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Sample records for demonstrated high efficacy

  1. Formulation of nanotized curcumin and demonstration of its antimalarial efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aparajita Ghosh,1 Tanushree Banerjee,2 Suman Bhandary,1 Avadhesha Surolia31Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, Centenary Campus, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 2Department of Biotechnology, University of Pune, Pune, India; 3Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, IndiaAim: The present study was conducted to overcome the disadvantages associated with the poor water solubility and low bioavailability of curcumin by synthesizing nanotized curcumin and demonstrating its efficacy in treating malaria. Materials and methods: Nanotized curcumin was prepared by a modified emulsion-diffusion-evaporation method and was characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zetasizer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential thermal analysis. The novelty of the prepared nanoformulation lies in the fact that it was devoid of any polymeric matrices used in conventional carriers. The antimalarial efficacy of the prepared nanotized curcumin was then checked both in vitro and in vivo. Results: The nanopreparation was found to be non-toxic and had a particle size distribution of 20–50 nm along with improved aqueous dispersibility and an entrapment efficiency of 45%. Nanotized curcumin (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50]: 0.5 µM was also found to be ten-fold more effective for growth inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro as compared to its native counterpart (IC50: 5 µM. Oral bioavailability of nanotized curcumin was found to be superior to that of its native counterpart. Moreover, when Plasmodium berghei-infected mice were orally treated with nanotized curcumin, it prolonged their survival by more than 2 months with complete clearance of parasites in comparison to the untreated animals, which survived for 8 days only. Conclusion: Nanotized curcumin holds a considerable promise in therapeutics as demonstrated here for treating malaria

  2. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and finite element analysis of bone strength at the distal radius in ovariectomized adult rhesus monkey demonstrate efficacy of odanacatib and differentiation from alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Antonio; Jayakar, Richa Y; Sardesai, Swanand; Phillips, Eual A; Szumiloski, John; Posavec, Diane J; Mathers, Parker D; Savitz, Alan T; Scott, Boyd B; Winkelmann, Christopher T; Motzel, Sherri; Cook, Lynn; Hargreaves, Richard; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L; Dardzinski, Bernard J; Hangartner, Thomas N; McCracken, Paul J; Duong, Le T; Williams, Donald S

    2013-10-01

    Translational evaluation of disease progression and treatment response is critical to the development of therapies for osteoporosis. In this study, longitudinal in-vivo monitoring of odanacatib (ODN) treatment efficacy was compared to alendronate (ALN) in ovariectomized (OVX) non-human primates (NHPs) using high-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT). Treatment effects were evaluated using several determinants of bone strength, density and quality, including volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), three-dimensional structure, finite element analysis (FEA) estimated peak force and biomechanical properties at the ultradistal (UD) radius at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of dosing in three treatment groups: vehicle (VEH), low ODN (2 mg/kg/day, L-ODN), and ALN (30 μg/kg/week). Biomechanical axial compression tests were performed at the end of the study. Bone strength estimates using FEA were validated by ex-vivo mechanical compression testing experiments. After 18months of dosing, L-ODN demonstrated significant increases from baseline in integral vBMD (13.5%), cortical thickness (24.4%), total bone volume fraction BV/TV (13.5%), FEA-estimated peak force (26.6%) and peak stress (17.1%), respectively. Increases from baseline for L-ODN at 18 months were significantly higher than that for ALN in DXA-based aBMD (7.6%), cortical thickness (22.9%), integral vBMD (12.2%), total BV/TV (10.1%), FEA peak force (17.7%) and FEA peak stress (11.5%), respectively. These results demonstrate a superior efficacy of ODN treatment compared to ALN at the UD radii in ovariectomized NHPs.

  3. T cells targeting NY-ESO-1 demonstrate efficacy against disseminated neuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Nathan; Kulikovskaya, Irina; Barrett, David M.; Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn; Jakobsen, Bent; Martinez, Daniel; Pawel, Bruce; June, Carl H.; Kalos, Michael D.; Grupp, Stephan A.

    2015-01-01

    The cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 is expressed by many solid tumors and has limited expression by mature somatic tissues, making it a highly attractive target for tumor immunotherapy. Targeting NY-ESO-1 using engineered T cells has demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of some adult tumors. Neuroblastoma is a significant cause of cancer mortality in children, and is a tumor type shown to be responsive to immunotherapies. We evaluated a large panel of primarily resected neuroblastom...

  4. High voltage testing for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arnquist, I.J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Barabash, A.S. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute” Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bertrand, F.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bradley, A.W. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brudanin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Busch, M. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Buuck, M. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Byram, D. [Department of Physics, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Caldwell, A.S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chan, Y-D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christofferson, C.D. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chu, P.-H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cuesta, C., E-mail: ccuesta@uw.edu [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Detwiler, J.A.; Doe, P.J. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2016-07-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 44-kg modular high-purity Ge (HPGe) detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The phenomenon of surface micro-discharge induced by high-voltage has been studied in the context of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. This effect can damage the front-end electronics or mimic detector signals. To ensure the correct performance, every high-voltage cable and feedthrough must be capable of supplying HPGe detector operating voltages as high as 5 kV without exhibiting discharge. R&D measurements were carried out to understand the testing system and determine the optimum design configuration of the high-voltage path, including different improvements of the cable layout and feedthrough flange model selection. Every cable and feedthrough to be used at the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR was characterized and the micro-discharge effects during the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR commissioning phase were studied. A stable configuration has been achieved, and the cables and connectors can supply HPGe detector operating voltages without exhibiting discharge.

  5. High voltage testing for the MAJORANA Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P -H; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Doe, P J; Dunagan, C; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Fu, Z; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; Li, A; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Thompson, A; Ton, K T; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V

    2016-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 44-kg modular high-purity Ge (HPGe) detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in Ge-76. The phenomenon of surface micro-discharge induced by high-voltage has been studied in the context of the MAJORANA Demonstrator. This eff?ect can damage the front-end electronics or mimic detector signals. To ensure the correct performance, every high-voltage cable and feedthrough must be capable of supplying HPGe detector operating voltages as high as 5 kV without exhibiting discharge. R&D measurements were carried out to understand the testing system and determine the optimum design configuration of the high-voltage path, including diff?erent improvements of the cable layout and feedthrough flange model selection. Every cable and feedthrough to be used at the MAJORANA Demonstrator was characterized and the micro-discharge eff?ects during the MAJORANA Demonstrator commissioning phase were studied. A stable c...

  6. High voltage testing for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fu, Z.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Li, A.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Thompson, A.; Ton, K. T.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.

    2016-07-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 44-kg modular high-purity Ge (HPGe) detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. The phenomenon of surface micro-discharge induced by high-voltage has been studied in the context of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. This effect can damage the front-end electronics or mimic detector signals. To ensure the correct performance, every high-voltage cable and feedthrough must be capable of supplying HPGe detector operating voltages as high as 5 kV without exhibiting discharge. R&D measurements were carried out to understand the testing system and determine the optimum design configuration of the high-voltage path, including different improvements of the cable layout and feedthrough flange model selection. Every cable and feedthrough to be used at the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR was characterized and the micro-discharge effects during the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR commissioning phase were studied. A stable configuration has been achieved, and the cables and connectors can supply HPGe detector operating voltages without exhibiting discharge.

  7. High voltage testing for the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A.; Bertrand, F.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, Pamela M.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, P. J.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fu, Z.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Li, Alexander D.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarcyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, John L.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, Alan W.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero Romo, M.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie E.; Tedeschi, D.; Thompson, Andrew; Ton, K. T.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, V.

    2016-07-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing theMajorana Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 44-kg modular high-purity Ge (HPGe) detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. The phenomenon of surface micro-discharge induced by high-voltage has been studied in the context of theMajorana Demonstrator. This effect can damage the front-end electronics or mimic detector signals. To ensure the correct performance, every high-voltage cable and feedthrough must be capable of supplying HPGe detector operating voltages as high as 5 kV without exhibiting discharge. R&D measurements were carried out to understand the testing system and determine the optimum design configuration of the high-voltage path, including different improvements of the cable layout and feedthrough flange model selection. Every cable and feedthrough to be used at the Majorana Demonstrator was characterized and the micro-discharge effects during theMajorana Demonstrator commissioning phase were studied. A stable configuration has been achieved, and the cables and connectors can supply HPGe detector operating voltages without exhibiting discharge.

  8. Efficacy demonstration of tetanus vaccines by double antigen ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskopf, U; Noeske, K; Werner, E

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a double antigen ELISA (DAE) for rapid, specific and reliable assessment of the antitetanus immune status of horses and sheep. Compared with the indirect ELISA, the double antigen ELISA has the advantage of species-independent testing of sera. Thanks to its test design, it is more specific since the detected antibodies are forced to bind tetanus toxoid twice. In addition, it is very sensitive to tetanus antibodies, enabling the detection of low antibody titres, in range which is relevant for the assessment of the protective status (tetanus toxin neutralising antibodies). The detection limit of the DAE for tetanus antibodies is in the order of 10(-4) EU/ml. A comparison of in vitro results of individual sera with in vivo titres showed that horse sera with titres of 0.04 and 0.05 EU/ml in the DAE showed titres of > 0.05 IU and 0.034 IU/ml respectively during in vivo testing thus indicating good agreement. For tested sheep sera which were rated > 0.05 IU/ml in vivo, the corresponding titre in the DAE was 0.24 EU/ml. Clear tetanus antitoxin establishment of protective ELISA limits requires further comparative examination of sera with low titres (marketing authorisation procedures of tetanus vaccines ad us. vet. As a consequence, the toxin neutralisation test (still being the standard method of choice for quantifying tetanus toxin neutralising antitoxin titres) could be replaced, since it requires too great a number of animals per test and involves considerable suffering for the animals. The test described here reduces the use of mice and guinea pigs within vaccine efficacy testing. In addition, it involves less exposure of the laboratory personnel to toxin.

  9. High energy laser demonstrators for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M.; Riesbeck, Th.; Schmitz, J.; Baumgärtel, Th.; Ludewigt, K.; Graf, A.

    2017-01-01

    Rheinmetall Waffe Munition has worked since 30 years in the area of High Energy Laser (HEL) for defence applications, starting from pulsed CO2 to pulsed glass rods lasers. In the last decade Rheinmetall Waffe Munition changed to diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) technology and has successfully developed, realised and tested a variety of versatile HEL weapon demonstrators for air- and ground defence scenarios like countering rocket, artillery, mortar, missile (RAMM), unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and unexploded ordnances clearing. By employing beam superimposing technology and a modular laser weapon concept, the total optical power has been successively increased. Stationary weapon platforms, military vehicles and naval platforms have been equipped with high energy laser effectors. The contribution gives a summary of the most recent development stages of Rheinmetalls HEL weapon program. In addition to the stationary 30 kW laser weapon demonstrator, we present vehicle based HEL demonstrators: the 5 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Track V, the 20 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Wheel XX and the 50 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Container L and the latest 10 kW HEL effector integrated in the naval weapon platform MLG 27. We describe the capabilities of these demonstrators against different potential targets. Furthermore, we will show the capability of the 30 kW stationary Laser Weapon Demonstrator integrated into an existing ground based air defence system to defeat saturated attacks of RAMM and UAS targets.

  10. High dynamic GPS receiver validation demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.; Statman, J. I.; Vilnrotter, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Validation Demonstration establishes that the high dynamic Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver concept developed at JPL meets the dynamic tracking requirements for range instrumentation of missiles and drones. It was demonstrated that the receiver can track the pseudorange and pseudorange rate of vehicles with acceleration in excess of 100 g and jerk in excess of 100 g/s, dynamics ten times more severe than specified for conventional High Dynamic GPS receivers. These results and analytic extensions to a complete system configuration establish that all range instrumentation requirements can be met. The receiver can be implemented in the 100 cu in volume required by all missiles and drones, and is ideally suited for transdigitizer or translator applications.

  11. T cells targeting NY-ESO-1 demonstrate efficacy against disseminated neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nathan; Kulikovskaya, Irina; Barrett, David M; Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn; Jakobsen, Bent; Martinez, Daniel; Pawel, Bruce; June, Carl H; Kalos, Michael D; Grupp, Stephan A

    The cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 is expressed by many solid tumors and has limited expression by mature somatic tissues, making it a highly attractive target for tumor immunotherapy. Targeting NY-ESO-1 using engineered T cells has demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of some adult tumors. Neuroblastoma is a significant cause of cancer mortality in children, and is a tumor type shown to be responsive to immunotherapies. We evaluated a large panel of primarily resected neuroblastoma samples and demonstrated that 23% express NY-ESO-1. After confirming antigen-specific activity of T cells genetically engineered to express an NY-ESO-1 directed high-affinity transgenic T cell receptor in vitro, we performed xenograft mouse studies assessing the efficacy of NY-ESO-1-targeted T cells in both localized and disseminated models of neuroblastoma. Disease responses were monitored by tumor volume measurement and in vivo bioluminescence. After delivery of NY-ESO-1 transgenic TCR T cells, we observed significant delay of tumor progression in mice bearing localized and disseminated neuroblastoma, as well as enhanced animal survival. These data demonstrate that NY-ESO-1 is an antigen target in neuroblastoma and that targeted T cells represent a potential therapeutic option for patients with neuroblastoma.

  12. High Throughput Bent-Pipe Processor Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacco, P.; Vernucci, A.; Russo, L.; Cangini, P.; Botticchio, T.; Angeletti, P.

    2008-08-01

    The work associated to this article is a study initiative sponsored by ESA/ESTEC that responds to the crucial need of developing new Satellite payload aimed at making rapid progresses in handling large amounts of data at a competitive price with respect to terrestrial one in the telecommunication field. Considering the quite limited band allowed to space communications at Ka band, reusing the same band in a large number of beams is mandatory: therefore beam-forming is the right technological answer. Technological progresses - mainly in the digital domain - also help greatly in increasing the satellite capacity. Next Satellite payload target are set in throughput range of 50Gbps. Despite the fact that the implementation of a wideband transparent processor for a high capacity communication payload is a very challenging task, Space Engineering team in the frame of this ESA study proposed an intermediate step of development for a scalable unit able to demonstrate both the capacity and flexibility objectives for different type of Wideband Beamforming antennas designs. To this aim the article describes the features of Wideband HW (analog and digital) platform purposely developed by Space Engineering in the frame of this ESA/ESTEC contract ("WDBFN" contract) with some preliminary system test results. The same platform and part of the associated SW will be used in the development and demonstration of the real payload digital front end Mux and Demux algorithms as well as the Beam Forming and on Board channel switching in frequency domain. At the time of this article writing, despite new FPGA and new ADC and DAC converters have become available as choices for wideband system implementation, the two HW platforms developed by Space Engineering, namely WDBFN ADC and DAC Boards, represent still the most performing units in terms of analog bandwidth, processing capability (in terms of FPGA module density), SERDES (SERiliazer DESerializers) external links density, integration form

  13. Highly Conducting Graphite Epoxy Composite Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Weight savings as high as 80 percent could be achieved if graphite polymer composites could replace aluminum in structures such as electromagnetic interference shielding covers and grounding planes. This could result in significant cost savings, especially for the mobile electronics found in spacecraft, aircraft, automobiles, and hand-held consumer electronics. However, such composites had not yet been fabricated with conductivity sufficient to enable these applications. To address this lack, a partnership of the NASA Lewis Research Center, Manchester College, and Applied Sciences, Inc., fabricated nonmetallic composites with unprecedented electrical conductivity. For these composites, heat-treated, vapor-grown graphite fibers were selected which have a resistivity of about 80 mW-cm, more than 20 times more conductive than typical carbon fibers. These fibers were then intercalated with iodine bromide (IBr). Intercalation is the insertion of guest atoms or molecules between the carbon planes of the graphite fibers. Since the carbon planes are not highly distorted in the process, intercalation has little effect on mechanical and thermal properties. Intercalation does, however, lower the carbon fiber resistivity to less than 10 mW-cm, which is comparable to that of metal fibers. Scaleup of the reaction was required since the initial intercalation experiments would be carried out on 20-mg quantities of fibers, and tens of grams of intercalated fibers would be needed to fabricate even small demonstration composites. The reaction was first optimized through a time and temperature study that yielded fibers with a resistivity of 8.7 2 mW-cm when exposed to IBr vapor at 114 C for 24 hours. Stability studies indicated that the intercalated fibers rapidly lost their conductivity when exposed to temperatures as low as 40 C in air. They were not, however, susceptible to degradation by water vapor in the manner of most graphite intercalation compounds. The 1000-fold scaleup

  14. An armed oncolytic adenovirus system,ZD55-gene,demonstrating potent antitumoral efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZI LAI ZHANG; WEI GUO ZOU; CHUN XIA LUO; BING HUA LI; JIN HUI WANG; LAN YING SUN; QI JUN QIAN; XIN YUAN LIU

    2003-01-01

    ONYXONYX-015 is an attractive therapeutic adenovirus for cancer because it can selectively replicate in tumor cells and kill them.To date,clinicaltrials of this adenovirus have demonstrated marked safety but not potent enough when it was used alone.In this paper,we put forward a novel concept of Gene-Viro Therapy strategy and in this way,we constructed an armed therapeutic onco1ytic adenovirus system,ZD55-gene,whichis not only deleted of E1B 55-kD gene similar to ONYX-015,but also armed with foreign antitumor gene.ZD55-gene exhibited similar cytopathic effects and replication Kinetics to that of ONYX-015 in vitro.Importantly,the carried gene 1s expressed and the expression level can increase with the replication of virus.Consequently,a significant antitumoral efficacy was observed when ZD55-CD/5-FU was used as an example in nude mice with subcutaneous human SW620 colon cancer.Our data demonstratedthat ZD55-gene,which utilizingthe Gene-ViroTherapy strategy,is more efficacious than each individual component in vivo.

  15. Demonstration of the analgesic efficacy and dose-response of acetylsalicylic acid with pseudoephedrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtel, Bernard P; Voelker, Michael; Sanner, Kathleen M; Gagney, Diana; Bey, Mary; Schachtel, Emily J; Becka, Michael

    2010-12-01

    To determine acute analgesia by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) when combined with pseudoephedrine (PSE) in patients with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), we used the sore throat pain model to measure single-dose effects of ASA 500 mg/PSE 30 mg, ASA 1000 mg/PSE 60 mg, and acetaminophen (APAP) 1000 mg/PSE 60 mg (serving as a positive control). Under double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled conditions, 640 adult patients with confirmed acute pharyngitis and rhinosinusitis associated with URTI rated throat pain intensity and relief at intervals over 6 hours. Efficacy was demonstrated for both doses of ASA/PSE compared with placebo for all end points, including total pain relief and summed pain intensity differences, beginning at 20 minutes on both scales (all P pseudoephedrine.

  16. Replacement of the in vivo neutralisation test for efficacy demonstration of tetanus vaccines ad us. vet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskopf, Ute; Noeske, Kerstin; Werner, Esther

    2005-01-01

    The bacterium Clostridium (C.) tetani is an ubiquitous pathogen. This anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium can form spores and can be found in the whole environment. It enters the body via injuries of the skin and wounds where it releases the neurotoxin "tetanospasmin" (= tetanus toxin). The animals most susceptible to tetanus infection are horses and sheep. Only active immunisation by tetanus vaccine provides effective protection against tetanus intoxication. The marketing authorisation requirements stipulate that efficacy of tetanus vaccines ad us. vet. must be demonstrated in all target animal species via determination of neutralising tetanus serum antitoxin concentrations. The standard method used for this purpose is still the toxin neutralisation test (TNT), as it quantifies the tetanus toxin-neutralising effect of tetanus serum antibodies in vivo. In this test, tetanus toxin is added to dilutions of serum from vaccinated horse and sheep. The serum dilutions are then administered to mice or guinea pigs, which are observed for toxic symptoms. Against the background of animal protection, the goal of one project of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung (Federal Ministry for Education and Research), 0312636) was to establish an alternative to the toxin neutralisation test, enabling the testing of efficacy of tetanus vaccines with serological in vitro methods. For this purpose, a so-called double antigen ELISA (DAE) was established which enables the testing of sera of different species in one assay. In addition, the sera were tested in an indirect ELISA for horses and sheep separately. Altogether, ten groups of horses and eight groups of sheep were immunised with ten animals per group each. The tetanus vaccines comprised almost all products authorised for the German market at the start of the project. 564 horse sera and 257 sheep sera were tested using the two ELISA methods. Some sera were also tested in vivo. The kinetics of

  17. Pentamycin shows high efficacy against Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, Markus; Syrowatka, Michael; Leitsch, David; Winnips, Cornelis; Walochnik, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of the venereal disease trichomoniasis, which is the most frequent non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Since the 1960s, metronidazole has been the standard treatment, however an increasing number of cases with metronidazole-resistant strains is being reported. In this study, pentamycin, a polyene antibiotic, was tested for its in vitro efficacy against T. vaginalis using four strains with different metronidazole susceptibilities. It was shown that pentamycin is highly active against T. vaginalis and that the effect is prompt and independent of underlying metronidazole resistance. The effective concentrations (EC values) after 1 h of treatment were in the range 1.74-2.62 μg/mL (EC50) and 4.91-6.51 μg/mL (EC90). Total eradication of trichomonads (EC100) was achieved in all strains by treatment with 15 μg/mL (22 μM) for 1 h or with ≥1 μg/mL (≥1.5 μM) for 24 h. Long-term cultivation (12 months) under permanent drug pressure did not induce stable resistance against pentamycin in any of the strains tested. Pentamycin has been approved for intravaginal use and is a promising candidate for the topical treatment of trichomoniasis.

  18. Academic self-efficacy for high school scale: search for psychometrics evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soely Polydoro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the adaptation and the search for psychometrics evidence of an academic self-efficacy scale. High school students (N = 453 participated of the research (mean age 15.93; SD 1.2. The Academic Self-efficacy Scale for High School is an adapted scale composed of 16 items and organized into three factors: self-efficacy for learning, self-efficacy to act in school life, and self-efficacy for the career decision. Through exploratory factor analysis, a KMO = 0.90 was verified, and 56.57% of the variance was explained. The internal consistency was 0.88. The scale demonstrated good conditions to identify academic self-efficacy of high school students.

  19. Hardware demonstration of high-speed networks for satellite applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, Jonathon W.; Lee, David S.

    2008-09-01

    This report documents the implementation results of a hardware demonstration utilizing the Serial RapidIO{trademark} and SpaceWire protocols that was funded by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL's) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) office. This demonstration was one of the activities in the Modeling and Design of High-Speed Networks for Satellite Applications LDRD. This effort has demonstrated the transport of application layer packets across both RapidIO and SpaceWire networks to a common downlink destination using small topologies comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf and custom devices. The RapidFET and NEX-SRIO debug and verification tools were instrumental in the successful implementation of the RapidIO hardware demonstration. The SpaceWire hardware demonstration successfully demonstrated the transfer and routing of application data packets between multiple nodes and also was able reprogram remote nodes using configuration bitfiles transmitted over the network, a key feature proposed in node-based architectures (NBAs). Although a much larger network (at least 18 to 27 nodes) would be required to fully verify the design for use in a real-world application, this demonstration has shown that both RapidIO and SpaceWire are capable of routing application packets across a network to a common downlink node, illustrating their potential use in real-world NBAs.

  20. Experimental demonstration of vortex pancake in high temperature superconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-xian; ZHANG Yu-heng

    2006-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the existence of the vortex pancake in high temperature superconductor experimentally,a configuration in which the current and voltage electrodes lies separately on the top and bottom surface is used.The E-j relation obtained with this electrodes spatial configuration is different from the expected E-j behavior of the stiff vortex line model.Thus,the current results support the existence of the vortex pancake in high temperature superconductor.

  1. Demonstration of deterministic and high fidelity squeezing of quantum information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshikawa, J-I.; Hayashi, T-; Akiyama, T.

    2007-01-01

    By employing a recent proposal [R. Filip, P. Marek, and U.L. Andersen, Phys. Rev. A 71, 042308 (2005)] we experimentally demonstrate a universal, deterministic, and high-fidelity squeezing transformation of an optical field. It relies only on linear optics, homodyne detection, feedforward, and an...

  2. Laser beaming demonstrations to high-orbit satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Ronald J.; Meister, Dorothy C.; Tucker, Steve D.; Fugate, Robert Q.; Leatherman, Phillip; Maes, Carl F.; Lange, W. Joseph; Cowan, William D.; Meulenberg, Andrew; Cleis, Richard A.; Spinhirne, James M.; Ruane, Raymond E.; Michie, Robert B.; Vonderhaar, Donald F.

    1994-05-01

    A team of Phillips Laboratory, COMSAT Laboratories, and Sandia National Laboratories plans to demonstrate state-of-the-art laser-beaming demonstrations to high-orbit satellites. The demonstrations will utilize the 1.5-m diameter telescope with adaptive optics at the AFPL Starfire Optical Range (SOR) and a ruby laser provided by the Air Force and Sandia (1 - 50 kW and 6 ms at 694.3 nm). The first targets will be corner-cube retro-reflectors left on the moon by the Apollo 11, 14, and 15 landings. We attempt to use adaptive optics for atmospheric compensation to demonstrate accurate and reliable beam projection with a series of shots over a span of time and shot angle. We utilize the return signal from the retro- reflectors to help determine the beam diameter on the moon and the variations in pointing accuracy caused by atmospheric tilt. This is especially challenging because the retro-reflectors need to be in the lunar shadow to allow detection over background light. If the results from this experiment are encouraging, we will at a later date direct the beam at a COMSAT satellite in geosynchronous orbit as it goes into the shadow of the earth. We utilize an onboard monitor to measure the current generated in the solar panels on the satellite while the beam is present. A threshold irradiance of about 4 W/m2 on orbit is needed for this demonstration.

  3. Refractive Secondary Solar Concentrator Demonstrated High-Temperature Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2002-01-01

    Space applications that utilize solar thermal energy--such as electric power conversion systems, thermal propulsion systems, and furnaces--require highly efficient solar concentration systems. The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing the refractive secondary concentrator, which uses refraction and total internal reflection to efficiently concentrate and direct solar energy. When used in combination with advanced lightweight primary concentrators, such as inflatable thin films, the refractive secondary concentrator enables very high system concentration ratios and very high temperatures. Last year, Glenn successfully demonstrated a secondary concentrator throughput efficiency of 87 percent, with a projected efficiency of 93 percent using an antireflective coating. Building on this achievement, Glenn recently successfully demonstrated high-temperature operation of the secondary concentrator when it was used to heat a rhenium receiver to 2330 F. The high-temperature demonstration of the concentrator was conducted in Glenn's 68-ft long Tank 6 thermal vacuum facility equipped with a solar simulator. The facility has a rigid panel primary concentrator that was used to concentrate the light from the solar simulator onto the refractive secondary concentrator. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center provided a rhenium cavity, part of a solar thermal propulsion engine, to serve as the high-temperature receiver. The prototype refractive secondary concentrator, measuring 3.5 in. in diameter and 11.2 in. long, is made of single-crystal sapphire. A water-cooled splash shield absorbs spillage light outside of the 3.5-in. concentrator aperture. Multilayer foil insulation composed of tungsten, molybdenum, and niobium is used to minimize heat loss from the hightemperature receiver. A liquid-cooled canister calorimeter is used to measure the heat loss through the multilayer foil insulation.

  4. STARS A Two Stage High Gain Harmonic Generation FEL Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Abo-Bakr; W. Anders; J. Bahrdt; P. Budz; K.B. Buerkmann-Gehrlein; O. Dressler; H.A. Duerr; V. Duerr; W. Eberhardt; S. Eisebitt; J. Feikes; R. Follath; A. Gaupp; R. Goergen; K. Goldammer; S.C. Hessler; K. Holldack; E. Jaeschke; Thorsten Kamps; S. Klauke; J. Knobloch; O. Kugeler; B.C. Kuske; P. Kuske; A. Meseck; R. Mitzner; R. Mueller; M. Neeb; A. Neumann; K. Ott; D. Pfluckhahn; T. Quast; M. Scheer; Th. Schroeter; M. Schuster; F. Senf; G. Wuestefeld; D. Kramer; Frank Marhauser

    2007-08-01

    BESSY is proposing a demonstration facility, called STARS, for a two-stage high-gain harmonic generation free electron laser (HGHG FEL). STARS is planned for lasing in the wavelength range 40 to 70 nm, requiring a beam energy of 325 MeV. The facility consists of a normal conducting gun, three superconducting TESLA-type acceleration modules modified for CW operation, a single stage bunch compressor and finally a two-stage HGHG cascaded FEL. This paper describes the faciliy layout and the rationale behind the operation parameters.

  5. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources: a nominal 300 Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28 Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt (kW) discharge power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300 to 500 Volts (V) to the thruster. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall effect thruster. The performance of the unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97%. The unit was also tested with a 12.5kW Hall effect thruster to verify compatibility and output filter specifications. With space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power devices, this would provide a design solution to address the need for high power electric propulsion systems.

  6. High-Temperature Gas Sensor Array (Electronic Nose) Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to measure emissions from aeronautic engines and in commercial applications such as automotive emission control and chemical process monitoring is a necessary first step if one is going to actively control those emissions. One single sensor will not give all the information necessary to determine the chemical composition of a high-temperature, harsh environment. Rather, an array of gas sensor arrays--in effect, a high-temperature electronic "nose"--is necessary to characterize the chemical constituents of a diverse, high-temperature environment, such as an emissions stream. The signals produced by this nose could be analyzed to determine the constituents of the emission stream. Although commercial electronic noses for near-room temperature applications exist, they often depend significantly on lower temperature materials or only one sensor type. A separate development effort necessary for a high-temperature electronic nose is being undertaken by the NASA Glenn Research Center, Case Western Reserve University, Ohio State University, and Makel Engineering, Inc. The sensors are specially designed for hightemperature environments. A first-generation high-temperature electronic nose has been demonstrated on a modified automotive engine. This nose sensor array was composed of sensors designed for hightemperature environments fabricated using microelectromechanical-systems- (MEMS-) based technology. The array included a tin-oxide-based sensor doped for nitrogen oxide (NOx) sensitivity, a SiC-based hydrocarbon (CxHy) sensor, and an oxygen sensor (O2). These sensors operate on different principles--resistor, diode, and electrochemical cell, respectively--and each sensor has very different responses to the individual gases in the environment. A picture showing the sensor head for the array is shown in the photograph on the left and the sensors installed in the engine are shown in the photograph on the right. Electronics are interfaced with the sensors for

  7. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  8. Exploring the Relationship between Teaching Efficacy and Cultural Efficacy of Novice Science Teachers in High-Needs Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine; Bilica, Kimberly; Wandless, Ana; Gdovin, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study sought to investigate what relationship exists between teaching efficacy and cultural efficacy of novice science teachers in high-needs, high-minority urban schools. One major theme--the importance of establishing positive teacher-student relationships--surrounding teaching efficacy in the context of cultural efficacy…

  9. Prebiotics and probiotics: some thoughts on demonstration of efficacy within the regulatory sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Stephen P J; Kalmokoff, Martin L

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics present regulators with challenges because they require a demonstrated positive health outcome and proof that the prebiotic or probiotic is the agent of action once safety aspects have been satisfied. Thus, probiotic and prebiotic definitions are important because they will set the criteria by which these materials will be judged within the regulatory sphere. Use of the terms probiotic and prebiotic are, themselves, considered health claims in some jurisdictions, so that both product health claims and product content labeling may be regulated. Currently accepted definitions of prebiotic and probiotic make it easier to draw a straight line between ingestion and health outcome for probiotics but much more difficult for prebiotics, where a health outcome must be linked to changes in specific bacterial species within the gut microbial community. These challenges highlight the difficulties facing regulatory bodies and the scientific community when emerging science is turned into consumable product.

  10. Fabrication of high efficacy selective solar absorbers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tile, N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency tandem selective solar absorber materials of carbon in nickel oxide (C-NiO) composite were fabricated on an aluminium substrate using a simple and cost effective sol-gel process. The process involved preparation of carbon and nickel...

  11. Science self-efficacy in tenth grade Hispanic female high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Maria Decanio

    Historical data have demonstrated an underrepresentation of females and minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions. The purpose of the study considered the variables of gender and ethnicity collectively in relationship to tenth grade Hispanic females' perception of their self-efficacy in science. The correlation of science self-efficacy to science academic achievement was also studied. Possible interventions for use with female Hispanic minority populations might help increase participation in STEM field preparation during the high school career. A population of 272 students was chosen through convenience sampling methods, including 80 Hispanic females. Students were administered a 27-item questionnaire taken directly from the Smist (1993) Science Self-efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ). Three science self-efficacy factors were successfully extracted and included Academic Engagement Self-efficacy (M=42.57), Laboratory Self-efficacy (M=25.44), and Biology Self-efficacy ( M=19.35). Each factor showed a significant positive correlation ( pself-efficacy perceptions. Asian/Pacific and Native American females had higher self-efficacy mean scores as compared to White, Black and Hispanic females on all three extracted science self-efficacy factors. Asian/Pacific females had the highest mean scores. No statistically significant correlations were found between science-self-efficacy and a measure of science achievement. Two high-ability and two low-ability Hispanic females were randomly chosen to participate in a brief structured interview. Three general themes emerged. Classroom Variables, Outside School Variables, and Personal Variables were subsequently divided into sub themes influenced by participants' views of science. It was concluded that Hispanic female science self-efficacy was among the subgroups which self-scored the lowest. Asian/Pacific and Native American females fared better than White, Black, and Hispanic female counterparts

  12. The Efficacy of a Three-Week Stress Management Unit for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Glenn E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A study used psychometric information to determine the efficacy of a stress management unit in a high school health class. Students who took the unit showed improvement in knowledge, attitudes, and the ability to relax, as demonstrated on tests of heart rate and muscular tension. (PP)

  13. Democritos: preparing demonstrators for high power nuclear electric space propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Frederic; Ruault, Jean-Marc; WORMS, Jean-Claude; Detsis, Emmanouil; Beaurain, André; Lassoudiere, Francois; Gaia, Enrico; Tosi, Maria -Christina; Jansen, Frank; Bauer, Waldemar; Semenkin, Alexander; Tinsley, Tim; Hodgson, Zara

    2015-01-01

    The Democritos project aims at preparing demonstrators for a megawatt class nuclearelectric space propulsion. It is funded by Horizon 2020, the R&T program of the European Community. It is a new European and Russian project, including as partners: Nuclear National Laboratory (U.K.), DLR (Germany), The Keldysh Research Center (Russia), Thales Alenia Space Italia (Italy), Snecma (France), ESF (France) and CNES (France). IEAV (Brazil) will join as an observer. Democritos is the follo...

  14. LIQUIDARMOR CM Flashing and Sealant, High Impact Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E [ORNL; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2016-12-01

    Air leakage is responsible for about 1.1 quads of energy or 6% of the total energy used by commercial buildings in the US. Consequently, infiltration and exfiltration are among the largest envelope-related contributors to the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning loads in commercial buildings. New air sealing technologies have recently emerged that aim to improve the performance of air barrier systems by simplifying their installation procedure. LIQUIDARMORTM CM Flashing and Sealant is an example of these new advanced material technologies. This technology is a spray-applied sealant and liquid flashing and can span gaps that are up to ¼ in. wide without a supporting material. ORNL verified the performance of LIQUIDARMORTM CM with field tests and energy simulations from a building in which LIQUIDARMORTM CM was one of components of the air barrier system. The Homeland Security Training Center (HTC) at the College of DuPage in Glen Ellyn, IL, served as the demonstration site. Blower door test results show the average air leakage rate in the demonstration site to be 0.15 cfm/ft2 at 1.57 psf, or 63% lower than the 0.4 cfm at 1.57 psf specified in the 2015 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). According to simulation results, HTC lowered its annual heating and cooling cost by about $3,000 or 9% compared to a similar building that lacked an air barrier system. This demonstration project serves as an example of the level of building envelope airtightness that can be achieved by using air barrier materials that are properly installed, and illustrates the energy and financial savings that such an airtight envelope could attain.

  15. Human induced pluripotent cells resemble embryonic stem cells demonstrating enhanced levels of DNA repair and efficacy of nonhomologous end-joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Jinshui; Robert, Carine [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 West Baltimore Street, BRB 7-023A, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Jang, Yoon-Young; Liu Hua; Sharkis, Saul; Baylin, Stephen Bruce [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Baltimore, MD 21231-1000 (United States); Rassool, Feyruz Virgilia, E-mail: frassool@som.umaryland.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 West Baltimore Street, BRB 7-023A, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Highlights: {yields} iPSC and hESC demonstrate a similar cell cycle profile, with increased S phase cells and decreased G0/G1. {yields} iPSC and hESC increased ROS and decreased DSBs, compared with differentiated parental cells. {yields} iPSC and hESC demonstrate elevated DSB repair activity, including nonhomologous end-joining, compared with differentiated parental cells. {yields} iPSC however show a partial apoptotic response to DNA damage, compared to hESC. {yields} DNA damage responses may constitute important markers for the efficacy of iPSC reprogramming. - Abstract: To maintain the integrity of the organism, embryonic stem cells (ESC) need to maintain their genomic integrity in response to DNA damage. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most lethal forms of DNA damage and can have disastrous consequences if not repaired correctly, leading to cell death, genomic instability and cancer. How human ESC (hESC) maintain genomic integrity in response to agents that cause DSBs is relatively unclear. Adult somatic cells can be induced to 'dedifferentiate' into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and reprogram into cells of all three germ layers. Whether iPSC have reprogrammed the DNA damage response is a critical question in regenerative medicine. Here, we show that hESC demonstrate high levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can contribute to DNA damage and may arise from high levels of metabolic activity. To potentially counter genomic instability caused by DNA damage, we find that hESC employ two strategies: First, these cells have enhanced levels of DNA repair proteins, including those involved in repair of DSBs, and they demonstrate elevated nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) activity and repair efficacy, one of the main pathways for repairing DSBs. Second, they are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents, as evidenced by a high level of apoptosis upon irradiation. Importantly, iPSC, unlike the parent cells they are derived

  16. Optical Verification Laboratory Demonstration System for High Security Identification Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Bahram

    1997-01-01

    Document fraud including unauthorized duplication of identification cards and credit cards is a serious problem facing the government, banks, businesses, and consumers. In addition, counterfeit products such as computer chips, and compact discs, are arriving on our shores in great numbers. With the rapid advances in computers, CCD technology, image processing hardware and software, printers, scanners, and copiers, it is becoming increasingly easy to reproduce pictures, logos, symbols, paper currency, or patterns. These problems have stimulated an interest in research, development and publications in security technology. Some ID cards, credit cards and passports currently use holograms as a security measure to thwart copying. The holograms are inspected by the human eye. In theory, the hologram cannot be reproduced by an unauthorized person using commercially-available optical components; in practice, however, technology has advanced to the point where the holographic image can be acquired from a credit card-photographed or captured with by a CCD camera-and a new hologram synthesized using commercially-available optical components or hologram-producing equipment. Therefore, a pattern that can be read by a conventional light source and a CCD camera can be reproduced. An optical security and anti-copying device that provides significant security improvements over existing security technology was demonstrated. The system can be applied for security verification of credit cards, passports, and other IDs so that they cannot easily be reproduced. We have used a new scheme of complex phase/amplitude patterns that cannot be seen and cannot be copied by an intensity-sensitive detector such as a CCD camera. A random phase mask is bonded to a primary identification pattern which could also be phase encoded. The pattern could be a fingerprint, a picture of a face, or a signature. The proposed optical processing device is designed to identify both the random phase mask and the

  17. High Gradient $Nb_3Sn$ Quadrupole Demonstrator MKQXF Engineering Design

    CERN Document Server

    Kokkinos, C; Karppinen, Mikko; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    A new mechanical design concept for the $Nb_3Sn$ quadrupoles has been developed with a goal of an accelerator quality magnet that can be industrially produced in large series. This concept can easily be extended to any length and applied on both 1-in-1 and 2-in-1 configurations. It is based on the pole-loading concept and collared coils using dipole-type collars. Detailed design optimisation of a demonstrator magnet based on present base-line HL-LHC IR quadrupole QXF coil geometry has been carried out including the end regions. This report describes the design concept and the fully parametric multi-physics finite element (FE) models that were used to determine the optimal assembly parameters including the effects of the manufacturing tolerances.

  18. Demonstration of a high repetition rate capillary discharge waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsalves, A. J., E-mail: ajgonsalves@lbl.gov; Pieronek, C.; Daniels, J.; Bulanov, S. S.; Waldron, W. L.; Mittelberger, D. E.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Liu, F.; Antipov, S.; Butler, J. E. [Euclid TechLabs, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20879 (United States); Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-21

    A hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide operating at kHz repetition rates is presented for parameters relevant to laser plasma acceleration (LPA). The discharge current pulse was optimized for erosion mitigation with laser guiding experiments and MHD simulation. Heat flow simulations and measurements showed modest temperature rise at the capillary wall due to the average heat load at kHz repetition rates with water-cooled capillaries, which is promising for applications of LPAs such as high average power radiation sources.

  19. Irreversible Electroporation (IRE) Fails to Demonstrate Efficacy in a Prospective Multicenter Phase II Trial on Lung Malignancies: The ALICE Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricke, Jens, E-mail: jens.ricke@med.ovgu.de; Jürgens, Julian H. W., E-mail: julian.juergens@med.ovgu.de [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Deschamps, Frederic; Tselikas, Lambros [Institut de Cancérologie Gustave Roussy, Department of Image Guided Therapy (France); Uhde, Katja; Kosiek, Ortrud [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Baere, Thierry De [Institut de Cancérologie Gustave Roussy, Department of Image Guided Therapy (France)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo assess safety and efficacy of irreversible electroporation (IRE) of lung malignancies.Materials and MethodsPatients with primary and secondary lung malignancies and preserved lung function were included in this prospective single arm trial. Primary and secondary endpoints were safety and efficacy. Recruitment goal was 36 subjects in 2 centers. Patients underwent IRE under general anesthesia with probe placement performed in Fluoroscopy-CT. The IRE system employed was NanoKnife{sup ®} (Angiodynamics). System settings for the ablation procedure followed the manufacturer’s recommendations. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to evaluate the correlation of nine technical parameters with local tumor control. Median follow up was 12 months.ResultsThe expected efficacy was not met at interim analysis and the trial was stopped prematurely after inclusion of 23 patients (13/10 between both centers). The dominant tumor entity was colorectal (n = 13). The median tumor diameter was 16 mm (8–27 mm). Pneumothoraces were observed in 11 of 23 patients with chest tubes required in 8 (35 %). Frequently observed alveolar hemorrhage never led to significant hemoptysis. 14/23 showed progressive disease (61 %). Stable disease was found in 1 (4 %), partial remission in 1 (4 %) and complete remission in 7 (30 %) patients. The relative increase of the current during ablation was significantly higher in the group treated successfully as compared to the group presenting local recurrence (p < 0.05). Needle tract seeding was found in three cases (13 %).ConclusionsIRE is not effective for the treatment of lung malignancies. We hypothesize that the energy deposition with current IRE probes is highly sensitive to air exposure.

  20. High luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with AlGaN cap layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Abdullah I; Farrell, Robert M; Saifaddin, Burhan; Mughal, Asad; Wu, Feng; DenBaars, Steven P; Nakamura, Shuji; Speck, James S

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate very high luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes employing Al0.30Ga0.70N cap layer grown on patterned sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The peak external quantum efficiency and luminous efficacies were 44.3% and 239 lm/w, respectively. At 20 mA (20 A/cm2) the light output power was 14.3 mW, the forward voltage was 3.5 V, the emission wavelength was 526.6 nm, and the external quantum efficiency was 30.2%. These results are among the highest reported luminous efficacy values for InGaN based green light-emitting diodes.

  1. Novel composite efficacy measure to demonstrate the rationale and efficacy of combination antiviral-anti-inflammatory treatment for recurrent herpes simplex labialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Christopher M; Levin, Myron J; Tyring, Stephen K; Spruance, Spotswood L

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the primary target for research and treatment of recurrent herpes simplex labialis (HSL) has been limited to inhibiting herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication. Antiviral monotherapy, however, has proven only marginally effective in curtailing the duration and severity of recurrent lesions. Recently, the role of inflammation in the progression and resolution of recurrences has been identified as an additional target. This was evaluated in a randomized study comparing combination topical 5% acyclovir-1% hydrocortisone cream (AHC) with 5% acyclovir alone (AC; in the AHC vehicle) and the vehicle. The efficacy of each topical therapy was evaluated for cumulative lesion size--a novel composite efficacy endpoint incorporating episode duration, lesion area, and proportion of nonulcerative lesions. In that study, cumulative lesion area was significantly decreased with AHC compared with AC (25% decrease; P<0.05) and the vehicle (50% decrease; P<0.0001). As research continues in this arena, cumulative lesion area should be included as a measure of efficacy in clinical trials of recurrent HSL therapies.

  2. Examination of Urban High School Dropouts with High Self-Efficacy: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayles, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of urban students in Central Alabama with high self-efficacy who have dropped out of school to pursue a GED. This study: (a) provided a platform that gave voice to students to share their lived experience as they made the decision to drop out of high school, (b) identified the character…

  3. Sources of Writing Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Elementary, Middle, and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajares, Frank; Johnson, Margaret J.; Usher, Ellen L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Albert Bandura's four hypothesized sources of self-efficacy on students' writing self-efficacy beliefs (N = 1256) and to explore how these sources differ as a function of gender and academic level (elementary, middle, high). Consistent with the tenets of self-efficacy theory, each of the…

  4. Hall Effect Thruster for High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop a flight version of a high power Hall Effect thruster. While numerous high power Hall Effect thrusters have been demonstrated in the...

  5. DS-8201a, A Novel HER2-Targeting ADC with a Novel DNA Topoisomerase I Inhibitor, Demonstrates a Promising Antitumor Efficacy with Differentiation from T-DM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogitani, Yusuke; Aida, Tetsuo; Hagihara, Katsunobu; Yamaguchi, Junko; Ishii, Chiaki; Harada, Naoya; Soma, Masako; Okamoto, Hiromi; Oitate, Masataka; Arakawa, Shingo; Hirai, Takehiro; Atsumi, Ryo; Nakada, Takashi; Hayakawa, Ichiro; Abe, Yuki; Agatsuma, Toshinori

    2016-10-15

    An anti-HER2 antibody-drug conjugate with a novel topoisomerase I inhibitor, DS-8201a, was generated as a new antitumor drug candidate, and its preclinical pharmacologic profile was assessed. In vitro and in vivo pharmacologic activities of DS-8201a were evaluated and compared with T-DM1 in several HER2-positive cell lines and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. The mechanism of action for the efficacy was also evaluated. Pharmacokinetics in cynomolgus monkeys and the safety profiles in rats and cynomolgus monkeys were assessed. DS-8201a exhibited a HER2 expression-dependent cell growth-inhibitory activity and induced tumor regression with a single dosing at more than 1 mg/kg in a HER2-positive gastric cancer NCI-N87 model. Binding activity to HER2 and ADCC activity of DS-8201a were comparable with unconjugated anti-HER2 antibody. DS-8201a also showed an inhibitory activity to Akt phosphorylation. DS-8201a induced phosphorylation of Chk1 and Histone H2A.X, the markers of DNA damage. Pharmacokinetics and safety profiles of DS-8201a were favorable and the highest non-severely toxic dose was 30 mg/kg in cynomolgus monkeys, supporting DS-8201a as being well tolerated in humans. DS-8201a was effective in a T-DM1-insensitive PDX model with high HER2 expression. DS-8201a, but not T-DM1, demonstrated antitumor efficacy against several breast cancer PDX models with low HER2 expression. DS-8201a exhibited a potent antitumor activity in a broad selection of HER2-positive models and favorable pharmacokinetics and safety profiles. The results demonstrate that DS-8201a will be a valuable therapy with a great potential to respond to T-DM1-insensitive HER2-positive cancers and low HER2-expressing cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 22(20); 5097-108. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Demonstration of a Fiber Optic Regression Probe in a High-Temperature Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    empirically anchoring any analysis geared towards lifetime qualification. Erosion rate data over an operating envelope could also be useful in the modeling detailed physical processes. The sensor has been embedded in many regressing media to demonstrate the capabilities in a number of regressing environments. In the present work, sensors were installed in the eroding/regressing throat region of a converging-diverging flow, with the working gas heated to high temperatures by means of a high-pressure arc discharge at steady-state discharge power levels up to 500 kW. The amount of regression observed in each material sample was quantified using a later profilometer, which was compared to the in-situ erosion measurements to demonstrate the efficacy of the measurement technique in very harsh, high-temperature environments.

  7. A multifunctional drug combination shows highly potent therapeutic efficacy against human cancer xenografts in athymic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Jun Liu

    Full Text Available The tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role during tumor development. Integrated combination of drugs that target tumor microenvironment is a promising approach to anticancer therapy. Here, we report a multifunctional combination of low-cytotoxic drugs composed of dipyridamole, bestatin and dexamethasone (DBDx which mainly acts on the tumor microenvironment shows highly potent antitumor efficacy in vivo. In mouse hepatoma H22 model, the triple drug combination showed synergistic and highly potent antitumor efficacy. The combination indices of various combinations of the triple drugs were between 0.2 and 0.5. DBDx inhibited the growth of a panel of human tumor xenografts and showed no obvious systemic toxicity. At tolerated doses, DBDx suppressed the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402, HepG2, and lung adenocarcinoma A549 xenografts by 94.5%, 93.7% and 96.9%, respectively. Clonogenic assay demonstrated that DBDx showed weak cytotoxicity. Western blot showed that Flk1 and Nos3 were down-regulated in the DBDx-treated group. Proteomic analysis showed that DBDx mainly affected the metabolic process and immune system process; in addition, the angiogenesis and VEGF signaling pathway were also affected. Conclusively, DBDx, a multifunctional drug combination of three low-cytotoxic drugs, shows synergistic and highly potent antitumor efficacy evidently mediated by the modulation of tumor microenvironment. Based on its low-cytotoxic attributes and its broad-spectrum antitumor therapeutic efficacy, this multifunctional combination might be useful in the treatment of cancers, especially those refractory to conventional chemotherapeutics.

  8. Efficacy of flavonoids in the management of high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jaime L; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G

    2015-12-01

    Plant compounds such as flavonoids have been reported to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Information on the effects of isolated individual flavonoids for management of high blood pressure, however, is more limited. This review is focused on the flavonoids, as isolated outside of the food matrix, from the 5 main subgroups consumed in the Western diet (flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins), along with their effects on hypertension, including the potential mechanisms for regulating blood pressure. Flavonoids from all 5 subgroups have been shown to attenuate a rise in or to reduce blood pressure during several pathological conditions (hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus). Flavones, flavonols, flavanones, and flavanols were able to modulate blood pressure by restoring endothelial function, either directly, by affecting nitric oxide levels, or indirectly, through other pathways. Quercetin had the most consistent blood pressure-lowering effect in animal and human studies, irrespective of dose, duration, or disease status. However, further research on the safety and efficacy of the flavonoids is required before any of them can be used by humans, presumably in supplement form, at the doses required for therapeutic benefit.

  9. HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS' COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY IS PREDICTED BY SELF-EFFICACY AND ACHIEVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Binnaz Kiran Esen; H. Duygu Özcan; Mehtap Sezgin

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the prediction cognitive flexibility obtained by general self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, social self-efficacy, emotional self-efficacy and achievement is examined. This study is executed in 2014- 2015 academic year on 760 high school students who are between ages 15 and 18. Cognitive flexibility Scale is developed by Bilgin (2009b) is used for defining cognitive flexibility, Self-Efficacy Scale is developed by Çelikkaleli, Gündoğdu ve Kıran-Esen (2006) is used for def...

  10. Deferasirox demonstrates a dose-dependent reduction in liver iron concentration and consistent efficacy across subgroups of non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Ali T; Porter, John B; Viprakasit, Vip; Kattamis, Antonis; Chuncharunee, Suporn; Sutcharitchan, Pranee; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Galanello, Renzo; Karakas, Zeynep; Lawniczek, Tomasz; Habr, Dany; Ros, Jacqueline; Zhang, Yiyun; Cappellini, M Domenica

    2013-06-01

    The 1-year THALASSA study enrolled 166 patients with various non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT) syndromes, degrees of iron burden and patient characteristics, and demonstrated the overall efficacy and safety of deferasirox in reducing liver iron concentration (LIC) in these patients. Here, reduction in LIC with deferasirox 5 and 10 mg/kg/day starting dose groups is shown to be consistent across the following patient subgroups-baseline LIC/serum ferritin, age, gender, race, splenectomy (yes/no), and underlying NTDT syndrome (β-thalassemia intermedia, HbE/β-thalassemia or α-thalassemia). These analyses also evaluated deferasirox dosing strategies for patients with NTDT. Greater reductions in LIC were achieved in patients dose-escalated at Week 24 from deferasirox 10 mg/kg/day starting dose to 20 mg/kg/day. Patients who received an average actual dose of deferasirox >12.5-≤17.5 mg/kg/day achieved a greater LIC decrease compared with the ≥7.5-≤12.5 mg/kg/day and >0-<7.5 mg/kg/day subgroups, demonstrating a dose-response efficacy. LIC reduction across patient subgroups was generally consistent with the primary efficacy analysis with a similar safety profile.

  11. Deferasirox demonstrates a dose-dependent reduction in liver iron concentration and consistent efficacy across subgroups of non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Ali T; Porter, John B; Viprakasit, Vip; Kattamis, Antonis; Chuncharunee, Suporn; Sutcharitchan, Pranee; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Galanello, Renzo; Karakas, Zeynep; Lawniczek, Tomasz; Habr, Dany; Ros, Jacqueline; Zhang, Yiyun; Cappellini, M Domenica

    2013-01-01

    The 1-year THALASSA study enrolled 166 patients with various non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT) syndromes, degrees of iron burden and patient characteristics, and demonstrated the overall efficacy and safety of deferasirox in reducing liver iron concentration (LIC) in these patients. Here, reduction in LIC with deferasirox 5 and 10 mg/kg/day starting dose groups is shown to be consistent across the following patient subgroups—baseline LIC/serum ferritin, age, gender, race, splenectomy (yes/no), and underlying NTDT syndrome (β-thalassemia intermedia, HbE/β-thalassemia or α-thalassemia). These analyses also evaluated deferasirox dosing strategies for patients with NTDT. Greater reductions in LIC were achieved in patients dose-escalated at Week 24 from deferasirox 10 mg/kg/day starting dose to 20 mg/kg/day. Patients who received an average actual dose of deferasirox >12.5–≤17.5 mg/kg/day achieved a greater LIC decrease compared with the ≥7.5–≤12.5 mg/kg/day and >0–<7.5 mg/kg/day subgroups, demonstrating a dose–response efficacy. LIC reduction across patient subgroups was generally consistent with the primary efficacy analysis with a similar safety profile. Am. J. Hematol. 88:503–506, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23553596

  12. Computer Self-Efficacy among Senior High School Teachers in Ghana and the Functionality of Demographic Variables on Their Computer Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfo, Frederick Kwaku; Amankwah, Francis; Konin, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The study is aimed at investigating 1) the level of computer self-efficacy among public senior high school (SHS) teachers in Ghana and 2) the functionality of teachers' age, gender, and computer experiences on their computer self-efficacy. Four hundred and Seven (407) SHS teachers were used for the study. The "Computer Self-Efficacy"…

  13. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D.

    2001-08-27

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet for the decontamination of high level waste using a 33-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River Technology Center. This represents the first CSSX process demonstration using Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste. Three tests lasting 6, 12, and 48 hours processed simulated average SRS waste, simulated Tank 37H/44F composite waste, and Tank 37H/44F high level waste, respectively.

  14. What leadership behaviors were demonstrated by the principal in a high poverty, high achieving elementary school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hayet J. Woods

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Examined through the lens of leadership, were the behaviors of a principal as perceived by stakeholders. The following themes emerged: (1 Educating the Whole Child, with the subthemes: (a providing basic needs; (b academic interventions based on achievement data; (c an emphasis on reading; (d extended academic time; and (e relationships; and (2 Synergy of Expectations, with the subthemes: (a consistent student expectations; (b increased staff accountability; and (c community involvement. The researchers found that the principal by demonstrating behaviors as a change agent, a creator of vision, and a provider of necessary support and strategies, rather than adopting numerous programs, the school personnel were able to increase and sustain academic achievement of the students of poverty as well as their peers. Implications for principal practices, along with leadership preparatory programs are significant.

  15. Efficacy and safety of once daily low molecular weight heparin (tinzaparin sodium) in high risk pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ní Ainle, Fionnuala

    2008-10-01

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is widely regarded as the anticoagulant treatment of choice for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy. However, previous studies have demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic profiles of LMWH vary significantly with increasing gestation. Consequently, it remains unclear whether LMWH regimens recommended for use in nonpregnant individuals can be safely extrapolated to pregnant women. The aims of this study were to assess the safety and the efficacy of tinzaparin sodium (Innohep) administered only once daily during pregnancy. A systematic retrospective review identified a cohort of 37 high-risk pregnancies which had been managed using tinzaparin 175 IU\\/kg once daily. In 26 cases, the index pregnancy had been complicated by development of an acute venous thromboembolism (17 deep vein thrombosis and nine pulmonary embolism). For each individual, case notes were examined and data extracted using a predetermined questionnaire. No episodes of recurrent venous thromboembolism were identified amongst this cohort of pregnancies managed using once daily LMWH administration. However, two unusual thrombotic complications were observed, including a parietal infarct in one patient, and a postpartum cerebral venous thrombosis in another. Once daily tinzaparin was well tolerated, with no cases of heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia, symptomatic osteoporosis, or foetal malformations. Tinzaparin dose modification based upon peak anti-Xa levels occurred in 45% of the cases examined. The present study is the largest study to have examined the clinical efficacy of once daily LMWH for use in pregnant women at high risk of venous thromboembolism. Our data support the safety and efficacy of antenatal tinzaparin at a dose of 175 IU\\/kg. In order to determine whether this once daily regimen provides equivalent (or indeed greater) thromboprophylaxis to twice daily LMWH regimens during pregnancy will require highly powered

  16. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRON BEAM TECHNOLOGY - HIGH VOLTAGE ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high energy electron beam irradiation technology is a low temperature method for destroying complex mixtures of hazardous organic chemicals in solutions containing solids. The system consists of a computer-automated, portable electron beam accelerator and a delivery system. T...

  17. Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Glutamine Synthetase as a Novel Antibiotic Strategy against Tuberculosis: Demonstration of Efficacy In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of humankind's greatest killers, and new therapeutic strategies are needed to combat the causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is rapidly developing resistance to conventional antibiotics. Using the highly demanding guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis, we have investigated the feasibility of inhibiting M. tuberculosis glutamine synthetase (GS), an enzyme that plays a key role in both nitrogen metabolism and cell wall biosynthesis, as a novel antibi...

  18. Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous

  19. The impact of collective teacher efficacy on student achievement in high school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Mark W.

    This dissertation was designed to examine the impact of collective teacher efficacy on high school science achievement by looking at relationships among collective teacher efficacy, its two constructs, group competence and group task analysis, and high school science achievement scores at four rural high schools in Northwestern North Carolina. The researcher gathered historical test data from the testing coordinator from the school system and then administered the Collective Teacher Efficacy Instrument, developed by Goddard, Hoy, and Woolfolk Hoy (2000), to 24 science teachers from the four high schools. Using this information, the researcher conducted statistical analyses to determine the relationships among collective teacher efficacy, group competence, and group task analysis as compared with the tested science curriculum (physical science, biology, chemistry, and physics). The researcher also examined which construct was the most contributing factor and examined differences in efficacy levels and student achievement levels at each high school. Analysis of the data from this study indicated collective teacher efficacy, as well as its two constructs, group competence and group task analysis, does have a positive impact on student achievement in high school science. Analysis of the data revealed group competence is the major contributing factor for student achievement in biology and group task analysis is the major contributing factor for student achievement in physical science, chemistry, and physics. Further analysis of the data in this study, also revealed that the two high schools with the highest levels of collective teacher efficacy had the highest levels of student achievement.

  20. Evaluating High School Students' Anxiety and Self-Efficacy towards Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Osman; Yilmaz, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and self-efficacy are among the factors that impact students' performance in biology. The current study aims to investigate high school students' perception of biology anxiety and self-efficacy, in relation to gender, grade level, interest in biology, negative experience associated with biology classes, and teachers' approaches in the…

  1. Achievement, School Integration, and Self-Efficacy in Single-Sex and Coeducational Parochial High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micucci, Kara Hanson

    2014-01-01

    A structural model for prior achievement, school integration, and self-efficacy was developed using Tinto's theory of student attrition and Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The model was tested and revised using a sample of 1,452 males and females from single-sex and coeducational parochial high schools. Results indicated that the theoretically…

  2. Rural High School Teachers' Self-Efficacy in Student Engagement, Instructional Strategies, and Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, Tori L.; Krei, Melinda Scott

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in rural high school teachers' (n = 256) self-efficacy in student engagement, instructional practices, and classroom management using selected teacher characteristics. Analysis of variance showed significant mean differences between different levels of education in self-efficacy for…

  3. Evaluating High School Students' Anxiety and Self-Efficacy towards Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Osman; Yilmaz, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and self-efficacy are among the factors that impact students' performance in biology. The current study aims to investigate high school students' perception of biology anxiety and self-efficacy, in relation to gender, grade level, interest in biology, negative experience associated with biology classes, and teachers' approaches in the…

  4. Measuring University Students' Perceived Self-Efficacy in Science Communication in Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shaohui; Liu, Xiufeng; Gardella, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Service learning typically involves university students in teaching and learning activities for middle and high school students, however, measurement of university students' self-efficacy in science communication is still lacking. In this study, an instrument to measure university students' perceived self-efficacy in communicating science to…

  5. Special Education Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in a Large Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebeck, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify if special education teachers' self-efficacy beliefs are impacted by student engagement, instructional strategies, and classroom management. Specifically, this study focused on the self-efficacy of high school special education teachers in an urban setting. This was a correlational quantitative design…

  6. Rural High School Teachers' Self-Efficacy in Student Engagement, Instructional Strategies, and Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, Tori L.; Krei, Melinda Scott

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in rural high school teachers' (n = 256) self-efficacy in student engagement, instructional practices, and classroom management using selected teacher characteristics. Analysis of variance showed significant mean differences between different levels of education in self-efficacy for…

  7. Pitavastatin demonstrates long-term efficacy, safety and tolerability in elderly patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia or combined (mixed) dyslipidaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Budinski, Dragos; Hounslow, Neil

    2013-01-01

    -89 years). Only 17% of patients required up-titration to pitavastatin 4 mg. After 60 weeks, NCEP ATP III and EAS targets were attained by 93.8% and 89.0% of patients, respectively. Plasma LDL-C declined by 43.4% and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 9.6% versus core-study baseline values......-term pitavastatin treatment (2 and 4 mg) is effective in lowering LDL-C levels and has a good safety and tolerability profile in elderly patients....... Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Plan III (NCEP ATP III) targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was determined.Results: Of the patients enrolled, 539 received at least one dose of pitavastatin (safety population: men, 45.5%; Caucasian, 99.1%; mean age, 70.3 years; range, 65...

  8. High-Lift Propeller System Configuration Selection for NASA's SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael D.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the primary function of propellers is typically to produce thrust, aircraft equipped with distributed electric propulsion (DEP) may utilize propellers whose main purpose is to act as a form of high-lift device. These \\high-lift propellers" can be placed upstream of wing such that, when the higher-velocity ow in the propellers' slipstreams interacts with the wing, the lift is increased. This technique is a main design feature of a new NASA advanced design project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR). The goal of the SCEPTOR project is design, build, and y a DEP aircraft to demonstrate that such an aircraft can be much more ecient than conventional designs. This paper provides details into the high-lift propeller system con guration selection for the SCEPTOR ight demonstrator. The methods used in the high-lift propeller system conceptual design and the tradeo s considered in selecting the number of propellers are discussed.

  9. Vascular compression in glossopharyngeal neuralgia: demonstration by high-resolution MRI at 3 tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbach, F.; Ricke, J.; Bruhn, H. [Department of Radiology, Charite, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13352, Berlin (Germany); Lehmann, T.N. [Department of Neurosurgery, Charite, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Augustenberger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    We report a case of glossopharyngeal neuralgia with vascular compression. High-resolution MRI at 3 tesla demonstrated the posterior inferior cerebellar artery to be closely related to the rootlets of the left glossopharyngeal nerve in a patient who suffered attacks of burning sensation in the left side of the throat. The MRI findings were confirmed at curative surgery. (orig.)

  10. A Simple Demonstration of the High-Temperature Electrical Conductivity of Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaverina, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We usually think of glass as a good electrical insulator; this, however, is not always the case. There are several ways to show that glass becomes conducting at high temperatures, but the following approach, devised by Brown University demonstration manager Gerald Zani, may be one of the simplest to perform.

  11. A Simple Demonstration of the High-Temperature Electrical Conductivity of Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaverina, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We usually think of glass as a good electrical insulator; this, however, is not always the case. There are several ways to show that glass becomes conducting at high temperatures, but the following approach, devised by Brown University demonstration manager Gerald Zani, may be one of the simplest to perform.

  12. The AX-PET project Demonstration of a high resolution axial 3D PET

    CERN Document Server

    Bolle, E; Casella, C; Chesi, E; Clinthorne, N; Cochran, E; De Leo, R; Dissertori, G; Djambazov, G; Fanti, V; Honscheid, K; Huh, S; Johnson, I; Joram, C; Kagan, H; Lustermann, W; Meddi, F; Nappi, E; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Oliver, J F; Pauss, P; Rafecas, M; Renker, D; Rudge, A; Schinzel, D; Schneider, T; Seguinot, J; Smith, S; Solevi, P; Stapnes, S; Weilhammer, P

    2010-01-01

    The AX-PET is a new geometrical concept for a high resolution 3D PET scanner, based on matrices of axially oriented LYSO crystals interleaved by stacks of WLS, both individually read out by G-APDs. A PET demonstrator, based on two detector modules used in coincidence, is currently under construction.

  13. Prototyping of an HV-CMOS demonstrator for the High Luminosity-LHC upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilella, E.; Benoit, M.; Casanova, R.; Casse, G.; Ferrere, D.; Iacobucci, G.; Peric, I.; Vossebeld, J.

    2016-01-01

    HV-CMOS sensors can offer important advantages in terms of material budget, granularity and cost for large area tracking systems in high energy physics experiments. This article presents the design and simulated results of an HV-CMOS pixel demonstrator for the High Luminosity-LHC. The pixel demonstrator has been designed in the 0.35 μm HV-CMOS process from ams AG and submitted for fabrication through an engineering run. To improve the response of the sensor, different wafers with moderate to high substrate resistivities are used to fabricate the design. The prototype consists of four large analog and standalone matrices with several pixel flavours, which are all compatible for readout with the FE-I4 ASIC. Details about the matrices and the pixel flavours are provided in this article.

  14. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Steven E.

    2013-11-11

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol.

  15. Statistics Related Self-Efficacy A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Demonstrating a Significant Link to Prior Mathematics Experiences for Graduate Level Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Larwin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined students' statistics-related self-efficacy, as measured with the current statistics self-efficacy (CSSE inventory developed by Finney and Schraw (2003. Structural equation modeling was used to check the confirmatory factor analysis of the one-dimensional factor of CSSE. Once confirmed, this factor was used to test whether a significant link to prior mathematics experiences exists. Additionally a new post-structural equation modeling (SEM application was employed to compute error-free latent variable score for CSSE in an effort to examine the ancillary effects of gender, age, ethnicity, department, degree level, hours completed, expected course grade, number of college-level math classes, current GPA on students' CSSE scores. Results support the one-dimensional construct and as expected, the model demonstrated a significant link between CSSE scores and prior mathematics experiences to CSSE. Additionally the students' department, expected grade, and number of prior math classes were found to have a significant effect on student's CSSE scores.

  16. Validation of a highly integrated SiPM readout system with a TOF-PET demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknejad, T.; Setayeshi, S.; Tavernier, S.; Bugalho, R.; Ferramacho, L.; Di Francesco, A.; Leong, C.; Rolo, M. D.; Shamshirsaz, M.; Silva, J. C.; Silva, R.; Silveira, M.; Zorraquino, C.; Varela, J.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a highly integrated, fast and compact readout electronics for Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) based Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF-PET) scanners. The readout is based on the use of TOP-PET Application Specific Integrated Circuit (PETsys TOFPET1 ASIC) with 64 channels, each with its amplifier, discriminator, Time to Digital Converter (TDC) and amplitude determination using Time Over Threshold (TOT). The ASIC has 25 ps r.m.s. intrinsic time resolution and fully digital output. The system is optimised for high rates, good timing, low power consumption and low cost. For validating the readout electronics, we have built a technical PET scanner, hereafter called ``demonstrator'', with 2'048 SiPM channels. The PET demonstrator has 16 compact Detector Modules (DM). Each DM has two ASICs reading 128 SiPM pixels in one-to-one coupling to 128 Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystals measuring 3.1 × 3.1 × 15 mm3 each. The data acquisition system for the demonstrator has two Front End Boards type D (FEB/D), each collecting the data of 1'024 channels (8 DMs), and transmitting assembled data frames through a serial link (4.8 Gbps), to a single Data Acquisition (DAQ) board plugged into the Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe) bus of the data acquisition PC. Results obtained with this PET demonstrator are presented.

  17. Leading Public Service Organisations: How to obtain high employee self-efficacy and organisational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2016-01-01

    Concerns are sometimes raised that transactional leadership harms public organisations’ performance, because demands thwart employees’ self-efficacy. However, the opposite may be argued – conditional rewards strengthen feelings of competence because they provide positive feedback on performance. We...... study ninety-two high school principals’ reported use of contingent rewards and sanctions and self-efficacy among their 1,932 teachers. The results indicate that contingent rewards strengthen self-efficacy, and that sanctions are not negatively related with self-efficacy or performance. Furthermore......, the teachers’ self-efficacy can be linked positively to organisational performance. This suggests that rewards can be an important tool for managers in the public sector....

  18. Leading public service organizations: How to obtain high employee self-efficacy and organizational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2017-01-01

    Concerns are sometimes raised that transactional leadership harms public organisations’ performance, because demands thwart employees’ self-efficacy. However, the opposite may be argued – conditional rewards strengthen feelings of competence because they provide positive feedback on performance. We...... study ninety-two high school principals’ reported use of contingent rewards and sanctions and self-efficacy among their 1,932 teachers. The results indicate that contingent rewards strengthen self-efficacy, and that sanctions are not negatively related with self-efficacy or performance. Furthermore......, the teachers’ self-efficacy can be linked positively to organisational performance. This suggests that rewards can be an important tool for managers in the public sector....

  19. Demonstration of a stable high ionic conductivity solid oxide electrolyte. Final report, November 1993-January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachsman, E.D.; Pound, B.G.; Jayaweera, P.; Jiang, N.; Lowe, D.

    1996-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a novel, low-cost, intermediate temperature, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using currently available highly conducting CeO2 electrolytes. The specific technical objective is to demonstrate that a ceria electrolyte can be modified to obtain stability against reduction by H2 at the anode, as evident by a stable open circuit potential that is higher than could be obtained with an unmodifed ceria electrolyte.

  20. Demonstration of high-Q mid-infrared chalcogenide glass-on-silicon resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongtao; Li, Lan; Zou, Yi; Danto, Sylvain; Musgraves, J David; Richardson, Kathleen; Kozacik, Stephen; Murakowski, Maciej; Prather, Dennis; Lin, Pao T; Singh, Vivek; Agarwal, Anu; Kimerling, Lionel C; Hu, Juejun

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrated high-index-contrast, waveguide-coupled As2Se3 chalcogenide glass resonators monolithically integrated on silicon fabricated using optical lithography and a lift-off process. The resonators exhibited a high intrinsic quality factor of 2×10(5) at 5.2 μm wavelength, which is among the highest values reported in on-chip mid-infrared (mid-IR) photonic devices. The resonator can serve as a key building block for mid-IR planar photonic circuits.

  1. Post Irradiation Examination Plan for High-Burnup Demonstration Project Sister Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Rose [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This test plan describes the experimental work to be implemented by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) to characterize high burnup (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in conjunction with the High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project and serves to coordinate and integrate the multi-year experimental program to collect and develop data regarding the continued storage and eventual transport of HBU (i.e., >45 GWd/MTU) SNF. The work scope involves the development, performance, technical integration, and oversight of measurements and collection of relevant data, guided by analyses and demonstration of need.

  2. Demonstration of resonant backward Raman amplification in high-density gas-jet plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z. H.; Zhou, K. N.; Zheng, X. M.; Wei, X. F.; Zhu, Q. H.; Su, J. Q.; Xie, N.; Jiao, Z. H.; Peng, H.; Wang, X. D.; Sun, L.; Li, Q.; Huang, Z.; Zuo, Y. L.

    2016-10-01

    Backward Raman amplification was observed in a 0.7 mm-long high-density gas jet plasma. The 800 nm 30 fs seed pulse was amplified by a factor  ∼28, with an output energy of 2.8 mJ. The output spectra showed that the waveband around 800 nm was significantly amplified. The experimental result demonstrated that the resonant Raman amplification can be realized in high-density plasma against strong plasma instability.

  3. Real time demonstration of high bitrate quantum random number generation with coherent laser light

    CERN Document Server

    Symul, T; Lam, P K; 10.1063/1.3597793

    2011-01-01

    We present a random number generation scheme that uses broadband measurements of the vacuum field contained in the radio-frequency sidebands of a single-mode laser. Even though the measurements may contain technical noise, we show that suitable algorithms can transform the digitized photocurrents into a string of random numbers that can be made arbitrarily correlated with a subset of the quantum fluctuations (high quantum correlation regime) or arbitrarily immune to environmental fluctuations (high environmental immunity). We demonstrate up to 2 Gbps of real time random number generation that were verified using standard randomness tests.

  4. Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of High School Students’ Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Baki TELEF

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether subjective well-being of high school students is predicted by their academic, social, and emotional self-efficacy. The sample of this study consisted of 311 high school students of whom 64% (n= 199 were girls and 36% (n= 112 were boys. Data were collected by the Self-Efficacy Scale for Children, the Positive and Negative Experience Scale, and the Life Satisfaction Scale and analyzed through multiple regression analysis. Results showed that high school students’ academic, social, and emotional self-efficacy explained 19% of variance in their subjective well-being and predicted their subjective well-being. Activities performed by school counselors to increase students’ academic, social, and emotional self-efficacy levels are thought to contribute to their subjective well-being.

  5. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Highly Hydrophilic Polyurethane Foam Dressing in Treating a Diabetic Foot Ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-A; Yoo, Ki-Hyun; Han, Seung-Kyu; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2016-12-01

    To demonstrate the efficacy of a highly hydrophilic polyurethane foam dressing in the treatment of diabetic ulcers. Diabetic foot ulcers often pose a difficult treatment problem. Polyurethane foam dressings have been used worldwide to accelerate wound healing, but only a few clinical studies demonstrate the effect of foam dressing on the healing of diabetic ulcers. Medical records of 1342 patients with diabetic ulcers who were admitted and treated at the authors' institution were reviewed. A total of 208 patients met the study's inclusion criteria. Of these 208 patients, 137 were treated with a highly hydrophilic polyurethane foam dressing, and 71 were treated with saline gauze (control group). Except for the application of polyurethane foam dressing, the treatment method was identical for patients in both groups. The wound healing outcomes of the 2 groups were compared. Complete wound healing occurred in 87 patients (63.5%) in the polyurethane foam dressing group and in 28 patients (39.4%) in the control group within 12 weeks (P polyurethane foam dressing and control groups, respectively (P polyurethane foam dressing may provide an effective treatment strategy for diabetic foot ulcers.

  6. Demonstration of submersible high-throughput microfluidic immunosensors for underwater explosives detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, André A; Charles, Paul T; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Kusterbeck, Anne W

    2011-11-15

    Significant security threats posed by highly energetic nitroaromatic compounds in aquatic environments and the demilitarization and pending cleanup of areas previously used for munitions manufacture and storage represent a challenge for less expensive, faster, and more sensitive systems capable of analyzing groundwater and seawater samples for trace levels of explosive materials. Presented here is an inexpensive high throughput microfluidic immunosensor (HTMI) platform intended for the rapid, highly selective quantitation of nitroaromatic compounds in the field. Immunoaffinity and fluorescence detection schemes were implemented in tandem on a novel microfluidic device containing 39 parallel microchannels that were 500 μm tall, 250 μm wide, and 2.54 cm long with covalently tethered antibodies that was engineered for high-throughput high-volume sample processing. The devices were produced via a combination of high precision micromilling and hot embossing. Mass transfer limitations were found in conventional microsystems and were minimized due to higher surface area to volume ratios that exceeded those possessed by conventional microdevices and capillaries. Until now, these assays were limited to maximum total volume flow rates of ~1 mL/min due in part to kinetics and high head pressures of single microchannels. In the design demonstrated here, highly parallelized microchannels afforded up to a 100-fold increase in total volume flow rate while maintaining favorable kinetic constraints for efficient antigen-antibody interaction. The assay employed total volume throughput of up to 6 mL/min while yielding signal-to-noise ratios of >15 in all cases. In addition to samples being processed up to 60 times faster than in conventional displacement-based immunoassays, the current system was capable of quantitating 0.01 ng/mL TNT samples without implementing offline preconcentration, thereby, demonstrating the ability to improve sensitivity by as much as 2 orders of magnitude

  7. Experimental Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Fan-out Polarization Grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chenhao; Chen, Jian; Tang, Xiahui; Zhan, Qiwen

    2016-12-23

    Highly efficient fan-out elements are crucial in coherent beam combining architectures especially in coupled laser resonators where the beam passes through the fan-out element twice per round trip. Although the theoretical efficiency is usually less than 86%, the Dammann gratings are ubiquitously utilized in a variety of types of coherent beam combining systems due to the facile design and fabrication. In the current paper, we experimentally demonstrate a highly efficient fan-out polarization grating. It is the first time to our knowledge that all the three space-variant parameters of a polarization grating are simultaneously optimized to achieve the function of multi-beam splitting. Besides the high fan-out efficiency, the ability to control the polarization states of individual split beams is another advantage of this polarization grating. The novel polarization grating is promising to find applications in laser beam combining systems.

  8. Demonstration of a High Open-Circuit Voltage GaN Betavoltaic Microbattery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zai-Jun; SAN Hai-Sheng; CHEN Xu-Yuan; LIU Bo; FENG Zhi-Hong

    2011-01-01

    A high open-circuit voltage betavoltaic microbattery based on a GaN p-i-n diode is demonstrated.Under the irradiation of a 4× 4mm2 planar solid 63Ni source with an activity of 2mCi,the open-circuit voltage Voc of the fabricated single 2x2mm2 cell reaches as high as 1.62 V,the short-circuit current density Jsc is measured to be 16nA/cm2.The microbattery has a fill factor of 55%,and the energy conversion effciency of beta radiation into electricity reaches to 1.13%.The results suggest that GaN is a highly promising potential candidate for long-life betavoltaic microbatteries used as power supplies for microelectromechanical system devices.

  9. Limited efficacy of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of highly refractory epileptic spasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shaun A; Shin, Ji Hyun; Shih, Evan J; Murata, Kristina K; Sewak, Sarika; Kezele, Michele E; Sankar, Raman; Matsumoto, Joyce H

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that the ketogenic diet is effective in the treatment of epileptic spasms, even in refractory cases. However, there has been very limited demonstration of prompt and complete (video-EEG confirmed) response. We set out to describe our center's experience with the ketogenic diet in the treatment of children with highly refractory epileptic spasms, with rigorous seizure outcome assessment. Children treated with the ketogenic diet for epileptic spasms between April, 2010 and June, 2014 were retrospectively identified. Seizure burden was tabulated at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, and 12-months of ketogenic diet exposure. Adverse events were similarly ascertained. We identified a cohort of 22 consecutive patients who received ketogenic diet therapy, with median age of onset of epileptic spasms of 5.2 (IQR 2.0-9.0) months, with diet initiation beginning a median of 26.4 (12.5-38.7) months after onset, and following a median of 7 (IQR 5-7) treatment failures. Only 2 patients exhibited a complete response during ketogenic diet exposure, and response was more reasonably attributed to alternative therapies in both cases. A modest early reduction in seizure frequency was not sustained beyond 1 month of diet exposure. The diet was well tolerated, and continued in 6 patients with subjective and/or partial response. In contrast to prior studies reporting substantial efficacy of the ketogenic diet, our findings suggest limited efficacy, albeit in a highly refractory cohort. Prospective studies in both refractory and new-onset populations, with both video-EEG confirmation of response and rigorous cognitive outcome assessment, would be of great value to more clearly define the utility of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of epileptic spasms. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Demonstration of Cathode Emittance Dominated High Bunch Charge Beams in a DC gun-based Photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Gulliford, Colwyn; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Cultrera, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of transverse emittance and longitudinal current profile measurements of high bunch charge (greater than or equal to 100 pC) beams produced in the DC gun-based Cornell Energy Recovery Linac Photoinjector. In particular, we show that the cathode thermal and core beam emittances dominate the final 95% and core emittance measured at 9-9.5 MeV. Additionally, we demonstrate excellent agreement between optimized 3D space charge simulations and measurement, and show that the quality of the transverse laser distribution limits the optimal simulated and measured emittances. These results, previously thought achievable only with RF guns, demonstrate that DC gun based photoinjectors are capable of delivering beams with sufficient single bunch charge and beam quality suitable for many current and next generation accelerator projects such as Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) and Free Electron Lasers (FELs).

  11. Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip

    CERN Document Server

    Kippenberg, T J; Vahala, K J

    2004-01-01

    Optical microcavities confine light spatially and temporally and find application in a wide range of fundamental and applied studies. In many areas, the microcavity figure of merit is not only determined by photon lifetime (or the equivalent quality-factor, Q), but also by simultaneous achievement of small mode volume V . Here we demonstrate ultra-high Q-factor small mode volume toroid microcavities on-a-chip, which exhibit a Q/V factor of more than $10^{6}(\\lambda/n)^{-3}$. These values are the highest reported to date for any chip-based microcavity. A corresponding Purcell factor in excess of 200 000 and a cavity finesse of $2.8\\times10^{6}$ is achieved, demonstrating that toroid microcavities are promising candidates for studies of the Purcell effect, cavity QED or biochemical sensing

  12. Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippenberg, T. J.; Spillane, S. M.; Vahala, K. J.

    2004-12-01

    Optical microcavities confine light spatially and temporally and find application in a wide range of fundamental and applied studies. In many areas, the microcavity figure of merit is not only determined by photon lifetime (or the equivalent quality-factor, Q), but also by simultaneous achievement of small mode volume (V). Here we demonstrate ultra-high Q-factor small mode volume toroid microcavities on-a-chip, which exhibit a Q/V factor of more than 106(λ/n)-3. These values are the highest reported to date for any chip-based microcavity. A corresponding Purcell factor in excess of 200 000 and a cavity finesse of >2.8×106 is achieved, demonstrating that toroid microcavities are promising candidates for studies of the Purcell effect, cavity QED or biochemical sensing.

  13. Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. A CT demonstration of a high-density lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Kazuhiro; Muramoto, Masato; Chiba, Yasuhiro; Yagishita, Saburo

    1987-08-01

    CT scan studies of the Tolosa-Hunt syndrome have seldom been reported; positive abnormal findings are especially rare. A 36-year-old man suffered from steady, boring pain behind the left eye for one year. On admission he complained of diplopia on the right lateral gaze and hypesthesea of the first and second divisions of the left trigeminal nerve. A CT scan demonstrated a slightly high-density lesion, which was homogeneously enhanced, in the left cavernous portion and the superior orbital fissure. Carotid angiograms demonstrated no abnormal finding, and the cavernous sinus venography revealed no filling of the left cavernous sinus. A left front-temporal craniotomy was performed for the purpose of biopsy. A histological examination revealed non-specific focal granulomatous pachymeningitis. He responded dramatically to systemic steroid therapy, and he became pain-free by the fourth post-operative day. This diagnosis of the Tolosa-Hunt syndrome was confirmed both clinically and etiologically; however, the CT scan after the treatment demonstrated no definitive change in the lesion. The CT scan is useful for the diagnosis of this syndrome. Considering the stage of the illness, it is possible that the high-resolution CT scan can demonstrate this lesion with an advanced technique. The clinical diagnosis is almost easy, and surgical exploration is not always necessary if there is a prompt remission upon systemic steroid therapy. However, this syndrome should be differentiated from the other causes by appropriate examinations. Some cases similar to ours, especially suspected tumors, need surgical exploration because these angiographic findings are not specific.

  14. College and Academic Self-Efficacy as Antecedents for High School Dual-Credit Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmun, Cliff D.

    2013-01-01

    Do high school students who are predisposed to enroll in dual-credit courses already possess high levels of motivation or college and academic self-efficacy? Students in this study reported being academically motivated, but they did not report high levels of confidence in their ability to perform certain college-associated tasks. Of 52 items…

  15. Demonstration of high-speed multi-user multi-carrier CDMA visible light communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Yuanquan; Wang, Yiguang; Huang, Xingxing; Chi, Nan

    2015-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a high-speed multi-user multi-carrier code-division multiple access (MC-CDMA) visible light communication (VLC) system. By employing a commercially available red light emitting diode (LED) and an avalanche photo diode (APD), we achieved a 16-user VLC system enabled by MC-CDMA, pre- and post-equalization, with an overall bit rate of 750 Mb/s over 1.5 m free-space transmission. The measured bit error ratio (BER) of each user is below the 7% pre-forward-error-correction (pre-FEC) threshold of 3.8×10-3.

  16. [Efficacy of high-frequency cinematography in diagnosis of dysphagia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelerich, M; Mai, R; Müller-Miny, H; Peters, P E

    1995-10-01

    Dysphagia is a common symptom in clinical practice. Due to the broad spectrum of underlying diseases many disciplines are involved in the therapy and diagnosis of dysphagia, where radiology plays a central role. The radiologist is confronted with different diagnostic problems and has to choose the most appropriate type of investigation. In many cases no organic disorder can be demonstrated by clinical examination, endoscopy or conventional radiological techniques. In this setting cineradiography is an outstanding tool for finding functional or structural changes in the swallowing chain. This study underlines the efficiency of cineradiography in the diagnosis of dysphagia.

  17. An innovative demonstration of high power density in a compact MDH (magnetohydrodynamic) generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H. J.; Lineberry, J. T.; Chapman, J. N.

    1990-06-01

    The present program was conducted by the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). It was by its nature a high risk experimental program to demonstrate the feasibility of high power density operation in a laboratory scale combustion driven MHD generator. Maximization of specific energy was not a consideration for the present program, but the results have implications in this regard by virtue of high energy fuel used. The power density is the ratio of the electrical energy output to the internal volume of the generator channel. The MHD process is a volumetric process and the power density is therefore a direct measure of the compactness of the system. Specific energy, is the ratio of the electrical energy output to consumable energy used for its production. The two parameters are conceptually interrelated. To achieve high power density and implied commensurate low system volume and weight, it was necessary to use an energetic fuel. The high energy fuel of choice was a mixture of powdered aluminum and carbon seeded with potassium carbonate and burned with gaseous oxygen. The solid fuel was burned in a hybrid combustion scheme wherein the fuel was cast within a cylindrical combustor in analogy with a solid propellant rocket motor. Experimental data is limited to gross channel output current and voltage, magnetic field strength, fuel and oxidizer flow rates, flow train external temperatures and combustor pressure. Similarly, while instantaneous oxidizer flow rates were measured, only average fuel consumption based on pre and post test component weights and dimensions was possible.

  18. Demonstration of a Low-Lift Heat Pump for High-Power Spacecraft Thermal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyll, Lawrence R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a prototype low-lift heat pump for high-power spacecraft thermal control The low-lift heat pump was designed to provide 25 kW of cooling at 303 K and transport this waste heat to a radiator for heat rejection. To accomplish this, a demonstration heat pump with an evaporation temperature of 298 K and a condensing temperature of 301 K was designed and built. HFC-227ea was the working fluid. This effort resulted in optimization of the centrifugal compressor impeller, diffuser, and shroud designs through extensive experimental testing. The detailed design of a magnetic bearing centrifugal compressor was completed. A prototype heat pump thermal control system was designed and fabricated which contained prototypical cold plate and condenser designs. This prototype system was extensively tested and demonstrated to measure performance parameters such as power consumption, cooling capacity, system size and mass, and other key parameters. Finally, the experimental performance was input into the theoretical trade study allowing for a comparison of the actual performance of the low-lift heat pump to a single-phase pumped loop. Inputting the experimental low-lift heat pump performance into the trade study showed that the low-lift heat pump still has lower system mass than the single-phase pumped loop for all space temperatures considered. The experimental results very closely match the theoretical results used in the trade study.

  19. West Valley demonstration project: alternative processes for solidifying the high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.; Partain, W.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project as the result of legislation passed by the US Congress. The purpose of this project was to carry out a high level nuclear waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The DOE authorized the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, to assess alternative processes for treatment and solidification of the WNYNSC high-level wastes. The Process Alternatives Study is the suject of this report. Two pretreatment approaches and several waste form processes were selected for evaluation in this study. The two waste treatment approaches were the salt/sludge separation process and the combined waste process. Both terminal and interim waste form processes were studied.

  20. Starlight Demonstration of the Dragonfly Instrument: an Integrated Photonic Pupil Remapping Interferometer for High Contrast Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jovanovic, N; Norris, B; Gross, S; Stewart, P; Charles, N; Lacour, S; Ams, M; Lawrence, J S; Lehmann, A; Niel, C; Robertson, J G; Marshall, G D; Ireland, M; Fuerbach, A; Withford, M J

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since the first extra-solar planet was discovered, the detection and characterization of extra-solar planets has become one of the key endeavors in all of modern science. Recently direct detection techniques such as interferometry or coronography have received growing attention because they reveal the population of exoplanets inaccessible to Doppler or transit techniques, and moreover they allow the faint signal from the planet itself to be investigated. Next-generation stellar interferometers are increasingly incorporating photonic technologies due to the increase in fidelity of the data generated. Here, we report the design, construction and commissioning of a new high contrast imager; the integrated pupil-remapping interferometer; an instrument we expect will find application in the detection of young faint companions in the nearest star-forming regions. The laboratory characterisation of the instrument demonstrated high visibility fringes on all interferometer baselines in addition to s...

  1. Demonstration of large field effect in topological insulator films via a high-κ back gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. Y.; Lin, H. Y.; Yang, S. R.; Chen, K. H. M.; Lin, Y. H.; Chen, K. H.; Young, L. B.; Cheng, C. K.; Fanchiang, Y. T.; Tseng, S. C.; Hong, M.; Kwo, J.

    2016-05-01

    The spintronics applications long anticipated for topological insulators (TIs) has been hampered due to the presence of high density intrinsic defects in the bulk states. In this work we demonstrate the back-gating effect on TIs by integrating Bi2Se3 films 6-10 quintuple layer (QL) thick with amorphous high-κ oxides of Al2O3 and Y2O3. Large gating effect of tuning the Fermi level EF to very close to the band gap was observed, with an applied bias of an order of magnitude smaller than those of the SiO2 back gate, and the modulation of film resistance can reach as high as 1200%. The dependence of the gating effect on the TI film thickness was investigated, and ΔN2D/ΔVg varies with TI film thickness as ˜t-0.75. To enhance the gating effect, a Y2O3 layer thickness 4 nm was inserted into Al2O3 gate stack to increase the total κ value to 13.2. A 1.4 times stronger gating effect is observed, and the increment of induced carrier numbers is in good agreement with additional charges accumulated in the higher κ oxides. Moreover, we have reduced the intrinsic carrier concentration in the TI film by doping Te to Bi2Se3 to form Bi2TexSe1-x. The observation of a mixed state of ambipolar field that both electrons and holes are present indicates that we have tuned the EF very close to the Dirac Point. These results have demonstrated that our capability of gating TIs with high-κ back gate to pave the way to spin devices of tunable EF for dissipationless spintronics based on well-established semiconductor technology.

  2. Demonstration of nanoimprinted hyperlens array for high-throughput sub-diffraction imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Minsueop; Lee, Dasol; Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Yangdoo; Kim, Kwan; Ok, Jong G.; Rho, Junsuk; Lee, Heon

    2017-04-01

    Overcoming the resolution limit of conventional optics is regarded as the most important issue in optical imaging science and technology. Although hyperlenses, super-resolution imaging devices based on highly anisotropic dispersion relations that allow the access of high-wavevector components, have recently achieved far-field sub-diffraction imaging in real-time, the previously demonstrated devices have suffered from the extreme difficulties of both the fabrication process and the non-artificial objects placement. This results in restrictions on the practical applications of the hyperlens devices. While implementing large-scale hyperlens arrays in conventional microscopy is desirable to solve such issues, it has not been feasible to fabricate such large-scale hyperlens array with the previously used nanofabrication methods. Here, we suggest a scalable and reliable fabrication process of a large-scale hyperlens device based on direct pattern transfer techniques. We fabricate a 5 cm × 5 cm size hyperlenses array and experimentally demonstrate that it can resolve sub-diffraction features down to 160 nm under 410 nm wavelength visible light. The array-based hyperlens device will provide a simple solution for much more practical far-field and real-time super-resolution imaging which can be widely used in optics, biology, medical science, nanotechnology and other closely related interdisciplinary fields.

  3. Expanded Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Reselected for High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Demonstrate Islet Regenerative Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Ayesh K; Bell, Gillian I; Sherman, Stephen E; Cooper, Tyler T; Putman, David M; Hess, David A

    2016-04-01

    Human umbilical cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) purified for high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(hi) ) stimulate islet regeneration after transplantation into mice with streptozotocin-induced β cell deletion. However, ALDH(hi) cells represent a rare progenitor subset and widespread use of UCB ALDH(hi) cells to stimulate islet regeneration will require progenitor cell expansion without loss of islet regenerative functions. Here we demonstrate that prospectively purified UCB ALDH(hi) cells expand efficiently under serum-free, xeno-free conditions with minimal growth factor supplementation. Consistent with the concept that ALDH-activity is decreased as progenitor cells differentiate, kinetic analyses over 9 days revealed the frequency of ALDH(hi) cells diminished as culture time progressed such that total ALDH(hi) cell number was maximal (increased 3-fold) at day 6. Subsequently, day 6 expanded cells (bulk cells) were sorted after culture to reselect differentiated progeny with low ALDH-activity (ALDH(lo) subset) from less differentiated progeny with high ALDH-activity (ALDH(hi) subset). The ALDH(hi) subset retained primitive cell surface marker coexpression (32.0% ± 7.0% CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells, 37.0% ± 6.9% CD34(+) /CD133(+) cells), and demonstrated increased hematopoietic colony forming cell function compared with the ALDH(lo) subset. Notably, bulk cells or ALDH(lo) cells did not possess the functional capacity to lower hyperglycemia after transplantation into streptozotocin-treated NOD/SCID mice. However, transplantation of the repurified ALDH(hi) subset significantly reduced hyperglycemia, improved glucose tolerance, and increased islet-associated cell proliferation and capillary formation. Thus, expansion and delivery of reselected UCB cells that retain high ALDH-activity after short-term culture represents an improved strategy for the development of cellular therapies to enhance islet regeneration in situ.

  4. High reinforcing efficacy of nicotine in non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Le Foll

    Full Text Available Although tobacco appears highly addictive in humans, there has been persistent controversy about the ability of its psychoactive ingredient nicotine to induce self-administration behavior in laboratory animals, bringing into question nicotine's role in reinforcing tobacco smoking. Because of ethical difficulties in inducing nicotine dependence in naïve human subjects, we explored reinforcing effects of nicotine in experimentally-naive non-human primates given access to nicotine for periods of time up to two years. Five squirrel monkeys with no experimental history were allowed to intravenously self-administer nicotine by pressing one of two levers. The number of presses on the active lever needed to obtain each injection was fixed (fixed-ratio schedule or increased progressively with successive injections during the session (progressive-ratio schedule, allowing evaluation of both reinforcing and motivational effects of nicotine under conditions of increasing response cost. Over time, a progressive shift toward high rates of responding on the active lever, but not the inactive lever, developed. The monkeys' behavior was clearly directed toward nicotine self-administration, rather than presentation of environmental stimuli associated with nicotine injection. Both schedules of reinforcement revealed a high motivation to self-administer nicotine, with monkeys continuing to press the lever when up to 600 lever-presses were needed for each injection of nicotine. Thus, nicotine, by itself, in the absence of behavioral or drug-exposure history, is a robust and highly effective reinforcer of drug-taking behavior in a non-human primate model predictive of human behavior. This supports the use of nicotinic ligands for the treatment of smokers, and this novel preclinical model offers opportunities to test future medications for the treatment of nicotine dependence.

  5. INFLUENCE OF STUDENT ENGLISH UTILITY AND TEACHER EFFICACY ON ENGLISH PROFICIENCY OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. ORTEGA-DELA CRUZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning second language considers a number of factors that influence the manner in which the language is taught. Understanding of the learners’ goals and motivation for learning is one. Using descriptive-correlational research design, this study determined the influence of student English utility and teacher efficacy on the students’ English proficiency. A total of 101 students from first year to fourth year level served as the respondents of the study. The study quantified the students’ perception towards English utility and their evaluation of English teacher efficacy which employed a researcher-made survey questionnaire. Results revealed high positive perceptions of students towards English utility. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in the perceptions of high school students on the efficacy of their English teachers. Correlation coefficients indicated a positive linear relationship among the given variables. The p-value revealed significant relationship of teacher efficacy (r = .691, p-value = .000 and English utility (r = .467, p-value = .000 to students’ English proficiency. Results of regression statistics revealed that English utility has no significant influence on the student English proficiency. Therefore, the main factor that must still be considered then should be the teacher. Finally, there is an explicit indication that high level of teachers’ efficacy performing in teaching has much powerful influence on the English proficiency of high school students. Thus improving the methods of teaching English provides a better way of motivating students to achieve higher levels of proficiency in the future.

  6. An innovative demonstration of high power density in a compact MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H.J.; Lineberry, J.T.; Chapman, J.N.

    1990-06-01

    The present program was conducted by the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). It was by its nature a high risk experimental program to demonstrate the feasibility of high power density operation in a laboratory scale combustion driven MHD generator. Maximization of specific energy was not a consideration for the present program, but the results have implications in this regard by virtue of high energy fuel used. The power density is the ratio of the electrical energy output to the internal volume of the generator channel. The MHD process is a volumetric process and the power density is therefore a direct measure of the compactness of the system. Specific energy, is the ratio of the electrical energy output to consumable energy used for its production. The two parameters are conceptually interrelated. To achieve high power density and implied commensurate low system volume and weight, it was necessary to use an energetic fuel. The high energy fuel of choice was a mixture of powdered aluminum and carbon seeded with potassium carbonate and burned with gaseous oxygen. The solid fuel was burned in a hybrid combustion scheme wherein the fuel was cast within a cylindrical combustor in analogy with a solid propellant rocket motor. Experimental data is limited to gross channel output current and voltage, magnetic field strength, fuel and oxidizer flow rates, flow train external temperatures and combustor pressure. Similarly, while instantaneous oxidizer flow rates were measured, only average fuel consumption based on pre and post test component weights and dimensions was possible. 4 refs., 60 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Delusions of expertise: the high standard of proof needed to demonstrate skills at horserace handicapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Matthew; Rockloff, Matthew J; Blaszcynski, Alex; Allcock, Clive; Windross, Allen

    2015-03-01

    Gamblers who participate in skill-oriented games (such as poker and sports-betting) are motivated to win over the long-term, and some monitor their betting outcomes to evaluate their performance and proficiency. In this study of Australian off-track horserace betting, we investigated which levels of sustained returns would be required to establish evidence of skill/expertise. We modelled a random strategy to simulate 'naïve' play, in which equal bets were placed on randomly selected horses using a representative sample of 211 weekend races. Results from a Monte Carlo simulation yielded a distribution of return-on-investments for varying number of bets (N), showing surprising volatility, even after a large number of repeated bets. After adjusting for the house advantage, a gambler would have to place over 10,000 bets in individual races with net returns exceeding 9 % to be reasonably considered an expert punter (α = .05). Moreover, a record of fewer bets would require even greater returns for demonstrating expertise. As such, validated expertise is likely to be rare among race bettors. We argue that the counter-intuitively high threshold for demonstrating expertise by tracking historical performance is likely to exacerbate known cognitive biases in self-evaluation of expertise.

  8. Preliminary Demonstration Reactor Point Design for the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Development of the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) Demonstration Reactor (DR) is a necessary intermediate step to enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration. The FHR DR will utilize known, mature technology to close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell heat exchangers. This report provides an update on the development of the FHR DR. At this writing, the core neutronics and thermal hydraulics have been developed and analyzed. The mechanical design details are still under development and are described to their current level of fidelity. It is anticipated that the FHR DR can be operational within 10 years because of the use of low-risk, near-term technology options.

  9. Demonstrating a directional detector based on neon for characterizing high energy neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Hexley, A; Spitz, J; Conrad, J M

    2015-01-01

    MITPC is a gas-based time projection chamber used for detecting fast, MeV-scale neutrons. The standard version of the detector relies on a mixture of 600~torr gas composed of 87.5% $^4$He and 12.5% CF$_4$ for precisely measuring the energy and direction of neutron-induced nuclear recoils. We describe studies performed with a prototype detector investigating the use of Ne, as a replacement for $^4$He, in the gas mixture. Our discussion focuses on the advantages of Ne as the fast neutron target for high energy neutron events ($\\lesssim$100 MeV) and a demonstration that the mixture will be effective for this event class. We find that the achievable gain and transverse diffusion of drifting electrons in the Ne mixture are acceptable and that the detector uptime lost due to voltage breakdowns in the amplification plane is negligible, compared to $\\sim$ 20% with the $^4$He mixture.

  10. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  11. Operating experience during high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, P.J.; Elliott, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a summary of operational experiences, component and system performance, and lessons learned associated with the operation of the Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The VF was designed to convert stored high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stable waste form (borosilicate glass) suitable for disposal in a federal repository. Following successful completion on nonradioactive test, HLW processing began in July 1995. Completion of Phase 1 of HLW processing was reached on 10 June 1998 and represented the processing of 9.32 million curies of cesium-137 (Cs-137) and strontium-90 (Sr-90) to fill 211 canisters with over 436,000 kilograms of glass. With approximately 85% of the total estimated curie content removed from underground waste storage tanks during Phase 1, subsequent operations will focus on removal of tank heel wastes.

  12. Demonstrating a directional detector based on neon for characterizing high energy neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexley, Allie

    2016-03-01

    MITPC is a gas-based time projection chamber used for detecting fast, MeV-scale neutrons. The standard version of the detector relies on a mixture of 600 torr gas composed of 87.5% helium-4 and 12.5% tetrafluoromethane for precisely measuring the energy and direction of neutron-induced nuclear recoils. I describe studies performed with a prototype detector investigating the use of neon, as a replacement for helium-4, in the gas mixture. My discussion focuses on the advantages of neon as the fast neutron target for high energy neutron events (100 MeV) and a demonstration that the mixture will be effective for this event class. I show that the achievable gain and transverse diffusion of drifting electrons in the neon mixture are acceptable and that the detector uptime lost due to voltage breakdowns in the amplification plane is negligible, compared to 20% with the helium-4 mixture.

  13. A systematic review to identify challenges of demonstrating efficacy of HIV behavioral interventions for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Darrel H; Crepaz, Nicole; Marshall, Khiya J; Kay, Linda; Vosburgh, H Waverly; Spikes, Pilgrim; Lyles, Cynthia M; Purcell, David W

    2013-05-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV but few MSM-specific evidence-based interventions (EBIs) have been identified for this vulnerable group. We conducted a systematic review to identify reasons for the small number of EBIs for MSM. We also compared study, intervention and sample characteristics of EBIs versus non-EBIs to better understand the challenges of demonstrating efficacy evidence. Thirty-three MSM-specific studies were evaluated: Nine (27 %) were considered EBIs while 24 (73 %) were non-EBIs. Non-EBIs had multiple methodological limitations; the most common was not finding a significant positive effect. Compared to EBIs, non-EBIs were less likely to use peer intervention deliverers, include sexual communication in their interventions, and intervene at the community level. Incorporating characteristics associated with EBIs may strengthen behavioral interventions for MSM. More EBIs are needed for substance-using MSM, MSM of color, MSM residing in the south and MSM in couples.

  14. Exploring the Self-efficacy Beliefs among the High Achievers in Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyana Jalaluddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Learners form their self-efficacy beliefs by interpreting information primarily from four sources namely performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal. It is important to recognize the four cognitive nature of self-efficacy because the cognitive appraisal of information from the four sources will influence self-efficacy and it cannot be evaluated based on one source per se (Lane, Jones & Stevens 2002. This article explores the four sources of self-efficacy among the high achievers in writing course. In analysing the finding, Z-scores were derived from each self-efficacy component score based on the aggregate mean and the standard deviation of the class. Findings show high frequency of negative z-value reported for Specific Progress (SPR and Social Feedback (SF. Meanwhile, high frequency of positive z-value is found in the General Progress (GPR and Physiological States (PS components. Based on the finding, pedagogical implications, limitations and directions for further research are presented.

  15. Waveguide Power Combiner Demonstration for Multiple High Power Millimeter Wave TWTAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N.; Lesny, Gary G.; Glass, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA is presently developing nuclear reactor technologies, under Project Prometheus, which will provide spacecraft with greatly increased levels of sustained onboard power and thereby dramatically enhance the capability for future deep space exploration. The first mission planned for use of this high power technology is the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). In addition to electric propulsion and science, there will also be unprecedented onboard power available for deep space communications. A 32 GHz transmitter with 1 kW of RF output power is being considered to enable the required very high data transmission rates. One approach to achieving the 1 kW RF power, now being investigated at NASA GRC, is the possible power combining of a number of 100-1 50 W TWTs now under development. The work presented here is the results of a proof-of-concept demonstration of the power combining Ka-band waveguide circuit design and test procedure using two Ka- band TWTAs (Varian model VZA6902V3 and Logimetrics model A440/KA-1066), both of which were previously employed in data uplink evaluation terminals at 29.36 GHz for the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program. The characterization of the individual TWTAs and power combining demonstration were done over a 500 MHz bandwidth from 29.1 to 29.6 GHz to simulate the Deep Space Network (DSN) bandwidth of 3 1.8 to 32.3 GHz. Figures 1-3 show some of the power transfer and gain measurements of the TWTAs using a swept signal generator (Agilent 83640b) for the RF input. The input and output powers were corrected for circuit insertion losses due to the waveguide components. The RF saturated powers of both ACTS TWTAs were on the order of 120 W, which is comparable to the expected output powers of the 32 GHz TWTs. Additional results for the individual TWTAs will be presented (AM/AM, AM/PM conversion and gain compression), some of which were obtained from swept frequency and power measurements using a vector network

  16. Demonstration of high current carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors at industrially relevant voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mitchell

    lifetime and the potential for an all transparent display. And because carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and organics are used, CN-VFET and CN-VOLET devices are compatible with flexible displays. This dissertation describes the first ever demonstration of CN-VFETs and CN-VOLETs and relates their performance to the specific properties of the CNTs and the new device architecture. In the work that followed, the CN-VFET was systematically optimized overcoming the problems revealed in the demonstration devices. The large undesired hysteresis was decreased by 96%, the on/off ratio was improved three orders of magnitude and the operating voltages were reduced to state of the art values. Additionally, the current output per device area of the CN-VFET was demonstrated to be greater than any other low resolution patterned organic transistor by a factor of 3.9. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the CNTs induce a reorientation of the high mobility plane in small molecule organics like pentacene to coincide with the vertical direction, giving additional explanation for the large currents observed in the CN-VFET. The ability to drive high currents and potentially inexpensive fabrication may provide the solution for the AMOLED backplane problem.

  17. High-Lift Propeller Noise Prediction for a Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Jones, William T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several years, the use of electric propulsion technologies within aircraft design has received increased attention. The characteristics of electric propulsion systems open up new areas of the aircraft design space, such as the use of distributed electric propulsion (DEP). In this approach, electric motors are placed in many different locations to achieve increased efficiency through integration of the propulsion system with the airframe. Under a project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR), NASA is designing a flight demonstrator aircraft that employs many "high-lift propellers" distributed upstream of the wing leading edge and two cruise propellers (one at each wingtip). As the high-lift propellers are operational at low flight speeds (take-off/approach flight conditions), the impact of the DEP configuration on the aircraft noise signature is also an important design consideration. This paper describes efforts toward the development of a mulit-fidelity aerodynamic and acoustic methodology for DEP high-lift propeller aeroacoustic modeling. Specifically, the PAS, OVERFLOW 2, and FUN3D codes are used to predict the aerodynamic performance of a baseline high-lift propeller blade set. Blade surface pressure results from the aerodynamic predictions are then used with PSU-WOPWOP and the F1A module of the NASA second generation Aircraft NOise Prediction Program to predict the isolated high-lift propeller noise source. Comparisons of predictions indicate that general trends related to angle of attack effects at the blade passage frequency are captured well with the various codes. Results for higher harmonics of the blade passage frequency appear consistent for the CFD based methods. Conversely, evidence of the need for a study of the effects of increased azimuthal grid resolution on the PAS based results is indicated and will be pursued in future work. Overall, the results indicate that the computational

  18. Demonstration of sulfur solubility determinations in high waste loading, low-activity waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-25

    A method recommended by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for sulfate solubility determinations in simulated low-activity waste glasses was demonstrated using three compositions from a recent Hanford high waste loading glass study. Sodium and sulfate concentrations in the glasses increased after each re-melting step. Visual observations of the glasses during the re-melting process reflected the changes in composition. The measured compositions showed that the glasses met the targeted values. The amount of SO3 retained in the glasses after washing was relatively high, ranging from 1.6 to 2.6 weight percent (wt %). Measured SnO2 concentrations were notably low in all of the study glasses. The composition of the wash solutions should be measured in future work to determine whether SnO2 is present with the excess sulfate washed from the glass. Increases in batch size and the amount of sodium sulfate added did not have a measureable impact on the amount of sulfate retained in the glass, although this was tested for only a single glass composition. A batch size of 250 g and a sodium sulfate addition targeting 7 wt %, as recommended by PNNL, will be used in future experiments.

  19. Demonstration of real-time pattern correction for high-throughput maskless lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkennes, E. A.; Wiersma, A. D.; Hoving, M.; Venema, N.; Woutersen, S.; van de Peut, T.; Sanderse, M.; Wieland, M. J.

    2011-04-01

    MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. In this way electron optical columns can be made with a throughput of 10 wafers per hour. The amount of data for each 26mm x 33mm field is 8 Tbyte. The data rate is approximately 3 Tbyte per second. In order to realize overlay the patterns for different fields on the wafer need to be slightly adjusted. Additionally it is beneficial for the electron optics design to be able to correct a number of tool parameters on the data. For this it is desirable to be able to correct the pattern data in real time. By implementing the correction algorithms on an FPGA test board it has been demonstrated that it is possible to perform the corrections on the exposed data real time. By using a pixel size of 3.5nm, a CDu and overlay contribution of smaller than 1nm 3s is obtained. A datapath for 10wph based on an FPGA implementation that stores the switching data uncompressed in DRAM fits in 4 racks of 2 meters high, with a footprint of 600mm x 700mm each. By replacing the FPGA by an ASIC implementation, and by using real time decompression, the footprint can be reduced in a later stage.

  20. Surprise responses in the human brain demonstrate statistical learning under high concurrent cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett

    2016-06-01

    The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands.

  1. Demonstration of novel high-power acoustic through-the-wall sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Felber, Franklin

    2015-01-01

    A high-power acoustic sensor, capable of detecting and tracking persons through steel walls of cargo containers, trailer truck bodies, and train cars, has been developed and demonstrated. The sensor is based on a new concept for narrowband mechanical-impact acoustic transmitters and matched resonant receivers. The lightweight, compact, and low-cost transmitters produce high-power acoustic pulses at one or more discrete frequencies with little input power. The energy for each pulse is accumulated over long times at low powers, like a mousetrap, and therefore can be operated with ordinary batteries and no power conditioning. A breadboard impact-transmitter and matched-receiver system that detected human motion through thick walls with only rudimentary signal processing is described, and results are presented. A conceptual design is presented of an acoustic through-the-wall sensor, costing about $10,000 per unit and capable of remotely and non-intrusively scanning steel cargo containers for stowaways at a rate o...

  2. Modeling Weather in the Ionosphere using the Navy's Highly Integrated Thermosphere and Ionosphere Demonstration System (HITIDES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, S. E.; Sassi, F.; Zawdie, K.; McCormack, J. P.; Coker, C.; Huba, J.; Krall, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has recently developed a ground-to-space atmosphere-ionosphere prediction capability, the Highly Integrated Thermosphere and Ionosphere Demonstration System (HITIDES). HITIDES is the U.S. Navy's first coupled, physics-based, atmosphere-ionosphere model, one in which the atmosphere extends from the ground to the exobase ( 500 km altitude) and the ionosphere reaches several 10,000 km in altitude. HITIDES has been developed by coupling the extended version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM-X) with NRL's ionospheric model, Sami3 is Another Model of the Ionosphere (SAMI3). Integrated into this model are the effects of drivers from atmospheric weather (day-to-day meteorology), the Sun, and the changing high altitude composition. To simulate specific events, HITIDES can be constrained by data analysis products or observations. We have performed simulations of the ionosphere during January-February 2010 in which lower atmospheric weather patterns have been introduced using the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System-Advanced Level Physics High Altitude (NOGAPS-ALPHA) data assimilation products. The same time period has also been simulated using the new atmospheric forecast model, the NAVy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM), which has replaced NOGAPS-ALPHA. The two simulations are compared with each other and with observations of the low latitude ionosphere. We will discuss the importance of including lower atmospheric meteorology in ionospheric simulations to capture day-to-day variability as well as large-scale longitudinal structure in the low-latitude ionosphere. In addition, we examine the effect of the variability on HF radio wave propagation by comparing simulated ionograms calculated from the HITIDES ionospheric specifications to ionosonde measurements.

  3. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Demonstration Reactor Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) demonstration reactor (DR) is a concept for a salt-cooled reactor with 100 megawatts of thermal output (MWt). It would use tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel within prismatic graphite blocks. FLiBe (2 LiF-BeF2) is the reference primary coolant. The FHR DR is designed to be small, simple, and affordable. Development of the FHR DR is a necessary intermediate step to enable near-term commercial FHRs. Lower risk technologies are purposely included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include TRISO particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell primary-to-intermediate heat exchangers. Several preconceptual and conceptual design efforts that have been conducted on FHR concepts bear a significant influence on the FHR DR design. Specific designs include the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) advanced high-temperature reactor (AHTR) with 3400/1500 MWt/megawatts of electric output (MWe), as well as a 125 MWt small modular AHTR (SmAHTR) from ORNL. Other important examples are the Mk1 pebble bed FHR (PB-FHR) concept from the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), and an FHR test reactor design developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The MIT FHR test reactor is based on a prismatic fuel platform and is directly relevant to the present FHR DR design effort. These FHR concepts are based on reasonable assumptions for credible commercial prototypes. The FHR DR concept also directly benefits from the operating experience of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), as well as the detailed design efforts for a large molten salt reactor concept and its breeder variant, the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor. The FHR DR technology is most representative of the 3400 MWt AHTR

  4. Professional choice self-efficacy: predicting traits and personality profiles in high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Augusto Matteo Ambiel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to verify the predictive capacity of the Big Five personality factors related to professional choice self-efficacy, as well as to draw a personality profile of people with diverse self-efficacy levels. There were 308 high school students participating, from three different grades (57.5 % women, from public and private schools, average 26.64 years of age. Students completed two instruments, Escala de Autoeficácia para Escolha Profissional (Professional Choice Self-efficacy Scale and Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade (Factorial Personality Battery. Results were obtained using multiple regression analysis, analysis of variance with repeated measures profile and Cohen’s d to estimate the effect size of differences. Results showed that Extraversion, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were the main predictors of self-efficacy. Differences from medium to large were observed between extreme groups, and Extraversion and Conscientiousness were the personality factors that better distinguish people with low and high levels of self-efficacy. Theses results partially corroborate with the hypothesis. Results were discussed based on literature and on the practical implications of the results. New studies are proposed.

  5. Demonstrating the capability of the high-performance plasmonic gallium-graphene couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losurdo, Maria; Yi, Congwen; Suvorova, Alexandra; Rubanov, Sergey; Kim, Tong-Ho; Giangregorio, Maria M; Jiao, Wenyuan; Bergmair, Iris; Bruno, Giovanni; Brown, April S

    2014-03-25

    Metal nanoparticle (NP)-graphene multifunctional platforms are of great interest for exploring strong light-graphene interactions enhanced by plasmons and for improving performance of numerous applications, such as sensing and catalysis. These platforms can also be used to carry out fundamental studies on charge transfer, and the findings can lead to new strategies for doping graphene. There have been a large number of studies on noble metal Au-graphene and Ag-graphene platforms that have shown their potential for a number of applications. These studies have also highlighted some drawbacks that must be overcome to realize high performance. Here we demonstrate the promise of plasmonic gallium (Ga) nanoparticle (NP)-graphene hybrids as a means of modulating the graphene Fermi level, creating tunable localized surface plasmon resonances and, consequently, creating high-performance surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platforms. Four prominent peculiarities of Ga, differentiating it from the commonly used noble (gold and silver) metals are (1) the ability to create tunable (from the UV to the visible) plasmonic platforms, (2) its chemical stability leading to long-lifetime plasmonic platforms, (3) its ability to n-type dope graphene, and (4) its weak chemical interaction with graphene, which preserves the integrity of the graphene lattice. As a result of these factors, a Ga NP-enhanced graphene Raman intensity effect has been observed. To further elucidate the roles of the electromagnetic enhancement (or plasmonic) mechanism in relation to electron transfer, we compare graphene-on-Ga NP and Ga NP-on-graphene SERS platforms using the cationic dye rhodamine B, a drug model biomolecule, as the analyte.

  6. Goals and intentions mediate efficacy beliefs and declining physical activity in high school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K; Saunders, Ruth P; Felton, Gwen; Ward, Dianne S; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russ R

    2006-12-01

    According to theory, girls who set goals about increasing their physical activity and who are dissatisfied with their current activity level are likely to form intentions to be active and to carry out those intentions, especially if they have high efficacy and control beliefs about being physically active. We tested those ideas while observing naturally occurring change during high school. A cohort of 431 black and white girls was tested at the end of their 9th- and 12th-grade academic years. Confirmatory factor analysis established the structural invariance of the measures across the 3-year study period. Structural equation modeling and panel analysis were used to determine whether changes in goal setting and satisfaction would mediate relations of self-efficacy and perceived behavioral control with changes in intention and physical activity. Testing occurred between February and May in 1999 and 2004. Data were analyzed in 2006. Goal setting and intention mediated the indirect relation between self-efficacy and change in physical activity. Perceived behavioral control and physical activity change were related directly and also indirectly by a path mediated through satisfaction and intention. Black girls had lower self-efficacy, but changes in other variables were unrelated to race. These observations of longitudinal relations elaborate application of self-efficacy theory and the theory of planned behavior to physical activity by showing that goal setting and satisfaction mediate the relations of self-efficacy and perceived behavioral control with changes in intention and physical activity. The results encourage additional research to identify the sources and development of physical activity goals, and their attainment, among girls, and whether experimental manipulation of goals and intentions can mitigate the decline in girls' physical activity during high school.

  7. Personality Traits' Effects on Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations for High School Major Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dikla; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the contribution of the Big Five personality traits to the development of self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding selection of a high school major among 368 Israeli adolescents (Mage = 16.07, SD = 0.41). Structural equation analyses showed that higher levels of conscientiousness and extraversion and lower…

  8. Modeling the Relationship between High School Students' Chemistry Self-Efficacy and Metacognitive Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between students' chemistry self-efficacy beliefs and metacognitive awareness was investigated utilizing a path model. There were 268 chemistry high school students (59% 10th grade and 41% 11th grade) participated in the study. The students took two-hour chemistry course in the 9th and 10th grade and three-hour…

  9. ARC: A compact, high-field, disassemblable fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Palmer, Timothy; Mangiarotti, Franco; Sierchio, Jennifer; Bonoli, Paul; Kasten, Cale; Sutherland, Derek; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Goh, Jon; Sung, Choongki; Whyte, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable, Robust, Compact (ARC) reactor conceptual design aims to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a combined Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion pilot power plant. ARC is a 270 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils with joints to allow disassembly, allowing for removal and replacement of the vacuum vessel as a single component. Inboard-launched current drive of 25 MW LHRF power and 13.6 MW ICRF power is used to provide a robust, steady state core plasma far from disruptive limits. ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing Fluorine Lithium Beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt. The liquid blanket acts as a working fluid, coolant, and tritium breeder, and minimizes the solid material that can become activated. The large temperature range over which FLiBe is liquid permits blanket operation at 800-900 K with single phase fluid cooling and allows use of a high-efficiency Brayton cycle for electricity production in the secondary coolant loop.

  10. In vivo detection of amyloid plaques by gadolinium-stained MRI can be used to demonstrate the efficacy of an anti-amyloid immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu D. Santin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular deposition of β amyloid plaques is an early event associated to Alzheimer's disease. Here we have used in vivo gadolinium-stained high resolution (29*29*117µm3 MRI to follow-up in a longitudinal way individual amyloid plaques in APP/PS1 mice and evaluate the efficacy of a new immunotherapy (SAR255952 directed against protofibrillar and fibrillary forms of Aβ. APP/PS1 mice were treated for 5 months between the age of 3.5 and 8.5 months. SAR255952 reduced amyloid load in 8.5-month-old animals, but not in 5.5-month animals compared to mice treated with a control antibody (DM4. Histological evaluation confirmed the reduction of amyloid load and revealed a lower density of amyloid plaques in 8.5-month SAR255952-treated animals. The longitudinal follow-up of individual amyloid plaques by MRI revealed that plaques that were visible at 5.5 months were still visible at 8.5 months in both SAR255952 and DM4-treated mice. This suggests that the amyloid load reduction induced by SAR255952 is related to a slowing down in the formation of new plaques rather than to the clearance of already formed plaques.

  11. Demonstration of an online tool to assist managed care formulary evidence-based decision making: meta-analysis of topical prostaglandin analog efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kymes SM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Steven M Kymes1, Caroline Burk2, Todd Feinman3, Julia M Williams4, David A Hollander41Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; 2Health Outcomes, Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Doctor Evidence LLC, Santa Monica, CA, USA; 4Global Medical Affairs, Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate the use of an online service for conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of topical prostaglandin analogs in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP in glaucoma and ocular hypertension.Methods: An online service provider (Doctor Evidence reviewed and extracted data from the peer-reviewed literature through September 2009. Randomized controlled studies of at least three months' duration assessing at least two prostaglandin analogs in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, or normal-tension glaucoma were included. The primary endpoint was mean IOP. Summary estimates were created using random-effects models. The Q Chi-square test was used to assess statistical heterogeneity.Results: Sixteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. On average, greater IOP-lowering was seen with bimatoprost relative to latanoprost (1 mmHg, P = 0.025 and travoprost (0.8 mmHg, P = 0.033 based on mean IOP after 12–26 weeks of treatment. No statistical difference was observed in IOP-lowering between latanoprost and travoprost (P = 0.841. Findings were similar to previously published meta-analyses of topical prostaglandin analogs.Conclusion: Systematic reviews relying on meta-analytic techniques to create summary statistics are considered to be the "gold standard" for synthesizing evidence to support clinical decision-making. However, the process is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and outside the capability of most formulary managers. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of a commercial service that facilitates

  12. DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weger, Hans, Ph.D.; Kodanda, Raja Tilek Meruva; Mazumdar, Anindra; Srivastava, Rajiv Ph.D.; Ebadian, M.A. Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Four hand-held tools were tested for failed high-level waste melter decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The forces felt by the tools during operation were measured using a tri-axial accelerometer since they will be operated by a remote manipulator. The efficiency of the tools was also recorded. Melter D&D consists of three parts: (1) glass fracturing: removing from the furnace the melted glass that can not be poured out through normal means, (2) glass cleaning: removing the thin layer of glass that has formed over the surface of the refractory material, and (3) K-3 refractory breakup: removing the K-3 refractory material. Surrogate glass, from a formula provided by the Savannah River Site, was melted in a furnace and poured into steel containers. K-3 refractory material, the same material used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, was utilized for the demonstrations. Four K-3 blocks were heated at 1150 C for two weeks with a glass layer on top to simulate the hardened glass layer on the refractory surface in the melter. Tools chosen for the demonstrations were commonly used D&D tools, which have not been tested specifically for the different aspects of melter D&D. A jackhammer and a needle gun were tested for glass fracturing; a needle gun and a rotary grinder with a diamond face wheel (diamond grinder) were tested for glass cleaning; and a jackhammer, diamond grinder, and a circular saw with a diamond blade were tested for refractory breakup. The needle gun was not capable of removing or fracturing the surrogate glass. The diamond grinder only had a removal rate of 3.0 x 10-4 kg/s for K-3 refractory breakup and needed to be held firmly against the material. However, the diamond grinder was effective for glass cleaning, with a removal rate of 3.9 cm2/s. The jackhammer was successful in fracturing glass and breaking up the K-3 refractory block. The jackhammer had a glass-fracturing rate of 0.40 kg/s. The jackhammer split the K-3 refractory block into two

  13. Collective efficacy in a high-fidelity simulation of an airline operations center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinkerson, Shanna

    This study investigated the relationships between collective efficacy, teamwork, and team performance. Participants were placed into teams, where they worked together in a high-fidelity simulation of an airline operations center. Each individual was assigned a different role to represent different jobs within an airline (Flight Operations Coordinator, Crew Scheduling, Maintenance, Weather, Flight Scheduling, or Flight Planning.) Participants completed a total of three simulations with an After Action Review between each. Within this setting, both team performance and teamwork behaviors were shown to be positively related to expectations for subsequent performance (collective efficacy). Additionally, teamwork and collective efficacy were not shown to be concomitantly related to subsequent team performance. A chi-square test was used to evaluate existence of performance spirals, and they were not supported. The results of this study were likely impacted by lack of power, as well as a lack of consistency across the three simulations.

  14. Efficacy of a single high oxfendazole dose against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Luis; Saumell, Carlos; Fusé, Luis; Moreno, Laura; Ceballos, Laura; Domingue, Gilbert; Donadeu, Meritxell; Dungu, Baptiste; Lanusse, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    The goal of the current experiment was to assess the clinical efficacy of oxfendazole (OFZ) administered as a single oral dose (30 mg/kg) to pigs naturally parasitized with Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum spp., Metastrongylus spp. and Trichuris suis. Thirty-six local ecotype piglets were divided into three independent experiments, named I, II and III (n=12 each), respectively. Each experiment involved two different groups (n=6): Untreated Control and OFZ treated. Animals were naturally parasitized with A. suum (Experiments I, II and III), Oesophagostomum spp. (Experiments I and II), T. suis (Experiments II and III) and Metastrongylus spp. (Experiment I). Pigs in the treated group received OFZ (Synanthic(®), Merial Ltd., 9.06% suspension) orally at 30 mg/kg dose. At five (5) days post-treatment, animals were sacrificed and the clinical efficacy of the OFZ treatment was established following the currently available WAAVP guidelines for a controlled efficacy test. None of the animals involved in this experiment showed any adverse events during the study. OFZ treatment given as a single 30 mg/kg oral dose showed a 100% efficacy against all the nematode parasites present in the three experiments. In conclusion, under the current experimental conditions, OFZ orally administered to naturally parasitized piglets at a single dose of 30 mg/kg was safe and highly efficacious (100%) against adult stages of A. suum, Oesophagostomum spp., T. suis and Metastrongylus spp.

  15. Biophysical modeling of high field diffusion MRI demonstrates micro-structural aberration in chronic mild stress rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Chuhutin, Andrey; Wiborg, Ove

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Depression is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Immense heterogeneity in symptoms of depression causes difficulty in diagnosis, and to date, there are no established biomarkers or imaging methods to examine depression. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS) induced...... anhedonia is considered to be a realistic model of depression in studies of animal subjects. Stereological and neuronal tracing techniques have demonstrated persistent remodeling of microstructure in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala of CMS brains. Recent developments in diffusion MRI (d...... changes in CMS rat brains and these parameters might have value in clinical diagnosis of depression and for evaluation of treatment efficacy....

  16. Predicting In Vivo Anti-Hepatofibrotic Drug Efficacy Based on In Vitro High-Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Baixue; Tan, Looling; Mo, Xuejun; Yu, Weimiao; Wang, Yan; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa; Welsch, Roy E.; So, Peter T. C.; Yu, Hanry

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Many anti-fibrotic drugs with high in vitro efficacies fail to produce significant effects in vivo. The aim of this work is to use a statistical approach to design a numerical predictor that correlates better with in vivo outcomes. Methods High-content analysis (HCA) was performed with 49 drugs on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) LX-2 stained with 10 fibrotic markers. ∼0.3 billion feature values from all cells in >150,000 images were quantified to reflect the drug effects. A systematic literature search on the in vivo effects of all 49 drugs on hepatofibrotic rats yields 28 papers with histological scores. The in vivo and in vitro datasets were used to compute a single efficacy predictor (Epredict). Results We used in vivo data from one context (CCl4 rats with drug treatments) to optimize the computation of Epredict. This optimized relationship was independently validated using in vivo data from two different contexts (treatment of DMN rats and prevention of CCl4 induction). A linear in vitro-in vivo correlation was consistently observed in all the three contexts. We used Epredict values to cluster drugs according to efficacy; and found that high-efficacy drugs tended to target proliferation, apoptosis and contractility of HSCs. Conclusions The Epredict statistic, based on a prioritized combination of in vitro features, provides a better correlation between in vitro and in vivo drug response than any of the traditional in vitro markers considered. PMID:22073152

  17. Experimental Demonstration of Advanced Palladium Membrane Separators for Central High Purity Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sean Emerson; Neal Magdefrau; Susanne Opalka; Ying She; Catherine Thibaud-Erkey; Thoman Vanderspurt; Rhonda Willigan

    2010-06-30

    The overall objectives for this project were to: (1) confirm the high stability and resistance of a PdCu trimetallic alloy to carbon and carbide formation and, in addition, resistance to sulfur, halides, and ammonia; (2) develop a sulfur, halide, and ammonia resistant alloy membrane with a projected hydrogen permeance of 25 m{sup 3}m{sup -2}atm{sup -0.5}h{sup -1} at 400 C and capable of operating at pressures of 12.1 MPa ({approx}120 atm, 1750 psia); and (3) construct and experimentally validate the performance of 0.1 kg/day H{sup 2} PdCu trimetallic alloy membrane separators at feed pressures of 2 MPa (290 psia) in the presence of H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and HCl. This project successfully increased the technology readiness level of palladium-based metallic membranes for hydrogen separation from coal-biomass gasifier exhaust or similar hydrogen-containing gas streams. The reversible tolerance of palladium-copper (PdCu) alloys was demonstrated for H{sub 2}S concentrations varying from 20 ppmv up to 487 ppmv and NH{sub 3} concentrations up to 9 ppmv. In addition, atomistic modeling validated the resistance of PdCu alloys to carbon formation, irreversible sulfur corrosion, and chlorine attack. The experimental program highlighted two key issues which must be addressed as part of future experimental programs: (1) tube defects and (2) non-membrane materials of construction. Four out of five FCC PdCu separators developed leaks during the course of the experimental program because {approx}10% of the alloy tubes contained a single defect that resulted in a thin, weak point in the tube walls. These defects limited operation of the existing tubes to less than 220 psig. For commercial applications of a PdCu alloy hydrogen separator under high sulfur concentrations, it was determined that stainless steel 316 is not suitable for housing or supporting the device. Testing with sulfur concentrations of 487 {+-} 4 ppmv resulted in severe corrosion of the stainless steel components of

  18. Lung parenchyma changes in ankylosing spondylitis: demonstration with high resolution CT and correlation with disease duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senocak, Oezlem E-mail: emine.senocak@deu.edu.tr; Manisali, Metin; Oezaksoy, Dinc; Sevinc, Can; Akalin, Elif

    2003-02-01

    Objective: To analyze the spectrum of the lung parenchyma changes in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and correlate the findings with disease duration. Material and methods: Twenty patients (18 male, 2 female) with the diagnosis of AS according to New York criteria were included in the study. None of the patients had history of tuberculosis, prolonged inorganic dust exposure and hospitalization for pneumonia. Seven of the patients were smokers, three patients were ex-smokers, and 10 patients were nonsmokers. The patients were assigned to three groups depending on disease duration. Group 1: patients with disease duration {<=}5 years (n: four patients), group 2: patients with disease duration {>=}6 years but {<=}10 years (n: four patients), group 3: patients with disease duration {>=}11 years (n: 12 patients). HRCT and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were performed in all patients. Results: HRCT demonstrated pathology in 17 patients (85%). Two patients in group 1, 4 patients in group 2 and 11 patients in group 3 had pulmonary parenchyma changes. Emphysema (9/20), septal thickening (9/20) and pleural thickening (9/20) were the most common changes followed by nodule (8/20) and subpleural band formation (7/20). Three patients had apical fibrosis (AF). Septal and pleural thickening (both 4/10) were the most common changes when only nonsmokers were considered. Among nine patients with emphysema three were nonsmokers. Conclusion: There is a wide spectrum in pulmonary parenchyma changes in AS. These changes begin in early stages of the disease and increase with disease duration. Although smoking complicates the spectrum of changes in pulmonary parenchyma, they are predominately in the form of interstitial inflammation.

  19. Bronchial reactivity in hyperresponsive patients and healthy individuals: demonstration with high resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, G. E-mail: gerd.schueller@univie.ac.at; Neumann, K.; Helbich, T.; Riemer, H.; Backfrieder, W.; Sertl, K.; Herold, C.J

    2004-11-01

    Objective: High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was used to assess the extent of bronchial reactivity after inhalative bronchoprovocation and dilation in hyperresponsive patients and healthy subjects. Patients and methods: Patients with mild intermittent asthma, 15 with a >20% decrease in FEV{sub 1} and a >10 mmHg (PC{sub 20}+) in PaO{sub 2}, 12 with a <20% decrease in FEV{sub 1} and a >10 mmHg (PC{sub 20}-) in PaO{sub 2} after provocation, and eight healthy humans were included in the study. Changes in cross-sectional area in a total of 1256 bronchi and in bronchial wall area (792 bronchi) were evaluated after histamine-triggered bronchoprovocation and salbutamol-induced bronchodilation at high lung volumes (FVC 80%). Data were compared with the results of pulmonary function tests (FEV{sub 1}, PaO{sub 2}, PaCO{sub 2}). Results: In all groups, a significant decrease in bronchial cross-sectional area (P<0.001) and a significant increase in bronchial wall area (P<0.001) were observed subsequent to bronchoprovocation. After bronchodilation, the increase in cross-sectional area (P<0.001) and the further increase in airway wall area (P<0.01) were significant in all groups. In PC{sub 20}+ and PC{sub 20}- asthmatics, significant differences (P<0.05) in PaO{sub 2}, >10 mmHg between baseline and provocation were observed. In healthy persons, the PaO{sub 2} decrease was <10 mmHg (P>0.05). After histamine provocation, the decrease in FEV{sub 1} was measured in the PC{sub 20}+ group, whereas a <20% FEV{sub 1} decrease was found in the PC{sub 20}- and the control groups, respectively. No significant correlations were observed between radiological data and the results of pulmonary function tests. Conclusions: HRCT demonstrated bronchial reactivity in hyperresponsive patients and, unexpectedly, in healthy subjects. The applied pulmonary function tests failed to characterize bronchial reactions in the healthy subjects. Based on these results, HRCT is a useful tool by which

  20. High Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology Scale-up and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Ben [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Turk, Brian [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Denton, David [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gupta, Raghubir [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Gasification is a technology for clean energy conversion of diverse feedstocks into a wide variety of useful products such as chemicals, fertilizers, fuels, electric power, and hydrogen. Existing technologies can be employed to clean the syngas from gasification processes to meet the demands of such applications, but they are expensive to build and operate and consume a significant fraction of overall parasitic energy requirements, thus lowering overall process efficiency. RTI International has developed a warm syngas desulfurization process (WDP) utilizing a transport-bed reactor design and a proprietary attrition-resistant, high-capacity solid sorbent with excellent performance replicated at lab, bench, and pilot scales. Results indicated that WDP technology can improve both efficiency and cost of gasification plants. The WDP technology achieved ~99.9% removal of total sulfur (as either H2S or COS) from coal-derived syngas at temperatures as high as 600°C and over a wide range of pressures (20-80 bar, pressure independent performance) and sulfur concentrations. Based on the success of these tests, RTI negotiated a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy for precommercial testing of this technology at Tampa Electric Company’s Polk Power Station IGCC facility in Tampa, Florida. The project scope also included a sweet water-gas-shift process for hydrogen enrichment and an activated amine process for 90+% total carbon capture. Because the activated amine process provides some additional non-selective sulfur removal, the integration of these processes was expected to reduce overall sulfur in the syngas to sub-ppmv concentrations, suitable for most syngas applications. The overall objective of this project was to mitigate the technical risks associated with the scale up and integration of the WDP and carbon dioxide capture technologies, enabling subsequent commercial-scale demonstration. The warm syngas cleanup pre-commercial test unit

  1. The High Altitude Balloon Experiment demonstration of acquisition, tracking, and pointing technologies (HABE-ATP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimiduk, D.; Caylor, M.; Williamson, D.; Larson, L.

    1995-01-01

    The High Altitude Balloon Experiment demonstration of Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing (HABE-ATP) is a system built around balloon-borne payload which is carried to a nominal 26-km altitude. The goal is laser tracking thrusting theater and strategic missiles, and then pointing a surrogate laser weapon beam, with performance levels end a timeline traceable to operational laser weapon system requirements. This goal leads to an experiment system design which combines hardware from many technology areas: an optical telescope and IR sensors; an advanced angular inertial reference; a flexible multi-level of actuation digital control system; digital tracking processors which incorporate real-time image analysis and a pulsed, diode-pumped solid state tracking laser. The system components have been selected to meet the overall experiment goals of tracking unmodified boosters at 50- 200 km range. The ATP system on HABE must stabilize and control a relative line of sight between the platform and the unmodified target booster to a 1 microrad accuracy. The angular pointing reference system supports both open loop and closed loop track modes; GPS provides absolute position reference. The control system which positions the line of sight for the ATP system must sequence through accepting a state vector handoff, closed-loop passive IR acquisition, passive IR intermediate fine track, active fine track, and then finally aimpoint determination and maintenance modes. Line of sight stabilization to fine accuracy levels is accomplished by actuating wide bandwidth fast steering mirrors (FSM's). These control loops off-load large-amplitude errors to the outer gimbal in order to remain within the limited angular throw of the FSM's. The SWIR acquisition and MWIR intermediate fine track sensors (both PtSi focal planes) image the signature of the rocket plume. After Hard Body Handover (HBHO), active fine tracking is conducted with a visible focal plane viewing the laser-illuminated target

  2. Design, Test and Demonstration of Saturable Reactor High-Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmann, Frank [Zenergy Power, Inc., Burlingame, CA (United States); Lombaerde, Robert [Zenergy Power, Inc., Burlingame, CA (United States); Moriconi, Franco [Zenergy Power, Inc., Burlingame, CA (United States); Nelson, Albert [Zenergy Power, Inc., Burlingame, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Zenergy Power has successfully designed, built, tested, and installed in the US electrical grid a saturable reactor Fault Current Limiter. Beginning in 2007, first as SC Power Systems and from 2008 as Zenergy Power, Inc., ZP used DOE matching grant and ARRA funds to help refine the design of the saturated reactor fault current limiter. ZP ultimately perfected the design of the saturated reactor FCL to the point that ZP could reliably design a suitable FCL for most utility applications. Beginning with a very basic FCL design using 1G HTS for a coil housed in a LN2 cryostat for the DC bias magnet, the technology progressed to a commercial system that was offered for sale internationally. Substantial progress was made in two areas. First, the cryogenics cooling system progressed from a sub-cooled liquid nitrogen container housing the HTS coils to cryostats utilizing dry conduction cooling and reaching temperatures down to less than 20 degrees K. Large, round cryostats with warm bore diameters of 1.7 meters enabled the design of large tanks to hold the AC components. Second, the design of the AC part of the FCL was refined from a six legged spider design to a more compact and lighter design with better fault current limiting capability. Further refinement of the flux path and core shape led to an efficient saturated reactor design requiring less Ampere-turns to saturate the core. In conclusion, the development of the saturable reactor FCL led to a more efficient design not requiring HTS magnets and their associated peripheral equipment, which yielded a more economical product in line with the electric utility industry expectations. The original goal for the DOE funding of the ZP project Design, Test and Demonstration of Saturable Reactor High-Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiters was to stimulate the HTS wire industry with, first 1G, then 2G, HTS wire applications. Over the approximately 5 years of ZP's product development program, the amount of HTS

  3. NREL/SCE High-Penetration PV Integration Project: Report on Field Demonstration of Advanced Inverter Functionality in Fontana, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, B.

    2014-08-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Southern California Edison High-Penetration PV Integration Project is (1) researching the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration photovoltaic (PV) integration, (2) determining mitigation methods to reduce or eliminate those impacts, and (3) seeking to demonstrate these mitigation methods on actual high-penetration PV distribution circuits. This report describes a field demonstration completed during the fall of 2013 on the Fontana, California, study circuit, which includes a total of 4.5 MW of interconnected utility-scale rooftop PV systems. The demonstration included operating a 2-MW PV system at an off-unity power factor that had been determined during previously completed distribution system modeling and PV impact assessment analyses. Data on the distribution circuit and PV system operations were collected during the 2-week demonstration period. This demonstration reinforces the findings of previous laboratory testing that showed that utility-scale PV inverters are capable of operating at off-unity power factor to mitigate PV impacts; however, because of difficulties setting and retaining PV inverter power factor set points during the field demonstration, it was not possible to demonstrate the effectiveness of off-unity power factor operation to mitigate the voltage impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Lessons learned from this field demonstration are presented to inform future field demonstration efforts.

  4. Efficacy of high frequency ultrasound in postoperative evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kapuścińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy and a frequent cause of sick leave because of work-related hand overload. The main treatment is operation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the usefulness of high frequency ultrasound in the postoperative evaluation of CTS treatment efficacy. Material and methods: Sixty-two patients (50 women and 12 men aged 28–70, mean age 55.2 underwent surgical treatment of CTS. Ultrasound examinations of the wrist in all carpal tunnel sufferers were performed 3 months after the procedure with the use of a high frequency broadband linear array transducer (6–18 MHz, using 18 MHz band of MyLab 70/Esaote. On the basis of the collected data, the author has performed multiple analyses to confirm the usefulness of ultrasound imaging for postoperative evaluation of CTS treatment efficacy. Results: Among all 62 patients, 3 months after surgical median nerve decompression: in 40 patients, CTS symptoms subsided completely, and sonographic evaluation did not show median nerve entrapment signs; in 9 patients, CTS symptoms persisted or exacerbated, and ultrasound proved nerve compression revealing preserved flexor retinaculum fibers; in 13 patients, scar tissue symptoms occurred, and in 5 of them CTS did not subside completely (although ultrasound showed no signs of compression. Conclusions: Ultrasound imaging with the use of a high frequency transducer is a valuable diagnostic tool for postoperative assessment of CTS treatment efficacy.

  5. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, F.; Tassin, V.; Depierreux, S.; Gauthier, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Seytor, P.; Villette, B.; Lasinski, B.; Park, H. S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Williams, E.; Michel, P.; Frenje, J.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V.; Sorce, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Nikroo, A.; Giraldez, E.

    2014-07-01

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  6. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, F.; Villette, B. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Michel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Petrasso, R. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Giraldez, E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Tassin, V.; Depierreux, S.; Gauthier, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Seytor, P.; Lasinski, B.; Park, H. S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Williams, E.; and others

    2014-07-15

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  7. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Tassin, V. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Depierreux, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Gauthier, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Masson-Laborde, P. E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Monteil, M. C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Seytor, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Villette, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Lasinski, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, H. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ross, J. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Doeppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hinkel, D. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wallace, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Williams, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Michel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frenje, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu-Johnson, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Glebov, V. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Sorce, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Stoeckl, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Giraldez, E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-07-25

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  8. Demonstration Program for Low-Cost, High-Energy-Saving Dynamic Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Design The scope of this project was to demonstrate the impact of dynamic windows via energy savings and HVAC peak-load reduction; to validate the...dominated by the internal thermal loads of office equipment (example AC 7) so the HVAC energy savings are lower in those zones. Figure 8. Plot...of daily HVAC energy consumption in four representative zones, before and after dynamic windows retrofit. Overall, energy savings in all eastern

  9. Predicting in vivo anti-hepatofibrotic drug efficacy based on in vitro high-content analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baixue Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many anti-fibrotic drugs with high in vitro efficacies fail to produce significant effects in vivo. The aim of this work is to use a statistical approach to design a numerical predictor that correlates better with in vivo outcomes. METHODS: High-content analysis (HCA was performed with 49 drugs on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs LX-2 stained with 10 fibrotic markers. ~0.3 billion feature values from all cells in >150,000 images were quantified to reflect the drug effects. A systematic literature search on the in vivo effects of all 49 drugs on hepatofibrotic rats yields 28 papers with histological scores. The in vivo and in vitro datasets were used to compute a single efficacy predictor (E(predict. RESULTS: We used in vivo data from one context (CCl(4 rats with drug treatments to optimize the computation of E(predict. This optimized relationship was independently validated using in vivo data from two different contexts (treatment of DMN rats and prevention of CCl(4 induction. A linear in vitro-in vivo correlation was consistently observed in all the three contexts. We used E(predict values to cluster drugs according to efficacy; and found that high-efficacy drugs tended to target proliferation, apoptosis and contractility of HSCs. CONCLUSIONS: The E(predict statistic, based on a prioritized combination of in vitro features, provides a better correlation between in vitro and in vivo drug response than any of the traditional in vitro markers considered.

  10. Operational demonstration of a field of high performance flat plate collectors with isothermal heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merges, V.; Klippel, E.

    1983-12-01

    A solar plant with 21 sq m of highly efficient flat plate collectors and which requires no electricity is described. Heat transport is provided by saturated steam that condenses in a four cubic meter storage tank. The operation temperature is set by the buffer gas pressure between 100 and 140 C, and an absorption chiller is simulated as a heat consumer. The solar collectors were observed to exhibit high performance. Heat transport and temperature control offered high reliability and the thermal stratification in the tank was satisfactory. The positive result permits the design and construction of larger solar plants following the same technical principles.

  11. Demonstrating the potential of yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte for high-performance fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kiho; Jang, Dong Young; Choi, Hyung Jong; Kim, Donghwan; Hong, Jongsup; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2017-02-01

    In reducing the high operating temperatures (>=800 °C) of solid-oxide fuel cells, use of protonic ceramics as an alternative electrolyte material is attractive due to their high conductivity and low activation energy in a low-temperature regime (fuel cells. However, poor sinterability of yttrium-doped barium zirconate discourages its fabrication as a thin-film electrolyte and integration on porous anode supports, both of which are essential to achieve high performance. Here we fabricate a protonic-ceramic fuel cell using a thin-film-deposited yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte with no impeding grain boundaries owing to the columnar structure tightly integrated with nanogranular cathode and nanoporous anode supports, which to the best of our knowledge exhibits a record high-power output of up to an order of magnitude higher than those of other reported barium zirconate-based fuel cells.

  12. Mining 81 Duesseldorf: An international high-rank demonstration of profiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The topical shortage of raw materials and the renaissance of coal have contributed even more to the attractivity of the Bergbau 81 Internationale Fachmesse and Bergbau-Kongress (11th-17th June) held by the Duesseldorfer Messegesellschaft NOWEA. 653 exhibitors from 27 countries - among them for the first time - South America (Peru and Brazil), the USSR, Czechoslovakia, Romania from the Comecon sector, and Ireland - had presented their products. The German mining unions and the institutions related to them had concentrated their big special meetings - usually in different places during certain periods on the 'Bergbau 81' and given a demonstration of their present state of technology.

  13. Demonstration of coherent emission from high-$\\beta$ photonic crystal nanolasers at room temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Hostein, Richard; Gratiet, Luc Le; Talneau, Anne; Beaudoin, Gregoire; Robert-Philip, Isabelle; Sagnes, Isabelle; Beveratos, Alexios

    2010-01-01

    We report on lasing at room temperature and at telecommunications wavelength from photonic crystal nanocavities based on InAsP/InP quantum dots. Such laser cavities with a small modal volume and high quality factor display a high spontaneous emission coupling factor beta. Lasing is confirmed by measuring the second order autocorrelation function. A smooth transition from chaotic to coherent emission is observed, and coherent emission is obtained at 8 times the threshold power.

  14. Demonstration of coherent emission from high-beta photonic crystal nanolasers at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostein, R; Braive, R; Le Gratiet, L; Talneau, A; Beaudoin, G; Robert-Philip, I; Sagnes, I; Beveratos, A

    2010-04-15

    We report on lasing at room temperature and at telecommunications wavelength from photonic crystal nanocavities based on InAsP/InP quantum dots. Such laser cavities with a small modal volume and high quality factor display a high spontaneous emission coupling factor (beta). Lasing is confirmed by measuring the second-order autocorrelation function. A smooth transition from chaotic to coherent emission is observed, and coherent emission is obtained at eight times the threshold power.

  15. Demonstration of short-range wind lidar in a high-performance wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Montes, Belen Fernández; Pedersen, Jens Engholm;

    A short-range continuous-wave coherent laser radar (lidar) has been tested in a high-performance wind tunnel for possible use as a standard component in wind tunnels. The lidar was tested in a low as well as a high speed regime ranging from 5-35 m/s and 40-75 m/s, respectively. In both low and hi...... future for short range lidars as a complement to LDA and other standard equipment in wind tunnels....

  16. Demonstration of short-range wind lidar in a high-performance wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Montes, Belen Fernández; Pedersen, Jens Engholm;

    2012-01-01

    A short-range continuous-wave coherent laser radar (lidar) has been tested in a high-performance wind tunnel for possible use as a standard component in wind tunnels. The lidar was tested in a low as well as a high speed regime ranging from 5-35 m/s and 40-75 m/s, respectively. In both low and hi...... future for short range lidars as a complement to LDA and other standard equipment in wind tunnels....

  17. Chemical Analysis of Pottery Demonstrates Prehistoric Origin for High-Altitude Alpine Dairying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, Francesco; Colonese, André Carlo; Lucquin, Alexandre; Petersen Guedes, Eduardo; Thompson, Anu; Walsh, Kevin; Reitmaier, Thomas; Craig, Oliver E

    2016-01-01

    The European high Alps are internationally renowned for their dairy produce, which are of huge cultural and economic significance to the region. Although the recent history of alpine dairying has been well studied, virtually nothing is known regarding the origins of this practice. This is due to poor preservation of high altitude archaeological sites and the ephemeral nature of transhumance economic practices. Archaeologists have suggested that stone structures that appear around 3,000 years ago are associated with more intense seasonal occupation of the high Alps and perhaps the establishment of new economic strategies. Here, we report on organic residue analysis of small fragments of pottery sherds that are occasionally preserved both at these sites and earlier prehistoric rock-shelters. Based mainly on isotopic criteria, dairy lipids could only be identified on ceramics from the stone structures, which date to the Iron Age (ca. 3,000-2,500 BP), providing the earliest evidence of this practice in the high Alps. Dairy production in such a marginal environment implies a high degree of risk even by today's standards. We postulate that this practice was driven by population increase and climate deterioration that put pressure on lowland agropastoral systems and the establishment of more extensive trade networks, leading to greater demand for highly nutritious and transportable dairy products.

  18. System integration and demonstration of adhesive bonded high temperature aluminum alloys for aerospace structure, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Anthony; Laakso, John H.

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive bonding materials and processes were evaluated for assembly of future high-temperature aluminum alloy structural components such as may be used in high-speed civil transport aircraft and space launch vehicles. A number of candidate high-temperature adhesives were selected and screening tests were conducted using single lap shear specimens. The selected adhesives were then used to bond sandwich (titanium core) test specimens, adhesive toughness test specimens, and isothermally aged lap shear specimens. Moderate-to-high lap shear strengths were obtained from bonded high-temperature aluminum and silicon carbide particulate-reinforced (SiC(sub p)) aluminum specimens. Shear strengths typically exceeded 3500 to 4000 lb/in(sup 2) and flatwise tensile strengths exceeded 750 lb/in(sup 2) even at elevated temperatures (300 F) using a bismaleimide adhesive. All faceskin-to-core bonds displayed excellent tear strength. The existing production phosphoric acid anodize surface preparation process developed at Boeing was used, and gave good performance with all of the aluminum and silicon carbide particulate-reinforced aluminum alloys investigated. The results of this program support using bonded assemblies of high-temperature aluminum components in applications where bonding is often used (e.g., secondary structures and tear stoppers).

  19. A case report demonstrating the efficacy of a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral therapy approach for treating anxiety, depression, and problematic eating in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, John B; Sperry, Steffanie L; Darkes, Jack

    2015-08-01

    Despite elevated prevalence of anxiety and depression among women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), there is a dearth of evidence-based psychotherapies to treat mood-related symptoms among this population. This case report describes the efficacy of The PCOS Workbook in treating symptoms of anxiety, depression, and problematic eating in a 19-year-old female previously diagnosed with PCOS. Using the cognitive-behavioral framework presented in the workbook, the participant experienced a significant reduction in symptoms of anxiety, depression, problematic eating, and general psychosocial dysfunction while simultaneously losing a significant amount of weight during treatment. Six months after the termination of treatment, the participant maintained several improvements in psychological functioning, although she did report a resumption of problematic eating and experience weight regain. These findings provide initial empirical support for the efficacy of this manualized psychotherapy at improving psychosocial functioning in women with PCOS. Recommendations on ways to best utilize this resource and enhance its long-term efficacy, particularly when intervening for problematic eating, are also discussed.

  20. Short-term triple therapy with azithromycin for Helicobacter pylori eradication: Low cost, high compliance, but low efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattar Rejane

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian consensus recommends a short-term treatment course with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and proton-pump inhibitor for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. This treatment course has good efficacy, but cannot be afforded by a large part of the population. Azithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole are subsidized, for several aims, by the Brazilian federal government. Therefore, a short-term treatment course that uses these drugs is a low-cost one, but its efficacy regarding the bacterium eradication is yet to be demonstrated. The study's purpose was to verify the efficacy of H. pylori eradication in infected patients who presented peptic ulcer disease, using the association of azithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole. Methods Sixty patients with peptic ulcer diagnosed by upper digestive endoscopy and H. pylori infection documented by rapid urease test, histological analysis and urea breath test were treated for six days with a combination of azithromycin 500 mg and omeprazole 20 mg, in a single daily dose, associated with amoxicillin 500 mg 3 times a day. The eradication control was carried out 12 weeks after the treatment by means of the same diagnostic tests. The eradication rates were calculated with 95% confidence interval. Results The eradication rate was 38% per intention to treat and 41% per protocol. Few adverse effects were observed and treatment compliance was high. Conclusion Despite its low cost and high compliance, the low eradication rate does not allow the recommendation of the triple therapy with azithromycin as an adequate treatment for H. pylori infection.

  1. Analysis of allergen immunotherapy studies shows increased clinical efficacy in highly symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howarth, P; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Molimard, M;

    2011-01-01

    To cite this article: Howarth P, Malling H-J, Molimard M, Devillier P. Analysis of allergen immunotherapy studies shows increased clinical efficacy in highly symptomatic patients. Allergy 2012; 67: 321-327. ABSTRACT: Background:  The assessment of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) efficacy...... in the treatment for seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (SAR) symptoms is challenging. Allergen immunotherapy differs from symptomatic therapy in that while symptomatic therapy treats patients after symptoms appear and aims to reduce symptoms, AIT is administered before symptoms are present and aims to prevent...... them. Thus, clinical studies of AIT can neither establish baseline symptom levels nor limit the enrolment of patients to those with the most severe symptoms. Allergen immunotherapy treatment effects are therefore diluted by patients with low symptoms for a particular pollen season. The objective...

  2. The Efficacy of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Xie; Jiajun Ling; Weiming Zhang; Xueqin Huang; Jihua Zhen; Yanzhe Huang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)in the treatment of late-stage pancreatic cancer.METHODS Sixteen patients with advanced pancreatic cancer received HIFU therapy.Evaluation of efficacy was made on the basis of changes in clinical symptoms and variations in the tumor echo and size.RESULTS Clinical symptoms such as pain were significantly alleviated,echo of the tumor was enhanced with B-US and the quality of life such as eating,sleeping and mental status was markedly improved;no serious complications were observed.CONCLUSION The use of HIFU in the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer is feasible and safe.It is effective in killing the carcinoma cells and alleviaring pain.This technique may offer non-invasive therapy for the treatment of patients with late-stage pancreatic cancer.

  3. [Efficacy of early combined high-dose steroid + PGE1 treatment for sudden deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Toshinori; Watanabe, Tomoo; Yokota, Masashi; Ito, Tsukasa; Aoyagi, Masaru

    2012-05-01

    The efficacy of combined high-dose steroid and PGE1 treatment initiated immediately after the onset of sudden deafness was analyzed with the outcome of 174 patients begun on treatment within 7 days of the onset of sudden deafness. Four potential prognostic factors (days from onset to treatment, age, initial hearing level, presence of vertigo) and hearing outcome were examined with a multiple logistic regression analysis. Days from onset to treatment and age significantly correlated with hearing improvement. The efficacy of the treatment of patients begun on treatment within 3 days of the onset was significantly better than that of patients on treatment 4-7 days after the onset (p sudden deafness, and started within 3 days of the onset of sudden deafness in patients 50 years old and older.

  4. A survey of diet self-efficacy and food intake in students with high and low perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastaskin, Robyn S; Fiocco, Alexandra J

    2015-04-23

    Given the rise in obesity and obesity-related disorders, understanding the relationship between stress, self-efficacy and food choice in young adulthood may have implications for preventing negative health outcomes later in life that stem from poor eating habits. The current study examined whether stress levels and diet self-efficacy may be associated with unhealthy eating habits in young adults. Male and female undergraduate students (N = 136) completed questionnaires that tap into diet self-efficacy (DSE), perceived stress (PS), sodium, and fat intake. Sex differences in choice of food were predicted, and low levels of perceived stress and high diet self-efficacy were expected to be associated with lower fat and sodium intake. Findings indicate an interaction between perceived stress and diet self-efficacy on fat intake and a main effect for diet self-efficacy on sodium intake in this population. As expected, low levels of perceived stress and high diet self-efficacy were associated with the lowest levels of fat and sodium intake in students. Findings were driven by females. This study provides preliminary evidence that diet self-efficacy and perceived stress levels relate to nutrient intake in young adult females, and that increasing diet self-efficacy and reducing perceived stress in young adult females may lead to reductions in fat and sodium intake, leading to healthier eating habits.

  5. Mathematics: Self-Efficacy, Identity, and Achievement among African American Males from the High School Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Calvin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity to mathematics achievement among African American males from High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09). Subsequently, the extent to which mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity accounted for low and…

  6. Influence of maternal immunity on vaccine efficacy and susceptibility of commercial broilers against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal antibodies provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with the vaccination efficacy in short-lived broilers. This study seeks to assess how maternal immunity can interfere with vaccine efficacy against clade 2.3.4.4 H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) and how ...

  7. Demonstration and Validation of a High-Performance Floor-Sealant System to Reduce Concrete Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    System to Reduce Concrete Degradation Final Report on Project F10-AR02 Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es ea rc h La bo ra to ry Clint...of a High-Performance Floor-Sealant System to Reduce Concrete Degradation Final Report on Project F10-AR02 Clint A. Wilson and Susan A. Drozdz...Under Project F10-AR02, “Application of an Innovative, High Performance Concrete Floor Sealant at Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia” ERDC/CERL TR-15-9 ii

  8. Experimental demonstration of a compact epithermal neutron source based on a high power laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfayzi, S. R.; Alejo, A.; Ahmed, H.; Raspino, D.; Ansell, S.; Wilson, L. A.; Armstrong, C.; Butler, N. M. H.; Clarke, R. J.; Higginson, A.; Kelleher, J.; Murphy, C. D.; Notley, M.; Rusby, D. R.; Schooneveld, E.; Borghesi, M.; McKenna, P.; Rhodes, N. J.; Neely, D.; Brenner, C. M.; Kar, S.

    2017-07-01

    Epithermal neutrons from pulsed-spallation sources have revolutionised neutron science allowing scientists to acquire new insight into the structure and properties of matter. Here, we demonstrate that laser driven fast (˜MeV) neutrons can be efficiently moderated to epithermal energies with intrinsically short burst durations. In a proof-of-principle experiment using a 100 TW laser, a significant epithermal neutron flux of the order of 105 n/sr/pulse in the energy range of 0.5-300 eV was measured, produced by a compact moderator deployed downstream of the laser-driven fast neutron source. The moderator used in the campaign was specifically designed, by the help of MCNPX simulations, for an efficient and directional moderation of the fast neutron spectrum produced by a laser driven source.

  9. An investigation of the influence of reconceptualization of demonstrative experimental activities of optics in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Lúcio Prados Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we analyze the influence that the use of demonstrative experiments can bring to the learning of optics. It is assumed that the development of experimental activities, when reconceptualized according to Hodson proposal, tends to contribute to the generation of cognitive conflicts when compared to traditional didactic experience. Justifications are given for an analysis of changes under a Piagetian bias, reconciled with Hodson proposal. The methodology used to structure the topics presentations was quasi-experimental, contrasting an experimental group with a control group. The measuring of the effectiveness of the suggested working method was made from a quantitative analysis, which identified some of the topics discussed had better results in learning, being more tied to the experiments carried out.

  10. NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation's Highly-Loaded Front Block Compressor Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestina, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The ERA project was created in 2009 as part of NASAs Aeronautics Research Mission Directorates (ARMD) Integrated Systems Aviation Program (IASP). The purpose of the ERA project was to explore and document the feasibility, benefit, and technical risk of vehicles concepts and enabling technologies to reduce aviations impact on the environment. The metrics for this technology is given in Figure 1 with the N+2 metrics highlighted in green. It is anticipated that the United States air transportation system will continue to expand significantly over the next few decades thus adversely impacting the environment unless new technology is incorporated to simultaneously reduce nitrous oxides (NOx), noise and fuel consumption. In order to achieve the overall goals and meet the technology insertion challenges, these goals were divided into technical challenges that were to be achieved during the execution of the ERA project. Technical challenges were accomplished through test campaigns conducted by Integrated Technology Demonstration (ITDs). ERAs technical performance period ended in 2015.

  11. High Degree of Plasmodium vivax Diversity in the Peruvian Amazon Demonstrated by Tandem Repeat Polymorphism Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, Margaret; Yori, Pablo P.; Gilman, Robert H.; Calderon, Maritza; Zimic, Mirko; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Jeri, Cesar; Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana; Matthias, Michael A.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular tools to distinguish strains of Plasmodium vivax are important for studying the epidemiology of malaria transmission. Two sets of markers—tandem repeat (TR) polymorphisms and MSP3α—were used to study Plasmodium vivax in patients in the Peruvian Amazon region of Iquitos. Of 110 patients, 90 distinct haplotypes were distinguished using 9 TR markers. An MSP3α polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using HhaI and AluI revealed 8 and 9 profiles, respectively, and 36 profiles when analyzed in combination. Combining TR and PCR-RFLP markers, 101 distinct molecular profiles were distinguished among these 110 patients. Nine TR markers arrayed along a 100 kB stretch of a P. vivax chromosome containing the gene for circumsporozoite protein showed non-linear linkage disequilibrium (ISA = 0.03, P = 0.001). These findings demonstrate the potential use of TR markers for molecular epidemiology studies. PMID:22492139

  12. Thermal Properties of Simulated and High-Level Waste Solutions Used for the Solvent Extraction Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2001-06-27

    Researchers measured the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of supernate from a blend of Tank 37H and 44F, of a simulant of this blend, and of a simulant specifically designed for solvent extraction experiments. The measured heat capacity of the blend from the Tanks 37H and 44F equaled 0.871 cal/(g degrees C). The simulant of this blend produced an identical result. The heat capacity of the simulant designed for solvent extraction testing equaled 0.859 cal/(g degrees C). All three solutions have thermal conductivities in the range of 0.54 to 0.6 Watts/(m degrees C). The slight variation in the thermophysical properties of these solutions successfully explains the different flowmeter readings observed during the real waste demonstration of the solvent extraction technology.

  13. Demonstration of highly efficient forward stimulated Brillouin scattering in partly suspended silicon nanowire racetrack resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiwen; Sun, Junqiang; Chen, Guodong; Cheng, Ming; Jiang, Jialin

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate the forward stimulated Brillouin scattering (FSBS) in a partly suspended silicon nanowire racetrack resonator. To realize the tight confinement of the transverse acoustic modes in the nanoscale silicon core, the racetrack resonator is supported by the tiny pillar. The Brillouin amplification of 2.25 dB is achieved with the resonator radius of 100 μm under a low-power pump laser of 8 mW. The influences of the waveguide width and the top width of the tiny pillar on the Brillouin frequency shift and Brillouin gain are presented and analyzed. The Brillouin frequency shift is conveniently manipulated by the changes in waveguide widths. Our proposed approach furnishes an alternative towards harnessing FSBS in integrated photonic circuits.

  14. Predicting In Vivo Anti-Hepatofibrotic Drug Efficacy Based on In Vitro High-Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many anti-fibrotic drugs with high in vitro efficacies fail to produce significant effects in vivo. The aim of this work is to use a statistical approach to design a numerical predictor that correlates better with in vivo outcomes. METHODS: High-content analysis (HCA) was performed with 49 drugs on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) LX-2 stained with 10 fibrotic markers. ~0.3 billion feature values from all cells in >150,000 images were quantified to reflect the drug effects. A sy...

  15. Impact of virtual learning environment (VLE): A technological approach to genetics teaching on high school students' content knowledge, self-efficacy and career goal aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandi, Kamala M.

    This study examines the effect of a technology-based instructional tool 'Geniverse' on the content knowledge gains, Science Self-Efficacy, Technology Self-Efficacy, and Career Goal Aspirations among 283 high school learners. The study was conducted in four urban high schools, two of which have achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) and two have not. Students in both types of schools were taught genetics either through Geniverse, a virtual learning environment or Dragon genetics, a paper-pencil activity embedded in traditional instructional method. Results indicated that students in all schools increased their knowledge of genetics using either type of instructional approach. Students who were taught using Geniverse demonstrated an advantage for genetics knowledge although the effect was small. These increases were more pronounced in the schools that had been meeting the AYP goal. The other significant effect for Geniverse was that students in the technology-enhanced classrooms increased in science Self-Efficacy while students in the non-technology enhanced classrooms decreased. In addition, students from Non-AYP schools showed an improvement in Science and Technology Self-Efficacy; however the effects were small. The implications of these results for the future use of technology-enriched classrooms were discussed. Keywords: Technology-based instruction, Self-Efficacy, career goals and Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP).

  16. Demonstrating the potential of yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte for high-performance fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kiho; Jang, Dong Young; Choi, Hyung Jong; Kim, Donghwan; Hong, Jongsup; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2017-02-23

    In reducing the high operating temperatures (≥800 °C) of solid-oxide fuel cells, use of protonic ceramics as an alternative electrolyte material is attractive due to their high conductivity and low activation energy in a low-temperature regime (≤600 °C). Among many protonic ceramics, yttrium-doped barium zirconate has attracted attention due to its excellent chemical stability, which is the main issue in protonic-ceramic fuel cells. However, poor sinterability of yttrium-doped barium zirconate discourages its fabrication as a thin-film electrolyte and integration on porous anode supports, both of which are essential to achieve high performance. Here we fabricate a protonic-ceramic fuel cell using a thin-film-deposited yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte with no impeding grain boundaries owing to the columnar structure tightly integrated with nanogranular cathode and nanoporous anode supports, which to the best of our knowledge exhibits a record high-power output of up to an order of magnitude higher than those of other reported barium zirconate-based fuel cells.

  17. A Model Vocational High Technology in Health Care Demonstration Project. Final Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    A unique training program in high tech obstetrical, neonatal, and pediatric nursing care areas was designed to be offered on site at Orlando (Florida) Regional Medical/Arnold Palmer Hospital for Children and Women. The training program offered 16 different courses to 355 employees over the 18-month period of the project. A needs assessment was…

  18. High-Efficiency Solar Thermal Vacuum Demonstration Completed for Refractive Secondary Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2001-01-01

    Common to many of the space applications that utilize solar thermal energy--such as electric power conversion, thermal propulsion, and furnaces--is a need for highly efficient, solar concentration systems. An effort is underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop the refractive secondary concentrator, which uses refraction and total internal reflection to efficiently concentrate and direct solar energy. When used in combination with advanced lightweight primary concentrators, the refractive secondary concentrator enables very high system concentration ratios (10,000 to 1) and very high temperatures (>2000 K). The innovative refractive secondary concentrator offers significant advantages over all other types of secondary concentrators. The refractive secondary offers the highest throughput efficiency, provides for flux tailoring, requires no active cooling, relaxes the pointing and tracking requirements of the primary concentrator, and enables very high system concentration ratios. This technology has broad applicability to any system that requires the conversion of solar energy to heat. Glenn initiated the development of the refractive secondary concentrator in support of Shooting Star, a solar thermal propulsion flight experiment, and continued the development in support of Space Solar Power.

  19. High efficacy of intravesical treatment of metformin on bladder cancer in preclinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mei; Su, Qiongli; Zeng, Qing; Li, Le; Liu, Zhihong; Xue, Lei; Cheng, Yan; Huang, Yanjun; Tao, Ting; Lv, Hongwei; Li, Xiaohui; Tao, Xiaojun; Guo, Peng; Chen, Alex F; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-02-23

    Anticancer potential of metformin has been extensively studied. However, its anticancer clinical use remains yet to be approved since sufficient concentration on target organs could not be achieved via conventional administration. To overcome this drawback, we aim to examine the efficiency of novel intravesical treatment of metformin on syngeneic orthotopic preclinical model. Three human and one murine bladder cancer cell lines were tested in vitro for inhibitory sensitivity by MTT and cologenic assays. AMPK pathway including AKT, Erk and S6K was examined by western blot and further explored by regulating activated levels using specific inhibitors. In vivo efficacy was determined by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and measurements of body and bladder weights plus tumor biomarkers. Lactic acid and metformin levels of plasma were measured by standard procedures. The results demonstrated that metformin activated AMPK and decreased phosphorylation of Akt and Erk. Furthermore, combinations of metformin with either Akt or Erk inhibitors synergistically diminished cancer proliferation, suggesting the involvement of Akt- and Erk- related pathways. Intravesical metformin 26 and 104 mg/kg, twice per week demonstrated a rapid elimination of the implanted tumor without any evidence of toxicity. In contrast, oral treatment at a dose of 800mg/kg/d exhibited little efficacy whereas severe toxicity existed if the dosage is higher. Collectively, intravesical metformin displays potent inhibition on bladder cancer in vitro and this preclinical study reveals the profound therapeutic application of metformin with durable tolerance via intravesical administration route.

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF 3D EFFECTS WITH HIGH GAIN AND EFFICIENCY IN A UV FEL OSCILLATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Benson; George Biallas; Keith Blackburn; James Boyce; Donald Bullard; James Coleman; Cody Dickover; David Douglas; Forrest Ellingsworth; Pavel Evtushenko; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia; Christopher Gould; Joseph Gubeli; David Hardy; Kevin Jordan; John Klopf; James Kortze; Robert Legg; Matthew Marchlik; Steven Moore; George Neil; Thomas Powers; Daniel Sexton; Michelle D. Shinn; Christopher Tennant; Richard Walker; Anne Watson; Gwyn Williams; Frederick Wilson; Shukui Zhang

    2011-03-01

    We report on the performance of a high gain UV FEL oscillator operating on an energy recovery linac at Jefferson Lab. The high brightness of the electron beam leads to both gain and efficiency that cannot be reconciled with a one-dimensional model. Three-dimensional simulations do predict the performance with reasonable precision. Gain in excess of 100% per pass and an efficiency close to 1/2NW, where NW is the number of wiggler periods, is seen. The laser mirror tuning curves currently permit operation in the wavelength range of 438 to 362 nm. Another mirror set allows operation at longer wavelengths in the red with even higher gain and efficiency.

  1. Demonstration and Validation of Stainless Steel Materials for Critical Above Grade Piping in Highly Corrosive Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Prepared for Office of the Secretary of Defense (OUSD(AT&L)) Washington, DC 20301-3090 Under Project F07-AR15, “ Advanced Corrosion-Resistant Steel for...world for steel infrastruc- ture . Highly corroded carbon steel pipes at the site were replaced with two grades of stainless steel, and minor corrosion...mitigation modifications were made to pipe supports. After the rehabilitated system was commis- sioned, the pipes were inspected and tested according

  2. Manufacturing Systems Demonstration: Bimetallic Friction STIR Joining of AA6061 and High Hardness Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    tool’s first use. In all tools made of alloy having hafnium carbide, we’ve commonly seen small voids (0.0-1.0 mm dia.) on the surface of machined...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Focus: HOPE (FH) has developed the process parameters to successfully join AA6061 aluminum alloy ...to successfully join AA6061 aluminum alloy and High Hardness Armor (HHA) steel using the friction stir process (FSP). Metallographic analysis

  3. Demonstrating Nonhexavelent Chrome Steel Conversion Coatings on Stryker High Hard Armor Steel Hatches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    embrittlement are as follows: 1. Any ferrous -based alloy exhibiting hardness greater than Rc35 (e.g., high-strength steel) requires testing and heat...section is based on the findings from WP-1521. Most of the conversion coating work thus far has focused on the use of TCP on aluminum alloys . In...recent years, TCP has enjoyed good success on aluminum. However, for steel alloys and phosphated surfaces, further development is needed. One of the

  4. Demonstration of Space Optical Transmitter Development for Multiple High Frequency Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung; Simons, Rainee; Wintucky, Edwin; Freeman, Jon

    2013-01-01

    As the demand for multiple radio frequency carrier bands continues to grow in space communication systems, the design of a cost-effective compact optical transmitter that is capable of transmitting selective multiple RF bands is of great interest, particularly for NASA Space Communications Network Programs. This paper presents experimental results that demonstrate the feasibility of a concept based on an optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technique that enables multiple microwave bands with different modulation formats and bandwidths to be combined and transmitted all in one unit, resulting in many benefits to space communication systems including reduced size, weight and complexity with corresponding savings in cost. Experimental results will be presented including the individual received RF signal power spectra for the L, C, X, Ku, Ka, and Q frequency bands, and measurements of the phase noise associated with each RF frequency. Also to be presented is a swept RF frequency power spectrum showing simultaneous multiple RF frequency bands transmission. The RF frequency bands in this experiment are among those most commonly used in NASA space environment communications.

  5. Demonstration of space optical transmitter development for multiple high-frequency bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung; Simons, Rainee; Wintucky, Edwin; Freeman, Jon

    2013-05-01

    As the demand for multiple radio frequency carrier bands continues to grow in space communication systems, the design of a cost-effective compact optical transmitter that is capable of transmitting selective multiple RF bands is of great interest, particularly for NASA Space Communications Network Programs. This paper presents experimental results that demonstrate the feasibility of a concept based on an optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technique that enables multiple microwave bands with different modulation formats and bandwidths to be combined and transmitted all in one unit, resulting in many benefits to space communication systems including reduced size, weight and complexity with corresponding savings in cost. Experimental results will be presented including the individual received RF signal power spectra for the L, C, X, Ku, Ka, and Q frequency bands, and measurements of the phase noise associated with each RF frequency. Also to be presented is a swept RF frequency power spectrum showing simultaneous multiple RF frequency bands transmission. The RF frequency bands in this experiment are among those most commonly used in NASA space environment communications.

  6. Demonstration of a high sensitivity GNSS software receiver for indoor positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Ma, Martin; Broumandan, Ali; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2013-03-01

    Advances in signal processing techniques contributed to the significant improvements of GNSS receiver performance in dense multipath environments and created the opportunities for a new category of high-sensitivity GNSS (HS-GNSS) receivers that can provide GNSS location services in indoor environments. The difficulties in improving the availability, reliability, and accuracy of these indoor capable GNSS receivers exceed those of the receivers designed for the most hostile urban canyon environments. The authors of this paper identified the vector tracking schemes, signal propagation statistics, and parallel processing techniques that are critical to a robust HS-GNSS receiver for indoor environments and successfully incorporated them into a fully functional high-sensitivity software receiver. A flexible vector-based receiver architecture is introduced to combine these key indoor signal processing technologies into GSNRx-hs™ - the high sensitivity software navigation receiver developed at the University of Calgary. The resulting receiver can perform multi-mode vector tracking in indoor environment at various levels of location and timing uncertainties. In addition to the obvious improvements in time-to-first-fix (TTFF) and signal sensitivity, the field test results in indoor environments surrounded by wood, glass, and concrete showed that the new techniques effectively improved the performance of indoor GNSS positioning. With fine GNSS timing, the proposed receiver can consistently deliver indoor navigation solution with the horizontal accuracy of 2-15 m depending on the satellite geometry and the indoor environments. If only the coarse GNSS timing is available, the horizontal accuracy of the indoor navigation solution from the proposed receiver is around 30 m depending on the coarse timing accuracy, the satellite geometry, and the indoor environments. From the preliminary field test results, it has been observed that the signal processing sensitivity is the

  7. Design and Demonstration of RSFQ Processor Datapath for High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    ot·P n n t t·Pc::h·; f’tPrl ;n v,;o lnP <:n t hPv "’"’" h P tnnvPrl t n "’" " nl !’lf’P n n "’ Lb--~ Jb--~ DFFC microphotograph Fig. 2.1. 3...including digital-RF receivers, instrumentation , high performance computing, network switches, sensor systems, etc. [1]-[5]. There were multiple

  8. Spectral and luminous efficacy change of high-power LEDs under different dimming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yimin; Narendran, Nadarajah; Dong, Tianming; Wu, Huiying

    2006-08-01

    Dimming is an important and necessary feature for light sources used in general lighting applications. An experimental study was conducted to quantify the spectral and luminous efficacy change of high-power colored and pc-white LEDs under continuous current reduction (CCR) and pulse-width modulation (PWM) dimming schemes. For InGaN-based blue, green, and pc-white LEDs, the peak wavelength shifts were in opposite directions for the two dimming schemes. The peak wavelength showed a blue shift with increased current, most likely due to band filling and QCSE dominated effects. InGaN LEDs exhibited red shifts with increased duty cycle, which is dominated by junction heat. AlInGaP red LEDs show mainly thermal-induced red shift with increased current or duty cycle. In addition, the luminous efficacy was always higher for the CCR dimming scheme at dimmed levels, irrespective of the LED type. Keywords: Light-emitting diodes (LEDs), white LEDs, mixed-color white LEDs, pulse-width modulation (PWM), continuous current reduction (CCR), peak wavelength shift, luminous efficacy

  9. Study on docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles with high antitumor efficacy against malignant melanoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Zheng; Xiaolin Li; Huae Xu; Xiaowei Lu; Yong Hu; Weixin Fan

    2009-01-01

    Docetaxel (Doc) has extraordinary activities against a variety of solid tumors.However,the clinical efficacy of Doc is limited due to its poor solubility,low selective dis-tribution,fast elimination in vivo,etc.In the present study,Doc was incorporated into the core-shell structure of nanoparticles prepared based on our previous work.The obtained docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles (DOCNP) were characterized with various biophysical method-ologies,and its antitumor efficacy against malignant mel-anoma was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo.Our results indicated that Doc could be incorporated into the nanoparticles with high encapsulation efficiency (>90%).The incorporated Doc can be released from DOCNP in a sustained manner.In vitro cytotoxicity studies indicated that DOCNP could effectively kill B16 cells and show a dose- and time-dependent efficacy.Furthermore,intratu-moral administration revealed that DOCNP has signifi-cantly higher antitumor effect and lower toxicity to normal cells and tissues than free Doc.These results suggest that DOCNP may be a promising drug delivery system in therapy for malignant melanoma.

  10. Inter-island optical link demonstration using high-data-rate pulse-position modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Michael; Arnold, Felix; Thieme, Björn

    2014-03-01

    The growing data-rate demand on satellite communication systems has led to the increased interest in optical space communication solutions for uplinks and downlinks between satellites and ground stations. As one example for applications that benefit from higher data-rates offered by optical links, RUAG Space studied an uplink scenario from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to a Geostationary Orbit (GEO), under the European Space Agency project formally known as "Optical Communications Transceiver for Atmospheric Links" (OCTAL). Particularly suitable for optical links through turbulent atmospheres are robust Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) schemes. Communication electronics using a Multi-Pulse PPM (MPPM) scheme have been developed, increasing the data-rate compared to traditional PPM at a constant peak-to-average ratio while allowing a widely configurable data-rate range. The communication system was tested together with a newly developed receiver and transmitter at a wavelength of 1055nm in a field test campaign on the Canary Islands, where the transmitter telescope was located on La Palma while the receiver was installed within the ESA Optical Ground Station on Tenerife. The nearly horizontal link between the two islands with a link distance of 142km allowed validation of relevant system performances under stringent atmospheric conditions. A data-rate of more than 360Mbps could be demonstrated using MPPM, while nearly 220Mbps could be achieved with traditional PPM, well exceeding the targeted data-rate of the studied UAV-to-GEO scenario. Following an introduction on the applied MPPM schemes, the architecture of the test setup is described, different modulation schemes are compared and the test results of this Inter-Island Test Campaign performed in October 2012 are presented.

  11. Laboratory Demonstration of High Contrast Imaging in Multi-Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Bendek, Eduardo; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Sirbu, Dan; Thomas, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    We show laboratory results advancing the technology readiness of a method to directly image planets and disks in multi-star systems such as Alpha Centauri. This method works with almost any coronagraph (or external occulter with a DM) and requires little or no change to existing and mature hardware. Because of the ubiquity of multistar systems, this method potentially multiplies the science yield of many missions and concepts such as WFIRST, Exo-C/S, HabEx, LUVOIR, and potentially enables the detection of Earth-like planets (if they exist) around our nearest neighbor star, Alpha Centauri, with a small and low-cost space telescope such as ACESat.We identified two main challenges associated with double-star (or multi-star) systems and methods to solve them. “Multi-Star Wavefront Control” (MSWC) enables the independent suppression of starlight from more than one star, and Super-Nyquist Wavefront Control (SNWC) enables extending MSWC to the case where star separation is beyond the Nyquist limit of the deformable mirror (DM).Our lab demonstrations were conducted at the Ames Coronagraph Experiment (ACE) laboratory and proved the basic principles of both MSWC and SNWC. They involved a 32x32 deformable mirror but no coronagraph for simplicity. We used MSWC to suppress starlight independently from two stars by at least an order of magnitude, in monochromatic as well as broadband light as broad as 50%. We also used SNWC to suppress starlight at separations as far as 100 λ/D from the star, surpassing the Nyquist limit of the DM.

  12. Optimization and field demonstration of hybrid hydrogen generator/high efficiency furnace system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entchev, E.; Coyle, I.; Szadkowski, F. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, 1 Haanel Dr., Ottawa, Ontario K1A-1M1 (Canada); Manning, M.; Swinton, M. [National Research Council Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Graydon, J.; Kirk, D. [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogen is seen as an energy carrier of the future and significant research on hydrogen generation, storage and utilization is accomplished around the world. However, an appropriate intermediate step before wide hydrogen introduction will be blending conventional fuels such as natural gas, oil or diesel with hydrogen and follow up combustion through conventional means. Due to changes in the combustion and flame characteristics of the system additional research is needed to access the limits and the impact of the fuel mix on the combustion systems performance. The hybrid system consists of a 5 kW{sub el} electrolyzer and a residential 15 kW{sub th} high efficiency gas fired furnace. The electrolyzer was integrated with the furnace gas supply and setup to replace 5-25% of the furnace natural gas flow with hydrogen. A mean for proper mixing of hydrogen with natural gas was provided and a control system for safe system operation was developed. Prior to the start of the field trial the hybrid system was investigated in laboratory environment. It was subjected to a variety of steady state and cycling conditions and a detailed performance and optimization analysis was performed with a range of hydrogen/natural gas mixtures. The optimized system was then installed at the Canadian Centre for Housing Technologies (CCHT) Experimental research house. The energy performance of the hybrid system was compared to the energy performance of an identical high efficiency furnace in the Control research house next door. (author)

  13. Demonstrating high reliability on accountability measures at the Johns Hopkins Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronovost, Peter J; Demski, Renee; Callender, Tiffany; Winner, Laura; Miller, Marlene R; Austin, J Matthew; Berenholtz, Sean M

    2013-12-01

    Patients continue to suffer preventable harm from the omission of evidence-based therapies. To remedy this, The Joint Commission developed core measures for therapies with strong evidence and, through the Top Performer on Key Quality Measures program, recognize hospitals that deliver those therapies to 95% of patients. The Johns Hopkins Medicine board of trustees committed to high reliability and to providing > or = 96% of patients with the recommended therapies. The Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality coordinated the core measures initiative, which targeted nine process measures for the 96% performance goal: eight Joint Commission accountability measures and one Delmarva Foundation core measure. A conceptual model for this initiative included communicating goals, building capacity with Lean Sigma methods, transparently reporting performance and establishing an accountability plan, and developing a sustainability plan. Clinicians and quality improvement staff formed one team for each targeted process measure, and Armstrong Institute staff supported the teams work. The primary performance measure was the percentage of patients who received the recommended process of care, as defined by the specifications for each of The Joint Commission's accountability measures. The > or = 96% performance goal was achieved for 82% of the measures in 2011 and 95% of the measures in 2012. With support from leadership and a conceptual model to communicate goals, use robust improvement methods, and ensure accountability, The Johns Hopkins Hospital achieved high reliability for The Joint Commission accountability measures.

  14. Development and demonstration of a high-altitude atmospheric backscatter Lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolash, Thomas M.; Garvey, John; Leonelli, Joseph; Bradford, Mark; Rose, Lynn

    1994-06-01

    Battelle has designed and fabricated an upward-looking atmospheric backscatter lidar for high-altitude airborne applications. The compact, rugged system was assembled and integrated into a cupola on top of a Lear 36 aircraft to provide particle backscatter data and aerosol profile distributions of cirrus clouds occurring between 50,000 and 100,000 ft ASL. The high altitude airborne lidar system consists of a laser transmitter operating at 532 and 1064 nm simultaneously with output energy of 75 mJ at both wavelengths and a collecting telescope aperture of 10 inches in diameter. Laser backscatter energy is collected and directed via a dichroic beamsplitter to two avalanche photodetectors (APD) through narrow bandpass optical filters at 532 and 1064 nm. The outputs of the APDs are digitized by a 10-bit, 100-MHz transient digitizer before being recorded to a 1.2-Gbyte hard disk with IRIG timing for data analysis. This paper describes the lidar system design, predicted performance, and some of the operational challenges.

  15. Building Self-Efficacy for Exercise among Rural High School Students: It Takes Ongoing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortz, Brian; Petosa, R. Lingyak; Grim, Melissa L.; Stevens, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-efficacy has been associated with adolescent exercise. Previous studies have revealed that self-efficacy is relatively resistant to change. Effective strategies to build self-efficacy among adolescents are needed. Purpose: To describe the changes in self-efficacy and leisure time exercise produced by the "Planning to be…

  16. Demonstration of high contrast with an obscured aperture with the WFIRST-AFTA shaped pupil coronagraph

    CERN Document Server

    Cady, Eric; An, Xin; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Diaz, Rosemary; Kasdin, N Jeremy; Kern, Brian; Kuhnert, Andreas; Nemati, Bijan; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Riggs, A J Eldorado; Zimmer, Robert; Zimmerman, Neil

    2015-01-01

    The coronagraph instrument on the WFIRST-AFTA mission study has two coronagraphic architectures, shaped pupil and hybrid Lyot, which may be interchanged for use in different observing scenarios. Each architecture relies on newly-developed mask components to function in the presence of the AFTA aperture, and so both must be matured to a high technology readiness level (TRL) in advance of the mission. A series of milestones were set to track the development of the technologies required for the instrument; in this paper, we report on completion of WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraph Milestone 2---a narrowband $10^{-8}$ contrast test with static aberrations for the shaped pupil---and the plans for the upcoming broadband Coronagraph Milestone 5.

  17. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Technology Development and Demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Pointer, William David [ORNL; Robb, Kevin R [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactors (FHRs) are an emerging reactor class with potentially advantageous performance characteristics, and fully passive safety. This roadmap describes the principal remaining FHR technology challenges and the development path needed to address the challenges. This roadmap also provides an integrated overview of the current status of the broad set of technologies necessary to design, evaluate, license, construct, operate, and maintain FHRs. First-generation FHRs will not require any technology breakthroughs, but do require significant concept development, system integration, and technology maturation. FHRs are currently entering early phase engineering development. As such, this roadmap is not as technically detailed or specific as would be the case for a more mature reactor class. The higher cost of fuel and coolant, the lack of an approved licensing framework, the lack of qualified, salt-compatible structural materials, and the potential for tritium release into the environment are the most obvious issues that remain to be resolved.

  18. Pea-derived vaccines demonstrate high immunogenicity and protection in rabbits against rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikschofsky, Heike; Schirrmeier, Horst; Keil, Günther M; Lange, Bodo; Polowick, Patricia L; Keller, Wilf; Broer, Inge

    2009-08-01

    Vaccines against rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) are commercially produced in experimentally infected rabbits. A genetically engineered and manufactured version of the major structural protein of RHDV (VP60) is considered to be an alternative approach for vaccine production. Plants have the potential to become an excellent recombinant production system, but the low expression level and insufficient immunogenic potency of plant-derived VP60 still hamper its practical use. In this study, we analysed the expression of a novel multimeric VP60-based antigen in four different plant species, including Nicotiana tabacum L., Solanum tuberosum L., Brassica napus L. and Pisum sativum L. Significant differences were detected in the expression patterns of the novel fusion antigen cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)::VP60 (ctbvp60(SEKDEL)) at the mRNA and protein levels. Pentameric CTB::VP60 molecules were only detected in N. tabacum and P. sativum, and displayed equal levels of CTB, at approximately 0.01% of total soluble protein (TSP), and traces of detectable VP60. However, strong enhancement of the CTB protein content via self-fertilization was only observed in P. sativum, where it reached up to 0.7% of TSP. In rabbits, a strong decrease in the protective vaccine dose required from 48-400 microg potato-derived VP60 [Castanon, S., Marin, M.S., Martin-Alonso, J.M., Boga, J.A., Casais, R., Humara, J.M., Ordas, R.J. and Parra, F. (1999) Immunization with potato plants expressing VP60 protein protects against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus. J. Virol. 73, 4452-4455; Castanon, S., Martin-Alonso, J.M., Marin, M.S., Boga, J.A., Alonso, P., Parra, F. and Ordas, R.J. (2002) The effect of the promoter on expression of VP60 gene from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in potato plants. Plant Sci. 162, 87-95] to 0.56-0.28 microg antigenic VP60 (measured with VP60 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) of crude CTB::VP60 pea extracts was demonstrated. Rabbits immunized with pea-derived CTB

  19. High temperature range recuperator. Phase II. Prototype demonstration and material and analytical studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    A summary of the work performed to fully evaluate the commercial potential of a unique ceramic recuperator for use in recovering waste heat from high temperature furnace exhaust gases is presented. The recuperator concept being developed consists of a vertical cylindrical heat exchange column formed from modular sections. Within the column, the gasketed modules form two helical flow passages - one for high temperature exhaust gases and one for pre-heating combustion air. The column is operated in a counterflow mode, with the exhaust gas entering at the bottom and the combustion air entering at the top of the column. Activities included design and procurement of prototype recuperator modules, construction and testing of two prototype recuperator assemblies, exposure and mechanical properties testing of candidate materials, structural analysis of the modules, and assessment of the economic viability of the concept. The results of the project indicated that the proposed recuperator concept was feasible from a technical standpoint. Economic analysis based upon recuperator performance characteristics and module manufacturing costs defined during the program indicated that 3 to 10 years (depending upon pre-heat temperature) would be required to recover the capital cost of the system in combustion air preheat applications. At this stage in the development of the recuperator, many factors in the analysis had to be assumed. Significant changes in some of the assumptions could dramatically affect the economics. For example, utilizing $2.85 per mcf for the natural gas price (as opposed to $2.00 per mcf) could reduce the payback period by more than half in certain cases. In addition, future commercial application will depend upon ceramic component manufacturing technique advances and cost reduction.

  20. High temperature range recuperator. Phase II. Prototype demonstration and material and analytical studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    A summary of the work performed to fully evaluate the commercial potential of a unique ceramic recuperator for use in recovering waste heat from high temperature furnace exhaust gases is presented. The recuperator concept being developed consists of a vertical cylindrical heat exchange column formed from modular sections. Within the column, the gasketed modules form two helical flow passages - one for high temperature exhaust gases and one for pre-heating combustion air. The column is operated in a counterflow mode, with the exhaust gas entering at the bottom and the combustion air entering at the top of the column. Activities included design and procurement of prototype recuperator modules, construction and testing of two prototype recuperator assemblies, exposure and mechanical properties testing of candidate materials, structural analysis of the modules, and assessment of the economic viability of the concept. The results of the project indicated that the proposed recuperator concept was feasible from a technical standpoint. Economic analysis based upon recuperator performance characteristics and module manufacturing costs defined during the program indicated that 3 to 10 years (depending upon pre-heat temperature) would be required to recover the capital cost of the system in combustion air preheat applications. At this stage in the development of the recuperator, many factors in the analysis had to be assumed. Significant changes in some of the assumptions could dramatically affect the economics. For example, utilizing $2.85 per mcf for the natural gas price (as opposed to $2.00 per mcf) could reduce the payback period by more than half in certain cases. In addition, future commercial application will depend upon ceramic component manufacturing technique advances and cost reduction.

  1. NY-ESO-1 cancer testis antigen demonstrates high immunogenicity in triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademuyiwa, Foluso O; Bshara, Wiam; Attwood, Kristopher; Morrison, Carl; Edge, Stephen B; Karpf, Adam R; James, Smith A; Ambrosone, Christine B; O'Connor, Tracey L; Levine, Ellis G; Miliotto, Anthony; Ritter, Erika; Ritter, Gerd; Gnjatic, Sacha; Odunsi, Kunle

    2012-01-01

    NY-ESO-1 cancer testis (CT) antigen is an attractive candidate for immunotherapy as a result of its high immunogenicity. The aim of this study was to explore the potential for NY-ESO-1 antigen directed immunotherapy in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) by determining the frequency of expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the degree of inherent immunogenicity to NY-ESO-1. 168 TNBC and 47 ER+/HER2- primary breast cancer specimens were used to determine NY-ESO-1 frequency by IHC. As previous studies have shown that patients with a robust innate humoral immune response to CT antigens are more likely to develop CD8 T-cell responses to NY-ESO-1 peptides, we evaluated the degree to which patients with NY-ESO-1 expression had inherent immunogenicity by measuring antibodies. The relationship between NY-ESO-1 expression and CD8+ T lymphocytes was also examined. The frequency of NY-ESO-1 expression in the TNBC cohort was 16% versus 2% in ER+/HER2- patients. A higher NY-ESO-1 score was associated with a younger age at diagnosis in the TNBC patients with NY-ESO-1 expression (p = 0.026). No differences in OS (p = 0.278) or PFS (p = 0.238) by NY-ESO-1 expression status were detected. Antibody responses to NY-ESO-1 were found in 73% of TNBC patients whose tumors were NY-ESO-1 positive. NY-ESO-1 positive patients had higher CD8 counts than negative patients (p = 0.018). NY-ESO-1 is expressed in a substantial subset of TNBC patients and leads to a high humoral immune response in a large proportion of these individuals. Given these observations, patients with TNBC may benefit from targeted therapies directed against NY-ESO-1.

  2. Combined Heat and Power Systems Technology Development and Demonstration 370 kW High Efficiency Microturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-10-14

    The C370 Program was awarded in October 2010 with the ambitious goal of designing and testing the most electrically efficient recuperated microturbine engine at a rated power of less than 500 kW. The aggressive targets for electrical efficiency, emission regulatory compliance, and the estimated price point make the system state-of-the-art for microturbine engine systems. These goals will be met by designing a two stage microturbine engine identified as the low pressure spool and high pressure spool that are based on derivative hardware of Capstone’s current commercially available engines. The development and testing of the engine occurred in two phases. Phase I focused on developing a higher power and more efficient engine, that would become the low pressure spool which is based on Capstone’s C200 (200kW) engine architecture. Phase II integrated the low pressure spool created in Phase I with the high pressure spool, which is based on Capstone’s C65 (65 kW) commercially available engine. Integration of the engines, based on preliminary research, would allow the dual spool engine to provide electrical power in excess of 370 kW, with electrical efficiency approaching 42%. If both of these targets were met coupled with the overall CHP target of 85% total combined heating and electrical efficiency California Air Resources Board (CARB) level emissions, and a price target of $600 per kW, the system would represent a step change in the currently available commercial generation technology. Phase I of the C370 program required the development of the C370 low pressure spool. The goal was to increase the C200 engine power by a minimum of 25% — 250 kW — and efficiency from 32% to 37%. These increases in the C200 engine output were imperative to meet the power requirements of the engine when both spools were integrated. An additional benefit of designing and testing the C370 low pressure spool was the possibility of developing a stand-alone product for possible

  3. Combined Heat and Power Systems Technology Development and Demonstration 370 kW High Efficiency Microturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-10-14

    The C370 Program was awarded in October 2010 with the ambitious goal of designing and testing the most electrically efficient recuperated microturbine engine at a rated power of less than 500 kW. The aggressive targets for electrical efficiency, emission regulatory compliance, and the estimated price point make the system state-of-the-art for microturbine engine systems. These goals will be met by designing a two stage microturbine engine identified as the low pressure spool and high pressure spool that are based on derivative hardware of Capstone’s current commercially available engines. The development and testing of the engine occurred in two phases. Phase I focused on developing a higher power and more efficient engine, that would become the low pressure spool which is based on Capstone’s C200 (200kW) engine architecture. Phase II integrated the low pressure spool created in Phase I with the high pressure spool, which is based on Capstone’s C65 (65 kW) commercially available engine. Integration of the engines, based on preliminary research, would allow the dual spool engine to provide electrical power in excess of 370 kW, with electrical efficiency approaching 42%. If both of these targets were met coupled with the overall CHP target of 85% total combined heating and electrical efficiency California Air Resources Board (CARB) level emissions, and a price target of $600 per kW, the system would represent a step change in the currently available commercial generation technology. Phase I of the C370 program required the development of the C370 low pressure spool. The goal was to increase the C200 engine power by a minimum of 25% — 250 kW — and efficiency from 32% to 37%. These increases in the C200 engine output were imperative to meet the power requirements of the engine when both spools were integrated. An additional benefit of designing and testing the C370 low pressure spool was the possibility of developing a stand-alone product for possible

  4. A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study to demonstrate equivalence in efficacy and safety of CT-P13 compared with innovator infliximab when coadministered with methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: the PLANETRA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dae Hyun; Hrycaj, Pawel; Miranda, Pedro; Ramiterre, Edgar; Piotrowski, Mariusz; Shevchuk, Sergii; Kovalenko, Volodymyr; Prodanovic, Nenad; Abello-Banfi, Mauricio; Gutierrez-Ureña, Sergio; Morales-Olazabal, Luis; Tee, Michael; Jimenez, Renato; Zamani, Omid; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, HoUng; Park, Won; Müller-Ladner, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety of innovator infliximab (INX) and CT-P13, an INX biosimilar, in active rheumatoid arthritis patients with inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX) treatment. Methods Phase III randomised, double-blind, multicentre, multinational, parallel-group study. Patients with active disease despite MTX (12.5–25 mg/week) were randomised to receive 3 mg/kg of CT-P13 (n=302) or INX (n=304) with MTX and folic acid. The primary endpoint was the American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at week 30. Therapeutic equivalence of clinical response according to ACR20 criteria was concluded if the 95% CI for the treatment difference was within ±15%. Secondary endpoints included ACR response criteria, European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria, change in Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Simplified Disease Activity Index, Clinical Disease Activity Index, as well as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters, safety and immunogenicity. Results At week 30, ACR20 responses were 60.9% for CT-P13 and 58.6% for INX (95% CI −6% to 10%) in the intention-to-treat population. The proportions in CT-P13 and INX groups achieving good or moderate EULAR responses (C reactive protein (CRP)) at week 30 were 85.8% and 87.1%, respectively. Low disease activity or remission according to DAS28–CRP, ACR–EULAR remission rates, ACR50/ACR70 responses and all other PK and PD endpoints were highly similar at week 30. Incidence of drug-related adverse events (35.2% vs 35.9%) and detection of antidrug antibodies (48.4% vs 48.2%) were highly similar for CT-P13 and INX, respectively. Conclusions CT-P13 demonstrated equivalent efficacy to INX at week 30, with a comparable PK profile and immunogenicity. CT-P13 was well tolerated, with a safety profile comparable with that of INX. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01217086 PMID:23687260

  5. Experimental Demonstration of Optical Switching of Tbit/s Data Packets for High Capacity Short-Range Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medhin, Ashenafi Kiros; Kamchevska, Valerija; Hu, Hao;

    2015-01-01

    Record-high 1.28-Tbit/s optical data packets are experimentally switched in the optical domain using a LiNbO3 switch. An in-band notch-filter labeling scheme scalable to 65,536 labels is employed and a 3-km transmission distance is demonstrated.......Record-high 1.28-Tbit/s optical data packets are experimentally switched in the optical domain using a LiNbO3 switch. An in-band notch-filter labeling scheme scalable to 65,536 labels is employed and a 3-km transmission distance is demonstrated....

  6. Progressive FastICA Peel-Off and Convolution Kernel Compensation Demonstrate High Agreement for High Density Surface EMG Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maoqi

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition of electromyograms (EMG) is a key approach to investigating motor unit plasticity. Various signal processing techniques have been developed for high density surface EMG decomposition, among which the convolution kernel compensation (CKC) has achieved high decomposition yield with extensive validation. Very recently, a progressive FastICA peel-off (PFP) framework has also been developed for high density surface EMG decomposition. In this study, the CKC and PFP methods were independently applied to decompose the same sets of high density surface EMG signals. Across 91 trials of 64-channel surface EMG signals recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of 9 neurologically intact subjects, there were a total of 1477 motor units identified from the two methods, including 969 common motor units. On average, 10.6 ± 4.3 common motor units were identified from each trial, which showed a very high matching rate of 97.85 ± 1.85% in their discharge instants. The high degree of agreement of common motor units from the CKC and the PFP processing provides supportive evidence of the decomposition accuracy for both methods. The different motor units obtained from each method also suggest that combination of the two methods may have the potential to further increase the decomposition yield. PMID:27642525

  7. Progressive FastICA Peel-Off and Convolution Kernel Compensation Demonstrate High Agreement for High Density Surface EMG Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maoqi; Holobar, Ales; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition of electromyograms (EMG) is a key approach to investigating motor unit plasticity. Various signal processing techniques have been developed for high density surface EMG decomposition, among which the convolution kernel compensation (CKC) has achieved high decomposition yield with extensive validation. Very recently, a progressive FastICA peel-off (PFP) framework has also been developed for high density surface EMG decomposition. In this study, the CKC and PFP methods were independently applied to decompose the same sets of high density surface EMG signals. Across 91 trials of 64-channel surface EMG signals recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of 9 neurologically intact subjects, there were a total of 1477 motor units identified from the two methods, including 969 common motor units. On average, 10.6 ± 4.3 common motor units were identified from each trial, which showed a very high matching rate of 97.85 ± 1.85% in their discharge instants. The high degree of agreement of common motor units from the CKC and the PFP processing provides supportive evidence of the decomposition accuracy for both methods. The different motor units obtained from each method also suggest that combination of the two methods may have the potential to further increase the decomposition yield.

  8. Progressive FastICA Peel-Off and Convolution Kernel Compensation Demonstrate High Agreement for High Density Surface EMG Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoqi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of electromyograms (EMG is a key approach to investigating motor unit plasticity. Various signal processing techniques have been developed for high density surface EMG decomposition, among which the convolution kernel compensation (CKC has achieved high decomposition yield with extensive validation. Very recently, a progressive FastICA peel-off (PFP framework has also been developed for high density surface EMG decomposition. In this study, the CKC and PFP methods were independently applied to decompose the same sets of high density surface EMG signals. Across 91 trials of 64-channel surface EMG signals recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI muscle of 9 neurologically intact subjects, there were a total of 1477 motor units identified from the two methods, including 969 common motor units. On average, 10.6±4.3 common motor units were identified from each trial, which showed a very high matching rate of 97.85±1.85% in their discharge instants. The high degree of agreement of common motor units from the CKC and the PFP processing provides supportive evidence of the decomposition accuracy for both methods. The different motor units obtained from each method also suggest that combination of the two methods may have the potential to further increase the decomposition yield.

  9. A highly efficacious pediculicide based on dimeticone: Randomized observer blinded comparative trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Fabíola A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infestation with the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis occurs worldwide. Existing treatment options are limited, and reports of resistance to commonly used pediculicides have been increasing. In this trial we assessed the efficacy of a product containing a high (92% concentration of the silicone oil dimeticone (identical in composition to NYDA®, as compared to a 1% permethrin lotion. Methods Randomized, controlled, observer blinded clinical trial. Participants were recruited from a poor urban neighbourhood in Brazil where pediculosis capitis was highly prevalent. To minimize reinfestation during the trial, participants (145 children aged 5–15 years with head lice infestations were transferred to a holiday resort outside the endemic area for a period of 9 days. Two applications of dimeticone or 1% permethrin were done, seven days apart. Outcome measures were defined as cure (absence of vital head lice after first application and before and after second applications, degree of itching, cosmetic acceptability, and clinical pathology. Results Overall cure rates were: day 2 – dimeticone 94.5% (95% CI: 86.6% – 98.5% and permethrin 66.7% (95% CI: 54.6% – 77.3%; p Conclusion The dimeticone product is a safe and highly efficacious pediculicide. Due to its physical mode of action (interruption of the lice's oxygen supply of the central nervous system, development of resistance is unlikely. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15117709.

  10. Highly Stable Tetra-Phenolato Titanium(IV Agent Formulated into Nanoparticles Demonstrates Anti-Tumoral Activity and Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigalit Meker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Titanium(IV complexes exhibit high potential as anti-tumor agents, particularly due to their low intrinsic toxicity and cytotoxicity toward cisplatin resistant cells. Nevertheless, Ti(IV complexes generally undergo rapid hydrolysis that previously hampered their utilization as anticancer drugs. We recently overcame this difficulty by developing a highly stable Ti(IV complex that is based on tetra-phenolato, hexadentate ligand, formulated into organic nanoparticles. Herein we investigated the activity of this complex in vitro and in vivo. Although inactive when tested directly due to poor solubility, when formulated, this complex displayed (a high cytotoxicity toward cisplatin resistant human ovarian cells, A2780-cp, with resistance factor of 1.1; (b additive behavior in combination with cisplatin toward ovarian and colon cancer cells; (c selectivity toward cancer cells as implied by its mild activity toward non-cancerous, fibroblast lung cells, MRC-5; (d high stability and durability as manifested by the ability to maintain cytotoxicity, even following one week of incubation in 100% aquatic medium solution; and (e in vivo efficacy toward solid tumors of human colon cancer cells, HT-29, in nude mice without any clinical signs of toxicity. These features support the formulated phenolato Ti(IV complex being an effective and selective anti-tumoral agent.

  11. High levels of self-efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes attending a tertiary level clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mostert Wentzel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-management is a vital element in the care of type 2diabetes patients.  In turn, self-efficacy plays a major role in patients’ self-management. Self-efficacy is the patient’s personal judgement of his/herconfidence in performing aspects of diabetes self-management.  This study investigated the level of self-efficacy of patients attending the Pretoria Academic Hospital Diabetes Clinic, in the light of high levels ofre-admission due to complications, suggesting low self-efficacy levels. Eighty type 2 diabetes patients, mean age of 59 years, completed thepublished IDEA LL baseline questionnaire, to establish a self-efficacyscore.  Relationships between self-efficacy and demographic factors wereinvestigated using the chi-square test. The mean self-efficacy level of thesample population is excellent (mean = 85.44%.A lthough self-reported self-efficacy levels are excellent, in comparison to the Sarkar study (2006 in which participants only scored “fair”, it is speculated that self-efficacy is not transferred to self-management behaviour in thispopulation.  Afrikaans and English speaking participants score significantly better than those from other language categories. There is a positive relationship between self-efficacy and level of education and employment status (tendedtowards significance with p values of 0.06 and 0.07 respectively. A lthough self-efficacy scores of clients at this tertiary level outpatient clinic are excellent, further research is necessary to quantify self-management strategies andto correlate these with self-efficacy levels.

  12. High protective efficacy of probiotics and rice bran against human norovirus infection and diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Lei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been recognized as vaccine adjuvants and therapeutic agents to treat acute gastroenteritis in children. We previously showed that rice bran reduced human rotavirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs are the major pathogens causing nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In this study, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN were first screened for their ability to bind HuNoV P particles and virions derived from clinical samples containing HuNoV genotype GII.3 and GII.4, then the effects of LGG+EcN and rice bran on HuNoV infection and diarrhea were investigated using the gnotobiotic pig model. While LGG+EcN colonization inhibited HuNoV shedding, probiotic cocktail regimens in which rice bran feeding started 7 days prior to or 1 day after viral inoculation in the LGG+EcN colonized gnotobiotic pigs exhibited high protection against HuNoV diarrhea and shedding, characterized by significantly reduced incidence (89% versus 20% and shorter mean duration of diarrhea (2.2 versus 0.2 days, as well as shorter mean duration of virus shedding (3.2 versus 1.0 days. In both probiotic cocktail groups, the diarrhea reduction rates were 78% compared with the control group, and diarrhea severity was reduced as demonstrated by the significantly lower cumulative fecal scores. The high protective efficacy of the probiotic cocktail regimens was attributed to stimulation of IFN-γ+ T cell responses, increased production of intestinal IgA and IgG, and maintenance of healthy intestinal morphology (manifested as longer villi compared with the control group. Therefore, probiotic cocktail regimens containing LGG+EcN and rice bran may represent highly efficacious strategies to prevent and treat HuNoV gastroenteritis, and potentially other human enteric pathogens.

  13. Overview of ERA Integrated Technology Demonstration (ITD) 51A Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) Integration for Hybrid Wing Body (HWB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; James, Kevin D.; Bonet, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft Project (ERA) was a ve year project broken into two phases. In phase II, high N+2 Technical Readiness Level demonstrations were grouped into Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITD). This paper describes the work done on ITD-51A: the Vehicle Systems Integration, Engine Airframe Integration Demonstration. Refinement of a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft from the possible candidates developed in ERA Phase I was continued. Scaled powered, and unpowered wind- tunnel testing, with and without acoustics, in the NASA LARC 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Tunnel, the NASA ARC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, and the 40- by 80-foot test section of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) in conjunction with very closely coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics was used to demonstrate the fuel burn and acoustic milestone targets of the ERA Project.

  14. Small-scale demonstration of high-level radioactive waste processing and solidification using actual SRP waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeson, J K; Galloway, R M; Wilhite, E L; Woolsey, G B; B, Ferguson R

    1980-01-01

    A small-scale demonstration of the high-level radioactive waste solidification process by vitrification in borosilicate glass is being conducted using 5-6 liter batches of actual waste. Equipment performance and processing characteristics of the various unit operations in the process are reported and, where appropriate, are compared to large-scale results obtained with synthetic waste.

  15. George W. Wingate High School, Bilingual Demonstration College Preparatory Program. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1982-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjostrom, Barbara R.; Sica, Michael

    The Bilingual Demonstration College Preparatory Program, in its second year of funding, provided English as a second language (ESL) and native language instruction, in addition to bilingual instruction in mathematics, social studies, and science, to 120 Spanish-speaking students in grades 9-12 at George W. Wingate High School (Brooklyn, New York).…

  16. Efficacy of Prophylactic Uterine Artery Embolization before Obstetrical Procedures with High Risk for Massive Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Heung Kyu; Ko, Gi Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyung; Han, Kichang; Lee, Shin-Wha

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of prophylactic uterine artery embolization (UAE) before obstetrical procedures with high risk for massive bleeding. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of 29 female patients who underwent prophylactic UAE from June 2009 to February 2014 was performed. Indications for prophylactic UAE were as follows: dilatation and curettage (D&C) associated with ectopic pregnancy (cesarean scar pregnancy, n = 9; cervical pregnancy, n = 6), termination of pregnancy with abnormal placentation (placenta previa, n = 8), D&C for retained placenta with vascularity (n = 5), and D&C for suspected gestational trophoblastic disease (n = 1). Their medical records were reviewed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of UAE. Results All women received successful bilateral prophylactic UAE followed by D&C with preservation of the uterus. In all patients, UAE followed by obstetrical procedure prevented significant vaginal bleeding on gynecologic examination. There was no major complication related to UAE. Vaginal spotting continued for 3 months in three cases. Although oligomenorrhea continued for six months in one patient, normal menstruation resumed in all patients afterwards. During follow-up, four had subsequent successful natural pregnancies. Spontaneous abortion occurred in one of them during the first trimester. Conclusion Prophylactic UAE before an obstetrical procedure in patients with high risk of bleeding or symptomatic bleeding may be a safe and effective way to manage or prevent serious bleeding, especially for women who wish to preserve their fertility. PMID:28246515

  17. Efficacy of prophylactic uterine artery embolization before obstetrical procedures with high risk for massive bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Heung Kyu; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Gi Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyung; Han, Ki Chang; Lee, Shin Wha [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of prophylactic uterine artery embolization (UAE) before obstetrical procedures with high risk for massive bleeding. A retrospective review of 29 female patients who underwent prophylactic UAE from June 2009 to February 2014 was performed. Indications for prophylactic UAE were as follows: dilatation and curettage (D and C) associated with ectopic pregnancy (cesarean scar pregnancy, n = 9; cervical pregnancy, n = 6), termination of pregnancy with abnormal placentation (placenta previa, n = 8), D and C for retained placenta with vascularity (n = 5), and D and C for suspected gestational trophoblastic disease (n = 1). Their medical records were reviewed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of UAE. All women received successful bilateral prophylactic UAE followed by D and C with preservation of the uterus. In all patients, UAE followed by obstetrical procedure prevented significant vaginal bleeding on gynecologic examination. There was no major complication related to UAE. Vaginal spotting continued for 3 months in three cases. Although oligomenorrhea continued for six months in one patient, normal menstruation resumed in all patients afterwards. During follow-up, four had subsequent successful natural pregnancies. Spontaneous abortion occurred in one of them during the first trimester. Prophylactic UAE before an obstetrical procedure in patients with high risk of bleeding or symptomatic bleeding may be a safe and effective way to manage or prevent serious bleeding, especially for women who wish to preserve their fertility.

  18. Professional choice self-efficacy: predicting traits and personality profiles in high school students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ambiel, Rodolfo Augusto Matteo; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the predictive capacity of the Big Five personality factors related to professional choice self-efficacy, as well as to draw a personality profile of people with diverse self-efficacy levels...

  19. High speed and high precision pyramid wavefront sensor: In labs validation and preparation to on sky demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadi, K.; Fusco, T.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Neichel, B.

    2014-07-01

    Since the introduction of the pyramid wavefront sensor [P-WFS] concept (Ragazzoni), numerous investigations have clearly shown its ability to achieve better performance (sensitivity, dynamic range) than the standard Shack-Hartman [SH-WFS]. It has recently been successfully implemented on LBT and has already been provided very interesting results (Esposito et al). Then, most of the future adaptive optics [AO] systems, mainly for ELT instrumentation, will probably integrate one or several pyramidal sensors. However, the pyramid behavior still needs to be extensively studied in order to ensure its optimization in real conditions of operation. So, the coupling in an AO loop and the control of this type of sensor is fundamental for an efficient implementation in the future AO systems. At LAM, we recently carried out in labs demonstration of an extremely performant pyramid sensor (up to 60x60), using particularly an OCAM2 detector (1.5 kHz, RON close to zero). Both modulated and fixed configurations are investigated and compared with numerical models. The P-WFS is being coupled with a dedicated RTC and a 12×12 DM to achieve a first AO closed loop operation. For modulation, a fine control is needed: a specific electronic module, interfaced with the RTC, is being developed to drive the TT mirror (OCAM2 triggering). Then, various TT mirrors are under test to determine a suitable one. After tests of the pyramid specificities (optimiziation, calibration and operation procedures), the P-WFS will be tested on-sky and compared with an already existing SH-WFS (using the same OCAM²) on the ONERA bench.

  20. Efficacy of surface disinfectant cleaners against emerging highly resistant gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Mirja; Schlicht, Anastasija; Ostermeyer, Christiane; Kampf, Günter

    2014-05-28

    Worldwide, the emergence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria is a clinical problem. Surface disinfectant cleaners (SDCs) that are effective against these bacteria are needed for use in high risk areas around patients and on multi-touch surfaces. We determined the efficacy of several SDCs against clinically relevant bacterial species with and without common types of multidrug resistance. Bacteria species used were ATCC strains; clinical isolates classified as antibiotic-susceptible; and multi-resistant clinical isolates from Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens (all OXA-48 and KPC-2); Acinetobacter baumannii (OXA-23); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (VIM-1); and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (ATCC strain). Experiments were carried out according to EN 13727:2012 in quadruplicate under dirty conditions. The five evaluated SDCs were based on alcohol and an amphoteric substance (AAS), an oxygen-releaser (OR), surface-active substances (SAS), or surface-active-substances plus aldehydes (SASA; two formulations). Bactericidal concentrations of SDCs were determined at two different contact times. Efficacy was defined as a log10 ≥ 5 reduction in bacterial cell count. SDCs based on AAS, OR, and SAS were effective against all six species irrespective of the degree of multi-resistance. The SASA formulations were effective against the bacteria irrespective of degree of multi-resistance except for one of the four P. aeruginosa isolates (VIM-1). We found no general correlation between SDC efficacy and degree of antibiotic resistance. SDCs were generally effective against gram-negative bacteria with and without multidrug resistance. SDCs are therefore suitable for surface disinfection in the immediate proximity of patients. Single bacterial isolates, however, might have reduced susceptibility to selected biocidal agents.

  1. Biophysical modeling of high field diffusion MRI demonstrates micro-structural aberration in chronic mild stress rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Chuhutin, Andrey; Wiborg, Ove; Kroenke, Christopher D; Nyengaard, Jens R; Hansen, Brian; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj

    2016-11-15

    Depression is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Immense heterogeneity in symptoms of depression causes difficulty in diagnosis, and to date, there are no established biomarkers or imaging methods to examine depression. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS) induced anhedonia is considered to be a realistic model of depression in studies of animal subjects. Stereological and neuronal tracing techniques have demonstrated persistent remodeling of microstructure in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala of CMS brains. Recent developments in diffusion MRI (d-MRI) analyses, such as neurite density and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), are able to capture microstructural changes and are considered to be robust tools in preclinical and clinical imaging. The present study utilized d-MRI analyzed with a neurite density model and the DKI framework to investigate microstructure in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, caudate putamen and amygdala regions of CMS rat brains by comparison to brains from normal controls. To validate findings of CMS induced microstructural alteration, histology was performed to determine neurite, nuclear and astrocyte density. d-MRI based neurite density and tensor-based mean kurtosis (MKT) were significantly higher, while mean diffusivity (MD), extracellular diffusivity (Deff) and intra-neurite diffusivity(DL) were significantly lower in the amygdala of CMS rat brains. Deff was also significantly lower in the hippocampus and caudate putamen in stressed groups. Histological neurite density corroborated the d-MRI findings in the amygdala and reductions in nuclear and astrocyte density further buttressed the d-MRI results. The present study demonstrated that the d-MRI based neurite density and MKT can reveal specific microstructural changes in CMS rat brains and these parameters might have value in clinical diagnosis of depression and for evaluation of treatment efficacy.

  2. Observing Exoplanets with High-dispersion Coronagraphy. II. Demonstration of an Active Single-mode Fiber Injection Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawet, D.; Ruane, G.; Xuan, W.; Echeverri, D.; Klimovich, N.; Randolph, M.; Fucik, J.; Wallace, J. K.; Wang, J.; Vasisht, G.; Dekany, R.; Mennesson, B.; Choquet, E.; Delorme, J.-R.; Serabyn, E.

    2017-04-01

    High-dispersion coronagraphy (HDC) optimally combines high-contrast imaging techniques such as adaptive optics/wavefront control plus coronagraphy to high spectral resolution spectroscopy. HDC is a critical pathway toward fully characterizing exoplanet atmospheres across a broad range of masses from giant gaseous planets down to Earth-like planets. In addition to determining the molecular composition of exoplanet atmospheres, HDC also enables Doppler mapping of atmosphere inhomogeneities (temperature, clouds, wind), as well as precise measurements of exoplanet rotational velocities. Here, we demonstrate an innovative concept for injecting the directly imaged planet light into a single-mode fiber, linking a high-contrast adaptively corrected coronagraph to a high-resolution spectrograph (diffraction-limited or not). Our laboratory demonstration includes three key milestones: close-to-theoretical injection efficiency, accurate pointing and tracking, and on-fiber coherent modulation and speckle nulling of spurious starlight signal coupling into the fiber. Using the extreme modal selectivity of single-mode fibers, we also demonstrated speckle suppression gains that outperform conventional image-based speckle nulling by at least two orders of magnitude.

  3. Efficacy of intradermal mesotherapy in cellulite reduction - Conventional and high-frequency ultrasound monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwia, Malinowska; Krzysztof, Mlosek Robert

    2017-10-01

    Cellulite affects the majority of women and is an unacceptable cosmetic defect. Therefore, effective methods for cellulite reduction are being sought. Intradermal mesotherapy is one of such methods. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of intradermal mesotherapy in cellulite reduction, using conventional and high-frequency ultrasound. Twenty-one women with cellulite underwent a series of intradermal mesotherapy procedures. The following parameters were assessed: thickness of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis, echogenicity of dermis and the surface area of serrated hypodermis-dermis junction. Furthermore, the thigh circumference was measured; body mass index and cellulite severity were assessed based on photographs using Nürnberger-Müller's scale. Intradermal mesotherapy reduced severity of cellulite. The surface area of serrated hypodermis-dermis junction and hypodermis thickness decreased significantly as compared to baseline. Cellulite reduction was also confirmed by palpation, decreased thigh circumference and the Nürnberger-Müller's grade. There were no statistically significant changes in epidermis or dermis thickness, body weight and the BMI. Intradermal mesotherapy offers effective cellulite reduction. It is a simple and safe treatment, which makes it popular. Further research in mesotherapy is essential due to a limited number of published studies. Ultrasound is a useful method to monitor intradermal mesotherapy and assess its efficacy.

  4. An investigation of the attitudes, anxieties and self-efficacy beliefs towards mathematics lessons high school students’ in terms of gender, types of school, and students’ grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. İzzet Kurbanoğlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing recognition that mathematics anxiety plays an important role in students’ learning of mathematics and thus, mathematics anxiety has gained heightened awareness by mathematics educators as an important factor in the teaching of mathematics (Bursal & Paznokas, 2006; Thomas & Higbee, 1999; McLeod, 1988; Singh, Granville, & Dika, 2002; Sloan, Daane, & Geisen, 2002; Vinson, 2001; Zettle & Raines, 2000. Math anxiety defined by Richardson & Suinn (1972 as a “feelings of tension and anxiety that interfere with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of mathematical problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations”. Research demonstrated that the physiological, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of math anxiety may impair life functioning. For example, students who have math anxiety exhibit physiological reactivity to numeric stimuli and have faulty beliefs and negative attitudes regarding their problem solving abilities. These students also may avoid environment and careers that require utilization of math skills, and will sacrifice accuracy for speed when performing numeric tasks (Ashcraft & Kirk, 2001. Purpose and significanceThe purpose of this research is to examine whether there is a significant difference between the attitudes, anxieties, and self-efficacy beliefs towards mathematics lessons high school students’ in terms of gender, types of school and students’ grades. It is very important to reveal relationships between attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs to develop high school students’ positive attitudes towards mathematics lessons.MethodsIn this study, descriptive research method was conducted. A total of 418 students, from three different school types participated in the study. The schools are Anatolian High School, Vocational High School and Public High School. Three scales were implemented

  5. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying. Progress report on furnish evaluations for impulse drying commercialization demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.; Phelan, P.M.; Rudman, I.

    1995-02-01

    Laboratory and pilot scale experiments were performed to identify potential furnishes and operating parameters for upcoming high-speed pilot scale trials and commercial demonstration of impulse drying of heavy weight grades of paper. Results indicate that hydrodynamic specific surface is highly dependent on sheet formation and prehandling. Mill refined pulp and machine paper were comparable to laboratory prepared samples in regards to permeability and impulse drying. Process variables such as platen surface coating, felt type, felt moisture, and presteaming temperature profiles were investigated. Substantial improvements in sheet smoothness were achieved.

  6. Weight perceptions, disordered eating behaviors, and emotional self-efficacy among high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullig, Keith J; Matthews-Ewald, Molly R; Valois, Robert F

    2016-04-01

    Although emotional disorders and disordered eating behaviors are known to be related, the relationship between emotional self-efficacy (ESE) and disordered eating is unknown. This study examined the relationship between ESE and disordered eating in a statewide sample of public high school adolescents (n=2566). The Centers for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey and an adolescent ESE scale were utilized. Logistic regression adjusted for key covariates explored the relationship between low ESE and disordered eating among selected race and gender groups. Self-perceived weight as underweight or overweight; and dieting, vomiting or taking laxatives, taking diet pills, and fasting to lose weight were each associated (p<.05) with lower levels of ESE for certain race/gender groups. Findings provide increased justification for tailoring disordered eating interventions and treatments to accommodate the highest risk groups. Measures of ESE should be considered for adolescent mental health assessments in fieldwork, research, and evaluation efforts.

  7. High efficacy with deep nurse-administered propofol sedation for advanced gastroenterologic endoscopic procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Hornslet, Pernille; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    were included for evaluation. All but one procedure were completed with intermittent deep NAPS. The mean propofol dose was 397 mg (SD: 232.4) and the infusion rate was 23.9 mg/kg. The frequency of hypoxia was 4.3 % and 20 patients needed assisted ventilation (1.1 %). Anesthesiologic support...... was requested eight times (0.4 %). One patient was intubated due to suspected aspiration. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent deep NAPS for advanced endoscopies in selected patients provided an almost 100 % success rate. However, the rate of hypoxia, hypotension and respiratory support was high compared with previously......) and Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) are available and potential benefits or hazards remain unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate the efficacy of intermittent deep sedation with propofol for a large cohort of advanced endoscopies and to provide data on the safety. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All available...

  8. Differentiating the Sources of Taiwanese High School Students' Multidimensional Science Learning Self-Efficacy: An Examination of Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate Taiwanese high school students' multi-dimensional self-efficacy and its sources in the domain of science. Two instruments, Sources of Science Learning Self-Efficacy (SSLSE) and Science Learning Self-Efficacy (SLSE), were used. By means of correlation and regression analyses, the relationships between students' science learning self-efficacy and the sources of their science learning self-efficacy were examined. The findings revealed that the four sources of the students' self-efficacy were found to play significant roles in their science learning self-efficacy. By and large, Mastery Experience and Vicarious Experience were found to be the two salient influencing sources. Several gender differences were also revealed. For example, the female students regarded Social Persuasion as the most influential source in the "Science Communication" dimension, while the male students considered Vicarious Experience as the main efficacy source. Physiological and Affective States, in particular, was a crucial antecedent of the female students' various SLSE dimensions, including "Conceptual Understanding," "Higher-Order Cognitive Skills," and "Science Communication." In addition, the variations between male and female students' responses to both instruments were also unraveled. The results suggest that, first, the male students perceived themselves as having more mastery experience, vicarious experience and social persuasion than their female counterparts. Meanwhile, the female students experienced more negative emotional arousal than the male students. Additionally, the male students were more self-efficacious than the females in the five SLSE dimensions of "Conceptual Understanding," "Higher-Order Cognitive Skills," "Practical Work," "Everyday Application," and "Science Communication."

  9. Clinical Efficacy of Toric Orthokeratology in Myopic Ado-lescent with Moderate to High Astigmatism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Luo; Shengsheng Ma; Na Liang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:.To observe the efficacy of toric design orthokera-tology.(ortho-k).for correcting myopia and astigmatism in my-opic adolescents with moderate to high astigmatism. Methods:.This was a self-controlled clinical study..Twenty-four subjects(42 eyes).aged 9 to 16 years with myopia of 2.50-6.00 D complicated with rule astigmatism of 1.50-3.50 D were fitted with Lucid Night Toric Ortho-k Lenses (LUCID,KO-REA)..The changes in uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), spherical degree, refraction, axial length (AL),.and corneal status were assessed at baseline, 1 night, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after the commencement of or-tho-k lens wear. Results: The success rate of the first lens fit was 92.8%. The UCVA after ortho-k wearing was improved significantly com-pared to the baseline during each visit (all P0.05)..Grade 1 corneal staining was observed at 1 week (23.8%),.1 month (21.4%), and 1 year (16.7%) fol-lowing lens wear, and was improved by lens cleaning,.discon-tinuing lens wear, and moistening the cornea with eye drops. No severe adverse events were reported. Conclusion: The toric ortho-k lens was effective and safe for correction of low to moderate myopia in children with moder-ate to high astigmatism..The lens also effectively controlled axial length elongation during 1 year of observation..However, the long-term efficacy remains to be elucidated.

  10. High school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics: a structural equation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-05-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates these relationships by considering theoretical and empirical evidences can empower researchers to discuss these relationships more comprehensively. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and their attitudes toward physics. Sample: A total of 632 high school students participated in this study; however, 269 female and 229 male (a total of 498) high school students' data were used. Design and methods: Three distinct instruments that measure scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics were combined into a unique questionnaire form and it was distributed to high school students. To explore the relationships among these variables, structural equation modeling was used. Results: The results showed that scientific epistemological belief dimensions uncovered by the nature of knowing (source and justification) significantly and positively related to both self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward other important physics dimensions. Additionally, self-efficacy in learning physics significantly and positively predicted attitudes toward multiple physics dimensions (importance, comprehension and requirement). However, epistemological belief dimensions related to the nature of knowledge (certainty and development) did not have significant impact on self-efficacy in learning physics or attitudes toward physics. Conclusions: This study concludes that there are positive and significant relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific

  11. Development of a commercial feasible application of a hydrostatic meat tenderizer and demonstration of its efficacy. Final report, June 24, 1980-March 1, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgasim, E.A.

    1983-05-01

    Prerigor pressurization procedure involves hot-bonding, vacuum packaging the boneless cuts and subjecting them to 15,000 psi of water pressure in a closed chamber for two minutes. The pressure treatment causes a massive linear contraction of the muscle fibers which disrupts the fine connective tissue and consequently weakens the muscle, which is synonymous with tenderizing. Treated muscles, when compared to untreated muscles from the same carcass have been found to have longer storage life, brighter color, longer case-life and to be equal if not superior in nutritional value. The study demonstrated beyond doubt the beneficial effect of prerigor pressurization. Meat processed in this manner will occupy less space in the cooler and during transportation, and needs no aging, thus it is likely to result in less energy consumption.

  12. The Bruton Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) Inhibitor Acalabrutinib Demonstrates Potent On-Target Effects and Efficacy in Two Mouse Models of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herman, Sarah E M; Montraveta, Arnau; Niemann, Carsten U

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Acalabrutinib (ACP-196) is a novel, potent, and highly selective Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, which binds covalently to Cys481 in the ATP-binding pocket of BTK. We sought to evaluate the antitumor effects of acalabrutinib treatment in two established mouse models of chronic ly...

  13. Metamaterial Demonstrates Both a High Refractive Index and Extremely Low Reflection in the 0.3-THz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Koki; Suzuki, Takehito

    2017-07-01

    Communication and imaging in the terahertz waveband have advanced rapidly in offering industrial applications. However, optical elements such as collimated lenses in the terahertz waveband are bulky compared with the wavelength due to the lack of naturally occurring substances with a high refractive index and low loss. It is essential to miniaturize optical elements in the terahertz waveband for industrial application. Metamaterials consisting of subwavelength structures can arbitrarily control permittivity and permeability and provide a range of refractive indices. Here, we demonstrate a metamaterial with both a high refractive index and extremely low reflection consisting of symmetrically aligned paired cut metal wires with 18,800 units on the front and back surfaces of a dielectric substrate. Measurements by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) confirm a high effective refractive index of 6.66 + j0.123, extremely low reflection power of 1.16%, and the unprecedented high figure of merit (FOM = |n real/n imag|) of above 300 in the 0.3-THz band. Components with such specifications would enable miniature, high-performance optical elements in the terahertz waveband such as ultrathin flat antennas with high directivity. Further, the concept of the metamaterial with both a high refractive index and extremely low reflection potentially offers a wide range of attractive applications such as solid immersion lenses and cloaking devices.

  14. Metamaterial Demonstrates Both a High Refractive Index and Extremely Low Reflection in the 0.3-THz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Koki; Suzuki, Takehito

    2017-09-01

    Communication and imaging in the terahertz waveband have advanced rapidly in offering industrial applications. However, optical elements such as collimated lenses in the terahertz waveband are bulky compared with the wavelength due to the lack of naturally occurring substances with a high refractive index and low loss. It is essential to miniaturize optical elements in the terahertz waveband for industrial application. Metamaterials consisting of subwavelength structures can arbitrarily control permittivity and permeability and provide a range of refractive indices. Here, we demonstrate a metamaterial with both a high refractive index and extremely low reflection consisting of symmetrically aligned paired cut metal wires with 18,800 units on the front and back surfaces of a dielectric substrate. Measurements by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) confirm a high effective refractive index of 6.66 + j0.123, extremely low reflection power of 1.16%, and the unprecedented high figure of merit (FOM = | n real/ n imag|) of above 300 in the 0.3-THz band. Components with such specifications would enable miniature, high-performance optical elements in the terahertz waveband such as ultrathin flat antennas with high directivity. Further, the concept of the metamaterial with both a high refractive index and extremely low reflection potentially offers a wide range of attractive applications such as solid immersion lenses and cloaking devices.

  15. Demonstrating the Model Nature of the High-Temperature Superconductor HgBa2CuO4+d

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisic, Neven; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Xudong; Cho, Yong-Chan; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Yu, Guichuan; Greven, Martin; /SLAC, SSRL /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Jilin U. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2008-09-30

    The compound HgBa{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} (Hg1201) exhibits a simple tetragonal crystal structure and the highest superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) among all single Cu-O layer cuprates, with T{sub c} = 97 K (onset) at optimal doping. Due to a lack of sizable single crystals, experimental work on this very attractive system has been significantly limited. Thanks to a recent breakthrough in crystal growth, such crystals have now become available. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to identify suitable heat treatment conditions to systematically and uniformly tune the hole concentration of Hg1201 crystals over a wide range, from very underdoped (T{sub c} = 47 K, hole concentration p {approx} 0.08) to overdoped (T{sub c} = 64 K, p {approx} 0.22). We then present quantitative magnetic susceptibility and DC charge transport results that reveal the very high-quality nature of the studied crystals. Using XPS on cleaved samples, we furthermore demonstrate that it is possible to obtain large surfaces of good quality. These characterization measurements demonstrate that Hg1201 should be viewed as a model high-temperature superconductor, and they provide the foundation for extensive future experimental work.

  16. Factors Affecting Burnout and School Engagement among High School Students: Study Habits, Self- Efficacy Beliefs, and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Filiz; Tuzgol Dost, Meliha; Cetin, Bayram

    2014-01-01

    This study examines high school students' levels of burnout and school engagement with respect to academic success, study habits, and self-efficacy beliefs. The data were gathered during the 2011-2012 school year from 633 students attending six high schools located in Ankara, Turkey. The analyses were conducted on responses from 605 students. The…

  17. The Efficacy of a Social Skills Group Intervention for Improving Social Behaviors in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosier, Melissa E.; Swick, Danielle C.; Davis, Naomi Ornstein; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; Matthews, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a new social skills intervention, "S ocial S kills GR oup IN tervention-High Functioning Autism" ("S.S.GRIN-HFA"), designed to improve social behaviors in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. Fifty-five children were randomly assigned to "S.S.GRIN-HFA" treatment (n = 27) or control (i.e.,…

  18. Role Models, Approaches to Studying, and Self-Efficacy in Forensic and Mainstream High School Students: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Michael; Dede, Yemi U.; Moneta, Giovanni B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between role models, approaches to studying, and self-efficacy in students attending a high school specialising in educating those with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD, n = 30) and students attending a mainstream high school (n = 41) in the UK. Types and quantity of role models held by students…

  19. Demonstration of 20-Gbit/s high-speed Bessel beam encoding/decoding link with adaptive turbulence compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi; Li, Shuhui; Zhao, Yifan; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Long; Wang, Andong; Du, Jing; Shen, Li; Wang, Jian

    2016-10-15

    By mapping traditional amplitude modulation to spatial modulation and employing adaptive optics compensation technique, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a high-speed Bessel beam encoding/decoding free-space optical link through atmospheric turbulence. The Bessel beam encoding/decoding speed is not limited by the conventional slow switching response of a spatial light modulator (SLM) but is fully determined by the modulation rate of an intensity modulator, which easily supports tens of gigabits per second modulation and resultant encoding/decoding. We use an SLM loaded with a pseudorandom phase mask to emulate atmospheric turbulence in the laboratory environment. An adaptive optics closed loop is used to sense the phase distortion of an extra probe Gaussian beam and then compensate the distorted Bessel beams. A 20-Gbit/s Bessel beam encoding/decoding link with adaptive turbulence compensation is demonstrated in the experiment, showing favorable operation performance.

  20. El Día de la Luz II (The Day of Light II): optics demonstration for high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya K., S.; Mathew, Manoj; Volpe, Giorgio; Takayama, Osamu; Valencia, Alejandra

    2009-06-01

    Photonics is an upcoming field that offers immense possibilities in frontier science, technology, and industry. The topic needs to be introduced among the young students to motivate their interest and passion for light. However, the potential of optics and photonics as a very exciting part of science is not always fully explored in high school education. With the motivation to contribute an initiative along these lines, a two-hour program was developed and successfully implemented at ICFO-The institute of photonics sciences. Further recent efforts were directed towards the improvement of this program which resulted in the advanced version. This improved version focuses on explaining the ray and wave nature of light, as well as the demonstration of the conservation of energy in relation to optics. The event was organized and the demonstrations were carried out by ICFO PhD students enrolled in the ICFO Optical Society of America (OSA) and SPIE student chapters.

  1. Efficacy of highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses for persistent corneal epithelial defects after anterior segment surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Wei Peng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the efficacy of highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses for persistent corneal epithelial defects.METHODS:In this retrospective case analysis, 28 patients(28 eyeswith persistent corneal epithelial defects after anterior segment surgery from January 2011 to June 2013 in our hospital were reviewed. After regular treatment for at least 2wk, the persistent corneal epithelial defects were treated with highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses, until the corneal epithelial healing. Continued to wear the same lens no more than 3wk, or in need of replacement the new one. All cases were followed up for 6mo. Key indicators of corneal epithelial healling, corneal fluorescein staining and ocular symptoms improvement were observed.RESULTS: Twenty-one eyes were cured(75.00%, markedly effective in 5 eyes(17.86%, effective in 2 eyes(7.14%, no invalid cases, the total efficiency of 100.00%. Ocular symptoms of 25 cases(89.29%relieved within 2d, the rest 3 cases(10.71%relieved within 1wk. The corneal epithelial of 6 cases(21.43%repaired in 3wk, 13 cases(46.43%in 6wk, 7 cases(25.00%in 9wk, 2 cases(7.14%over 12wk. There were no signs of secondary infection. And no evidence of recurrence in 6mo. CONCLUSION: Highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses could repair persistent corneal epithelial defects after anterior segment surgery significantly, while quickly and effectively relieve a variety of ocular irritation.

  2. Measuring third year undergraduate nursing students' reflective thinking skills and critical reflection self-efficacy following high fidelity simulation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutticci, Naomi; Lewis, Peter A; Coyer, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Critical reflection underpins critical thinking, a highly desirable generic nursing graduate capability. To improve the likelihood of critical thinking transferring to clinical practice, reflective thinking needs to be measured within the learning space of simulation. This study was divided into two phases to address the reliability and validity measures of previously untested surveys. Phase One data was collected from individuals (n = 6) using a 'think aloud' approach and an expert panel to review content validity, and verbatim comment analysis was undertaken. The Reflective Thinking Instrument and Critical Reflection Self-Efficacy Visual Analogue Scale items were contextualised to simulation. The expert review confirmed these instruments exhibited content validity. Phase Two data was collected through an online survey (n = 58). Cronbach's alpha measured internal consistency and was demonstrated by all subscales and the Instrument as a whole (.849). There was a small to medium positive correlation between critical reflection self-efficacy and general self-efficacy (r = .324, n = 56, p = .048). Participant responses were positive regarding the simulation experience. The research findings demonstrated that the Reflective Thinking and Simulation Satisfaction survey is reliable. Further development of this survey to establish validity is recommended to make it viable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Automaticity of exercise self-regulatory efficacy beliefs in adults with high and low experience in exercise self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jude; Cameron, Linda D

    2011-06-01

    Guided by social cognitive theory (SCT), we investigated whether exercise self-regulatory efficacy beliefs can be activated nonconsciously in individuals experienced and inexperienced in exercise self-regulation, and whether these beliefs are automatically associated with exercise self-regulation processes. The study used a 2 (Exercise Self-Regulation Experience Group) × 3 (Prime Condition) between-subjects design in which individuals experienced and inexperienced in exercise self-regulation were randomly assigned to receive subliminal, supraliminal, or no priming of exercise self-regulatory efficacy beliefs. Participants completed hypothetical diary entries, which were assessed for exercise self-regulatory efficacy and self-regulation expressions using content analyses with a SCT coding system and the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) text analysis program. For both exercise self-regulation experience groups, self-efficacy priming led to more expressions of low exercise self-regulatory efficacy and dysfunctional exercise self-regulation strategies compared with the control prime. For participants experienced in exercise self-regulation, supraliminal priming (vs. control priming) led to more expressions of high exercise self-regulatory efficacy and functional exercise self-regulation strategies. For the experienced groups, priming led to automaticity of exercise expressions compared with the control condition. For inexperienced participants in the subliminal prime condition, priming led to automaticity of self-regulatory efficacy beliefs and work-related goals compared with the control condition. Automatic activation of exercise self-regulatory efficacy and exercise self-regulation processes suggests that self-regulation of exercise behavior can occur nonconsciously.

  4. Development and Demonstration of a New Generation High Efficiency 10kW Stationary Fuel Cell System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Thomas Russell

    2013-04-30

    The overall project objective is to develop and demonstrate a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell combined heat and power (PEMFC CHP) system that provides the foundation for commercial, mass produced units which achieve over 40% electrical efficiency (fuel to electric conversion) from 50-100% load, greater than 70% overall efficiency (fuel to electric energy + usable waste heat energy conversion), have the potential to achieve 40,000 hours durability on all major process components, and can be produced in high volumes at under $400/kW (revised to $750/kW per 2011 DOE estimates) capital cost.

  5. Clinical efficacy of entecavir combined with adefovir in chronic hepatitis B patients with high viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Wen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the efficacy and safety of entecavir (ETV combined with adefovir (ADV in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients with high viral load. MethodsEighty CHB patients with high viral load who were admitted to our hospital from December 2008 to December 2011 were equally and randomly divided into observation group and control group. The control group was given ETV, while the observation group was treated with ETV combined with ADV. HBV DNA load, HBsAg or HBeAg seroconversion, alanine aminotransferase (ALT normalization, and adverse reactions before and after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of treatment were evaluated. Comparison of continuous data between the two groups was made by independent-samples t test, and comparison of categorical data was made by chi-square test. ResultsCompared with the control group, the observation group had significantly lower HBV DNA load after 6, 12, and 24 months of treatment (3.7±0.3 vs 3.4±0.4 log copies/ml, t=3.339, P<0.05; 2.9±0.4 vs 2.6±0.3 log copies/ml, t=5.657, P<0.05; 1.6±0.7 vs 1.2±0.4 log copies/ml, t=2.806, P<0.05. The HBV DNA clearance rate and HBeAg clearance rate in observation group were significantly higher than those in control group after 12 months of treatment (87.5% vs 70.0%, P<0.05; 80.0% vs 55.0%, P<0.05 and 24 months of treatment (95.0% vs 77.5%, P<0.05; 90.0% vs 70.0%, P<0.05. The observation group had significantly higher HBeAg seroconversion rate and ALT normalization rate than the control group after 24 months of treatment (77.5% vs 50.0%, P<0.05; 82.5% vs 55.0% P<005. During the treatment, there was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups (P>0.05, but the observation group had a significantly lower viral breakthrough rate than the control group (0 vs 10.0%, P<0.05. ConclusionFor CHB patients with high viral load, ETV combined with ADV has strong antiviral activity, reduces drug resistance and poor

  6. The Efficacy of the Application of Highly Specialised Surface Engineering Methods in the Economy. Case Study.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdamMazurkiewicz; JerzySmolik; JanWaikowicz

    2004-01-01

    The development of materials technologies, including surface engineering is one of the main trends in the knowledge-based economy. The direct advantages of the application of these technologies are the energy and raw materials saving and the lack of negative influence on the natural environment. The disadvantages are the high equipment and operating costs, the requirement of the highest service qualifications and the necessity to develop specialized technological solutions for different kinds of applications, tools and processes. The potential economic and practical effects are so significant that except for new scientific and technological solutions new innovative organizational solutions are being searched. They should enable an extensive application of innovations in all economy sectors, including SMEs, so the investment possibilities and specialized skills would not constitute decisive limitations. A concept, assumptions, principles of operation and practical implementation of such a model organisational structure - Plasma Technologies Centre of the Institute for Terotechnology (ITeE Radom, Poland) are presented in the article. Development trends directly correlated with the needs of the national market and economy as well as network connections within Framework Programmes of the European Union are depicted. Examples of several highly specialised technological solutions (out of a few dozen solutions implemented in the PTC) and their technological efficacy are described.

  7. Next Generation Fast RF Interlock Module and ATCA Adapter for ILC High Availability RF Test Station Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R

    2009-10-17

    High availability interlocks and controls are required for the ILC (International Linear Collider) L-Band high power RF stations. A new F3 (Fast Fault Finder) VME module has been developed to process both fast and slow interlocks using FPGA logic to detect the interlock trip excursions. This combination eliminates the need for separate PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control of slow interlocks. Modules are chained together to accommodate as many inputs as needed. In the next phase of development the F3's will be ported to the new industry standard ATCA (Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture) crate (shelf) via a specially designed VME adapter module with IPMI (Intelligent Platform Management Interface). The goal is to demonstrate auto-failover and hot-swap for future partially redundant systems.

  8. Initial demonstration of the NRC`s capability to conduct a performance assessment for a High-Level Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codell, R.; Eisenberg, N.; Fehringer, D.; Ford, W.; Margulies, T.; McCartin, T.; Park, J.; Randall, J.

    1992-05-01

    In order to better review licensing submittals for a High-Level Waste Repository, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has expanded and improved its capability to conduct performance assessments. This report documents an initial demonstration of this capability. The demonstration made use of the limited data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada to investigate a small set of scenario classes. Models of release and transport of radionuclides from a repository via the groundwater and direct release pathways provided preliminary estimates of releases to the accessible environment for a 10,000 year simulation time. Latin hypercube sampling of input parameters was used to express results as distributions and to investigate model sensitivities. This methodology demonstration should not be interpreted as an estimate of performance of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. By expanding and developing the NRC staff capability to conduct such analyses, NRC would be better able to conduct an independent technical review of the US Department of Energy (DOE) licensing submittals for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. These activities were divided initially into Phase 1 and Phase 2 activities. Additional phases may follow as part of a program of iterative performance assessment at the NRC. The NRC staff conducted Phase 1 activities primarily in CY 1989 with minimal participation from NRC contractors. The Phase 2 activities were to involve NRC contractors actively and to provide for the transfer of technology. The Phase 2 activities are scheduled to start in CY 1990, to allow Sandia National Laboratories to complete development and transfer of computer codes and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) to be in a position to assist in the acquisition of the codes.

  9. The role of self-efficacy and assertiveness in aggression among high-school students in Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi Mofrad, S H; Mehrabi, T

    2015-01-01

    Background. Nowadays, one sixth of the world's population is represented by adolescents, nearly 1.2 billion people being of age 10-19. According to the 2011 census in Iran, the estimation of adolescent population was 12 million, which represents 16% of the Iran population. Undoubtedly, adolescence is the most dominant stage of life. During this period, adolescents face biological, cognitive, and emotional changes that may be accompanied by inappropriate behavioral responses such as aggression. Considering pressures of peer groups during adolescence, assertiveness has an important role as a social skill. It seems that the success of adolescents in dealing with these problems depends on their self-efficacy. This study was designed to explore the role of self-efficacy and assertiveness in aggression among high-school students. Material and methods. This cross-sectional and correlational study was conducted among 321 first grade high-school students during 2014 and 2015. Samples were extracted from six education and training regions by a multi-stage random sampling. In this study, the questionnaire included demographic, Rathus Assertiveness, self-efficacy for children and aggression data. Results. The results showed that there was a notable negative association between aggression and assertiveness (p assertiveness and self-efficacy resulted in a decrease of aggression. So, training was recommended to reinforce self-efficacy beliefs and assertiveness behaviors for mental health promotion.

  10. Proof-of-principle demonstration of Nb3Sn superconducting radiofrequency cavities for high Q0 applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posen, S.; Liepe, M.; Hall, D. L.

    2015-02-01

    Many future particle accelerators require hundreds of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities operating with high duty factor. The large dynamic heat load of the cavities causes the cryogenic plant to make up a significant part of the overall cost of the facility. This contribution can be reduced by replacing standard niobium cavities with ones coated with a low-dissipation superconductor such as Nb3Sn. In this paper, we present results for single cell cavities coated with Nb3Sn at Cornell. Five coatings were carried out, showing that at 4.2 K, high Q0 out to medium fields was reproducible, resulting in an average quench field of 14 MV/m and an average 4.2 K Q0 at quench of 8 × 109. In each case, the peak surface magnetic field at quench was well above Hc1, showing that it is not a limiting field in these cavities. The coating with the best performance had a quench field of 17 MV/m, exceeding gradient requirements for state-of-the-art high duty factor SRF accelerators. It is also shown that—taking into account the thermodynamic efficiency of the cryogenic plant—the 4.2 K Q0 values obtained meet the AC power consumption requirements of state-of-the-art high duty factor accelerators, making this a proof-of-principle demonstration for Nb3Sn cavities in future applications.

  11. EFFICACY OF FIXED COMBINATION OF VALSARTAN, AMLODIPINE AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN COMPLEX THERAPY OF THE PATIENT OF VERY HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Sokolov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of arterial hypertension in association with high and very high cardiovascular risk requires widespread use of combined therapy. Current approaches to selection of combination components of antihypertensive drugs are based the efficacy of these drugs proven in multicenter randomized clinical trials. The triple combination of calcium antagonist, angiotensin II receptor blocker and thiazide diuretic is regarded as the best option for combined therapy in patients with arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  12. Efficacy of topical plus intracameral anesthesia for cataract surgery in high myopia: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofoco, Giorgio; Ciucci, Francesco; Bardocci, Antonio; Quercioli, Pierpaolo; De Gaetano, Cristiano; Ghirelli, Giorgio; Perdicaro, Serenella; Schiano Lomoriello, Domenico; Cacciamani, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of intracameral lidocaine supplementation of topical anesthesia during cataract surgery in eyes with high myopia. Department of Ophthalmology, Ospedale San Pietro-Fatebenefratelli, Rome, Italy. This prospective double-blind study comprised 120 highly myopic eyes with an axial length (AL) greater than 26.0 mm scheduled for routine cataract surgery. Cases were divided into 2 groups of 60 eyes each. One group received a placebo of balanced salt solution (BSS) (control group) and the other group, a supplement of 0.1 mL preservative-free lidocaine hydrochloride 1% injected in the capsular bag during hydrodissection (lidocaine group). Intraoperative pain was assessed by recording spontaneous patient reports of sensation of pain or ocular discomfort during 3 surgical stages: phaco tip insertion, irrigation/aspiration (I/A) system insertion for cortical aspiration, I/A system insertion for ophthalmic viscosurgical device removal after intraocular lens implantation. Postoperative pain was assessed on a visual analog scale (range 0 to 10). Data were compared by chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. The overall mean AL was 28.58 mm (28.57 mm control group; 28.50 mm lidocaine group). Fewer patients in the lidocaine group reported intraoperative pain, ocular discomfort, or tissue manipulation (odds ratio=0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.80; P= .019). The mean postoperative pain score was 1.88+/-2.17 (SD) in the control group and 1.36+/-2.02 in the lidocaine group; the difference was not statistically significant (P= .21). Intracameral lidocaine supplementation for cataract surgery may improve intraoperative comfort under topical anesthesia in highly myopic eyes.

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  14. Efficacy and safety of alirocumab in high cardiovascular risk patients with inadequately controlled hypercholesterolaemia on maximally tolerated doses of statins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannon, Christopher P; Cariou, Bertrand; Blom, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To compare the efficacy [low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering] and safety of alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9, compared with ezetimibe, as add-on therapy to maximally tolerated statin therapy in high cardiovascular ris...

  15. Examining the Efficacy of a Time Management Intervention for High School Students. Research Report. ETS RR-13-25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrus, Jeremy; Jackson, Teresa; Holtzman, Steven; Roberts, Richard D.; Mandigo, Terri

    2013-01-01

    The current paper reports the results of 2 quasiexperimental studies conducted to examine the efficacy of a new time management intervention designed for high school students. In both studies, there was no difference between the treatment and control groups in improvement in self-reported time management skills as a result of the intervention.…

  16. Self-Efficacy, Perceptions of Barriers, Vocational Identity, and the Career Exploration Behavior of Latino/a High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushue, George V.; Clarke, Christine P.; Pantzer, Karen M.; Scanlan, Kolone R. L.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the potential relationship between the social cognitive variables of career decision making self-efficacy and perceptions of barriers and the outcome variables of vocational identity and career exploration behaviors in a sample of 128 urban Latino/a high school students. The results indicated that higher levels of career…

  17. The Efficacy of Repeated Reading and Wide Reading Practice for High School Students with Severe Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Denton, Carolyn A.

    2010-01-01

    This experimental study was conducted to examine the efficacy of repeated reading and wide reading practice interventions for high school students with severe reading disabilities. Effects on comprehension, fluency, and word reading were evaluated. Participants were 96 students with reading disabilities in grades 9-12. Students were paired within…

  18. Efficacy of the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis in Identifying Patients at High Risk for Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Ban, Hiromitsu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Sahara, Shu; Otsuka, Taketo; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Furuta, Takahisa; Andoh, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Kyoto gastritis classification categorizes the endoscopic characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-associated gastritis and identifies patterns associated with a high risk of gastric cancer. We investigated its efficacy, comparing scores in patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis and with gastric cancer. Methods A total of 1,200 patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis alone (n=932), early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer (n=189), and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer (n=79) were endoscopically graded according to the Kyoto gastritis classification for atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, fold hypertrophy, nodularity, and diffuse redness. Results The prevalence of O-II/O-III-type atrophy according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification in early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer groups was 45.1%, which was significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (12.7%, pgastritis scores of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cancer group were significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (all pgastritis classification may thus be useful for detecting these patients.

  19. Investigation and Demonstration of High Speed Full-Optical Hybrid FSO/Fiber Communication System under Light Sand Storm Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah

    2016-12-19

    In contrast to traditional free space optical (FSO) systems, the new generation is aimed to be transparent to optical fiber where protocols, high signal bandwidths, and high data rates over fiber are all maintained. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a high speed outdoor full-optical FSO communication system over 100 m link. We first describe the design of our transmitter, which consists of a comb generator and a flexible multiformat transmitter. Our measurements are performed in arid desert area under a light dust storm. In this environment, we use a 12 subcarrier comb generator, each of which is modulated by a quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signal. We achieved a 1.08 Tbps error free data rate with 3.6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency. We place long optical fiber rolls in the transmitter side and the receiver side to mimic real FSO deployments. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of receiver misalignment in outdoor conditions and the effect of background noise. We find that full-optical FSO system is sensitive to the misalignment effect. However, the background noise has negligible effect. Finally, we find that solar heating of the transceiver causes collimator deviation, which requires using a cooling unit or auto tracking system.

  20. Demonstration of a strategy for product purification by high-gradient magnetic fishing: Recovery of superoxide dismutase from unconditioned whey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A.; Hansen, D.B.; Goncalves Gomes, Claudia Sofia

    2005-01-01

    A systematic approach for the design of a bioproduct recovery process employing magnetic supports and the technique of high-gradient magnetic fishing (HGMF) is described. The approach is illustrated for the separation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), an antioxidant protein present in low concentrat......A systematic approach for the design of a bioproduct recovery process employing magnetic supports and the technique of high-gradient magnetic fishing (HGMF) is described. The approach is illustrated for the separation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), an antioxidant protein present in low......: product adsorption, support washing, and product elution. Next, the capacity of a novel high-gradient magnetic separator (designed for biotechnological applications) for trapping and holding magnetic supports was determined. Finally, all of the above elements were assembled to deliver a HGMF process...... and solids; (iv) elution of the target protein; and (v) recovery of the eluted supports from the HGMF rig. Efficient recovery of SOD was demonstrated at similar to50-fold increased scale (cf. magnetic rack studies) in three separate HGMF experiments, and in the best of these (run 3) an SOD yield of >85...

  1. Demonstration of a strategy for product purification by high-gradient magnetic fishing: recovery of superoxide dismutase from unconditioned whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andrea; Hansen, Dennis B; Gomes, Cláudia S G; Hobley, Timothy J; Thomas, Owen R T; Franzreb, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    A systematic approach for the design of a bioproduct recovery process employing magnetic supports and the technique of high-gradient magnetic fishing (HGMF) is described. The approach is illustrated for the separation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), an antioxidant protein present in low concentrations (ca. 0.15-0.6 mg L(-1)) in whey. The first part of the process design consisted of ligand screening in which metal chelate supports charged with copper(II) ions were found to be the most suitable. The second stage involved systematic and sequential optimization of conditions for the following steps: product adsorption, support washing, and product elution. Next, the capacity of a novel high-gradient magnetic separator (designed for biotechnological applications) for trapping and holding magnetic supports was determined. Finally, all of the above elements were assembled to deliver a HGMF process for the isolation of SOD from crude sweet whey, which consisted of (i) binding SOD using Cu2+ -charged magnetic metal chelator particles in a batch reactor with whey; (ii) recovery of the "SOD-loaded" supports by high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS); (iii) washing out loosely bound and entrained proteins and solids; (iv) elution of the target protein; and (v) recovery of the eluted supports from the HGMF rig. Efficient recovery of SOD was demonstrated at approximately 50-fold increased scale (cf magnetic rack studies) in three separate HGMF experiments, and in the best of these (run 3) an SOD yield of >85% and purification factor of approximately 21 were obtained.

  2. Analysis on LID for highly urbanized areas' waterlogging control: demonstrated on the example of Caohejing in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z L; He, Y; Huang, F; Wang, S; Li, H Z

    2013-01-01

    Although a commonly applied measure across the United States and Europe for alleviating the negative impacts of urbanization on the hydrological cycle, low impact development (LID) has not been widely used in highly urbanized areas, especially in rapidly urbanizing cities in developing countries like China. In this paper, given five LID practices including Bio-Retention, Infiltration Trench, Porous Pavement, Rain Barrels, and Green Swale, an analysis on LID for highly urbanized areas' waterlogging control is demonstrated using the example of Caohejing in Shanghai, China. Design storm events and storm water management models are employed to simulate the total waterlogging volume reduction, peak flow rate reduction and runoff coefficient reduction of different scenarios. Cost-effectiveness is calculated for the five practices. The aftermath shows that LID practices can have significant effects on storm water management in a highly urbanized area, and the comparative results reveal that Rain Barrels and Infiltration Trench are the two most suitable cost-effective measures for the study area.

  3. Analysis of Corrosion Residues Collected from the Aluminum Basket Rails of the High-Burnup Demonstration Cask.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    On September, 2015, an inspection was performed on the TN-32B cask that will be used for the high-burnup demonstration project. During the survey, wooden cribbing that had been placed within the cask eleven years earlier to prevent shifting of the basket during transport was removed, revealing two areas of residue on the aluminum basket rails, where they had contacted the cribbing. The residue appeared to be a corrosion product, and concerns were raised that similar attack could exist at more difficult-to-inspect locations in the canister. Accordingly, when the canister was reopened, samples of the residue were collected for analysis. This report presents the results of that assessment, which determined that the corrosion was due to the presence of the cribbing. The corrosion was associated with fungal material, and fungal activity likely contributed to an aggressive chemical environment. Once the cask has been cleaned, there will be no risk of further corrosion.

  4. Efficacy of lenalidomide in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with high-risk cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Taimur; Miller, Kena C; Lawrence, David; Whitworth, Amy; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco; Czuczman, Myron S; Miller, Austin; Lawrence, William; Bilgrami, Syed Ali; Sood, Raman; Wood, Margaret T; Block, Annemarie W; Lee, Kelvin; Chanan-Khan, Asher Alban

    2010-01-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) with high-risk cytogenetics [del(11q)(q22.3) or del(17p)(p13.1)] have limited therapeutic options and their prognosis remains poor. This analysis was conducted to determine the clinical activity of lenalidomide in patients with high-risk disease. Relapsed/refractory patients with CLL enrolled in a phase II clinical trial who had del(11q)(q22.3) or del(17p)(p13.1) were included in this analysis. Patients received single agent lenalidomide for 21 days of the 4 week treatment cycle. The overall response rate among patients with high-risk cytogenetics was 38%, with 19% of patients achieving a complete response. Median progression-free survival was 12.1 months, which is higher than demonstrated with other agents in comparable patient populations. In addition, the estimated 2-year survival probability was 58%, demonstrating that the responses achieved with lenalidomide are durable, even in patients with CLL with high-risk disease with poor risk cytogenetics.

  5. Self-assembled core-polyethylene glycol-lipid shell nanoparticles demonstrate high stability in shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhiqiang; Ye, Huilin; Kröger, Martin; Li, Ying

    2017-05-24

    A core-polyethylene glycol-lipid shell (CPLS) nanoparticle consists of an inorganic core coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers, surrounded by a lipid bilayer shell. It can be self-assembled from a PEGylated core with surface-tethered PEG chains, where all the distal ends are covalently bonded to lipid molecules. Upon adding free lipids, a complete lipid bilayer shell can be formed on the surface driven by the hydrophobic nature of lipid tails, leading to the formation of a CPLS nanoparticle. The stability of CPLS nanoparticles in shear flow has been systematically studied through large scale dissipative particle dynamics simulations. CPLS nanoparticles demonstrate higher stability and less deformation in shear flow, compared with lipid vesicles. Burst leakage of drug molecules inside lipid vesicles and CPLS NPs can be induced by the large pores at their tips. These pores are initiated by the maximum stress in the waist region. It further grows along with the tank-treading motion of vesicles or CPLS NPs in shear flow. However, due to the constraints applied by PEG polymers, CPLS NPs are less deformed than vesicles with comparable size under the same flow conditions. Thus, the less deformed CPLS NPs express a smaller maximum stress at waists, demonstrating higher stability. Pore formation at waists, evolving into large pores on vesicles, leads to the burst leakage of drug molecules and complete rupture of vesicles. In contrast, although similar drug leakage in CPLS nanoparticles can occur at high shear rates, pores initiated at moderate shear rates tend to be short-lived and close due to the constraints mediated by PEG polymers. This kind of 'self-healing' capability can be observed over a wide range of shear rates for CPLS nanoparticles. Our results suggest self-assembled CPLS nanoparticles to exhibit high stability during blood circulation without rapid drug leakage. These features make CPLS nanoparticles candidates for a promising drug delivery platform.

  6. Self-efficacy perception in high school students with mild intellectual disability in practical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović-Dobrota Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to determine how students with mild intellectual disability perceive self-efficacy in practical training, with regard to the intellectual level, gender, work field and professional level for which they are being trained. The sample consists of 120 students with mild intellectual disability, of both genders, undergoing vocational training in five work fields for the second and third level professions. Adapted Self-Efficacy to Regulate Training Scale (Bandura, 2006 was used to assess the influence of negative internal and external factors on the students' efficacy at performing tasks in practical training. It was determined that there is a statistically significant difference among the examinees of the same disability category, but different level of intellectual functioning. Girls with lower and higher levels of intellectual functioning were found to perceive self-efficacy in practical training with lower level of confidence than boys with the same levels of intellectual functioning. The examinees undergoing the third level vocational training are more confident in their abilities to coordinate knowledge and skills in training regardless of different distracting factors. There we no statistically significant differences determined with regard to the work field. Assessing self-efficacy in training can direct the development of self-efficacy, help individuals gain a sense of control over their career development, and for professionals involved in finding jobs for persons with intellectual disability provide a predictive success/failure role at work.

  7. The appearances of oesophageal carcinoma demonstrated on high-resolution, T2-weighted MRI, with histopathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddell, A.M. [Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, GI Oncology Imaging Research Fellow, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Allum, W.H.; Thompson, J.N. [Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Surgery, London (United Kingdom); Wotherspoon, A.C. [Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Richardson, C.; Brown, G. [Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    This paper describes the spectrum of imaging features of oesophageal adenocarcinoma seen using high-resolution T2-weighted (T2W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty-nine patients with biopsy-proven oesophageal adenocarcinoma were scanned using an external surface coil. A sagittal T2W sequence was used to localise the tumour and to plan axial images perpendicular to the tumour. Fast spin-echo (FSE) T2W axial sequence parameters were: TR/TE, 3,300-5,000 ms/120-80 ms; field of view (FOV) 225 mm, matrix 176 x 512(reconstructed) mm to 256 x 224 mm, giving an in-plane resolution of between 1.28 x 0.44 mm and 0.88 x 1.00 mm, with 3-mm slice thickness. Thirty-three patients underwent resection and the MR images were compared with the histological whole-mount sections. There were four T1, 12 T2, and 17 T3 tumours. The T2W high-resolution MRI sequences produced detailed images of the oesophageal wall and surrounding structures. Analysis of the imaging appearances for different tumour T stages enabled the development of imaging criteria for local staging of oesophageal cancer using high-resolution MRI. Our study illustrates the spectrum of appearances of oesophageal cancer on T2W high-resolution MRI, and using the criteria established in this study, demonstrates the potential of this technique as an alternative non-invasive method for local staging for oesophageal cancer. (orig.)

  8. ARC: A compact, high-field, fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant with demountable magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorbom, B.N., E-mail: bsorbom@mit.edu; Ball, J.; Palmer, T.R.; Mangiarotti, F.J.; Sierchio, J.M.; Bonoli, P.; Kasten, C.; Sutherland, D.A.; Barnard, H.S.; Haakonsen, C.B.; Goh, J.; Sung, C.; Whyte, D.G.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • ARC reactor designed to have 500 MW fusion power at 3.3 m major radius. • Compact, simplified design allowed by high magnetic fields and jointed magnets. • ARC has innovative plasma physics solutions such as inboardside RF launch. • High temperature superconductors allow high magnetic fields and jointed magnets. • Liquid immersion blanket and jointed magnets greatly simplify tokamak reactor design. - Abstract: The affordable, robust, compact (ARC) reactor is the product of a conceptual design study aimed at reducing the size, cost, and complexity of a combined fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion Pilot power plant. ARC is a ∼200–250 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has rare earth barium copper oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils, which have joints to enable disassembly. This allows the vacuum vessel to be replaced quickly, mitigating first wall survivability concerns, and permits a single device to test many vacuum vessel designs and divertor materials. The design point has a plasma fusion gain of Q{sub p} ≈ 13.6, yet is fully non-inductive, with a modest bootstrap fraction of only ∼63%. Thus ARC offers a high power gain with relatively large external control of the current profile. This highly attractive combination is enabled by the ∼23 T peak field on coil achievable with newly available REBCO superconductor technology. External current drive is provided by two innovative inboard RF launchers using 25 MW of lower hybrid and 13.6 MW of ion cyclotron fast wave power. The resulting efficient current drive provides a robust, steady state core plasma far from disruptive limits. ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing fluorine lithium beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt. The liquid blanket is low-risk technology and provides effective neutron moderation and shielding, excellent

  9. Energy audit of three energy-conserving devices in a steel industry demonstration program. Task III. GTE high temperature recuperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, F.C.; Hoffman, A.O.; Lownie, H.W.

    1983-06-01

    The Office of Industrial Programs of the Department of Energy has undertaken a program to demonstrate to industry the benefits of installing various energy-conserving devices and equipment. This report presents results on one of those systems, a high-temperature ceramic recuperator designed and manufactured by Sylvania Chemical and Metallurgical Division, GTE Products Corporation of Towanda, Pennsylvania. The ceramic cross-flow recuperator unit recovers waste heat from the hot combustion gases and delivers preheated air to high-temperature burners of various manufacture. Of the 38 host site installations included in the program, sufficient operating data were obtained from 28 sites to evaluate the benefits in terms of energy and economic savings that can be achieved. Performance and cost data are analyzed and presented for those 28 installations, which covered a variety of applications, sizes, and industry types. Except for 5 sites where unusual operating or data-collection problems were encountered, the improvements in performance of the recuperated furnaces equalled or exceeded estimates; the average of the total fuel savings for these 23 sites was 44.0 percent, some portion of which resulted from furnace improvements other than recuperation. Payback times were calculated for both total costs and for recuperator-related costs, using a cumulative annual after-tax cash flow method which includes tax investment credits, estimates of general and fuel-price inflation, and maintenance costs.

  10. ARC: A compact, high-field, fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant with demountable magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Sorbom, B N; Palmer, T R; Mangiarotti, F J; Sierchio, J M; Bonoli, P; Kasten, C; Sutherland, D A; Barnard, H S; Haakonsen, C B; Goh, J; Sung, C; Whyte, D G

    2014-01-01

    The affordable, robust, compact (ARC) reactor conceptual design study aims to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a combined fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion Pilot power plant. ARC is a 270 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has rare earth barium copper oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils, which have joints to enable disassembly. This allows the vacuum vessel to be replaced quickly, mitigating first wall survivability concerns, and permits a single device to test many vacuum vessel designs and divertor materials. The design point has a plasma fusion gain of Q_p~13.6, yet is fully non-inductive, with a modest bootstrap fraction of only ~63%. Thus ARC offers a high power gain with relatively large external control of the current profile. This highly attractive combination is enabled by the ~23 T peak field on coil with newly available REBCO superconductor technology. External cu...

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  13. Complete Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelon, Stephen; Maddocks, Peg

    1986-01-01

    Describes four-step approach to educational demonstration: tell learners they will have to perform; what they should notice; describe each step before doing it; and require memorization of steps. Examples illustrate use of this process to demonstrate a general mental strategy, and industrial design, supervisory, fine motor, and specific…

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  16. High-dose lidocaine does not affect defibrillation efficacy: implications for defibrillation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujhelyi, M R; Sims, J J; Miller, A W

    1998-04-01

    This study assessed the effect of low (10 mg.kg-1.h-1) and very high (18 mg.kg-1.h-1) doses of lidocaine on defibrillation energy requirements (DER) to relate changes in indexes of sodium-channel blockade with changes in DER values using a dose-response study design. In group 1 (control; n = 6 pigs), DER values were determined at baseline and during treatment with 5% dextrose in water (D5W) and with D5W added to D5W. In group 2 (n = 7), DER values were determined at baseline and during treatment with low-dose lidocaine followed by high-dose lidocaine. In group 3 (n = 3), DER values were determined at baseline and high-dose lidocaine. Group 3 controlled for the order of lidocaine treatment with the addition of high-dose lidocaine after baseline. DER values in group 1 did not change during D5W. In group 2, low-dose lidocaine increased DER values by 51% (P = 0.01), whereas high-dose lidocaine added to low-dose lidocaine reduced DER values back to within 6% of baseline values (P = 0.02, low dose vs. high dose). DER values during high-dose lidocaine in group 3 also remained near baseline values (16.2 +/- 2.7 to 12.9 +/- 2.7 J), demonstrating that treatment order had no impact on group 2. Progressive sodium-channel blockade was evident as incremental reduction in ventricular conduction velocity as the lidocaine dose increased. Lidocaine also significantly increased ventricular fibrillation cycle length as the lidocaine dose increased. However, the greatest increase in DER occurred when ventricular fibrillation cycle length was minimally affected, demonstrating a negative correlation (P = 0.04). In summary, lidocaine has an inverted U-shaped DER dose-response curve. At very high lidocaine doses, DER values are similar to baseline and tend to decrease rather than increase. Increased refractoriness during ventricular fibrillation may be the electrophysiological mechanism by which high-dose lidocaine limits the adverse effects that low-dose lidocaine has on DER values

  17. Therapeutic efficacy of high-dose vitamin C on acute pancreatitis and its potential mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Dong Du; Song-Bai Zheng; Zu-Rong Yuan; Jian Sun; Jian-Xiong Tang; Ai-Qun Cheng; Da-Ming Shen; Chun-Jin Huang; Xiao-Hua Song; Xiao-Feng Yu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To observe the therapeutic efficacy of high-dose Vitamin C (Vit. C) on acute pancreatitis (AP), and to explore its potential mechanisms.METHODS: Eghty-four AP patients were divided into treatment group and control group, 40 healthy subjects were taken as a normal group. In the treatment group,Vit. C (10 g/day) was given intravenously for 5 days,whereas in the control group, Vit. C (1 g/day) was given intravenously for 5 days. Symptoms, physical signs, duration of hospitalization, complications and mortality rate were monitored. Meanwhile, serum amylase, urine amylase and leukocyte counts were also determined. The concentration of plasma vitamin C (P-VC), plasma lipid peroxide (P-LPO),plasma vitamin E (P-VE), plasma β-carotene (P-13-CAR),whole blood glutathione (WB-GSH) and the activity of erythrocyte surperoxide dimutase (E-SOD) and erythrocyte catalase (E-CAT) as well as T lymphocyte phenotype were measured by spectrophotometry in the normal group and before and after treatment with Vit. C in the treatment and the control group.RESULTS: Compared with the normal group, the average values of P-VC, P-VE, P-β-CAR, WB-GSH and the activity of E-SOD and E-CAT in AP patients were significantly decreased and the average value of P-LPO was significantly increased, especially in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients (P<0.05. P-VC, P=0.045; P-VE, P=0.038; P=0.041;P-β-CAR, P=0.046; WB-GSH, P=0.039; E-SOD, P=0.019;E-CAT, P =0.020; P-LPO, P =0.038). Compared with the normal group, CD3 and CD4 positive cells in AP patients were significantly decreased. The ratio of CD4/CD8 and CD4 positive cells were decreased, especially in SAP patients (P<0.05. CD4/CD8, P =0.041; CD4, P =0.019). Fever and vomiting disappeared, and leukocyte counts and amylase in urine and blood become normal quicker in the treatment group than in the control group. Moreover, patients in treatment group also had a higher cure rate, a lower complication rate and a shorter in-ward days compared with

  18. Efficacy of highly bioavailable zinc from fortified water: a randomized controlled trial in rural Beninese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetti, Valeria; Kujinga, Prosper; Mitchikpè, Comlan Evariste S; Zeder, Christophe; Tay, Fabian; Tossou, Félicien; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Zimmermann, Michael B; Moretti, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Zinc deficiency and contaminated water are major contributors to diarrhea in developing countries. Food fortification with zinc has not shown clear benefits, possibly because of low zinc absorption from inhibitory food matrices. We used a novel point-of-use water ultrafiltration device configured with glass zinc plates to produce zinc-fortified, potable water. The objective was to determine zinc bioavailability from filtered water and the efficacy of zinc-fortified water in improving zinc status. In a crossover balanced study, we measured fractional zinc absorption (FAZ) from the zinc-fortified water in 18 healthy Swiss adults using zinc stable isotopes and compared it with zinc-fortified maize porridge. We conducted a 20-wk double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 277 Beninese school children from rural settings who were randomly assigned to receive a daily portion of zinc-fortified filtered water delivering 2.8 mg Zn (Zn+filter), nonfortified filtered water (Filter), or nonfortified nonfiltered water (Pump) from the local improved supply, acting as the control group. The main outcome was plasma zinc concentration (PZn), and the 3 groups were compared by using mixed-effects models. Secondary outcomes were prevalence of zinc deficiency, diarrhea prevalence, and growth. Geometric mean (-SD, +SD) FAZ was 7-fold higher from fortified water (65.9%; 42.2, 102.4) than from fortified maize (9.1%; 6.0, 13.7; P diarrhea or growth, but our study did not have the duration and power to detect such effects. Consumption of filtered water fortified with a low dose of highly bioavailable zinc is an effective intervention in children from rural African settings. Large community-based trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of zinc-fortified filtered water on diarrhea and growth. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01636583 and NCT01790321. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Efficacy of High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Preoperative Local Staging of Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Uçar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the efficacy of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HRMRI for preoperative local staging in patients with rectal cancer who did not receive preoperative radiochemotherapy. Methods: In this retrospective study, 30 patients with biopsy proved primary rectal cancer were evaluated by HRMRI. Two observers independently scored the tumour and lymph node stages, and circumferential resection margin (CRM involvement. The sensitivity, specificity, the negative predictive value and the positive predictive value of HRMRI findings were calculated within the 95% confidence interval. The area under the curve was measured for each result. Agreement between two observers was assessed by means of the Kappa test. Results: In T staging the accuracy rate of HRMRI was 47-67%, overstaging was 10-21%, and understaging was 13-43%. In the prediction of extramural invasion with HRMRI, the sensitivity was 79-89%, the specificity was 72-100%, the PPV was 85-100%, the NPV was 73-86%, and the area under the curve was 0.81-0.89. In the prediction of lymph node metastasis, the sensitivity was 58-58%, the specificity was 50-55%, the PPV was 43-46%, and the NPV was 64-66%. The area under the curve was 0.54-0.57. When the cut off value was selected as 1 mm, the sensitivity of HRMRI was 38-42%, the specificity was 73-82%, the PPV was 33-42%, and NPV was 79-81% in the prediction of the CRM involvement. The correlation between the two observers was moderate for tumour staging, substantial for lymph node staging and predicting of CRM involvement. Conclusion: Preoperative HRMRI provides good predictive data for extramural invasion but poor prediction of lymph node status and CRM involvement.

  20. Lack of prophylactic efficacy of oral maraviroc in macaques despite high drug concentrations in rectal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massud, Ivana; Aung, Wutyi; Martin, Amy; Bachman, Shanon; Mitchell, James; Aubert, Rachael; Solomon Tsegaye, Theodros; Kersh, Ellen; Pau, Chou-Pong; Heneine, Walid; García-Lerma, J Gerardo

    2013-08-01

    Maraviroc (MVC) is a potent CCR5 coreceptor antagonist that is in clinical testing for daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. We used a macaque model consisting of weekly SHIV162p3 exposures to evaluate the efficacy of oral MVC in preventing rectal SHIV transmission. MVC dosing was informed by the pharmacokinetic profile seen in blood and rectal tissues and consisted of a human-equivalent dose given 24 h before virus exposure, followed by a booster postexposure dose. In rectal secretions, MVC peaked at 24 h (10,242 ng/ml) with concentrations at 48 h that were about 40 times those required to block SHIV infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. Median MVC concentrations in rectal tissues at 24 h (1,404 ng/g) were 30 and 10 times those achieved in vaginal or lymphoid tissues, respectively. MVC significantly reduced macrophage inflammatory protein 1β-induced CCR5 internalization in rectal mononuclear cells, an indication of efficient binding to CCR5 in rectal lymphocytes. The half-life of CCR5-bound MVC in PBMCs was 2.6 days. Despite this favorable profile, 5/6 treated macaques were infected during five rectal SHIV exposures as were 3/4 controls. MVC treatment was associated with a significant increase in the percentage of CD3(+)/CCR5(+) cells in blood. We show that high and durable MVC concentrations in rectal tissues are not sufficient to prevent SHIV infection in macaques. The increases in CD3(+)/CCR5(+) cells seen during MVC treatment point to unique immunological effects of CCR5 inhibition by MVC. The implications of these immunological effects on PrEP with MVC require further evaluation.

  1. High efficacy of gemifloxacin-containing therapy in Helicobacter Pylori eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Laleh; Farshad, Shohreh; Seddigh, Mehrdad; Mahmoudi, Paria; Ejtehadi, Fardad; Niknam, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a common gastric pathogen which is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. It has worldwide distribution with higher incidence in developing countries. Gemifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic with documented in vitro activity against H pylori. Considering that there is no clinical data to verify gemifloxacin efficacy in H pylori eradication, this pilot clinical trial was designed. Methods: This prospective pilot study was performed during February 2014 to February 2015. A regimen of gemifloxacin (320 mg single dose) plus twice daily doses of amoxicillin1g, bismuth 240 mg, and omeprazole 20 mg for 14 days were prescribed for H pylori infected patients in whom a first-line standard quadruple therapy (clarithromycin–amoxicillin–bismuth–omeprazole) had failed. To confirm H pylori eradication a 13C-urea breath test was performed 4 weeks after treatment. Compliance and incidence of adverse effects were evaluated by questionnaires. Results: A total of 120 patients were enrolled consecutively; out of which 106 patients achieved H pylori eradication; per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 91.4% (95% CI: 85.5–97.6) and 88.3% (95% CI: 75.4–92.4) respectively. Three patients (2.5%) failed to take at least 80% of the drugs and excluded from the final analysis. Adverse effects were reported in 42% of patients, most commonly including nausea (15%) and diarrhea (13.3%), which was intense in 1 patient and led to the discontinuation of treatment. In total, 96.7% (116/120) of the patients took the medications correctly. Conclusion: This study revealed that gemifloxacin-containing quadruple therapy provides high H pylori eradication rate (≥90% PP cure rate), and this agent can be included in the list of second-line H pylori therapeutic regimens. PMID:27759625

  2. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.......6%, respectively). Between 9 months and 2 years of age, however, 6.1% contracted measles in Bandim 1 and 13.7% in Bandim 2. Even adjusting for vaccination status, incidence was significantly higher in Bandim 2 (relative risk 1.6, P = .04). Even though 95% of the children had measles antibodies after vaccination......, vaccine efficacy was not more than 68% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39%-84%) and was unrelated to age at vaccination. Unvaccinated children had a mortality hazard ratio of 3.0 compared with vaccinated children (P = .002), indicating a protective efficacy against death of 66% (CI 32%-83%) of measles...

  3. Perceived barriers mediate the association between self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable consumption among students attending alternative high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; Kubik, Martha Y; Kenyon, Denyelle; Davey, Cynthia; Story, Mary

    2010-10-01

    Compared to students attending regular high schools, alternative high school students are more likely to be racial/ethnic minorities, have higher levels of poverty, and higher rates of risky and poor health behaviors, including weight-related behaviors like limited fruit and vegetable intake. However, little is known about fruit/vegetable intake among alternative high school students. This study examined whether perceived barriers to healthy eating mediated the association between self-efficacy to eat healthy foods and fruit/vegetable consumption among alternative high school students. The cross-sectional study population consisted of students (N=145) attending six alternative high schools in the St Paul-Minneapolis, MN, area who were participants in an obesity prevention pilot study and completed a baseline survey during fall 2006. Mixed model linear regression, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, was used to test a series of regression models performed according to mediation analysis procedures. Students' mean age was 17.3 years; 52% were male, 63% were low-income, and 61% were from racial/ethnic minorities. Students reported a mean fruit/vegetable intake of 3.6 servings per day, mean self-efficacy to eat healthy score of 22.2 (range 3 to 35), and mean barriers to eating healthy score of 6.9 (range 3 to 13). Perceived barriers to healthy eating fully mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and fruit/vegetable consumption (Sobel test statistic 2.7, P=0.007). Interventions targeting the dietary practices of alternative high school students should include components to decrease perceived barriers as a way to increase self-efficacy and ultimately fruit/vegetable intake.

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  7. Impact of Virtual Learning Environment (VLE): A Technological Approach to Genetics Teaching on High School Students' Content Knowledge, Self-Efficacy and Career Goal Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandi, Kamala M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of a technology-based instructional tool "Geniverse" on the content knowledge gains, Science Self-Efficacy, Technology Self-Efficacy, and Career Goal Aspirations among 283 high school learners. The study was conducted in four urban high schools, two of which have achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) and…

  8. Examination of Science and Math Course Achievements of Vocational High School Students in the Scope of Self-Efficacy and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Mehmet; Geban, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to predict physics, chemistry, and biology and math course achievements of vocational high school students according to the variables of student self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, state anxiety and trait anxiety. Study data were collected using a questionnaire administered to the students of a vocational high school…

  9. High-efficiency one-sun photovoltaic module demonstration using solar-grade CZ silicon. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    This work was performed jointly by Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM) and Siemens Solar Industries (Camarillo, CA) under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA 1248). The work covers the period May 1994 to March 1996. The purpose of the work was to explore the performance potential of commercial, photovoltaic-grade Czochralski (Cz) silicon, and to demonstrate this potential through fabrication of high-efficiency cells and a module. Fabrication of the module was omitted in order to pursue further development of advanced device structures. The work included investigation of response of the material to various fabrication processes, development of advanced cell structures using the commercial material, and investigation of the stability of Cz silicon solar cells. Some important achievements of this work include the following: post-diffusion oxidations were found to be a possible source of material contamination; bulk lifetimes around 75 pts were achieved; efficiencies of 17.6% and 15.7% were achieved for large-area cells using advanced cell structures (back-surface fields and emitter wrap-through); and preliminary investigations into photodegradation in Cz silicon solar cells found that oxygen thermal donors might be involved. Efficiencies around 20% should be possible with commercial, photovoltaic-grade silicon using properly optimized processes and device structures.

  10. High-resolution dynamic angiography using flat-panel volume CT: feasibility demonstration for neuro and lower limb vascular applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehndiratta, Amit [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); University of Oxford, Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Keble College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and All India Institute of Medical Science, Centre for Biomedical Engineering, New Delhi (India); Rabinov, James D. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Interventional Neuroradiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Grasruck, Michael [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Liao, Eric C. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Center for Regenerative Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Crandell, David [Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA (United States); Gupta, Rajiv [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    This paper evaluates a prototype flat-panel volume CT (fpVCT) for dynamic in vivo imaging in a variety of neurovascular and lower limb applications. Dynamic CTA was performed on 12 patients (neuro = 8, lower limb = 4) using an fpVCT with 120 kVp, 50 mA, rotation time varying from 8 to 19 s, and field of view of 25 x 25 x 18 cm{sup 3}. Four-dimensional data sets (i.e. 3D images over time) were reconstructed and reviewed. Dynamic CTA demonstrated sufficient spatio-temporal resolution to elucidate first-pass and recirculation dynamics of contrast bolus through neurovasclar pathologies and phasic blood flow though lower-limb vasculature and grafts. The high spatial resolution of fpVCT resulted in reduced partial volume and metal beam-hardening artefacts. This facilitated assessment of vascular lumen in the presence of calcified plaque and evaluation of fractures, especially in the presence of fixation hardware. Evaluation of arteriovenous malformation using dynamic fpVCT angiography was of limited utility. Dynamic CTA using fpVCT can visualize time-varying phenomena in neuro and lower limb vascular applications and has sufficient diagnostic imaging quality to evaluate a number of pathologies affecting these regions. (orig.)

  11. Demonstration of SCR technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, W.S. [W.S. Hinton and Associates, Cantonment, FL (United States); Maxwell, J.D.; Healy, E.C.; Hardman, R.R. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the completed Innovative Clean Coal Technology project which demonstrated SCR technology for reduction of flue gas NO{sub x} emissions from a utility boiler burning US high-sulfur coal. The project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, managed and co-funded by Southern Company Services, Inc. on behalf of the Southern Company, and also co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and Ontario Hydro. The project was located at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (a 75 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning US coals that had a sulfur content ranging from 2.5--2.9%), near Pensacola, Florida. The test program was conducted for approximately two years to evaluate catalyst deactivation and other SCR operational effects. The SCR test facility had nine reactors: three 2.5 MW (5,000 scfm), and operated on low-dust flue gas. The reactors operated in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from suppliers throughout the world. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. A brief test facility description and the results of the project are presented in this paper.

  12. High-efficiency one-sun photovoltaic module demonstration using solar-grade CZ silicon. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    This work was performed jointly by Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM) and Siemens Solar Industries (Camarillo, CA) under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA 1248). The work covers the period May 1994 to March 1996. The purpose of the work was to explore the performance potential of commercial, photovoltaic-grade Czochralski (Cz) silicon, and to demonstrate this potential through fabrication of high-efficiency cells and a module. Fabrication of the module was omitted in order to pursue further development of advanced device structures. The work included investigation of response of the material to various fabrication processes, development of advanced cell structures using the commercial material, and investigation of the stability of Cz silicon solar cells. Some important achievements of this work include the following: post-diffusion oxidations were found to be a possible source of material contamination; bulk lifetimes around 75 pts were achieved; efficiencies of 17.6% and 15.7% were achieved for large-area cells using advanced cell structures (back-surface fields and emitter wrap-through); and preliminary investigations into photodegradation in Cz silicon solar cells found that oxygen thermal donors might be involved. Efficiencies around 20% should be possible with commercial, photovoltaic-grade silicon using properly optimized processes and device structures.

  13. An investigation of Taiwanese high school students' science learning self-efficacy in relation to their conceptions of learning science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-11-01

    Background: Past studies have shown significant associations between students' conceptions of learning science and their science learning self-efficacy. However, in most of the studies, students' science learning self-efficacy has often been measured by a singular scale. Purpose: Extending the findings of these studies, the present study adopted a multi-dimensional instrument to assess Taiwanese high school students' science learning self-efficacy and investigate the relationships with their conceptions of learning science. Sample: A total of 488 Taiwanese high school students (265 male and 223 female) were invited to participate in this survey. Design and method: All the participants responded to the Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS) questionnaire regarding 'Memorizing', 'Testing', 'Calculating and practicing', 'Increase of knowledge', 'Applying' and 'Understanding and seeing in a new way' and the Science Learning Self-Efficacy (SLSE) instrument, including 'Conceptual understanding', 'Higher-Order cognitive skills', 'Practical work', 'Everyday application' and 'Science communication'. Results: The path analysis results derived from the structural equation modeling method indicated that, of all five SLSE dimensions, the 'Understanding and seeing in a new way' COLS displayed as a positive predictor, while the 'Testing' COLS was a significant negative predictor. The 'Applying' COLS item can only positively contribute to the SLSE dimensions of 'Higher-Order thinking skills', 'Everyday application' and 'Science Communication'. Conclusions: In general, students in strong agreement with learning science as understanding and seeing in a new way or the application of learned scientific knowledge are prone to possess higher confidence in learning science. However, students who consider learning science in terms of preparing for tests and examinations tend to hold lower science learning self-efficacy.

  14. An EGFR/HER2-Bispecific and enediyne-energized fusion protein shows high efficacy against esophageal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fang Guo

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancers, and the 5-year survival rate is less than 10% due to lack of effective therapeutic agents. This study was to evaluate antitumor activity of Ec-LDP-Hr-AE, a recently developed bispecific enediyne-energized fusion protein targeting both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, on esophageal cancer. The fusion protein Ec-LDP-Hr-AE consists of two oligopeptide ligands and an enediyne antibiotic lidamycin (LDM for receptor binding and cell killing, respectively. The current study demonstrated that Ec-LDP-Hr had high affinity to bind to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC cells, and enediyne-energized fusion protein Ec-LDP-Hr-AE showed potent cytotoxicity to ESCC cells with differential expression of EGFR and HER2. Ec-LDP-Hr-AE could cause significant G2-M arrest in EC9706 and KYSE150 cells, and it also induced apoptosis in ESCC cells in a dosage-dependent manner. Western blot assays showed that Ec-LDP-Hr-AE promoted caspase-3 and caspase-7 activities as well as PARP cleavage. Moreover, Ec-LDP-Hr-AE inhibited cell proliferation via decreasing phosphorylation of EGFR and HER2, and further exerted inhibition of the activation of their downstream signaling molecules. In vivo, at a tolerated dose, Ec-LDP-Hr-AE inhibited tumor growth by 88% when it was administered to nude mice bearing human ESCC cell KYSE150 xenografts. These results indicated that Ec-LDP-Hr-AE exhibited potent anti-caner efficacy on ESCC, suggesting it could be a promising candidate for targeted therapy of esophageal cancer.

  15. Assessing Teacher Efficacy and Professional Learning Community in 19 Elementary and High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Kimberly S.; Meehan, Merrill L.

    This study was conducted to explore the characteristics of and interrelationships between teacher efficacy and professional learning community in 19 schools participating in the Quest project at AEL, Inc. The Quest project is an applied regional research project that assists schools with educational reform efforts. The School Professional Staff as…

  16. Efficacy of High Intensity Exercise on Disease Activity and Cardiovascular Risk in Active Axial Spondyloarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Silje Halvorsen Sveaas; Inger Jorid Berg; Sella Aarrestad Provan; Anne Grete Semb; Kåre Birger Hagen; Nina Vøllestad; Camilla Fongen; Inge C Olsen; Annika Michelsen; Thor Ueland; Pål Aukrust; Kvien, Tore K; Hanne Dagfinrud

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical therapy is recommended for the management of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and flexibility exercises have traditionally been the main focus. Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are considered as a major health concern in axSpA and there is strong evidence that endurance and strength exercise protects against CV diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of high intensity endurance and strength exercise on disease activity and CV health in patien...

  17. Preliminary efficacy and feasibility of embedding high intensity interval training into the school day: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Costigan, S.A.; Eather, N.; Plotnikoff, R.C.; Taaffe, D R; E. Pollock; S.G. Kennedy; Lubans, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    Current physical activity and fitness levels among adolescents are low, increasing the risk of chronic disease. Although the efficacy of high intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving metabolic health is now well established, it is not known if this type of activity can be effective to improve adolescent health. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of embedding HIIT into the school day. A 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted in o...

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  19. ICT Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Bay, Gina

    In this demonstration we present and discuss two interrelated on-line learning resources aimed at supporting international students at Danish universities in building study skills (the Study Metro) and avoiding plagiarism (Stopplagiarism). We emphasize the necessity of designing online learning r...

  20. Demonstrating the Uneven Importance of Fine-Scale Forest Structure on Snow Distributions using High Resolution Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; van Leeuwen, W.; Biederman, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the amount of snow in forested mountainous environments, as well as how it may change due to warming and forest disturbance, is critical given its importance for water supply and ecosystem health. Forest canopies affect snow accumulation and ablation in ways that are difficult to observe and model. Furthermore, fine-scale forest structure can accentuate or diminish the effects of forest-snow interactions. Despite decades of research demonstrating the importance of fine-scale forest structure (e.g. canopy edges and gaps) on snow, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of where and when forest structure has the largest impact on snowpack mass and energy budgets. Here, we use a hyper-resolution (1 meter spatial resolution) mass and energy balance snow model called the Snow Physics and Laser Mapping (SnowPALM) model along with LIDAR-derived forest structure to determine where spatial variability of fine-scale forest structure has the largest influence on large scale mass and energy budgets. SnowPALM was set up and calibrated at sites representing diverse climates in New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Then, we compared simulations at different model resolutions (i.e. 1, 10, and 100 m) to elucidate the effects of including versus not including information about fine scale canopy structure. These experiments were repeated for different prescribed topographies (i.e. flat, 30% slope north, and south-facing) at each site. Higher resolution simulations had more snow at lower canopy cover, with the opposite being true at high canopy cover. Furthermore, there is considerable scatter, indicating that different canopy arrangements can lead to different amounts of snow, even when the overall canopy coverage is the same. This modeling is contributing to the development of a high resolution machine learning algorithm called the Snow Water Artificial Network (SWANN) model to generate predictions of snow distributions over much larger domains, which has implications

  1. Efficacy of Oral Curcuminoid Fraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Curcuminoid Cider in High-cholesterol Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauren, Flavia Maria; Yanti; Lay, Bibiana Widiati

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important risk factors for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular diseases. The present work was aimed to study the efficacy of curcuminoid fraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza and its curcuminoid cider in reducing blood cholesterol level and four genes related to oxidative stress, including cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in high-cholesterol fed rats in vivo. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups, namely normal group diet, high-cholesterol diet (HCD) 2%, HCD + 100 mg/kg b.w. curcuminoid fraction, HCD + 300 mg/kg b.w. curcuminoid fraction, HCD + cider 1% v/v, and HCD + curcuminoid cider 2% v/v for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol levels were measured at day 1, 14, and 28. Vascular tissues and organs from lung and liver were collected for RNA extraction, followed by quantitative analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our results demonstrated that among all the treatment groups, curcuminoid cider at 2% v/v significantly lowered total cholesterol level compared to those of positive control. Real-time PCR data showed both curcuminoid fractions (100 and 300 mg/kg) and curcuminoid cider (1 and 2% v/v) inhibited the gene expression of CD44, ICAM-1, iNOS, and LOX-1, indicating their hypocholesterolemic effects via attenuating genes related to oxidative stress in rats in vivo. Oral administration of curcuminoid fraction and its cider product may exert potential inhibitory effects on oxidative stress related-genes for preventing hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in vivo. Curcuminoid and its cider significantly inhibited the gene expression of CD44, ICAM-1, iNOS, and LOX-1 in rats in vivoCurcuminoid and its cider suppressed oxidative stress-related genes inducing formation of atherosclerosisCurcuminoid and its cider may offer

  2. Efficacy of Oral Curcuminoid Fraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Curcuminoid Cider in High-cholesterol Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauren, Flavia Maria; Yanti; Lay, Bibiana Widiati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important risk factors for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular diseases. Objective: The present work was aimed to study the efficacy of curcuminoid fraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza and its curcuminoid cider in reducing blood cholesterol level and four genes related to oxidative stress, including cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in high-cholesterol fed rats in vivo. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups, namely normal group diet, high-cholesterol diet (HCD) 2%, HCD + 100 mg/kg b.w. curcuminoid fraction, HCD + 300 mg/kg b.w. curcuminoid fraction, HCD + cider 1% v/v, and HCD + curcuminoid cider 2% v/v for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol levels were measured at day 1, 14, and 28. Vascular tissues and organs from lung and liver were collected for RNA extraction, followed by quantitative analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Our results demonstrated that among all the treatment groups, curcuminoid cider at 2% v/v significantly lowered total cholesterol level compared to those of positive control. Real-time PCR data showed both curcuminoid fractions (100 and 300 mg/kg) and curcuminoid cider (1 and 2% v/v) inhibited the gene expression of CD44, ICAM-1, iNOS, and LOX-1, indicating their hypocholesterolemic effects via attenuating genes related to oxidative stress in rats in vivo. Conclusion: Oral administration of curcuminoid fraction and its cider product may exert potential inhibitory effects on oxidative stress related-genes for preventing hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in vivo. SUMMARY Curcuminoid and its cider significantly inhibited the gene expression of CD44, ICAM-1, iNOS, and LOX-1 in rats in vivoCurcuminoid and its cider suppressed oxidative stress

  3. Long-term efficacy of excimer laser in situ keratomileusis in the management of children with high anisometropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiao-ming; YAN Xiao-he; WANG Zheng; YANG Bin; CHEN Qi-wen; SU Jin-ai; YE Xue-lian

    2009-01-01

    Background Children with anisometropic amblyopia are often noncompliant with traditional treatment including spectacules and contact lenses.This study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of excimer laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for children with high anisometropic amblyopia.Methods A retrospective analysis of 24 children with high unilateral anisometropic amblyopia,who underwent LASIK during the period between August 2000 and September 2005 in our hospital,was conducted.The mean age of these children was (7.4±1.9) years (range 5-14 years) and the mean follow-up period was (33.3±14.2) months (range 18.5-74.2 months).After LASIK,visual acuity,refraction and far or near stereoacuity were analyzed.Near stereoacuity was measured by the random-dot butterfly stereogram and the pre-school random-dot stereogram,while far stereoacuity was measured by the synoptophore with Yan's random-dot stereogram.Results Mean preoperative uncorrected visual acuity was 0.06±0.05,while mean postoperative uncorrected visual acuity was elevated to 0.43±0.33.Mean preoperative best-corrected visual acuity was 0.26±0.22,while mean postoperative best-corrected visual acuity was elevated to 0.67±0.40.For patients with myopic anisometropia,preoperative mean spherical equivalent refraction was (-8.01±2.70) D while postoperative value significantly reduced to (-1.32±2.47) D.For patients with hyperopic anisometropia,preoperative mean spherical equivalent refraction was (+7.35±1.55) D while postoperative value significantly reduced to (+3.30±0.86) D.These results demonstrated that there was statistical difference in these parameters between preoperative and postoperative tests.At the last follow-up,20 patients had near stereoacuity,and the mean near stereoacuities measured by the random-dot butterfly stereogram and the preschool random-dot stereogram were (149.00±152.93)" and (201.05±235.94)",respectively.In contrast,11 patients had far stereoacuity,and the mean far stereoacuity

  4. Test and demonstration of a high performance slot furnace. Progress report, December 1, 1976--June 1, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerklie, J.W.; Most, I.G.

    1977-06-01

    Hague International has embarked upon a two phase program that will verify and demonstrate several methods of energy conservation in the forge industry. A slot furnace was built and installed at Hague International, which incorporates these methods. Tests will be performed on this furnace to demonstrate the effects of the various energy saving devices separately and in combination. This overall project is divided into two phases: test facility preparation and performance tests; and furnace demonstration. Progress through June 1, 1977 on Phase 1 of the overall project is reported. Included is a discussion of the test facility design, instrumentation schedule, furnace modification, burner design, and test program.

  5. Efficacy of High-Dose Meropenem (Six Grams per Day) in Treatment of Experimental Murine Pneumonia Induced by Meropenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Shigeki; Iwanaga, Naoki; Takemoto, Koji; Miyazaki, Taiga; Yanagihara, Kastunori; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    High-dose meropenem (MEPM; 6 g/day) has been approved as a treatment for purulent meningitis; however, little is known regarding its in vivo efficacy in refractory lower respiratory tract infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of MEPM at 6 g/day in a murine model of severe pneumonia caused by MEPM-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Experimental pneumonia induced by MEPM-resistant P. aeruginosa was treated with normal-dose MEPM (150 mg/kg of body weight, simulating a 3-g/day regimen in humans) or high-dose MEPM (500 mg/kg, simulating a 6-g/day regimen in humans). Mice treated with high-dose MEPM showed significantly restored survival relative to that of untreated mice and tended to show a survival rate higher than that of mice treated with normal-dose MEPM. The viable bacterial counts (of two clinical isolates) in the lungs decreased significantly in mice treated with high-dose MEPM from those for untreated mice (P high-dose MEPM than in untreated mice. The free MEPM concentration in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) exceeded 16 μg/ml for 85 min in mice treated with high-dose MEPM, but not for mice treated with normal-dose MEPM. Our results demonstrate that high-dose MEPM (6 g/day) might provide better protection against pneumonia caused by MEPM-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa than the dose normally administered (less than 3 g/day).

  6. High-dose rate brachytherapy as monotherapy in prostate cancer: A systematic review of its safety and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, L M; Polo-deSantos, M; Rodríguez-Melcón, J I; Angulo, J C; Luengo-Matos, S

    2017-03-01

    High-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) is an increasingly popular treatment for patients with localised prostate cancer (PC). To assess the safety and efficacy of HDR-BT as monotherapy in PC. A systematic literature review was conducted through searches on MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Library, CDR, ClinicalTrials and EuroScan. We assessed safety and efficacy indicators. We selected 2 reviews and 12 uncontrolled studies, included in these 2 reviews. In terms of efficacy, local control in 6 studies was 97-100%. The biochemical progression-free survival varied as follows: 85-100% for low risk and 79-92% for high risk. Survival free of metastases was >95% at 8 years, except in one study where the survival rate was 87% at 5 years. The overall survival was ≥95% in 8 studies. In terms of safety, most of the studies recorded acute and long-term genitourinary and gastrointestinal complications, especially grade ≥2. Only 3 studies found grade 4 complications. All studies, except for one without complications, observed genitourinary complications that were more frequent and severe than the gastrointestinal complications. Two studies assessed the quality of life and showed an initial reduction in various domains and subsequent partial or total recovery, except in the sexual domain. HDR-BT is effective as monotherapy, especially in cases of low to intermediate risk. There is insufficient information on high-risk patients. The short to medium-term toxicity was acceptable. Further research needs to be funded to provide more information on the long-term safety and efficacy of this treatment. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Vocational High School Students’ Sense of Self-Efficacy and Test Anxiety Regarding Biology Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Serdar KÖKSAL

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation perspective on motivation provides an important model to study on motivation in biologyeducation. Motivational part of the Pintrich’s model as one of the most studied models has self-efficacy andtest-anxiety factors as two dominant factors reflecting positive and negative sides of the model in terms ofnumber of relationship with other factors in the model. In the study, two hundred thirteen vocational highschool students were included and survey technique was used for examining the factors across grade level inthe study. Two subscales of MSLQ were applied to collect data. The data was analyzed by using MANOVAand Pearson-product moment correlation via SPSS 13. The results showed self-efficacy and test anxietyscores differed significantly between ninth and tenth graders. Again, they were correlated negatively at thesame levels.

  8. Cardiovascular Efficacy and Safety of Bococizumab in High-Risk Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridker, Paul M; Revkin, James; Amarenco, Pierre; Brunell, Robert; Curto, Madelyn; Civeira, Fernando; Flather, Marcus; Glynn, Robert J; Gregoire, Jean; Jukema, J Wouter; Karpov, Yuri; Kastelein, John J P; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lorenzatti, Alberto; Manga, Pravin; Masiukiewicz, Urszula; Miller, Michael; Mosterd, Arend; Murin, Jan; Nicolau, Jose C; Nissen, Steven; Ponikowski, Piotr; Santos, Raul D; Schwartz, Pamela F; Soran, Handrean; White, Harvey; Wright, R Scott; Vrablik, Michal; Yunis, Carla; Shear, Charles L; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2017-04-20

    Bococizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and reduces levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of bococizumab in patients at high cardiovascular risk. In two parallel, multinational trials with different entry criteria for LDL cholesterol levels, we randomly assigned the 27,438 patients in the combined trials to receive bococizumab (at a dose of 150 mg) subcutaneously every 2 weeks or placebo. The primary end point was nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina requiring urgent revascularization, or cardiovascular death; 93% of the patients were receiving statin therapy at baseline. The trials were stopped early after the sponsor elected to discontinue the development of bococizumab owing in part to the development of high rates of antidrug antibodies, as seen in data from other studies in the program. The median follow-up was 10 months. At 14 weeks, patients in the combined trials had a mean change from baseline in LDL cholesterol levels of -56.0% in the bococizumab group and +2.9% in the placebo group, for a between-group difference of -59.0 percentage points (P<0.001) and a median reduction from baseline of 64.2% (P<0.001). In the lower-risk, shorter-duration trial (in which the patients had a baseline LDL cholesterol level of ≥70 mg per deciliter [1.8 mmol per liter] and the median follow-up was 7 months), major cardiovascular events occurred in 173 patients each in the bococizumab group and the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.22; P=0.94). In the higher-risk, longer-duration trial (in which the patients had a baseline LDL cholesterol level of ≥100 mg per deciliter [2.6 mmol per liter] and the median follow-up was 12 months), major cardiovascular events occurred in 179 and 224 patients, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.97; P=0.02). The

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF PARENTING SELF-EFFICACY IN MOTHERS OF INFANTS WITH HIGH NEGATIVE EMOTIONALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Troutman, Beth; Moran, Tracy E.; Arndt, Stephan; Johnson, Ralph F.; Chmielewski, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Maternal parenting self-efficacy (PSE) is a potential target for infant mental health interventions because it is associated with a number of positive outcomes for children and mothers. Understanding the development of maternal PSE under conditions of increased parenting stress, such as parenting an infant who is easily distressed and difficult to soothe, will contribute to providing more effective interventions. This study examines the development of maternal PSE in mothers of infants with h...

  10. Application of surrogates, indicators, and high-resolution mass spectrometry to evaluate the efficacy of UV processes for attenuation of emerging contaminants in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merel, Sylvain; Anumol, Tarun; Park, Minkyu; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-01-23

    In response to water scarcity, strategies relying on multiple processes to turn wastewater effluent into potable water are being increasingly considered by many cities. In such context, the occurrence of contaminants as well as their fate during treatment processes is a major concern. Three analytical approaches where used to characterize the efficacy of UV and UV/H2O2 processes on a secondary wastewater effluent. The first analytical approach assessed bulk organic parameters or surrogates before and after treatment, while the second analytical approach measured the removal of specific indicator compounds. Sixteen trace organic contaminants were selected due to their relative high concentration and detection frequency over eight monitoring campaigns. While their removal rate ranges from approximately 10 to >90%, some of these compounds can be used to gauge process efficacy (or failure). The third analytical approach assessed the fate of unknown contaminants through high-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry with advanced data processing and demonstrated the occurrence of several thousand organic compounds in the water. A heat map clearly evidenced compounds as recalcitrant or transformed by the UV processes applied. In addition, those chemicals with similar fate were grouped together into clusters to identify new indicator compounds. In this manuscript, each approach is evaluated with advantages and disadvantages compared.

  11. The Relationship of Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, Vocational Identity, and Career Exploration Behavior in African American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushue, George V.; Scanlan, Kolone R. L.; Pantzer, Karen M.; Clarke, Christine P.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the social cognitive construct of career decision-making self-efficacy and the outcome variables of vocational identity and career exploration behaviors in a sample of 72 urban African American high school students. The results indicate that higher levels of career decision-making self-efficacy are…

  12. Effect of telmisartan on the therapeutic efficacy of pitavastatin in high-fat diet induced dyslipidemic guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cuihuan; Fang, Dailong; Chen, Xi; Xinyue, Li; Nie, Yu; Xie, Yafei; Ma, Yu; Deng, Senyi; Zhang, Zhi; Song, Xiangrong

    2015-09-05

    Angiotensin II-receptor blockers (ARBs), similar to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), could improve lipid metabolism abnormalities. There might be some cross-talking pathways between statins and ARBs to produce additive beneficial effects on lipid metabolism in dyslipidemia. However, few studies investigate the effects of ARBs on the therapeutic efficacy of statins in dyslipidemia. The present study was designed to systematically evaluate the effects of telmisartan on the therapeutic efficacy of pitavastatin on lowering lipid level and reducing fat deposition by employing a dyslipidemia model, guinea pigs. 48 Male guinea pigs fed with high-fat diet were randomly grouped and treated with vehicle, telmisartan, pitavastatin or telmisartan/pitavastatin combinations. After treatment for eight weeks, telmisartan could significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy of pitavastatin by extremely reducing body weight gain, weight of adipose tissue and adipocyte size. However, telmisartan/pitavastatin combinations could not further improve lipid levels on the basis of pitavastain, though single telmisartan markedly decreased triglyceride (TG) and slightly increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Moreover, telmisartan/pitavastatin combinations significantly upregulated the gene expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-δ, but no effects on the expression of PPAR-α/γ, leptin and adiponectin compared to monotherapy. Taken together, our studies provided new evidences that telmisartan has an additive beneficial influence on decreasing fat deposition and weight gain through PPAR-δ pathway but cannot enhance the therapeutic efficacy of pitavastatin on lowering lipid levels. The combinational administration of telmisartan and pitavastatin could be a potential therapeutic strategy for dyslipidemia related obesity and worthy of further investigation in obese animal models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Increased self-efficacy: the experience of high-intensity exercise of nursing home residents with dementia - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Cecilie Fromholt; Telenius, Elisabeth Wiken; Engedal, Knut; Bergland, Astrid

    2015-09-14

    There has been increasing interest in the use of non-pharmacological interventions, such as physical exercise, to improve the well-being of nursing home residents with dementia. For reasons regarding disease symptoms, persons with dementia might find it difficult to participate in exercise programs. Therefore, it is important to find ways to successfully promote regular exercise for patients in residential care. Several quantitative studies have established the positive effects of exercise on biopsychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy in older people; however, little is known regarding the qualitative aspects of participating in an exercise program among older people with dementia. From the perspective of residents, we explored the experiences of participating in a high-intensity functional exercise program among nursing home residents with dementia. The participants were eight elderly people with mild-to-moderate dementia. We conducted semi-structured interviews one week after they had finished a 10-week supervised high-intensity exercise program. We analyzed the data using an inductive content analysis. Five overreaching and interrelated themes emerged from the interviews: "Pushing the limits," "Being invested in," "Relationships facilitate exercise participation," "Exercise revives the body, increases independence and improves self-esteem" and "Physical activity is a basic human necessity--use it or lose it!" The results were interpreted in light of Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The exercise program seemed to improve self-efficacy through several mechanisms. By being involved, "being invested in" and having something expected of them, the participants gained a sense of empowerment in their everyday lives. The importance of social influences related to the exercise instructor and the exercise group was accentuated by the participants. The nursing home residents had, for the most part, positive experiences with regard to participating in the exercise program

  14. Imidazenil: a low efficacy agonist at alpha1- but high efficacy at alpha5-GABAA receptors fail to show anticonvulsant cross tolerance to diazepam or zolpidem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auta, James; Impagnatiello, Francesco; Kadriu, Bashkim; Guidotti, Alessandro; Costa, Erminio

    2008-08-01

    Whereas advances in the molecular biology of GABA(A) receptor complex using knock-out and knock-in mice have been valuable in unveiling the structure, composition, receptor assembly, and several functions of different GABA(A) receptor subtypes, the mechanism(s) underlying benzodiazepine (BZ) tolerance and withdrawal remain poorly understood. Studies using specific GABA(A) receptor subunit knock-in mice suggest that tolerance to sedative action of diazepam requires long-term activation of alpha1 and alpha5 GABA(A) receptor subunits. We investigated the role of long-term activation of these GABA(A) receptor subunits during anticonvulsant tolerance using high affinity and high intrinsic efficacy ligands for GABA(A) receptors expressing the alpha5 subunit (imidazenil) or alpha1 subunit (zolpidem), and a non-selective BZ recognition site ligand (diazepam). We report here that long-term activation of GABA(A) receptors by zolpidem and diazepam but not by imidazenil elicits anticonvulsant tolerance. Although anticonvulsant cross-tolerance occurs between diazepam and zolpidem, there is no cross-tolerance between imidazenil and diazepam or zolpidem. Furthermore, diazepam or zolpidem long-term treatment decreased the expression of mRNA encoding the alpha1 GABA(A) receptor subunit in prefrontal cortex by 43% and 20% respectively. In addition, diazepam but not zolpidem long-term treatment produced a 30% increase in the expression of the alpha5 GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNA in prefrontal cortex. In contrast, imidazenil which is devoid of anticonvulsant tolerance does not elicit significant changes in the expression of alpha1 or alpha5 GABA(A) receptor subunit. These findings suggest that long-term activation of GABA(A) receptors containing the alpha1 or other subunits but not the alpha5 receptor subunit is essential for the induction of anticonvulsant tolerance.

  15. Efficacy of spermatic vein ligation in patients affected by high grade left varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Grasso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the effect of high grade varicocele treatment in infertile patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five patients were selected by the following criteria: infertility persisting for more than 1 year; abnormal semen parameters; no other infertility-related disease; no obvious causes of infertility in the subject’s partner; basal eco-color Doppler ultrasound demonstrating continuous reflux in the spermatic vein. All patients considered for the study had at least a six months period from the diagnosis to the surgery due to waiting list, choice of the patient or time needed to complete diagnostic evaluation of the couple. The surgical procedure was performed through an inguinal approach. All enrolled patients were counseled to have unprotected intercourse during the ovulation period in order to maximize the probability of pregnancy within the 6-month preoperative period. The achievement of pregnancy and semen parameters were recorded during the preoperative and postoperative period. Results: Two of the seventy-five patients were excluded because of persistent varicocele after surgery. The preoperative pregnancy rate was 1.3% (1 couple. The postoperative pregnancy rate was 42.5%. The stratification of pregnancies by semester showed a significantly higher rate in the first postoperative period (p = 0.0012. Mean time to conception was 13.5 months. Mean preoperative sperm count was 17.6x10 6 /mL compared to 19.7x10 6 /mL in the postoperative period (p < 0.0001. Mean percentage of progressive sperm motility was 13.7%, compared to 17.6% in the postoperative period (p < 0.0001. Mean percentage of normal sperm morphology was 7.6%, compared to 15.2% postoperatively (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Surgical treatment of high grade varicocele proved to effectively treat associated infertility by improving seminal parameters and pregnancy rate in our patient cohort.

  16. The efficacy of high-dose penicillin for community-acquired pneumonia diagnosed by pneumococcal urine antigen test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Hideaki; Ueda, Atsuhisa; Watanuki, Yuji; Tsukiji, Jun; Kuroda, Hideyo; Akashi, Syunsuke; Hirai, Yoshihiro; Fuyuki, Toshiharu; Kaneko, Takeshi; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    2009-04-01

    We analyzed the efficacy of both the Streptococcus pneumoniae urine antigen test as a quick diagnostic tool and the administration of high-dose penicillin in response to a positive S. pneumoniae urine antigen test. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 48 cases of pneumococcal pneumonia, in which the patients were treated with high-dose penicillin. All the cases were diagnosed by a positive urine antigen test. Treatment with high-dose penicillin was effective in 43 of the 48 patients. This treatment was also effective in 12 of 16 culture-confirmed cases with low susceptibility to penicillin. Eleven patients who were positive for the S. pneumoniae urine antigen test but culture-negative showed clinical improvement with high-dose penicillin. Pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae appeared to be treated safely and effectively with high-dose penicillin based on positive results of the urine antigen test, as penicillin resistance was unlikely to be a problem.

  17. Safety and efficacy of high-dose acarbose treatment for dumping syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cunto, Angela; Barbi, Egidio; Minen, Federico; Ventura, Alessandro

    2011-07-01

    Dumping syndrome (DS) is a complication of Nissen fundoplication. Dietary strategies can ameliorate symptoms, but this approach is not always foolproof. Limited evidence reports the efficacy of acarbose for children who are unresponsive to feeding manipulations. We report 8 patients with DS aged between 7 and 24 months. In 4 of 8 nutritional strategies failed, and acarbose treatment was started. The initial dose was 25 mg for meals, and increased until postprandial glucose was stable. In 3 of 4 children the final dose was higher than previously reported, without adverse effects. Acarbose is useful to treat DS in cases of failure of dietary strategies.

  18. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.......6%, respectively). Between 9 months and 2 years of age, however, 6.1% contracted measles in Bandim 1 and 13.7% in Bandim 2. Even adjusting for vaccination status, incidence was significantly higher in Bandim 2 (relative risk 1.6, P = .04). Even though 95% of the children had measles antibodies after vaccination...

  19. GASIS demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidas, E.H. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  20. Ampicillin in Combination with Ceftaroline, Cefepime, or Ceftriaxone Demonstrates Equivalent Activities in a High-Inoculum Enterococcus faecalis Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Megan K; Rice, Louis B; LaPlante, Kerry L

    2016-05-01

    Ampicillin-ceftriaxone combination therapy has become a predominant treatment for serious Enterococcus faecalis infections, such as endocarditis. Unfortunately, ceftriaxone use is associated with future vancomycin-resistant enterococcus colonization. We evaluated E. faecalis in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model against simulated human concentration-time profiles of ampicillin plus ceftaroline, cefepime, ceftriaxone, or gentamicin. Ampicillin-cefepime and ampicillin-ceftaroline demonstrated activities similar to those of ampicillin-ceftriaxone against E. faecalis.

  1. Demonstration of New, Highly Perchlorate-Selective Ion Exchange Resin Coupled with Resin-Optimized, Single-Vessel Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    this issue less of a risk and concern for the success of the demonstration. Another factor affecting the overall cost performance equation is...aquifers in populated areas and hence entered some potable water sources. Health studies have found that perchlorate can mimic iodine in the human thyroid...entering the top of the vessels and exiting to bottom. This operational mode has two deficiencies . First, the long operating time in the down-flow

  2. Nanoparticles Containing High Loads of Paclitaxel-Silicate Prodrugs: Formulation, Drug Release, and Anticancer Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Michel, Andrew R; Lee, Han Seung; Kalscheuer, Stephen; Wohl, Adam; Hoye, Thomas R; McCormick, Alon V; Panyam, Jayanth; Macosko, Christopher W

    2015-12-07

    We have investigated particle size, interior structure, drug release kinetics, and anticancer efficacy of PEG-b-PLGA-based nanoparticles loaded with a series of paclitaxel (PTX)-silicate prodrugs [PTX-Si(OR)3]. Silicate derivatization enabled us to adjust the hydrophobicity and hydrolytic lability of the prodrugs by the choice of the alkyl group (R) in the silicate derivatives. The greater hydrophobicity of these prodrugs allows for the preparation of nanoparticles that are stable in aqueous dispersion even when loaded with up to ca. 75 wt % of the prodrug. The hydrolytic lability of silicates allows for facile conversion of prodrugs back to the parent drug, PTX. A suite of eight PTX-silicate prodrugs was investigated; nanoparticles were made by flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) using a confined impingement jet mixer with a dilution step (CIJ-D). The resulting nanoparticles were 80-150 nm in size with a loading level of 47-74 wt % (wt %) of a PTX-silicate, which corresponds to 36-59 effective wt % of free PTX. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images show that particles are typically spherical with a core-shell structure. Prodrug/drug release profiles were measured. Release tended to be slower for prodrugs having greater hydrophobicity and slower hydrolysis rate. Nanoparticles loaded with PTX-silicate prodrugs that hydrolyze most rapidly showed in vitro cytotoxicity similar to that of the parent PTX. Nanoparticles loaded with more labile silicates also tended to show greater in vivo efficacy.

  3. Summary of high field diffusion MRI and microscopy data demonstrate microstructural aberration in chronic mild stress rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Chuhutin, Andrey; Wiborg, Ove

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This data article describes a large, high resolution diffusion MRI data set from fixed rat brain acquired at high field strength. The rat brain samples consist of21adult rat brain hemispheres from animals exposed to chronic mild stress (anhedonic and resilient) and controls. Histology from...

  4. Point of Proof: A Template for Evaluating Early College High Schools and Demonstrating Their Value to the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Early College High Schools are unique, almost counter intuitive, creations. By design, they are to enable low income, minority, and even low performing students to earn a high school diploma and up to two years of college or an Associate Degree simultaneously. In order for this to happen youth, often as young as 14 or 15 years of age, must begin…

  5. Students' tripartite efficacy beliefs in high school physical education: within- and cross-domain relations with motivational processes and leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ben; Whipp, Peter R; Chua, K L Peter; Dimmock, James A; Hagger, Martin S

    2013-02-01

    Within instructional settings, individuals form relational efficacy appraisals that complement their self-efficacy beliefs. In high school physical education (PE), for instance, students develop a level of confidence in their teacher's capabilities, as well as estimating how confident they think their teacher is in their (i.e., the students') ability. Grounded in existing transcontextual work, we examined the motivational pathways through which students' relational efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs in PE were predictive of their leisure-time physical activity. Singaporean students (N = 990; age M = 13.95, SD = 1.02) completed instruments assessing efficacy beliefs, perceptions of teacher relatedness support, and autonomous motivation toward PE, and 2 weeks later they reported their motivation toward, and engagement in, leisure-time physical activity. Structural equation modeling revealed that students reported stronger other-efficacy and RISE beliefs when they felt that their teacher created a highly relatedness-supportive environment. In turn, their relational efficacy beliefs (a) supported their confidence in their own ability, (b) directly and indirectly predicted more autonomous motives for participation in PE, and (c) displayed prospective transcontextual effects in relation to leisure-time variables. By emphasizing the adaptive motivational effects associated with the tripartite constructs, these findings highlight novel pathways linking students' efficacy perceptions with leisure-time outcomes.

  6. Therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a high-transmission area in northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklemariam, Michael; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kassa, Moges; Mohammed, Hussien; Mamo, Hassen

    2017-01-01

    Malaria, particularly due to Plasmodium falciparum, remains a major public health threat in Ethiopia. Artemether-lumefantine (AL) has been the first-line antimalarial drug against uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in the country since 2004. Regular monitoring of antimalarial drugs is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to help early detection of drug resistant strains of the parasite and contain their rapid spread. The objective of this study was to assess the therapeutic efficacy of AL in a high-transmission setting in Ethiopia. The study site was Setit Humera, northwest Ethiopia. Single-arm prospective study of a 28-day follow-up was conducted from October 2014 to January 2015 according to the revised WHO 2009 drug efficacy study protocol. Study end-points were classified into primary end-point and secondary end-point. While the primary end-point was the day-28 adequate clinical and parasitological response the secondary end-points were clinical and parasitological evaluations (parasite, fever and gametocyte clearance rate, incidence of drug adverse events) and the relative increment in hemoglobin (Hb) level from baseline to day (D) 14 and D28. A total of 92 patients were enrolled and 79 had completed the 28-day follow-up period. The overall cure rate was 98.8% with 95% confidence interval of 0.915-0.998 without polymerase chain reaction correction. The parasite clearance rate was high with fast resolution of clinical symptoms; 100% of the study participants cleared parasitaemia and fever on D3. Gametocyte carriage was reduced from 7% on D0 to 1% on D3 and complete clearance was achieved on D14. Mean Hb concentration significantly increased on D28 compared to that on D14. There was no serious adverse event. AL was efficacious and safe in a high-transmission setting for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

  7. The efficacy and safety of high-dose arbekacin sulfate therapy (once-daily treatment) in patients with MRSA infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Izumikawa, Koichi; Hashiguchi, Koji; Fukuda, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akira; Inoue, Yuichi; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Nakamura, Shigeki; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Miyazaki, Taiga; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    The efficacy and safety of once-daily high-dose arbekacin sulfate therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection were evaluated, with analysis of their relationship to blood drug levels. The study was conducted in patients with pneumonia or sepsis, the cause of which was suspected to be MRSA, who were admitted to the Nagasaki University Hospital or its affiliated hospitals between January 2009 and December 2010. The initial drug dose was set at a level expected to yield the goal peak of 20 μg/ml and a trough level of less than 2 μg/ml, using the Habekacin Therapeutic Drug Monitoring analysis software. Thirteen patients were enrolled: 10 patients had pneumonia and 3 patients had sepsis. Patient mean age was 72.0 years; mean initial drug dose was 269.2 mg. Clinical efficacy at completion of treatment and bacterial eradication-reduction were achieved in 66.7% (6/9) and 62.5% (5/8) of patients, respectively. Incidence of adverse reactions was 38.5% (5/13). In analysis of efficacy in relationship to serum drug levels, the peak drug level was 22.7 ± 5.50 μg/ml, on average, and 15 μg/ml or higher in all 6 responders. Also, in patients with renal dysfunction, it seemed to be essential to ensure a certain peak drug level and to control the trough level appropriately. Although the number of patients was limited, once-daily high-dose arbekacin sulfate therapy may be highly effective, without posing any major safety problems. Further larger-scale studies are needed.

  8. An in vitro co-culture mouse model demonstrates efficient vaccine-mediated control of Francisella tularensis SCHU S4 and identifies nitric oxide as a predictor of efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Golovlev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent intracellular bacterium and cell-mediated immunity is critical for protection, but mechanisms of protection against highly virulent variants, such as the prototypic strain F. tularensis strain SCHU S4, are poorly understood. To this end, we established a co-culture system, based on splenocytes from naïve or immunized mice and in vitro infected bone marrow-derived macrophages, that allowed assessment of mechanisms controlling infection with F. tularensis. We utilized the system to understand why the clpB gene deletion mutant, ΔclpB, of SCHU S4 shows superior efficacy as a vaccine in the mouse model as compared to the existing human vaccine, the live vaccine strain (LVS. Compared to naïve splenocytes, ΔclpB- or LVS-immune splenocytes conferred very significant control of a SCHU S4 infection and the ΔclpB-immune splenocytes were superior to the other splenocytes. Cultures with the latter splenocytes also contained higher levels of IFN-gamma and nitric oxide, and T cells expressing combinations of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-17 than did cultures with LVS-immune splenocytes. There was strong inverse correlation between bacterial replication and levels of nitrite, an end product of nitric oxide, and essentially no control was observed when BMDM from iNOS-/- mice were infected. Collectively, the mouse co-culture model identified a critical role of nitric oxide for protection against a highly virulent strain of F. tularensis.

  9. Demonstration of Two-Way Extremely High Frequency (EHF) Satellite Communication (SATCOM) Using Submarine-Survivable Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    successfully using both the Military Strategic and Tactical Relay (MILSTAR) and Ultra High Frequency Follow-On ( UFO ) military satellites. The antennas...a Navy-qualified submarine FOT and High Power Amplifier (HPA) system, toward a MILSTAR or UFO EHF satellite. FULL-DUPLEX STATIC TESTING...both the K & Q band phased arrays. Both the MILSTAR and UFO satellites were used for this testing, based on availability. Using the Type 8 Mod 3

  10. High-impact practices and first-year seminars: A quasi-experimental study measuring change in academic self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber Applewhite, Stephanie

    First-year seminars, high-impact practices, and academic self-efficacy have been identified as relevant to the successful transition process from high school to college. This study investigated the interconnections between freshman academic self-efficacy, high-impact practices, zone of proximal development and first-year seminars. This research contributed to the understandings of the significance of high-impact practices in the development of academic self-efficacy in freshman students. As colleges strive to improve retention from the freshman to sophomore years, it is useful to identify the relevance of high-impact practices within a first-year seminar on academic self-efficacy. A two-group, quasi-experimental study using a pre/post survey was conducted at a regional comprehensive university in east Texas in which 800 students were given a pre and post survey to measure academic self-efficacy. After matching for fidelity, eleven sections were identified for the control group (104 participants) and eleven sections (91 participants) were selected for the experiment group. The findings revealed that the overall gain in the mean of both groups from the pre to post survey was statistically significant. While the students in the high-impact sections reported a higher post mean on the College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale than those who did not receive high-impact instruction, the gain was not statistically significant.

  11. Safety and efficacy of low fluence, high repetition rate versus high fluence, low repetition rate 810-nm diode laser for axillary hair removal in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhai; Liu, Chengyi; Chen, Zhou; Cai, Lin; Zhou, Cheng; Xu, Qianxi; Li, Houmin; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2016-11-01

    High-fluence diode lasers with contact cooling have emerged as the gold standard to remove unwanted hair. Lowering the energy should result in less pain and could theoretically affect the efficacy of the therapy. To compare the safety and efficacy of a low fluence high repetition rate 810-nm diode laser to those of a high fluence, low repetition rate diode laser for permanent axillary hair removal in Chinese women. Ninety-two Chinese women received four axillae laser hair removal treatments at 4-week intervals using the low fluence, high repetition rate 810-nm diode laser in super hair removal (SHR) mode on one side and the high fluence, low repetition rate diode laser in hair removal (HR) mode on the other side. Hair counts were done at each follow-up visit and 6-month follow-up after the final laser treatment using a "Hi Quality Hair Analysis Program System"; the immediate pain score after each treatment session was recorded by a visual analog scale. The overall median reduction of hair was 90.2% with the 810-nm diode laser in SHR mode and 87% with the same laser in HR mode at 6-month follow-up. The median pain scores in SHR mode and in HR mode were 2.75 and 6.75, respectively. Low fluence, high repetition rate diode laser can efficiently remove unwanted hair but also significantly improve tolerability and reduce adverse events during the course of treatment.

  12. An HSV-2 Trivalent Vaccine Is Immunogenic in Rhesus Macaques and Highly Efficacious in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Lauren M.; Shaw, Carolyn E.; Pahar, Bapi; Liu, David; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2017-01-01

    A genital herpes vaccine is urgently needed to prevent pain and suffering, reduce the incidence of neonatal herpes, and decrease the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission that accompanies genital infection. We evaluated a trivalent HSV-2 subunit antigen vaccine administered with CpG and alum in rhesus macaques and guinea pigs. The vaccine contains glycoproteins C, D and E (gC2, gD2, gE2) to block virus entry by gD2 and immune evasion by gC2 and gE2. In rhesus macaques, the trivalent vaccine induced plasma and mucosa neutralizing antibodies, antibodies that block gC2 and gE2 immune evasion activities, and stimulated CD4 T cell responses. After intravaginal challenge, a self-limited vaginal infection of brief duration was detected by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in naïve, but not in trivalent immunized macaques. Vaccine efficacy was evaluated in female guinea pigs. Animals were mock immunized, or immunized with gD2, the trivalent vaccine or the trivalent vaccine followed by a booster dose of gD2 (trivalent + gD2). The trivalent and trivalent + gD2 groups were 97% and 99% efficacious, respectively in preventing genital lesions and both outperformed gD2 alone. As a marker of transmission risk, vaginal swabs were evaluated daily for HSV-2 DNA and replication competent virus between five and seven weeks after challenge. HSV-2 DNA shedding was reduced in all groups compared with mock. Shedding of replication competent virus occurred on fewer days in the trivalent than gD2 immunized animals while the trivalent + gD2 group had no shedding of replication competent virus. Overall, the trivalent group had genital lesions on < 1% days and shedding of replication competent virus on 0.2% days. The vaccine has outstanding potential for prevention of genital herpes in humans. PMID:28103319

  13. Highly Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi with a Novel gyrA Mutation Raises Questions about the Long-Term Efficacy of Older Fluoroquinolones for Treating Typhoid Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Kanika Deshpande; Thanh, Duy Pham; Thapa, Sudeep Dhoj; Arjyal, Amit; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Shrestha, Upendra Man; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Baker, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of multidrug resistance, clinicians are highly dependent on fluoroquinolones for treating the serious systemic infection typhoid fever. While reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, which lessens clinical efficacy, is becoming ubiquitous, comprehensive resistance is exceptional. Here we report ofloxacin treatment failure in typhoidal patient infected with a novel, highly fluoroquinolone-resistant isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The isolation of this organism has serious implications for the long-term efficacy of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin for typhoid treatment. PMID:22371897

  14. Processing of Ni30Pt20Ti50 High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloy Into Thin Rod Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Draper, Susan L.; Biles, Tiffany A.; Leonhardt, Todd

    2005-01-01

    High-temperature shape-memory alloys (HTSMAs) based on nickel-titanium (NiTi) with significant ternary additions of palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), gold (Au), or hafnium (Hf) have been identified as potential high-temperature actuator materials for use up to 500 C. These materials provide an enabling technology for the development of "smart structures" used to control the noise, emissions, or efficiency of gas turbine engines. The demand for these high-temperature versions of conventional shape-memory alloys also has been growing in the automotive, process control, and energy industries. However these materials, including the NiPtTi alloys being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, will never find widespread acceptance unless they can be readily processed into useable forms.

  15. First Demonstration of Direct Growth of Planar High-In-Composition InGaN Layers on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Rodriguez, Paul E. D. Soto; Gómez, Victor J.; Alvi, Naveed H.; Calleja, Enrique; Nötzel, Richard

    2013-03-01

    We report on the direct growth of high-In-composition InGaN layers on Si(111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy without any buffer layers. In a narrow window of growth conditions, laterally extended, micrometer-sized planar areas are formed together with trenches and holes. Detailed structural and optical analyses reveal that the planar areas comprise the InGaN layer with high and uniform In composition, while the trenches and holes are associated with pure GaN and low-In-composition InGaN. Photoluminescence at low temperature is observed from the high-In-composition InGaN layer, which forms an ohmic contact with a p-Si substrate.

  16. Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles show high efficacy and specificity at DNA delivery to human glioblastoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Cázares, Hugo; Tzeng, Stephany Y; Young, Noah P; Abutaleb, Ameer O; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Green, Jordan J

    2014-05-27

    Current glioblastoma therapies are insufficient to prevent tumor recurrence and eventual death. Here, we describe a method to treat malignant glioma by nonviral DNA delivery using biodegradable poly(β-amino ester)s (PBAEs), with a focus on the brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs), the tumor cell population believed to be responsible for the formation of new tumors and resistance to many conventional therapies. We show transfection efficacy of >60% and low biomaterial-mediated cytotoxicity in primary human BTICs in vitro even when the BTICs are grown as 3-D oncospheres. Intriguingly, we find that these polymeric nanoparticles show intrinsic specificity for nonviral transfection of primary human BTICs over primary healthy human neural progenitor cells and that this specificity is not due to differences in cellular growth rate or total cellular uptake of nanoparticles. Moreover, we demonstrate that biodegradable PBAE/DNA nanoparticles can be fabricated, lyophilized, and then stored for at least 2 years without losing efficacy, increasing the translational relevance of this technology. Using lyophilized nanoparticles, we show transgene expression by tumor cells after intratumoral injection into an orthotopic murine model of human glioblastoma. PBAE/DNA nanoparticles were more effective than naked DNA at exogenous gene expression in vivo, and tumor cells were transfected more effectively than noninvaded brain parenchyma in vivo. This work shows the potential of nonviral gene delivery tools to target human brain tumors.

  17. Materials development and field demonstration of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostowari, Ken; Nosson, Ali

    2000-09-30

    The project developed high-recycled-content concrete material with balanced structural and thermal attributes for use in energy-efficient building construction. Recycled plastics, tire, wool, steel and concrete were used as replacement for coarse aggregates in concrete and masonry production. With recycled materials the specific heat and thermal conductivity of concrete could be tailored to enhance the energy-efficiency of concrete buildings. A comprehensive field project was implemented which confirmed the benefits of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction.

  18. Summary of high field diffusion MRI and microscopy data demonstrate microstructural aberration in chronic mild stress rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Chuhutin, Andrey; Wiborg, Ove

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This data article describes a large, high resolution diffusion MRI data set from fixed rat brain acquired at high field strength. The rat brain samples consist of21adult rat brain hemispheres from animals exposed to chronic mild stress (anhedonic and resilient) and controls. Histology from...... amygdala of the same brain hemispheres is also included with three different stains: DiI and Hoechst stained microscopic images (confocal microscopy) andALDH1L1 antibody based immunohistochemistry.These stains may be used to evaluate neurite density (DiI), nuclear density (Hoechst) and astrocytic density...

  19. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) ORGANIC AND NITRATE DESTRUCTION PRIOR TO VITRIFICATION: CRUCIBLE SCALE TO ENGINEERING SCALE DEMONSTRATIONS AND NON-RADIOACTIVE TO RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M; Gene Daniel, G; Paul Burket, P; Charles Crawford, C

    2009-02-07

    Over a decade ago, an in-tank precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from radioactive high level waste (HLW) supernates was demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The full scale demonstration with actual HLW was performed in SRS Tank 48 (T48). Sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) was added to enable Cs-137 extraction as CsTPB. The CsTPB, an organic, and its decomposition products proved to be problematic for subsequent processing of the Cs-137 precipitate in the SRS HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal in a HLW repository. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a technology for destroying the organics and nitrates in the T48 waste to render it compatible with subsequent HLW vitrification. During FBSR processing the T48 waste is converted into organic-free and nitrate-free carbonate-based minerals which are water soluble. The soluble nature of the carbonate-based minerals allows them to be dissolved and pumped to the vitrification facility or returned to the tank farm for future vitrification. The initial use of the FBSR process for T48 waste was demonstrated with simulated waste in 2003 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a specially designed sealed crucible test that reproduces the FBSR pyrolysis reactions, i.e. carbonate formation, organic and nitrate destruction. This was followed by pilot scale testing of simulants at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science & Technology Application Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SRNL in 2003-4 and then engineering scale demonstrations by THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) and SRS/SRNL at the Hazen Research, Inc. (HRI) test facility in Golden, CO in 2006 and 2008. Radioactive sealed crucible testing with real T48 waste was performed at SRNL in 2008, and radioactive Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was performed in the SRNL Shielded Cell Facility (SCF) in 2008.

  20. Preconceptual design study for solidifying high-level waste: Appendices A, B and C West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, O.F. (comp.)

    1981-04-01

    This report presents a preconceptual design study for processing radioactive high-level liquid waste presently stored in underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York, and for incorporating the radionculides in that waste into a solid. The high-level liquid waste accumulated from the operation of a chemical reprocessing plant by the Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. from 1966 to 1972. The high-level liquid waste consists of approximately 560,000 gallons of alkaline waste from Purex process operations and 12,000 gallons of acidic (nitric acid) waste from one campaign of processing thoria fuels by a modified Thorex process (during this campaign thorium was left in the waste). The alkaline waste contains approximately 30 million curies and the acidic waste contains approximately 2.5 million curies. The reference process described in this report is concerned only with chemically processing the high-level liquid waste to remove radionuclides from the alkaline supernate and converting the radionuclide-containing nonsalt components in the waste into a borosilicate glass.

  1. Hypoxanthine production by ischemic heart demonstrated by high pressure liquid chromatography of blood purine nucleosides and oxypurines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Harmsen; J.W. de Jong (Jan Willem); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractAn isocratic high pressure liquid chromatographic system was developed for the estimation of purine nucleosides and oxypurines in blood. Use was made of a reversed-phase column. Nucleotides derived from erythrocytes affected the separation; these compounds were removed with A12O3. The

  2. Blue light hazard optimization for white light-emitting diode sources with high luminous efficacy of radiation and high color rendering index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Guo, Weihong; Xie, Bin; Yu, Xingjian; Luo, Xiaobing; Zhang, Tao; Yu, Zhihua; Wang, Hong; Jin, Xing

    2017-09-01

    Blue light hazard of white light-emitting diodes (LED) is a hidden risk for human's photobiological safety. Recent spectral optimization methods focus on maximizing luminous efficacy and improving color performances of LEDs, but few of them take blue hazard into account. Therefore, for healthy lighting, it's urgent to propose a spectral optimization method for white LED source to exhibit low blue light hazard, high luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) and high color performances. In this study, a genetic algorithm with penalty functions was proposed for realizing white spectra with low blue hazard, maximal LER and high color rendering index (CRI) values. By simulations, white spectra from LEDs with low blue hazard, high LER (≥297 lm/W) and high CRI (≥90) were achieved at different correlated color temperatures (CCTs) from 2013 K to 7845 K. Thus, the spectral optimization method can be used for guiding the fabrication of LED sources in line with photobiological safety. It is also found that the maximum permissible exposure duration of the optimized spectra increases by 14.9% than that of bichromatic phosphor-converted LEDs with equal CCT.

  3. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers...... by direct cooling or intra-arterial noradrenaline infusion caused a marked drop in FSP in the exposed fingers, but not in the non-exposed fingers of the same hand. The fact that the non-exposed fingers retained the normal (arm systolic) pressure level is taken to indicate that palmar arch blood pressure...... also remained normal. In the high vascular tone state, a large transmural pressure difference must apparently be established before the digital arteries are forced open. The lowered opening pressure constitutes a manifestation of the closure phenomenon of the digital arteries described in patients...

  4. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers...... by direct cooling or intra-arterial noradrenaline infusion caused a marked drop in FSP in the exposed fingers, but not in the non-exposed fingers of the same hand. The fact that the non-exposed fingers retained the normal (arm systolic) pressure level is taken to indicate that palmar arch blood pressure...... also remained normal. In the high vascular tone state, a large transmural pressure difference must apparently be established before the digital arteries are forced open. The lowered opening pressure constitutes a manifestation of the closure phenomenon of the digital arteries described in patients...

  5. Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis of Metagenome Sequence from High-Temperature Archaeal Habitats Demonstrate Linkages between Metabolic Potential and Geochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inskeep, William P; Jay, Zackary J; Herrgard, Markus;

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an unparalleled opportunity to understand the environmental factors that control the distribution of archaea in thermal habitats. Here we describe, analyze, and synthesize metagenomic and geochemical data collected from seven high......-temperature sites that contain microbial communities dominated by archaea relative to bacteria. The specific objectives of the study were to use metagenome sequencing to determine the structure and functional capacity of thermophilic archaeal-dominated microbial communities across a pH range from 2.5 to 6.......4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (∼40-45 Mb Sanger sequencing per site) was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and...

  6. The Interrelationship of Science Experiences, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy: A Case Study of a Pre-Service Teacher with Positive Science Attitude and High Science Teaching Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Kazempour

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative case study aimed to focus on the experiences and subsequent science and science teaching beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy of an elementary pre-service teacher, Heather, with extremely positive attitude and high self-efficacy. For this particular population of pre-service teachers, possessing a high science teaching self-efficacy alone is not sufficient to assume reform-based beliefs and teaching practices. This study was unique in that it concurrently explored the relationship between attitude, beliefs, and self-efficacy before and after the course. Initially, Heather’s attitude and self-efficacy with respect to science and science teaching were closely interrelated and a product of her own intrinsic interest in science and her unique K-12 experiences. Her beliefs appeared to have been shaped by both her actual science experiences and what she had witnessed in the classrooms. Heather’s course experiences shaped her post beliefs about science and science teaching, which consequently altered her attitude and confidence.

  7. Phylogenetic and functional analysis of metagenome sequence from high-temperature archaeal habitats demonstrate linkages between metabolic potential and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Inskeep

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP provide an unparalled opportunity to understand the environmental factors that control the distribution of archaea in thermal habitats. Here we describe, analyze and synthesize metagenomic and geochemical data collected from seven high-temperature sites that contain microbial communities dominated by archaea relative to bacteria. The specific objectives of the study were to use metagenome sequencing to determine the structure and functional capacity of thermophilic archaeal-dominated microbial communities across a pH range from 2.5 to 6.4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (~40-45 Mbase Sanger sequencing per site was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and/or microbial mats and subjected to numerous phylogenetic and functional analyses. Analysis of individual sequences (e.g., MEGAN and G+C content and assemblies from each habitat type revealed the presence of dominant archaeal populations in all environments, 10 of whose genomes were largely reconstructed from the sequence data. Analysis of protein family occurrence, particularly of those involved in energy conservation, electron transport and autotrophic metabolism, revealed significant differences in metabolic strategies across sites consistent with differences in major geochemical attributes (e.g., sulfide, oxygen, pH. These observations provide an ecological basis for understanding the distribution of indigenous archaeal lineages across high temperature systems of YNP.

  8. Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis of Metagenome Sequence from High-Temperature Archaeal Habitats Demonstrate Linkages between Metabolic Potential and Geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskeep, William P; Jay, Zackary J; Herrgard, Markus J; Kozubal, Mark A; Rusch, Douglas B; Tringe, Susannah G; Macur, Richard E; Jennings, Ryan deM; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R; Roberto, Francisco F

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal habitats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an unparalleled opportunity to understand the environmental factors that control the distribution of archaea in thermal habitats. Here we describe, analyze, and synthesize metagenomic and geochemical data collected from seven high-temperature sites that contain microbial communities dominated by archaea relative to bacteria. The specific objectives of the study were to use metagenome sequencing to determine the structure and functional capacity of thermophilic archaeal-dominated microbial communities across a pH range from 2.5 to 6.4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (∼40-45 Mb Sanger sequencing per site) was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and/or microbial mats and subjected to numerous phylogenetic and functional analyses. Analysis of individual sequences (e.g., MEGAN and G + C content) and assemblies from each habitat type revealed the presence of dominant archaeal populations in all environments, 10 of whose genomes were largely reconstructed from the sequence data. Analysis of protein family occurrence, particularly of those involved in energy conservation, electron transport, and autotrophic metabolism, revealed significant differences in metabolic strategies across sites consistent with differences in major geochemical attributes (e.g., sulfide, oxygen, pH). These observations provide an ecological basis for understanding the distribution of indigenous archaeal lineages across high-temperature systems of YNP.

  9. Modeling for Fidelity: virtual mentorship by scientists fosters teacher self-efficacy and promotes implementation of novel high school biomedical curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, Katherine; Jacque, Berri; Faux, Russell; Meiri, Karina F

    2014-01-01

    This small-scale comparison case study evaluates the impact of an innovative approach to teacher professional development designed to promote implementation of a novel cutting edge high school neurological disorders curriculum. 'Modeling for Fidelity' (MFF) centers on an extended mentor relationship between teachers and biomedical scientists carried out in a virtual format in conjunction with extensive online educative materials. Four teachers from different diverse high schools in Massachusetts and Ohio who experienced MFF contextualized to a 6-week Neurological Disorders curriculum with the same science mentor were compared to a teacher who had experienced an intensive in-person professional development contextualized to the same curriculum with the same mentor. Fidelity of implementation was measured directly using an established metric and indirectly via student performance. The results show that teachers valued MFF, particularly the mentor relationship and were able to use it effectively to ensure critical components of the learning objectives were preserved. Moreover their students performed equivalently to those whose teacher had experienced intensive in-person professional development. Participants in all school settings demonstrated large (Cohen's d>2.0) and significant (pconceptual knowledge as well as self-efficacy towards learning about neurological disorders (Cohen's d>1.5, p<0.0001 pre-post). The data demonstrates that the virtual mentorship format in conjunction with extensive online educative materials is an effective method of developing extended interactions between biomedical scientists and teachers that are scalable and not geographically constrained, facilitating teacher implementation of novel cutting-edge curricula.

  10. Demonstration and Radiation Extension mode of Agricultural Technology——A Case of the Science and Technology Project of High Yield in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Firstly,relying on the science and technology project of high yield in Hebei Province,connotation of agricultural technology demonstration and extension mode and the high yield grain project in Hebei Province is introduced.Extension mode of agricultural technology demonstration and radiation is constructed.Agricultural technology demonstration and radiation mode includes the radiation center,primary irradiation and secondary irradiation.Secondly,management system and operational mechanism of agricultural technology demonstration and radiation mode are discussed,mainly expressed in establishing leading group in each demonstration county(city),carrying out leader contract responsibility system,establishing expert advisor steering group and setting up core experts group for subject,establishing technical experts group for subject,setting up leading group in the radiation area,carrying out chief expert responsibility system and technician matrix responsibility system,establishing the operating mechanism of "open,flow,competition and collaboration" with "test area-expert two-way selection" as the core content.Finally,countermeasures to improve the agricultural technology demonstration and radiation mode is put forward,such as establishing the rural technology demonstration base,strengthening cooperation with enterprises,and adopting flexible technical training,so as to promote the spread of agricultural high-tech,to increase the contribution rate of agricultural technology,and to offer ideas for agricultural technology extension model at the new era.

  11. Biofluid metabotyping of occupationally exposed subjects to air pollution demonstrates high oxidative stress and deregulated amino acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Surya Narayan; Das, Aleena; Meena, Ramovatar; Nanda, Ranjan Kumar; Rajamani, Paulraj

    2016-10-01

    Occupational exposure to air pollution induces oxidative stress and prolonged exposure increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in several working groups. Biofluid of these subjects may reflect perturbed metabolic phenotypes. In this study we carried out a comparative molecular profiling study using parallel biofluids collected from subjects (n = 85) belonging to auto rickshaw drivers (ARD), traffic cops (TC) and office workers (OW). Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in serum of ARD subjects were observed as compared to OW and TC. Uni and multivariate analyses of metabolites identified in urine by 1H NMR revealed 11 deregulated molecules in ARD subjects and involved in phenylalanine, histidine, arginine and proline metabolism. Despite contribution of confounding factors like exposure period, dietary factors including smoking and alcohol status, our results demonstrate existence of exposure specific metabotypes in biofluids of ARD, OW and TC groups. Monitoring serum oxidative stress and inflammation markers and urine metabolites by NMR may be useful to characterize perturbed metabolic phenotypes in populations exposed to urban traffic air pollution.

  12. Biofluid metabotyping of occupationally exposed subjects to air pollution demonstrates high oxidative stress and deregulated amino acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Surya Narayan; Das, Aleena; Meena, Ramovatar; Nanda, Ranjan Kumar; Rajamani, Paulraj

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to air pollution induces oxidative stress and prolonged exposure increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in several working groups. Biofluid of these subjects may reflect perturbed metabolic phenotypes. In this study we carried out a comparative molecular profiling study using parallel biofluids collected from subjects (n = 85) belonging to auto rickshaw drivers (ARD), traffic cops (TC) and office workers (OW). Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in serum of ARD subjects were observed as compared to OW and TC. Uni and multivariate analyses of metabolites identified in urine by 1H NMR revealed 11 deregulated molecules in ARD subjects and involved in phenylalanine, histidine, arginine and proline metabolism. Despite contribution of confounding factors like exposure period, dietary factors including smoking and alcohol status, our results demonstrate existence of exposure specific metabotypes in biofluids of ARD, OW and TC groups. Monitoring serum oxidative stress and inflammation markers and urine metabolites by NMR may be useful to characterize perturbed metabolic phenotypes in populations exposed to urban traffic air pollution. PMID:27767182

  13. Representation and high-quality annotation of the Physcomitrella patens transcriptome demonstrates a high proportion of proteins involved in metabolism in mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, D; Eisinger, J; Reski, R; Rensing, S A

    2005-05-01

    To gain insight into the transcriptome of the well-used plant model system Physcomitrella patens, several EST sequencing projects have been undertaken. We have clustered, assembled, and annotated all publicly available EST and CDS sequences in order to represent the transcriptome of this non-seed plant. Here, we present our fully annotated knowledge resource for the Physcomitrella patens transcriptome, integrating annotation from the production process of the clustered sequences and from a high-quality annotation pipeline developed during this study. Each transcript is represented as an entity containing full annotations and GO term associations. The whole production, filtering, clustering, and annotation process is being modelled and results in seven datasets, representing the annotated Physcomitrella transcriptome from different perspectives. We were able to annotate 63.4 % of the 26 123 virtual transcripts. The transcript archetype, as covered by our clustered data, is compared to a compilation based on all available Physcomitrella full length CDS. The distribution of the gene ontology annotations (GOA) for the virtual transcriptome of Physcomitrella patens demonstrates consistency in the ratios of the core molecular functions among the plant GOA. However, the metabolism subcategory is over-represented in bryophytes as compared to seed plants. This observation can be taken as an indicator for the wealth of alternative metabolic pathways in moss in comparison to spermatophytes. All resources presented in this study have been made available to the scientific community through a suite of user-friendly web interfaces via www.cosmoss.org and form the basis for assembly and annotation of the moss genome, which will be sequenced in 2005.

  14. Relationship between High School teachers’ wellbeing and teachers’ efficacy - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i2.16716

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali Mehdinezhad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the relationships between high school teachers’ wellbeing and their efficacy. The methodology of this study was that of a quantitative research. The population of this study was all high schools’ teachers in 9th to 11th grades in Zahedan, Iran. Out of 315 samples, the valid sample of this study was 290. The two questionnaires employed here were The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire of the Hills and Argyle (2002 and Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale of the Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk-Hoy’s (2001. SPSS 15 was used to produce mean, standard deviations, Pearson Product Moment Correlation (r, t-test, and Analysis of Variance. The results showed that the high school teachers scored over average on wellbeing and also marked relatively high scores on teachers’ efficacy and factors related to this variable. There was a positive relationship between teachers’ wellbeing and their efficacy in instructional activities. The results also showed that there was relatively high positive correlation between teachers’ wellbeing, teacher efficacy and sub variables related to teacher efficacy in female, older, married, and also teachers with 5-10 years job experiences in comparison with male, younger, single, and teachers with more than 10 years job experiences.  

  15. Over-the-air demonstration of spatial multiplexing at high data rates using real-time base-band processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jungnickel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Over-the-air transmission experiments with a realtime MIMO test-bed are reported. We describe in principle a hardware architecture for spatial multiplexing at high data rates, discuss in detail the implementation on a hybrid FPGA/DSP platform and show measured bit error rates from indoor transmission experiments. Per-antenna rate control and joint transmission are enabled as well using an ideal feed-back link. A functional test of these new techniques is described while detailed transmission experiments are still ongoing.

  16. Design and operating features of the high-level waste vitrification system for the West Valley demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemens, D.H.; Beary, M.M.; Barnes, S.M.; Berger, D.N.; Brouns, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.; Jones, R.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    A liquid-fed joule-heated ceramic melter system is the reference process for immobilization of the high-level liquid waste in the US and several foreign countries. This system has been under development for over ten years at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and other national laboratories operated for the US Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributed to this research through its Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and used applicable data to design and test melters and related systems using remote handling of simulated radioactive wastes. This report describes the equipment designed in support of the high-level waste vitrification program at West Valley, New York. Pacific Northwest Laboratory worked closely with West Valley Nuclear Services Company to design a liquid-fed ceramic melter, a liquid waste preparation and feed tank and pump, an off-gas treatment scrubber, and an enclosed turntable for positioning the waste canisters. Details of these designs are presented including the rationale for the design features and the alternatives considered.

  17. Prior Student Achievement, Collaborative School Processes, and Collective Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John A.; Hogaboam-Gray, Anne; Gray, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Collective teacher efficacy refers to teacher perceptions that they constitute an effective instructional team, capable of bringing about learning in students. Previous research demonstrates that a school staff with a strong sense of collective efficacy is likely to generate high student achievement. This study of 2,170 teachers in 141 elementary…

  18. Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Taylor; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz

    2011-01-01

    To review outcomes of randomized controlled clinical trials exploring the efficacy of different types of diets containing various amounts of fiber in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We searched PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar for published data from the past decade (through December 2009) on dietary patterns and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Only randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of whole grains, fiber, or vegetarian diets on type 2 diabetes were included. Search criteria included whole grain, fruit, vegetable, fiber, and meat intake regarding insulin sensitivity and glycemic responses in healthy, prediabetic, and diabetic persons. A total of 14 randomized clinical trials were included. Addition of insoluble or soluble fiber to meals, increased consumption of diets rich in whole grains and vegetables, and vegan diets improve glucose metabolism and increase insulin sensitivity. The greatest improvement in blood lipids, body weight, and hemoglobin A(1c) level occurred in participants following low-fat, plant-based diets. Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets.

  19. Alignment of Configuration and Documentation for Highly Engineered Complex Product Configuration Systems: a Demonstration from a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Adequate documentation is critical for successful implementation, maintenance and further developments of product configuration system (PCS) specially in companies making complex and highly engineered products. This article is based on experience of modelling and utilizing a PCS from an Engineer......-To-Order (ETO), where the main focus is on the challenges concerned with the documentation of the PCS, both in the development and production phase. Aligning the development of the PCS with an automatic documentation system creates value. Using the suggested method for documentation facilitates the following...... activities: (1) iterative testing of the system during the development, (2) communication with domain experts, (3) documentation and maintenance, and finally (4) updates without spending a lot of time and resources. This article is supplemented with a case study from an ETO company where the method...

  20. Alignment of Configuration and Documentation for Highly Engineered Complex Product Configuration Systems: a Demonstration from a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Adequate documentation is critical for successful implementation, maintenance and further developments of product configuration system (PCS) specially in companies making complex and highly engineered products. This article is based on experience of modelling and utilizing a PCS from an Engineer......-To-Order (ETO), where the main focus is on the challenges concerned with the documentation of the PCS, both in the development and production phase. Aligning the development of the PCS with an automatic documentation system creates value. Using the suggested method for documentation facilitates the following...... activities: (1) iterative testing of the system during the development, (2) communication with domain experts, (3) documentation and maintenance, and finally (4) updates without spending a lot of time and resources. This article is supplemented with a case study from an ETO company where the method...

  1. Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis of Metagenome Sequence from High-Temperature Archaeal Habitats Demonstrate Linkages between Metabolic Potential and Geochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inskeep, William P; Jay, Zackary J; Herrgard, Markus

    2013-01-01

    from the sequence data. Analysis of protein family occurrence, particularly of those involved in energy conservation, electron transport, and autotrophic metabolism, revealed significant differences in metabolic strategies across sites consistent with differences in major geochemical attributes (e.......4 and to discuss specific examples where the metabolic potential correlated with measured environmental parameters and geochemical processes occurring in situ. Random shotgun metagenome sequence (∼40-45 Mb Sanger sequencing per site) was obtained from environmental DNA extracted from high-temperature sediments and....../or microbial mats and subjected to numerous phylogenetic and functional analyses. Analysis of individual sequences (e.g., MEGAN and G + C content) and assemblies from each habitat type revealed the presence of dominant archaeal populations in all environments, 10 of whose genomes were largely reconstructed...

  2. Integrated analyses of microRNAs demonstrate their widespread influence on gene expression in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad J Creighton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA Network recently comprehensively catalogued the molecular aberrations in 487 high-grade serous ovarian cancers, with much remaining to be elucidated regarding the microRNAs (miRNAs. Here, using TCGA ovarian data, we surveyed the miRNAs, in the context of their predicted gene targets. METHODS AND RESULTS: Integration of miRNA and gene patterns yielded evidence that proximal pairs of miRNAs are processed from polycistronic primary transcripts, and that intronic miRNAs and their host gene mRNAs derive from common transcripts. Patterns of miRNA expression revealed multiple tumor subtypes and a set of 34 miRNAs predictive of overall patient survival. In a global analysis, miRNA:mRNA pairs anti-correlated in expression across tumors showed a higher frequency of in silico predicted target sites in the mRNA 3'-untranslated region (with less frequency observed for coding sequence and 5'-untranslated regions. The miR-29 family and predicted target genes were among the most strongly anti-correlated miRNA:mRNA pairs; over-expression of miR-29a in vitro repressed several anti-correlated genes (including DNMT3A and DNMT3B and substantially decreased ovarian cancer cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes miRNAs as having a widespread impact on gene expression programs in ovarian cancer, further strengthening our understanding of miRNA biology as it applies to human cancer. As with gene transcripts, miRNAs exhibit high diversity reflecting the genomic heterogeneity within a clinically homogeneous disease population. Putative miRNA:mRNA interactions, as identified using integrative analysis, can be validated. TCGA data are a valuable resource for the identification of novel tumor suppressive miRNAs in ovarian as well as other cancers.

  3. Functional assessment of the Medicago truncatula NIP/LATD protein demonstrates that it is a high-affinity nitrate transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Rammyani; Salehin, Mohammad; Adeyemo, O Sarah; Salazar, Carolina; Shulaev, Vladimir; Sherrier, D Janine; Dickstein, Rebecca

    2012-10-01

    The Medicago truncatula NIP/LATD (for Numerous Infections and Polyphenolics/Lateral root-organ Defective) gene encodes a protein found in a clade of nitrate transporters within the large NRT1(PTR) family that also encodes transporters of dipeptides and tripeptides, dicarboxylates, auxin, and abscisic acid. Of the NRT1(PTR) members known to transport nitrate, most are low-affinity transporters. Here, we show that M. truncatula nip/latd mutants are more defective in their lateral root responses to nitrate provided at low (250 μm) concentrations than at higher (5 mm) concentrations; however, nitrate uptake experiments showed no discernible differences in uptake in the mutants. Heterologous expression experiments showed that MtNIP/LATD encodes a nitrate transporter: expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes conferred upon the oocytes the ability to take up nitrate from the medium with high affinity, and expression of MtNIP/LATD in an Arabidopsis chl1(nrt1.1) mutant rescued the chlorate susceptibility phenotype. X. laevis oocytes expressing mutant Mtnip-1 and Mtlatd were unable to take up nitrate from the medium, but oocytes expressing the less severe Mtnip-3 allele were proficient in nitrate transport. M. truncatula nip/latd mutants have pleiotropic defects in nodulation and root architecture. Expression of the Arabidopsis NRT1.1 gene in mutant Mtnip-1 roots partially rescued Mtnip-1 for root architecture defects but not for nodulation defects. This suggests that the spectrum of activities inherent in AtNRT1.1 is different from that possessed by MtNIP/LATD, but it could also reflect stability differences of each protein in M. truncatula. Collectively, the data show that MtNIP/LATD is a high-affinity nitrate transporter and suggest that it could have another function.

  4. The Efficacy of Repeated Reading and Wide Reading Practice for High School Students with Severe Reading Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Denton, Carolyn A

    2010-02-01

    This experimental study was conducted to examine the efficacy of repeated reading and wide reading practice interventions for high school students with severe reading disabilities. Effects on comprehension, fluency, and word reading were evaluated. Participants were 96 students with reading disabilities in grades 9-12. Students were paired within classes and pairs were randomly assigned to one of three groups: repeated reading (N = 33), wide reading (N = 34), or typical instruction (N = 29). Intervention was provided daily for approximately 15-20 minutes for 10 weeks. Results indicated no overall statistically significant differences for any condition, with effect sizes ranging from -.31 to .27. Findings do not support either approach for severely impaired readers at the high school level. We hypothesize that these students require more intensive interventions that include direct and explicit instruction in word- and text-level skills as well as engaged reading practice with effective feedback.

  5. Clinical phenotyping in selected national networks: demonstrating the need for high-throughput, portable, and computational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richesson, Rachel L; Sun, Jimeng; Pathak, Jyotishman; Kho, Abel N; Denny, Joshua C

    2016-07-01

    The combination of phenomic data from electronic health records (EHR) and clinical data repositories with dense biological data has enabled genomic and pharmacogenomic discovery, a first step toward precision medicine. Computational methods for the identification of clinical phenotypes from EHR data will advance our understanding of disease risk and drug response, and support the practice of precision medicine on a national scale. Based on our experience within three national research networks, we summarize the broad approaches to clinical phenotyping and highlight the important role of these networks in the progression of high-throughput phenotyping and precision medicine. We provide supporting literature in the form of a non-systematic review. The practice of clinical phenotyping is evolving to meet the growing demand for scalable, portable, and data driven methods and tools. The resources required for traditional phenotyping algorithms from expert defined rules are significant. In contrast, machine learning approaches that rely on data patterns will require fewer clinical domain experts and resources. Machine learning approaches that generate phenotype definitions from patient features and clinical profiles will result in truly computational phenotypes, derived from data rather than experts. Research networks and phenotype developers should cooperate to develop methods, collaboration platforms, and data standards that will enable computational phenotyping and truly modernize biomedical research and precision medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Teacher Identity and Self-efficacy Development in an Alternative Licensure Program for Middle and High School Math and Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert J.

    This mixed-method case study focused on the phenomenon of the transition from student to teacher. The educational system in the United States is constantly shifting to provide the correct number of teachers for our nations' schools. There is no simple formula for this process and occasionally an area of need arises that is not being met. Recently, the demand for science and math teachers in the K-12 system has outpaced the supply of new teachers (Business-Higher Education Forum, 2011). To complicate the problem further, teachers are leaving the field in record numbers both through retirement and attrition (National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 2007). Particularly hard hit are poor rural schools with low-performing students, such as the schools of Appalachia (Barley, 2009; Goodpaster, Adedokun, & Weaver, 2012). Out of this need, alternative licensure programs for teachers have developed. The alternative teacher-training program studied in this research is the Woodrow Wilson Teaching Fellowship (WWTF) website, "The Woodrow Wilson Ohio Teaching Fellowship seeks to attract talented, committed individuals with backgrounds in the STEM fields---science, technology, engineering, and mathematics---into teaching in high-need Ohio secondary schools" (para. 2) . The researcher was interested in the formation of teacher identity and self-efficacy as these constructs have been shown to manifest in highly effective teachers that are likely to remain in the field of teaching (Beaucamp & Thomas 2009; Klassen, Tze, Betts, & Gordon, 2010). The research method included in-depth interviews, mixed with pretest/posttest administrations of the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy 2001) given during the teacher-training period and again following the first year of professional teaching. Results from both the TSES and the interviews indicate that the participants had a successful transition into teaching. They both felt and demonstrated that

  7. Dermostyx (IB1) - High efficacy and safe topical skin protectant against percutaneous toxic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachir, Shlomit; Barness, Izhak; Fishbine, Eliezer; Meshulam, Jacob; Sahar, Rita; Eisenkraft, Arik; Amir, Adina; Kadar, Tamar

    2017-04-01

    Prevention of the penetration of toxic agents through the skin is crucial for both military troops and civilian populations. We have developed a novel topical skin protectant (TSP), coded as IB1 and commercially available as Dermostyx protective solution (Rekah Pharm, Israel). The formulation afforded significant protection against chemical warfare agents such as sulfur mustard (SM) and VX (2LD50), pesticides such as parathion and irritants such as acrolein. The efficacy of the protectant was evaluated in the pig model using clinical, histological and biochemical monitoring. A single topical application prior to exposure to the toxic agents reduced significantly the size and severity of skin lesions and ameliorated or prevented systemic clinical symptoms. The barrier properties of IB1 are immediate upon application and remain effective for at least 12 h. It is absorbed into the stratum corneum of the skin and remains there until rinsing with water, yet the ingredients are not absorbed into the body. The formulation is a hydrophilic water-based solution, composed of magnesium sulfate and glycerin that are widely used in cosmetic and medicine, and was shown to be safe in preclinical and in Phase I clinical studies. The suggested mode of action is based on the unique interaction of glycerin with the stratum corneum, changing its properties to hydrophilic and on the "salting out" effect of magnesium sulfate. The expected use of the TSP is by application on exposed skin areas and sensitive skin sites (e.g. armpits, groin, waist), when necessary. A quantity of 10 ml is sufficient for one application covering approximately 20% of the body surface area. The formulation was approved for human use by the Israel Ministry of Health and a CE mark certificate in Europe has been recently issued (Class I). Dermostyx has been adopted by the IDF and first responders as a skin protectant for special needs.

  8. An Evaluation of Instructional Coaching at Selected High Schools in North Louisiana and Its Effect on Student Achievement, Organizational Climate, and Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare high schools in north Louisiana to determine if the presence or absence of instructional coaches influenced student achievement, organizational climate, and/or teacher efficacy in any significant manner. The 11 high schools in north Louisiana utilizing instructional coaches were matched to 11 high schools…

  9. An Analysis of the Relationship between High School Students' Self-Efficacy, Metacognitive Strategy Use and Their Academic Motivation for Learn Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Solmaz

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the relationship between high school students' self-efficacy perceptions regarding biology, the metacognitive strategies they use in this course and their academic motivation for learn biology. The sample of the study included 286 high school students enrolled in three high schools who attended a biology course in Kars,…

  10. An Evaluation of Instructional Coaching at Selected High Schools in North Louisiana and Its Effect on Student Achievement, Organizational Climate, and Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare high schools in north Louisiana to determine if the presence or absence of instructional coaches influenced student achievement, organizational climate, and/or teacher efficacy in any significant manner. The 11 high schools in north Louisiana utilizing instructional coaches were matched to 11 high schools…

  11. Continuous assessment of land mapping accuracy at High Resolution from global networks of atmospheric and field observatories -concept and demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Martin-lauzer, François-regis

    2017-04-01

    In the context of global climate change and adjustment/resilience policies' design and implementation, there is a need not only i. for environmental monitoring, e.g. through a range of Earth Observations (EO) land "products" but ii. for a precise assessment of uncertainties of the aforesaid information that feed environmental decision-making (to be introduced in the EO metadata) and also iii. for a perfect handing of the thresholds which help translate "environment tolerance limits" to match detected EO changes through ecosystem modelling. Uncertainties' insight means precision and accuracy's knowledge and subsequent ability of setting thresholds for change detection systems. Traditionally, the validation of satellite-derived products has taken the form of intensive field campaigns to sanction the introduction of data processors in Payload Data Ground Segments chains. It is marred by logistical challenges and cost issues, reason why it is complemented by specific surveys at ground-based monitoring sites which can provide near-continuous observations at a high temporal resolution (e.g. RadCalNet). Unfortunately, most of the ground-level monitoring sites, in the number of 100th or 1000th, which are part of wider observation networks (e.g. FLUXNET, NEON, IMAGINES) mainly monitor the state of the atmosphere and the radiation exchange at the surface, which are different to the products derived from EO data. In addition they are "point-based" compared to the EO cover to be obtained from Sentinel-2 or Sentinel-3. Yet, data from these networks, processed by spatial extrapolation models, are well-suited to the bottom-up approach and relevant to the validation of vegetation parameters' consistency (e.g. leaf area index, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation). Consistency means minimal errors on spatial and temporal gradients of EO products. Test of the procedure for land-cover products' consistency assessment with field measurements delivered by worldwide

  12. Antidepressant efficacy of high and low frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation in the FSL/FRL genetic rat model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselberg, Marie Louise; Wegener, Gregers; Buchholtz, Poul Erik

    2016-11-01

    Repetitive Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has appeared to be a potential non-invasive antidepressant method, which implies non-convulsive focal stimulation of the brain through a time varying magnetic field. The antidepressant potential of rTMS has been supported by animal studies showing a number of interesting similarities between magnetic stimulation and electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS). Despite these positive results, this method still contains many unknown issues. Importantly, there are fundamental uncertainties concerning the optimal combination of stimulus parameters (frequency, intensity, duration, and number of pulses) to obtain an antidepressant effect. Therefore, the present study aimed to qualify the choice of rTMS stimulus frequency in a well-validated genetic animal model of depression, the FSL/FRL rats. We compared the antidepressant effect of low frequency, high frequency rTMS and ECS to sham treatment in FRL and FSL rats using 6 parallel groups. We used the Forced Swim Test and the Open Field Test to screen the depression-like state in rats. We found that both the high frequency and the low frequency rTMS resulted in a significant antidepressant effect. However, this effect was inferior to the effect of ECS. The low frequency and high frequency groups, which received the same total impulse load and stimulus intensity, did not differ with respect to antidepressant efficacy in this study. In conclusion, this study provides robust evidence that both rTMS interventions are efficacious, although not as efficient as ECS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy and tolerability of high-dose phenobarbital in children with focal seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Akihisa; Nakahara, Eri; Ikeno, Mitsuru; Abe, Shinpei; Igarashi, Ayuko; Nakazawa, Mika; Takasu, Michihiko; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2016-04-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of children with focal epilepsy treated with oral high-dose phenobarbital. We reviewed data on children (agedphenobarbital (>5 mg/kg/day to maintain a target serum level >40 μg/mL) for at least 6 months. Seizure frequency was evaluated after phenobarbital titration, and 1 and 2 years after high-dose phenobarbital treatment commenced. Treatment was judged effective when seizure frequencies fell by ⩾75%. Seven boys and eight girls were treated. The median age at commencement of high-dose phenobarbital therapy was 30 months. The maximal serum phenobarbital level ranged from 36.5 to 62.9 μg/mL. High-dose PB was effective in seven. In two patients, treatment was transiently effective, but seizure frequency later returned to the baseline. High-dose PB was ineffective in six. No significant association between effectiveness and any clinical variable was evident. Drowsiness was recorded in nine patients, but no patient developed a behavioral problem or hypersensitivity. Oral high-dose phenobarbital was effective in 7 of 15 patients with focal epilepsy and well tolerated. High-dose PB may be useful when surgical treatment is difficult. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis patients with high disease activity: a Danish nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, A.B.; Koch-Henriksen, N.; Petersen, T.;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous studies of natalizumab (Tysabri) in relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have included patients with moderate disease activity. We studied a patient population with high disease activity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 234 consecutive, natalizumab-treated...

  15. High DNA-Binding Affinity and Gene-Transfection Efficacy of Bioreducible Cationic Nanomicelles with a Fluorinated Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long-Hai; Wu, De-Cheng; Xu, Hang-Xun; You, Ye-Zi

    2016-01-11

    During the last two decades, cationic polymers have become one of the most promising synthetic vectors for gene transfection. However, the weak interactions formed between DNA and cationic polymers result in low transfection efficacy. Furthermore, the polyplexes formed between cationic polymers and DNA generally exhibit poor stability and toxicity because of the large excess of cationic polymer typically required for complete DNA condensation. Herein, we report the preparation of a novel class of bioreducible cationic nanomicelles by the use of disulfide bonds to connect the cationic shell to the fluorocarbon core. These bioreducible nanomicelles form strong interactions with DNA and completely condense DNA at an N/P ratio of 1. The resulting nanomicelle/DNA polyplexes exhibited high biocompatibility and performed very effectively as a gene-delivery system.

  16. Experimental Demonstration of Ideal Noise Shaping in Resonant Tunneling Delta-Sigma Modulator for High Resolution, Wide Band Analog-to-Digital Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maezawa, Koichi; Sakou, Mario; Matsubara, Wataru; Mizutani, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Hideaki

    2006-04-01

    A ΔΣ modulator using a frequency modulation intermediate signal was demonstrated using a resonant tunneling logic gate called a monostable bistable transition logic element (MOBILE). This ΔΣ modulator is based on the nature of an FM signal and suitable for high-speed operation. Experiments using an InP-based MOBILE demonstrate good noise shaping characteristics. Moreover, the operation with a higher FM carrier frequency than the sampling frequency was demonstrated, showing equally good noise shaping performance. This makes the design of the voltage-controlled oscillator, which is a key component of the FM ΔΣ modulator, much easier. Consequently, an FM ΔΣ modulator using MOBILE is promising for high-resolution, wide-band analog-to-digital converters (ADCs).

  17. Efficacy of problem based learning in a high school science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissi, James Ryan

    At the high school level, the maturity of the students, as well as constraints of the traditional high school (both in terms of class time, and number of students), impedes the use of the Problem-based instruction. But with more coaching, guidance, and planning, Problem-based Learning may be an effective teaching technique with secondary students. In recent years, the State of Michigan High School Content Expectations have emphasized the importance of inquiry and problem solving in the high school science classroom. In order to help students gain inquiry and problem solving skills, a move towards a problem-based curriculum and away from the didactic approach may lead to favorable results. In this study, the problem-based-learning framework was implemented in a high school Anatomy and Physiology classroom. Using pre-tests and post-tests over the material presented using the Problem-based technique, student comprehension and long-term retention of the material was monitored. It was found that Problem-based Learning produced comparable test performance when compared to traditional lecture, note-taking, and enrichment activities. In addition, students showed evidence of gaining research and team-working skills.

  18. Efficacy of Continuous High Dose Midazolam Infusion in Childhood Refractory Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Fayyazi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available bjeciveProlonged and uncontrolled refractory status epilepticus (SE is a life-threatening medical emergency in children (1,2,3. There is no consensus on the optimal therapy for refractory status epilepticus (1. The aim of this study was to develop a new method for treating patients with refractory status epilepticus.Materials & MethodsTen children with refractory status epilepticus in Mofid Hospital, who did not respond to 10 μg/kg per min of intravenous midazolam, had their dose of midazolam increased to 30 μg/kg per min. All children were monitored for the development of side effects.ResultsTen children with no response to low-dose midazolam were given a higher dose of midazolam, and 5 (50% children had a good response. These patients had significantly different response to high-dose midazolam.One patient in the high-dose midazolam group was intubated and required mechanical ventilation. The duration of stay in the hospital and PICU and on mechanical ventilation in patients with no response to low-dose midazolam following with other drugs was longer than in the high-dose midazolam group.No death occurred in high dose midazolam group.ConclusionHigh-midazolam dose drip infusion is a safe and effective protocol for refractory status epilepticus in children.

  19. Efficacy of High-Dose Baclofen for Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Bulimia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Sébastien; Lalanne, Laurence; Riegert, Myriam; Bertschy, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    High-dose baclofen is a promising treatment for alcohol use disorder, with a specific action on craving. A more general action on craving in other addictive disorders has been suggested based on the hypothesis of a common neurobiological pathway in addictions. We report the case of a woman with both alcohol use disorder and bulimia nervosa. There was a positive response to high-dose baclofen on alcohol craving, but no response on food craving. The case illustrates that craving could be differentially responsive to anti-craving drugs.

  20. EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF HIGH-INTENSITY PULSED-PERIODIC LASER RADIATION (CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sokolov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the experience of clinical observations, we have shown a high therapeutic effectiveness of the medical laser KULON-MED in: cosmetics, non-cancer inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and cancer (cancer of the stomach and colon as at different wavelengths, and with different types of photosensitizers. In the area of anti-tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT, based on experimental studies, we have showed the high antitumor (sarcoma S‑37 effectiveness of the laser (with the inhibition of tumor growth of up to 100% for repetitively pulsed irradiation mode, and for mode fractionation doses laser radiation. In addition, significant differences are shown in the effectiveness of anticancer PDT methods in the application of high-intensity lasers, continuous and pulsed caused fundamental properties of laser radiation characteristics – time structure of the radiation pulses. Thus, for the first time we have shown that the time of high-intensity laser pulses structure significantly affects therapeutic efficacy laser system, and hence on the mechanisms of interaction of laser radiation with biological tissue.

  1. High School Girls' Negotiation of Perceived Self-Efficacy and Science Course Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jill Voorhees; Johnson, Ane Turner

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability issues have led to increased demands for a STEM-literate society and workforce. Potential contributors need to be competent, have an understanding of earth and physical sciences, and be willing to pursue such fields. High school girls, however, remain underrepresented in physical science course enrollments (College Board, 2014).…

  2. Gender Fair Efficacy of Concept Mapping Tests in Identifying Students' Difficulties in High School Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

    2014-01-01

    In view of the perceived difficulty of organic chemistry unit for high schools students, this study examined the usefulness of concept mapping as a testing device to assess students' difficulty in the select areas. Since many tests used for identifying students misconceptions and difficulties in school subjects are observed to favour one or the…

  3. Curriculum for Junior High School Students: Dairy Food Consumption Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobocik, Rebecca S.; Haar, Christine M.; Dawson, Erin E.; Coleman, Priscilla; Bakies, Karen

    2009-01-01

    A nutrition education module for a family and consumer sciences curriculum was developed and evaluated with junior high school students (n = 63) using a quasi-experimental design. The multivariate interaction between time of measurement and intervention was significant, F (2, 50) = 8.68, p = 0.001.The univariate interaction between pre and post…

  4. Curriculum for Junior High School Students: Dairy Food Consumption Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobocik, Rebecca S.; Haar, Christine M.; Dawson, Erin E.; Coleman, Priscilla; Bakies, Karen

    2009-01-01

    A nutrition education module for a family and consumer sciences curriculum was developed and evaluated with junior high school students (n = 63) using a quasi-experimental design. The multivariate interaction between time of measurement and intervention was significant, F (2, 50) = 8.68, p = 0.001.The univariate interaction between pre and post…

  5. Blind Biobanking of the Prostatectomy Specimen: Critical Evaluation of the Existing Techniques and Development of the New 4-Level Tissue Extraction Model With High Sampling Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkach, Yuri; Eminaga, Okyaz; Wötzel, Fabian; Huss, Sebastian; Bettendorf, Olaf; Eltze, Elke; Abbas, Mahmoud; Imkamp, Florian; Semjonow, Axel

    2017-03-01

    Fresh tissue is mandatory to perform high-quality translation studies. Several models for tissue extraction from prostatectomy specimens without guidance by frozen sections are already introduced. However, little is known about the sampling efficacy of these models, which should provide representative tissue in adequate volumes, account for multifocality and heterogeneity of tumor, not violate the routine final pathological examination, and perform quickly without frozen section-based histological control. The aim of the study was to evaluate the sampling efficacy of the existing tissue extraction models without guidance by frozen sections ("blind") and to develop an optimized model for tissue extraction. Five hundred thirty-three electronic maps of the tumor distribution in prostates from a single-center cohort of the patients subjected to radical prostatectomy were used for analysis. Six available models were evaluated in silico for their sampling efficacy. Additionally, a novel model achieving the best sampling efficacy was developed. The available models showed high efficacies for sampling "any part" from the tumor (up to 100%), but were uniformly low in efficacy to sample all tumor foci from the specimens (with the best technique sampling only 51.6% of the all tumor foci). The novel 4-level extraction model achieved a sampling efficacy of 93.1% for all tumor foci. The existing "blind" tissue extraction models from prostatectomy specimens without frozen sections control are suitable to target tumor tissues but these tissues do not represent the whole tumor. The novel 4-level model provides the highest sampling efficacy and a promising potential for integration into routine. Prostate 77: 396-405, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. High Risk Suicidal Behavior in Veterans - Assessment of Predictors and Efficacy of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    more hours of treatment and for homeless , substance abusing males, there was considerable early drop-out in both arms. Our supplemental funding is...Planning: Findings From a Pilot Study. Crisis : The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention 36(5): 371-383, doi: 10.1027/0227-5910...psychotherapy treatments as both groups had high drops out in this subset. These individuals were primarily male, homeless and abusing substances

  7. Impact of low versus high fluidic settings on the efficacy and safety of phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriefl, Sabine M; Stifter, Eva; Menapace, Rupert

    2014-09-01

      To compare intraoperative efficiency and postoperative outcomes of cataract surgery with low and high fluidic settings.   In this prospective, randomized, single-blinded study, 114 eyes of 57 patients were operated with low fluidic settings for one eye (group I) and high fluidic settings for the other eye (group II). Efficiency was judged as metred surgery time, effective phacoemulsification time (EPT) and the amount of balanced salt solution used. Visual outcome and endothelial cell count were determined 1 week and 18 months postoperatively.   The overall effective phacoemulsification energy was statistically significantly lower (p = 0.003) in group II than in group I. Conquest of the nuclei was achieved with about two-thirds of the energy needed in group I, with 6.59 ± 4.79 effective ultrasound energy compared with 3.99 ± 3.18 (p = 0.001). Overall, about 12% more solution was used in group II than in group I. Median visual acuity was 1.0 for both groups 18 months after surgery. The mean endothelial cell loss was 5.0% in eyes in group I compared with 6.3% in eyes in group II (p > 0.5).   Switching from low fluidic settings with a conventional coaxial 20G phacoemulsification tip to higher fluidic settings with a microcoaxial phaco tip statistically significantly decreases EPT. As only marginally more solution was used with the higher aspiration flow, occlusion must be accomplished more often with high than with low fluidics. Aspiration of the quadrants was therefore more efficient with high fluidic settings. The enhanced pump speed did not result in more tissue damage. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

  9. The Effects of High Scientific Literacy, Self-Efficacy, and Achievement Motivation on Teachers' Ability to Compose Effective Tests: Case Study from Manado, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poluakan, Cosmas

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effects of high scientific literacy, self-efficacy, and achievement motivation on teachers' ability to compose effective tests. It was conducted among junior high school science teachers in Manado, North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, from April to September 2011, using a cross-sectional survey design.…

  10. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Lol p 5C, a novel allergen isoform of rye grass pollen demonstrating high IgE reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphioglu, C; Mawdsley, D; Schäppi, G; Gruehn, S; de Leon, M; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    1999-12-03

    A novel isoform of a major rye grass pollen allergen Lol p 5 was isolated from a cDNA expression library. The new isoform, Lol p 5C, shares 95% amino acid sequence identity with Lol p 5A. Both isoforms demonstrated shared antigenic activity but different allergenic activities. Recombinant Lol p 5C demonstrated 100% IgE reactivity in 22 rye grass pollen sensitive patients. In comparison, recombinant Lol p 5A showed IgE reactivity in less than 64% of the patients. Therefore, Lol p 5C represents a novel and highly IgE-reactive isoform allergen of rye grass pollen.

  11. Generation of high-fidelity four-photon cluster state and quantum-domain demonstration of one-way quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Yuuki; Kuwashiro, Shin; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2008-05-30

    We experimentally demonstrate a simple scheme for generating a four-photon entangled cluster state with fidelity over 0.860+/-0.015. We show that the fidelity is high enough to guarantee that the produced state is distinguished from Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger, W, and Dicke types of genuine four-qubit entanglement. We also demonstrate basic operations of one-way quantum computing using the produced state and show that the output state fidelities surpass classical bounds, which indicates that the entanglement in the produced state essentially contributes to the quantum operation.

  12. Efficacy and tolerability of high oral doses of levetiracetam in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Makram; Pong, Amanda W

    2010-09-01

    Despite the advent of new antiepileptic drugs, many children continue to have refractory seizures. We sought to determine whether oral LEV is helpful in seizure control and tolerable at doses higher than 60mg/kg/day in the pediatric outpatient population. A retrospective chart review over a 1.5-year period was performed at the Columbia Comprehensive Epilepsy Center to identify children who were treated with levetiracetam doses titrated above the usual 40-60mg/kg/day. Data was collected on seizure semiology, epilepsy type, seizure frequency, concomitant antiepileptic drugs, and adverse effects. Thirty-two children, ranging in age from 1 to 19 years, required high dose levetiracetam. The median dosage of levetiracetam was 146mg/kg/day (range, 70-275mg/kg/day), and the median maximum serum trough level was 43mcg/ml (range, 20-121mcg/ml). All but one patient were taking one or more other antiepileptic drugs. A more than 50% reduction in seizure frequency was observed in 14 children (44%), with 5 achieving seizure freedom (16%). No response to high dose levetiracetam was found in 14 children (44%), and worsening of seizure frequency occurred in 4 (12%). Adverse effects were observed in 4 patients (12%), and were behavioral. Not only do some children tolerate high doses and serum levels of levetiracetam, but they may also benefit from them, suggesting that doses higher than 60mg/kg/day may be considered in children who partially respond to the lower doses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High antiangiogenic and low anticoagulant efficacy of orally active low molecular weight heparin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Woo; Jeon, Ok Cheol; Kim, Sang Kyoon; Al-Hilal, Taslim Ahmed; Jin, Shun Ji; Moon, Hyun Tae; Yang, Victor C; Kim, Sang Yoon; Byun, Youngro

    2010-12-20

    absorbable, showed minimal anticoagulant activity and inhibits tumor growth via antiangiogenesis. These findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of LHD4 as a new oral anti-cancer drug.

  14. Efficacy of a single high dose versus multiple low doses of LLLT on wounded skin fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Denise H.; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2007-07-01

    Background/purpose: In vivo studies have demonstrated that phototherapy accelerates wound healing in the clinical environment; however the exact mechanism is still not completely understood. The main focus of this study was to use in vitro laboratory results to establish an effective treatment regimen that may be practical and applicable to the clinical environment. This in vitro study aimed to compare the cellular responses of wounded fibroblasts following a single exposure of 5 J/cm2 or multiple exposures of low doses (2.5 J/cm2 or 5 J/cm2) on one day of the week to a single application of a higher dose (16 J/cm2) on day 1 and day 4. Methodology: Cellular responses to Helium-Neon (632.8 nm) laser irradiation were evaluated by measuring changes in cell morphology, cell viability, cell proliferation, membrane integrity and DNA damage. Results: Wounded cells exposed to 5 J/cm2 on day 1 and day 4 showed an increase in cell viability, increase in the release of bFGF, increase in cell density, decrease in ALP enzyme activity and decrease in caspase 3/7 activity indicating a stimulatory effect. Wounded cells exposed to three doses of 5 J/cm2 on day 1 showed a decrease in cell viability and cell proliferation and an increase in LDH cytotoxicity and DNA damage indicating an inhibitory effect. Conclusion: Results indicate that cellular responses are influenced by the combination of dose administered, number of exposures and time between exposures. Single doses administered with sufficient time between exposures is more beneficial to restoring cell function than multiple doses within a short period. Although this work confirms previous reports on the cumulative effect of laser irradiation it provides essential information for the initiation of in vivo clinical studies.

  15. Efficacy of a high-resolution consultation system in gastroenterology at an Andalusian hospital center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Zambrana-García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: By high resolution consultation (HRC we mean an ambulatory process of assistance fulfilled in a single day, by which treatment and diagnosis are established and recorded. Objective: To assess to which extent patients with digestive conditions may benefit from a single consultation system. Material: A descriptive study of 179 first visit events, randomly selected as high-resolution consultations in gastroenterology. We discuss the percentage of patients who benefited from HRC and the complementary tests performed. Results: Most common conditions included dyspepsia (16%, a family history of colon cancer (16% and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD (16%. Seventy-nine (44% of all first visits became HRCs and 80 (45% required a diagnostic test (100% abdominal ultrasound that was reviewed on the same day. Performing a test on the same day significantly increased the percentage of HRCs (57% vs. 34%, p < 0.002. GERD, dyspepsia, cholelithiasis and chronic liver disease were the subjects most commonly leading to HRC. Conclusions: Gastroenterology consultations may largely benefit from an HRC system with only organizational changes and no additional costs.

  16. Exploring the relationship between preferences for high fat foods and efficacy of the ketogenic and modified Atkins diets among children with seizure disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Adrianna; Turner, Zahava; Rubenstein, James E; Miller, Jonathan R; Kossoff, Eric H

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has indicated that children with seizures may prefer high fat foods - a preference compatible with ketogenic and modified Atkins dietary therapies. The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the relationship between fat preference and efficacy of therapeutic diets in treating intractable seizures among a pediatric population. Preference for high fat foods was directly assessed in a sample of 30 children prior to commencing either the ketogenic or modified Atkins diet. Seizure control was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following diet initiation. Using an intent-to-treat analysis, correlations between fat preference and diet efficacy were examined at each follow-up and across the follow-up period. At individual follow-ups, correlations between fat preference and diet efficacy varied in terms of both strength and significance; however, modest, positive correlations with fat preference were significant when examining high levels of efficacy (100% seizure reduction, ≥90% seizure reduction) across a 1-year follow-up period. These findings provide preliminary evidence that fat preference, when directly assessed, may be a useful predictor of treatment efficacy for the ketogenic and modified Atkins diets; however, further research is necessary. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of low pH on surface rehardening efficacy of high concentration fluoride treatments on non-cavitated lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cabezas, C; Jiang, H; Fontana, M; Eckert, G

    2012-06-01

    Professionally applied acidulated phosphate fluoride has been shown to reduce caries incidence. However, it has been suggested that its efficacy might be reduced in advanced non-cavitated lesions. This study aimed to compare the surface rehardening and fluoride uptake effect of 2%-NaF solutions at different pH on non-cavitated caries-like lesions with two different levels of demineralization. Human enamel specimens were demineralized to create early and advanced non-cavitated lesions. Specimens for each type of lesion were divided into 3 groups, treated for four minutes with either 2%-NaF pH 3.5, 2%-NaF at pH 7.0, or neutral deionized water, and exposed to a pH cycling remineralization/demineralization model for five days. An additional treatment was then done as described above followed by five more days of cycling (total of 2 treatments, ten-day pH cycling). Specimens were analyzed for surface microhardness change and fluoride uptake. It was found that for both types of lesions, acidic pH fluoride treatment was significantly (pfluoride uptake. Furthermore, the low pH vs neutral pH difference in rehardening was significantly larger in the less demineralized lesions (p=0.0001). Water treatment resulted in no rehardening or fluoride uptake. Results from this study suggest that high concentration fluoride treatments at acidic pH are more effective in rehardening the surface of non-cavitated caries lesions and promoting fluoride uptake than those at neutral pH. This effect appears to be greater in less demineralized lesions when compared to more advanced ones. The results of this investigation suggest that when no other attenuating circumstances are present (e.g., the possibility of damaging tooth-coloured restorations), high concentration fluoride treatments for high risk individuals might be more efficacious using products at low pH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High fidelity medical simulation in the difficult environment of a helicopter: feasibility, self-efficacy and cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holland Carolyn

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed the feasibility, self-efficacy and cost of providing a high fidelity medical simulation experience in the difficult environment of an air ambulance helicopter. Methods Seven of 12 EM residents in their first postgraduate year participated in an EMS flight simulation as the flight physician. The simulation used the Laerdal SimMan™ to present a cardiac and a trauma case in an EMS helicopter while running at flight idle. Before and after the simulation, subjects completed visual analog scales and a semi-structured interview to measure their self-efficacy, i.e. comfort with their ability to treat patients in the helicopter, and recognition of obstacles to care in the helicopter environment. After all 12 residents had completed their first non-simulated flight as the flight physician; they were surveyed about self-assessed comfort and perceived value of the simulation. Continuous data were compared between pre- and post-simulation using a paired samples t-test, and between residents participating in the simulation and those who did not using an independent samples t-test. Categorical data were compared using Fisher's exact test. Cost data for the simulation experience were estimated by the investigators. Results The simulations functioned correctly 5 out of 7 times; suggesting some refinement is necessary. Cost data indicated a monetary cost of $440 and a time cost of 22 hours of skilled instructor time. The simulation and non-simulation groups were similar in their demographics and pre-hospital experiences. The simulation did not improve residents' self-assessed comfort prior to their first flight (p > 0.234, but did improve understanding of the obstacles to patient care in the helicopter (p = 0.029. Every resident undertaking the simulation agreed it was educational and it should be included in their training. Qualitative data suggested residents would benefit from high fidelity simulation in other

  19. On the efficacy of the wavelet decomposition for high frequency vibration analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Cheng, L.

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the extraordinary ability of the wavelet decomposition for vibration analyses under the framework of Rayleigh-Ritz method. Using a beam as an example, Daubechies wavelet scale functions are used as admissible functions for decomposing the flexural displacement of the structure, along with the artificial springs at the boundary, to predict vibration of an Euler-Bernoulli beam in an extremely large frequency range. It is shown that the use of wavelet basis allows reaching very high frequencies, typically covering more than 1000 modes using conventional computational facility within the available numerical dynamics of the computers with no particular care needed for round-off errors. As a side benefit, the use of spring boundary also allows handling any elastic boundary conditions through a dynamic contribution in the Hamiltonian of the beam. The wavelet decomposed approach combines the flexibility of the global methods and the accuracy of local methods by inheriting the versatility of the Rayleigh-Ritz approach and the superior fitting ability of the wavelets. Numerical results on both free and forced vibrations are given, in excellent agreement with predictions of classical methods.

  20. PAIN RELIFE DURING LABOR: EFFICACY OF SKIN ELECTRICAL STIMULATION (TENS, INTERFERENTIAL, HIGH VOLTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z SHAHSHAHAN

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pain during labor is a physiologic pain cause anxity in mothers.There are many procedures to make labor painless in mothers. This study compare some of these methods. Methods. The study was carried out as a double blinded clinical trial on 149 pregnant women who refered to the Beheshti hospital (affiliated to IUMSHSduring 1998 to 2001 with labor pain. The term gravid women were divided randomly to five group. Control group (30 Cases,Placebo group (30 Cases, TENS (30 Cases, High voltage (26 Cases and Interferential (30 Cases.Pain level was measured with modified Mc Gill and Visual Analog Scale (VAS questionnaire at 4, 6, 8 and 10 Cm cervical dilation. Results. Difference was seen between TENS with placebo & control (P<0.05. The average time of active phase was significantly shorter (40-85 minute in Interferential group in comparison with other groups. Discussion. This is probably an indication of augmentation of contraction and may be this kind of wave could be used in abnormal uterine contraction and abnormal progress of labor.

  1. Experimental demonstration of high spectral-efficiency transmission with a novel non-interferometric vector modulator and custom DSP algorithms for coherent PON architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarou, I.; Spatharakis, C.; Katopodis, V.; Dris, S.; Bakopoulos, P.; Schrenk, B.; Avramopoulos, H.

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate a flexible multi-format vector modulator for coherent passive optical network (PON) architectures based on a non-interferometric cascade of a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) and an Electro-Absorption Modulator (EAM) that exhibits increased simplicity and high energy-efficiency at low cost. 12- and 16- Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) constellations are generated, achieving modulation efficiencies of 3.6 and 4 bits/symbol respectively. The presented results demonstrate successful transmission over 25 km of fiber below the Forward Error Correction (FEC) limit, with sufficient compatible loss-budgets, making the proposed modulator concept an attractive candidate for urban network deployments, where high user density demands spectrally efficient formats. In addition, we describe the operation principle of the proposed modulator in detail and finally, the complete set of the digital signal processing (DSP) functionalities and algorithms that follow the standard coherent detection scheme is given, emphasizing on novel methods for QAM signal demodulation with uncommon constellation diagrams.

  2. Demonstration and Comparison Study for V- and W-Band Real-Time High-Definition Video Delivery in Diverse Fiber-Wireless Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedev, Alexander; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Pang, Xiaodan;

    2013-01-01

    This article experimentally demonstrates uncompressed high-definition video distribution in V-band (50–75 GHz) and W-band (75–110 GHz) fiber-wireless links achieving 3 m of wireless transmission in both cases. Access architecture is experimentally emulated by deploying single/multi-mode fibers......-band fiber-wireless systems is demonstrated with prospects to pave the way for application-focused fiber-wireless connectivity........ For the W-band, experimental assessment of passive and active approaches for implementation of remote antenna units is reported. The bit error rate performance of the optical and wireless channels is reported. A successful transmission of real-time uncompressed high-definition video in the V- and W...

  3. The Impact of Organizational Culture on High School Teachers' Self-Efficacy, Job Satisfaction, and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNicola, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that school culture, comprised of the variables cultivating a culture of collaboration, employing a data-informed focus on improvement through professional communication, and organizational commitment had on teachers' self-efficacy (teacher autonomy, interpersonal efficacy, and professional…

  4. Efficacy of standard vs. extended intramammary cefquinome treatment of clinical mastitis in cows with persistent high somatic cell counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, Jantijn M.; Krömker, Volker; Lam, Theo J G M

    2014-01-01

    Extended duration of clinical mastitis (CM) treatment has been advocated, although results showing its higher efficacy compared with standard treatment are difficult to compare and seem conflicting. In a non-blinded, positively controlled clinical trial with systematic allocation, the efficacy of a

  5. The Role of the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project in Promoting Scientific Efficacy among Middle and High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Mary; Deutscher, Rebecca

    This study investigated the effects on student scientific efficacy after participation in the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project. In the GAVRT program, students use computers to record extremely faint radio waves collected by the telescope and analyze real data. Scientific efficacy is a type of self-knowledge a person uses to…

  6. Folic acid conjugated self-assembled layered double hydroxide nanoparticles for high-efficacy-targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Huang, Longbiao; Wang, Zhigang; Zhu, Guangyu; Roy, V A L; Yu, K N; Chen, Xianfeng

    2013-12-04

    Enhanced selectivity and efficacy is important for advanced drug delivery. Herein, a novel type of folic acid conjugated self-assembled layered double hydroxide nanoparticles is reported. These nanoparticles have a drug loading capacity of 27 wt% and are able to enter cell nuclei and dramatically improve the efficacy of MTX.

  7. Anti-tumor efficacy study of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, ONO/GS-4059, in combination with the glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab (GA101) demonstrates superior in vivo efficacy compared to ONO/GS-4059 in combination with rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhiro, Tomoko; Sawada, Wako; Klein, Christian; Kozaki, Ryohei; Hotta, Shingo; Yoshizawa, Toshio

    2017-03-01

    The activated B-cell diffuse large B-cell-like lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) correlates with poor prognosis. The B-cell receptor signaling pathway is known to be dysregulated in NHL/CLL and given BTK is a downstream mediator of BCR signaling, BTK constitutes an interesting and obvious therapeutic target. Given the high potency and selectivity of the BTK inhibitor, ONO/GS-4059, it was hypothesized that, the anti-tumor activity of ONO/GS-4059 could be further enhanced by combining it with the anti-CD20 Abs, rituximab (RTX) or obinutuzumab (GA101). ONO/GS-4059 combined with GA101 or RTX was significantly better than the respective monotherapy with tumor growth inhibition (TGI) of 90% for the GA101 combination and 86% for the RTX combination. In contrast, ibrutinib (PCI-32765) combined with RTX did not result in improved efficacy compared with respective monotherapy. Taken together these data indicate that the combination of ONO/GS-4059 with rituximab and particularly obinutuzumab may be an effective treatment for ABC-DLBCL.

  8. Efficacy Comparison of Tenofovir and Entecavir in HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with High HBV DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare entecavir (ETV and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF effects in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients with high HBV DNA. Method. 96 patients treated initially with tenofovir (TDF group or entecavir (ETV group were included in this retrospective study. The following parameters were assessed: HBeAg and hepatitis B e antibody (anti-HBe status, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and HBV-DNA levels at weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 96; time to ALT normalization, undetectable HBV-DNA levels, and HBeAg seroconversion; total duration of follow-up and adverse reactions. Results. The patients included 66 (69% and 30 (31% individuals administered ETV and TDF, respectively, comprising 75% males. They were 35.1±4.5 and 33.7±4.6 years old in ETV and TDF groups, respectively. At 36 weeks, the response rate was significantly higher in the TDF group than in ETV treated patients (90% versus 69.7%, p=0.03. At 48 weeks, less patients administered ETV showed undetectable HBV-DNA levels compared with the TDF group (86.4% versus 96.7%, a non-statistically significant difference (p=0.13. Only 1 ETV treated patient developed virological breakthrough at 48–96 w. No adverse reactions were found. Conclusion. ETV and TDF are comparable in efficacy and safety to suppress HBV-DNA replication in HBeAg-positive CHB patients with high HBV DNA.

  9. Cataract Surgery Performed by High Frequency LDV Z8 Femtosecond Laser: Safety, Efficacy, and Its Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Pajic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of the LDV Z8 femtosecond laser in cataract surgery compared to the conventional procedure. Methods: This prospective study was performed at the Swiss Eye Research Foundation, Eye Clinic ORASIS, Reinach, Switzerland. The study included 130 eyes from 130 patients: 68 treated with femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS using the FEMTO LDV Z8 and 62 treated with conventional phacoemulsification. Capsulotomy and lens fragmentation in the laser group were performed with the FEMTO LDV Z8 femtosecond laser system, which employs a new, low-energy, high repetition rate laser process for cataract surgery. In the conventional group, the capsulotomy was performed by a cystotome, and lens fragmentation was achieved by the stop-and-chop. Results: Ease of phacoemulsification (on a 4-point scale, the completeness of capsulotomy (on a 10-point scale, effective phacoemulsification time (seconds, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCVA, best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity (BSCVA, spherical equivalent (SE, and safety of the procedure were evaluated. The total follow-up time was three months. Conclusions: FLACS with the FEMTO LDV Z8 system was characterized by complete and reproducible capsulotomy and highly effective lens fragmentation. Postoperative visual outcomes were excellent, and the safety of the procedure was optimal.

  10. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  11. The Efficacy of the Application of Highly Specialised Surface Engineering Methods in the Economy.Case Study.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adam Mazurkiewicz; Jerzy Smolik; Jan Walkowicz

    2004-01-01

    The development of materials technologies, including surface engineering is one of the main trends in the knowledge-based economy. The direct advantages of the application of these technologies are the energy and raw materials saving and the lack of negative influence on the natural environment. The disadvantages are the high equipment and operating costs, the requirement of the highest service qualifications and the necessity to develop specialized technological solutions for different kinds of applications, tools and processes. The potential economic and practical effects are so significant that except for new scientific and technological solutions new innovative organizational solutions are being searched. They should enable an extensive application of innovations in all economy sectors, including SMEs, so the investment possibilities and specialized skills would not constitute decisive limitations. A concept, assumptions, principles of operation and practical implementation of such a model organisational structure - Plasma Technologies Centre of the Institute for Terotechnology (ITeE Radom, Poland) are presented in the article. Development trends directly correlated with the needs of the national market and economy as well as network connections within Framework Programmes of the European Union are depicted. Examples of several highly specialised technological solutions (out of a few dozen solutions implemented in the PTC) and their technological efficacy are described.

  12. Fasciola hepatica demonstrates high levels of genetic diversity, a lack of population structure and high gene flow: possible implications for drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Nicola J; Williams, Diana J L; Paterson, Steve; Hodgkinson, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, the liver fluke, is a trematode parasite of considerable economic importance to the livestock industry and is a re-emerging zoonosis that poses a risk to human health in F. hepatica-endemic areas worldwide. Drug resistance is a substantial threat to the current and future control of F. hepatica, yet little is known about how the biology of the parasite influences the development and spread of resistance. Given that F. hepatica can self-fertilise and therefore inbreed, there is the potential for greater population differentiation and an increased likelihood of recessive alleles, such as drug resistance genes, coming together. This could be compounded by clonal expansion within the snail intermediate host and aggregation of parasites of the same genotype on pasture. Alternatively, widespread movement of animals that typically occurs in the UK could promote high levels of gene flow and prevent population differentiation. We identified clonal parasites with identical multilocus genotypes in 61% of hosts. Despite this, 84% of 1579 adult parasites had unique multilocus genotypes, which supports high levels of genotypic diversity within F. hepatica populations. Our analyses indicate a selfing rate no greater than 2%, suggesting that this diversity is in part due to the propensity for F. hepatica to cross-fertilise. Finally, although we identified high genetic diversity within a given host, there was little evidence for differentiation between populations from different hosts, indicating a single panmictic population. This implies that, once those emerge, anthelmintic resistance genes have the potential to spread rapidly through liver fluke populations.

  13. Demonstration of an optimised focal field with long focal depth and high transmission obtained with the Extended Nijboer-Zernike theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnenberg, A P; Wei, L; Kumar, N; Filho, L Couto Correa Pinto; Cisotto, L; Pereira, S F; Urbach, H P

    2014-01-13

    In several optical systems, a specific Point Spread Function (PSF) needs to be generated. This can be achieved by shaping the complex field at the pupil. The Extended Nijboer-Zernike (ENZ) theory relates complex Zernike modes on the pupil directly to functions in the focal region. In this paper, we introduce a method to engineer a PSF using the ENZ theory. In particular, we present an optimization algorithm to design an extended depth of focus with high lateral resolution, while keeping the transmission of light high (over 60%). We also have demonstrated three outcomes of the algorithm using a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM).

  14. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  15. Efficacy of Four Fluoride Mouth Rinses on Streptococcus mutans in High Caries Risk Children – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupathiraju, Prameela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries has been traditionally described as a multifactorial disease that involves the interaction of various factors like host, agent, substrate and time. Landmark studies have established the fact that Mutans Streptococci are the primary etiologic agents of dental caries. The prevention of dental caries by fluoride supplements in various vehicles, such as water and toothpaste, constitutes one of the most successful prevention measures. Aim The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical efficacy of four fluoride mouth rinses on Streptococcus mutans in high caries risk children and also to check the efficacy of the ingredient Triclosan which is present in two of the four mouth rinses. Materials and Methods The study is double blinded, consisting of 1000 children in age group 6-14yrs who were screened from residential schools. Of the total, 200 children were categorized as high caries risk group based on caries risk assessment tool form given by American Association of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) guidelines 2011. Prior to the study, salivary samples were collected and sent for microbial analysis to estimate Streptococcus mutans counts. Out of 200 salivary samples, 132 showed 106CFU of Streptococcus mutans and these children were included in the study. The 132 children from each group received the assigned mouth wash for 14 consecutive days. On 15th day the salivary samples were collected and sent for microbial analysis and the obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results All the mouth washes showed a significant reduction in Colony Forming Units (CFU) counts of Streptococcus mutans. Among the four groups Group D (S flo) showed greater percentage reduction of Streptococcus mutans followed by Group A (Act), B (Kidodent) and C (Zerocary). There was no stastically significance reduction of Streptococcus mutans among the Triclosan containing and non containing groups. Conclusion The mean pre rinse CFU was significantly

  16. An investigation of the attitudes, anxieties and self-efficacy beliefs towards mathematics lessons high school students’ in terms of gender, types of school, and students’ grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Izzet Kurbanoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to explore relationships between high school students’ attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs in terms of gender, types of school and students’ grades. In this study, the data were gathered by “Attitudes Towards Mathematics Scale” (Aşkar, 1986 and by “Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale” which was adapted to Turkish by Akın, Kurbanoğlu and Takunyacı (2009. Besides, in order to determine students’ self-efficacy beliefs were determined by self-efficacy, sub-scale of “Motivation Scale” which was adapted to Turkish by Büyüköztürk, Akgün, Özkahveci, & Demirel (2004. The sample of this study consisted of 418 students who attended from three different high schools. The study was conducted during the fall semester of academic year 2009-2010. ANOVA and t-Test were employed to analyze the hypotheses of research. It was observed in the findings of the study that there are no statistically significant differences between students’ gender and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs. But there are statistically significant differences between students’ types of school and students’ grades and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs.    

  17. Two-week extrinsic stain removal efficacy of a sodium fluoride dentifrice with high cleaning silica: results from two randomized, controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, LongXing; Li, Jie; He, Tao; Chang, JinLan; Sun, Lily

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate a stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice with high cleaning silica and polychelation technology (test dentifrice) compared to a currently marketed whitening dentifrice, which carries the ADA Seal of Acceptance for whitening, for its efficacy in removing existing natural stain over a 2-week period. Two independent, randomized, positive-controlled, 2-treatment, parallel group, double-blind, 2-week studies with identical protocols were conducted in China. At baseline, subjects received an oral soft tissue (OST) examination followed by a Lobene stain examination. In each study, approximately 60 subjects having a Lobene stain composite score above 1 were randomized to one of two dentifrice products: the test dentifrice or the positive control. Subjects were instructed to brush twice daily for at least 1 minute with their assigned product. Lobene stain and OST examinations were conducted again after 2 weeks of use. In both studies, the test dentifrice and the positive control dentifrice demonstrated statistically significant reductions in Lobene composite (P0.12).

  18. The efficacy and safety of adjuvant interferon-alfa therapy in the evolving treatment landscape for resected high-risk melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Van Anh; Zobniw, Chrystia; Hwu, Wen-Jen

    2017-08-01

    Patients with resected stage II or III melanoma are at high risk of recurrence, with 5-year mortality rate of 40-60%. Adjuvant interferon-alfa has demonstrated a small RFS and OS benefit versus observation in this patient population. However, the adjuvant treatment landscape is evolving rapidly. Areas covered: This review aims to summarize the safety and efficacy profiles of adjuvant IFNα/PEG-IFNα, revisit the controversy surrounding its application, and reappraise its position in the rapidly changing treatment landscape of resected melanoma. A literature search using PubMed database was undertaken using search words melanoma, interferon-alfa, pegylated interferon-alfa, adjuvant therapy. Expert opinion: Currently, there is no international consensus regarding the optimal dosing schedule for adjuvant IFNα, but HD IFNα-2b remains the most widely used regimen. The AEs of HD IFNα-2b are substantial; however, toxicity management experience amassed over the past 2 decades has significantly improved safety. Many exciting studies are ongoing to examine the roles of immune checkpoint inhibitors and BRAF-targeted therapies in the adjuvant setting and will further delineate the role of adjuvant IFNα.

  19. Cluster analysis of bone microarchitecture from high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography demonstrates two separate phenotypes associated with high fracture risk in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M H; Robinson, D E; Ward, K A; Javaid, M K; Walker-Bone, K; Cooper, C; Dennison, E M

    2016-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare problem which is conventionally assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). New technologies such as high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) also predict fracture risk. HRpQCT measures a number of bone characteristics that may inform specific patterns of bone deficits. We used cluster analysis to define different bone phenotypes and their relationships to fracture prevalence and areal bone mineral density (BMD). 177 men and 159 women, in whom fracture history was determined by self-report and vertebral fracture assessment, underwent HRpQCT of the distal radius and femoral neck DXA. Five clusters were derived with two clusters associated with elevated fracture risk. "Cluster 1" contained 26 women (50.0% fractured) and 30 men (50.0% fractured) with a lower mean cortical thickness and cortical volumetric BMD, and in men only, a mean total and trabecular area more than the sex-specific cohort mean. "Cluster 2" contained 20 women (50.0% fractured) and 14 men (35.7% fractured) with a lower mean trabecular density and trabecular number than the sex-specific cohort mean. Logistic regression showed fracture rates in these clusters to be significantly higher than the lowest fracture risk cluster [5] (pcluster 5 in women in cluster 1 and 2 (pcluster 2 (pclusters in both men and women which may differ in etiology and response to treatment. As cluster 1 in men does not have low areal BMD, these men may not be identified as high risk by conventional DXA alone. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Efficacy of cumulative high-frequency rTMS on freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Su; Hyuk Chang, Won; Cho, Jin Whan; Youn, Jinyoung; Kim, Yun Kwan; Woong Kim, Sun; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Freezing of gait (FOG) affects mobility and balance seriously. Few reports have investigated the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on FOG in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We investigated the efficacy of high-frequency rTMS for the treatment of FOG in PD. Methods: Seventeen patients diagnosed with PD were recruited in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study. We applied high frequency rTMS (90% of resting motor threshold, 10 Hz, 1,000 pulses) over the lower leg primary motor cortex of the dominant hemisphere (M1-LL) for five sessions in a week. We also administered alternative sham stimulation with a two-week wash out period. The primary outcomes were measured before, immediately after, and one week after the intervention using the Standing Start 180° Turn Test (SS-180) with video analysis and the Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOG-Q). The secondary outcome measurements consisted of Timed Up and Go (TUG) tasks and the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III). Motor cortical excitability was also evaluated. Results: There were significant improvements in the step required to complete the SS-180 and FOG-Q in the rTMS condition compared to the sham condition, and the effects continued for a week. The TUG and UPDRS-III also showed significant ameliorations over time in the rTMS condition. The MEP amplitude at 120% resting motor threshold and intracortical facilitation also increased after real rTMS condition. Conclusions: High frequency rTMS over the M1-LL may serve as an add-on therapy for improving FOG in PD. PMID:26409410

  1. A Giant Ovarian Cyst in a Neonate with Classical 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency with Very High Testosterone Levels Demonstrating a High-Dose Hook Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güran, Tülay; Yeşil, Gözde; Güran, Ömer; Cesur, Suna; Bosnalı, Oktav; Celayir, Ayşenur; Topçuoğlu, Sevilay; Bereket, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of disorders affecting the adrenal steroid synthesis. The most common form, 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), leads to decreased production of cortisol and aldosterone with increased androgen secretion. In classic CAH, glucocorticoid treatment can be life-saving and serves to bring the symptoms under control. However, the treatment challenge is to effectively control the excess androgen effect by using the lowest possible glucocorticoid dose. Previous studies suggested a relationship between ovarian cyst formation and adrenal androgen excess, but neonatal large ovarian cysts have been very rarely reported in newborns with CAH. Here, we present the unique case of a neonate with classical 21-OHD who underwent surgery for a giant (10x8x7 cm) unilateral solitary ovarian follicular cyst on the 2nd postnatal day. Hormonal evaluation of the patient revealed high-dose hook effect for serum testosterone levels for the first time by a two-site immunoradiometric assay. Possible mechanisms by which androgen excess may cause ovarian cyst formation are discussed. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:22664361

  2. Contribution of Personality to Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations in Selecting a High School Major among Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dikla; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the contribution of five personality traits to the development of self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding selecting a high school major among adolescents with learning disabilities (LD). Social cognitive career theory and the Big Five personality traits model served as the theoretical framework. Participants…

  3. Contribution of Personality to Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations in Selecting a High School Major among Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dikla; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the contribution of five personality traits to the development of self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding selecting a high school major among adolescents with learning disabilities (LD). Social cognitive career theory and the Big Five personality traits model served as the theoretical framework. Participants…

  4. Efficacy and tolerability of a high loading dose (25,000 IU weekly) vitamin D3 supplementation in obese children with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, Nalini N E; van Vliet, Mariska; Poland, Dennis C W; Weijer, Olivier; Beijnen, Jos H; Brandjes, Dees P M; Diamant, Michaela; von Rosenstiel, Ines A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recommended dose of vitamin D supplementation of 400 IU/day might be inadequate to treat obese children with vitamin D insufficiency. Therefore, we tested the efficacy and tolerability of a high loading dose vitamin D3 supplementation of 25,000 IU weekly in multiethnic obese children

  5. Efficacy and tolerability of a high loading dose (25,000 IU weekly) vitamin D3 supplementation in obese children with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, Nalini N E; van Vliet, Mariska; Poland, Dennis C W; Weijer, Olivier; Beijnen, Jos H; Brandjes, Dees P M; Diamant, Michaela; von Rosenstiel, Ines A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recommended dose of vitamin D supplementation of 400 IU/day might be inadequate to treat obese children with vitamin D insufficiency. Therefore, we tested the efficacy and tolerability of a high loading dose vitamin D3 supplementation of 25,000 IU weekly in multiethnic obese

  6. To Vote or Not to Vote? An Exploration of the Factors Contributing to the Political Efficacy and Intent to Vote of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Andrew L.; Weseley, Allyson J.

    2007-01-01

    The turnout rate of America's youngest eligible voters is distressingly low, and it is vital to assess the factors associated with a commitment to participating in the electoral process. High school juniors (N = 133) were surveyed to see how a variety of factors would predict political efficacy. One week later, participants were randomly assigned…

  7. Relationship between Social Context, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, Academic Achievement, and Intention to Drop Out of High School: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivernini, Fabio; Lucidi, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    By means of a longitudinal design the authors sought to determine the role of students' self-determined motivation in reducing the intention to drop out of high school over time, while taking into account the impact of academic performance and of socioeconomic status. The effects of students' self-efficacy and perceived support from parents and…

  8. A pooled analysis of continued prophylactic efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (Types 6/11/16/18) vaccine against high-grade cervical and external genital lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján; Iversen, Ole-Erik;

    2009-01-01

    Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been shown to provide protection from HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical, vaginal, and vulvar disease through 3 years. We provide an update on the efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine against high-grade cervical, vaginal, and vulvar lesions bas...

  9. Effects of a Recruitment Workshop on Selected Urban High School Students' Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Agriculture as a Subject, College Major, and Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraze, Lacee Brianne; Wingenbach, Gary; Rutherford, Tracy; Wolfskill, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if selected high school students' participation in a summer agricultural communications workshop affected their self-efficacy and attitudes toward agriculture as a subject, college major, and/or as a career. Data were gathered from an accessible population (N = 145), from which a purposive sample (n = 94)…

  10. Determination of efficacious vaccine seed strains for use against Egyptian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses through antigenic cartography and in vivo challenge studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2006, there have been reported outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in vaccinated chickens in Africa and Asia. This study provides experimental data for selection of efficacious H5N1 vaccine seed strains against recently circulating strains of H5N1 HPAI viruses in Egypt....

  11. High School Graphics Experience Influencing the Self-Efficacy of First-Year Engineering Students in an Introductory Engineering Graphics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metraglia, Riccardo; Villa, Valerio; Baronio, Gabriele; Adamini, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Today's students enter engineering colleges with different technical backgrounds and prior graphics experience. This may due to their high school of provenience, which can be technical or non-technical. The prior experience affects students' ability in learning and hence their motivation and self-efficacy beliefs. This study intended to evaluate…

  12. Variations in the efficacy of resistant maltodextrin on body fat reduction in rats fed different high-fat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Fang; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Tseng, Yu-Han; Wang, William Wei-Li; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-08

    Many studies have utilized a variety of methods to induce obesity in rodents, but they often received inconsistent results. The present study intended to use resistant maltodextrin (RMD) as a means to investigate the variations in its efficacy on body fat accumulation under the influence of four high-fat (HF) models of 23% or 40% total fat, comprising soybean oil, lard, and/or condensed milk. Results indicated that integrating condensed milk into the diets could help increase diet intake, boost energy intake, increase weight gain, and enhance fat formation. Supplementation of RMD (2.07 g/kg) notably reduced total body fat levels in three HF models, with the exception of a condensed-milk-added 40%-fat diet that may have misrepresented the functions of RMD. The uses of the 23% HF diets, with and without milk, and the milk-free 40% HF diet were therefore recommended as suitable models for antiobesity evaluations of RMD, or other fiber-rich products.

  13. Efficacy of acute caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Roberson, Daniel W

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used drug in the world, commonly ingested in coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks. Its ability to enhance muscular work has been apparent since the early 1900s. Caffeine typically increases endurance performance; however, efficacy of caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise is equivocal, which may be explained by discrepancies in exercise protocols, dosing, and subjects' training status and habitual caffeine intake found across studies. The primary aim of this review is to critically examine studies that have tested caffeine's ability to augment performance during exercise dependent on nonoxidative metabolism such as sprinting, team sports, and resistance training. A review of the literature revealed 29 studies that measured alterations in short-term performance after caffeine ingestion. Each study was critically analyzed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The mean PEDro score was 7.76 +/- 0.87. Eleven of 17 studies revealed significant improvements in team sports exercise and power-based sports with caffeine ingestion, yet these effects were more common in elite athletes who do not regularly ingest caffeine. Six of 11 studies revealed significant benefits of caffeine for resistance training. Some studies show decreased performance with caffeine ingestion when repeated bouts are completed. The exact mechanism explaining the ergogenic effect of caffeine for short-term exercise is unknown.

  14. Efficacy and Tolerability of Weekly Paclitaxel in Combination with High-dose Toremifene Citrate in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okita,Riki

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Toremifene citrate is expected to prevent drug resistance in cancer patients by inhibiting p-glycoprotein activity. The safety and efficacy of combination therapy with high-dose toremifene citrate and paclitaxel were investigated. Between December 2003 and June 2004, 15 women with a mean age of 53 years old with metastatic breast cancer were enrolled. The administration schedule was 80mg/m2 of paclitaxel given on Days 1, 8, and 15, and 120mg/day of toremifene citrate orally administered starting on Day 18. On Days 32 and 39, paclitaxel was concurrently administered again. Toxicities, response rate, and time to treatment failure were assessed. All patients had been treated with endocrine or chemotherapy. Grade 3 leukopenia occurred in 2 patients on the administration of paclitaxel alone, and grade 3 febrile neutropenia occurred in 1 patient given the combination therapy. There was no grade 3 or greater non-hematological toxicity. There was no complete response and 1 partial response, producing a response rate of 6.7%. Median time to treatment failure was 2.7 months. Combination therapy of paclitaxel and toremifene was safe and well tolerated with minimal toxicity. Further clinical trials targeting patients with functional p-glycoprotein are warranted.

  15. Olmesartan medoxomil-based antihypertensive therapy evaluated by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: efficacy in high-risk patient subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, Steven G; Germino, F Wilford; Neutel, Joel M

    2012-12-01

    Hypertension affects approximately 26% of the world's adult population and is a recognized major risk factor for morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal diseases. However, despite the availability of a range of effective antihypertensive agents and a growing awareness of the consequences of high blood pressure (BP), the treatment and control of hypertension remains suboptimal. A number of patient subgroups are categorized as 'high risk' and may have hypertension that is more difficult to treat, including obese individuals, patients with stage 2 hypertension, those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), patients with coronary artery disease or a history of stroke, and Black patients. As the benefits of lowering BP in patients with hypertension are unequivocal, particularly in high-risk patients, treating high-risk patients with hypertension to BP goals and maintaining 24-hour BP control is important to help reduce cardiovascular risk and improve outcomes. Although the BP goals recommended in current consensus guidelines for the management of patients with hypertension are based on cuff BP measurements, ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) provides a valuable diagnostic tool and allows a more accurate assessment of BP levels throughout the 24-hour dosing period. ABPM is a better predictor of prognosis than office BP measurement and is also useful for assessing whether antihypertensive therapy remains effective in the critical last few hours of the dosing period, which usually coincides with the morning BP surge associated with arousal and arising. ABPM has been adopted by new evidence-based guidelines in the United Kingdom to confirm a suspected diagnosis of hypertension, which is an indication of the growing importance of ABPM in the management of hypertension. This review provides an overview of the efficacy and safety of antihypertensive therapy based on olmesartan medoxomil ± hydrochlorothiazide and amlodipine

  16. [Efficacy studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A

    2014-07-01

    Pravafenix(®) is a fixed-dose combination of 40mg of pravastatin and 160 mg of fenofibrate. The rationale behind the use of Pravafenix(®) is based on the increased residual cardiovascular risk observed in high risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia and/or low HDL cholesterol levels despite treatment with statins in monotherapy. In this article, we review the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of Pravafenix(®), which shows complementary benefits in the overall lipid profile of high risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia not controlled with 40-mg pravastatin or 20-mg simvastatin. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis y Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. A Chlorfenapyr Mixture Net Interceptor® G2 Shows High Efficacy and Wash Durability against Resistant Mosquitoes in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guessan, Raphael; Odjo, Abibatou; Ngufor, Corine; Malone, David; Rowland, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Malaria control through use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN) is threatened by the selection of anopheline mosquitoes strongly resistant to pyrethroid insecticides. To sustain future effectiveness it is essential to identify and evaluate novel insecticides suitable for nets. Mixtures of two insecticides with contrasting mode of action have the potential to kill resistant vectors and restore transmission control provided the formulation can withstand regular washing over the net's life span. The efficacy of a novel mixture LN, Interceptor® G2, that combines the pyrrole chlorfenapyr and pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin was evaluated under controlled household conditions (experimental hut trial) and by laboratory bioassay against pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae in Benin before and after standardized washing. Comparison arms included standard alpha-cypermethrin LN, nets hand-treated with chlorfenapyr-only and untreated nets. The chlorfenapyr-alphacypermethrin LN demonstrated improved efficacy and wash resistance compared to a standard alpha-cypermethrin LN against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes (resistance ratio 207). In experimental hut trial alpha-cypermethrin LN killed only 20% (95% CI 15-26%) of host-seeking An. gambiae whilst mixture LN killed 71% (95% CI 65-77%). Mixture LN washed 20 times killed 65% (95% CI 58-71%), and thus intensive washing reduced efficacy by only 6% (95% CI 1.3-11%). The chlorfenapyr net killed 76% (95% CI 70-81%). Personal protection and blood feeding inhibition did not differ between mixture and pyrethroid LN; however, the mixture LN was 2.5 (95% CI: 2.1-3.1) times more protective than untreated nets. Standard WHO cone bioassays conducted during day time hours failed to anticipate field efficacy but overnight tunnel tests successfully predicted mixture LN and chlorfenapyr net efficacy in field trials. Interceptor® G2 LN demonstrates the potential to control transmission and provide community protection over the normal lifespan of

  18. 808 nm-excited upconversion nanoprobes with low heating effect for targeted magnetic resonance imaging and high-efficacy photodynamic therapy in HER2-overexpressed breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Leyong; Pan, Yuanwei; Zou, Ruifen; Zhang, Jinchao; Tian, Ying; Teng, Zhaogang; Wang, Shouju; Ren, Wenzhi; Xiao, Xueshan; Zhang, Jichao; Zhang, Lili; Li, Aiguo; Lu, Guangming; Wu, Aiguo

    2016-10-01

    To avoid the overheating effect of excitation light and improve the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of upconversion nanoplatform, a novel nanoprobe based on 808 nm-excited upconversion nanocomposites (T-UCNPs@Ce6@mSiO2) with low heating effect and deep penetration has been successfully constructed for targeted upconversion luminescence, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-efficacy PDT in HER2-overexpressed breast cancer. In this nanocomposite, photosensitizers (Ce6) were covalently conjugated inside of mesoporous silica to enhance the PDT efficacy by shortening the distance of fluorescence resonance energy transfer and to decrease the cytotoxicity by preventing the undesired leakage of Ce6. Compared with UCNPs@mSiO2@Ce6, UCNPs@Ce6@mSiO2 greatly promoted the singlet oxygen generation and amplified the PDT efficacy under the excitation of 808 nm laser. Importantly, the designed nanoprobe can greatly improve the uptake of HER2-positive cells and tumors by modifying the site-specific peptide, and the in vivo experiments showed excellent MRI and PDT via intravenous injection by modeling MDA-MB-435 tumor-bearing nude mice. Our strategy may provide an effective solution for overcoming the heating effect and improving the PDT efficacy of upconversion nanoprobes, and has potential application in visualized theranostics of HER2-overexpressed breast cancer.

  19. A survey of diet self-efficacy and food intake in students with high and low perceived stress

    OpenAIRE

    Nastaskin, Robyn S; Fiocco, Alexandra J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Given the rise in obesity and obesity-related disorders, understanding the relationship between stress, self-efficacy and food choice in young adulthood may have implications for preventing negative health outcomes later in life that stem from poor eating habits. The current study examined whether stress levels and diet self-efficacy may be associated with unhealthy eating habits in young adults. Methods Male and female undergraduate students (N = 136) completed questionnaires that ...

  20. Computed tomography-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma: safety, efficacy, and effect on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohnike, Konrad; Wieners, Gero; Schwartz, Franziska; Seidensticker, Max; Pech, Maciej; Ruehl, Ricarda; Wust, Peter; Lopez-Hänninen, Enrique; Gademann, Günther; Peters, Nils; Berg, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Ricke, Jens

    2010-09-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided brachytherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 83 patients were recruited, presenting with 140 HCC- lesions. Treatment was performed by CT-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with an iridium-192 source. The primary endpoint was time to progression; secondary endpoints included local tumor control and overall survival (OS). A matched-pair analysis with patients not receiving brachytherapy was performed. Match criteria included the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score, alpha-fetoprotein, presence, and extent of multifocal disease. For statistical analysis, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression were performed. Mean and median cumulative TTP for all patients (n = 75) were 17.7 and 10.4 months. Five local recurrences were observed. The OS after inclusion reached median times of 19.4 months (all patients), 46.3 months (CLIP score, 0), 20.6 months (CLIP score, 1) 12.7 months, (CLIP score, 2), and 8.3 months (CLIP score, >or=3). The 1- and 3-year OS were 94% and 65% (CLIP score, 0), 69% and 12% (CLIP score, 1), and 48% and 19% (CLIP score, 2), respectively. Nine complications requiring intervention were encountered in 124 interventions. Matched-pair analysis revealed a significantly longer OS for patients undergoing CT-guided brachytherapy. Based on our results the study treatment could be safely performed. The study treatment had a beneficial effect on OS in patients with advanced HCC, with respect to (and depending on) the CLIP score and compared with OS in a historical control group. A high rate of local control was also observed, regardless of applied dose in a range of 15 to 25 Gy. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Social cognitions, distress, and leadership self-efficacy: associations with aggression for high-risk minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S; Baker, Courtney N; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Vaughn, Nicole A; Bevans, Katherine B; Thomas, Nicole A; Guerra, Terry; Hausman, Alice J; Monopoli, W John

    2014-08-01

    Urban ethnic minority youth are often exposed to high levels of aggression and violence. As such, many aggression intervention programs that have been designed with suburban nonethnic minority youth have been used or slightly adapted in order to try and meet the needs of high-risk urban youth. The current study contributes to the literature base by examining how well a range of social-cognitive, emotional distress and victimization, and prosocial factors are related to youth aggression in a sample of urban youth. This study utilized data gathered from 109 9- to 15-year-old youth (36.7% male; 84.4% African American) and their parents or caregivers. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were fit predicting youth aggression from social-cognitive variables, victimization and distress, and prosocial variables, controlling for youth gender and age. Each set of variables explained a significant and unique amount of the variance in youth aggressive behavior. The full model including all predictors accounted for 41% of the variance in aggression. Models suggest that youth with stronger beliefs supportive of violence, youth who experience more overt victimization, and youth who experience greater distress in overtly aggressive situations are likely to be more aggressive. In contrast, youth with higher self-esteem and youth who endorse greater leadership efficacy are likely to be less aggressive. Contrary to hypotheses, hostile attributional bias and knowledge of social information processing, experience of relational victimization, distress in relationally aggressive situations, and community engagement were not associated with aggression. Our study is one of the first to address these important questions for low-income, predominately ethnic minority urban youth, and it has clear implications for adapting aggression prevention programs to be culturally sensitive for urban African American youth.

  2. Preliminary safety and efficacy results with robotic high-intensity focused ultrasound : A single center Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikant Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There are no Indian data of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU. Being an alternative, still experimental modality, reporting short-term safety outcome is paramount. Aims : This study was aimed at to assess the safety and short-term outcome in patients with prostate cancer treated by HIFU. Settings and Design : A retrospective study of case records of 30 patients undergoing HIFU between January 2008 to September 2010 was designed and conducted. Materials and Methods : The procedural safety was analyzed at 3 months. Follow-up consisted of 3 monthly prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels and transrectal biopsy if indicated. All the patients had a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Results : A mean prostate volume of 26.9 ± 8.5 cm 3 was treated in a mean time of 115 ± 37.4 min. There was no intraoperative complication. The postoperative pain visual analogue score at day 0 was 2.1 ± 1.9 and at day 1 was 0.4 ± 0.8 on a scale of 1-10. Mean duration of perurethral catheter removal was 3.9 days. The complications after treatment were: LUTS in seven patients, stress incontinence in two, stricture in two, and symptomatic urinary tract infection in five. Average follow-up duration was 10.4 months (range, 6-20 months. Mean time to obtain PSA nadir was 6 ± 3 months with a median PSA nadir value of 0.3 ng/ml. Two patients had positive prostatic biopsy in the localized (high risk group. Conclusions : HIFU was safe in carcinoma prostate patients. The short-term results were efficacious in localized disease. The low complication rates and favorable functional outcome support the planning of further larger studies.

  3. Demonstration of a Ge/GeSn/Ge quantum-well microdisk resonator on silicon: enabling high-quality Ge(Sn) materials for micro- and nanophotonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Robert; Gupta, Suyog; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Huo, Yijie; Rudy, Charles W; Sanchez, Errol; Kim, Yihwan; Kamins, Theodore I; Saraswat, Krishna C; Harris, James S

    2014-01-08

    We theoretically study and experimentally demonstrate a pseudomorphic Ge/Ge0.92Sn0.08/Ge quantum-well microdisk resonator on Ge/Si (001) as a route toward a compact GeSn-based laser on silicon. The structure theoretically exhibits many electronic and optical advantages in laser design, and microdisk resonators using these structures can be precisely fabricated away from highly defective regions in the Ge buffer using a novel etch-stop process. Photoluminescence measurements on 2.7 μm diameter microdisks reveal sharp whispering-gallery-mode resonances (Q > 340) with strong luminescence.

  4. Increasing the clinical efficacy of NK and antibody-mediated cancer immunotherapy: potential predictors of successful clinical outcome observed in high-risk neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony A. Koehn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Disease recurrence is frequent in high-risk neuroblastoma (NBL patients even after multimodality aggressive treatment [a combination of chemotherapy, surgical resection, local radiation therapy, autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT and cis-retinoic acid (CRA]. Recent clinical studies have explored the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs that bind to disialoganglioside (GD2, highly expressed in NBL, as a means to enable immune effector cells to destroy NBL cells via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC. Preclinical data indicate that ADCC can be more effective when appropriate effector cells are activated by cytokines. Clinical studies have pursued this by administering anti-GD2 mAb in combination with ADCC-enhancing cytokines (IL2 and GM-CSF, a regimen that has demonstrated improved cancer-free survival. More recently, early clinical studies have used a fusion protein that consists of the anti-GD2 mAb directly linked to IL2, and antitumor responses were seen in the Phase II setting. Analyses of genes that code for receptors that influence ADCC activity and Natural Killer (NK cell function [Fc Receptor (FcR, Killer Immunoglublin-like Receptor (KIR, and KIR-ligand (KIR-L] suggest patients with antitumor activity are more likely to have certain genotype profiles. Further analyses will need to be conducted to determine whether these genotypes can be used as predictive markers for favorable therapeutic outcome, thus potentially increasing the efficacy of mAb-mediated NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

  5. COMPARISON OF ANTIPLATELET EFFICACY OF ORIGINAL AND GENERIC ENTEROSOLUBLE ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN PATIENTS WITH HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK. SIMPLE BLIND CROSSED RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY (IKAR)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To compare the antiplatelet efficacy of the original and generic enterosoluble tableted acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in patients with high cardiovascular risk.Material and мethods. Patients (n=30) with high cardiovascular risk and indications for the ASA therapy were included in the study. Antiplatelet agents were withdrawn 3 weeks before study start (wash-out period). Study drugs were distributed at the start visit according to the randomization scheme. The first study drug course was 3 w...

  6. 1H High Resolution Magic-Angle Coil Spinning (HR-MACS) - NMR Metabolic Profiling of whole Saccharomyces cervisiae cells: A Demonstrative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alan; Boutin, Celine; Aguiar, Pedro

    2014-06-01

    The low sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is its prime shortcoming compared to other analytical methods for metabolomic studies. It relies on large sample volume (30-50 µl for HR-MAS) for rich metabolic profiling, hindering high-throughput screening especially when the sample requires a labor-intensive preparation or is a sacred specimen. This is indeed the case for some living organisms. This study evaluates a 1H HR-MAS approach for metabolic profiling of small volume (250 nl) whole bacterial cells, Saccharomyces cervisiae, using an emerging micro-NMR technology: high-resolution magic-angle coil spinning (HR-MACS). As a demonstrative study for whole cells, we perform two independent metabolomics studies identifying the significant metabolites associated with osmotic stress and aging.

  7. 1H High Resolution Magic-Angle Coil Spinning (HR-MACS µNMR Metabolic Profiling of whole Saccharomyces cervisiae cells: A Demonstrative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eWong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The low sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR is its prime shortcoming compared to other analytical methods for metabolomic studies. It relies on large sample volume (30–50 µl for HR-MAS for rich metabolic profiling, hindering high-throughput screening especially when the sample requires a labor-intensive preparation or is a sacred specimen. This is indeed the case for some living organisms. This study evaluates a 1H HR-MAS approach for metabolic profiling of small volume (250 nl whole bacterial cells, Saccharomyces cervisiae, using an emerging micro-NMR technology: high-resolution magic-angle coil spinning (HR-MACS. As a demonstrative study for whole cells, we perform two independent metabolomics studies identifying the significant metabolites associated with osmotic stress and aging.

  8. A high pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experimental method for characterization of solid-liquid interfaces demonstrated with a Li-ion battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maibach, Julia; Xu, Chao; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Edström, Kristina [Department of Chemistry–Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Eriksson, Susanna K. [Department of Chemistry–Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 523, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Åhlund, John [VG Scienta AB, Box 15120, SE-750 15 Uppsala (Sweden); Siegbahn, Hans; Rensmo, Håkan; Hahlin, Maria, E-mail: maria.hahlin@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    We report a methodology for a direct investigation of the solid/liquid interface using high pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HPXPS). The technique was demonstrated with an electrochemical system represented by a Li-ion battery using a silicon electrode and a liquid electrolyte of LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate (PC) cycled versus metallic lithium. For the first time the presence of a liquid electrolyte was realized using a transfer procedure where the sample was introduced into a 2 mbar N{sub 2} environment in the analysis chamber without an intermediate ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) step in the load lock. The procedure was characterized in detail concerning lateral drop gradients as well as stability of measurement conditions over time. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements demonstrate that the solid substrate and the liquid electrolyte can be observed simultaneously. The results show that the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) composition for the wet electrode is stable within the probing time and generally agrees well with traditional UHV studies. Since the methodology can easily be adjusted to various high pressure photoelectron spectroscopy systems, extending the approach towards operando solid/liquid interface studies using liquid electrolytes seems now feasible.

  9. Distance Learning Environment Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Distance Learning Environment Demonstration (DLED) was a comparative study of distributed multimedia computer-based training using low cost high...measurement. The DLED project provides baseline research in the effective use of distance learning and multimedia communications over a wide area ATM/SONET

  10. Preliminary efficacy and feasibility of embedding high intensity interval training into the school day: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, S.A.; Eather, N.; Plotnikoff, R.C.; Taaffe, D.R.; Pollock, E.; Kennedy, S.G.; Lubans, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Current physical activity and fitness levels among adolescents are low, increasing the risk of chronic disease. Although the efficacy of high intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving metabolic health is now well established, it is not known if this type of activity can be effective to improve adolescent health. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of embedding HIIT into the school day. A 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in Newcastle, Australia. Participants (n = 65; mean age = 15.8(0.6) years) were randomized into one of three conditions: aerobic exercise program (AEP) (n = 21), resistance and aerobic exercise program (RAP) (n = 22) and control (n = 22). The 8-week intervention consisted of three HIIT sessions per week (8–10 min/session), delivered during physical education (PE) lessons or at lunchtime. Assessments were conducted at baseline and post-intervention to detect changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage shuttle-run), muscular fitness (push-up, standing long jump tests), body composition (Body Mass Index (BMI), BMI-z scores, waist circumference) and physical activity motivation (questionnaire), by researchers blinded to treatment allocation. Intervention effects for outcomes were examined using linear mixed models, and Cohen's d effect sizes were reported. Participants in the AEP and RAP groups had moderate intervention effects for waist circumference (p = 0.024), BMI-z (p = 0.037) and BMI (not significant) in comparison to the control group. A small intervention effect was also evident for cardiorespiratory fitness in the RAP group. PMID:26844177

  11. Preliminary efficacy and feasibility of embedding high intensity interval training into the school day: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Costigan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current physical activity and fitness levels among adolescents are low, increasing the risk of chronic disease. Although the efficacy of high intensity interval training (HIIT for improving metabolic health is now well established, it is not known if this type of activity can be effective to improve adolescent health. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of embedding HIIT into the school day. A 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in Newcastle, Australia. Participants (n = 65; mean age = 15.8(0.6 years were randomized into one of three conditions: aerobic exercise program (AEP (n = 21, resistance and aerobic exercise program (RAP (n = 22 and control (n = 22. The 8-week intervention consisted of three HIIT sessions per week (8–10 min/session, delivered during physical education (PE lessons or at lunchtime. Assessments were conducted at baseline and post-intervention to detect changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage shuttle-run, muscular fitness (push-up, standing long jump tests, body composition (Body Mass Index (BMI, BMI-z scores, waist circumference and physical activity motivation (questionnaire, by researchers blinded to treatment allocation. Intervention effects for outcomes were examined using linear mixed models, and Cohen's d effect sizes were reported. Participants in the AEP and RAP groups had moderate intervention effects for waist circumference (p = 0.024, BMI-z (p = 0.037 and BMI (not significant in comparison to the control group. A small intervention effect was also evident for cardiorespiratory fitness in the RAP group.

  12. Humanization of JAA-F11, a Highly Specific Anti-Thomsen-Friedenreich Pancarcinoma Antibody and In Vitro Efficacy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Tati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available JAA-F11 is a highly specific mouse monoclonal to the Thomsen-Friedenreich Antigen (TF-Ag which is an alpha-O-linked disaccharide antigen on the surface of ~80% of human carcinomas, including breast, lung, colon, bladder, ovarian, and prostate cancers, and is cryptic on normal cells. JAA-F11 has potential, when humanized, for cancer immunotherapy for multiple cancer types. Humanization of JAA-F11, was performed utilizing complementarity determining regions grafting on a homology framework. The objective herein is to test the specificity, affinity and biology efficacy of the humanized JAA-F11 (hJAA-F11. Using a 609 target glycan array, 2 hJAA-F11 constructs were shown to have excellent chemical specificity, binding only to TF-Ag alpha-linked structures and not to TF-Ag beta-linked structures. The relative affinity of these hJAA-F11 constructs for TF-Ag was improved over the mouse antibody, while T20 scoring predicted low clinical immunogenicity. The hJAA-F11 constructs produced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in breast and lung tumor lines shown to express TF-Ag by flow cytometry. Internalization of hJAA-F11 into cancer cells was also shown using a surface binding ELISA and confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Both the naked hJAA-F11 and a maytansine-conjugated antibody (hJAA-F11-DM1 suppressed in vivo tumor progression in a human breast cancer xenograft model in SCID mice. Together, our results support the conclusion that the humanized antibody to the TF-Ag has potential as an adjunct therapy, either directly or as part of an antibody drug conjugate, to treat breast cancer, including triple negative breast cancer which currently has no targeted therapy, as well as lung cancer.

  13. Preliminary efficacy and feasibility of embedding high intensity interval training into the school day: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, S A; Eather, N; Plotnikoff, R C; Taaffe, D R; Pollock, E; Kennedy, S G; Lubans, D R

    2015-01-01

    Current physical activity and fitness levels among adolescents are low, increasing the risk of chronic disease. Although the efficacy of high intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving metabolic health is now well established, it is not known if this type of activity can be effective to improve adolescent health. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of embedding HIIT into the school day. A 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in Newcastle, Australia. Participants (n = 65; mean age = 15.8(0.6) years) were randomized into one of three conditions: aerobic exercise program (AEP) (n = 21), resistance and aerobic exercise program (RAP) (n = 22) and control (n = 22). The 8-week intervention consisted of three HIIT sessions per week (8-10 min/session), delivered during physical education (PE) lessons or at lunchtime. Assessments were conducted at baseline and post-intervention to detect changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage shuttle-run), muscular fitness (push-up, standing long jump tests), body composition (Body Mass Index (BMI), BMI-z scores, waist circumference) and physical activity motivation (questionnaire), by researchers blinded to treatment allocation. Intervention effects for outcomes were examined using linear mixed models, and Cohen's d effect sizes were reported. Participants in the AEP and RAP groups had moderate intervention effects for waist circumference (p = 0.024), BMI-z (p = 0.037) and BMI (not significant) in comparison to the control group. A small intervention effect was also evident for cardiorespiratory fitness in the RAP group.

  14. Possible relationships between literacy-based instructional coaching and effects on high school teachers' self-efficacy and attitudes toward teaching reading in the content areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jessica Lynn

    Grounded in the Theory of Self-Efficacy and the Theory of Reasoned Action, this quantitative, correlational study examined if participation in literacy-based instructional coaching (one-on-one, small group) predicted both high school teachers' self-efficacy as measured by the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale and teachers' attitudes toward teaching reading in the content areas measured by the Scale to Measure Attitudes Toward Teaching Reading in Content Classrooms. This study utilized a convenience sample of content teachers from three high schools in Northeastern Pennsylvania participating in a literacy coaching initiative. The volunteer sample of teachers completed the Likert-type questionnaires. The study used hierarchical regression analysis to determine values for each block of the regression models. The study correlated instances of literacy-based instructional coaching (one-on-one, small group) with the scores on the SMATTRCC and the TSES to examine predictive validity. Gender, years of experience, and content area were control variables in this study. The results of the first model indicated that there was a significant relationship between the number of coaching instances and attitudes toward teaching reading in the content area with participation in instructional coaching accounting for 9.6% of the variance in scores on the SMATTRCC. The results of the second model indicated that there was a significant relationship between the number of coaching instances and teachers' self-efficacy with participation in instructional coaching accounting for 6.1% of the variance in scores on the TSES.

  15. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor, Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuel performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  16. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO[sub x] to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO[sub 2] and SO[sub 3]. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U. S. coal.

  17. The Role of Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project in Promoting Scientific Efficacy Among Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, M.; Deutscher, R.

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated the effects on student scientific efficacy after participation in the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project. In the GAVRT program, students use computers to record extremely faint radio waves collected by the telescope and analyze real data. Scientific efficacy is a type of self-knowledge a person uses to determine his or her ability to understand and work within the scientific community. An attitudinal survey was administered to all students nationwide who participated in the GAVRT program during the 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 years and had 480 and 562 respondents respectively. The students completed a pre-survey prior to beginning the GAVRT program and then completed a follow-up survey immediately after working on the Jupiter Quest GAVRT program. Between the pre- and post- surveys, students received instruction in the GAVRT curriculum and participated in operation of the radio telescope. During the 2000-2001 school year, increases in students' scientific efficacy occurred in their feelings of efficacy associated with the value they placed on the work they produced in science. During the 2001-2002 school year, the following areas of efficacy increased: students' perceived ability to use scientific equipment, students' feelings about how other people valued their work and students' abilities to think scientifically.

  18. Comparision of alternatively certified and traditionally certified Missouri high school science teachers' perceptions of self-efficacy during the induction period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Linda

    Sixty percent of America's teachers choose traditional baccalaureate programs while the remaining choose one of several alternative pathways. While certification/training is certainly important to preparing effective teachers, other research indicates that teacher efficacy serves as the foundation of teacher behaviors and classroom practice. The purpose of this study ( N = 94 induction high school science teachers) was to determine the relationships between certification pathway and opportunities to observe modeling; between years of experience and personal teaching efficacy; and teachers' perceptions of what characteristics/ experiences best explain personal teaching efficacy. The Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale was used in an on-line survey for Phase 1 (n = 91), to measure teacher self-efficacy. In Phase 2, a basic qualitative study was conducted using telephone interviews ( n = 2) and a focus group (n = 4) along with a series of short essay questions from the online survey (n = 91). The findings indicate a significant relationship (p = 0.01) between years of teaching and overall personal teaching-efficacy, student engagement, and instructional strategies; a relationship between opportunities to see modeling and certification pathway, where traditionally certified teachers had significantly more opportunities (p = 0.000); and a relationship between classroom management and opportunities to see modeling (p = 0.005). Qualitative analyses confirmed that traditionally-prepared teachers saw a range of "modeling" and model teachers; respondents related such opportunities to more effective teaching, especially in the realm of classroom management. As more teachers choose alternative certification, it is imperative that adequate opportunities to observe teaching strategies are modeled during the certification process and once teachers enter the classroom; they must have intrinsic and extrinsic support to be successful.

  19. Anger management style and associations with self-efficacy and pain in male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Elizabeth R; Tan, Gabriel; Jensen, Mark P; Anderson, Karen O

    2005-11-01

    Despite the high prevalence of anger and maladaptive anger management among persons with chronic pain, the association between pain and anger has received little empirical attention. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between pain and anger management style and test for the hypothesized role of self-efficacy as a moderator of this association. Five hundred sixty-four veterans with chronic pain were administered measures of pain, self-efficacy, and anger management. As expected, the results demonstrated a significant positive relationship between pain intensity and maladaptive anger management and a significant negative association between self-efficacy and maladaptive anger. Furthermore, pain intensity and the interaction of self-efficacy and pain intensity were significant predictors of maladaptive anger management. Surprisingly, patients reporting high self-efficacy and high pain intensity demonstrated more maladaptive anger management than individuals reporting high self-efficacy and low pain intensity. Patients reporting low self-efficacy demonstrated high levels of maladaptive anger management, regardless of pain intensity level. Maladaptive anger management is associated with pain intensity and self-efficacy beliefs. Additional research is needed to explore the interaction of pain and self-efficacy and its impact on anger management.

  20. High Efficacy of Finafloxacin on Helicobacter pylori Isolates at pH 5.0 Compared with That of Other Fluoroquinolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Nayoung; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Kim, Jung Mogg; Park, Jong Youn; Lee, Sun Min; Kim, Joo Sung; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2015-12-01

    Finafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with improved antimicrobial efficacy, especially in an acidic environment. The efficacy of finafloxacin for the inhibition of Helicobacter pylori infection was compared with the efficacies of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin at neutral and acidic pH. The impacts of gyrA point mutation on the efficacy of those three fluoroquinolones were also investigated. A total of 128 clinical H. pylori strains were utilized. MICs of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and finafloxacin were determined at pH 5.0 and pH 7.0 by the agar dilution method. The impact of gyrA point mutations that are responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance was analyzed; the results showed 50 strains with an Asn-87 point mutation, 48 strains with an Asp-91 point mutation, and the remaining 30 strains with no gyrA mutations. The use of finafloxacin led to MIC values at pH 5.0 that were lower than the values seen at pH 7.0 for 112 strains (112/128, 87.5%), and this proportion was higher than that seen with moxifloxacin (21/128, 16.4%, P < 0.001). Finafloxacin also demonstrated a rate of susceptibility (MIC, <1 μg/ml) (37.5%, 48/128) at pH 5.0 that was higher than that seen with moxifloxacin (2.3%, 3/128) (P < 0.001). The trends were similar regardless of which of the Asn-87, Asp-91, and A2143 point mutations were present. In conclusion, the superior antimicrobial efficacy of finafloxacin against H. pylori in an acidic environment suggests the possible use of finafloxacin for treatment of H. pylori infection, as has been proposed by its developer, Merlion Pharma.

  1. Efficacy of high intensity exercise on disease activity and cardiovascular risk in active axial spondyloarthritis: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje Halvorsen Sveaas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical therapy is recommended for the management of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA and flexibility exercises have traditionally been the main focus. Cardiovascular (CV diseases are considered as a major health concern in axSpA and there is strong evidence that endurance and strength exercise protects against CV diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of high intensity endurance and strength exercise on disease activity and CV health in patients with active axSpA. METHODS: In a single blinded randomized controlled pilot study the exercise group (EG performed 12 weeks of endurance and strength exercise while the control group (CG received treatment as usual. The primary outcome was the Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS Disease Activity Score (ASDAS. Secondary outcomes included patient reported disease activity (Bath AS Disease Activity Index [BASDAI], physical function (Bath AS Functional Index [BASFI], and CV risk factors measured by arterial stiffness (Augmentation Index [Alx] and Pulse Wave Velocity [PWV], cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak and body composition. ANCOVA on the post intervention values with baseline values as covariates was used to assess group differences, and Mann Whitney U-test was used for outcomes with skewed residuals. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were included and 24 (EG, n = 10, CG, n = 14 completed the study. A mean treatment effect of -0.7 (95%CI: -1.4, 0.1 was seen in ASDAS score. Treatment effects were also observed in secondary outcomes (mean group difference [95%CI]: BASDAI: -2.0 (-3.6, -0.4, BASFI: -1.4 (-2.6, -0.3, arterial stiffness (estimated median group differences [95% CI]: AIx (%: -5.3 (-11.0, -0.5, and for PVW (m/s: -0.3 (-0.7, 0.0, VO2 peak (ml/kg/min (mean group difference [95%CI]: 3.7 (2.1, 5.2 and trunk fat (%: -1.8 (-3.0, -0.6. No adverse events occurred. CONCLUSION: High intensity exercise improved disease activity and reduced CV risk factors in

  2. Efficacy of high intensity exercise on disease activity and cardiovascular risk in active axial spondyloarthritis: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveaas, Silje Halvorsen; Berg, Inger Jorid; Provan, Sella Aarrestad; Semb, Anne Grete; Hagen, Kåre Birger; Vøllestad, Nina; Fongen, Camilla; Olsen, Inge C; Michelsen, Annika; Ueland, Thor; Aukrust, Pål; Kvien, Tore K; Dagfinrud, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Physical therapy is recommended for the management of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and flexibility exercises have traditionally been the main focus. Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are considered as a major health concern in axSpA and there is strong evidence that endurance and strength exercise protects against CV diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of high intensity endurance and strength exercise on disease activity and CV health in patients with active axSpA. In a single blinded randomized controlled pilot study the exercise group (EG) performed 12 weeks of endurance and strength exercise while the control group (CG) received treatment as usual. The primary outcome was the Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) Disease Activity Score (ASDAS). Secondary outcomes included patient reported disease activity (Bath AS Disease Activity Index [BASDAI]), physical function (Bath AS Functional Index [BASFI]), and CV risk factors measured by arterial stiffness (Augmentation Index [Alx]) and Pulse Wave Velocity [PWV]), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak) and body composition. ANCOVA on the post intervention values with baseline values as covariates was used to assess group differences, and Mann Whitney U-test was used for outcomes with skewed residuals. Twenty-eight patients were included and 24 (EG, n = 10, CG, n = 14) completed the study. A mean treatment effect of -0.7 (95%CI: -1.4, 0.1) was seen in ASDAS score. Treatment effects were also observed in secondary outcomes (mean group difference [95%CI]): BASDAI: -2.0 (-3.6, -0.4), BASFI: -1.4 (-2.6, -0.3), arterial stiffness (estimated median group differences [95% CI]): AIx (%): -5.3 (-11.0, -0.5), and for PVW (m/s): -0.3 (-0.7, 0.0), VO2 peak (ml/kg/min) (mean group difference [95%CI]: 3.7 (2.1, 5.2) and trunk fat (%): -1.8 (-3.0, -0.6). No adverse events occurred. High intensity exercise improved disease activity and reduced CV risk factors in patients with active axSpA. These

  3. Investigation of energy transport in DIII-D High-β P EAST-demonstration discharges with the TGLF turbulent and NEO neoclassical transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C.; Staebler, G. M.; Lao, L. L.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gong, X.; Ren, Q.; McClenaghan, J.; Li, G.; Ding, S.; Qian, J.; Wan, B.; Xu, G. S.; Solomon, W.; Meneghini, O.; Smith, S. P.

    2017-03-01

    Energy transport analyses of the DIII-D high-{β\\text{P}} EAST-demonstration discharges have been performed using the TGYRO transport package with the TGLF turbulent and NEO neoclassical transport models under the OMFIT integrated modeling framework. Ion energy transport is shown to be dominated by neoclassical transport and ion temperature profiles predicted by TGYRO agree closely with the experimental measured profiles for these high-{β\\text{P}} discharges. Ion energy transport is largely insensitive to reductions in the E× B flow shear stabilization. The Shafranov shift is shown to play a role in the suppression of the ion turbulent energy transport below the neoclassical level. Electron turbulent energy transport is under-predicted by TGLF and a significant shortfall in the electron energy transport over the whole core plasma is found with TGLF predictions for these high-{β\\text{P}} discharges. TGYRO can successfully predict the experimental ion and electron temperature profiles by artificially increasing the saturated turbulence level for ETG driven modes used in TGLF.

  4. Demonstration of InAlN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors with an enhanced breakdown voltage by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, JunShuai, E-mail: junshuaixue@hotmail.com; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue [Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2016-01-04

    In this work, InAlN/AlGaN heterostructures employing wider bandgap AlGaN instead of conventional GaN channel were grown on sapphire substrate by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition, where the nominal Al composition in InAlN barrier and AlGaN channel were chosen to be 83% and 5%, respectively, to achieve close lattice-matched condition. An electron mobility of 511 cm{sup 2}/V s along with a sheet carrier density of 1.88 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} were revealed in the prepared heterostructures, both of which were lower compared with lattice-matched InAlN/GaN due to increased intrinsic alloy disorder scattering resulting from AlGaN channel and compressively piezoelectric polarization in barrier, respectively. While the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) processed on these structures not only exhibited a sufficiently high drain output current density of 854 mA/mm but also demonstrated a significantly enhanced breakdown voltage of 87 V, which is twice higher than that of reported InAlN/GaN HEMT with the same device dimension, potential characteristics for high-voltage operation of GaN-based electronic devices.

  5. Demonstration of InAlN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors with an enhanced breakdown voltage by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, JunShuai; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    In this work, InAlN/AlGaN heterostructures employing wider bandgap AlGaN instead of conventional GaN channel were grown on sapphire substrate by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition, where the nominal Al composition in InAlN barrier and AlGaN channel were chosen to be 83% and 5%, respectively, to achieve close lattice-matched condition. An electron mobility of 511 cm2/V s along with a sheet carrier density of 1.88 × 1013 cm-2 were revealed in the prepared heterostructures, both of which were lower compared with lattice-matched InAlN/GaN due to increased intrinsic alloy disorder scattering resulting from AlGaN channel and compressively piezoelectric polarization in barrier, respectively. While the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) processed on these structures not only exhibited a sufficiently high drain output current density of 854 mA/mm but also demonstrated a significantly enhanced breakdown voltage of 87 V, which is twice higher than that of reported InAlN/GaN HEMT with the same device dimension, potential characteristics for high-voltage operation of GaN-based electronic devices.

  6. High consistency forming process for paper making. Part 1. A research, development, and demonstration program plan for the US Papermaking Industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    The subject of research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of energy conserving technologies applicable to papermaking operations downstream of the pulping process is addressed. An RD and D Program Plan is presented based on a survey of leading representatives of the papermaking industry, equipment manufacturers, consulting engineering firms, the American Paper Institute, and the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry. For perspective, the program plan is presented against the general background of the industry's current issues and concerns. The second part of the paper, Phase I, final report, deals with papermaking test facilities. The case for a centralized test facility is discussed. The results of a survey of existing pilot paper machines are presented. The energy saving potential of high consistency forming is considered and related to existing evidence. Simple theoretical models for the press nip action and the drying process are developed to predict where high consistency forming will reduce energy consumption. A special dynamic former has been designed, fabricated, and commissioned to allow development of a laboratory high consistency headbox. The design and construction of a low speed headbox has been completed and the complete system operated. Special equipment and techniques for the measurement of the water and air permeability of sheet samples have been developed and are described.

  7. Pilot Demonstration of Technology for the Production of High Value Materials from the Ultra-Fine (PM 2.5) Fraction of Coal Combustion Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.L. Robl; J.G. Groppo; Robert Rathebone

    2005-12-14

    Work on the project focused on the determination of the hydraulic classification characteristics of the Coleman and Mill Creek ashes. The work utilized the hydraulic classifier developed earlier in the project. Testing included total yield, recovery of <5 {micro}m ash diameter particles and LOI partitioning as functions of dispersant dosage and type, retention time and superficial velocity. Yields as high as 21% with recoveries of up to 2/3 of the <5 {micro}m ash fractions were achieved. Mean particle size (D{sub 50}) of varied from 3.7 to 10 {micro}m. The ashes were tested for there pozzolanic activity in mortars as measured by strength activity index using ASTM criteria. Additional testing included air entrainment reagent demand and water requirements. The classified products all performed well, demonstrating excellent early strength development in the mortars. Some increased air entrainment demand was noted. The conceptual design of a process demonstration unit PDU was also completed. A flexible, trailer-mounted field unit is envisioned.

  8. Demonstration of a diode pumped Nd,Y co-doped SrF2 crystal based, high energy chirped pulse amplification laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junchi; Peng, Yujie; Zhang, Zongxin; Su, Hongpeng; Leng, Yuxin; Jiang, Dapeng; Ma, Fengkai; Qian, Xiaobo; Tang, Fei; Su, Liangbi

    2017-01-01

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, a chirped pulse amplification laser system based on the Nd,Y:SrF2 crystal for the first time. The incorporation of Y3+ nonactive ions can significantly improve laser properties of Nd:SrF2 crystal, including broader emission linewidth, larger cross-section as well as longer fluorescence lifetime. Pulse laser with 5.1 mJ (uncompressed), 3.7 mJ (compressed) energy, 1.6 ps duration at 5 Hz repetition rate is demonstrated. The results indicate that the Nd,Y:SrF2 crystal is a potential candidate with excellent laser and thermal performance for developing ultra-intense laser with high repetition rate.

  9. The Influence of Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Metacognitive Prompting on Genetics Problem Solving Ability among High School Students in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurah, Catherine Muhonja

    Within the framework of social cognitive theory, the influence of self-efficacy beliefs and metacognitive prompting on genetics problem solving ability among high school students in Kenya was examined through a mixed methods research design. A quasi-experimental study, supplemented by focus group interviews, was conducted to investigate both the outcomes and the processes of students' genetics problem-solving ability. Focus group interviews substantiated and supported findings from the quantitative instruments. The study was conducted in 17 high schools in Western Province, Kenya. A total of 2,138 high school students were purposively sampled. A sub-sample of 48 students participated in focus group interviews to understand their perspectives and experiences during the study so as to corroborate the quantitative data. Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, zero-order correlations, 2 x 2 factorial ANOVA,, and sequential hierarchical multiple regressions. Qualitative data were transcribed, coded, and reported thematically. Results revealed metacognitive prompts had significant positive effects on student problem-solving ability independent of gender. Self-efficacy and metacognitive prompting significantly predicted genetics problem-solving ability. Gender differences were revealed, with girls outperforming boys on the genetics problem-solving test. Furthermore, self-efficacy moderated the relationship between metacognitive prompting and genetics problem-solving ability. This study established a foundation for instructional methods for biology teachers and recommendations are made for implementing metacognitive prompting in a problem-based learning environment in high schools and science teacher education programs in Kenya.

  10. Understanding Acid-Base Concepts: Evaluating the Efficacy of a Senior High School Student-Centred Instructional Program in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Sri; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Treagust, David F.; Kita, Masakazu; Ibnu, Suhadi

    2011-01-01

    This study was a mixed quantitative-qualitative research to evaluate the efficacy of a designed student-centred instructional (DSCI) program for teaching about acids and bases. The teaching innovation was designed based on constructivist, hands-on inquiry and context-based approaches and implemented in seven 45-min lessons with a class of 36 grade…

  11. The Influence of Ability Beliefs and Motivational Orientation on the Self-Efficacy of High School Science Students in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Koul, Ravinder; Sujivorakul, Chuchai

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of entity beliefs, gender stereotypes and motivational goals on participants' self-efficacy in biology and physics and their career aspirations. Participants (n = 2638, males 46% and females 54%) were students enrolled in Years 10-12 of the academic science-maths stream in Thailand. Entity beliefs were…

  12. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Self-Efficacy in Learning Physics and Attitudes toward Physics: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates…

  13. Understanding Acid-Base Concepts: Evaluating the Efficacy of a Senior High School Student-Centred Instructional Program in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Sri; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Treagust, David F.; Kita, Masakazu; Ibnu, Suhadi

    2011-01-01

    This study was a mixed quantitative-qualitative research to evaluate the efficacy of a designed student-centred instructional (DSCI) program for teaching about acids and bases. The teaching innovation was designed based on constructivist, hands-on inquiry and context-based approaches and implemented in seven 45-min lessons with a class of 36 grade…

  14. Investigating Second Language Learner Self-Efficacy and Future Expectancy of Second Language Use for High-Stakes Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Greta

    2009-01-01

    As part of a larger summative evaluation of a foreign language department and a two-year foreign language core competency, the researcher investigated fourth-semester student self-efficacy (a person's belief, rooted in experience, that they can do something) and future expectancy of second language use. In effect, this was also an evaluation of…

  15. Efficacy comparison of combined intracoronary administration of high-dose adenosine and tirofiban versus intracoronary tirofiban during primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟子川

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of intracoronary administration of combined high-dose adenosine and tirofiban versus intracoronary tirofiban during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute myocardial infarction.Methods Consecutive 258 patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) underwent primary PCI,treated with thrombus aspiration and then intracoronary tirofiban,and were randomly divided into adenosine group (n=130) and con-

  16. Oxytocin efficacy is modulated by dosage and oxytocin receptor genotype in young adults with high-functioning autism: a 24-week randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, H; Okamoto, Y; Munesue, T; Yamasue, H; Inohara, K; Fujioka, T; Anme, T; Orisaka, M; Ishitobi, M; Jung, M; Fujisawa, T X; Tanaka, S; Arai, S; Asano, M; Saito, D N; Sadato, N; Tomoda, A; Omori, M; Sato, M; Okazawa, H; Higashida, H; Wada, Y

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that long-term oxytocin administration can alleviate the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, factors influencing its efficacy are still unclear. We conducted a single-center phase 2, pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, clinical trial in young adults with high-functioning ASD, to determine whether oxytocin dosage and genetic background of the oxytocin receptor affects oxytocin efficacy. This trial consisted of double-blind (12 weeks), open-label (12 weeks) and follow-up phases (8 weeks). To examine dose dependency, 60 participants were randomly assigned to high-dose (32 IU per day) or low-dose intranasal oxytocin (16 IU per day), or placebo groups during the double-blind phase. Next, we measured single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). In the intention-to-treat population, no outcomes were improved after oxytocin administration. However, in male participants, Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scores in the high-dose group, but not the low-dose group, were significantly higher than in the placebo group. Furthermore, we examined whether oxytocin efficacy, reflected in the CGI-I scores, is influenced by estimated daily dosage and OXTR polymorphisms in male participants. We found that >21 IU per day oxytocin was more effective than ⩽21 IU per day, and that a SNP in OXTR (rs6791619) predicted CGI-I scores for ⩽21 IU per day oxytocin treatment. No severe adverse events occurred. These results suggest that efficacy of long-term oxytocin administration in young men with high-functioning ASD depends on the oxytocin dosage and genetic background of the oxytocin receptor, which contributes to the effectiveness of oxytocin treatment of ASD. PMID:27552585

  17. Demonstration of a high-intensity neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Paul, M; Weissman, L; Berkovits, D; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Kreisel, A; Mardor, I; Shimel, G; Shor, A; Silverman, I; Tessler, M

    2015-12-01

    A free surface liquid-lithium jet target is operating routinely at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), bombarded with a ~1.91 MeV, ~1.2 mA continuous-wave narrow proton beam. The experiments demonstrate the liquid lithium target (LiLiT) capability to constitute an intense source of epithermal neutrons, for Accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The target dissipates extremely high ion beam power densities (>3 kW/cm(2), >0.5 MW/cm(3)) for long periods of time, while maintaining stable conditions and localized residual activity. LiLiT generates ~3×10(10) n/s, which is more than one order of magnitude larger than conventional (7)Li(p,n)-based near threshold neutron sources. A shield and moderator assembly for BNCT, with LiLiT irradiated with protons at 1.91 MeV, was designed based on Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulations of BNCT-doses produced in a phantom. According to these simulations it was found that a ~15 mA near threshold proton current will apply the therapeutic doses in ~1h treatment duration. According to our present results, such high current beams can be dissipated in a liquid-lithium target, hence the target design is readily applicable for accelerator-based BNCT.

  18. Demonstration of the postcommissural fibres of the fornix in short-inversion time inversion-recovery imaging on a high-field system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, N.; Kansaku, K.; Higuchi, Y.; Yamaura, A. [Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Chiba University School of Medicine (Japan); Kawano, K.; Iijima, T. [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba (Japan); Inoue, N. [GE Yokagawa Medical Systems, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Short-inversion time inversion-recovery (STIR) imaging using a 3 tesla system was assessed to reveal the postcommissural fibres (PF) of the fornix, which have rarely been highlighted neuroradiologically in the clinical setting. We studied 27 normal subjects. Sequence parameters were TR/TE/TI 8000/52/150 ms. STIR was expected to take advantage of the high signal-to-noise ratio of a high-field system, due to the long repetition time. PF were identifiable in axial and coronal slices in all cases. They were bordered anteriorly and superiorly by the anterior commissure and posteriorly and inferiorly by the mamillary body. Behind the anterior commissure, they ran in an arch-shaped posterior and inferior course in the hypothalamic nuclei and joined the mamillary body anterolaterally. They usually extended through three 3-mm slices (with 1 mm interslice gap) in anteroposterior and vertical dimensions. Little variation was observed in their course or size. Demonstration of the PF would provide a more detailed correlation of human neuroanatomy to hypothalamic function and individualised understanding of hypothalamic pathology and influence therapy. (orig.)

  19. The Contribution of Prior Student Achievement and School Processes to Collective Teacher Efficacy in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John A.; Hogaboam-Gray, Anne; Gray, Peter

    Collective teacher efficacy refers to teacher perceptions that they constitute an effective instructional team, capable of bringing about learning in students. Previous research demonstrates that a school staff with a strong sense of collective efficacy is likely to generate high student achievement. This study of 2,170 teachers in 141 elementary…

  20. Salvinorin A, an active component of the hallucinogenic sage salvia divinorum is a highly efficacious kappa-opioid receptor agonist: structural and functional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavkin, Charles; Sud, Sumit; Jin, Wenzhen; Stewart, Jeremy; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Siebert, Daniel J; Toth, Beth Ann; Hufeisen, Sandra J; Roth, Bryan L

    2004-03-01

    The diterpene salvinorin A from Salvia divinorum has recently been reported to be a high-affinity and selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist (Roth et al., 2002). Salvinorin A and selected derivatives were found to be potent and efficacious agonists in several measures of agonist activity using cloned human kappa-opioid receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Thus, salvinorin A, salvinorinyl-2-propionate, and salvinorinyl-2-heptanoate were found to be either full (salvinorin A) or partial (2-propionate, 2-heptanoate) agonists for inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. Additional studies of agonist potency and efficacy of salvinorin A, performed by cotransfecting either the chimeric G proteins Gaq-i5 or the universal G protein Ga16 and quantification of agonist-evoked intracellular calcium mobilization, affirmed that salvinorin A was a potent and effective kappa-opioid agonist. Results from structure-function studies suggested that the nature of the substituent at the 2-position of salvinorin A was critical for kappa-opioid receptor binding and activation. Because issues of receptor reserve complicate estimates of agonist efficacy and potency, we also examined the agonist actions of salvinorin A by measuring potassium conductance through G protein-gated K(+) channels coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes, a system in which receptor reserve is minimal. Salvinorin A was found to be a full agonist, being significantly more efficacious than (trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl] benzeneacetamide methane-sulfonate hydrate (U50488) or (trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl] benzeneacetamide methane-sulfonate hydrate (U69593) (two standard kappa-opioid agonists) and similar in efficacy to dynorphin A (the naturally occurring peptide ligand for kappa-opioid receptors). Salvinorin A thus represents the first known naturally occurring non-nitrogenous full agonist at kappa-opioid receptors.

  1. Highly purified human-derived follicle-stimulating hormone (Bravelle® has equivalent efficacy to follitropin-beta (Follistim ® in infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Bobby W

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background These data compare the efficacy and safety of highly purified human-derived follicle-stimulating hormone (Bravelle(R and recombinant follitropin-β (Follistim(R in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Methods This report describes the pooled data from two, nearly identical, randomized, controlled, parallel-group, multicenter studies conducted in a total of 19 academic and private IVF-ET centers in the United States. Infertile premenopausal women underwent pituitary down-regulation using leuprolide acetate followed by a maximum of 12 days of subcutaneous Bravelle(R (n = 120 or Follistim(R (n = 118, followed by administration of human chorionic gonadotropin, oocyte retrieval and embryo transfer. The primary efficacy measure was the mean number of oocytes retrieved; secondary efficacy measures included the total dose and duration of gonadotropin treatment; peak serum estradion levels; embryo transfer and implantation rates; chemical, clinical and continuing pregnancies; and live birth rates. All adverse events were recorded and injection site pain was recorded daily using a patient, self-assessment diary. Results Similar efficacy responses were observed for all outcome parameters in the two treatment groups. Although patients receiving Bravelle(R consistently reported a greater number of chemical, clinical and continuing pregnancies, as well as an increased rate of live birth, the data did not attain statistical significance (P > 0.05. The overall incidence of adverse events was similar in both groups, but compared to Follistim(R, injections of Bravelle(R were reported by patients to be significantly less painful (P Conclusions Bravelle(R and Follistim(R had comparable efficacy in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in women undergoing IVF-ET. There were no differences in the nature or number of adverse events between the treatment groups although Bravelle(R injections were reported to be significantly less painful.

  2. High molecular weight FGF2 isoforms demonstrate canonical receptor-mediated activity and support human embryonic stem cell self-renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kole

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2 is a highly pleiotropic member of a large family of growth factors with a broad range of activities, including mitogenesis and angiogenesis (Ornitz et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 2006, and it is known to be essential for maintenance of balance between survival, proliferation, and self-renewal in human pluripotent stem cells (Eiselleova et al., 2009; Zoumaro-Djayoon et al., 2011. A single FGF2 transcript can be translated into five FGF2 protein isoforms, an 18 kDa low molecular weight (LMW isoform and four larger high molecular weight (HMW isoforms (Arese et al., 1999; Arnaud et al., 1999. As they are not generally secreted, high molecular weight (HMW FGF2 isoforms have predominantly been investigated intracellularly; only a very limited number of studies have investigated their activity as extracellular factors. Here we report over-expression, isolation, and biological activity of all recombinant human FGF2 isoforms. We show that HMW FGF2 isoforms can support self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs in vitro. Exogenous supplementation with HMW FGF2 isoforms also activates the canonical FGFR/MAPK pathway and induces mitogenic activity in a manner similar to that of the 18 kDa FGF2 isoform. Though all HMW isoforms, when supplemented exogenously, are able to recapitulate LMW FGF2 activity to some degree, it appears that certain isoforms tend to do so more poorly, demonstrating a lesser functional response by several measures. A better understanding of isoform-specific FGF2 effects will lead to a better understanding of developmental and pathological FGF2 signaling.

  3. Toothbrushing efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosema, N.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis will explore the most meaningful aspects which are considered to be of interest regarding the efficacy of toothbrushes. One could discuss efficacy by means of plaque removal as well as by means of the effect on gingival inflammation. Plaque removal may be considered as a surrogate effect

  4. Topical application of trichloroacetic acid is efficacious for the treatment of internal anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Ross D; Baker, Jonathan R; Liu, Yimeng; Wang, Lu; Elishaev, Esther; Ho, Ken S

    2014-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of topical 80% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) to treat internal anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) in HIV-positive individuals. All patients who attended the University of Pittsburgh Anal Dysplasia Clinic for treatment of biopsy-proven internal anal HSIL with topical TCA between July 1, 2009, and June 30, 2012, and who had 1 or more follow-up visits to assess treatment efficacy were included in the analysis. Recurrence of HSIL was assessed in July 1, 2013. A total of 98 HSILs from 72 patients were treated, and 77 (78.6%) resolved to normal epithelium or low-grade SIL during follow-up. Forty-eight (49.0%) and 27 (27.6%) of lesions resolved with 1 and 2 TCA treatments, respectively, whereas 1 lesion (1%) each resolved with 3 and 4 TCA treatments. Twenty-one (21.4%) lesions in 20 patients remained without resolution after TCA treatments. These patients were offered an alternative treatment. During follow-up, 8 (15.1%) of 53 patients had a lesion that recurred at the index site (11/53 [20.8%], inclusive of adjacent lesions) and 17 patients had new lesions diagnosed. Topical TCA is an efficacious treatment of internal anal HSIL in an anal dysplasia clinic setting with high-resolution anoscopy capacity. Advantages of TCA for this recurrent disease process include the following: low cost, no requirement for special equipment beyond that for high-resolution anoscopy, and painless application procedure. A larger prospective comparative study would better define efficacy and patient acceptability between treatment methods.

  5. Mathematically precocious and female: Self-efficacy and STEM course choices among high achieving middle grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Stacey M.

    The problem addressed in this project is the lack of mathematically gifted females choosing to pursue advanced science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in secondary education due to deficiencies in self-efficacy. The purpose of this project was to study the effects of a child-guided robotics program as it relates to the self-efficacy of mathematically gifted 6th grade female students and their future course choices in the advanced STEM content areas. This mixed-model study utilized a STEM attitude survey, artifacts, interviews, field notes, and standardized tests as measurement tools. Significance was found between genders in the treatment group for the standardized science scores, indicating closure in the achievement gap. Research suggests that STEM enrichment is beneficial for mathematically gifted females.

  6. High-density SNP screening of the major histocompatibility complex in systemic lupus erythematosus demonstrates strong evidence for independent susceptibility regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa F Barcellos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A substantial genetic contribution to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE risk is conferred by major histocompatibility complex (MHC gene(s on chromosome 6p21. Previous studies in SLE have lacked statistical power and genetic resolution to fully define MHC influences. We characterized 1,610 Caucasian SLE cases and 1,470 parents for 1,974 MHC SNPs, the highly polymorphic HLA-DRB1 locus, and a panel of ancestry informative markers. Single-marker analyses revealed strong signals for SNPs within several MHC regions, as well as with HLA-DRB1 (global p = 9.99 x 10(-16. The most strongly associated DRB1 alleles were: *0301 (odds ratio, OR = 2.21, p = 2.53 x 10(-12, *1401 (OR = 0.50, p = 0.0002, and *1501 (OR = 1.39, p = 0.0032. The MHC region SNP demonstrating the strongest evidence of association with SLE was rs3117103, with OR = 2.44 and p = 2.80 x 10(-13. Conditional haplotype and stepwise logistic regression analyses identified strong evidence for association between SLE and the extended class I, class I, class III, class II, and the extended class II MHC regions. Sequential removal of SLE-associated DRB1 haplotypes revealed independent effects due to variation within OR2H2 (extended class I, rs362521, p = 0.006, CREBL1 (class III, rs8283, p = 0.01, and DQB2 (class II, rs7769979, p = 0.003, and rs10947345, p = 0.0004. Further, conditional haplotype analyses demonstrated that variation within MICB (class I, rs3828903, p = 0.006 also contributes to SLE risk independent of HLA-DRB1*0301. Our results for the first time delineate with high resolution several MHC regions with independent contributions to SLE risk. We provide a list of candidate variants based on biologic and functional considerations that may be causally related to SLE risk and warrant further investigation.

  7. Demonstration of a Novel, Integrated, Multi-Scale Procedure for High-Resolution 3D Reservoir Characterization and Improved CO2-EOR/Sequestration Management, SACROC Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott R. Reeves

    2007-09-30

    The primary goal of this project was to demonstrate a new and novel approach for high resolution, 3D reservoir characterization that can enable better management of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects and, looking to the future, carbon sequestration projects. The approach adopted has been the subject of previous research by the DOE and others, and relies primarily upon data-mining and advanced pattern recognition approaches. This approach honors all reservoir characterization data collected, but accepts that our understanding of how these measurements relate to the information of most interest, such as how porosity and permeability vary over a reservoir volume, is imperfect. Ideally the data needed for such an approach includes surface seismic to provide the greatest amount of data over the entire reservoir volume of interest, crosswell seismic to fill the resolution gap between surface seismic and wellbore-scale measurements, geophysical well logs to provide the vertical resolution sought, and core data to provide the tie to the information of most interest. These data are combined via a series of one or more relational models to enable, in its most successful application, the prediction of porosity and permeability on a vertical resolution similar to logs at each surface seismic trace location. In this project, the procedure was applied to the giant (and highly complex) SACROC unit of the Permian basin in West Texas, one of the world's largest CO{sub 2}-EOR projects and a potentially world-class geologic sequestration site. Due to operational scheduling considerations on the part of the operator of the field, the crosswell data was not obtained during the period of project performance (it is currently being collected however as part of another DOE project). This compromised the utility of the surface seismic data for the project due to the resolution gap between it and the geophysical well logs. An alternative approach was adopted that utilized a

  8. The Shandong Shidao Bay 200 MWe High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Pebble-Bed Module (HTR-PM Demonstration Power Plant: An Engineering and Technological Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoyi Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available After the first concrete was poured on December 9, 2012 at the Shidao Bay site in Rongcheng, Shandong Province, China, the construction of the reactor building for the world's first high-temperature gas-cooled reactor pebble-bed module (HTR-PM demonstration power plant was completed in June, 2015. Installation of the main equipment then began, and the power plant is currently progressing well toward connecting to the grid at the end of 2017. The thermal power of a single HTR-PM reactor module is 250 MWth, the helium temperatures at the reactor core inlet/outlet are 250/750 °C, and a steam of 13.25 MPa/567 °C is produced at the steam generator outlet. Two HTR-PM reactor modules are connected to a steam turbine to form a 210 MWe nuclear power plant. Due to China's industrial capability, we were able to overcome great difficulties, manufacture first-of-a-kind equipment, and realize series major technological innovations. We have achieved successful results in many aspects, including planning and implementing R&D, establishing an industrial partnership, manufacturing equipment, fuel production, licensing, site preparation, and balancing safety and economics; these obtained experiences may also be referenced by the global nuclear community.

  9. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, W.S.; Powell, C.A.; Maxwell, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This paper describes the status of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project to demonstrate SCR technology for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from flue gas of utility boilers burning US high-sulfur coal. The funding participants are the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS), on behalf of the entire Southern Company, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of the project. The project is being conducted on Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (75-MW nominal capacity), located near Pensacola, Florida, on US coals that have a sulfur content near 3.0%. The SCR facility treats a 17,400 scfm slip-stream of flue gas and consists of three 2.5-MW (5000 scfm) and six 0.2-MW (400 scfm) SCR reactors. The reactors operate in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from vendors throughout the world. The design engineering and construction have been completed, and the startup/shakedown was completed in June 1993. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993 and will be conducted for two years. Test facility description and test plans, as well as start-up issues and preliminary commissioning test results are reported in this paper.

  10. Demonstration of long-pulse acceleration of high power positive ion beam with JT-60 positive ion source in Japan–Korea joint experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, A., E-mail: kojima.atsushi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan); Hanada, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan); Jeong, S.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Y.S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, D.H.; Kim, T.S.; Lee, K.W.; Park, M.; Jung, B.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mogaki, K.; Komata, M.; Dairaku, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    The long-pulse acceleration of the high-power positive ion beam has been demonstrated with the JT-60 positive ion source in the joint experiment among Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) under the collaboration program for the development of plasma heating and current drive systems. In this joint experiment, the increase of the heat load and the breakdowns induced by the degradation of the beam optics due to the gas accumulation was one of the critical issues for the long-pulse acceleration. As a result of development of the long-pulse operation techniques of the ion source and facilities of the neutral beam test stand in KAERI, 2 MW 100 s beam has been achieved for the first time. The achieved beam performance satisfies the JT-60SA requirement which is designed to be a 1.94 MW ion beam power from an ion source corresponding to total neutral beam power of 20 MW with 24 ion sources. Therefore, it was found that the JT-60 positive ion sources were applicable in the JT-60SA neutral beam injectors. Moreover, because this ion source is planned to be a backup ion source for KSTAR, the operational region and characteristic has been clarified to apply to the KSTAR neutral beam injector.

  11. Real-Time On-Board Airborne Demonstration of High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Ng, Tak-Kwong; Davis, Mitchell J.; Adams, James K.; Bowen, Stephen C.; Fay, James J.; Hutchinson, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program since April, 2012. The HOPS team recently completed two flight campaigns during the summer of 2014 on two different aircrafts with two different science instruments. The first flight campaign was in July, 2014 based at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) in Hampton, VA on the NASA's HU-25 aircraft. The science instrument that flew with HOPS was Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) funded by NASA's Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). The second campaign was in August, 2014 based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in Palmdale, CA on the NASA's DC-8 aircraft. HOPS flew with the Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) instrument developed by Excelis Inc. The goal of the campaigns was to perform an end-to-end demonstration of the capabilities of the HOPS prototype system (HOPS COTS) while running the most computationally intensive part of the ASCENDS algorithm real-time on-board. The comparison of the two flight campaigns and the results of the functionality tests of the HOPS COTS are presented in this paper.

  12. High-performance liquid chromatofocusing and column affinity chromatography of in vitro 14C-glycated human serum albumin. Demonstration of a glycation-induced anionic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, P; Deckert, T; Hansen, B; Welinder, B S

    1989-08-04

    High-performance liquid chromatofocusing of human serum albumin (HSA) after in vitro glycation with purified [14C]glucose has shown that with increasing glycation time a progressive increase in two major anionic fractions (pI 4.8 and 4.65) occurs, while the pI 4.9 fraction decreases in parallel. As early as after 5 days of glycation time, the [14C]glucose content in the anionic fractions was markedly higher than in the pI 4.9 fraction. After 10 and 15 days of glycation, a considerable heterogeneity of 10-15 components could be demonstrated. In addition, phenyl-boronic acid (PBA) affinity chromatography was applied and an enrichment of the more glycated species could be obtained using this method. We conclude that, in contrast to previous reports, glycation of HSA induces anionic heterogeneity (in accordance with the theoretically expected loss of positively charged amino groups) and, although the efficiency in separating non-glycated from monoglycated HSA was found to be very low, an enrichment of these anionic species can be achieved using PBA affinity chromatography.

  13. Characterization of chicken octamer-binding proteins demonstrates that POU domain-containing homeobox transcription factors have been highly conserved during vertebrate evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petryniak, B.; Postema, C.E.; McCormack, W.T.; Thompson, C.B. (Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor (USA)); Staudt, L.M. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-02-01

    The DNA sequence motif ATTTGCAT (octamer) or its inverse complement has been identified as an evolutionarily conserved element in the promoter region of immunoglobulin genes. Two major DNA-binding proteins that bind in a sequence-specific manner to the octamer DNA sequence have been identified in mammalian species--a ubiquitously expressed protein (Oct-1) and a lymphoid-specific protein (Oct-2). During characterization of the promoter region of the chicken immunoglobulin light chain gene, the authors identified two homologous octamer-binding proteins in chicken B cells. when the cloning of the human gene for Oct-2 revealed it to be a member of a distinct family of homeobox genes, they sought to determine if the human Oct-2 cDNA could be used to identify homologous chicken homeobox genes. Using a human Oct-2 homeobox-specific DNA probe, they were able to identify 6-10 homeobox-containing genes in the chicken genome, demonstrating that the Oct-2-related subfamily of homeobox genes exists in avian species. DNA sequence analysis revealed it to be the chicken homologue of the human Oct-1 gene. Together, the data show that the POU-containing subfamily of homeobox genes have been highly conserved during vertebrate evolution, apparently as a result of selection for their DNA-binding and transcriptional regulatory properties.

  14. A Fungal Insecticide Engineered for Fast Per Os Killing of Caterpillars Has High Field Efficacy and Safety in Full-Season Control of Cabbage Insect Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk. PMID:23956386

  15. Demonstration of trivalent actinide partitioning from simulated high-level liquid waste using modifier-free unsymmetrical diglycolamide in n-dodecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, P.K.; Kumaresan, R.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Subramanian, G.G.S.; Rajeswari, S.; Antony, M.P.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.; Chaurasia, Shivkumar; Bhanage, B.M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai (India)

    2015-07-01

    Partitioning of trivalent americium from fast-reactor (FR) simulated high-level liquid waste (SHLLW) has been demonstrated, for the first time, using a modifier-free organic phase containing an unsymmetrical diglycolamide, N,N,-didodecyl-N',N'-dioctyl-3-oxapentane-1,5-diamide (D{sup 3}DODGA), in n-dodecane (n-DD). The extraction behavior of various metal ions present in the FR-SHLLW that contained about 3.2 g/L of trivalent metal ions (Am(III) and Ln(III)) was studied using a solution of 0.1 M D{sup 3}DODGA/n-DD, by batch equilibration mode. The extraction of Am(III) was accompanied by the co-extraction of all lanthanides and unwanted metal ions such as Zr(IV), Y(III), and Pd(II) from FR-SHLLW. The co-extraction of unwanted metal ions was minimized by adding a suitable aqueous soluble complexing agents to FR-SHLLW, prior to extraction. As a result, trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (CyDTA) was identified as an appropriate reagent for preventing the extraction of zirconium and palladium, that posed problems during recovery of trivalent metal ions from the loaded organic phase. The stripping of behavior of Am(III) and Ln(III) from the loaded organic phase was studied using dilute nitric acid in batch equilibration mode. Based on those results, a counter-current mixer-settler run was performed in a 20-stage mixer-settler. About 99.9% of Am(III), Ln(III) and Y(III) from FR-SHLLW in 0.1 M D{sup 3}DODGA/n-DD was achieved in 20 contacts and the recovery of Am(III) and other trivalents from the loaded organic phase was achieved in 5 contacts using 0.01 M nitric acid. The study demonstrated the possibility of using the modifier-free reagent, D{sup 3}DODGA, for the separation of trivalent actinides from FR-SHLLW.

  16. High pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and early adherence among men who have sex with men and transgender women at risk for HIV Infection: the PrEP Brasil demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Brenda; Moreira, Ronaldo I; De Boni, Raquel B; Kallas, Esper G; Madruga, José Valdez; Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Goulart, Silvia; Torres, Thiago S; Marins, Luana M S; Anderson, Peter L; Luz, Paula M; Costa Leite, Iuri da; Liu, Albert Y; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2017-04-06

    The efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing sexual acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well established. Little is known about the feasibility of PrEP implementation in middle-income settings with concentrated epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). PrEP Brasil is a prospective, multicentre, open-label demonstration project assessing PrEP delivery in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System. HIV-uninfected MSM and TGW in 3 referral centres in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo were evaluated for eligibility and offered 48 weeks of daily emtricitabine/tenofovir for PrEP. Concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate in dried blood spot samples (DBS) at week 4 after enrolment (early adherence) were measured. Predictors of drug levels were assessed using ordinal logistic regression models considering the DBS drug level as a 3 level variable (<350 fmol/punch, ≥350-699 fmol/punch and ≥700 fmol/punch). 1,270 individuals were assessed for participation; n = 738 were potentially eligible and n = 450 were offered PrEP (PrEP uptake was 60.9%). Eligible but not enrolled individuals were younger, had lower HIV risk perception and had lower PrEP awareness. At week 4, 424 participants (of the 450 enrolled) had DBS TFV-DP concentrations, 94.1% in the protective range (≥350 fmol/punch, consistent with ≥2 pills per week), and 78% were in the highly protective range (≥700 fmol/punch, ≥4 pills per week). Participants with ≥12 years of schooling had 1.9 times the odds (95%CI 1.10-3.29) of a higher versus lower drug level than participants with <12 years of schooling. Condomless receptive anal intercourse in the prior 3 months was also associated with higher drug levels (adjusted OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.08-2.94). The high uptake and early adherence indicate that PrEP for high-risk MSM and TGW can be successfully delivered in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System. Interventions to

  17. First Detections of the [N II] 122 micron Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [N II] 122 micron line from a high-redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (>6(sigma)) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and H1413 + 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift (zeta) and Early Universe Spectrometer on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line to far-infrared (FIR) continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0 x 10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1 x 10(exo -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line to continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8%-17% of the molecUlar gas mass. The [O III]/[N II] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using Our previous detection of the [O III] 88 micron line, the [O III]/[N II]line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates that the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar H II regions ionized by O9.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter log(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30%-50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82-like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [N II]line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This war!< demonstrates the utility of the [N II] and [O III] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  18. First Detections of the [NII] 122 Micrometer Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [NIl] 122 {\\mu} m line from a high redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (> 6{\\sigma}) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and HI413+ 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS) on the CSO. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line-to-FIR continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0x10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1x10(exp -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line-to-continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8 to 17% of the molecular gas mass. The [OIII]/[NII] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an AGN. Using our previous detection of the [01II] 88 {\\mu}m line, the [OIII]/ [NIl] line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar HII regions ionized by 09.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter 10g(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30 to 50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [NIl] line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This work demonstrates the utility of the [NIl] and [OIII] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  19. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®: a novel isothermal DNA amplification technology demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity for a single molecule of target analyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hoser

    Full Text Available Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA. SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella.

  20. Beam-test results of 4k pixel CMOS MAPS and high resistivity striplet detectors equipped with digital sparsified readout in the Slim5 low mass silicon demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, M., E-mail: villa@bo.infn.i [Universita degli Studi di Bologna and INFN-Bologna (Italy); Bruschi, M.; Di Sipio, R.; Fabbri, L.; Giacobbe, B.; Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Pellegrini, G.; Sbarra, C.; Semprini, N.; Spighi, R.; Valentinetti, S.; Zoccoli, A. [Universita degli Studi di Bologna and INFN-Bologna (Italy); Avanzini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Calderini, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Cenci, R. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa and INFN-Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The results obtained by the Slim5 collaboration on a low material budget tracking silicon demonstrator put on a 12 GeV/c proton test beam at CERN are reported. Inside a reference telescope, two different and innovative detectors were placed for careful tests. The first was a 4k-Pixel Matrix of Deep N Well MAPS, developed in a 130 nm CMOS Technology, square pixels 50{mu}m wide, thinned down to 100{mu}m and equipped with a digital sparsified readout running up to 50 MHz. The other was a high resistivity double sided silicon detector, 200{mu}m thick, with short strips with 50{mu}m pitch at 45{sup 0} angle to the detector's edge. The detectors were equipped with dedicated fast readout architectures performing on-chip data sparsification and providing the timing information for the hits. The criteria followed in the design of the pixel sensor and of the pixel readout architecture will be reviewed. Preliminary measurements of the pixel charge collection, track detection efficiencies and resolutions of pixel and strip sensors are discussed. The data driven architecture of the readout chips has been fully exploited in the test beam by a data acquisition system able to collect on electronic board up to 2.5 Million events per second before triggering. By using a dedicated Associative Memory board, we were able to perform a level 1 trigger system, with minimal latency, identifying cleanly tracks traversing the detectors. System architecture and main performances are shown.