start of grade 2; calculation accuracy and calculation fluency at end of grade 2; and pre-algebraic knowledge and word-problem solving at end of grade 4. Important similarities in pathways were identified, but path analysis also indicated that language comprehension is more critical for later word-problem solving than pre-algebraic knowledge. We conclude that pathways in development of these forms of 4th-grade mathematics performance are more alike than different, but demonstrate the need to fine-tune instruction for strands of the mathematics curriculum in ways that address individual students’ foundational mathematics skills or cognitive processes. PMID:27786534

  20. Effects of Listening While Reading (LWR on Swahili Reading Fluency and Comprehension

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    Filipo Lubua

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have examined the contribution of technology in teaching such languages as English, French, and Spanish, among many others. Contrarily, most LCTL’s, have received very little attention. This study investigates if listening while reading (LWR may expedite Swahili reading fluency and comprehension. The study employed the iBook Author tool to create weekly mediated and interactive reading texts, with comprehension exercises, which were eventually used to collect descriptive and qualitative data from four Elementary Swahili students. Participants participated in a seven week reading program, which provided them with some kind of directed self-learning, and met with the instructor for at least 30 minutes every week for observation and more reading activities. The teacher recorded their reading scores, and a number of themes on how LWR influenced reading fluency and comprehension are discussed here. It shows that participants have a positive attitude towards LWR and they suggest it for all the reading classes.

  1. The Relationship of Error Rate and Comprehension in Second and Third Grade Oral Reading Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Mary; Wills, Howard; Miller, Angela; Kaufman, Journ

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of oral reading speed and error rate on comprehension with second and third grade students with identified reading risk. The study included 920 2nd graders and 974 3rd graders. Participants were assessed using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT) Passage Comprehension subtest. Results from this study further illuminate the significant relationships between error rate, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension performance, and grade-specific guidelines for appropriate error rate levels. Low oral reading fluency and high error rates predict the level of passage comprehension performance. For second grade students below benchmark, a fall assessment error rate of 28% predicts that student comprehension performance will be below average. For third grade students below benchmark, the fall assessment cut point is 14%. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Behavioural and neural evidence for the impact of fluency context on conscious memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos Alexandre; Mecklinger, Axel; Zimmer, Hubert

    2017-07-01

    It has been recently suggested that fluency may impact recognition memory performance when the fluency context varies from trial-to-trial. Surprisingly, such an effect has proved difficult to detect in the masked priming paradigm, one of the most popular means to increase fluency-based memory judgements. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment in which participants encoded words at study and, at test, performed a recognition memory task within a masked priming procedure. In order to optimise the chances of finding priming effects on recognition memory performance, we used low-frequency words, which have been shown to increase hits relative to false alarms and enhance masked priming effects. Fluency context was manipulated by either mixing primed and unprimed trials [Random context (RC) experiment] or blocking primed and unprimed trials [Blocked context (BC) experiment]. Behaviourally, priming affected high-confidence memory performance only in the RC experiment. This behavioural effect correlated positively with neural priming in several recognition memory regions. Moreover, we observed a functional coupling between the left middle temporal gyrus and the left parietal and posterior cingulate cortices that was greater for primed relative to unprimed words. In contrast, in the BC experiment, despite similar activity in recognition-memory-related regions, we did not find any significant correlations between neural and behavioural priming. Finally, we observed striking differences in the neural correlates of masked priming between the RC and BC experiments not only in location but also in direction of the neural response. Possible implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS PSYCHOMETRIC TOOL FOR ENHANCING FUNCTIONAL FLUENCY

    OpenAIRE

    TEMPLE, SUSANNAH FLEUR

    2002-01-01

    Functional Fluency denotes efficacy of interpersonal functioning in terms of flexibility and balance of the behavioural modes a person uses. The aim of this project is to design and create a psychometric tool for mapping the patterns of such functioning. The intention is that feedback on the test results will stimulate the insights and understanding to support and encourage positive behavioural change. This process, involving the development of self-awareness, which is a key as...

  4. The role of auditory temporal cues in the fluency of stuttering adults

    OpenAIRE

    Furini, Juliana; Picoloto, Luana Altran; Marconato, Eduarda; Bohnen, Anelise Junqueira; Cardoso, Ana Claudia Vieira; Oliveira, Cristiane Moço Canhetti de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: to compare the frequency of disfluencies and speech rate in spontaneous speech and reading in adults with and without stuttering in non-altered and delayed auditory feedback (NAF, DAF). Methods: participants were 30 adults: 15 with Stuttering (Research Group - RG), and 15 without stuttering (Control Group - CG). The procedures were: audiological assessment and speech fluency evaluation in two listening conditions, normal and delayed auditory feedback (100 milliseconds dela...

  5. Modeling Oral Reading Fluency Development in Latino Students: A Longitudinal Study Across Second and Third Grade

    OpenAIRE

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Petscher, Yaacov; Williams, Rihana S.; Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Dyrlund, Allison K.; Connor, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This study examines growth in oral reading fluency across 2nd and 3rd grade for Latino students grouped in 3 English proficiency levels: students receiving English as a second language (ESL) services (n = 2,182), students exited from ESL services (n = 965), and students never designated as needing services (n = 1,857). An important focus was to learn whether, within these 3 groups, proficiency levels and growth were reliably related to special education status. Using hierarchical linear model...

  6. Hearing "Quack" and Remembering a Duck: Evidence for Fluency Attribution in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurten, Marie; Lloyd, Marianne; Willems, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that fluency does not influence memory decisions until ages 7-8. In two experiments (n = 96 and n = 64, respectively), children, aged 4, 6, and 8 years (Experiments 1 and 2), and adults (Experiment 2) studied a list of pictures. Participants completed a recognition test during which each study item was preceded by a…

  7. Lexical Access in Persian Normal Speakers: Picture Naming, Verbal Fluency and Spontaneous Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sadat Ghoreishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Lexical access is the process by which the basic conceptual, syntactical and morpho-phonological information of words are activated. Most studies of lexical access have focused on picture naming. There is hardly any previous research on other parameters of lexical access such as verbal fluency and analysis of connected speech in Persian normal participants. This study investigates the lexical access performance in normal speakers in different issues such as age, sex and education. Methods: The performance of 120 adult Persian speakers in three tasks including picture naming, verbal fluency and connected speech, was examined using "Persian Lexical Access Assessment Package”. The performance of participants between two gender groups (male/female, three education groups (below 5 years, above 12 years, between 5 and 12 years and three age groups (18-35 years, 36-55 years, 56-75 years were compared. Results: According to findings, picture naming increased with increasing education and decreased with increasing age. The performance of participants in phonological and semantic verbal fluency showed improvement with age and education. No significant difference was seen between males and females in verbal fluency task. In the analysis of connected speech there were no significant differences between different age and education groups and just mean length of utterance in males was significantly higher than females. Discussion: The findings could be a primitive scale for comparison between normal subjects and patients in lexical access tasks, furthermore it could be a horizon for planning of treatment goals in patients with word finding problem according to age, gender and education.

  8. Astronomy LITE Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2006-12-01

    Project LITE (Light Inquiry Through Experiments) is a materials, software, and curriculum development project. It focuses on light, optics, color and visual perception. According to two recent surveys of college astronomy faculty members, these are among the topics most often included in the large introductory astronomy courses. The project has aimed largely at the design and implementation of hands-on experiences for students. However, it has also included the development of lecture demonstrations that employ novel light sources and materials. In this presentation, we will show some of our new lecture demonstrations concerning geometrical and physical optics, fluorescence, phosphorescence and polarization. We have developed over 200 Flash and Java applets that can be used either by teachers in lecture settings or by students at home. They are all posted on the web at http://lite.bu.edu. For either purpose they can be downloaded directly to the user's computer or run off line. In lecture demonstrations, some of these applets can be used to control the light emitted by video projectors to produce physical effects in materials (e.g. fluorescence). Other applets can be used, for example, to demonstrate that the human percept of color does not have a simple relationship with the physical frequency of the stimulating source of light. Project LITE is supported by Grant #DUE-0125992 from the NSF Division of Undergraduate Education.

  9. Verbal fluency in children with intellectual disability: Influence of basic executive components

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    Gligorović Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phonemic and semantic fluency tasks are frequently used to differentiate executive control roles and the integrity of lexical-semantic representation. The main goal of this study is to determine the influence of basic executive components on phonemic and semantic productivity in children with mild intellectual disability. The sample consisted of 95 children with unspecified mild intellectual disability (MID, ages 10-13.11. Phonemic fluency was assessed by the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT, while semantic fluency was assessed by the Category Naming Test (CNT. Cognitive flexibility was assessed by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and Trail Making Test (TMT. Number Manipulation Task (NMT was used for the verbal working memory assessment, while Day/Night Stroop Task was used for the assessment of inhibitory control. The results analysis showed that all of the assessed EF components significantly affect phonemic productivity. Semantic productivity significantly depends on WCST and TMT performance. Verbal working memory and inhibitory control do not significantly contribute to semantic productivity. The results of our study indicate that the discrepancy between phonemic and semantic productivity in children with MID could be directly associated with the basic executive functions components.

  10. Evaluation of fluency stent-grafts in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianbo; Li Yanhao; Chen Yong; He Xiaofeng; Zeng Qingle; Mei Quelin; Lu Wei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Fluency stent-graft (Bard Corp) in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Methods: The clinical data of 21 consecutive patients treated by TIPS using Fluency stent-grafts were retrospectively reviewed. All of them were recurrent variceal bleeding secondary to portal vein hypertension, 1 was bleeding secondary to primary hepatic carcinoma with port vein thrombus, and 1 was Budd-Chiari syndrome. They were followed-up after (10.1±4.6) months (2.0 to 24.0 months). Stent-grafts patancy, portal vein pressure and liver function were recorded and compared. Results: Twenty-five stent-grafts were successfully implanted in 21 patients, 23 stent grafts were 8 mm 2 were 10 mm in diameter. The covered length of the stents varied from 6 to 8 cm. The bleeding was stopped and the portal vein pressure decreased significantly from (25.4±3.5) mm Hg to (15.4±2.8) mm Hg (t= 12.495, P 0.05). Conclusion: The Fluency stent-grafts could increase the patency of the TIPS, but its efficacy on the long-term effect and hepatic encephalopathy need further investigation. (authors)

  11. The impact of language co-activation on L1 and L2 speech fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Christopher; Sprenger, Simone A; Schmid, Monika S

    2015-10-01

    Fluent speech depends on the availability of well-established linguistic knowledge and routines for speech planning and articulation. A lack of speech fluency in late second-language (L2) learners may point to a deficiency of these representations, due to incomplete acquisition. Experiments on bilingual language processing have shown, however, that there are strong reasons to believe that multilingual speakers experience co-activation of the languages they speak. We have studied to what degree language co-activation affects fluency in the speech of bilinguals, comparing a monolingual German control group with two bilingual groups: 1) first-language (L1) attriters, who have fully acquired German before emigrating to an L2 English environment, and 2) immersed L2 learners of German (L1: English). We have analysed the temporal fluency and the incidence of disfluency markers (pauses, repetitions and self-corrections) in spontaneous film retellings. Our findings show that learners to speak more slowly than controls and attriters. Also, on each count, the speech of at least one of the bilingual groups contains more disfluency markers than the retellings of the control group. Generally speaking, both bilingual groups-learners and attriters-are equally (dis)fluent and significantly more disfluent than the monolingual speakers. Given that the L1 attriters are unaffected by incomplete acquisition, we interpret these findings as evidence for language competition during speech production. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The Longitudinal Contribution of Early Morphological Awareness Skills to Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Greek

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    George Manolitsis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the role of three morphological awareness (MA skills (inflection, derivation, and compounding in word reading fluency and reading comprehension in a relatively transparent orthography (Greek. Two hundred and fifteen (104 girls; Mage = 67.40 months, at kindergarten Greek children were followed from kindergarten (K to grade 2 (G2. In K and grade 1 (G1, they were tested on measures of MA (two inflectional, two derivational, and three compounding, letter knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN, and general cognitive ability (vocabulary and non-verbal IQ. At the end of G1 and G2, they were also tested on word reading fluency and reading comprehension. The results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that the inflectional and derivational aspects of MA in K as well as all aspects of MA in G1 accounted for 2–5% of unique variance in reading comprehension. None of the MA skills predicted word reading fluency, after controlling for the effects of vocabulary and RAN. These findings suggest that the MA skills, even when assessed as early as in kindergarten, play a significant role in reading comprehension development.

  13. Subjective memory complaints and their relation with verbal fluency in active older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Flavia Rodrigues; Machado, Camila Kretzer; Souza, Monique Coan; Machado, Marcos José; Belaunde, Aline Megumi Arakawa

    2017-05-22

    To verify subjective memory complaints and their relation to verbal fluency in older people participating in community groups. An epidemiological quantitative study performed in community groups for older people in Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected by structured interview using the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) and the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT) by semantic categories "animals/minute". For an inferential descriptive analysis, data with p people in question and added to the questionnaire). We found no relation between subjective memory complaints and verbal fluency of active older people. Mnemonic complaints were correlated to the negative perception of memory and to the duration of the complaint. However, subjective memory complaints were an indicator for those individuals with negative perception of memory, being one aspect that must be considered in older people's speech when investigating a possible cognitive deterioration. Such data can assist in formulating public health care policies aimed at older people in the city, which emphasizes the importance of verifying subjective memory complaints in this population.

  14. Speech fluency profile on different tasks for individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste, Fabiola Staróbole; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2017-07-20

    To characterize the speech fluency profile of patients with Parkinson's disease. Study participants were 40 individuals of both genders aged 40 to 80 years divided into 2 groups: Research Group - RG (20 individuals with diagnosis of Parkinson's disease) and Control Group - CG (20 individuals with no communication or neurological disorders). For all of the participants, three speech samples involving different tasks were collected: monologue, individual reading, and automatic speech. The RG presented a significant larger number of speech disruptions, both stuttering-like and typical dysfluencies, and higher percentage of speech discontinuity in the monologue and individual reading tasks compared with the CG. Both groups presented reduced number of speech disruptions (stuttering-like and typical dysfluencies) in the automatic speech task; the groups presented similar performance in this task. Regarding speech rate, individuals in the RG presented lower number of words and syllables per minute compared with those in the CG in all speech tasks. Participants of the RG presented altered parameters of speech fluency compared with those of the CG; however, this change in fluency cannot be considered a stuttering disorder.

  15. ADHD and adolescent EFL learners’ speaking complexity, accuracy, and fluency in English

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    Hamid Marashi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt to investigate the relationships among Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and speaking complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF among Iranian EFL learners. To fulfill the purpose of this study, the teachers and parents of 593 male students were given the Farsi version of the CSI-4 ADHD diagnostic questionnaire, out of which 61 students scored above the cut-off score of nine in both the teacher and parent questionnaires. These students then sat for a sample speaking section of the Key English Test (KET; the interviews were scored by two raters according to the measures of CAF. The data were thus analyzed and the results revealed a significant positive correlation between ADHD and speaking fluency; in contrast, a significant negative correlation was observed between ADHD and speaking complexity and ADHD and speaking accuracy. The regressions disclosed that ADHD is a significant predictor of complexity, accuracy, and fluency in speaking. The findings of this study have pedagogical implications for both parents and teachers in contact with students with ADHD with respect to the importance of identifying such students and thus planning and monitoring their progress.

  16. Connected text reading and differences in text reading fluency in adult readers.

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    Sebastian Wallot

    Full Text Available The process of connected text reading has received very little attention in contemporary cognitive psychology. This lack of attention is in parts due to a research tradition that emphasizes the role of basic lexical constituents, which can be studied in isolated words or sentences. However, this lack of attention is in parts also due to the lack of statistical analysis techniques, which accommodate interdependent time series. In this study, we investigate text reading performance with traditional and nonlinear analysis techniques and show how outcomes from multiple analyses can used to create a more detailed picture of the process of text reading. Specifically, we investigate reading performance of groups of literate adult readers that differ in reading fluency during a self-paced text reading task. Our results indicate that classical metrics of reading (such as word frequency do not capture text reading very well, and that classical measures of reading fluency (such as average reading time distinguish relatively poorly between participant groups. Nonlinear analyses of distribution tails and reading time fluctuations provide more fine-grained information about the reading process and reading fluency.

  17. Prosody as a Tool for Assessing Reading Fluency of Adult ESL Students

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    Seftirina Evina Sinambela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The prosodic features in reading aloud assignment has been associated with the students’ decoding skill. The goal of the present study is to determine the reliability of prosody for assessing reading fluency of adult ESL students in Indonesia context. The participants were all Indonesian natives, undergraduate students, adult females and males who have learned English in school (at the very least twice a week for more than 12 years. Text reading prosody was assessed by reading aloud task and the students’ speaking manner was taped and measured by using the Multidimensional Fluency Scale, as for text comprehension was assessed with a standardized test. It was discovered by the current study that prosody is a reliable sign to determine reading fluency and also reading comprehension. The student who did not read the text prosodically (with appropriate expression actually showed that he/she failed to comprehend the text. This study also revealed that a struggling reader was also having low comprehension capacity in listening spoken texts. The ESL students’ common problems to acquire prosodic reading skill are low exposure to the target language and do not have a good model to imitate prosodic reading.

  18. Storytelling for Fluency and Flair: A Performance-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Terry; Hlusek, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In the classroom experiences described in this article, grade three students were introduced to storytelling through the interactive read aloud of a mentor text and a storytelling demonstration, followed by daily collaborative activities involving listening, speaking, reading, and writing, culminating in dramatic storytelling performances. The…

  19. Lexical-Semantic Search Under Different Covert Verbal Fluency Tasks: An fMRI Study

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    Yunqing Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Verbal fluency is a measure of cognitive flexibility and word search strategies that is widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function. Despite the wealth of research on identifying and characterizing distinct aspects of verbal fluency, the anatomic and functional substrates of retrieval-related search and post-retrieval control processes still have not been fully elucidated.Methods: Twenty-one native English-speaking, healthy, right-handed, adult volunteers (mean age = 31 years; range = 21–45 years; 9 F took part in a block-design functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI study of free recall, covert word generation tasks when guided by phonemic (P, semantic-category (C, and context-based fill-in–the-blank sentence completion (S cues. General linear model (GLM, Independent Component Analysis (ICA, and psychophysiological interaction (PPI were used to further characterize the neural substrate of verbal fluency as a function of retrieval cue type.Results: Common localized activations across P, C, and S tasks occurred in the bilateral superior and left inferior frontal gyrus, left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA, and left insula. Differential task activations were centered in the occipital, temporal and parietal regions as well as the thalamus and cerebellum. The context-based fluency task, i.e., the S task, elicited higher differential brain activity in a lateralized frontal-temporal network typically engaged in complex language processing. P and C tasks elicited activation in limited pathways mainly within the left frontal regions. ICA and PPI results of the S task suggested that brain regions distributed across both hemispheres, extending beyond classical language areas, are recruited for lexical-semantic access and retrieval during sentence completion.Conclusion: Study results support the hypothesis of overlapping, as well as distinct, neural networks for covert word generation when

  20. Improving Dorsal Stream Function in Dyslexics by Training Figure/Ground Motion Discrimination Improves Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether the cause of dyslexia is based on linguistic, auditory, or visual timing deficits. To investigate this issue three interventions were compared in 58 dyslexics in second grade (7 years on average), two targeting the temporal dynamics (timing) of either the auditory or visual pathways with a third reading intervention (control group) targeting linguistic word building. Visual pathway training in dyslexics to improve direction-discrimination of moving test patterns relative to a stationary background (figure/ground discrimination) significantly improved attention, reading fluency, both speed and comprehension, phonological processing, and both auditory and visual working memory relative to controls, whereas auditory training to improve phonological processing did not improve these academic skills significantly more than found for controls. This study supports the hypothesis that faulty timing in synchronizing the activity of magnocellular with parvocellular visual pathways is a fundamental cause of dyslexia, and argues against the assumption that reading deficiencies in dyslexia are caused by phonological deficits. This study demonstrates that visual movement direction-discrimination can be used to not only detect dyslexia early, but also for its successful treatment, so that reading problems do not prevent children from readily learning.

  1. Improving Dorsal Stream Function in Dyslexics By Training Figure/Ground Motion Discrimination Improves Reading Fluency, Attention, and Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri Lawton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate about whether the cause of dyslexia is based on linguistic, auditory, or visual timing deficits. To investigate this issue three interventions were compared in 58 dyslexics in second grade (7 years on average, two targeting the temporal dynamics (timing of either the auditory or visual pathways with a third reading intervention (control group using linguistic word building. Visual pathway training in dyslexics to improve direction-discrimination of moving test patterns relative to a stationary background (figure/ground discrimination significantly improved attention, reading fluency, both speed and comprehension, phonological processing, and both auditory and visual working memory relative to controls, whereas auditory training to improve phonological processing did not improve these academic skills significantly more than found for controls. This study supports the hypothesis that faulty timing in synchronizing the activity of magnocellular with parvocellular visual pathways is a fundamental cause of dyslexia, and argues against the assumption that reading deficiencies in dyslexia are caused by phonological deficits. This study demonstrates that visual movement direction-discrimination can be used to not only detect dyslexia early, but also for its successful treatment, so that reading problems do not prevent children from readily learning.

  2. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy reveals altered hemispheric laterality in relation to schizotypy during verbal fluency task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hiroaki; Ozeki, Yuji; Terada, Sumio; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2008-12-12

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia and those with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) show reduced laterality, or relative right hemispheric dominance, during the performance of cognitive activation tasks; however, neuroimaging studies looking at non-clinical schizotypy have been few. We have recently reported that schizotypal traits at a non-clinical level are associated with right prefrontal dominance during a letter version of the verbal fluency task (VFT), but it is unknown whether such relationship between schizotypy and functional laterality would be observed across various cognitive tasks. Here we examined the relationships of schizotypal traits as measured by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in healthy adults with hemispheric lateralization of prefrontal activation during letter and category VFTs, using near-infrared spectroscopy. Thirty-two participants were divided into high- (n=16) and low- (n=16) SPQ groups by the median split of the total SPQ score. The high-SPQ group, but not low-SPQ group, showed significantly right-greater-than-left asymmetry of prefrontal activation during letter VFT, whereas such pronounced hemispheric asymmetry in relation to schizotypy was not found during category VFT. These results indicate that non-clinical schizotypy is related to right prefrontal preference during the letter version of VFT in particular, suggesting that the association between schizotypal traits and functional laterality may vary depending on cognitive activation tasks.

  3. Modulating phonemic fluency performance in healthy subjects with transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left or right lateral frontal cortex.

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    Smirni, Daniela; Turriziani, Patrizia; Mangano, Giuseppa Renata; Bracco, Martina; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2017-07-28

    A growing body of evidence have suggested that non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can improve the performance of aphasic patients in language tasks. For example, application of inhibitory rTMS or tDCs over the right frontal lobe of dysphasic patients resulted in improved naming abilities. Several studies have also reported that in healthy controls (HC) tDCS application over the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) improve performance in naming and semantic fluency tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate in HC, for the first time, the effects of inhibitory repetitive TMS (rTMS) over left and right lateral frontal cortex (BA 47) on two phonemic fluency tasks (FAS or FPL). 44 right-handed HCs were administered rTMS or sham over the left or right lateral frontal cortex in two separate testing sessions, with a 24h interval, followed by the two phonemic fluency tasks. To account for possible practice effects, an additional 22 HCs were tested on only the phonemic fluency task across two sessions with no stimulation. We found that rTMS-inhibition over the left lateral frontal cortex significantly worsened phonemic fluency performance when compared to sham. In contrast, rTMS-inhibition over the right lateral frontal cortex significantly improved phonemic fluency performance when compared to sham. These results were not accounted for practice effects. We speculated that rTMS over the right lateral frontal cortex may induce plastic neural changes to the left lateral frontal cortex by suppressing interhemispheric inhibitory interactions. This resulted in an increased excitability (disinhibition) of the contralateral unstimulated left lateral frontal cortex, consequently enhancing phonemic fluency performance. Conversely, application of rTMS over the left lateral frontal cortex may induce a temporary, virtual lesion, with effects similar to those reported in left frontal

  4. Verbal fluency in male and female schizophrenia patients: Different patterns of association with processing speed, working memory span, and clinical symptoms.

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    Brébion, Gildas; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Ochoa, Susana; Nieto, Lourdes; Contel, Montserrat; Usall, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Decreased processing speed in schizophrenia patients has been identified as a major impairment factor in various neuropsychological domains. Working memory span has been found to be involved in several deep or effortful cognitive processes. We investigated the impact that these 2 cognitive functions may have on phonological and semantic fluency in schizophrenia patients and healthy participants. Fifty-five patients with schizophrenia and 60 healthy participants were administered a neuropsychological battery including phonological and semantic fluency, working memory, and cognitive and motor speed. Regression analyses revealed that motor speed was related to phonological fluency in female patients, whereas cognitive speed was related to semantic fluency in male patients. In addition, working memory span was related to verbal fluency in women from both the patient and the healthy control groups. Decreased processing speed, but not decreased working memory span, accounted for the verbal fluency deficit in patients. Verbal fluency was inversely related to attention deficit in female patients and to negative symptoms in male patients. Decreased processing speed may be the main factor in verbal fluency impairment of patients. Further, the cognitive and clinical predictors of verbal fluency efficiency are different in men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Flashing characters with famous faces improves ERP-based brain-computer interface performance

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    Kaufmann, T.; Schulz, S. M.; Grünzinger, C.; Kübler, A.

    2011-10-01

    Currently, the event-related potential (ERP)-based spelling device, often referred to as P300-Speller, is the most commonly used brain-computer interface (BCI) for enhancing communication of patients with impaired speech or motor function. Among numerous improvements, a most central feature has received little attention, namely optimizing the stimulus used for eliciting ERPs. Therefore we compared P300-Speller performance with the standard stimulus (flashing characters) against performance with stimuli known for eliciting particularly strong ERPs due to their psychological salience, i.e. flashing familiar faces transparently superimposed on characters. Our results not only indicate remarkably increased ERPs in response to familiar faces but also improved P300-Speller performance due to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences needed for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-Speller.

  6. Metamemory and memory for a wide range of font sizes: What is the contribution of perceptual fluency?

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    Undorf, Monika; Zimdahl, Malte F

    2018-04-26

    Words printed in a larger 48-point font are judged to be more memorable than words printed in a smaller 18-point font, although font size does not affect actual memory. To clarify the basis of this font size effect on metamemory and memory, 4 experiments investigated how presenting words in 48 (Experiment 1) or 4 (Experiments 2 to 4) font sizes between 6 point and 500 point affected judgments of learning (JOLs) and recall performance. Response times in lexical decision tasks were used to measure perceptual fluency. In all experiments, perceptual fluency was lower for words presented in very small and very large font sizes than for words presented in intermediate font sizes. In contrast, JOLs increased monotonically with font size, even beyond the point where a large font impaired perceptual fluency. Assessments of people's metacognitive beliefs about font size revealed that the monotonic increase in JOLs was not due to beliefs masking perceptual fluency effects (Experiment 3). Also, JOLs still increased across the whole range of font sizes when perceptual fluency was made salient at study (Experiment 4). In all experiments but Experiment 4, recall performance increased with increasing font size, although to a lesser extent than JOLs. Overall, the current study supports the idea that metacognitive beliefs underlie font size effects in metamemory. As important, it reveals that people's font size beliefs have some accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Effects of Metalinguistic Awareness on Reading Comprehension and the Mediator Role of Reading Fluency from Grades 2 to 4

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    Li, Liping; Wu, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the contribution of metalinguistic awareness including morphological awareness, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness to reading comprehension, and the role of reading fluency as a mediator of the effects of metalinguistic awareness on reading comprehension from grades 2 to 4. Methods Four hundred and fifteen elementary students in China mainland were administered a test battery that included measures of morphological awareness, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, reading fluency, reading comprehension and IQ. Hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM) were used to analyze the data. Results Morphological awareness uniquely explained 9%, 10% and 13% variance of reading comprehension respectively from grade 2 to grade 4, however, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness did not contribute to reading comprehension; Reading fluency partially mediated the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension in grades 2-4. Conclusions These findings indicated that reading fluency and morphological awareness should be facilitated in the Chinese instruction. Morphological awareness played an important role in Chinese reading and affected reading comprehension in grades 2 to 4; Reading fluency was a significant link between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in grades 2-4. PMID:25799530

  8. The role of working memory and fluency practice on the reading comprehension of students who are dysfluent readers.

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    Swanson, H Lee; O'Connor, Rollanda

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether practice in reading fluency had a causal influence on the relationship between working memory (WM) and text comprehension for 155 students in Grades 2 and 4 who were poor or average readers. Dysfluent readers were randomly assigned to repeated reading or continuous reading practice conditions and compared with untreated dysfluent and fluent readers on posttest measures of fluency, word identification, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Three main findings emerged: (a) The influence of WM on text comprehension was not related to fluency training, (b) dysfluent readers in the continuous-reading condition had higher posttest scores than dysfluent readers in the other conditions on measures of text comprehension but not on vocabulary, and (c) individual differences in WM better predicted posttest comprehension performance than word-attack skills. In general, the results suggested that although continuous reading increased comprehension, fluency practice did not compensate for WM demands. The results were interpreted within a model that viewed reading comprehension processes as competing for a limited supply of WM resources that operate independent of fluency.

  9. Exploring depression, self-esteem and verbal fluency with different degrees of internet addiction among Chinese college students.

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    Nie, Jia; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore depression, self-esteem and verbal fluency functions among normal internet users, mild internet addictions and severe internet addictions. The survey sample consisted of 316 college students, and their internet addiction symptoms, depression and self-esteem symptoms were assessed using the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. From this sample, 16 students with non-addictions, 19 students with mild internet addiction (sub-MIA) and 15 students with severe internet addiction (sub-SIA) were recruited and subjected to the classical verbal fluency tests, including the semantic and phonemic fluency task. The results indicated that severe internet addiction in the survey sample showed the highest tendency towards depressive symptoms and lowest self-esteem scores, and sub-SIA showed poor performance on the semantic fluency task. In conclusion, severe internet addiction was significantly associated with depression, low self-esteem and semantic verbal fluency problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fluency aspects of oral narrative task in del22q11.2 syndrome.

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    Santos, Amanda Oliveira; Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Tandel, Maria da Conceição Faria Freitas; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Giacheti, Célia Maria

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the fluency aspects of the oral narrative task in individuals with del22q11.2 syndrome and compare them with those of individuals with typical language development. Fifteen individuals diagnosed with del22q11.2 syndrome, both genders, aged 7-17 years participated in this study. They were compared with 15 individuals with typical language development, with similar gender and chronological age profiles. The oral narrative was elicited using the book "Frog, Where Are You?", and the fluency aspects were analyzed according to speech rate and type and frequency of disfluency (typical and stuttering). The number and duration of pauses were also investigated. The data were statistically analyzed. The group with del22q11.2 syndrome showed a higher average when compared with the group without the syndrome for the percentage of typical disfluencies, mainly hesitation and revision. The group presenting the syndrome also showed a higher average for stuttering disfluencies, with pause as the most frequent disfluency. With respect to speech rate, the group with the syndrome presented a lower average for the number of words and syllables per minute. Individuals with del22q11.2 syndrome showed greater difficulties of narration than their peers. The fluency aspects of the oral narrative task in subjects with del22q11.2 syndrome were similar to those of individuals with typical language development regarding the presence of hesitation, revision, and pause, but they were different with respect to frequency of disfluency, which was higher in individuals with the syndrome.

  11. Rapid naming, phonological memory and reading fluency in Brazilian bilingual students.

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    Fleury, Fernanda Oppenheimer; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the performance of Brazilian students exposed to two languages in reading fluency, phonological memory, and rapid naming, according to grade level, and to investigate correlations between these variables. Sixty students took part in this study (50% female), enrolled in the third to the fifth grades of two elementary schools of the city of São Paulo. They constituted two groups - bilingual group: 30 Brazilian children whose mother tongue and language spoken at home was Brazilian Portuguese and who were daily exposed to English at school for a period not shorter than three years; monolingual group: 30 students, from a monolingual Brazilian elementary school, who were paired by gender, age, and grade level with the bilingual students. Foreign children, children with complaint or indication of speech and language disorder, or who had been retained were excluded. A rapid automatized naming, pseudoword repetition, and oral reading tests were administered. The bilingual children were assessed in both languages and their performances were compared among themselves and with the monolingual group, which was only assessed in Brazilian Portuguese. The bilingual group showed better performance in English, rapid naming, and pseudoword repetition tasks, whereas Brazilian Portuguese, in reading fluency. A higher number of correlations were found in Brazilian Portuguese. The results suggest that the acquisition of a second language may positively influence the abilities of rapid naming, reading rate, and accuracy. Brazilian bilingual students performed better in tasks of phonological memory in English and Brazilian Portuguese performed better in reading fluency. Different correlation patterns were found between the rapid naming, accuracy, and reading rate, in the bilingual group analysis, in both languages.

  12. The role of reading fluency in children’s text comprehension

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    Marta eÁlvarez-Cañizo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding a written text requires some higher cognitive abilities that not all children have. Some children have these abilities, since they understand oral texts; however they have difficulties with written texts, probably due to problems in reading fluency. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of reading fluency are related to reading comprehension. Four expositive texts, two written and two read by the evaluator, were presented to a sample of 103 primary school children (third and sixth grade. Each text was followed by four comprehension questions. From this sample we selected two groups of participants in each grade, 10 with good results in comprehension of oral and written texts, and 10 with good results in oral and poor in written comprehension. These 40 subjects were asked to read aloud a new text while they were recorded. Using Praat software some prosodic parameters were measured, such as pausing and reading rate (number and duration of the pauses and utterances, pitch and intensity changes and duration in declarative, exclamatory and interrogative sentences and also errors and duration in words by frequency and stress. We compared the results of both groups with ANOVAs. The results showed that children with less reading comprehension made more inappropriate pauses and also intersentential pauses before comma than the other group and made more mistakes in content words; significant differences were also found in the final declination of pitch in declarative sentences and in the F0 range in interrogative ones. These results confirm that reading comprehension problems in children are related to a lack in the development of a good reading fluency.

  13. Reframing less conventional speech to disrupt conventions of "compulsory fluency": A conversation analysis approach

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    Camille Duque

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose is to illuminate compliances with, and resistances to, what we are calling "compulsory fluency" which we define as conventions for what constitutes competent speech. We achieve our purpose through a study of day-to-day communication between a woman with less conventional speech and her support providing family members and friends. Drawing from McRuer's (2006 compulsory ablebodiedness and Kafer's (2013 compulsory able-mindedness, we use "compulsory fluency" to refer to a form of articulation that is standardized and idealized and imposed on all speakers including those whose speech is less conventional. We see compulsory fluency as central to North American conceptions of personhood which are tied to individual ability to speak for one's self (Brueggemann, 2005. In this paper, we trace some North American principles for linguistic competence to outline widely held ideals of receptive and expressive language use, namely, conventions for how language should be understood and expressed. Using Critical Disability Studies (Goodley, 2013; McRuer, 2006 together with a feminist framework of relational autonomy (Nedelsky, 1989, our goal is to focus on experiences of people with less conventional speech and draw attention to power in communication as it flows in idiosyncratic and intersubjective fashion (Mackenzie & Stoljar, 2000; Westlund, 2009. In other words, we use a critical disability and feminist framing to call attention to less conventional forms of communication competence and, in this process, we challenge assumptions about what constitutes competent speech. As part of a larger qualitative study, we conduct a conversation analysis informed by Rapley and Antaki (1996 to examine day-to-day verbal, vocal and non-verbal communications of a young woman who self identifies as "having autism" - pseudonym Addison - in interaction with her support-providing family members and friends. We illustrate a multitude of Addison's compliances with

  14. Fluency of pharmaceutical drug names predicts perceived hazardousness, assumed side effects and willingness to buy.

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    Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The impact of pharmaceutical drug names on people's evaluations and behavioural intentions is still uncertain. According to the representativeness heuristic, evaluations should be more positive for complex drug names; in contrast, fluency theory suggests that evaluations should be more positive for simple drug names. Results of three experimental studies showed that complex drug names were perceived as more hazardous than simple drug names and negatively influenced willingness to buy. The results are of particular importance given the fact that there is a worldwide trend to make more drugs available for self-medication. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Processing Fluency and Decision-Making: The Role of Language Structure

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    Deckert Mikołaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper models conventionalisation of language structure as constitutive of processing fluency. I postulate that the difference in conventionalisation of linguistic forms used for communication significantly influences our reasoning about linguistically-expressed problems. Two studies are reported that tested this hypothesis with the use of variably conventionalised - fluent and disfluent - formulations of problem-solving tasks. Th e findings indicate that even in tasks requiring analytic reasoning, the degree to which the linguistic forms employed to communicate are conventionalised is correlated with the subjects’ performance success rate. On a more general level, this paper seeks to empirically address the nature of links between linguistic form and meaning construction.

  16. Demonstration of osmotically dependent promotion of aerenchyma formation at different levels in the primary roots of rice using a ‘sandwich’ method and X-ray computed tomography

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    Karahara, Ichirou; Umemura, Konomi; Soga, Yuumi; Akai, Yuki; Bando, Tadafumi; Ito, Yuko; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Uesugi, Kentaro; Abe, Jun; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The effect of environmental factors on the regulation of aerenchyma formation in rice roots has been discussed for a long time, because aerenchyma is constitutively formed under aerated conditions. To elucidate this problem, a unique method has been developed that enables sensitive detection of differences in the development of aerenchyma under two different environmental conditions. The method is tested to determine whether aerenchyma development in rice roots is affected by osmotic stress. Methods To examine aerenchyma formation both with and without mannitol treatment in the same root, germinating rice (Oryza sativa) caryopses were sandwiched between two agar slabs, one of which contained 270 mm of mannitol. The roots were grown touching both slabs and were thereby exposed unilaterally to osmotic stress. As a non-invasive approach, refraction contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) using a third-generation synchrotron facility, SPring-8 (Super photon ring 8 GeV, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute), was used to visualize the three-dimensional (3-D) intact structure of aerenchyma and its formation in situ in rice roots. The effects of unilateral mannitol treatment on the development of aerenchyma were quantitatively examined using conventional light microscopy. Key Results Structural continuity of aerenchyma was clearly visualized in 3-D in the primary root of rice and in situ using X-ray CT. Light microscopy and X-ray CT showed that the development of aerenchyma was promoted on the mannitol-treated side of the root. Detailed light microscopic analysis of cross-sections cut along the root axis from the tip to the basal region demonstrated that aerenchyma developed significantly closer to the root tip on the mannitol-treated side of the root. Conclusions Continuity of the aerenchyma along the rice root axis was morphologically demonstrated using X-ray CT. By using this ‘sandwich’ method it was shown that mannitol promoted

  17. Cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortex predicts multiple sclerosis patients' fluency performance in a lateralised manner

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    Olivia Geisseler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is as an important feature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS, and might be even more relevant to patients than mobility restrictions. Compared to the multitude of studies investigating memory deficits or basic cognitive slowing, executive dysfunction is a rarely studied cognitive domain in MS, and its neural correlates remain largely unexplored. Even rarer are topological studies on specific cognitive functions in MS. Here we used several structural MRI parameters – including cortical thinning and T2 lesion load – to investigate neural correlates of executive dysfunction, both on a global and a regional level by means of voxel- and vertex-wise analyses. Forty-eight patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 48 healthy controls participated in the study. Five executive functions were assessed, i.e. verbal and figural fluency, working memory, interference control and set shifting. Patients scored lower than controls in verbal and figural fluency only, and displayed widespread cortical thinning. On a global level, cortical thickness independently predicted verbal fluency performance, when controlling for lesion volume and central brain atrophy estimates. On a regional level, cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate region correlated with deficits in verbal and figural fluency and did so in a lateralised manner: Left-sided thinning was related to reduced verbal – but not figural – fluency, whereas the opposite pattern was observed for right-sided thinning. We conclude that executive dysfunction in MS patients can specifically affect verbal and figural fluency. The observed lateralised clinico-anatomical correlation has previously been described in brain-damaged patients with large focal lesions only, for example after stroke. Based on focal grey matter atrophy, we here show for the first time comparable lateralised findings in a white matter disease with widespread pathology.

  18. Text (Oral) Reading Fluency as a Construct in Reading Development: An Investigation of Its Mediating Role for Children from Grades 1 to 4

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    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Wagner, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated a developmentally changing role of text reading fluency in mediating the relations of word reading fluency and listening comprehension to reading comprehension. We addressed this question by using longitudinal data from Grades 1 to 4 and employing structural equation models. Results showed that the role of text…

  19. The Role of Word Recognition, Oral Reading Fluency and Listening Comprehension in the Simple View of Reading: A Study in an Intermediate Depth Orthography

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    Cadime, Irene; Rodrigues, Bruna; Santos, Sandra; Viana, Fernanda Leopoldina; Chaves-Sousa, Séli; do Céu Cosme, Maria; Ribeiro, Iolanda

    2017-01-01

    Empirical research has provided evidence for the simple view of reading across a variety of orthographies, but the role of oral reading fluency in the model is unclear. Moreover, the relative weight of listening comprehension, oral reading fluency and word recognition in reading comprehension seems to vary across orthographies and schooling years.…

  20. The Relations among Oral and Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Middle School: Implications for Identification and Instruction of Students with Reading Difficulties

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    Denton, Carolyn A.; Barth, Amy E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Cirino, Paul T.; Romain, Melissa; Francis, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations among oral and silent reading fluency and reading comprehension for students in Grades 6 to 8 (n = 1,421) and the use of fluency scores to identify middle school students who are at risk for failure on a high-stakes reading test. Results indicated moderate positive relations between…

  1. Test Review: Reynolds, C. R., Voress, J. V., Kamphaus, R. W. (2015), "Mathematics Fluency and Calculation Tests (MFaCTs) review." PRO-ED

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    Marbach, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    The Mathematics Fluency and Calculation Tests (MFaCTs) are a series of measures designed to assess for arithmetic calculation skills and calculation fluency in children ages 6 through 18. There are five main purposes of the MFaCTs: (1) identifying students who are behind in basic math fact automaticity; (2) evaluating possible delays in arithmetic…

  2. Cognitive Processes that Account for Mental Addition Fluency Differences between Children Typically Achieving in Arithmetic and Children At-Risk for Failure in Arithmetic

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    Berg, Derek H.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether processing speed, short-term memory, and working memory accounted for the differential mental addition fluency between children typically achieving in arithmetic (TA) and children at-risk for failure in arithmetic (AR). Further, we drew attention to fluency differences in simple (e.g., 5 + 3) and complex (e.g., 16 +…

  3. Untimed Design Fluency in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Psychometrics and Normative Data.

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    Sunderaraman, Preeti; Sokolov, Elisaveta; Cines, Sarah; Sullo, Elizabeth; Orly, Aidan; Lerer, Bianca; Karlawish, Jason; Huey, Edward; Cosentino, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Design fluency tests, commonly used in both clinical and research contexts to evaluate nonverbal concept generation, have the potential to offer useful information in the differentiation of healthy versus pathological aging. Although normative data for older adults (OAs) are available for multiple timed versions of this test, similar data have been unavailable for a previously published untimed test, the Graphic Pattern Generation Test (GPG). Time constraints common to almost all of the available design fluency tests may cloud interpretation of higher-level executive abilities-for example, in individuals with slow processing speed. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the GPG and presents normative data in a sample of 167 healthy OAs and 110 individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Results suggest that a brief version of the GPG can be administered reliably and that this short form has high test-retest and interrater reliability. Number of perseverations was higher in individuals with AD as compared with OAs. A cutoff score of 4 or more perseverations showed a moderate degree of sensitivity (76%) and specificity (37%) in distinguishing individuals with AD and OAs. Finally, perseverations were associated with nonmemory indexes, thereby underscoring the nonverbal nature of this error in OAs and individuals with AD.

  4. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of semantic verbal fluency in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

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    Jaimes-Bautista, A G; Rodríguez-Camacho, M; Martínez-Juárez, I E; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y

    2017-08-29

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) perform poorly on semantic verbal fluency (SVF) tasks. Completing these tasks successfully involves multiple cognitive processes simultaneously. Therefore, quantitative analysis of SVF (number of correct words in one minute), conducted in most studies, has been found to be insufficient to identify cognitive dysfunction underlying SVF difficulties in TLE. To determine whether a sample of patients with TLE had SVF difficulties compared with a control group (CG), and to identify the cognitive components associated with SVF difficulties using quantitative and qualitative analysis. SVF was evaluated in 25 patients with TLE and 24 healthy controls; the semantic verbal fluency test included 5 semantic categories: animals, fruits, occupations, countries, and verbs. All 5 categories were analysed quantitatively (number of correct words per minute and interval of execution: 0-15, 16-30, 31-45, and 46-60seconds); the categories animals and fruits were also analysed qualitatively (clusters, cluster size, switches, perseverations, and intrusions). Patients generated fewer words for all categories and intervals and fewer clusters and switches for animals and fruits than the CG (Psize and number of intrusions and perseverations (P>.05). Our results suggest an association between SVF difficulties in TLE and difficulty activating semantic networks, impaired strategic search, and poor cognitive flexibility. Attention, inhibition, and working memory are preserved in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Patterns of brain atrophy associated with episodic memory and semantic fluency decline in aging.

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    Pelletier, Amandine; Bernard, Charlotte; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Helmer, Catherine; Le Goff, Melanie; Chanraud, Sandra; Dartigues, Jean-François; Allard, Michèle; Amieva, Hélène; Catheline, Gwénaëlle

    2017-03-09

    The cerebral substratum of age-related cognitive decline was evaluated in an elderly-cohort followed for 12 years (n=306). Participants, free of dementia, received neuropsychological assessments every two years and an MRI exam at baseline and four years later. Cognitive decline was evaluated on two broadly used tests to detect dementia: the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), a verbal episodic memory task, and the Isaacs Set Test (IST), a semantic fluency task. Using voxel-based approach, the relationship between cognitive decline with 1/ baseline grey matter volumes and 2/ grey matter volume loss between the two scans was explored. Baseline volumes analysis revealed that FCSRT and IST declines were both associated with lower volumes of the medial temporal region. Volumes loss analysis confirmed that both declines are related to medial temporal lobe atrophy and revealed that FCSRT decline was specifically associated with atrophy of the posterior cingulate cortex whereas IST decline was specifically related to temporal pole atrophy. These results suggest that cognitive decline across aging is firstly related to structural modifications of the medial temporal lobe, followed by an atrophy in the posterior midline structures for episodic memory and an atrophy of the temporal pole for semantic fluency.

  6. Oral reading fluency analysis in patients with Alzheimer disease and asymptomatic control subjects.

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    Martínez-Sánchez, F; Meilán, J J G; García-Sevilla, J; Carro, J; Arana, J M

    2013-01-01

    Many studies highlight that an impaired ability to communicate is one of the key clinical features of Alzheimer disease (AD). To study temporal organisation of speech in an oral reading task in patients with AD and in matched healthy controls using a semi-automatic method, and evaluate that method's ability to discriminate between the 2 groups. A test with an oral reading task was administered to 70 subjects, comprising 35 AD patients and 35 controls. Before speech samples were recorded, participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. There were no differences between groups with regard to age, sex, or educational level. All of the study variables showed impairment in the AD group. According to the results, AD patients' oral reading was marked by reduced speech and articulation rates, low effectiveness of phonation time, and increases in the number and proportion of pauses. Signal processing algorithms applied to reading fluency recordings were shown to be capable of differentiating between AD patients and controls with an accuracy of 80% (specificity 74.2%, sensitivity 77.1%) based on speech rate. Analysis of oral reading fluency may be useful as a tool for the objective study and quantification of speech deficits in AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of motivation on academic fluency performance in survivors of pediatric medulloblastoma.

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    Holland, Alice Ann; Hughes, Carroll W; Harder, Lana; Silver, Cheryl; Bowers, Daniel C; Stavinoha, Peter L

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed previously that extrinsic motivation may enable survivors of childhood medulloblastoma to significantly improve aspects of neurocognitive performance. In healthy populations, enhanced motivation has been shown to promote academic fluency, a domain likely more relevant to the educational outcomes of pediatric medulloblastoma survivors than academic skill development. The present study investigates the effect of enhanced extrinsic motivation on fluent (i.e., accurate and efficient) academic performance in pediatric medulloblastoma survivors. Participants were 36 children, ages 7-18, who had completed treatment for medulloblastoma. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery that included administration of equivalent tasks on Forms A and B of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Half were randomly assigned to an incentive condition prior to the administration of Form B. Provision of a performance-based incentive resulted in statistically significant improvement, but not normalization of function, in performance on measures of academic fluency. No demographic, treatment-related, academic, neuropsychological, or self-perception variables predicted response to incentive. Findings suggest that academic performance of survivors may significantly improve under highly motivating conditions. In addition to implications for educational services, this finding raises the novel possibility that decreased motivation represents an inherent neuropsychological deficit in this population and provides a rationale for further investigation of factors affecting individual differences in motivational processes. Further, by examining effort in a context where effort is not inherently suspect, present findings also significantly contribute to the debate regarding the effects of effort and motivation on neuropsychological performance.

  8. Sex differences and autism: brain function during verbal fluency and mental rotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix D C C Beacher

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females. This suggests that the neurobiology of autism: 1 may overlap with mechanisms underlying typical sex-differentiation or 2 alternately reflect sex-specificity in how autism is expressed in males and females. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to test these alternate hypotheses. Fifteen men and fourteen women with Asperger syndrome (AS, and sixteen typically developing men and sixteen typically developing women underwent fMRI during performance of mental rotation and verbal fluency tasks. All groups performed the tasks equally well. On the verbal fluency task, despite equivalent task-performance, both males and females with AS showed enhanced activation of left occipitoparietal and inferior prefrontal activity compared to controls. During mental rotation, there was a significant diagnosis-by-sex interaction across occipital, temporal, parietal, middle frontal regions, with greater activation in AS males and typical females compared to AS females and typical males. These findings suggest a complex relationship between autism and sex that is differentially expressed in verbal and visuospatial domains.

  9. Video self-modeling as a post-treatment fluency recovery strategy for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, Jessica; Langevin, Marilyn; Kully, Deborah

    2015-06-01

    This multiple-baseline across subjects study investigated the effectiveness of video self-modeling (VSM) in reducing stuttering and bringing about improvements in associated self-report measures. Participants' viewing practices and perceptions of the utility of VSM also were explored. Three adult males who had previously completed speech restructuring treatment viewed VSM recordings twice per week for 6 weeks. Weekly speech data, treatment viewing logs, and pre- and post-treatment self-report measures were obtained. An exit interview also was conducted. Two participants showed a decreasing trend in stuttering frequency. All participants appeared to engage in fewer avoidance behaviors and had less expectations to stutter. All participants perceived that, in different ways, the VSM treatment had benefited them and all participants had unique viewing practices. Given the increasing availability and ease in using portable audio-visual technology, VSM appears to offer an economical and clinically useful tool for clients who are motivated to use the technology to recover fluency. Readers will be able to describe: (a) the tenets of video-self modeling; (b) the main components of video-self modeling as a fluency recovery treatment as used in this study; and (c) speech and self-report outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sex differences and autism: brain function during verbal fluency and mental rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacher, Felix D C C; Radulescu, Eugenia; Minati, Ludovico; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Walker, Anne; Howard, Dawn; Gray, Marcus A; Harrison, Neil A; Critchley, Hugo D

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females. This suggests that the neurobiology of autism: 1) may overlap with mechanisms underlying typical sex-differentiation or 2) alternately reflect sex-specificity in how autism is expressed in males and females. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test these alternate hypotheses. Fifteen men and fourteen women with Asperger syndrome (AS), and sixteen typically developing men and sixteen typically developing women underwent fMRI during performance of mental rotation and verbal fluency tasks. All groups performed the tasks equally well. On the verbal fluency task, despite equivalent task-performance, both males and females with AS showed enhanced activation of left occipitoparietal and inferior prefrontal activity compared to controls. During mental rotation, there was a significant diagnosis-by-sex interaction across occipital, temporal, parietal, middle frontal regions, with greater activation in AS males and typical females compared to AS females and typical males. These findings suggest a complex relationship between autism and sex that is differentially expressed in verbal and visuospatial domains.

  11. Fluency or Accuracy - Two Different ‘Colours’ in Writing Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listyani Listyani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluency and accuracy. These two things have victoriously won many teachers’ attention at tertiary level. In the case of writing, these two remain debatable, and have always attracted many people, both lecturers’ and students’ attention. These language production measures have distracted many lecturers’ concentration: should they be faithful to fluency of ideas, or grammatical and language accuracy in correcting students’ essays? This paper tries to present the classical yet never-ending dilemmatic conflicts within the area of writing assessment. This debate still remains interesting to follow. Data were gained from close observation on documents, that is, 21 students’ essays and interviews with 2 students of Academic Writing in Semester II, 2015-2016. Four writing lecturers were also interviewed for their intellectual and critical opinions on these dilemmatic problems in assessing writing. Discussion results of FGD (Forum Group Discussion involving all writing lecturers at the English Education Study Program at the Faculty of Language and Literature of Satya Wacana Christian University which were held in June, 2016, were also included as source of data. Hopefully, this paper gives a little more “colour” in the area of writing assessment, and gives a little enlightenment for other writing lecturers.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2016.190201

  12. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature on pac...

  13. NAEP 1996 Trends in Writing: Fluency and Writing Conventions. Holistic and Mechanics Scores in 1984 and 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballator, Nada; Farnum, Marisa; Kaplan, Bruce

    Supplementary to "NAEP 1996 Trends in Academic Progress," this report describes two aspects of writing for which change has been measured since 1984: writing fluency as determined by holistic scoring; and mastery of the conventions of written English as determined by mechanics scoring. The introduction discusses the layout and means of…

  14. Improving Second Grade Student's Reading Fluency and Comprehension Using Teacher-Guided iPad® App Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redcay, Jessica D.; Preston, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the differences in second grade students' reading fluency and comprehension scores when using varying levels of teacher-guided iPad® app instruction to determine effective reading practices. Design/methodology/approach: This study reports the results of the quasi-experimental pre-post study by providing…

  15. What is measured with verbal fluency tests in Parkinson's disease patients at different stages of the disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerts, Janneke; Meijer, Hester A.; Colman, Katrien S. F.; Tucha, Lara; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    Verbal fluency tests (VFT) are often used to assess executive functioning in Parkinson's disease (PD). Various cognitive functions may, however, impair performance on VFT. Furthermore, since PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, it is also not clear whether deficits on VFT reflect

  16. Why so fast? : An investigation of the cognitive and affective processes underlying successful and failing development of reading fluency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeguers, M.H.T.

    2017-01-01

    The studies in this thesis aimed to improve our understanding of cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the development of reading fluency, both in Dutch typical and dyslexic readers. In typical readers we investigated the timing of orthography-phonology integration. Time course analyses of

  17. How Problems of Reading Fluency and Comprehension Are Related to Difficulties in Syntactic Awareness Skills among Fifth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Thompson, H. Brian

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we assessed and analyzed 5th grade students' levels of syntactic awareness in relation to their reading fluency and comprehension. The aim was to examine the role of syntactic awareness (children's awareness of the syntactic structure of sentences and their ability to reflect on and manipulate that structure) as a potential source…

  18. Exploring Relationships between Oral Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension amongst English Second Language Readers in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Elizabeth J.; Spaull, Nic

    2016-01-01

    Most analyses of oral reading fluency (ORF) are based on L1 reading, and the norms that have been developed in English are based on first language reading data. This is problematic for developing countries where many children are learning in English as a second language. The aim of the present study is to model the relationship between English…

  19. Toward a New Process-Based Indicator for Measuring Writing Fluency: Evidence from L2 Writers' Think-Aloud Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study aimed at testing the hypothesis that, because of strategic and temporal variables, composing rate and text quantity may not be valid measures of writing fluency. A second objective was to validate the mean length of writers' translating episodes as a process-based indicator that mirrors their fluent written…

  20. The Effectiveness of Neurological Impress Method on Reading Fluency of Students with Learning Disabilities in Amman, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadat, Ayed H.; AL-Awan, Mohammad Soud A.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Neurological Impress Method (NIM) on reading fluency of students with learning disabilities in Amman, Jordan. A sample of forty students (boys and girls) between the ages 10-12 years old with learning disabilities were selected from the Fourth Amman Educational Directorate in the Hashemite…

  1. The Effects of a Reader's Theater Instructional Intervention on Second Grade Students' Reading Fluency and Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Diane D.

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 75% of students who are poor readers in third grade continue to be lower achieving readers in ninth grade. The National Reading Panel has identified fluency as a prominent cause of reading comprehension problems which ultimately affect overall reading development. The purpose of this study was to test the theoretical framework of…

  2. Designing and standardization of Persian version of verbal fluency test among Iranian bilingual (Turkish-Persian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study aims to design and standardize the verbal fluency test (VFT among bilingual (Turkish-Persian adolescents in Tabriz, Iran. METHODS: In the designing stage, 190 adolescents who were already selected randomly from among the guidance and high school students in Tabriz were classified into three age groups (11-12, 13-15, 16-18. The screening test including 33 Persian letters and three ‘animal’, ‘fruit’, and ‘supermarket stuff’ categories, and SDQ was administered to them. The results were the three letters ‘M’, ‘D’, and ‘B’ for phonological fluency, and two ‘animal’ and ‘supermarket stuff’ categories for semantic fluency in the Persian language. In the standardization stage, the letters and categories specified in the designing stage were administered in the same order to 302 adolescents. Moreover, 28 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD were selected to estimate the discriminant validity of VFT. RESULTS: Pearson correlation coefficient between test-retest of the three letters ‘M’, ‘D’, and ‘B’ for phonological fluency were estimated at 0.67, 0.66, and 0.75, respectively. Furthermore, for the two categories of ‘animal’ and ‘supermarket stuff’ it was estimated to be 0.80 and 0.65, respectively. All these amounts were significant (P < 0.01. The discriminant validity, which was estimated through comparison between the scores of normal and ADHD adolescents, showed that the obtained t value for all indices except for the letter ‘B’ was meaningful. The results of MANOVA between two gender groups were significant at P < 0.05 for three ‘M’, ‘D’, and ‘B’ variables of verbal fluency and ‘animal’ semantic fluency. In both verbal and semantic fluency the mean of subjects’ performance scores showed that females outperformed males. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study indicated that VFT is reliable in the studied sample group, and has a valid psychometric

  3. A case study of university students' use of flickr photographic networking to develop confidence, English language fluency and shape world consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Graham

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One class of 4th year English major students who are part of the Bachelor of Education program at Udon Thani Rajabhat University volunteered to participate in a project designed to increase their writing fluency whilst exposing them to different people and cultures in Southeast Asia. A secondary objective was to give an enjoyable task based exercise in the use of computers and the internet, with the social responsibilities that this involves. This project was designed to give these students the chance to investigate different cultures and to promote their own in a safe environment by using the Flickr photographic networking program on the internet; to make contact and exchange ideas and cultures with students from Bali, Hong Kong and Japan. At the time of writing, this is still a work in progress; however, early indications are that students have benefited from this type of social interaction as they are experiencing better understanding of other cultures and beliefs, whilst increasing their computer skills. In addition, this project has widened the horizons of many of the students resulting in what is hoped to be a more pragmatic view of the environment, humanity and equity, beyond sustainability.

  4. Validity study of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test in the identification of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-bo SHI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To identify the sensitivity and specificity of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test (ACFT differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD from normal controls.  Methods A total of 121 MCI patients, 104 AD patients and 104 healthy controls, who were matched in sex, age and education level, were enrolled in this study. They performed Animal Category Verbal Fluency Test (AFT, City Category Verbal Fluency Test (CFT and ACFT. A series of standard neuropsychological tests were also administered to reflect episodic memory, verbal ability, working memory, executive function and processing speed. The validity and related influencing factors of ACFT was evaluated.  Results Compared with control group, the ACFT correct number in MCI and AD groups reduced significantly (P = 0.000, 0.000. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve revealed the sensitivity and specificity of ACFT in discriminating MCI (P = 0.012, 0.030 and AD (P = 0.004, 0.003 from normal controls were higher than those of AFT and CFT. There was no correlation of correct number in ACFT with age and education (P > 0.05, for all. The correlations of ACFT with Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT, Digital Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, Shape Trail Test (STT and Digit Span Test (DS, all of which reflected attention and executive function, were significantly closer than those of AFT and CFT (P < 0.05, for all. Conclusions ACFT is more efficient in early cognitive impairment identification than the other traditional category verbal fluency tests. It is a new variant form of category verbal fluency test that could assess cognitive function and could be broadly applied in clinical practice. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.010

  5. Using principal component analysis to capture individual differences within a unified neuropsychological model of chronic post-stroke aphasia: Revealing the unique neural correlates of speech fluency, phonology and semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Ajay D; Woollams, Anna M; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2017-01-01

    Individual differences in the performance profiles of neuropsychologically-impaired patients are pervasive yet there is still no resolution on the best way to model and account for the variation in their behavioural impairments and the associated neural correlates. To date, researchers have generally taken one of three different approaches: a single-case study methodology in which each case is considered separately; a case-series design in which all individual patients from a small coherent group are examined and directly compared; or, group studies, in which a sample of cases are investigated as one group with the assumption that they are drawn from a homogenous category and that performance differences are of no interest. In recent research, we have developed a complementary alternative through the use of principal component analysis (PCA) of individual data from large patient cohorts. This data-driven approach not only generates a single unified model for the group as a whole (expressed in terms of the emergent principal components) but is also able to capture the individual differences between patients (in terms of their relative positions along the principal behavioural axes). We demonstrate the use of this approach by considering speech fluency, phonology and semantics in aphasia diagnosis and classification, as well as their unique neural correlates. PCA of the behavioural data from 31 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia resulted in four statistically-independent behavioural components reflecting phonological, semantic, executive-cognitive and fluency abilities. Even after accounting for lesion volume, entering the four behavioural components simultaneously into a voxel-based correlational methodology (VBCM) analysis revealed that speech fluency (speech quanta) was uniquely correlated with left motor cortex and underlying white matter (including the anterior section of the arcuate fasciculus and the frontal aslant tract), phonological skills with

  6. Fluency in Parkinson?s disease: disease duration, cognitive status and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Casagrande Brabo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of occurrence and to characterize the typology of dysfluencies in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD, including the variables age, gender, schooling, disease duration, score on the Hoehn and Yahr scale and cognitive status (score on Mini-Mental State Examination. A cross-sectional study of a sample comprising 60 adults matched for gender, age and schooling was conducted. Group I comprised 30 adults with idiopathic PD, and Group II comprised 30 healthy adults. For assessment of fluency of speech, subjects were asked to utter a narrative based on a sequence of drawings and a transcription of 200 fluent syllables was performed to identify speech dysfluencies. PD patients exhibited a higher overall number of dysfluencies in speech with a large number of atypical dysfluencies. Additionally, results showed an influence of the variables cognitive status, disease duration and age on occurrence of dysfluencies.

  7. Investigating language lateralization during phonological and semantic fluency tasks using functional transcranial Doppler sonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Payne, Heather; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2015-01-01

    Although there is consensus that the left hemisphere plays a critical role in language processing, some questions remain. Here we examine the influence of overt versus covert speech production on lateralization, the relationship between lateralization and behavioural measures of language performance and the strength of lateralization across the subcomponents of language. The present study used functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) to investigate lateralization of phonological and semantic fluency during both overt and covert word generation in right-handed adults. The laterality index (LI) was left lateralized in all conditions, and there was no difference in the strength of LI between overt and covert speech. This supports the validity of using overt speech in fTCD studies, another benefit of which is a reliable measure of speech production. PMID:24875468

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLEXITY, ACCURACY, AND FLUENCY IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ WRITTEN FOREIGN LANGUAGE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchaib Benzehaf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to longitudinally depict the dynamic and interactive development of Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency (CAF in multilingual learners’ L2 and L3 writing. The data sources include free writing tasks written in L2 French and L3 English by 45 high school participants over a period of four semesters. CAF dimensions are measured using a variation of Hunt’s T-units (1964. Analysis of the quantitative data obtained suggests that CAF measures develop differently for learners’ L2 French and L3 English. They increase more persistently in L3 English, and they display the characteristics of a dynamic, non-linear system characterized by ups and downs particularly in L2 French. In light of the results, we suggest more and denser longitudinal data to explore the nature of interactions between these dimensions in foreign language development, particularly at the individual level.

  9. The influence of negative stimulus features on conflict adaption:Evidence from fluency of processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eFritz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive control enables adaptive behavior in a dynamically changing environment. In this context, one prominent adaptation effect is the sequential conflict adjustment, i.e. the observation of reduced response interference on trials following conflict trials. Increasing evidence suggests that such response conflicts are registered as aversive signals. So far, however, the functional role of this aversive signal for conflict adaptation to occur has not been put to test directly. In two experiments, the affective valence of conflict stimuli was manipulated by fluency of processing (stimulus contrast. Experiment 1 used a flanker interference task, Experiment 2 a color-word Stroop task. In both experiments, conflict adaptation effects were only present in fluent, but absent in disfluent trials. Results thus speak against the simple idea that any aversive stimulus feature is suited to promote specific conflict adjustments. Two alternative but not mutually exclusive accounts, namely resource competition and adaptation-by-motivation, will be discussed.

  10. The absoluteness of semantic processing: lessons from the analysis of temporal clusters in phonemic verbal fluency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Vonberg

    Full Text Available For word production, we may consciously pursue semantic or phonological search strategies, but it is uncertain whether we can retrieve the different aspects of lexical information independently from each other. We therefore studied the spread of semantic information into words produced under exclusively phonemic task demands.42 subjects participated in a letter verbal fluency task, demanding the production of as many s-words as possible in two minutes. Based on curve fittings for the time courses of word production, output spurts (temporal clusters considered to reflect rapid lexical retrieval based on automatic activation spread, were identified. Semantic and phonemic word relatedness within versus between these clusters was assessed by respective scores (0 meaning no relation, 4 maximum relation.Subjects produced 27.5 (±9.4 words belonging to 6.7 (±2.4 clusters. Both phonemically and semantically words were more related within clusters than between clusters (phon: 0.33±0.22 vs. 0.19±0.17, p<.01; sem: 0.65±0.29 vs. 0.37±0.29, p<.01. Whereas the extent of phonemic relatedness correlated with high task performance, the contrary was the case for the extent of semantic relatedness.The results indicate that semantic information spread occurs, even if the consciously pursued word search strategy is purely phonological. This, together with the negative correlation between semantic relatedness and verbal output suits the idea of a semantic default mode of lexical search, acting against rapid task performance in the given scenario of phonemic verbal fluency. The simultaneity of enhanced semantic and phonemic word relatedness within the same temporal cluster boundaries suggests an interaction between content and sound-related information whenever a new semantic field has been opened.

  11. The Effect of Word Meaning on Speech DysFluency in Adults with Developmental Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Masumi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stuttering is one of the most prevalent speech and language disorders. Symptomology of stuttering has been surveyed from different aspects such as biological, developmental, environmental, emotional, learning and linguistic. Previous researches in English-speaking people have suggested that some linguistic features such as word meanings may play a role in the frequency of speech non-fluency in people who stutter. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of word meanings on the frequency of dysfluency in Persian-speaking adults with developmental stuttering. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was performed on 14 adults who stuttered. Their average age was 25 years. The frequency of non-fluency instances was evaluated upon reading two lists containing 60 words and 60 non-words. The words were selected on the basis of common Persian syllable structures. ‘Kolmogoro-Smirnov one sample test’ and paired t-test was used to analyze data the significance level was set at P<0.05. Results:There was a significant difference between the dysfluency in word and non-word lists (P<0.05. Discussion: The findings of this study indicate a significant increase in the frequency of dysfluency on non-words than on real words. It seems that the phonological encodingprocess of non-word reading is much more complex than for word reading, because, in non-word reading, the component of semantic content retrieval (word meaning is missing when compared to word reading.

  12. Predicting factors of verbal fluency and the effects of stereotype threat and boost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Verbal Fluency (VF tasks are often utilised to assist in the neuropsychological assessment of cognitive impairment and diagnosis of cognitive disorders. VF performance can also provide information about an individual’s vocabulary and speed of cognitive processes. In order to further develop our understanding of predictors of VF, this study explored how age, education and time spent reading and writing can affect performance. Furthermore, this study investigated the effects of a stereotype threat (STT or boost (STB. Method: VF tasks (pre and post stereotype manipulation were administrated to 30 adults with 15 receiving a STT and 15 receiving a STB. The stereotype threat/boost was activated by informing participants that they read and wrote less/more than their peers. Results: Medium to strong positive correlations (with some being significant were found between education level and both the number of words generated and with word commonality scores (i.e. how common the words were for these participants. Negative medium to weak correlations were found between age and both the number of words generated and with commonality scores. There was also a significant interaction showing that the words generated by a category prompt were less common following a STB and more common following a STT. Conclusions: These results support those of previous literature in regards to the respective impacts of education and age on VF. Furthermore, the impacts found of age and education on the commonality of words generated provides information on the nature of their influences. Lastly, the present study sheds light on the potential effects of STT and STB on verbal fluency.

  13. How online learning modules can improve the representational fluency and conceptual understanding of university physics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M.; Sharma, M. D.; Johnston, H.

    2015-07-01

    The use of online learning resources as core components of university science courses is increasing. Learning resources range from summaries, videos, and simulations, to question banks. Our study set out to develop, implement, and evaluate research-based online learning resources in the form of pre-lecture online learning modules (OLMs). The aim of this paper is to share our experiences with those using, or considering implementing, online learning resources. Our first task was to identify student learning issues in physics to base the learning resources on. One issue with substantial research is conceptual understanding, the other with comparatively less research is scientific representations (graphs, words, equations, and diagrams). We developed learning resources on both these issues and measured their impact. We created weekly OLMs which were delivered to first year physics students at The University of Sydney prior to their first lecture of the week. Students were randomly allocated to either a concepts stream or a representations stream of online modules. The programme was first implemented in 2013 to trial module content, gain experience and process logistical matters and repeated in 2014 with approximately 400 students. Two validated surveys, the Force and Motion Concept Evaluation (FMCE) and the Representational Fluency Survey (RFS) were used as pre-tests and post-tests to measure learning gains while surveys and interviews provided further insights. While both streams of OLMs produced similar positive learning gains on the FMCE, the representations-focussed OLMs produced higher gains on the RFS. Conclusions were triangulated with student responses which indicated that they have recognized the benefit of the OLMs for their learning of physics. Our study shows that carefully designed online resources used as pre-instruction can make a difference in students’ conceptual understanding and representational fluency in physics, as well as make them more aware

  14. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  15. Authoring Effective Demonstrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Dan; Jensen, Randy; Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Ramachandran, Sowmya; Upshaw, Christin L; Hinkelman, Elizabeth; Lampton, Don

    2007-01-01

    ... or human role-players for each training event. We report our ongoing efforts to (1) research the nature and purpose of demonstration, articulating guidelines for effective demonstration within a training context, and (2...

  16. Comparing Demonstratives in Kwa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a comparative study of demonstrative forms in three K wa languages, ... relative distance from the deictic centre, such as English this and that, here and there. ... Mostly, the referents of demonstratives are 'activated' or at least.

  17. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  18. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  19. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  20. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David

    2007-01-01

    the situation. The concept of palpable computing, introduced by the PalCom project, denotes systems which support such understandability. In PalCom, a set of prototype scenarios provide input for an open software architecture and a conceptual framework for palpable computing. One of these prototype scenarios...... their configuration and cope with breakdown situations. The prototype implementation runs on a standard PC simulating the network layer and a first reference implementation has been made on the target embedded platform....

  1. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  2. Phonemic verbal fluency task in adults with high-level literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opasso, Patrícia Romano; Barreto, Simone Dos Santos; Ortiz, Karin Zazo

    2016-01-01

    To establish normative parameters for the F-A-S form of the phonemic verbal fluency test, in a population of Brazilian Portuguese speaking adults with high-level literacy. The sample comprised 40 male and female volunteers aged 19 to 59 years, and at least 8 years of formal education. Volunteers were first submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing cognitive screening tests, then to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test; in this test, examinees were given 60 seconds to generate as many words as possible beginning with each of the three test letters. The means for number of words beginning the letters F, A and S and for total number of words beginning with either letter generated per minute corresponded to 15.3, 14.4, 13.9 and 43.5, respectively. Reference values obtained from young adults with high levels of literacy submitted to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test in this study were similar to those reported in the international literature. These reference values can be used for clinical assessment of language disorder and neuropsychological evaluation. Obter parâmetros de normalidade na tarefa de fluência verbal fonêmica, versão F-A-S, em uma população de alto letramento de adultos falantes do português brasileiro. A amostra foi constituída por 40 voluntários, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 19 e 59 anos, e com mais de 8 anos de estudo. Todos os voluntários foram inicialmente submetidos ao Miniexame do Estado Mental e ao Teste do Desenho do Relógio, para fins de rastreio cognitivo, e, então, ao Teste de Fluência Verbal Fonêmica F-A-S. Neste último, os indivíduos foram orientados a produzirem o maior número de palavras que conseguissem, iniciadas com cada uma das três letras ditas pelo examinador, em um intervalo de 60 segundos cada. As médias das palavras produzidas com as letras F-A-S foram as seguintes: "F" = 15,3 palavras por minuto; "A" = 14,4 palavras por minuto; e "S" = 13,9 palavras por minuto. A m

  3. Semantic Memory Organization in Japanese Patients With Schizophrenia Examined With Category Fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Sumiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDisorganization of semantic memory in patients with schizophrenia has been studied by referring to their category fluency performance. Recently, data-mining techniques such as singular value decomposition (SVD analysis have been reported to be effective in elucidating the latent semantic memory structure in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to investigate semantic memory organization in patients with schizophrenia using a novel method based on data-mining approach.MethodCategory fluency data were collected from 181 patients with schizophrenia and 335 healthy controls at the Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University. The 20 most frequently reported animals were chosen for SVD analysis. In the two-dimensional (2D solution, item vectors (i.e., animal names were plotted in the 2D space of each group. In the six-dimensional (6D solution, inter-item similarities (i.e., cosines were calculated among items. Cosine charts were also created for the six most frequent items to show the similarities to other animal items.ResultsIn the 2D spatial representation, the six most frequent items were grouped in the same clusters (i.e., dog, cat as pet cluster, lion, tiger as wild/carnivorous cluster, and elephant, giraffe as wild/herbivorous cluster for patients and healthy adults. As for 6D spatial cosines, the correlations (Pearson’s r between 17 items commonly generated in the two groups were moderately high. However, cosine charts created for the three pairs from the six most frequent animals (dog–cat, lion–tiger, elephant–giraffe showed that pair-wise similarities between other animals were less salient in patients with schizophrenia.DiscussionSemantic memory organization in patients with schizophrenia, revealed by SVD analysis, did not appear to be seriously impaired in the 2D space representation, maintaining a clustering structure similar to that in healthy controls for common animals. However, the coherence of those

  4. Auditory demonstrations simulating Mayan architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, David

    2005-09-01

    Fascination with the ancient temples and ball court at Chichen Itza provide rich opportunities for science education. Children of all ages are delighted to learn that the sound of handclaps scattered from long temple staircases are transformed into bird chirps. Their engagement in such seemingly magical phenomena provides magic moments for teaching acoustical principals, including the picket-fence effect (PFE). PFE transforms impulsive sounds scattered from spatially periodic structures into tonal sounds. PFE is demonstrated with a computer possessing a sound card and a simple sound editing program. The inverse relationship between tonal frequency and the time interval between periodic impulses is easily demonstrated. The number of impulses needed to produce an audible tone is easily demonstrated and compared with the number of steps on the staircase. Transformation of audible tones into downward-gliding chirps is simulated by monotonically increasing the time between impulses. The Great Ball Court also provides opportunities for acoustical demonstration. Observers clapping their hands while standing between the long, tall, and parallel walls of the playing field marvel at the profound flutter echo heard for about 1.5 s. The flutter echo sonogram demonstrates the speed of sound and frequency-selective atmospheric attenuation.

  5. Modeling individual differences in text reading fluency: a different pattern of predictors for typically developing and dyslexic readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi eZoccolotti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at predicting individual differences in text reading fluency. The basic proposal included two factors, i.e., the ability to decode letter strings (measured by discrete pseudo-word reading and integration of the various sub-components involved in reading (measured by Rapid Automatized Naming, RAN. Subsequently, a third factor was added to the model, i.e., naming of discrete digits. In order to use homogeneous measures, all contributing variables considered the entire processing of the item, including pronunciation time. The model, which was based on commonality analysis, was applied to data from a group of 43 typically developing readers (11- to 13-year-olds and a group of 25 chronologically matched dyslexic children. In typically developing readers, both orthographic decoding and integration of reading sub-components contributed significantly to the overall prediction of text reading fluency. The model prediction was higher (from ca. 37% to 52% of the explained variance when we included the naming of discrete digits variable, which had a suppressive effect on pseudo-word reading. In the dyslexic readers, the variance explained by the two-factor model was high (69% and did not change when the third factor was added. The lack of a suppression effect was likely due to the prominent individual differences in poor orthographic decoding of the dyslexic children. Analyses on data from both groups of children were replicated by using patches of colours as stimuli (both in the RAN task and in the discrete naming task obtaining similar results. We conclude that it is possible to predict much of the variance in text-reading fluency using basic processes, such as orthographic decoding and integration of reading sub-components, even without taking into consideration higher-order linguistic factors such as lexical, semantic and contextual abilities. The approach validity of using proximal vs distal causes to predict reading fluency is

  6. What makes icons appealing? The role of processing fluency in predicting icon appeal in different task contexts.

    OpenAIRE

    McDougall, S.; Reppa, I.; Kulik, J.; Taylor, A.

    2016-01-01

    Although icons appear on almost all interfaces, there is a paucity of research examining the determinants of icon appeal. The experiments reported here examined the icon characteristics determining appeal and the extent to which processing fluency - the subjective ease with which individuals process information - was used as a heuristic to guide appeal evaluations. Participants searched for, and identified, icons in displays. The initial appeal of icons was held constant while ease of process...

  7. A dual-process perspective on fluency-based aesthetics: the pleasure-interest model of aesthetic liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Laura K M; Landwehr, Jan R

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we develop an account of how aesthetic preferences can be formed as a result of two hierarchical, fluency-based processes. Our model suggests that processing performed immediately upon encountering an aesthetic object is stimulus driven, and aesthetic preferences that accrue from this processing reflect aesthetic evaluations of pleasure or displeasure. When sufficient processing motivation is provided by a perceiver's need for cognitive enrichment and/or the stimulus' processing affordance, elaborate perceiver-driven processing can emerge, which gives rise to fluency-based aesthetic evaluations of interest, boredom, or confusion. Because the positive outcomes in our model are pleasure and interest, we call it the Pleasure-Interest Model of Aesthetic Liking (PIA Model). Theoretically, this model integrates a dual-process perspective and ideas from lay epistemology into processing fluency theory, and it provides a parsimonious framework to embed and unite a wealth of aesthetic phenomena, including contradictory preference patterns for easy versus difficult-to-process aesthetic stimuli. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  8. The frontal-anatomic specificity of design fluency repetitions and their diagnostic relevance for behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possin, Katherine L; Chester, Serana K; Laluz, Victor; Bostrom, Alan; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H

    2012-09-01

    On tests of design fluency, an examinee draws as many different designs as possible in a specified time limit while avoiding repetition. The neuroanatomical substrates and diagnostic group differences of design fluency repetition errors and total correct scores were examined in 110 individuals diagnosed with dementia, 53 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 37 neurologically healthy controls. The errors correlated significantly with volumes in the right and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the right and left superior frontal gyrus, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the right striatum, but did not correlate with volumes in any parietal or temporal lobe regions. Regression analyses indicated that the lateral OFC may be particularly crucial for preventing these errors, even after excluding patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from the analysis. Total correct correlated more diffusely with volumes in the right and left frontal and parietal cortex, the right temporal cortex, and the right striatum and thalamus. Patients diagnosed with bvFTD made significantly more repetition errors than patients diagnosed with MCI, Alzheimer's disease, semantic dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, or corticobasal syndrome. In contrast, total correct design scores did not differentiate the dementia patients. These results highlight the frontal-anatomic specificity of design fluency repetitions. In addition, the results indicate that the propensity to make these errors supports the diagnosis of bvFTD. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1-11).

  9. A cross-cultural investigation of inhibitory control, generative fluency, and anxiety symptoms in Romanian and Russian preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheie, Lavinia; Veraksa, Aleksander; Zinchenko, Yuri; Gorovaya, Alexandra; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The current study focused on the early development of inhibitory control in 5- to 7-year-old children attending kindergarten in two Eastern-European countries, Romania and Russia. These two countries share many aspects of child-rearing and educational practices, previously documented to influence the development of inhibitory control. Using the Lurian-based developmental approach offered by the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment battery, the study aimed to contribute to cross-cultural developmental neuropsychology by exploring (a) early interrelationships between subcomponents of inhibitory control (response suppression and attention control) and generative fluency (verbal and figural) in these two cultures, as well as (b) the predictive value of external factors (culture and maternal education) and individual differences (age, gender, nonverbal intelligence, trait anxiety) on inhibitory control and fluency outcomes in children from both countries. First, findings in both culture samples suggest that even at this young age, the construct of inhibitory control cannot be considered a unitary entity. Second, differences in maternal education were not predictive of either inhibitory control or fluency scores. However, children's attention control performance varied as a function of culture, and the direction of these cultural effects differed by whether the target outcome involved performance accuracy versus efficiency as an output. Findings also confirmed the previously documented intensive developmental improvement in preschoolers' inhibitory control during this period, influencing measures of response suppression and particularly attention control. Finally, the results further stress the importance of individual differences effects in trait anxiety on attention control efficiency across cultures.

  10. The Effects of a Single Night of Sleep Deprivation on Fluency and Prefrontal Cortex Function during Divergent Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshin eVartanian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal and ventral aspects of the prefrontal cortex (PFC are the two regions most consistently recruited in divergent thinking tasks. Given that frontal tasks have been shown to be vulnerable to sleep loss, we explored the impact of a single night of sleep deprivation on fluency (i.e., number of generated responses and PFC function during divergent thinking. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scanning twice while engaged in the Alternate Uses Task (AUT—once following a single night of sleep deprivation and once following a night of normal sleep. They also wore wrist activity monitors, which enabled us to quantify daily sleep and model cognitive effectiveness. The intervention was effective, producing greater levels of fatigue and sleepiness. Modelled cognitive effectiveness and fluency were impaired following sleep deprivation, and sleep deprivation was associated with greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus during AUT. The results suggest that an intervention known to temporarily compromise frontal function can impair fluency, and that this effect is instantiated in the form of an increased haemodynamic response in the left inferior frontal gyrus.

  11. Information fluency for undergraduate biology majors: applications of inquiry-based learning in a developmental biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Kathleen M; Eastman, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    Many initiatives for the improvement of undergraduate science education call for inquiry-based learning that emphasizes investigative projects and reading of the primary literature. These approaches give students an understanding of science as a process and help them integrate content presented in courses. At the same time, general initiatives to promote information fluency are being promoted on many college and university campuses. Information fluency refers to discipline-specific processing of information, and it involves integration of gathered information with specific ideas to form logical conclusions. We have implemented the use of inquiry-based learning to enhance and study discipline-specific information fluency skills in an upper-level undergraduate Developmental Biology course. In this study, an information literacy tutorial and a set of linked assignments using primary literature analysis were integrated with two inquiry-based laboratory research projects. Quantitative analysis of student responses suggests that the abilities of students to identify and apply valid sources of information were enhanced. Qualitative assessment revealed a set of patterns by which students gather and apply information. Self-assessment responses indicated that students recognized the impact of the assignments on their abilities to gather and apply information and that they were more confident about these abilities for future biology courses and beyond.

  12. Second-Grade Urban Learners: Preliminary Findings for a Computer-Assisted, Culturally Relevant, Repeated Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jessica G.; Gardner, Ralph, III; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Ramnath, Rajiv; Council, Morris R., III

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a multicomponent, supplemental intervention on the reading fluency of second-grade African-American urban students who showed reading and special education risk. The packaged intervention combined repeated readings and culturally relevant stories, delivered through a novel computer software program to enhance…

  13. Innovative technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.; Hinchee, R.

    1992-04-01

    The Innovative Technology Demonstration (ITD) program at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, will demonstrate the overall utility and effectiveness of innovative technologies for site characterization, monitoring, and remediation of selected contaminated test sites. The current demonstration test sites include a CERCLA site on the NPL list, located under a building (Building 3001) that houses a large active industrial complex used for rebuilding military aircraft, and a site beneath and surrounding an abandoned underground tank vault used for storage of jet fuels and solvents. The site under Building 3001 (the NW Test Site) is contaminated with TCE and Cr +6 ; the site with the fuel storage vault (the SW Tanks Site) is contaminated with fuels, BTEX and TCE. These sites and others have been identified for cleanup under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). This document describes the demonstrations that have been conducted or are planned for the TAFB

  14. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LCRD is a minimum two year flight demonstration in geosynchronous Earth orbit to advance optical communications technology toward infusion into Deep Space and Near...

  15. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  16. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  17. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities

  18. The effects of actors vocal exercises for relaxation on fluency: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, Emily; Sawyer, Jean; Sivek-Eskra, Alyssa

    2017-12-01

    To determine the efficacy of treatment based on Kristin Linklater's technique for vocal preparation for performance for use with people who stutter. A protocol for a treatment for stuttering involving breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and focus on awareness was designed by the first author from Linklater's published exercises in her book Freeing the Natural Voice (2006). Four adults who stutter participated in a 12-week, single-case reversal design study. Treatment efficacy was determined by baseline and post-treatment measures on the OASES, self-report naturalness, tension and severity scale, and percentage of stuttering-like disfluency (SLD). Qualitative measures included a daily tension and practice log, a program completion questionnaire, and accounts from the clinicians administering the treatment protocol. Three of four participants scored lower on the OASES post-treatment, suggesting that the impact of stuttering on their daily lives had decreased. All four experienced a reduction in the number of SLD counted throughout treatment sessions compared to baseline data. A treatment for stuttering based on Linklater's work including regulation of breathing, relaxation, and awareness of breath may be effective in improving fluency and decreasing the impact of stuttering and warrants further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Absolute pitch among students in an American music conservatory: association with tone language fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Diana; Dooley, Kevin; Henthorn, Trevor; Head, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to name a musical note in the absence of a reference note, is extremely rare in the U.S. and Europe, and its genesis is unclear. The prevalence of AP was examined among students in an American music conservatory as a function of age of onset of musical training, ethnicity, and fluency in speaking a tone language. Taking those of East Asian ethnicity, the performance level on a test of AP was significantly higher among those who spoke a tone language very fluently compared with those who spoke a tone language fairly fluently and also compared with those who were not fluent in speaking a tone language. The performance level of this last group did not differ significantly from that of Caucasian students who spoke only nontone language. Early onset of musical training was associated with enhanced performance, but this did not interact with the effect of language. Further analyses showed that the results could not be explained by country of early music education. The findings support the hypothesis that the acquisition of AP by tone language speakers involves the same process as occurs in the acquisition of a second tone language.

  20. Phonatory vocal tract stability in stuttering children before and after fluency--enhancing therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehqan, A; Ali Dashti, G; Mirzadeh, M

    2010-01-01

    Stuttering is a complex disorder. Essentially, it is a neuromuscular disorder whose core consists of tiny lags and disruptions in the timing of the complicated movements required for speech. The purpose of the current study was to collec and comparg jitters and shimmer values in children who stutter before and after fluency--enhancing therapy. Subjects consisted of 15 Iranian preschool girls with stutterg, and 15 Iranial preschool girls without afflictions, matched according to age. Vocal jittering and shimmer measurements of thesphonation of the children were compared before and after therapy. Each subject phonated vowels nine times in a random order. Each phonation was sustained for at least five seconds and was recorded. The middle three-second portion of each recorded vowel phonation was subjected to jitter and shimmer analysis. On shimmer measures between pre-treatment and post treatment, significant differences were found in all sustained vowels of persons who stutter group and means of shimmer in post therapy were significantly lower than pre-treatment. Differences in jitter measurements were not significant between pre-treatment and post-treatment statuses and this parameter did not change after therapy. The findings showed that therapy resulted in decreaseg irregularity in the amplitude of vibrations (shimmer). In other words, the therapy increases the steady-state of the laryngeal system. Moreover, this parameter may be used as an index for the effectiveness of therapy.

  1. The effect of the COMT val(158)met polymorphism on neural correlates of semantic verbal fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Axel; Markov, Valentin; Sheldrick, Abigail; Krach, Sören; Jansen, Andreas; Zerres, Klaus; Eggermann, Thomas; Stöcker, Tony; Shah, N Jon; Kircher, Tilo

    2009-12-01

    Variation in the val(158)met polymorphism of the COMT gene has been found to be associated with cognitive performance. In functional neuroimaging studies, this dysfunction has been linked to signal changes in prefrontal areas. Given the complex modulation and functional heterogeneity of frontal lobe systems, further specification of COMT gene-related phenotypes differing in prefrontally mediated cognitive performance are of major interest. Eighty healthy individuals (54 men, 26 women; mean age 23.3 years) performed an overt semantic verbal fluency task while brain activation was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). COMT val(158)met genotype was determined and correlated with brain activation measured with fMRI during the task. Although there were no differences in performance, brain activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus [Brodmann area 10] was positively correlated with the number of val alleles in the COMT gene. COMT val(158)met status modulates brain activation during the language production on a semantic level in an area related to executive functions.

  2. Assessing reading comprehension with narrative and expository texts: Dimensionality and relationship with fluency, vocabulary and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sandra; Cadime, Irene; Viana, Fernanda L; Chaves-Sousa, Séli; Gayo, Elena; Maia, José; Ribeiro, Iolanda

    2017-02-01

    Reading comprehension assessment should rely on valid instruments that enable adequate conclusions to be taken regarding students' reading comprehension performance. In this article, two studies were conducted to collect validity evidence for the vertically scaled forms of two Tests of Reading Comprehension for Portuguese elementary school students in the second to fourth grades, one with narrative texts (TRC-n) and another with expository ones (TRC-e). Two samples of 950 and 990 students participated in Study 1, the study of the dimensionality of the TRC-n and TRC-e forms, respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence of an acceptable fit for the one-factor solution for all test forms. Study 2 included 218 students to collect criterion-related validity. The scores obtained in each of the test forms were significantly correlated with the ones obtained in other reading comprehension measures and with the results obtained in oral reading fluency, vocabulary and working memory tests. Evidence suggests that the test forms are valid measures of reading comprehension. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    Demonstration projects are often used in the building sector to provide a basis for using new processes and/or products. The climate change agenda implies that construction is not only required to deliver value for the customer, cost reductions and efficiency but also sustainable buildings....... This paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses......, and micro combined heat and power using hydrogen. Using sociological and business economic theories of innovation, the paper discusses how early movers of innovation tend to obtain only partial success when demonstrating their products and often feel obstructed by minor details. The empirical work...

  4. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  5. Biodenitrification demonstration test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benear, A.K.; Murray, S.J.; Lahoda, E.J.; Leslie, J.W.; Patton, J.B.; Menako, C.R.

    1987-08-01

    A two-column biodenitrification (BDN) facility was constructed at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) in 1985 and 1986 to test the feasibility of biological treatment for industrial nitrate-bearing waste water generated at FMPC. This demonstration facility comprises one-half of the proposed four-column production facility. A demonstration test was conducted over a four month period in 1987. The results indicate the proposed BDN production facility can process FMPC industrial wastewater in a continuous manner while maintaining an effluent that will consistently meet the proposed NPDES limits for combined nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO 2 -N). The proposed NPDES limits are 62 kg/day average and 124 kg/day maximum. These limits were proportioned to determine that the two-column demonstration facility should meet the limits of 31 kg/day average and 62 kg/day maximum

  6. Distributed picture compilation demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Richard; Anderson, John; Leal, Jeff; Mullin, David; Nicholson, David; Watson, Graham

    2004-08-01

    A physical demonstration of distributed surveillance and tracking is described. The demonstration environment is an outdoor car park overlooked by a system of four rooftop cameras. The cameras extract moving objects from the scene, and these objects are tracked in a decentralized way, over a real communication network, using the information form of the standard Kalman filter. Each node therefore has timely access to the complete global picture and because there is no single point of failure in the system, it is robust. The demonstration system and its main components are described here, with an emphasis on some of the lessons we have learned as a result of applying a corpus of distributed data fusion theory and algorithms in practice. Initial results are presented and future plans to scale up the network are also outlined.

  7. Photovoltaic demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J; Kaut, W [eds.

    1991-01-01

    This book, the proceedings of the fourth PV-Contractors' Meeting organized by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy, held at Brussels on 21 and 22 November 1989, provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported in the framework of the Energy Demonstration Program since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1983, 1984, 1985 and 1986, describing progress with their projects. Summaries of the discussions held at the meeting, which included contractors whose projects were submitted in 1987, are also presented. The different technologies which are being demonstrated concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include desalination, communications, dairy farms, water pumping, and warning systems. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  8. Electric vehicle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellet, M. [National Centre for Advanced Transportation, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The desirable characteristics of Canadian projects that demonstrate vehicle use in real-world operation and the appropriate mechanism to collect and disseminate the monitoring data were discussed in this presentation. The scope of the project was on passenger cars and light duty trucks operating in plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) or battery electric vehicle modes. The presentation also discussed the funding, stakeholders involved, Canadian travel pattern analysis, regulatory framework, current and recent electric vehicle demonstration projects, and project guidelines. It was concluded that some demonstration project activities may have been duplicated as communication between the proponents was insufficient. It was recommended that data monitoring using automatic data logging with minimum reliance on logbooks and other user entry should be emphasized. figs.

  9. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.

    1992-08-01

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ

  10. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Hartley, J.N.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1992-04-01

    Currently, several innovative technologies are being demonstrated at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB) to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells have been successfully installed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site to test new methods of in situ remediation of soils and ground water. This emerging technology was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. A demonstration of two in situ sensor systems capable of providing real-time data on contamination levels will be conducted and evaluated concurrently with the SGE demonstration activities. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ

  11. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  12. Photovoltaic demonstration projects 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J [Halcrow (William) and Partners, Swindon (UK); Kaut, W [eds.

    1989-01-01

    This book, the proceedings of the third Photovoltaic Contractors' Meeting organised by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported by the Energy Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1983, 1984 and 1985, describing progress with their projects. The different technologies which are being demonstrated concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include powering of houses, villages, recreation centres, water desalination, communications, dairy farms, water pumping and warning systems. (author).

  13. Inseparable Phone Books Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation…

  14. PHARUS ASAR demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Bree, R.J.P. van; Calkoen, C.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2001-01-01

    PHARUS is a polarimetric phased array C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), designed and built for airborne use. Advanced SAR (ASAR) data in image and alternating polarization mode have been simulated with PHARUS to demonstrate the use of Envisat for a number of typical SAR applications that are

  15. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  16. Clinical study on the cardiac hemodynamics and the possibility of demonstration of the left intraatrial thrombi by echocardiography, angiocardiography and computed tomography and the neurological symptoms in patients with heart disorder and cerebral embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kazuo

    1987-03-01

    In an attempt to elucidate risk factors for developing cerebral embolism (CE) in patients with heart disease, hemodynamic, sonographic or radiologic, and neurologic manifestations of heart disease developing into CE were retrospectively analyzed in 44 patients with CE and 122 patients with mitral valve disease (MVD). The most common underlying disease of CE was valve disease (50 %), followed by myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, and infectious endocarditis. In MVD patients, risk factors for CE were considered to be atrial fibrillation, mitral stenosis, and intraatrial thrombi. Combined use of various imaging modalities revealed the presence of intraatrial thrombi in 65 % of the CE patients. Cranial computed tomography showed hemorrhagic infarction in 22 %, and found the mid-arotic artery to be the commonest responsible region (81 %). The frequent initial neurologic symptom was hemiplegia. Half of the patients had disturbance of consciousness on admission. Prognosis was better in patients with MVD than those with the other types of heart disease. (Namekawa, K.). 117 refs.

  17. Clinical study on the cardiac hemodynamics and the possibility of demonstration of the left intraatrial thrombi by echocardiography, angiocardiography and computed tomography and the neurological symptoms in patients with heart disorder and cerebral embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kazuo

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate risk factors for developing cerebral embolism (CE) in patients with heart disease, hemodynamic, sonographic or radiologic, and neurologic manifestations of heart disease developing into CE were retrospectively analyzed in 44 patients with CE and 122 patients with mitral valve disease (MVD). The most common underlying disease of CE was valve disease (50 %), followed by myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, and infectious endocarditis. In MVD patients, risk factors for CE were considered to be atrial fibrillation, mitral stenosis, and intraatrial thrombi. Combined use of various imaging modalities revealed the presence of intraatrial thrombi in 65 % of the CE patients. Cranial computed tomography showed hemorrhagic infarction in 22 %, and found the mid-arotic artery to be the commonest responsible region (81 %). The frequent initial neurologic symptom was hemiplegia. Half of the patients had disturbance of consciousness on admission. Prognosis was better in patients with MVD than those with the other types of heart disease. (Namekawa, K.). 117 refs

  18. Remote monitoring demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, Susan; Olsen, John

    2006-01-01

    The recently upgraded remote monitoring system at the Joyo Experimental Reactor uses a DCM-14 camera module and GEMINI software. The final data is compatible both with the IAEA-approved GARS review software and the ALIS software that was used for this demonstration. Features of the remote monitoring upgrade emphasized compatibility with IAEA practice. This presentation gives particular attention to the selection process for meeting network security considerations at the O'arai site. The Joyo system is different from the NNCA's ACPF system, in that it emphasizes use of IAEA standard camera technology and data acquisition and transmission software. In the demonstration itself, a temporary virtual private network (VPN) between the meeting room and the server at Sandia in Albuquerque allowed attendees to observe data stored from routine transmissions from the Joyo Fresh Fuel Storage to Sandia. Image files from a fuel movement earlier in the month showed Joyo workers and IAEA inspectors carrying out a transfer. (author)

  19. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  20. Photovoltaic demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaut, W [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium); Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J [Halcrow Gilbert Associates Ltd., Swindon (GB)

    1992-12-31

    This publication, comprising the proceedings of the fifth contractor`s meeting organized by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy, provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported in the framework of the energy demonstration programme since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1987 and 1988, describing progress within their projects. Projects accepted from earlier calls for proposals and not yet completed were reviewed by a rapporteur and are discussed in the summary section. The results of the performance monitoring of all projects and the lessons drawn from the practical experience of the projects are also presented in the summaries and conclusions. Contractors whose projects were submitted in 1989 were also present at the meeting and contributed to the reported discussions. This proceeding is divided into four sessions (General, Housing, technical presentations, other applications) and 24 papers are offered.

  1. AVNG system demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, Jonathan Louis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kondratov, Sergey [VNIIEF; Livke, Alexander [VNIIEF; Razinkov, Sergey [VNIIEF

    2010-01-01

    An attribute measurement system (AMS) measures a number of unclassified attributes of potentially classified material. By only displaying these unclassified results as red or green lights, the AMS protects potentially classified information while still generating confidence in the measurement result. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an AMS built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. To provide additional confidence, the AVNG was designed with two modes of operation. In the secure mode, potentially classified measurements can be made with only the simple red light/green light display. In the open mode, known unclassified material can be measured with complete display of the information collected from the radiation detectors. The AVNG demonstration, which occurred in Sarov, Russia in June 2009 for a joint US/Russian audience, included exercising both modes of AVNG operation using a number of multi-kg plutonium sources. In addition to describing the demonstration, we will show photographs and/or video taken of AVNG operation.

  2. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  3. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  4. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R G [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  5. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  6. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  7. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  8. Planning a demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torok, R.C.; Wilkinson, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    Operating nuclear power plants are increasingly recognizing the need to upgrade existing plant instrumentation and control systems to address the obsolescence of existing equipment and components. This paper reports that operating problems have provided the initial incentive for upgrading I and C systems. However, obsolescence is not the whole story. Each I and C upgrade offers the promise of improved operating performance by reducing down-time during plant outages and by implementing new features that are possible with computer-based technology. I and C upgrades using modern technology have the potential for: higher system reliability and plant availability; reductions in the number of single failure points; use of fault tolerant and self-diagnosis capabilities; improved control system stability and response time; improved accuracy of performance indictors and control signals; and a measurable reduction in operating and maintenance costs

  9. Role of route previewing strategies on climbing fluency and exploratory movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Romain; Orth, Dominic; Courtine, Yoan; Croft, James L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of route previewing strategies on climbing fluency and on exploratory movements of the limbs, in order to understand whether previewing helps people to perceive and to realize affordances. Eight inexperienced and ten experienced climbers previewed a 10 m high route of 5b difficulty on French scale, then climbed it with a top-rope as fluently as possible. Gaze behavior was collected from an eye tracking system during the preview and allowed us to determine the number of times they scanned the route, and which of four route previewing strategies (fragmentary, ascending, zigzagging, and sequence-of-blocks) they used. Five inertial measurement units (IMU) (3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope, 3D magnetometer) were attached to the hip, both feet, and forearms to analyze the vertical acceleration and direction of each limb and hip during the ascent. We were able to detect movement and immobility phases of each IMU using segmentation and classification processes. Depending on whether the limbs and/or hip were moving, five states of behavior were detected: immobility, postural regulation, hold exploration, hold change, and hold traction. Using cluster analysis we identified four clusters of gaze behavior during route previewing depending on route preview duration, number of scan paths, fixations duration, ascending, zigzagging, and sequence-of-blocks strategies. The number of scan paths was positively correlated with relative duration of exploration and negatively correlated with relative duration of hold changes during the ascent. Additionally, a high relative duration of sequence-of-blocks strategy and zigzagging strategy were associated with a high relative duration of immobility during the ascent. Route previewing might help to pick up functional information about reachable, graspable, and usable holds, in order to chain movements together and to find the route. In other words, route previewing might contribute to perceiving and realizing nested

  10. Role of route previewing strategies on climbing fluency and exploratory movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Seifert

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of route previewing strategies on climbing fluency and on exploratory movements of the limbs, in order to understand whether previewing helps people to perceive and to realize affordances. Eight inexperienced and ten experienced climbers previewed a 10 m high route of 5b difficulty on French scale, then climbed it with a top-rope as fluently as possible. Gaze behavior was collected from an eye tracking system during the preview and allowed us to determine the number of times they scanned the route, and which of four route previewing strategies (fragmentary, ascending, zigzagging, and sequence-of-blocks they used. Five inertial measurement units (IMU (3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope, 3D magnetometer were attached to the hip, both feet, and forearms to analyze the vertical acceleration and direction of each limb and hip during the ascent. We were able to detect movement and immobility phases of each IMU using segmentation and classification processes. Depending on whether the limbs and/or hip were moving, five states of behavior were detected: immobility, postural regulation, hold exploration, hold change, and hold traction. Using cluster analysis we identified four clusters of gaze behavior during route previewing depending on route preview duration, number of scan paths, fixations duration, ascending, zigzagging, and sequence-of-blocks strategies. The number of scan paths was positively correlated with relative duration of exploration and negatively correlated with relative duration of hold changes during the ascent. Additionally, a high relative duration of sequence-of-blocks strategy and zigzagging strategy were associated with a high relative duration of immobility during the ascent. Route previewing might help to pick up functional information about reachable, graspable, and usable holds, in order to chain movements together and to find the route. In other words, route previewing might contribute to perceiving and

  11. Category verbal fluency performance may be impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luiz Figueredo Balthazar

    Full Text Available Abstract To study category verbal fluency (VF for animals in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, mild Alzheimer disease (AD and normal controls. Method: Fifteen mild AD, 15 aMCI, and 15 normal control subjects were included. Diagnosis of AD was based on DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, while aMCI was based on the criteria of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment, using CDR 0.5 for aMCI and CDR 1 for mild AD. All subjects underwent testing of category VF for animals, lexical semantic function (Boston Naming-BNT, CAMCOG Similarities item, WAIS-R forward and backward digit span, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning (RAVLT, Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE, and other task relevant functions such as visual perception, attention, and mood state (with Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Data analysis used ANOVA and a post-hoc Tukey test for intergroup comparisons, and Pearson's coefficient for correlations of memory and FV tests with other task relevant functions (statistical significance level was p<0.05. Results: aMCI patients had lower performance than controls on category VF for animals and on the backward digit span subtest of WAIS-R but higher scores compared with mild AD patients. Mild AD patients scored significantly worse than aMCI and controls across all tests. Conclusion: aMCI patients may have poor performance in some non-memory tests, specifically category VF for animals in our study, where this could be attributable to the influence of working memory.

  12. "Let Me Hear Your Handwriting!" Evaluating the Movement Fluency from Its Sonification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, Jérémy; Paz-Villagrán, Vietminh; Gondre, Charles; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Ystad, Sølvi; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The quality of handwriting is evaluated from the visual inspection of its legibility and not from the movement that generates the trace. Although handwriting is achieved in silence, adding sounds to handwriting movement might help towards its perception, provided that these sounds are meaningful. This study evaluated the ability to judge handwriting quality from the auditory perception of the underlying sonified movement, without seeing the written trace. In a first experiment, samples of a word written by children with dysgraphia, proficient children writers, and proficient adult writers were collected with a graphic tablet. Then, the pen velocity, the fluency, and the axial pen pressure were sonified in order to create forty-five audio files. In a second experiment, these files were presented to 48 adult listeners who had to mark the underlying unseen handwriting. In order to evaluate the relevance of the sonification strategy, two experimental conditions were compared. In a first 'implicit' condition, the listeners made their judgment without any knowledge of the mapping between the sounds and the handwriting variables. In a second 'explicit' condition, they knew what the sonified variables corresponded to and the evaluation criteria. Results showed that, under the implicit condition, two thirds of the listeners marked the three groups of writers differently. In the explicit condition, all listeners marked the dysgraphic handwriting lower than that of the two other groups. In a third experiment, the scores given from the auditory evaluation were compared to the scores given by 16 other adults from the visual evaluation of the trace. Results revealed that auditory evaluation was more relevant than the visual evaluation for evaluating a dysgraphic handwriting. Handwriting sonification might therefore be a relevant tool allowing a therapist to complete the visual assessment of the written trace by an auditory control of the handwriting movement quality.

  13. “Let Me Hear Your Handwriting!” Evaluating the Movement Fluency from Its Sonification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, Jérémy; Paz-Villagrán, Vietminh; Gondre, Charles; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Ystad, Sølvi; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The quality of handwriting is evaluated from the visual inspection of its legibility and not from the movement that generates the trace. Although handwriting is achieved in silence, adding sounds to handwriting movement might help towards its perception, provided that these sounds are meaningful. This study evaluated the ability to judge handwriting quality from the auditory perception of the underlying sonified movement, without seeing the written trace. In a first experiment, samples of a word written by children with dysgraphia, proficient children writers, and proficient adult writers were collected with a graphic tablet. Then, the pen velocity, the fluency, and the axial pen pressure were sonified in order to create forty-five audio files. In a second experiment, these files were presented to 48 adult listeners who had to mark the underlying unseen handwriting. In order to evaluate the relevance of the sonification strategy, two experimental conditions were compared. In a first ‘implicit’ condition, the listeners made their judgment without any knowledge of the mapping between the sounds and the handwriting variables. In a second ‘explicit’ condition, they knew what the sonified variables corresponded to and the evaluation criteria. Results showed that, under the implicit condition, two thirds of the listeners marked the three groups of writers differently. In the explicit condition, all listeners marked the dysgraphic handwriting lower than that of the two other groups. In a third experiment, the scores given from the auditory evaluation were compared to the scores given by 16 other adults from the visual evaluation of the trace. Results revealed that auditory evaluation was more relevant than the visual evaluation for evaluating a dysgraphic handwriting. Handwriting sonification might therefore be a relevant tool allowing a therapist to complete the visual assessment of the written trace by an auditory control of the handwriting movement quality

  14. Development of a screening algorithm for Alzheimer's disease using categorical verbal fluency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Kyung Chi

    Full Text Available We developed a weighted composite score of the categorical verbal fluency test (CVFT that can more easily and widely screen Alzheimer's disease (AD than the mini-mental status examination (MMSE. We administered the CVFT using animal category and MMSE to 423 community-dwelling mild probable AD patients and their age- and gender-matched cognitively normal controls. To enhance the diagnostic accuracy for AD of the CVFT, we obtained a weighted composite score from subindex scores of the CVFT using a logistic regression model: logit (case  = 1.160+0.474× gender +0.003× age +0.226× education level - 0.089× first-half score - 0.516× switching score -0.303× clustering score +0.534× perseveration score. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC for AD of this composite score AD was 0.903 (95% CI = 0.883 - 0.923, and was larger than that of the age-, gender- and education-adjusted total score of the CVFT (p<0.001. In 100 bootstrapped re-samples, the composite score consistently showed better diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for AD than the total score. Although AUC for AD of the CVFT composite score was slightly smaller than that of the MMSE (0.930, p = 0.006, the CVFT composite score may be a good alternative to the MMSE for screening AD since it is much briefer, cheaper, and more easily applicable over phone or internet than the MMSE.

  15. A 'curse of knowledge' in the absence of knowledge? People misattribute fluency when judging how common knowledge is among their peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Susan A J; Brosseau-Liard, Patricia E; Haddock, Taeh; Ghrear, Siba E

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge can be a curse: Once we have acquired a particular item of knowledge it tends to bias, or contaminate, our ability to reason about a less informed perspective (referred to as the 'curse of knowledge' or 'hindsight bias'). The mechanisms underlying the curse of knowledge bias are a matter of great import and debate. We highlight two mechanisms that have been proposed to underlie this bias-inhibition and fluency misattribution. Explanations that involve inhibition argue that people have difficulty fully inhibiting or suppressing the content of their knowledge when trying to reason about a less informed perspective. Explanations that involve fluency misattribution focus on the feelings of fluency with which the information comes to mind and the tendency to misattribute the subjective feelings of fluency associated with familiar items to the objective ease or foreseeability of that information. Three experiments with a total of 359 undergraduate students provide the first evidence that fluency misattribution processes are sufficient to induce the curse of knowledge bias. These results add to the literature on the many manifestations of the curse of knowledge bias and the many types of source misattributions, by revealing their role in people's judgements of how common, or widespread, one's knowledge is. The implications of these results for cognitive science and social cognition are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Demonstration of HITEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, H.D.; Woodall, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    A model reactor for HITEX successfully demonstrated the concept of high-temperature isotopic exchange in a closed loop simulating the conditions for fusion fuel cleanup. The catalyst of platinum on alumina pellets provided a surface area large enough to operate the reactor at 400 degrees celsius with flow rates up to 2 L/min. A 15-L tank containing a mixture of 4% CD 4 in H 2 was depleted in deuterium within 75 minutes down to 100 ppm HD above the natural concentration of HD in the make-up hydrogen stream. The application to tritium removal from tritiated impurities in a hydrogen stream will work as well or better

  17. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  18. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  19. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  20. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System

  1. An efficient ERP-based brain-computer interface using random set presentation and face familiarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Ki Yeom

    Full Text Available Event-related potential (ERP-based P300 spellers are commonly used in the field of brain-computer interfaces as an alternative channel of communication for people with severe neuro-muscular diseases. This study introduces a novel P300 based brain-computer interface (BCI stimulus paradigm using a random set presentation pattern and exploiting the effects of face familiarity. The effect of face familiarity is widely studied in the cognitive neurosciences and has recently been addressed for the purpose of BCI. In this study we compare P300-based BCI performances of a conventional row-column (RC-based paradigm with our approach that combines a random set presentation paradigm with (non- self-face stimuli. Our experimental results indicate stronger deflections of the ERPs in response to face stimuli, which are further enhanced when using the self-face images, and thereby improving P300-based spelling performance. This lead to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences required for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-based BCI setup.

  2. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  3. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht, T., E-mail: teresa.brecht@yale.edu; Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  4. Using temporal orientation, category fluency, and word recall for detecting cognitive impairment: the 10-point cognitive screener (10-CS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinario, Daniel; Lichtenthaler, Daniel Gomes; Magaldi, Regina Miksian; Soares, Aline Thomaz; Busse, Alexandre Leopold; Amaral, Jose Renato das Gracas; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi

    2016-01-01

    A screening strategy composed of three-item temporal orientation and three-word recall has been increasingly used for detecting cognitive impairment. However, the intervening task administered between presentation and recall has varied. We evaluated six brief tasks that could be useful as intervening distractors and possibly provide incremental accuracy: serial subtraction, clock drawing, category fluency, letter fluency, timed visual detection, and digits backwards. Older adults (n = 230) consecutively referred for suspected cognitive impairment underwent a comprehensive assessment for gold-standard diagnosis, of whom 56 (24%) presented cognitive impairment not dementia and 68 (30%) presented dementia. Among those with dementia, 87% presented very mild or mild stages (Clinical Dementia Rating 0.5 or 1). The incremental value of each candidate intervening task in a model already containing orientation and word recall was assessed. Category fluency (animal naming) presented the highest incremental value among the six candidate intervening tasks. Reclassification analyses revealed a net gain of 12% among cognitively impaired and 17% among normal participants. A four-point scaled score of the animal naming task was added to three-item temporal orientation and three-word recall to compose the 10-point Cognitive Screener. The education-adjusted 10-point Cognitive Screener outperformed the longer Mini-Mental State Examination for detecting both cognitive impairment (area under the curve 0.85 vs 0.77; p = 0.027) and dementia (area under the curve 0.90 vs 0.83; p = 0.015). Based on empirical data, we have developed a brief and easy-to-use screening strategy with higher accuracy and some practical advantages compared with commonly used tools. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Languages on the screen: is film comprehension related to the viewers' fluency level and to the language in the subtitles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaur, Jean-Marc; Bairstow, Dominique

    2011-12-01

    This research aimed at studying the role of subtitling in film comprehension. It focused on the languages in which the subtitles are written and on the participants' fluency levels in the languages presented in the film. In a preliminary part of the study, the most salient visual and dialogue elements of a short sequence of an English film were extracted by the means of a free recall task after showing two versions of the film (first a silent, then a dubbed-into-French version) to native French speakers. This visual and dialogue information was used in the setting of a questionnaire concerning the understanding of the film presented in the main part of the study, in which other French native speakers with beginner, intermediate, or advanced fluency levels in English were shown one of three versions of the film used in the preliminary part. Respectively, these versions had no subtitles or they included either English or French subtitles. The results indicate a global interaction between all three factors in this study: For the beginners, visual processing dropped from the version without subtitles to that with English subtitles, and even more so if French subtitles were provided, whereas the effect of film version on dialogue comprehension was the reverse. The advanced participants achieved higher comprehension for both types of information with the version without subtitles, and dialogue information processing was always better than visual information processing. The intermediate group similarly processed dialogues in a better way than visual information, but was not affected by film version. These results imply that, depending on the viewers' fluency levels, the language of subtitles can have different effects on movie information processing.

  6. The Effects of Fluency Enhancing Conditions on Sensorimotor Control of Speech in Typically Fluent Speakers: An EEG Mu Rhythm Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffani Kittilstved

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether changes in sensorimotor control resulting from speaking conditions that induce fluency in people who stutter (PWS can be measured using electroencephalographic (EEG mu rhythms in neurotypical speakers.Methods: Non-stuttering (NS adults spoke in one control condition (solo speaking and four experimental conditions (choral speech, delayed auditory feedback (DAF, prolonged speech and pseudostuttering. Independent component analysis (ICA was used to identify sensorimotor μ components from EEG recordings. Time-frequency analyses measured μ-alpha (8–13 Hz and μ-beta (15–25 Hz event-related synchronization (ERS and desynchronization (ERD during each speech condition.Results: 19/24 participants contributed μ components. Relative to the control condition, the choral and DAF conditions elicited increases in μ-alpha ERD in the right hemisphere. In the pseudostuttering condition, increases in μ-beta ERD were observed in the left hemisphere. No differences were present between the prolonged speech and control conditions.Conclusions: Differences observed in the experimental conditions are thought to reflect sensorimotor control changes. Increases in right hemisphere μ-alpha ERD likely reflect increased reliance on auditory information, including auditory feedback, during the choral and DAF conditions. In the left hemisphere, increases in μ-beta ERD during pseudostuttering may have resulted from the different movement characteristics of this task compared with the solo speaking task. Relationships to findings in stuttering are discussed.Significance: Changes in sensorimotor control related feedforward and feedback control in fluency-enhancing speech manipulations can be measured using time-frequency decompositions of EEG μ rhythms in neurotypical speakers. This quiet, non-invasive, and temporally sensitive technique may be applied to learn more about normal sensorimotor control and fluency enhancement in PWS.

  7. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  8. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  9. Fusion-power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Neef, W.S.; Moir, R.W.; Campbell, R.B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  10. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  11. Industrial demonstration trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelee, M.; Fabre, C.; Villepoix, R. de; Fra, J.; Le Foulgoc, L.; Morel, Y.; Querite, P.; Roques, R.

    1975-01-01

    Prototypes of the plant components, meeting the specifications set by the process and built by industrial firms in collaboration with the supervisor and the C.E.A., are subjected to trial runs on the UF 6 test bench of the Pierrelatte testing zone. These items of equipment (diffuser, compressor, exchanger) are placed in an industrial operation context very similar to that of an enrichment plant. Their performance is measured within a broad region around the working point and their reliability observed over periods up to several tens of thousands of hours. Between 1969 and 1973 six industrial demonstration test benches have been built, marking the stages in the technical preparation of the 1973 file on the basis of which the decision of building was taken by Eurodif [fr

  12. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report

  13. TPA device for demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The TPA (torus plasma for amature) is a small race-trac type device made by the technical service division to demonstrate basic properties of plasma such as electron temperature, conductivity, effect of helical field for toroidal drift, and shape of plasma in mirror and cusp magnetic field in linear section. The plasmas are produced by RF discharge (-500W) and/or DC discharge (-30 mA) within glass discharge tube. Where major radius is 50 cm, length of linear section is 50 cm, toroidal magnetic field is 200 gauss. The device has been designed to be compact with only 100 V power source (-3.2 KW for the case without helical field) and to be full automatic sequence of operation. (author)

  14. Fusion power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  15. Improving the Reliability of Student Scores from Speeded Assessments: An Illustration of Conditional Item Response Theory Using a Computer-Administered Measure of Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison M.; Foorman, Barbara R.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that response latency, the amount of time it takes an individual to respond to an item, may be an important factor to consider when using assessment data to estimate the ability of an individual. Considering that tests of passage and list fluency are being adapted to a computer administration format, it is…

  16. Dynamic wall demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsui, L.; Mayhew, W.

    1990-12-01

    The dynamic wall concept is a ventilation strategy that can be applied to a single family dwelling. With suitable construction, outside air can be admitted through the exterior walls of the house to the interior space to function as ventilation air. The construction and performance monitoring of a demonstration house built to test the dynamic wall concept in Sherwood Park, Alberta, is described. The project had the objectives of demonstrating and assessing the construction methods; determining the cost-effectiveness of the concept in Alberta; analyzing the operation of the dynamic wall system; and determining how other components and systems in the house interact with the dynamic wall. The exterior wall construction consisted of vinyl siding, spun-bonded polyolefin-backed (SBPO) rigid fiberglass sheathing, 38 mm by 89 mm framing, fiberglass batt insulation and 12.7 mm drywall. The mechanical system was designed to operate in the dynamic (negative pressure) mode, however flexibility was provided to allow operation in the static (balanced pressure) mode to permit monitoring of the walls as if they were in a conventional house. The house was monitored by an extensive computerized monitoring system. Dynamic wall operation was dependent on pressure and temperature differentials between indoor and outdoor as well as wind speed and direction. The degree of heat gain was found to be ca 74% of the indoor-outdoor temperature differential. Temperature of incoming dynamic air was significantly affected by solar radiation and measurement of indoor air pollutants found no significant levels. 4 refs., 34 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam; Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Ouzzani, Mourad; Aboulnaga, Ashraf; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  18. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  19. Demonstration exercise 'Cavtat 09'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trut, D.

    2009-01-01

    The demonstration exercise is to show a terrorist attack in urban area resulting in a certain number of injured people. On 7th April 2009 a terrorist group HAL 9000 is in Cavtat and set up an explosive devices with chemical reagents in several spots with intention to activate them and cause great number of victims. On the same day, in area of the Cavtat Croatia Hotel, which is hosting the world CBMTS Congress, Cavtat Police Station notice several masked persons, in escapement. Hotel personnel alerted the County 112 Center about noticed devices placed by chlorine dioxide tanks, for water conditioning. Intervention police came to block entrance to this area and evacuate hotel's guests and congress members. An explosion and fire occurs from where the position of water-conditioning plant and chlorine dioxide tank. The 112 Center alarms fire-fighters for fight fire and decontamination action and HAZMAT Civil Support Team from Georgia (participated the congress). In the meantime, guests have been instructed not to leave their rooms and to hermetically close doors and windows with available material to keep away potential toxic fume. Decision makers form the County Protection and Rescue Headquarters monitors the situation till the end of alert for the population in the area of Cavtat.(author)

  20. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocco, M. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.