WorldWideScience

Sample records for demographically similar males

  1. What are the odds? How demographic similarity affects the prevalence of perceived employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Derek R; McKay, Patrick F; Wilson, David C

    2008-03-01

    Because research is needed to identify the conditions that facilitate or impede the prevalence of perceived workplace discrimination, the authors examined the effects of demographics and demographic similarity on the prevalence of sex- and race/ethnicity-based perceived workplace discrimination. Results from a national survey of 763 full-time, United States employees show perceived sex-based discrimination at work was more prevalent among female than male employees, and perceived race-based discrimination at work was more prevalent among Black and Hispanic than White employees. Additionally, perceived racial/ethnic discrimination was less prevalent among those with same-race/ethnicity supervisors. The effect of employee-coworker sex similarity on perceived sex discrimination was significant only for women, and the effects of supervisor-subordinate racial similarity on the prevalence of perceived racial discrimination varied between Black and White respondents, depending on employee-residential-community racial similarity.

  2. MALE AND FEMALE LEADERSHIP – SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela CIOLAC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - This study aims to identify characteristics and behaviours typical for male and female managers from the managers` perspective as well as from the subordinates`. Design/methodology/approach – The study involved 232 employed persons, 111 managers and 121 subordinates working in different branches. The independent variables of the research were: the position in the organization (manager or subordinate and the managers` gender (male or female. The dependent variables were multiple and focused on the characteristics of managers in Romania. In order to develop tools for the assessment of Romanian managers` characteristics, 25 managers and 25 employers (from various professional categories listed 10 qualities that they consider important for a manager. Findings – The differences between female and male managers are less than the similarities. Practical implications/originality/value – The overall conclusion – organizational characteristics have a greater influence than the personal ones in the managers` behaviour.

  3. Defying geometric similarity: Shape centralization in male UK offshore workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Arthur D; Ledingham, Robert J; Furnace, Graham; Williams, Hector; Nevill, Alan M

    2017-05-06

    Applying geometric similarity predictions of body dimensions to specific occupational groups has the potential to reveal useful ergonomic and health implications. This study assessed a representative sample of the male UK offshore workforce, and examined how body dimensions from sites typifying musculoskeletal development or fat accumulation, differed from predicted values. A cross sectional sample was obtained across seven weight categories using quota sampling, to match the wider workforce. In total, 588 UK offshore workers, 84 from each of seven weight categories, were measured for stature, mass and underwent 3D body scans which yielded 22 dimensional measurements. Each measurement was modeled using a body-mass power law (adjusting for age), to derive its exponent, which was compared against that predicted from geometric similarity. Mass scaled to stature (1.73) (CI: 1.44-2.02). Arm and leg volume increased by mass(0.8) , and torso volume increased by mass(1.1) in contrast to mass (1.0) predicted by geometric similarity. Neck girth increased by mass (0.33) as expected, while torso girth and depth dimensions increased by mass(0.53-0.72) , all substantially greater than assumed by geometric similarity. After controlling for age, offshore workers experience spectacular "super-centralization" of body shape, with greatest gains in abdominal depth and girth dimensions in areas of fat accumulation, and relative dimensional loss in limbs. These findings are consistent with the antecedents of sarcopenic obesity, and should be flagged as a health concern for this workforce, and for future targeted research and lifestyle interventions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Demographical and Psychological Determinants of Depression, Among a Sample of Iranian Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fazlollah Ghofranipour; Mohsen Saffari; Mahmoud Mahmoudi; Ali Montazeri

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of depression especially among youths is increasingly high. The present study is aimed to identify some demographic and psychological factors such as self-efficacy and perceived stress that may be related to depression among male adolescents. Methods: Overall, 402 adolescent were selected for participation in the study using multistage sampling method. The participants completed a questionnaire including demographic, depression, self-efficacy, and perceived stre...

  5. Male versus Female Breast Cancer : differences hidden behind similarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacle, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer in males is a rare disease. Due to its rarity, little research has been conducted on male breast cancer (MBC), especially when compared to its female counterpart. Knowledge on MBC is therefore based on small single institutional studies, as large series are lacking. The optimal

  6. Male clients of male escorts: satisfaction, sexual behavior, and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Wolff, Margaret; Smith, Michael D; Koken, Juline; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined male clients who pay for sex with male escorts. In 2012, clients (n = 495) completed an online survey about their most recent hire. Most clients were White/Caucasian (87.7%), HIV negative (89.5%), employed full time (71.1%), single (58.6%), with a mean age of 54. Three-quarters of clients were gay identified, 18% bisexual, and 4% heterosexual. The median rate paid to escorts was $250 per hour with a modal appointment time of 1 to 2 hours (41.6%). Oral sex was common (80% gave, 69% received), 30% reported anal insertive sex, and 34% reported anal receptive sex. In total, few (12%) reported unprotected anal sex. Satisfaction with encounters was high. Receptive unprotected anal intercourse was associated with greater satisfaction in bivariate analyses but not in multivariable analyses. In a multivariable model, having receptive anal sex (whether protected or not) and rating the financial cost of the encounter as "worth it" were significantly associated with greater satisfaction. This study contributes to a scarce literature regarding clients of male sex workers and, in particular, provides information on the characteristics of men hiring men for sexual services, behavioral event-level data about their encounters, and analysis of factors directly associated with client satisfaction.

  7. The relationship between bisphosphonate use and demographic characteristics of male osteoporosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Cevikoi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate a number of demographic characteristics in males with osteoporosis (OP treated with bisphosphonate and determine whether any of these measures could act as an effective indicator of medication persistence and compliance. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Among the patients with OP who applied to our clinic and were prescribed weekly oral bisphosphonate treatment, 89 patients over 50 years of age were included in this study. The demographic characteristics of these patients were evaluated. The number of medications used by the patients over the past 1 and 3 years were counted, and the persistence and compliance with bisphosphonate treatment was estimated. The patients were divided into two groups: fully compliant and noncompliant subjects. The two groups of patients were compared separately for 1 and 3 years while considering their demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The mean age of the 89 patients included in the study was 62.43 + 9.41 years. Comparisons among the studied demographic characteristics during the 1-year period of medication use indicated that the educational status of the fully compliant patients was higher. During the 3-year period of medication use, educational status was the only demographic characteristic that was determined to be significantly lower in the noncompliant patients than in the fully compliant group. CONCLUSION: Although deficiencies in medication persistence and compliance during osteoporosis treatment can lead to serious health and social problems in both genders, the causes of these deficiencies have not been thoroughly clarified. We suggest that the educational status of the patient may contribute to these deficiencies.

  8. MODELING FOR DEMOGRAPHIC AND REGIONAL PREVALENCE AND TRENDS OF SMOKING IN THAI MALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Apiradee; McNeil, Don

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to describe using national survey data the demographic and regional prevalence and trends of smoking in Thai males during the past 25 years. Data from eight national surveys conducted by the National Statistics Office from 1986 to 2011 were used to examine the prevalence of smoking. Males aged 15 and older were included in this study. Logistic regression was used to model smoking patterns, according to year of survey, age group, urbanization, and Public Health Area (PHA). The prevalence of smoking among males aged 15 years and older in 2011 was 38.4%. Sharply increasing smoking prevalence was found in the 15-24 years-old age group in all surveys. Before survey year 1999, the prevalence of smoking started to level off near retirement age, and subsequently, it leveled off after 40 years of age. The prevalence of smoking in all age groups decreased after 1986 except in the 15-19 years-old age group. Higher prevalence of smoking was found in rural areas. Males from the Northeast and the lower South regions had the highest prevalence. More effective anti-smoking policies should focus on males aged below 25 years to reduce the increasing prevalence of smoking in this group.

  9. Demographic characteristics associated with homelessness and risk among female and male veterans accessing VHA outpatient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Dichter, Melissa E; Thomasson, Arwin M; Fu, Xiaoying; Roberts, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    This study explored demographic influences on veterans' reports of homelessness or imminent risk of homelessness with a particular focus on gender. We analyzed data for a cohort of veterans who responded to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Veterans Health Administration (VHA) universal screener for homelessness and risk during a 3-month period. Multinomial mixed effects models-stratified by gender-predicted veterans' reports of homelessness or risk based on age, race, marital status, and receipt of VA compensation. The proportion of positive screens-homelessness or risk-was 2.7% for females and 1.7% for males. Women more likely to report being at risk of homelessness were aged 35 to 54 years, Black, and unmarried; those more likely to experience homelessness were Black and unmarried. Among male veterans, the greatest predictors of both homelessness and risk were Black race and unmarried status. Among both genders, receiving VA disability compensation was associated with lesser odds of being homeless or at risk. The findings describe the current population of veterans using VHA health care services who may benefit from homelessness prevention or intervention services, identify racial differences in housing stability, and distinguish subpopulations who may be in particular need of intervention. Interventions to address these needs are described. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Smoking and socio-demographic determinant of cardiovascular diseases among males 45+ years in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumartono, Wasis; Sirait, Anna M; Holy, Maria; Thabrany, Hasbullah

    2011-02-01

    The main objective of this study is to present the prevalence of Cardio Vascular Diseases (CVDs) defined as been diagnosed or having symptoms of Coronary Heart Disease, Arrhytmia, or Heart Failure. The main risk factor analyzed is smoking behavior. The data used for this study was from Basic Health Survey of 2007, a National baseline data collected every three years which consist of more than one million samples representing 33 provinces in Indonesia. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, history of CVDs and smoking behavior were collected by highly-trained interviewers using a questionnaire which had been tested. A sub-sample of the survey consisting of 100,009 males aged 45 years and over was analyzed. Crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR) were analyzed using logistic regressions to estimate the prevalence of CVDs by smoking behavior and socio-demographic characteristics. Overall, 86.8% respondents reported that they had never been diagnosed as having CVDs or having any symptom of CVDs.; while 2.1% respondents reported that they had been diagnosed by a health professional (a doctor or a nurse) of having CVDs. The interviewers also identified three signs and symptoms of CVDs for all respondents if they reported of never been diagnosed CVDs. Among all respondents 2.3% had symptoms of coronary heart disease, 4.9% had symptoms of arrhytmia, and 3.9% had symptoms of heart failure. The prevalence of CVDs was significantly higher in former smokers (OR = 2.03), and duration of smoking for more than 20 years. The prevalence of CVDs was significantly higher among older groups. Old males who lived in Sulawesi island had higher probability of having CVDs (OR = 1.67). The lower prevalence of CVDs seemed to have associated with higher among Senior High School Graduate compared to those who Never Schooling (OR = 0.8). Since population of Indonesia is relatively young, the future of health care costs of Indonesia would be high due to high prevalence of smoking among

  11. Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics! series, sponsored by the California Institute for Technology (CalTech), the mathematical concept of similarity is presented. he history of and real life applications are discussed using actual film footage and computer animation. Terms used and various concepts of size, shape, ratio, area, and volume are demonstrated. The similarity of polygons, solids, congruent triangles, internal ratios, perimeters, and line segments using the previous mentioned concepts are shown.

  12. Demographic, Clinical, and Personality Variables Associated with Male Prostitution by Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Jim A.; Markley, Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    Compared 15 male prostitutes and 15 nonprostitutes from same cohort. Found heavier drug and alcohol use, more limited vocational success and aspirations, and greater alcohol use among family members of male prostitutes. Male prostitutes were also more likely to identify themselves as drug or alcohol addicted. No significant differences were found…

  13. Obstetrics and gynecology clerkship for males and females: similar curriculum, different outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, LaTasha B.; Smith, Chad; Crow, Sheila M.; Driver, Whitney; Wallace, Michelle; Thompson, Britta M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if performance differences exist between male and female students on a 6-week obstetrics and gynecology (Ob/Gyn) clerkship and to evaluate potential variables that might underlie any observed variations. Study Design Final clerkship grades and component scores (clinical evaluations, objective structured clinical examination [OSCE], oral examination, and National Board of Medical Examiners [NBME] subject examination) from July 2007 to June 2010 were matched by student and analyzed by gender. Basic science grade point average (GPA) and initial United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) Step 1 scores were used to establish students’ baseline medical knowledge. On a post-clerkship questionnaire, a subset of students reported the numbers of procedures they performed during the clerkship; students also completed online pre- and post-clerkship questionnaires reflecting their self-assessed confidence in women's health clinical skills. Results Scores were analyzed for 136 women and 220 men. Final clerkship grades were significantly higher for females than for males (89.05 vs. 87.34, p=0.0004, η 2=0.08). Specifically, females outscored males on the OSCE, oral, and NBME subject examination portions of the clerkship but not clinical evaluations. Males reported completing fewer breast examinations (p=0.001, η 2=0.14). Pre-clerkship, males were significantly less confident than females in women's health clinical skills (p<0.01) but reached similar levels upon completion of the clerkship. No gender differences were detected for basic science GPA and USMLE Step 1 scores. Conclusion Student gender is associated with final grades on an Ob/Gyn clerkship. Further research regarding these differences should be explored. PMID:24300748

  14. Obstetrics and gynecology clerkship for males and females: similar curriculum, different outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaTasha B. Craig

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To determine if performance differences exist between male and female students on a 6-week obstetrics and gynecology (Ob/Gyn clerkship and to evaluate potential variables that might underlie any observed variations. Study Design : Final clerkship grades and component scores (clinical evaluations, objective structured clinical examination [OSCE], oral examination, and National Board of Medical Examiners [NBME] subject examination from July 2007 to June 2010 were matched by student and analyzed by gender. Basic science grade point average (GPA and initial United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE Step 1 scores were used to establish students’ baseline medical knowledge. On a post-clerkship questionnaire, a subset of students reported the numbers of procedures they performed during the clerkship; students also completed online pre- and post-clerkship questionnaires reflecting their self-assessed confidence in women's health clinical skills. Results : Scores were analyzed for 136 women and 220 men. Final clerkship grades were significantly higher for females than for males (89.05 vs. 87.34, p=0.0004, η 2=0.08. Specifically, females outscored males on the OSCE, oral, and NBME subject examination portions of the clerkship but not clinical evaluations. Males reported completing fewer breast examinations (p=0.001, η 2=0.14. Pre-clerkship, males were significantly less confident than females in women's health clinical skills (p<0.01 but reached similar levels upon completion of the clerkship. No gender differences were detected for basic science GPA and USMLE Step 1 scores. Conclusion : Student gender is associated with final grades on an Ob/Gyn clerkship. Further research regarding these differences should be explored.

  15. Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim António

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin and prevalence of the prehispanic settlers of the Canary Islands has attracted great multidisciplinary interest. However, direct ancient DNA genetic studies on indigenous and historical 17th–18th century remains, using mitochondrial DNA as a female marker, have only recently been possible. In the present work, the analysis of Y-chromosome polymorphisms in the same samples, has shed light on the way the European colonization affected male and female Canary Island indigenous genetic pools, from the conquest to present-day times. Results Autochthonous (E-M81 and prominent (E-M78 and J-M267 Berber Y-chromosome lineages were detected in the indigenous remains, confirming a North West African origin for their ancestors which confirms previous mitochondrial DNA results. However, in contrast with their female lineages, which have survived in the present-day population since the conquest with only a moderate decline, the male indigenous lineages have dropped constantly being substituted by European lineages. Male and female sub-Saharan African genetic inputs were also detected in the Canary population, but their frequencies were higher during the 17th–18th centuries than today. Conclusion The European colonization of the Canary Islands introduced a strong sex-biased change in the indigenous population in such a way that indigenous female lineages survived in the extant population in a significantly higher proportion than their male counterparts.

  16. The clinical and demographic profile of male patients with alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pramod Kumar Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the demographic factors associated with alcohol dependence syndrome so that the problems of alcohol related co morbidities can be prevented with appropriate preventive measures. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in De-Addiction Clinic of the Department of Psychiatry, Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh from July 2008 to February 2009. Patient who fulfills criteria for alcohol dependence, according to diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition were included. Results: Mean age (standard deviation at first drink was 18.93 (3.81 years and at onset of Alcohol dependence was 28.28 (6.55 years. The most common reason being given by the patients was financial strain (70% of the patients due to alcohol use and its consequences. Educational qualification of 12th standard or above was seen only in 7.5%. Alcohol dependence syndrome was more common in unemployed, unskilled and semi-skilled patients. Majority of patients (80% belonged to lower socio-economic class. Conclusion: Alcohol dependence syndrome and its related co morbidities can be minimized to a great extent if the educational and socio-economic standards are improved in countries like India where there is increase in alcohol consumption as a life style choice.

  17. A worldwide survey of human male demographic history based on Y-SNP and Y-STR data from the HGDP-CEPH populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Shi (Wentao); Q. Ayub (Qasim); M. Vermeulen (Mark); R.G. Shao (Rong Guang); S.B. Zuniga (Sofia); K. van der Gaag (Kristiaan); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); Y. Xue (Yali); C. Tyler-Smith (Chris)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe have investigated human male demographic history using 590 males from 51 populations in the Human Genome Diversity Project-Centre d'Étude du Polymorphisme Humain worldwide panel, typed with 37 Y-chromosomal Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and 65 Y-chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats and

  18. Socio-demographic characteristics of female and male population of Central Serbia, at beginning of the first decade of 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuburović Ankica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing state of gender inequalities has led demographers to give their contribution to the research of female and male population relations. Differentiation of demographic characteristics is an aspect of enlightening the social structure of population of both sexes and revealing gender differences as a consequence of demographic and social factors. Sociodemographic structures of population, according to data from the 2002 census were analyzed from the gender perspective. The accent was placed on the differences between male and female population in view of age, marriage state, education and economic activity. Gender inequalities were perceived not only on the level of Central Serbia but according to settlement type as demographically and socially different contexts.

  19. Discriminating males and unpredictable females: males differentiate self-similar facial cues more than females in the judgment of opposite-sex attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ying Zhuang

    Full Text Available Attractiveness judgment in the context of mate preferences is thought to reflect an assessment of mate quality in relation to an absolute scale of genetic fitness and a relative scale of self-similarity. In this study, subjects judged the attractiveness and trustworthiness of faces in composite images that were manipulated to produce self-similar (self-resemblance and dissimilar (other-resemblance images. Males differentiated between self- and other-resemblance as well as among different degrees of self-resemblance in their attractiveness ratings; females did not. Specifically, in Experiment 1, using a morphing technique, we created previously unseen face images possessing different degrees (0%, 30%, 40%, or 50% of incorporation of the subject's images (different degrees of self-resemblance and found that males preferred images that were closer to average (0% rather than more self-similar, whereas females showed no preference for any degree of self-similarity. In Experiment 2, we added a pro-social question about trustworthiness. We replicated the Experiment 1 attractiveness rating results and further found that males differentiated between self- and other-resemblance for the same degree of composites; women did not. Both males and females showed a similar preference for self-resemblances when judging trustworthiness. In conclusion, only males factored self-resemblance into their attractiveness ratings of opposite-sex individuals in a manner consistent with cues of reproductive fitness, although both sexes favored self-resemblance when judging trustworthiness.

  20. Energy requirements in early life are similar for male and female goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompadre, T F V; Neto, O Boaventura; Mendonca, A N; Souza, S F; Oliveira, D; Fernandes, M H M R; Harter, C J; Almeida, A K; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW) and 23±5 d of age) using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females) and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake). A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females (5.1±0.4 kg BW and 23±13 d of age). Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was 205.6 kJ/kg(0.75) empty body weight gain (EBW) (170.3 kJ/kg(0.75) BW) from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was 294.34 kJ/kg(0.75) EBW and km of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG), and assuming kg = 0.47, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate diets

  1. Energy Requirements in Early Life Are Similar for Male and Female Goat Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompadre, T. F. V.; Neto, O. Boaventura; Mendonca, A. N.; Souza, S. F.; Oliveira, D.; Fernandes, M. H. M. R.; Harter, C. J.; Almeida, A. K.; Resende, K. T.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW) and 23±5 d of age) using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females) and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake). A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females (5.1±0.4 kg BW and 23±13 d of age). Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was 205.6 kJ/kg0.75 empty body weight gain (EBW) (170.3 kJ/kg0.75 BW) from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was 294.34 kJ/kg0.75 EBW and km of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG), and assuming kg = 0.47, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate diets with

  2. Energy Requirements in Early Life Are Similar for Male and Female Goat Kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. V. Bompadre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW and 23±5 d of age using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake. A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females (5.1±0.4 kg BW and 23±13 d of age. Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was 205.6 kJ/kg0.75 empty body weight gain (EBW (170.3 kJ/kg0.75 BW from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was 294.34 kJ/kg0.75 EBW and km of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG, and assuming kg = 0.47, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate

  3. Male Learners' Vocabulary Achievement through Concept Mapping and Mind Mapping: Differences and Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkashvand, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    While learning English plays an essential role in today's life, vocabulary achievement is helpful to overcome the difficulties of commanding the language. Drawing on data from three months experimental work, this article explores how two mapping strategies affect the learning vocabularies in EFL male learners. While females were studied before,…

  4. Males and Females Respond Similarly to Walking With a Standardized, Heavy Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupenevich, Rebecca; Rider, Patrick; Domire, Zachary; DeVita, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Females in the military sustain a higher incidence of lower extremity injuries compared to males. Previous investigations of gender differences during load carriage used loads normalized to body mass; as a result of anthropometric and strength differences between genders, this may partially normalize to strength, masking gender or size differences in response to load. We compared gait kinetics and kinematics between genders based on a standardized load, instead of loads relative to body mass. 11 males and 11 females walked at 1.5 m/s over level ground with a 22 kg rucksack using three load conditions: unloaded, low-back placement, and mid-back placement. We found a gender by load interaction for average trunk position (p 0.05) compared to unloaded walking. The lack of gender differences may indicate that females do not adapt gait mechanics to account for smaller stature and lesser absolute strength compared to males, which may contribute to the high injury rate in female military recruits.

  5. Eating disorders and anabolic androgenic steroids in males - similarities and differences in self-image and psychiatric symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Body dissatisfaction is common among both females and males. Dissatisfaction with the body is a risk factor both for onset of eating disorders and for abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Few studies have however investigated if there are other similarities in respect to self-image or psychiatric symptoms between clinical samples of eating disordered males and males in treatment for negative effects of AAS use. Aim The aim of this study was to compare two clinical samples, one of males with ED and one of males who used AAS, regarding self-image and psychiatric symptoms. Methods This study compared males with eating disorders (n = 13) and males who recently stopped AAS use (n = 29) on self-image and psychiatric symptoms, using The Structural Analysis of Social Behavior self-questionnaire and a shortened version of The Symptom Check List. Results The eating disorder group reported significantly lower scores for Self-emancipation and Active self-love and higher scores for Self-blame and Self-hate. Both groups reported serious psychiatric symptoms. The common denominator between groups was serious psychiatric symptomatology rather than negative self-image. Conclusions The negative self-image profile, especially self-hate, found among males with Eating Disorders may indicate that the studied groups differ in aetiology of the underlying problems. The serious psychiatric symptoms in both groups call staff to pay attention to any thoughts of suicide due to severe depressive symptoms where by specialized psychiatric treatment may be needed. PMID:23958408

  6. The Misuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Iranian Re-crea¬tional Male Body-Builders and Their Related Psycho-So¬cio-Demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman ANGOORANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence and potential side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS misuse by athletes has made it a major public health concern. Epidemiological studies on the abuse of such drugs are mandatory for developing effective preventive drug control programs in sports community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AAS abuse and their association with some psycho-socio-demographic factors in Iranian male recreational body-builders.Methods: Between March and October 2011; 906 recreational male body-builders from 103 randomly selected bodybuilding clubs in Tehran, Iran were participated in this study. Some psycho-socio- demographic factors including age, job, average family income, family size, sport experience (months, weekly duration of the sporting activity (h, purpose of participation in sporting activity, mental health as well as body image (via General Health Questionnaire and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, respectively, and history of AAS use were obtained by interviews using questionnaires.Results: Participants were all recreational male body-builders [mean age (SD: 25.7 (7.1, ranging 14-56 yr]. Self-report of AAS abuse was registered in 150 body-builders (16.6%. Among different psycho-socio-demographic factors, only family income and sport experience were inversely associated with AAS abuse.Conclusion: Lifetime prevalence of AAS abuse is relatively high among recreational body-builders based on their self-report. Some psycho-socio-demographic factors including family income and sport experience may influence the prevalence of AAS abuse. Keywords: Anabolic agents, Ergogenic, Doping, Iran, Body-building, Sports, Athlete

  7. Male circumcision and its association with HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases: evidence from 18 demographic and health surveys in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Samson

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the association between male circumcision and HIV infection and STDs. The issue is controversial as various studies reported conflicting findings. A cross-sectional comparative study based on the secondary data of 18 Demographic Health Surveys (DHS), carried out in Sub-Saharan Africa starting from 2003, was conducted. From all surveys, information on 70 554 males aged 15 - 59 years was extracted. The association between male circumcision and HIV infection and STD symptoms (genital discharge or genital ulcer/sore) was assessed using binary logistic regression. Adjustment was made for sexual history and basic socio-demographic variables. The weighted prevalence of HIV among men 15 - 59 years was 3.1%. In the bivariate analysis uncircumcised status was significantly associated with risk of HIV, with odds ratio (OR) of 4.12 (95% CI: 3.85 - 4.42). The association was even more significant (4.95 (95% CI: 4.57-5.36)) after adjustment for number of lifetime sexual partners and socio-demographic variables. The risk associated with uncircumcised status is significantly lower among younger men aged 15 - 29 years than those in 30 - 59-year age category. About 5.5% of the study subjects reported either genital discharge or genital sore/ulcer in the preceding 12 months of the surveys. Circumcision status was not significantly associated with either of the symptoms, with adjusted OR of 1.07 (95% CI: 0.99 - 1.15). The study concludes that there is a strong association between uncircumcised status and HIV infection. Hence, male circumcision can be considered as a possible way of reducing the spread of HIV infection in areas where the practice is rare. A comprehensive study to assess the association between circumcision and different types of STDs is recommended.

  8. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and its relationship with socio-demographics and hygienic habits among male primary schoolchildren inAl-Ahsa,SaudiArabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamdan Ibrahim Al-Mohammed; Tarek Tawfik Amin; Elsayed Aboulmagd; Hatem Refaat Hablus; Burhan Omar Zaza

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the prevalence of different intestinal parasitic infections among male primary schoolchildren in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, and to explore the possible relative socio-economic, environmental and behavioural sanitary correlates.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. A total of1 289 male students aged from7to12years were selected randomly from20urban and12rural primary schools by multistage sampling method. Data collection was carried out by self administered questionnaire form to the parents/guardians of students and included inquires about socio-demographics, environmental conditions, and behavioural sanitary habits. Stool analysis was carried out to examine the presence of intestinal parasitic infections.Results:Overall prevalence of parasitic infections was27.2%, more among rural students. Frequently encountered infections included Entamoeba histolytica/dispar(8.2%), Giardia lamblia(6.5%),Entamoeba coli(4.0%)andEnterobius vermicularis(1.6%). Logistic regression revealed that lower maternal educational level and occupational status, low family income, big family size, poor personal hygienic practices and positive history of previous intestinal infections among family members increased the likelihood of infections.Conclusions:Although of low magnitude, intestinal parasitic infections still represent a public health concern among male schoolchildren in Al-Ahsa region. Socio-demographic and poor personal hygienic habits are the main predictors for these infections.

  9. Moderate-intensity intermittent work in the heat results in similar low-level dehydration in young and older males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather E; Larose, Joanie; McLellan, Tom M; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Boulay, Pierre; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-01-01

    Older individuals may be more susceptible to the negative thermal and cardiovascular consequences of dehydration during intermittent work in the heat. This study examined the hydration, thermal, and cardiovascular responses to intermittent exercise in the heat in 14 Young (Y, Mean ± SE; 25.8 ± 0.8 years), Middle-age (MA, 43.6 ± 0.9 years), and Older (O, 57.2 ± 1.5 years) healthy, non-heat acclimated males matched for height, mass, body surface area, and percent body fat. Rectal temperature (Tre), heart rate (HR), local sweat rate (LSR), and hydration indices were measured during 4 × 15-min moderate to heavy cycling bouts at 400 W heat production, each followed by a 15-min rest period, in Warm/Dry (35°C, 20% relative humidity [RH]) and Warm/Humid (35°C, 60% RH) heat. No differences were observed between the age groups for Tre, Tre change, HR, LSR, mass change, urine specific gravity, and plasma protein concentration in either condition, irrespective of the greater level of thermal and cardiovascular strain experienced in the Warm/Humid environment. Plasma volume changes (Dry Y: -5.4 ± 0.7, MA: -6.2 ± 0.9, O: -5.7 ± 0.9%, Humid Y: -7.3 ± 1.0, MA: -7.9 ± 0.8, O: -8.4 ± 1.0%) were similar between groups, as were urine specific gravity and plasma protein concentrations. Thus, physically active Young, Middle-age, and Older males demonstrate similar hydration, thermal, and cardiovascular responses during moderate- to high-intensity intermittent exercise in the heat.

  10. Mutational profiling of familial male breast cancers reveals similarities with luminal A female breast cancer with rare TP53 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, S; Wong, S Q; Li, J; Do, H; Weiss, J; Byrne, D; Chakrabarti, A; Bosma, T; Fellowes, A; Dobrovic, A; Fox, S B

    2014-12-09

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is still poorly understood with a large proportion arising in families with a history of breast cancer. Genomic studies have focused on germline determinants of MBC risk, with minimal knowledge of somatic changes in these cancers. Using a TruSeq amplicon cancer panel, this study evaluated 48 familial MBCs (3 BRCA1 germline mutant, 17 BRCA2 germline mutant and 28 BRCAX) for hotspot somatic mutations and copy number changes in 48 common cancer genes. Twelve missense mutations included nine PIK3CA mutations (seven in BRCAX patients), two TP53 mutations (both in BRCA2 patients) and one PTEN mutation. Common gains were seen in GNAS (34.1%) and losses were seen in GNAQ (36.4%), ABL1 (47.7%) and ATM (34.1%). Gains of HRAS (37.5% vs 3%, P=0.006), STK11 (25.0% vs 0%, P=0.01) and SMARCB1 (18.8% vs 0%, P=0.04) and the loss of RB1 (43.8% vs 13%, P=0.03) were specific to BRCA2 tumours. This study is the first to perform high-throughput somatic sequencing on familial MBCs. Overall, PIK3CA mutations are most commonly seen, with fewer TP53 and PTEN mutations, similar to the profile seen in luminal A female breast cancers. Differences in mutation profiles and patterns of gene gains/losses are seen between BRCA2 (associated with TP53/PTEN mutations, loss of RB1 and gain of HRAS, STK11 and SMARCB1) and BRCAX (associated with PIK3CA mutations) tumours, suggesting that BRCA2 and BRCAX MBCs may be distinct and arise from different tumour pathways. This has implications on potential therapies, depending on the BRCA status of MBC patients.

  11. Similar but Different: Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance, Body Shape Dissatisfaction, and Weight Control Behaviors among Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBate, Rita; Lewis, Melissa; Zhang, Yan; Blunt, Heather; Thompson, Sharon H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although females have a higher incidence of eating disorders than males, there is evidence that among college students both males and females are vulnerable to risk factors associated with eating disorders. Purpose: To explore the relationship between sociocultural attitudes towards appearance (SCATA), body shape (dis)satisfaction…

  12. Similar response in male and female B10.RIII mice in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matheu, Victor; Barrios, Ysamar; Arnau, Maria-Rosa

    2009-01-01

    , and antigen-specific T-cell proliferation were measured. RESULTS: Immunization in both male and female B10.RIII mice with OVA elicited a classical Th2-type response. Results showed no significant differences among male and female mice. Also a high eosinophilia in BAL fluid and parenchyma was produced in both...

  13. Perinatal administration of aromatase inhibitors in rodents as animal models of human male homosexuality: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we briefly review the evidence supporting the existence of biological influences on sexual orientation. We focus on basic research studies that have affected the estrogen synthesis during the critical periods of brain sexual differentiation in male rat offspring with the use of aromatase inhibitors, such as 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17 (ATD) and letrozole. The results after prenatal and/or postnatal treatment with ATD reveal that these animals, when adults, show female sexual responses, such as lordosis or proceptive behaviors, but retain their ability to display male sexual activity with a receptive female. Interestingly, the preference and sexual behavior of these rats vary depending upon the circadian rhythm.Recently, we have established that the treatment with low doses of letrozole during the second half of pregnancy produces male rat offspring, that when adults spend more time in the company of a sexually active male than with a receptive female in a preference test. In addition, they display female sexual behavior when forced to interact with a sexually experienced male and some typical male sexual behavior when faced with a sexually receptive female. Interestingly, these males displayed both sexual behavior patterns spontaneously, i.e., in absence of exogenous steroid hormone treatment. Most of these features correspond with those found in human male homosexuals; however, the "bisexual" behavior shown by the letrozole-treated rats may be related to a particular human population. All these data, taken together, permit to propose letrozole prenatal treatment as a suitable animal model to study human male homosexuality and reinforce the hypothesis that human sexual orientation is underlied by changes in the endocrine milieu during early development.

  14. Demographic Analysis of Sex Ratio on Population Growth of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) With Discussion of Control Efficacy Using Male Annihilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Bing Huang, Kevin; Atlihan, Remzi; Gökçe, Ayhan; Yu-Bing Huang, Joyce; Chi, Hsin

    2016-09-30

    The life table data for the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), at different adult sex ratios (1♀: 1♂, 1♀: 50♂, 50♀: 1♂ free-choice mating, and 50♀: 1♂ no-choice mating) were collected to determine the effects of sex-ratio manipulation on current pest control procedures. At 1♀: 1♂, females mated, on average, 2.3 times during their lifetime with a mean fecundity (F) of 1,122 eggs. The net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate (λ), and mean generation time (T) were 561.0 offspring, 0.1693 d(-)  (1), 1.1844 d(-)  (1), and 37.4 d, respectively. At 50♀: 1♂ free-choice mating, males mated 46.7 times during their lifetime, while at 50♀: 1♂ no-choice mating, males mated on average 50 times during their lifetime, and all females mating only once in both treatments. The values for F, r, and λ were significantly lower for both 50♀: 1♂ treatments than those in the 1♀: 1♂ group; the R0 values, however, were either equal to or even higher than those in the 1♀: 1♂ treatment. In the male-biased sex ratio (1♀: 50♂), fecundity was the highest (1,610 eggs) and female average life span the longest (166 d), while the R0 was the lowest (31.6 offspring) among all treatments. Population projections showed that even at a sex ratio of 50♀: 1♂, B. dorsalis could still produce a large number of offspring. These findings demonstrate that management strategies for controlling B. dorsalis could be properly evaluated by using demographic methods. Because female annihilation appears to be a more effective control strategy, it should be considered as a viable alternative.

  15. Differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students in California, United States and Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús L. Chirinos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available To identify the differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students living in California and Lima. Self-administered, anonymous surveys were completed by Latino male students aged 12-19 participating in California, and by male adolescent students in four high schools in Lima. Both surveys contained similar questions allowing for comparisons regarding sexual activity and contraceptive behavior. The mean age of male students were 16 and 15 years, respectively. More California males reported having engaged in sexual intercourse (69% vs 43%. The sexual debut was 13 years in both samples. More students in California were aware of their risk of pregnancy at first sexual intercourse than in Lima (82% vs 50%. One-third of the California males reported communicating with their partner about sex and contraception to be "easy" as compared to 53% of males in Lima. More students in California reported knowing a place to obtain contraceptives if they need them (85% vs 63%, having ever gotten someone pregnant (29% vs 7%, and having fathered a child (67% vs 16%.

  16. Differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students in California, United States and Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirinos Jesús L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students living in California and Lima. Self-administered, anonymous surveys were completed by Latino male students aged 12-19 participating in California, and by male adolescent students in four high schools in Lima. Both surveys contained similar questions allowing for comparisons regarding sexual activity and contraceptive behavior. The mean age of male students were 16 and 15 years, respectively. More California males reported having engaged in sexual intercourse (69% vs 43%. The sexual debut was 13 years in both samples. More students in California were aware of their risk of pregnancy at first sexual intercourse than in Lima (82% vs 50%. One-third of the California males reported communicating with their partner about sex and contraception to be "easy" as compared to 53% of males in Lima. More students in California reported knowing a place to obtain contraceptives if they need them (85% vs 63%, having ever gotten someone pregnant (29% vs 7%, and having fathered a child (67% vs 16%.

  17. Do Female and Male Employees in Iran Experience Similar Work-Family Interference, Job, and Life Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Leila

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at examining gender differences in the experience of work-family interference and perceived job-life satisfaction in a group of Iranian employees. The participants in the study consist of 387 Iranian male and female employees from a variety of organizations. The results of t tests and multiple regression analysis using EQS 6.1…

  18. Association of socio-economic and demographic factors with physical activity of males and females aged 20–69 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Biernat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. To assess the physical activity of working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years, as well as to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with their levels of physical activity. [b]Materials and method[/b]. The study involved 2,544 working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years. The short version of the IPAQ was applied and four physical activity levels (insufficient, sufficient, augmented, high were distinguished. The relationships between physical activity and gender, age, BMI, education, economic and martial status as well as participation in recreation were determined. [b]Results[/b]. High levels of physical activity were reached by 8% of respondents, 22% achieved augmented level, 32% were sufficiently and 32% insufficiently active. Out of 2544 studied subjects, 6% declared complete sedentariness. Females were, as compared to males, more frequently (p<0.05 insufficiently active (35.9 vs. 31.9%. In obese and overweight subjects insufficient physical activity predominated (42.9 and 36.2%, respectively and was significantly more frequent than in subjects with normal BMI (31.0%. Moreover, the subjects living in partner relationships were significantly (p<0.05 more frequently insufficiently active than those staying single (36.3 vs. 30.3%. Respondents who declared regular participation in leisure activities were less frequently insufficiently active (20.0% and more frequently met the criteria of sufficient (37.6%, augmented (28.0% or high (14.4% level of physical activity. No significant effects were found with respect to education of respondents. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of physical activity level should be addressed particularly to females, people taking up recreation occasionally or to those not involved in recreation at all, living in partner relationships, youngest (21–30 years, in obese and overweight and in the lowest economic category.

  19. Gay and bisexual male clients' perceptions of counseling: the role of perceived sexual orientation similarity and counselor universal-diverse orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracuzzi, Thomas I; Mohr, Jonathan J; Fuertes, Jairo N

    2011-07-01

    A recurring question in multicultural counseling is whether client-counselor similarity on sociodemographic characteristics benefits counseling. A related issue is how counselor orientation to diversity relates to counseling process and outcome, both as a main effect and in interaction with counselor-client sociodemographic match. This cross-sectional study investigated these questions in relation to gay and bisexual male clients' counseling experiences by examining clients' perceived similarity to their counselor in sexual orientation, as well as counselors' self-reported orientation to diversity (assessed in terms of level of universal-diverse orientation [UDO]). Data were from 83 male-male client-counselor dyads recruited from lesbian/gay/bisexual-affirming counseling practices, where clients identified as gay or bisexual and counselors identified as gay, bisexual, or heterosexual. Counselor UDO was positively and uniquely associated with client ratings of the working alliance, session depth, and session smoothness. Perceived sexual orientation similarity was not directly related to any of the counseling-related criterion variables. Moreover, when counselors reported low levels of UDO, perceived similarity was negatively associated with the client-rated alliance and perceived improvement. Client religious commitment-a control variable in all analyses--was uniquely and negatively associated with client ratings of perceived improvement in counseling.

  20. Does Pain in the Neonatal Period Influence Motor and Sensory Functions in a Similar Way for Males and Females During Post-Natal Development in Rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Elisabete de Cássia do; Sanada, Luciana Sayuri; Machado, Nathalia Leilane Berto; Fazan, Valéria Paula Sassoli

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE : Early pain experiences can lead to disruption in the long-term responses to pain and in abnormal development and behavior in rodents. We evaluated the sensory and motor development of Wistar rats after exposure to painful stimulation (repetitive needle prickling) immediately after birth. METHODS : Male and female rats were followed up to 6 months of life, and sensory and motor functions were investigated by testing paw withdrawal with von Frey filaments, calibrated forceps (CF), and grip strength (GS) tests. RESULTS : Body weight increased with age and tended to be smaller in pain groups compared with their controls of the same sex. GS values also increased with age in controls but were stable and even decreased in pain groups from 120 up to 180 days. The von Frey filaments test showed higher values on the nonstimulated paws in male and female pain groups, with no differences between sides on the controls. The CF test showed smaller values on the stimulated paws in the pain group, with no differences between sides on the controls. CONCLUSIONS : Pain in the neonatal period influences sensory and motor functions negatively during development in male and female rats, even long term after the painful stimulus is ceased. The neonatal injury-induced hypersensitivity is persistent, and male and female rats respond similarly to the stimulus.

  1. Bringing Early Infant Male Circumcision Information Home to the Family: Demographic Characteristics and Perspectives of Clients in a Pilot Project in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuri, Mbaraka; Msemo, Georgina; Plotkin, Marya; Christensen, Alice; Boyee, Dorica; Mahler, Hally; Phafoli, Semakaleng; Njozi, Mustafa; Hellar, Augustino; Mlanga, Erick; Yansaneh, Aisha; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Lija, Jackson

    2016-07-01

    Iringa region of Tanzania has had great success reaching targets for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). Looking to sustain high coverage of male circumcision, the government introduced a pilot project to offer early infant male circumcision (EIMC) in Iringa in 2013. From April 2013 to December 2014, a total of 2,084 male infants were circumcised in 8 health facilities in the region, representing 16.4% of all male infants born in those facilities. Most circumcisions took place 7 days or more after birth. The procedure proved safe, with only 3 mild and 3 moderate adverse events (0.4% overall adverse event rate). Overall, 93% of infants were brought back for a second-day visit and 71% for a seventh-day visit. These percentages varied significantly by urban and rural residence (97.4% urban versus 84.6% rural for day 2 visit; 82.2% urban versus 49.9% rural for day 7 visit). Mothers were more likely than fathers to have received information about EIMC. However, fathers tended to be key decision makers regarding circumcision of their sons. This suggests the importance of addressing fathers with behavioral change communication about EIMC. Successes in scaling up VMMC services in Iringa did not translate into immediate acceptability of EIMC. EIMC programs will require targeted investments in demand creation to expand and thrive in traditionally non-circumcising settings such as Iringa.

  2. Category Specificity of Self-Reported Sexual Attraction and Viewing Times to Male and Female Models in a Large U.S. Sample: Sex, Sexual Orientation, and Demographic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has documented large and robust sex differences in the category specificity of self-reported sexual attraction and viewing times to men and women, with men showing more polarized responses to the two sexes than women. However, this research has been limited by the use of small and restricted samples. To address this, the current study assessed a representative sample of more than 2800 U.S. adults on demographic and attitudinal variables and on two measures of category specificity: one based on self-reported sexual attraction and the other based on viewing times to male and female swimsuit models. Key findings were replicated. On average, men were considerably more category specific in self-reported sexual attraction and viewing times than women, and this was true for both heterosexual and homosexual participants. Self-identified bisexual and asexual participants tended to be lower on category specificity than other groups. Although demographic and attitudinal factors such as age, ethnicity, state and region of residence, social class, political liberalism-conservatism, and religiousness were sometimes weakly related to category specificity, sex differences in category specificity remained robust despite demographic and attitudinal variation.

  3. The Changing Demographics of the Black American Male Population in 2010 and its Impact on the United States Army Officer Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-07

    CHILDREN LIVING BE POVERT LEVEL . . 80 8. FAMILY IN(XME UNDER $10,000 WITH CHILDREN UNrER 18 80 9. BLACK CHILDRE LIVING IN POVERTY 1988 AND 2010 82 10. BLACK...being poor, for discrimination by race and sex in this country adds a ’dividend’ ensuring that such families bear an extra share of inequality’s burden...YEAR5 a UmcK WHITM The figures provided by the National Center for Education Statistics are broken down by race or sex , but riot both. Males average 55

  4. A league of their own: demographics, motivations and patterns of use of 1,955 male adult non-medical anabolic steroid users in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darkes Jack

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rule violations among elite-level sports competitors and tragedies among adolescents have largely defined the issue of non-medical anabolic-androgenic steroid (NMAAS use for the public and policy makers. However, the predominant and oft-ignored segment of the NMAAS community exists in the general population that is neither participating in competitive sports nor adolescent. A clearer profile of NMAAS users within the general population is an initial step in developing a full understanding of NMAAS use and devising appropriate policy and interventions. This survey sought to provide a more comprehensive profile of NMAAS users by accessing a large sample of user respondents from around the United States. Methods U.S.-based male NMAAS users (n = 1955 were recruited from various Internet websites dedicated to resistance training activities and use of ergogenic substances, mass emails, and print media to participate in a 291-item web-based survey. The Internet was utilized to provide a large and geographically diverse sample with the greatest degree of anonymity to facilitate participation. Results The majority of respondents did not initiate AAS use during adolescence and their NMAAS use was not motivated by athletics. The typical user was a Caucasian, highly-educated, gainfully employed professional approximately 30 years of age, who was earning an above-average income, was not active in organized sports, and whose use was motivated by increases in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and physical attractiveness. These findings question commonly held views of the typical NMAAS user and the associated underlying motivations. Conclusion The focus on "cheating" athletes and at risk youth has led to ineffective policy as it relates to the predominant group of NMAAS users. Effective policy, prevention or intervention should address the target population(s and their reasons for use while utilizing their desire for responsible use and

  5. The Academic Experience of Male High School Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Kristine M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Biswas, Aparajita; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the high school academic experience of adolescents with and without childhood ADHD using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Participants were 326 males with childhood ADHD and 213 demographically similar males without ADHD who were recruited at the start of the follow-up study. Data were collected yearly…

  6. Gay and Bisexual Male Clients' Perceptions of Counseling: The Role of Perceived Sexual Orientation Similarity and Counselor Universal-Diverse Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracuzzi, Thomas I.; Mohr, Jonathan J.; Fuertes, Jairo N.

    2011-01-01

    A recurring question in multicultural counseling is whether client-counselor similarity on sociodemographic characteristics benefits counseling. A related issue is how counselor orientation to diversity relates to counseling process and outcome, both as a main effect and in interaction with counselor-client sociodemographic match. This…

  7. Analysis and comparison. Bd. 1 - Longlife. Report on the analysis of state of technology, administrative and legal procedures, financial situation, demographic needs, similarities and differences in the participating countries Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland and Russia. Formulations and benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueckert, Klaus (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Environmental considerations are becoming one of the key features in the design when it comes to constructing modern, sustainable residential buildings. In an effort to streamline procedures and practices, the project Longlife has conducted a comparative review of these among the countries Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland and Russia (associated organizations). The countries involved have shared knowledge and experiences with each other about how their respective building processes operate. These are collated and analysed. There are differences and commonness in the state of technology, administrative and legal procedures, financial situation, demographic needs, and how a 'housing project' functions. With this exercise Longlife has started to ensure that differences across the Baltic Sea Region will be minimised as regards environmentally-friendly residential constructions. This initial comparative stage covers planning, building permit and tendering procedures, practices for developing and operating housing and construction technologies. The report reflects the currently most applicable features of the participating countries' processes. Longlife project partners work in three competence teams to use the special know how and experiences and to cooperate in the public private partnership composition. The report analyses in the competence team 1 - Engineering and building technology, design standards - the engineering and technology standards in the countries Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland and Russia. The report shows for the competence team 2 - Administration procedures, licensing rules, tendering rules, laws - the comparison and investigations of administration procedures, building permit rules, tendering rules and laws in the participating countries. The report provides for competence team 3 - Economical and financial basis - a general and a specific overview about economical and financial issues, sustainability and quality aspects in the

  8. Web Similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.R.; Vitányi, P.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Normalized web distance (NWD) is a similarity or normalized semantic distance based on the World Wide Web or any other large electronic database, for instance Wikipedia, and a search engine that returns reliable aggregate page counts. For sets of search terms the NWD gives a similarity on a scale fr

  9. Similarity Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    In Lecture 10, we introduced a non-dimensional parameter called the Lundquist number, denoted by S. This is just one of many non-dimensional parameters that can appear in the formulations of both hydrodynamics and MHD. These generally express the ratio of the time scale associated with some dissipative process to the time scale associated with either wave propagation or transport by flow. These are important because they define regions in parameter space that separate flows with different physical characteristics. All flows that have the same non-dimensional parameters behave in the same way. This property is called similarity scaling.

  10. [Demographic profile of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, I

    1984-04-01

    Sources of demographic data for Venezuela include 11 population censuses conducted between 1873-1981, birth and death registration statistics, and the household sample survey. The average annual rate of population growth increase from 2.8% between 1920-40 to 3-4% thereafter. The population at the 1961 census was 7.52 million. According to preliminary data from the 1981 census, the population of 14.57 million is growing at an annual rate of 2.8%. 41.2% of the population is under 15 years old, implying a huge demand for educational and health services, housing and employment. The dependency rate in 1980 was 81.3% for the country as a whole, 100.4% in rural areas, and 76.0% in urban areas. The young age structure means that the population will continue to grow even if natality rates decline. The crude natality rate was estimated at 47.3/1000 for 1950-55, 36.0 for 1970-75, and 32.9 for 1980-85. Some rural areas still have natality rates of over 47/1000. The total fertility rate declined from 6.5 in 1950-55 to 4.1 in 1980-85. The decline in the natality rate reflects improving quality of life, availability of family planning services, urbanization, and access of women to productive activities and educational centers. The mortality rate was 12.3/1000 in 1950-55, 9.1 in 1960-65, in 1970-75, and has been estimated at 5.5 for 1980-85. Some rural areas have mortality rates of 8.1. The infant mortality rate was 50.2/1000 in 1971 and 34.3 in 1980. Life expectancy at birth is about 69 years. During the 1920s, Venezuela unerwent expansion in infrastructure and technological utilization, generating rapid urbanization. 39.2% of the population was urban in 1941, compared to 78.8% in 1980. The significance of urbanization in Venezuela is due to the rapidity as well as the diffusion of the process. The household sample survey for the 2nd half of 1980 indicated a total of 8.16 million employed and an activity rate of 32.1% overall, 46.4% for males and 17.7% for females. The

  11. Democratic constraints on demographic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, J S

    1984-01-01

    The discussion compares the population policies adopted in Sweden during the 1930s to raise fertiity and the policies considered in the US during the 1970s in response to the high fertility experienced in the 1950s. Both sets of policies recommended increased availability of birth control, more liberal abortion laws, and greater employment opportunities for women. It becomes evident that the constraints imposed by a democratic system of government translate into policy recommendations that place individual freedom of choice and equal opportunity for all citizens as higher goals than any specific demographic target. Consequently, the population commissions of Sweden and the US made similar suggestions on how to resolve their opposite demographic problems. The demographic situations in the 2 nations were antipodal, and the countries also had very different social climates. This additional disparity was insufficient to counterbalance the apparently overwhelming influence of the democratic political systems in making virtually identical policy recommendations. Yet, the contrasting social climates of Sweden in 1935 and the US in 1970-72 may explain the different reactions each commission received. In terms of the responses by both citizens and government officials to the commissions' reports, the Swedish commission was more successful. Practically all of their recommendations were enthusiastically received and quickly adopted by the Swedish Riksdag. Yet, when the criterion for success becomes whether or not a demographic target was met, it increased in the 1940s and then dropped again while the same social policies were in effect. Even before the US commission began its study, fertility in the US had fallen and continues to remain low. These findings suggest that commissions in democratic countries will most likely never recommend dramatic measures in population policy. Thus, it is questionable whether such commissions in democratic nations will totally fulfill the

  12. Demographic cycles, cohort size, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M C

    1989-05-01

    This article examines whether position in the demographic cycle is an important factor in determining earnings and earnings growth. Earnings equations for white males are estimated by using March Current Population Survey data. Position in the demographic cycle is captured by including both measures of own cohort size and the size of surrounding cohorts in the estimated earnings equations. Position in the demographic cycle matters. Increases in own cohort size lead to flatter earnings profiles, whereas increases in the size of surrounding cohorts are associated with steeper earnings profiles. The net effect is that those who enter the labor market before or after the peak of the demographic cycle start out with lower earnings but experience faster earnings growth. This pattern is uniform across all schooling groups: high school dropouts, high school graduates, those with some college, and college graduates.

  13. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  14. Who Enters Campus Recreation Facilities: A Demographic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rohe Milton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine student entry into a campus recreation center based on seven demographics (gender, ethnicity, age, class standing, intercollegiate athlete vs. non-athlete, students with self-reported disability vs. non-disability, and campus residence in order to determine who would be most likely to enter the recreation center. Subjects were from a mid-western, four year state-assisted institution with combined enrollment of 23,932 undergraduate and graduate students. Of the 23,932 enrolled, 14,032 students were examined in this study. Information on student entry to the recreation center was collected through the university’s student information system. Data was analyzed and interpreted using chi-square analysis. Results of the study show statistically significant differences in the demographics except the student disability demographic. More males than females, more African Americans than other ethnicities, more traditionally aged (18-25 students than non-traditional students, more underclassmen than seniors, more athletes and non-athletes, more residents than commuters were likely to enter the campus recreation center. The findings in this study could be used by collegiate recreational sport directors and administrators, in the United States and internationally, for future ideas about programming in similar recreation settings.

  15. DEMOGRAPHIC SECURITY: THEORY, METHODOLOGY, EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Karmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical aspects of demographic security. Reviewed and analyzed the point of view of various scholars to the definition of demographic security. The main directions of statistical analysis of demographic security.

  16. Brief Report: Relationship and Demographic Factors Associated With Willingness to Use an In-Home Rapid HIV Test to Screen Potential Sex Partners Among a US Sample of HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2015-06-01

    With dyadic data from a US Internet sample of 275 HIV-negative and 58 discordant male couples, we assessed HIV-negative partnered men's attitudes toward using an in-home rapid HIV test (HT) to screen potential new sex partners and associated factors by multivariate multilevel modeling. HIV-negative partnered men were "likely" to use an HT for screening purposes. More positive attitudes were associated with being in a mixed/nonwhite relationship; having an open sexual agreement. Less positive attitudes were associated with both partners being well educated. These findings may highlight how to make the most of HTs as risk-reduction screening tool among at-risk male couples.

  17. Demographic changes and nationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskii, A G

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the different characteristics of the many peoples inhabiting what used to be the Soviet Union and communist Eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia. The differences among these nationalities, or ethnic groups, are illustrated using the example of demographic modernization, showing how different peoples have or have not passed through the demographic transition process. The author looks at ethnic differences in mortality, fertility, natural increase, and migration, as well as economic and social inequalities among ethnic groups. The prospects for inter-ethnic conflict are assessed.

  18. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did…

  19. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did "nominal" pairs from…

  20. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new findi...

  1. [[Demographic characteristics of "business bachelors" in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, C

    1987-01-01

    The demographic characteristics of those obliged to live away from their families because of the distance between their normal homes and places of work or education in Japan are described. Data are from a variety of official and other sources. The author notes that such persons are generally male. Factors affecting the growth of this phenomenon in Japan are the concept of lifetime employment with the same company and the popularity of sending children away to school.

  2. More Similar Than Different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin

    2015-01-01

    What role do employee features play into the success of different personnel management practices for serving high performance? Using data from a randomized survey experiment among 5,982 individuals of all ages, this article examines how gender conditions the compliance effects of different...... incentive treatments—each relating to the basic content of distinct types of personnel management practices. The findings show that males and females are more similar than different in terms of the incentive treatments’ effects: Significant average effects are found for three out of five incentive...

  3. The Macroeconomic Dynamics of Demographic Shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper employs an extended Yaari-Blanchard model of overlapping generations to study how the macroeconomy is affected over time by various demographic changes.It is shown that a proportional decline in fertility and death rates has qualitatively similar effects to capital income subsidies; both p

  4. Pregnancy intention, demographic differences, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2011-08-01

    We explore the psychosocial, demographic, and maternal characteristics across wanted, mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies. Data from 1321 women from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Durham, NC, are analyzed. Psychosocial correlates were obtained through prenatal surveys; electronic medical records were used to ascertain maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Sixty-two percent of the women indicated an unintended pregnancy, with 44% (578) mistimed and 18% (245) unwanted. Only 38% of the pregnancies were characterized as wanted. Women with unwanted and with mistimed pregnancies were similar demographically, but they differed significantly on psychosocial profiles and maternal characteristics. Women with mistimed and with wanted pregnancies differed in demographics and psychosocial profiles. Wanted pregnancies had the healthiest, mistimed an intermediate, and unwanted the poorest psychosocial profile. Women with unwanted pregnancies had the highest depression, perceived stress, and negative paternal support scores (ppsychosocial profiles had higher odds of being in the unwanted category. Controlling for psychosocial and demographic variables, perceived stress and positive paternal support remained significant predictors of belonging to the unwanted and mistimed groups. Fully characterizing pregnancy intention and its relationship to psychosocial profiles may provide a basis for identifying women with highest risk during pregnancy and early motherhood. Women with unwanted and mistimed pregnancies may appear similar demographically but are different psychosocially. Women with unwanted pregnancies have multiple risk factors and would benefit from targeted interventions.

  5. Building demographic literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, K

    1993-01-01

    Students should get in the habit of seeking out the most current projections, estimates, or rates available. Since demographic measures change over time, publications based on the UN's world population projections from 1980 or 1990 may need to be supplemented using the UN's most current, 1992, projections. A 1989 Census Bureau report on the African American Population will not contain data from the 1990 Census or the 1992 Current Population Survey, conducted by the Census Bureau. Some groups collect data with advocacy in mind, as shown by the range of estimates of participants at the 1993 National March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation. The organizers estimated that 1 million people participated; the US Park Police estimated 300,000; and the Washington Blade, a gay newspaper, reported 750,000. A seemingly innocuous choice of phrasing can change the meaning of demographic data. One commonly misreported concept is population doubling time which is not a prediction, but rather a concept designed to accent how fast a population is growing at the present time. At current rates, the population of India would double in size in 34 years, but it is more likely that growth rates will begin to slow down somewhat during that time. Older students may be encouraged to examine the assumptions behind population projections. The UN's long-range projection that world population will grow to 10 billion by 2050 is based on certain assumption about fertility and mortality during the period. With regard to the fastest growing US minority, Hispanics added the largest number of people to the US population during the 1980s, but Asians had the largest percent increase. The time to initiate demographic literacy is in the early grades of school.

  6. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  7. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  8. TFR for males in Denmark: Calculation and tempo-correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Nordfalk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of trends and tempo corrections of fertility have focused on female rather than male fertility; one reason being that the necessary detailed data are more widely available for mothers than for fathers. Objective: The objective is to present a demographic overview of the fertility trends of Danish men and women from 1980 to 2010. We review the differences in male and female fertility and perform separate tempo corrections for fathers and mothers. Methods: The material for this study consisted of basic data on male and female fertility. The data included all children born in the period, specified by birth year of the child and age and parity of the mother and father, respectively. We used standard demographic measurements of fertility, primarily the total fertility rate (TFR and the tempo-corrections as proposed by Bongaarts and Feeney (1998. Results: The female fertility rates were generally higher than those for males, but the TFRs of both Danish men and women generally increased over the period. The unadjusted and the adjusted fertility rates had similar patterns for men and women. A negative tempo-effect was more evident for women than for men, and a vanishing effect for men at the end of the period was not similarly observed for women. Conclusions: We have exemplified tempo corrections for male as well as female fertility, and have discussed specific problems in this context. Our study indicates that the postponement of childbearing is about to end for Danish men.

  9. Relationship between Selected Socio-Demographic Factors and Cancer of Oral Cavity - A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Abdoul Hossain; Dikshit, Madhurima; Bhaduri, Debanshu; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Aghamolaei, Teamur

    2010-08-11

    The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2-2.3) were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females.

  10. The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Price, C Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

  11. Perceived Similarity, Proactive Adjustment, and Organizational Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammeyer-Mueller, John D.; Livingston, Beth A.; Liao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores how perceived demographic and attitudinal similarity can influence proactive behavior among organizational newcomers. We propose that newcomers who perceive themselves as similar to their co-workers will be more willing to seek new information or build relationships, which in turn will lead to better long-term…

  12. Childhood sexual history of 20 male pedophiles vs. 24 male healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; McGeoch, Pamela G; Gans, Sniezyna Watras; Nikiforov, Konstantin; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor I

    2002-11-01

    Despite the widespread incidence of childhood sexual abuse, there is insufficient investigation into the childhood sexual history of perpetrators. In addition, there is little published on the specific similarities between childhood and adult sexual histories. The present study investigates the incidence of childhood sexual abuse in a carefully characterized sample of male pedophiles compared with a demographically similar control group. Concordance between and cognitive distortions about characteristics of childhood abuse and pedophilic behavior are also studied. Twenty men with pedophilia, heterosexual type were compared with 24 demographically similar, healthy male control subjects on a questionnaire specifically designed to assess childhood sexual history in pedophiles. Sixty percent of pedophiles compared with 4% of control subjects reported adult sexual advances as a child. Seventy-five percent of pedophiles and 22% of control subjects reported a first sexual encounter before age 14 years. About 60% concordance was found between acts experienced as a child and perpetrated as an adult. Finally, numerous inconsistencies throughout the questionnaire add preliminary support for the role of cognitive distortions with regard to childhood and adult sexual history. The present findings replicate the elevated rate of childhood sexual abuse found among pedophiles and are consistent with the notion of a causative relationship between early childhood abuse and later pedophilic behavior.

  13. Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

    2010-01-01

    Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

  14. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas.

  15. The Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of Pediatric Behçet’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to compare the clinical and demographic features of pediatric Behçet’s patients with those of adult age.Materials and Method: We examined the clinical and demographic features of the 18 and under 18-year-old children who were followed-up in the Behçet's Center of Uludağ University Medical Faculty between 1992 and 2007, retrospectively. The information of age, sex, presence of oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, erythema nodosum, papulopustular eruption, pathergy test positivity, ocular, articular, neurological, gastrointestinal, renal involvements and HLA-B5 positivity were obtained from the medical charts of the patients.Results: There were 30 pediatric Behçet diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria of International Study Group for Behçet's Disease. The mean age of the patients was 15.9. At the time of the diagnosis, most of the patients were aged between 17-18 (43.3%. There was only one patient under 10. Oral aphthae was observed in all, and genital ulceration or the scar of the ulcer was observed in 23 patients; 15 females, 8 males (76.6%. Ocular involvement was present in 18 patients; 8 females, 10 males (60%; erythema nodosum in 13 patients; 8 females, 5 males (43.3%, papulopustular eruption in 16 patients; 10 females, 6 males and pathergy test positivity in 12 patients; 7 females, 5 males (36.6%. Vascular symptoms were observed in 2 patients, arthralgia-arthritis in 15 patients and neurological involvement in 4 patients.Conclusion: In this study, it was concluded that ocular involvement was more frequent in Behçet’s patients aged between 0-18 than adult Behçet’s patients, but mucocutaneous findings had similar frequency. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 89-93

  16. Differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students in California, United States and Lima, Peru Diferencias y similitudes en el conocimiento, las actitudes y los comportamientos sexuales y de anticoncepción entre estudiantes adolescentes varones latinos en California, Estados Unidos, y en Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús L. Chirinos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available To identify the differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students living in California and Lima. Self-administered, anonymous surveys were completed by Latino male students aged 12-19 participating in California, and by male adolescent students in four high schools in Lima. Both surveys contained similar questions allowing for comparisons regarding sexual activity and contraceptive behavior. The mean age of male students were 16 and 15 years, respectively. More California males reported having engaged in sexual intercourse (69% vs 43%. The sexual debut was 13 years in both samples. More students in California were aware of their risk of pregnancy at first sexual intercourse than in Lima (82% vs 50%. One-third of the California males reported communicating with their partner about sex and contraception to be "easy" as compared to 53% of males in Lima. More students in California reported knowing a place to obtain contraceptives if they need them (85% vs 63%, having ever gotten someone pregnant (29% vs 7%, and having fathered a child (67% vs 16%.Identificar las diferencias y similitudes en cuanto a conocimiento, actitudes y comportamientos sexuales y de anticoncepción entre los estudiantes adolescentes latinos que viven en California y en Lima. Estudiantes adolescentes varones latinos de 12-19 años completaron las encuestas anónimas, autoaplicables tanto en California como en cuatro colegios secundarios en Lima. Ambas encuestas contenían preguntas similares con respecto a actividad sexual y comportamiento de anticoncepción. La media de edad fue de 16 y 15 años, respectivamente. Más varones adolescentes en California señalaron haber tenido relaciones coitales (69% vs 43%. Entre éstos, la media de edad de inicio sexual fue de 13 años en ambas muestras. Más estudiantes en California sabian del riesgo de embarazo en la primera relación sexual (82% vs 50%. Un

  17. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  18. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  19. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  20. DEMOGRAPHIC VULNERABILITIES IN TECUCI PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  1. Social axioms among Romanians: Structure and demographic differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan, Yanjun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Social axioms are beliefs about the material, social and spiritual world, assessing what the person regards as true. Following a functionalist orientation, we propose that social axioms serve as a reflection of social reality and provide guidance for living to people in different demographic groups. This study investigated the dimensionality of a measure of such beliefs, the Social Axioms Survey (SAS, and demographic differences in the resulting factor scores for groups of Romanians. Results of exploratory factor analyses revealed a new five-factor structure, with four factors remarkably similar to those derived from a pan-cultural solution of 40 cultural groups (Leung & Bond, 2004. A distinctive factor named “Interpersonal Relations” replaced the “Social Complexity” factor found in previous research, and represented beliefs about the impact of interpersonal relations on life events and how to maintain good relations with others. Canonical correlation revealed that people of older age, lower education, and lower income endorsed stronger beliefs in “Social Cynicism” and “Religiosity”. After controlling for the effects of age, education, and income, females reported stronger endorsement of the “Religiosity”, “Interpersonal Relations”, and “Fate Control” dimensions than males; widowed participants scored significantly higher than married, divorced and unmarried groups on both “Religiosity” and “Fate Control”. By reflecting on the characteristics of Romanian society, we discussed these findings in terms of the life experience and social status of different social groups. Based on this analysis, questions were proposed for future research.

  2. Climatic influence on demographic parameters of a tropical seabird varies with age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, Daniel; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2010-04-01

    In marine ecosystems climatic fluctuation and other physical variables greatly influence population dynamics, but differential effects of physical variables on the demographic parameters of the two sexes and different age classes are largely unexplored. We analyzed the effects of climate on the survival and recruitment of both sexes and several age classes of a long-lived tropical seabird, the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), using long-term observations on marked individuals. Results demonstrated a complex interaction between yearly fluctuations in climate (both local and global indexes, during both winter and breeding season) and the sex and age of individuals. Youngest birds' survival and recruitment were commonly affected by local climate, whereas oldest birds' parameters tended to be constant and less influenced by environmental variables. These results confirm the theoretical prediction that sex- and age-related variation in life-history demographic traits is greater under poor environmental conditions, and they highlight the importance of including variability in fitness components in demographic and evolutionary models. Males and females showed similar variation in survival but different recruitment patterns, in relation to both age and the spatial scale of climatic influence (local or global). Results indicate different life-history tactics for each sex and different ages, with birds likely trying to maximize their fitness by responding to the environmental contingencies of each year.

  3. Tourism Market and Demographic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Nedelea

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the major demographic trends and their implications for consumer market. It is important to know how will demographic change influence the tourism market in particularly and how can the tourist industry adapt to these. The advancing ageing of society will result in far reaching changes, particularly on the demand side. To profitably seize the opportunities, managers must understand how senior markets evolve and adapt products and service offerings along multiple dimensions to meet the needs of senior consumers.

  4. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Prebble, Clare E.M.; Marshall, Andrea D.; Bennett, Michael B.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P.; Pierce, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432–917 cm total length (TL) (mean ± SD = 673 ± 118.8 cm, N = 122) in southern Mozambique and from 420–990 cm TL (mean ± SD = 641 ± 133 cm, N = 46) in Tanzania. By combining measurements of stranded individuals with photogrammetry measurements of free-swimming sharks, we calculated length at 50% maturity for males in Mozambique at 916 cm TL. Repeat measurements of individual whale sharks measured over periods from 347–1,068 days yielded implausible growth rates, suggesting that the growth increment over this period was not large enough to be detected using laser photogrammetry, and that the method is best applied to estimating growth rates over longer (decadal) time periods. The sex ratio of both populations was biased towards males (74% in Mozambique, 89% in Tanzania), the majority of which were immature (98% in Mozambique, 94% in Tanzania). The population structure for these two aggregations was similar to most other documented whale shark aggregations around the world. Information on small (<400 cm) whale sharks, mature individuals, and females in this region is lacking, but necessary to inform conservation initiatives for this globally threatened species. PMID:25870776

  5. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph A. Rohner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432–917 cm total length (TL (mean ± SD = 673 ± 118.8 cm, N = 122 in southern Mozambique and from 420–990 cm TL (mean ± SD = 641 ± 133 cm, N = 46 in Tanzania. By combining measurements of stranded individuals with photogrammetry measurements of free-swimming sharks, we calculated length at 50% maturity for males in Mozambique at 916 cm TL. Repeat measurements of individual whale sharks measured over periods from 347–1,068 days yielded implausible growth rates, suggesting that the growth increment over this period was not large enough to be detected using laser photogrammetry, and that the method is best applied to estimating growth rates over longer (decadal time periods. The sex ratio of both populations was biased towards males (74% in Mozambique, 89% in Tanzania, the majority of which were immature (98% in Mozambique, 94% in Tanzania. The population structure for these two aggregations was similar to most other documented whale shark aggregations around the world. Information on small (<400 cm whale sharks, mature individuals, and females in this region is lacking, but necessary to inform conservation initiatives for this globally threatened species.

  6. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Christoph A; Richardson, Anthony J; Prebble, Clare E M; Marshall, Andrea D; Bennett, Michael B; Weeks, Scarla J; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Pierce, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432-917 cm total length (TL) (mean ± SD = 673 ± 118.8 cm, N = 122) in southern Mozambique and from 420-990 cm TL (mean ± SD = 641 ± 133 cm, N = 46) in Tanzania. By combining measurements of stranded individuals with photogrammetry measurements of free-swimming sharks, we calculated length at 50% maturity for males in Mozambique at 916 cm TL. Repeat measurements of individual whale sharks measured over periods from 347-1,068 days yielded implausible growth rates, suggesting that the growth increment over this period was not large enough to be detected using laser photogrammetry, and that the method is best applied to estimating growth rates over longer (decadal) time periods. The sex ratio of both populations was biased towards males (74% in Mozambique, 89% in Tanzania), the majority of which were immature (98% in Mozambique, 94% in Tanzania). The population structure for these two aggregations was similar to most other documented whale shark aggregations around the world. Information on small (<400 cm) whale sharks, mature individuals, and females in this region is lacking, but necessary to inform conservation initiatives for this globally threatened species.

  7. Cross-cultural and socio-demographic correlates of homophobic attitude among university students in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, G; Niolu, C; Déttore, D; Antonelli, P; Conte, S; Tuziak, B; Limoncin, E; Mollaioli, D; Carosa, E; Gravina, G L; Di Sante, S; Di Lorenzo, G; Fisher, A D; Maggi, M; Lenzi, A; Siracusano, A; Jannini, E A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate homophobic attitudes in three European countries: Italy, Albania, and Ukraine. One thousand and forty-eight students were recruited in Italian (n = 766), Albanian (n = 180), and Ukrainian (n = 102) university centers. A socio-demographic questionnaire and Homophobia Scale (HS) were administered by our staff. Cross-cultural and significant differences among Italian, Albanian, and Ukrainian students were found on the Homophobia Scale (HS; Italy: mean = 22.26 ± 16.73; Albania: mean = 38.15 ± 17.28; Ukraine: mean = 59.18 ± 16.23). The analysis of socio-demographic characteristics revealed that the male gender emerged as main predictor of homophobic attitude in all the three countries, although also a conservative political orientation and the religious belief predict higher homophobia levels in Italy and Albania, particularly. This study revealed that in these European countries assessed, attitudes toward homosexuality are different. Ukrainians display higher levels of homophobia than Albanians and Italians, confirming the central role of cultural differences in homophobic attitudes. Nevertheless, some socio-demographic aspects such as identification as male have a similar influence on homophobic attitudes in all assessed populations.

  8. Demographic Modelling in Weed Biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demographic matrix modeling of plant populations can be a powerful tool to identify key life stage transitions that contribute the most to population growth of an invasive plant and hence should be targeted for disruption. Therefore, this approach has the potential to guide the pre-release selection...

  9. Logistics Dynamics and Demographic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpp, Matthias; Abidi, Hella; Bioly, Sascha; Buchkremer, Rüdiger; Sandhaus, Gregor; Freitag, Michael; Kotzab, Herbert; Pannek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Change and dynamics in logistics are interestingly driven at the same time by external as well as internal forces. This contribution outlines a big data literature review methodology to overview recognizable external changes and analyzes the interaction of one major trend—demographic change—further

  10. Regional Differentiation of The Demographic Potential in Italy and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastuszka Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the demographic potential of given Italian and Polish regions. The analysis shows that the demographic situation in Poland, unlike in Italy, is not directly related to the level of development of some regions and their geographical location. In Italy, the unfavorable demographic situation is typical of most of the less-developed southern regions, whereas in Poland it occurs in voivodships with different economic potential, situated in different parts of the country. This is probably the result of the current polycentric development of Poland, characteristic of a centralized economy, and the polar development in Italy. Certain demographic similarities, but of different levels, related to the dynamics of the population, the level of fertility, and net migration are observable in the macro-regions of Mezzogiorno and Eastern Poland.

  11. The Relationship Between Student Demographics and Student Engagement with Online Library Instruction Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Thill

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate whether there are any demographic trends affecting student engagement with online library instruction which might have implications for practice, the authors designed a case study to examine the relationship between student demographic characteristics and engagement with online library instruction modules in English 102 courses at a single university. Methods – The authors recruited 181 students from English 102 (ENG 102, a research-based composition course, to participate in the study. ENG 102 instructors asked all participants to complete an online library instruction module embedded in the university’s course management system, either before in-person library instruction or in lieu of face-to-face library instruction. No external incentive was provided for online module completion. The research team measured levels of student engagement by recording the amount of time students spent on each page of the online module. In collaboration with the Office of Institutional Research, the authors then pulled demographic data on each participant using the university’s student information system. Pearson chi-square tests were performed to determine whether there were any notable associations between levels of student engagement and student age, grade point average, gender, and race/ethnicity. Results – Observable trends tied age and higher grade point average to higher levels of engagement with online instruction. There was additionally a slight trend linking female participants to higher levels of engagement than their male peers. In the category of race/ethnicity, the two largest subgroups, Hispanic and Caucasian students, exhibited similar levels of engagement. Conclusions – The authors conclude that there may be demographic implications for practice in designing online library instruction programs, especially when considering student age and academic performance indicators. They also conclude that, owing to

  12. Some Effects of Similarity Self-Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin C.; Strong, Stanley R.

    1972-01-01

    College males were interviewed about how college had altered their friendships, values, and plans. The interviewers diclosed experiences and feelings similar to those revealed by the students. Results support Byrne's Law of Similarity in generating interpersonal attraction in the interview and suggest that the timing of self-disclosures is…

  13. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the urethra. Chromosome defects. Inherited disorders such as Klinefelter's syndrome — in which a male is born with ... or major abdominal or pelvic surgery Having a history of undescended testicles Being born with a fertility ...

  14. Similarity transformations of MAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Allan T.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of similar Markovian Arrival Processes (MAPs and show that the event stationary point processes related to two similar MAPs are stochastically equivalent. This holds true for the time stationary point processes too. We show that several well known stochastical equivalences as e.g. that between the H 2 renewal process and the Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP can be expressed by the similarity transformations of MAPs. In the appendix the valid region of similarity transformations for two-state MAPs is characterized.

  15. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient.

  16. Seizure semiology in males with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures is associated with somatic complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Shawn D; Hill, Stacy W; Pearson, Caleb

    2015-09-01

    Psychopathology has been studied in patients with epileptic or psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in the context of diagnosis and treatment. Unfortunately, most PNES studies include few males and do not consider possible gender differences, making findings less generalizable to males with PNES. In this study we specifically compare males with PNES to females with PNES and to males with epilepsy. Males with PNES (n=58), males with epilepsy (n=86), females with PNES (n=147), and females with ES (n=142) were evaluated on an inpatient epilepsy monitoring unit. Self-reported objective measures of psychopathology, demographics, and PNES seizure semiology were compared. Personality Assessment Inventory profiles revealed marked differences, particularly in somatic symptoms, between PNES and epilepsy. Females with PNES had higher levels of physiological depressive symptoms but lower antisocial features. Males with PNES who had clinically significant elevations on the somatic complaints scale were much more likely to have motor seizures while females with PNES classified similarly were equally likely to have either motor or non-motor events. Gender difference in PNES seizure semiology was associated with whether or not clinically significant somatic symptoms were present; males with elevated somatic symptoms were much more likely to have motor PNES. However, we did not find evidence of greater psychopathology in males with PNES compared to females with PNES. Gender differences in the behavioral manifestation of PNES in the context of presence or absence of somatization may have implications for diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Clustering by Pattern Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-xun Wang; Jian Pei

    2008-01-01

    The task of clustering is to identify classes of similar objects among a set of objects. The definition of similarity varies from one clustering model to another. However, in most of these models the concept of similarity is often based on such metrics as Manhattan distance, Euclidean distance or other Lp distances. In other words, similar objects must have close values in at least a set of dimensions. In this paper, we explore a more general type of similarity. Under the pCluster model we proposed, two objects are similar if they exhibit a coherent pattern on a subset of dimensions. The new similarity concept models a wide range of applications. For instance, in DNA microarray analysis, the expression levels of two genes may rise and fall synchronously in response to a set of environmental stimuli. Although the magnitude of their expression levels may not be close, the patterns they exhibit can be very much alike. Discovery of such clusters of genes is essential in revealing significant connections in gene regulatory networks. E-commerce applications, such as collaborative filtering, can also benefit from the new model, because it is able to capture not only the closeness of values of certain leading indicators but also the closeness of (purchasing, browsing, etc.) patterns exhibited by the customers. In addition to the novel similarity model, this paper also introduces an effective and efficient algorithm to detect such clusters, and we perform tests on several real and synthetic data sets to show its performance.

  18. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  19. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    In data science, there are important parameters that affect the accuracy of the algorithms used. Some of these parameters are: the type of data objects, the membership assignments, and distance or similarity functions. This paper discusses similarity functions as fundamental elements in membership...

  20. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the formatio

  1. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    In data science, there are important parameters that affect the accuracy of the algorithms used. Some of these parameters are: the type of data objects, the membership assignments, and distance or similarity functions. This paper discusses similarity functions as fundamental elements in membership...... assignments. The paper introduces Weighted Feature Distance (WFD), and Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD), two new distance functions that take into account the diversity in feature spaces. WFD functions perform better in supervised and unsupervised methods by comparing data objects on their feature...... spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets...

  2. Befriending Risky Peers: Factors Driving Adolescents' Selection of Friends with Similar Marijuana Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Pollard, Michael S; Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents often befriend peers who are similar to themselves on a range of demographic, behavioral, and social characteristics, including substance use. Similarities in lifetime history of marijuana use have even been found to predict adolescent friendships, and we examine whether this finding is explained by youth's selection of friends who are similar on a range of more proximate, observable characteristics that are risk factors for marijuana use. Using two waves of individual and social network data from two high schools that participated in Add Health (N = 1,612; 52.7% male), we apply longitudinal models for social networks to test whether or not several observable risky attributes (psychological, behavioral, and social) predict adolescent friendship choices, and if these preferences explain friend's similarities on lifetime marijuana use. Findings show that similarities on several risk factors predict friendship choices, however controlling for this, the preference to befriend peers with a similar history of marijuana use largely persists. The results highlight the range of social selection processes that lead to similarities in marijuana use among friends and larger peer groups, and that also give rise to friendship groups whose members share similar risk factors for substance use. Friends with high "collective risk" are likely to be important targets for preventing the onset and social diffusion of substance use in adolescents.

  3. Demographic Correlates and Factor Structure of the Family Environment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boake, Corwin; Salmon, Paul G.

    1983-01-01

    Factor analyzed the Family Environment Scale (FES) subscale scores of 204 families and correlated them with family demographic characteristics. The obtained factor structure showed two major factors similar to "control" and "acceptance-rejection" dimensions in previous research. Results support the FES as part of multimethod…

  4. Gender Differences in Suicide Risk by Socio-Demographic Factors in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.; Kwan, P.

    2005-01-01

    Some peculiarly low male-to-female suicide ratios have been reported in the Far Eastern populations. This article attempts to investigate whether there are gender differences in suicide risk by socio-demographic factors in Hong Kong, and hereby to explain the low male-to-female suicide ratios. The effects of marital status, duration-of-residence,…

  5. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mollgaard, Anders; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a...

  6. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfiye Ozpak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  7. Chronological objects in demographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. Willekens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Calendar time, age and duration are chronological objects. They represent an instant or a time period. Age and duration are usually expressed in units with varying lengths. The number of days in a month or a year depends on the position on the calendar. The units are also not homogeneous and the structure influences measurement. One solution, common in demography, is to use units that are large enough for the results not to be seriously affected by differences in length and structure. Another approach is to take the idiosyncrasy of calendars into account and to work directly with calendar dates. The technology that enables logical and arithmetic operations on dates is available. OBJECTIVE To illustrate logical and arithmetic operations on dates and conversions between time measurements. METHODS Software packages include utilities to process dates. I use existing and a few new utilities in R to illustrate operations on dates and conversions between calendar dates and elapsed time since a reference moment or a reference event. Three demographic applications are presented. The first is the impact of preferences for dates and days on demographic indicators. The second is event history analysis with time-varying covariates. The third is microsimulation of life histories in continuous time. CONCLUSIONS The technology exists to perform operations directly on dates, enabling more precise calculations of duration and elapsed time in demographic analysis. It eliminates the need for (a approximations and (b transformations of dates, such as Century Month Code, that are convenient for computing durations but are a barrier to interpretation. Operations on dates, such as the computation of age, should consider time units of varying length.

  8. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  9. Evolutionary shaping of demographic schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Kenneth W.; Steinsaltz, David; Evans, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary processes of natural selection may be expected to leave their mark on age patterns of survival and reproduction. Demographic theory includes three main strands—mutation accumulation, stochastic vitality, and optimal life histories. This paper reviews the three strands and, concentrating on mutation accumulation, extends a mathematical result with broad implications concerning the effect of interactions between small age-specific effects of deleterious mutant alleles. Empirical data from genomic sequencing along with prospects for combining strands of theory hold hope for future progress. PMID:25024186

  10. Similar component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; WANG Xin; LI Junwei; CAO Xianguang

    2006-01-01

    A new unsupervised feature extraction method called similar component analysis (SCA) is proposed in this paper. SCA method has a self-aggregation property that the data objects will move towards each other to form clusters through SCA theoretically,which can reveal the inherent pattern of similarity hidden in the dataset. The inputs of SCA are just the pairwise similarities of the dataset,which makes it easier for time series analysis due to the variable length of the time series. Our experimental results on many problems have verified the effectiveness of SCA on some engineering application.

  11. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  12. Gender related differences in demographic and clinical manifestations in patients suffering from various subtypes of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorana Sulejmanpašić Arslanagić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schizophrenia is devastating neuropsychiatric disorder that has no clearly identified etiology. The subtypes of schizophrenia are distinguished by the prevalent symptomatology. The aim of this study was to determine gender related differences in demographic and clinical manifestations in patients suffering from various subtypes of schizophrenia.Methods: A longitudinal, prospective,original,clinical investigation first in our local area, with application of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis I Disorders (SCID I was used in this work. The study included 121 patients during five years period. Patients were recruited as consecutive admissions to the Psychiatric clinic, from all parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, mostly Sarajevo region.Results: The study was conducted on a group of schizophrenic patients which consisted of 52.1% male and 47.9% female patients. Average duration of the episode was about a month. Majority of patients (male were in the group of disorganized (hebephrenic schizophrenia. The duration of current psychotic episode was similar in all three groups regarding subtypes of schizophrenia. Psychotic episodes appear equally in both gender (higher in disorganized group with a statistically significant difference between all groups (p<0.001.Conclusions: Male group patients showed tendency to be younger than women. Most of the schizophrenic individuals start to suffer from this disease between age of 20 and 39 years. Male group patients suffered mostly of disorganized (hebephrenic type of schizophrenia. Duration of psychotic episode was proportionally the same in both groups while in male group the highest number of episodes was found in group of disorganized schizophrenia.

  13. Male Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of male hypogonadism can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy. Symptoms Hypogonadism can begin during fetal development, before puberty or during adulthood. Signs and symptoms depend on when the condition ... enough testosterone during fetal development, the result may be impaired ...

  14. Relationship between Selected Socio-Demographic Factors and Cancer of Oral Cavity - A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P < 0.001. Irrespective to gender, relative risk, here odds ratio, (OR of low level of education (OR = 5.3, CI 3.7–7.6, working in field as a farmer (OR = 2.5, CI 1.7–3.7, and monthly household income less than 5000 Indian Rupees currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2–2.3 were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females.

  15. Comparing the demographic factors of patient with limited and diffuse type of alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Daliri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves the hair follicle. Clinically, patients with alopecia areata may have patchy or confluent hair loss on the scalp or body so we conduct a study to compare the demographic aspects of patient with limited and diffuse type of alopecia areata.Materials and Method: We conducted a descriptive-analyzing study in which 306 patient were chosen. The patients were divided into two groups of diffuse and limited Alopecia. Demographic factors including age, gender, disease onset were compared in two groups. Results: Out of 306 patients, 58.8 % were male and 41.2 % were female. 247 patients (80.7% suffered from limited type and 59 patients (19.2% suffered from diffuse type. The mean age of the onset of involvement in limited group was 21.9±12 yr and 15.8±12 yr in diffuse group. The mean duration of involvement in limited group was 18.7 months and 71 months in diffuse group. Conclusion: Diffuse type alopecia areata starts at lower age and has longer duration. Our study results were similar to the others. Like other studies, thyroid disorders and atopic dermatitis are positively correlative to the severity of disease

  16. Compression-based Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanyi, Paul M B

    2011-01-01

    First we consider pair-wise distances for literal objects consisting of finite binary files. These files are taken to contain all of their meaning, like genomes or books. The distances are based on compression of the objects concerned, normalized, and can be viewed as similarity distances. Second, we consider pair-wise distances between names of objects, like "red" or "christianity." In this case the distances are based on searches of the Internet. Such a search can be performed by any search engine that returns aggregate page counts. We can extract a code length from the numbers returned, use the same formula as before, and derive a similarity or relative semantics between names for objects. The theory is based on Kolmogorov complexity. We test both similarities extensively experimentally.

  17. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field......-shaped relation exists between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in a longitudinal quantitative study of Danish municipalities....

  18. Segmentation Similarity and Agreement

    CERN Document Server

    Fournier, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new segmentation evaluation metric, called segmentation similarity (S), that quantifies the similarity between two segmentations as the proportion of boundaries that are not transformed when comparing them using edit distance, essentially using edit distance as a penalty function and scaling penalties by segmentation size. We propose several adapted inter-annotator agreement coefficients which use S that are suitable for segmentation. We show that S is configurable enough to suit a wide variety of segmentation evaluations, and is an improvement upon the state of the art. We also propose using inter-annotator agreement coefficients to evaluate automatic segmenters in terms of human performance.

  19. Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.

  20. DEMOGRAPHIC FACTOR OF ECOLOGICAL POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Demographic factor of ecological policy is analyzed. Анализируется демографическая составляющая экологической политики. Аналізується демографічна складова екологічної політики.

  1. SELECTED DETERMINANTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Ostasiewicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents, in a simplifi ed manner, selected theories of population to explain the current trends of population development in Poland and throughout the world. The aim of the article is to present the demographic threats that have emerged in the last eighty years. Prognosticated age structures have also been predicted. Signifi cant diff erences between the structure of the population now and the future have been indicated, particularly regarding the ageing of the population. Against the background of global transformations analyzes of changes in Poland have been conducted. The comparison shows that changes in Poland are highly analogous to transformations around the world, such as declining birth rates and increasing life expectancy. These changes cause ageing of the population, which could result in the collapse of the functioning of the labor market and the pension system as it currently exists.

  2. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  3. Incremental Similarity and Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Hedevang, Emil; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    This paper discusses the mathematical representation of an empirically observed phenomenon, referred to as Incremental Similarity. We discuss this feature from the viewpoint of stochastic processes and present a variety of non-trivial examples, including those that are of relevance for turbulence...

  4. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.

  5. Measurement and Socio-Demographic Variation of Social Capital in a Large Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Tarja; Martelin, Tuija; Koskinen, Seppo; Simpura, Jussi; Alanen, Erkki; Harkanen, Tommi; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to describe the variation of individual social capital according to socio-demographic factors, and to develop a suitable way to measure social capital for this purpose. The similarity of socio-demographic variation between the genders was also assessed. Data and methods: The study applied…

  6. Frequency of physical restraint and its associations with demographic and clinical characteristics in a Chinese psychiatric institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Min; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Zhou, Jian-Song; Gou, Lei; Himelhoch, Seth; Ungvari, Gabor S; Chiu, Helen F K; Lai, Kelly Y C; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Physical restraint (PR) is a highly controversal topic in psychiatry. Little is known about PR among psychiatric inpatients in China. This study examined the frequency of PR and its relationships with demographic and clinical characteristics among a large psychiatric institution in the Hunan Province, China. The study included a consecutively assessed sample of 160 psychiatric inpatients. Sociodemographic and clinical data including use of PR were collected from the medical records using a form designed for this study and confirmed via interview. The frequency of PR was 51.3% in the whole sample; 63.2% among female and 39.2% among male patients. In multiple logistic regression analysis PR was independently associated with male gender (p = 0.001, odds ratio [OR] = 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1-0.6), less outpatient treatment prior to admission (p = 0.03, OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.9), more frequent use of mood stabilizers (p = 0.002, OR = 5.6, 95% CI 1.9-16.7), more aggressive behavior prior to admission (p = 0.002, OR = 1.1, 95% CI 1.04-1.2), and younger age (p = 0.04, OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.93-0.99). PR is very common in clinical practice in China. Its demographic and clinical correlates are similar to findings in Western settings. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Baby boomers' food shopping habits. Relationships with demographics and personal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Hunter, Wendy

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine baby boomers' food shopping behaviours and to investigate their relationships with demographics and personal values. A questionnaire concerning food shopping behaviours, personal values and demographics was mailed to a random sample of 2975 people aged 40-70 years in Victoria, Australia. Usable questionnaires of 1031 were obtained. Structural equation modelling was employed for data analyses. The analyses revealed that demographics and personal values influenced shopping behaviours via different pathways among male and female baby boomers. For example, self-direction positively impacted on shopping planning for men but negatively influenced price minimization for women. Among women only, age was positively related to shopping planning and negatively to price minimization. Thus, both personal values and demographics influenced baby boomers' shopping behaviours. Since values are more likely to be amenable to change than demographics, segmentation of the population via value orientations would facilitate targeted interventions to promote healthy food shopping.

  8. CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  9. Sequence Analysis in Demographic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billari, Francesco C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis paper examines the salient features of sequence analysis in demogrpahicresearch. The new approach allows a holistic perspective on life course analysis and is based on arepresentation of lives as sequences of states. Some of the methods for analyzing such data aresketched, from complex description to optimal matching ot monoethetic divisive algorithms. Afer ashort ilustration of a demographically-relevant example, the needs in terms of data collection and theopportunities of applying the same aproach to synthetic data are discussed.FrenchOn examine ici les principaux éléments de l’analyse par séquence endémographie. Cette nouvelle technique permet une perspective unifiée del’analyse du cours de la vie, en représentant la vie comme une série d’états.Certaines des méthodes pour de telles analyses sont décrites, en commençant parla description complexe, pour considérer ensuite les alignements optimales, etles algorithmes de division. Après un court exemple en démographie, onconsidère les besoins en données et les possibilités d’application aux donnéessynthétique.

  10. Psychometric and demographic predictors of the perceived risk of terrorist threats and the willingness to pay for terrorism risk management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumpower, Jeryl L; Shi, Liu; Stoutenborough, James W; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2013-10-01

    A 2009 national telephone survey of 924 U.S. adults assessed perceptions of terrorism and homeland security issues. Respondents rated severity of effects, level of understanding, number affected, and likelihood of four terrorist threats: poisoned water supply; explosion of a small nuclear device in a major U.S. city; an airplane attack similar to 9/11; and explosion of a bomb in a building, train, subway, or highway. Respondents rated perceived risk and willingness to pay (WTP) for dealing with each threat. Demographic, attitudinal, and party affiliation data were collected. Respondents rated bomb as highest in perceived risk but gave the highest WTP ratings to nuclear device. For both perceived risk and WTP, psychometric variables were far stronger predictors than were demographic ones. OLS regression analyses using both types of variables to predict perceived risk found only two significant demographic predictors for any threat--Democrat (a negative predictor for bomb) and white male (a significant positive predictor for airline attack). In contrast, among psychometric variables, severity, number affected, and likelihood were predictors of all four threats and level of understanding was a predictor for one. For WTP, education was a negative predictor for three threats; no other demographic variables were significant predictors for any threat. Among psychometric variables, perceived risk and number affected were positive predictors of WTP for all four threats; severity and likelihood were predictors for three; level of understanding was a significant predictor for two. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Demographic data of thyroiditis from a south Indian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramila Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroiditis involves thyroid gland inflammation due to a wide variety of causes. The common varieties are subacute, silent and postpartum thyroiditis. Aims and Objectives: To retrospectively collect demographic data of thyroiditis from Bangalore over the past 5 years. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from three major nuclear medicine centers in Bangalore of the patients who came for technetium (Tc 99m pertechnetate scan of the thyroid. The diagnosis was based on the Tc 99 scan evidence of thyroiditis in these patients and biochemical evidence of thyrotoxicosis. Results: The total number of cases recorded were 2513. The females were more commonly affected compared with males with sex distribution of 1698 females and 815 females (2:1. The mean age of females was 32.5 ± 11.3 years whereas the mean age of males was 37.2 ± 12.4 years. The highest numbers of cases were recorded in the months of June and August. Conclusions: The females developed thyroiditis frequently and at an earlier age when compared with males. This data could give us an insight into the demographic pattern of thyroiditis in our country and may help in planning future preventive strategies.

  12. Similar dissection of sets

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Shigeki; Okazaki, Ryotaro; Steiner, Wolfgang; Thuswaldner, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, Martin Gardner stated a set of questions concerning the dissection of a square or an equilateral triangle in three similar parts. Meanwhile, Gardner's questions have been generalized and some of them are already solved. In the present paper, we solve more of his questions and treat them in a much more general context. Let $D\\subset \\mathbb{R}^d$ be a given set and let $f_1,...,f_k$ be injective continuous mappings. Does there exist a set $X$ such that $D = X \\cup f_1(X) \\cup ... \\cup f_k(X)$ is satisfied with a non-overlapping union? We prove that such a set $X$ exists for certain choices of $D$ and $\\{f_1,...,f_k\\}$. The solutions $X$ often turn out to be attractors of iterated function systems with condensation in the sense of Barnsley. Coming back to Gardner's setting, we use our theory to prove that an equilateral triangle can be dissected in three similar copies whose areas have ratio $1:1:a$ for $a \\ge (3+\\sqrt{5})/2$.

  13. Demographic changes and international factor mobility

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the extent and policy implications of linkages between demographic changes and international factor mobility. Evidence is found of significant demographic effects on both migration and the current account, but for different reasons neither increased migration nor international transfers of savings is expected to offer much assistance in digesting the variety of demographic transitions expected over the next fifty years. The paper also examines more briefly the effects of de...

  14. 病例对照Meta分析显示男性乳腺癌与女性乳腺癌预后相同%A meta-analysis based on case-control studies shows the similar prognosis between male and female patients with breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feifei Zhou; Rong Huang; Jun Jiang; Fang Wang; Wenzhuo He; Guifang Guo; Liangping Xia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease, and studies to compare the prognosis between the MBC and female breast cancer (FBC) available now were case-control studies and population-based studies, however, with controversial outcomes. To further investigate whether sex affects the prognosis of breast cancer, we performed a meta-analysis based on all the peered papers. Methods: The PubMed database was screened. Subsequently, the hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and disease special survival (DSS), were pooled using the Review Manager 5.0 package. Results: This study comprised of 254 MBC and 733 FBC patients enrolled in six case-control studies. There was no statistically significant heterogeneity among the trials for either outcome variable. The pooled HR showed that there was no significant difference in 5-year or 10-year DSS (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 0.76-2.08; HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.66-1.59) and 5-year or 10-year OS (HR: 0.76, 95%CI: 0.51-1.14; HR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.54-1.02) between MBCs and FBCs. Conclusion: MBC and FBC with similar prognosis are found in this meta-analysis based on only case-control studies which matched main potential prognostic factors such as age, clinical stage, and time at diagnosis.

  15. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Mollgaard

    Full Text Available The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships.

  16. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H.; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  17. Similarity transformed semiclassical dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhis, Troy; Heller, Eric J.

    2003-12-01

    In this article, we employ a recently discovered criterion for selecting important contributions to the semiclassical coherent state propagator [T. Van Voorhis and E. J. Heller, Phys. Rev. A 66, 050501 (2002)] to study the dynamics of many dimensional problems. We show that the dynamics are governed by a similarity transformed version of the standard classical Hamiltonian. In this light, our selection criterion amounts to using trajectories generated with the untransformed Hamiltonian as approximate initial conditions for the transformed boundary value problem. We apply the new selection scheme to some multidimensional Henon-Heiles problems and compare our results to those obtained with the more sophisticated Herman-Kluk approach. We find that the present technique gives near-quantitative agreement with the the standard results, but that the amount of computational effort is less than Herman-Kluk requires even when sophisticated integral smoothing techniques are employed in the latter.

  18. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  19. Demographic characteristics of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Duman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is a common disease with high mortality and difficult diagnosis.The incidence in our country cannot be calculated because there is no adequate and regular data. In our study,we aimed to investigate the demographic characteristics,risk factors, incidence, Wells and Geneva scores diagnostic and treatment methods of the patients in our emergency department with a diagnosis of PTE. Methods:Files of the 112 patients who were admitted to Erciyes University Medical Faculty Emergency Department between January 2010 - February 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results:The mean age of patients was 65.02 ± 16.23.Forty-one (36.6% of the patients were male and 71 (63.4% were female. The most common complaint of patients was shortness of breath (81.3%, respectively.Immobilization(35.7% and history of previous surgery(19.6% were among the risk factors of the patients. Average troponin levels of the patients was 0.13 ± 0.48 ng/Land average d-dimer levels was 12.698.12 ± 8.779.92 μg/L. Geneva scores of the patients were: 4 patients (3.6% low score, 88 patients (78.6% medium score and 20 patients (17.9% high score. Wells Clinical Probability scores of the patients were; 1 patient (0.9% low probability, 74 patients (66.1% intermediate probability and 37 patients (33% high probability. In the treatmentof patients; heparin infusion (36.6%, enoxaparin sodium(59.8% and tPA (3.6% were used. Conclusion: In spite of improvements in diagnosis and treatment methods, pulmonary embolism diagnosis is stil a problem. The first step to diagnosis in patients with risk factors begin to suspect.J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (1:10-15

  20. Why do some males choose to breed at home when most other males disperse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidian, Eve; Courtiol, Alexandre; Wachter, Bettina; Hofer, Heribert; Höner, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Dispersal is a key driver of ecological and evolutionary processes. Despite substantial efforts to explain the evolution of dispersal, we still do not fully understand why individuals of the same sex of a species vary in their propensity to disperse. The dominant hypothesis emphasizes movements and assumes that leaving home (dispersal) and staying at home (philopatry) are two alternative strategies providing different fitness. It suggests that only individuals of high phenotypic quality can pursue the most beneficial strategy; the others are left to do a “best-of-a-bad” job. An alternative hypothesis emphasizes settlement decisions and suggests that all individuals pursue a single strategy of choosing the breeding habitat or group with the highest fitness prospects; choosing the natal group (philopatry) and choosing a nonnatal group (dispersal) are then outcomes of these decisions. We tested both hypotheses using a long-term study of a free-ranging population of a group-living carnivore, the spotted hyena. We combined demographic data with data on dispersal-relevant phenotypic traits, breeding-group choice, survival, and reproductive success of 254 males. Our results contradict the best-of-a-bad-job hypothesis: philopatric males and dispersers were of similar phenotypic quality, had similar fitness, and applied similar settlement rules based on the fitness prospects in groups. Our findings demonstrate that the distribution of breeding partners can be more important in shaping dispersal patterns than the costs associated with the dispersal movement. The study provides novel insights into the processes leading to the coexistence of philopatry and dispersal within the same sex of a species. PMID:27034982

  1. Bias and ignorance in demographic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, D; Guay, B; Marghetis, T

    2017-08-31

    When it comes to knowledge of demographic facts, misinformation appears to be the norm. Americans massively overestimate the proportions of their fellow citizens who are immigrants, Muslim, LGBTQ, and Latino, but underestimate those who are White or Christian. Previous explanations of these estimation errors have invoked topic-specific mechanisms such as xenophobia or media bias. We reconsidered this pattern of errors in the light of more than 30 years of research on the psychological processes involved in proportion estimation and decision-making under uncertainty. In two publicly available datasets featuring demographic estimates from 14 countries, we found that proportion estimates of national demographics correspond closely to what is found in laboratory studies of quantitative estimates more generally. Biases in demographic estimation, therefore, are part of a very general pattern of human psychology-independent of the particular topic or demographic under consideration-that explains most of the error in estimates of the size of politically salient populations. By situating demographic estimates within a broader understanding of general quantity estimation, these results demand reevaluation of both topic-specific misinformation about demographic facts and topic-specific explanations of demographic ignorance, such as media bias and xenophobia.

  2. The State Economic, Demographic & Fiscal Handbook 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, David; Cohen, Lee

    This handbook is an easy-to-use reference book for policymakers, public officials, and policy analysts, as well as anyone else who may need up-to-date information about state economic, demographic, and fiscal data. The book includes data on demographics, poverty rates, per capita state personal income, state and local tax rates, and state and…

  3. 5 CFR 841.404 - Demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demographic factors. 841.404 Section 841... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Government Costs § 841.404 Demographic factors. (a) The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) will consider the factors listed below...

  4. Demographic and clinical features of neuromyelitis optica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandit, L.; Asgari, Nasrin; Apiwattanakul, M.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative clinical and demographic features of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are not well known. In this review we analyzed peer-reviewed publications for incidence and prevalence, clinical phenotypes, and demographic features of NMO. Population-based studies from Europe, South East and Southe...

  5. Heterosexual male perpetrators of childhood sexual abuse: a preliminary neuropsychiatric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Nikiforov, Konstantin; Gans, Sniezyna; Poznansky, Olga; McGeoch, Pamela; Weaver, Carrie; King, Enid Gertmanian; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents data from a series of preliminary neuropsychiatric studies, including neuropsychological, personality, sexual history, plethysmographic and neuroimaging investigations, on a sample of 22 male, heterosexual, nonexclusive pedophiles and 24 demographically similar healthy controls. A psychobiological model of pedophilia is proposed, positing that early childhood sexual abuse leads to neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the temporal regions mediating sexual arousal and erotic discrimination and the frontal regions mediating the cognitive aspects of sexual desire and behavioral inhibition. In this way, pedophiles develop deviant pedophilic arousal. Subsequently, if there is comorbid personality pathology, specifically sociopathy and cognitive distortions, there will be failure to inhibit pedophilic behavior.

  6. A Demographic Perspective on Family Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic analysis seeks to understand how individual microlevel decisions about child-bearing, marriage and partnering, geographic mobility, and behaviors that influence health and longevity aggregate to macrolevel population trends and differentials in fertility, mortality and migration. In this review, I first discuss theoretical perspectives—classic demographic transition theory, the perspective of the “second demographic transition,” the spread of developmental idealism—that inform demographers’ understanding of macrolevel population change. Then, I turn to a discussion of the role that demographically informed data collection has played in illuminating family change since the mid-20th century in the United States. Finally, I discuss ways in which demographic theory and data collection might inform future areas of family research, particularly in the area of intergenerational family relationships and new and emerging family forms. PMID:26078785

  7. Demographic and medical consequences of the postponement of parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lone; Sobotka, Tomas; Bentzen, Janne Gasseholm;

    2012-01-01

    of involuntary childlessness and smaller families than desired due to increased infertility and fetal death with higher female and male age. For women, the increased risk of prolonged TTP, infertility, spontaneous abortions, ectopic pregnancies and trisomy 21 starts at around 30 years of age with a more......BACKGROUND Across the developed world couples are postponing parenthood. This review assesses the consequences of delayed family formation from a demographic and medical perspective. One main focus is on the quantitative importance of pregnancy postponement. METHODS Medical and social science...... databases were searched for publications on relevant subjects such as delayed parenthood, female and male age, fertility, infertility, time to pregnancy (TTP), fetal death, outcome of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) and mental well-being. RESULTS Postponement of parenthood is linked to a higher rate...

  8. Male Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Esenyel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in men is now recognized as an increasingly important public health issue. About 30 % of hip fractures and 20 % of vertebral fractures occur in men. In the present study, we examined 19 men who did not have major risk factors that might affect bone mass. Parathormone(PTH, osteocalcin (marker of bone formation, OC and deoxypyridinoline (marker of bone resorption, DPD were measured. The bone mineral density (BMD measurements in 16 men were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorbtiometry (DXA from lumbar spine (L2-4, and left hip. Bone density at each site was categorized as osteoporosis or osteopenia according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. In 19 patients with a mean age of 69 years, PTH levels were in the normal range except one patient. OC levels were elevated in %42.1 and DPD levels were elevated in 74 % of patients. L2-4 T score was osteoporotic (25% in 4 patients and osteopenic (25% in 4 patients. Femur Ward’s T score was osteoporotic (37.5% in 7 patients and osteopenic (37.5% in 7 patients. Osteoporosis is a significant problem in older men. Increased awareness for the risk factors of male osteoporosis is an important issue. Early diagnosis and treatment would help to reduce morbidity and mortality resulting from osteoporotic fractures.

  9. Socio-demographic factors and edentulism: the Nigerian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeredolu Patricia

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. Methods A total of 152 patients made up of 80 (52.6% males and 72 (47.4% females who presented in two prosthetic clinics located in an urban and a rural area were included in the study. The relationship between gender, age, socio-economic status and edentulism in this study population was established. Results No significant relationship between gender and denture demand was noted in the study. The demand for complete dentures increased with age while the demand for removable partial dentures also increased with age until the 3rd decade and then started to decline. A significant relationship was found between denture demand and the level of education with a higher demand in lower educational groups (p Conclusions The findings in this study revealed a significant relationship between socio-demographic variables and edentulism with age, educational level and socio-economic status playing vital roles in edentulism and denture demand.

  10. Demographics of hip dysplasia in the Maine Coon cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Randall T; Todhunter, Rory J

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to study the demographics of feline hip dysplasia (FHD) in the Maine Coon cat. Methods The complete hip dysplasia registry (public and private) collected by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals through April 2015 was accessed. There were 2732 unique cats; 2708 (99.1%) were Maine Coons, and only these were studied. Variables analyzed were sex, month/season of birth and hip dysplasia score. Two groups were created: those with and without FHD. P dysplasia were older. The percentage of bilateral FHD was 56%, and bilateral cases had more severe dysplasia than unilateral cases but with no age difference. Month/season of birth or geographic region of origin did not influence the prevalence of FHD. Conclusions and relevance This is the largest demographic study of FHD in the Maine Coon cat. The overall prevalence in the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals registry was 24.9%, and slightly higher in males (27.3%) than females (23.3%). Dysplasia was more severe in bilateral than unilateral cases and with increasing age. Caution should be used when extrapolating these findings to other feline breeds or other groups of Maine Coon cats. Further studies need to be performed among other breeds and geographic locations to better understand the demographics of feline hip dysplasia.

  11. The Evaluation Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of 115 Patients Diagnosed with Herpes Zoster in Eeastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Uce Özkol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients diagnosed with herpes zoster and to explore the similarities and differences with other epidemiological studies from Turkey and the world. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 115 patients diagnosed with herpes zoster in the Yuzuncu Yıl University Medical Faculty Dermatology Department between January 2007 and December 2010. Results: The mean age of the patients was 42.21±23.88 years. 115 patients, -47 female (40.9%, 68 male (59.1%- aged between 2 and 93 years were assessed. Pediatric age group, 20 (17.4%, adult age group, 95 (82.6% patients, respectively. The incidence of HZ was found to be 0.43%. HZ was observed winter rarely (13.04%. Is mostly seen in the months of March (17.39% The affected dermatome were thorasic (49 patient, 42.6%, servical (21 patient, 18.3%, ophtalmic (22 patient, 19.1%, lomber (16 patient, 13.9%, sacral (7 patient, 6.1% respectively. Complications developed in 13% of patients. Conclusion: We observed that our findings were more or less similar to the findings of the literature data. Cases of HZ in our study was very rare during the winter season. Multi-center studies are needed to the emergence of clinical and epidemiological characteristics of HZ in Turkey.

  12. Impacts of Physical and Psychological Abuse of Children on Family Demographic Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Lama M. Al-Qaisy

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study was to show relationship between physical and psychological abuse of children and family demographical variables. A random sample of study representing TTU students has been selected for that purpose; it was consisted of (279), of whom were (127) females and (170) males. The findings show that there are various types of abuse but psychological abuse is the most common type. Also, females are more exposed to psychological abuse than males. In addition, the findings prove...

  13. Demographics of orofacial clefts in Canada from 2002 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavri, Sabrina; Forrest, Christopher R

    2013-03-01

    Objective : Orofacial clefts such as cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate are the most frequent congenital anomalies of the head and neck. The purpose of this study was to determine the current demographics for orofacial clefts in Canada. Methods : A request for data from all Canadian provinces (excluding Quebec due to incompatibilities with provincial coding systems) for the fiscal years 2002-2003 to 2007-2008 was submitted to the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Variables evaluated included gender, cleft type, gestational age, birth weight, income quintile, and institution health region. Results : Over the period studied, the prevalence of orofacial clefts ranged from 11.0 to 15.3 per 10,000 live births (1 in 654 to 1 in 909 live births). The distribution of cleft types for live births with orofacial clefts was 17% for cleft lip, 41% for cleft palate, and 42% for cleft lip and palate, of which cleft lip and cleft lip and palate were male dominant (62% and 66% male, respectively) and cleft palate was female dominant (56% female). Saskatchewan and Manitoba had significantly higher cleft birthrates (P orofacial clefting compared with those with no cleft. Conclusions : Canada has one of the highest orofacial cleft birthrates in the world (prevalence of 12.7 per 10,000 live births, approximately 1 in 790 live births). This study presents an updated demographic of orofacial clefts in Canadian newborns and may be useful in predicting the burden of anticipated health care.

  14. Demographic and fertility characteristics of 4 squatter settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, K; Zulkifli, S N

    1985-01-01

    The demographic and fertility profiles of 4 squatter areas, 2 with Sang Kancil, a community development project designed specifically for squatter settlements in Kuala Lumpur, are described. Data were taken from a census conducted in 1982. Figure 1 maps out the location of the study areas in the Federal Territory. The squatter household (5.4 members) varied little from the average Malaysian household. The average age of the male head of household was 40 years, i.e., not within the high fertility group; the mean duration of stay was 10 years. Household income/month averaged M$760, falling between estimates for urban and rural mean. Comparing the data on the 2 squatter areas, the non-Sang Kancil head of household was, on average, slightly older and had stayed about 2 years longer than his Sang Kancil counterpart. These differences were statistically significant. Both areas were comparable with regard to household income and size. Ethnically, the Sang Kancil areas were predominantly Malay, comprising 86% of total households. The control areas had a more mixed ethnic structure. From 1978-81, annual increases in total population had been fairly uniform, at around 2%, in non-Sang Kancil Areas. Yet, the Sang Kancil population experienced a growth spurt in 1980, which subsequently declined and appeared to level off. 1982 figures were disregarded in this analysis as they were based on a 1/2 year enumeration only. The age distribution pattern of all squatter areas combined was fairly similar to the national distribution pyramid but for a higher proportion of people in the 15-44 age group than national figures. The proportion of dependents, 0-14 years, was comparable despite having more people in this fertile age group. The proportion of infants (0-11 months) in the control population was constant, but there was a decline down to control values by the end of the surveyed period in the Sang Kancil group. In the toddler group, decreases were evident for both populations

  15. [Male contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  16. The dynamics of male-male competition in Cardiocondyla obscurior ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Suefuji, Masaki; Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen

    2012-06-15

    The outcome of male-male competition can be predicted from the relative fighting qualities of the opponents, which often depend on their age. In insects, freshly emerged and still sexually inactive males are morphologically indistinct from older, sexually active males. These young inactive males may thus be easy targets for older males if they cannot conceal themselves from their attacks. The ant Cardiocondyla obscurior is characterised by lethal fighting between wingless ("ergatoid") males. Here, we analyse for how long young males are defenceless after eclosion, and how early adult males can detect the presence of rival males. We found that old ergatoid males consistently won fights against ergatoid males younger than two days. Old males did not differentiate between different types of unpigmented pupae several days before emergence, but had more frequent contact to ready-to-eclose pupae of female sexuals and winged males than of workers and ergatoid males. In rare cases, old ergatoid males displayed alleviated biting of pigmented ergatoid male pupae shortly before adult eclosion, as well as copulation attempts to dark pupae of female sexuals and winged males. Ergatoid male behaviour may be promoted by a closer similarity of the chemical profile of ready-to-eclose pupae to the profile of adults than that of young pupae several days prior to emergence. Young ergatoid males of C. obscurior would benefit greatly by hiding their identity from older, resident males, as they are highly vulnerable during the first two days of their adult lives. In contrast to the winged males of the same species, which are able to prevent ergatoid male attacks by chemical female mimicry, young ergatoids do not seem to be able to produce a protective chemical profile. Conflicts in male-male competition between ergatoid males of different age thus seem to be resolved in favour of the older males. This might represent selection at the colony level rather than the individual level.

  17. The dynamics of male-male competition in Cardiocondyla obscurior ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremer Sylvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outcome of male-male competition can be predicted from the relative fighting qualities of the opponents, which often depend on their age. In insects, freshly emerged and still sexually inactive males are morphologically indistinct from older, sexually active males. These young inactive males may thus be easy targets for older males if they cannot conceal themselves from their attacks. The ant Cardiocondyla obscurior is characterised by lethal fighting between wingless (“ergatoid” males. Here, we analyse for how long young males are defenceless after eclosion, and how early adult males can detect the presence of rival males. Results We found that old ergatoid males consistently won fights against ergatoid males younger than two days. Old males did not differentiate between different types of unpigmented pupae several days before emergence, but had more frequent contact to ready-to-eclose pupae of female sexuals and winged males than of workers and ergatoid males. In rare cases, old ergatoid males displayed alleviated biting of pigmented ergatoid male pupae shortly before adult eclosion, as well as copulation attempts to dark pupae of female sexuals and winged males. Ergatoid male behaviour may be promoted by a closer similarity of the chemical profile of ready-to-eclose pupae to the profile of adults than that of young pupae several days prior to emergence. Conclusion Young ergatoid males of C. obscurior would benefit greatly by hiding their identity from older, resident males, as they are highly vulnerable during the first two days of their adult lives. In contrast to the winged males of the same species, which are able to prevent ergatoid male attacks by chemical female mimicry, young ergatoids do not seem to be able to produce a protective chemical profile. Conflicts in male-male competition between ergatoid males of different age thus seem to be resolved in favour of the older males. This might represent selection

  18. amily Planning Brings China Demographic Bonus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瀛通

    2007-01-01

    Editorial note Scholars around the world are voicing their criticisms on China’s family planning policy,which,in their opinions,will lead to an unhealthy population structure.This article reviews the concepts of"rich before old"and"negative demographic bonus",and concludes that with regards to some indicators such as dependency ratio and demographic bonus,there exists a discrepancy between calculations and reality.The author believes that China will continue to witness a surge of demographic bonus in the future.

  19. A unified framework of demographic time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riffe, Tim; Schöley, Jonas; Villavicencio, Francisco

    Demographic thought and practice is largely conditioned by the Lexis diagram, a two-dimensional graphical representation of the identity between age, period, and birth cohort. This relationship does not account for remaining years of life or other related time measures, whose use in demographic...... research is both underrepresented and incompletely situated. We describe a three-dimensional relationship between six different measures of demographic time: chronological age, time to death, lifespan, time of birth, time of death, and period. We describe four identities among subsets of these six measures...

  20. Surviving the Holocaust: Socio-demographic Differences Among Amsterdam Jews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammes, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This study determined the victimisation rate among Amsterdam Jews and socio-demographic differences in surviving the Holocaust. After linking a registration list of over 77,000 Jewish inhabitants in 1941 to post-war lists of Jewish victims and survivors, the victimisation rate lies between 74.3 and 75.3 %. Differences in survival chances and risk of being killed are examined by using multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses. While male Jews had a reduced risk of death, in the end their survival chances hardly differed from females. Though Jews aged 6-14 and 31-50 initially had a lower risk of death, in the end compared with Jews aged 15-30 they had lower survival chances, just as Jews aged 50+. For Jews aged 0-5, it was the other way around. Immigrants showed better survival chances than native Jews. German Jews showed better survival chances than Dutch Jews, but Polish and other Jewish nationals showed highest survival chances. Jews who had abandoned Judaism had better survival chances than Jews belonging to an Israelite congregation. Divorced, widowed and unmarried adult Jews had better survival chances than married Jews and their children; Jews married to non-Jews, however, had one of the highest survival chances. Jews in the two highest social classes had better survival chances than jobless Jews. These findings indicate that survival was not random but related to socio-demographic characteristics. This sheds light on demographic consequences of conflict and violence: Nazi persecution reduced the Amsterdam Jewish community drastically, and socio-demographic differences in survival impacted the post-war Jewish population structure.

  1. Cues to androgens and quality in male gibbon songs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barelli

    Full Text Available Animal vocal signals may provide information about senders and mediate important social interactions like sexual competition, territory maintenance and mate selection. Hence, it is important to understand whether vocal signals provide accurate information about animal attributes or status. Gibbons are non-human primates that produce loud, distinctive and melodious vocalizations resembling more those of birds than of other non-human primates. Wild gibbons are characterized by flexibility in social organization (i.e., pairs and multimale units as well as in mating system (i.e., monogamy and polyandry. Such features make them a suitable model to investigate whether the physiology (hormonal status and socio-demographic features find their correspondence in the structure of their songs. By combining male solo song recordings, endocrine outputs using non-invasive fecal androgen measures and behavioral observations, we studied 14 groups (10 pair-living, 4 multimale of wild white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar residing at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. We collected a total of 322 fecal samples and recorded 48 songs from 18 adult animals. Our results confirmed inter-individuality in male gibbon songs, and showed a clear correlation between androgen levels and song structures. Gibbons with higher androgen levels produced calls having higher pitch, and similarly adult individuals produced longer calls than senior males. Thus, it is plausible that gibbon vocalizations provide receivers with information about singers' attributes.

  2. [The demographic transition in Latin America and Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala De Cosio, M E

    1992-12-01

    in Latin America because of the much more rapid mortality decline. In Latin America, in the face of the fertility increase of the mid-20th century, there was no attempt to control nuptiality, as in traditional European populations, to limit family size. Nuptiality control as a mechanism of demographic regulation was never socially acceptable in Latin America. The beginning of the Latin American transition occurred in urban areas, among more educated women who were over 20 years old at marriage. The fertility transition in these privileged sectors was quite similar to that in Europe. But a second transition has occurred among impoverished women conserving traditional reproductive patterns of early marriage and numerous closely spaced births. Availability of modern contraception among rural and marginal urban women has allowed termination of childbearing, but usually at relatively high levels of fertility. Fertility decline, in this case, does not reflect improvements in living conditions.

  3. Conspicuous Coloration in Males of the Damselfly Nehalennia irene (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae: Do Males Signal Their Unprofitability to Other Males?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Beatty

    Full Text Available In damselflies, sexual colour dimorphism is commonly explained as a consequence of selection on traits that increase male attractiveness to females. However, while many species in the damselfly family Coenagrionidae (Insecta: Odonata are sexually dimorphic, the males do not engage in displays, and male competition for mates resembles a "scramble". An alternative explanation for the sexual differences in coloration within these species is that sexual dimorphism has evolved as a sex-related warning signal, with males signalling their uprofitability as mates to other males, thereby avoiding harassment from conspecifics. We evaluated an underlying assumption of the theory that male-male harassment rate is influenced by colour by comparing harassment of males of the species Nehalennia irene that had been painted to make them appear: (i similar to an unaltered male (blue, (ii different from a male (orange and (iii more similar to a female (black. When caged together we found that blue-painted males experienced significantly lower harassment than black-painted males. When unpainted males were caged with each type of painted male we found that blue-painted males and the unpainted males housed in the same cages experienced lower rates of harassment than males housed in cages where some males were painted black, suggesting that a single, reliable signal of unprofitability may benefit the individuals that carry it. While our results do not in themselves demonstrate that sexual colour dimorphism originally evolved as an intra-specific warning signal, they do show that harassment is influenced by coloration, and that such selection could conceivably maintain male coloration as a warning signal.

  4. An Examination of the Association between Demographic and Educational Factors and African American Achievement in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010…

  5. Demographic Trends, Policy Influences, and Economic Effects in China and India Through 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    control perceived increases in violence by such males, lead to larger armies that pursue expansionist policies, or even cause public health problems...Developing Countries: Capturing the Second Demographic Dividend,” Genus , Vol. 57, No. 2, 2006, pp. 11–35. Ministry of Rural Areas and Employment, “NSAP

  6. The Effects of Structural Attributes and Demographic Characteristics on Protege Satisfaction in Mentoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Brian D.; Oppler, Edward S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether the structural attributes of a formal mentoring program and/or certain demographic characteristics of participants in the program influence protege satisfaction. Proteges, employed in a traditionally male occupation, were sampled from a federal agency's mentoring program. According to policy, the agency attempted to…

  7. Men and Cosmetics: Social and Psychological Trends of an Emerging Demographic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Evan A; Mu, Euphemia W; Brauer, Jeremy A

    2015-09-01

    Though still accounting for a small fraction of all cosmetic procedures in the United States, men are an emerging and rapidly expanding demographic in the field of aesthetic medicine. In this article we highlight the trends contributing to the rise of male aesthetic procedures in dermatology, touching on social influences, psychological motivations, and treatment outcomes.

  8. Demographic upheavals in the former USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C

    1995-01-01

    Fertility and life expectancy have changed since the breakup of the Soviet republics in 1991 and continue to change very rapidly. Before 1991, the USSR was the fastest growing developed country in the world. Annual growth rates in the mid-1980s were 0.9% compared to only 0.1% in Europe or 1.1% in the US. Immigration did not greatly affect the USSR's growth rate. By 1993, the population had declined in 8 of the 15 former republics. Deaths exceeded births in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Estonia, and Latvia, followed by Lithuania in 1994. The last census was conducted in 1989. Fertility declined in Russia from 1.9 in 1990 to 1.4 in 1993. Fertility has been low in Lithuania at 1.7, in the Ukraine at 1.6, in Latvia at 1.5, and in Estonia at 1.4. Kazakhstan, Georgia, and Kyrgyzstan have experienced fertility decline, which was affected by emigration to Russia and other countries after 1990. 25 million Russians have resided in the former republics in 1990. In Kazakhstan, the 160,000 more births than deaths were offset by 200,000 emigrants. Central republics with higher fertility experienced declines after 1990; for example, Kyrgyzstan declined from 3.7 in 1990 to 3.3 in 1993. Life expectancy for males in Russia in 1993 was 58.9 years, which was a decline from 63.8 years in 1990. About 50% of the decline in life expectancy was due to circulatory diseases, and about 25% was due to external causes such as accidents, suicide, and alcoholism. Infant mortality has been increasing since 1990; for example, it increased in the Ukraine from 12.9 in 1990 to 14.1 in 1992. Russia's population in 1993 experienced 700,000 more deaths than births. The demographic impact will be declining school enrollments and smaller employment among the working population to support the aged. The change to a market economy has been uneven in Russia, where it has advanced more rapidly than in the republics. It is unclear whether the declining birth rate and increasing mortality rates will continue, but

  9. The demographic work of Sir William Wilde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggatt, P

    2016-05-01

    This paper argues that Sir William Wilde was indeed a pioneering demographer. It also describes the unveiling of the plaque commemorating Sir William Wilde at his home, 1, Merrion Square, Dublin on the 28 October 1971.

  10. Demographics and presenting clinical features of childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographics and presenting clinical features of childhood systemic lupus ... and characteristics of children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). ... Rashes were found to be the commonest clinical feature present at the time of diagnosis, ...

  11. Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography

  12. Demographic heterogeneity, cohort selection, and population growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce E. Kendall; Fox, Gordon A.; Fujiwara, Masami; Nogeire, Theresa M.

    2011-01-01

    Demographic heterogeneity—variation among individuals in survival and reproduction—is ubiquitous in natural populations. Structured population models address heterogeneity due to age, size, or major developmental stages. However, other important sources of demographic heterogeneity, such as genetic variation, spatial heterogeneity in the environment, maternal effects, and differential exposure to stressors, are often not easily measured and hence are modeled as stochasticity. Recent research ...

  13. Two centuries of demographic change in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Edmonston

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One key aspect of the demographic transition—the shift from high mortality and high fertility to low mortality and low fertility is a major change in the population’s age distribution from a pyramid-shaped young age structure to a pillar-shaped old age structure. This paper discusses two demographic processes affected by changes in age structure. First, there are effects on vital rates, with important differences in the observed crude rates and the implied intrinsic vital rates. Second, changes in age structure influence population momentum. More recently, demographers have noted that older age distributions associated with fertility levels below replacement have negative population momentum. Although the demographic transition has been well-described for many countries, demographers have seldom analyzed intrinsic vital rates and population momentum over time, which are dynamic processes affected by changes in the population age structure and which, in turn, influence future changes in population growth and size. This paper uses new data and methods to analyze intrinsic vital rates and population momentum across two centuries of demographic change in Canada

  14. Estimating similarity of XML Schemas using path similarity measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Trivedi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop an algorithm which estimates the similarity for XML Schemas using multiple similarity measures. For performing the task, the XML Schema element information has been represented in the form of string and four different similarity measure approaches have been employed. To further improve the similarity measure, an overall similarity measure has also been calculated. The approach used in this paper is a distinguished one, as it calculates the similarity between two XML schemas using four approaches and gives an integrated values for the similarity measure. Keywords-componen

  15. Male fertility in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H

    2011-04-05

    Infertility rates among males with cystic fibrosis (CF) approximate 97%. No information is currently available within Ireland determining an understanding of fertility issues and the best methods of information provision to this specialized group. This study aimed to determine understanding and preferred approaches to information provision on fertility issues to Irish CF males. A Descriptive Study utilizing prospective coded questionnaires was mailed to a male CF cohort (n=50). Sections included demographics, fertility knowledge & investigation. Response rate was 16\\/50 (32%). All were aware that CF affected their fertility. More than two-thirds (n=11) were able to provide explanations whilst only one-third (n=5) provided the correct explanation. Significant numbers stated thoughts of marriage and a future family. Half have discussed fertility with a healthcare professional (HCP). Mean age of discussion was 21.9 years. One third preferred an earlier discussion. The commonest first source for information was written material which was also the preferred source. Three-quarters requested further information preferring again, written material. Significant gaps in sex education of Irish CF males exist. Discussion should be initiated by HCPs and centre-directed written material devised to address deficiencies.

  16. Demographic and Related Determinants of Recent Cuban Emigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquets, Sergio Diaz

    1983-01-01

    Examines principal demographic determinants of recent Cuban emigration and discusses how these demographic variables interact with other social, economic, and political determinants. Suggests that Cuban labor migration is more responsive to demographic factors than some theorists assume. (Author/MJL)

  17. Transgender Demographics: A Household Probability Sample of US Adults, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Mitchell B.; Graham, Louis F.; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the proportion of US adults who identify as transgender and to compare the demographics of the transgender and nontransgender populations. Methods. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from states and territories in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System that asked about transgender status. The proportion of adults identified as transgender was calculated from affirmative and negative responses (n = 151 456). We analyzed data with a design-adjusted χ2 test. We also explored differences between male-to-female and nontransgender females and female-to-male and nontransgender males. Results. Transgender individuals made up 0.53% (95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.61) of the population and were more likely to be non-White (40.0% vs 27.3%) and below the poverty line (26.0% vs 15.5%); as likely to be married (50.5% vs 47.7%), living in a rural area (28.7% vs 22.6%), and employed (54.3% vs 57.7%); and less likely to attend college (35.6% vs 56.6%) compared with nontransgender individuals. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the transgender population is a racially diverse population present across US communities. Inequalities in the education and socioeconomic status have negative implications for the health of the transgender population. PMID:27997239

  18. Revolution without ideology: demographic transition in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T D

    1980-01-01

    population increase was initially expressed in the early 1960s. The government of Taiwan designed a 10-year plan of action to reduce the rate of increase from 2.9% to 1.9% by 1975, a goal that was reached on schedule. The South Korean experience was similar. The birthrate decreased from 2.9% to about 2.0% between 1960-70. Demographic conditions in North Korea are known only poorly. Decreased growth rates in all of these countries would not be of major significance if the demographic situation within China remained unchanged, but marked alterations in birthrate have occurred in China. These reductions in average family size were realized in essentially similar ways. The basic mechanisms were delayed marriage, increased use of contraceptive devices, abortion, and sterilization. More fundamental to the success of family planning programs than mere access to the techniques have been the ability of different countries to provide incentives for birth limitation. A vital element in the success of family planning programs in East Asia has been a marked drop in mortality. Overall, a rising level of prosperity appears less essential than does provision of basic subsistence and a broadened range of occupational options for both sexes and all classes.

  19. Quantifying the Search Behaviour of Different Demographics Using Google Correlate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Letchford

    Full Text Available Vast records of our everyday interests and concerns are being generated by our frequent interactions with the Internet. Here, we investigate how the searches of Google users vary across U.S. states with different birth rates and infant mortality rates. We find that users in states with higher birth rates search for more information about pregnancy, while those in states with lower birth rates search for more information about cats. Similarly, we find that users in states with higher infant mortality rates search for more information about credit, loans and diseases. Our results provide evidence that Internet search data could offer new insight into the concerns of different demographics.

  20. Comparative demographics of a Hawaiian forest bird community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumet, Alban; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Camp, Richard J.; Paxton, Eben

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of demographic parameters such as survival and reproductive success are critical for guiding management efforts focused on species of conservation concern. Unfortunately, reliable demographic parameters are difficult to obtain for any species, but especially for rare or endangered species. Here we derived estimates of adult survival and recruitment in a community of Hawaiian forest birds, including eight native species (of which three are endangered) and two introduced species at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawaiʻi. Integrated population models (IPM) were used to link mark–recapture data (1994–1999) with long-term population surveys (1987–2008). To our knowledge, this is the first time that IPM have been used to characterize demographic parameters of a whole avian community, and provides important insights into the life history strategies of the community. The demographic data were used to test two hypotheses: 1) arthropod specialists, such as the ‘Akiapōlā‘au Hemignathus munroi, are ‘slower’ species characterized by a greater relative contribution of adult survival to population growth, i.e. lower fecundity and increased adult survival; and 2) a species’ susceptibility to environmental change, as reflected by its conservation status, can be predicted by its life history traits. We found that all species were characterized by a similar population growth rate around one, independently of conservation status, origin (native vs non-native), feeding guild, or life history strategy (as measured by ‘slowness’), which suggested that the community had reached an equilibrium. However, such stable dynamics were achieved differently across feeding guilds, as demonstrated by a significant increase of adult survival and a significant decrease of recruitment along a gradient of increased insectivory, in support of hypothesis 1. Supporting our second hypothesis, we found that slower species were more vulnerable species at the global

  1. Demographic aspects of social security in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Gennad'evna Leont'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field of demographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas of social protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood of social conflicts and improve the demographic situation.

  2. Demographic and affective covariates of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garron, D C; Leavitt, F

    1979-11-01

    Relationships of four demographic variables and five affective variables to eight attributes of low back pain were investigated in 251 patients by stepwise, multivariate analysis. The demographic variables are age, sex, race, and education. The affective variables are state anxiety, trait anxiety anxiety, hostility, and depression. Seven of the pain variables are from the factorially derived Low Back Pain Questionnaire. The eighth pain variable is a self-estimate of intensity. Relationships among demographic and pain variables are small and unsystematic. Hostility has a small, systematically inverse relation to pain variables, supporting theories relating low back pain to inhibition of anger. Anxiety has a small positive relationship, and depression has no relationship to pain variables. In general, the small relationships indicate that the Low Back Pain Questionnaire provides descriptions of pain that are not confounded by social characteristics or current emotional states of patients.

  3. Demographic and psychological variables affecting test subject evaluations of ride quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, N. C.; Conley, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Ride-quality experiments similar in objectives, design, and procedure were conducted, one using the U.S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator and the other using the Langley Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus to provide the motion environments. Large samples (80 or more per experiment) of test subjects were recruited from the Tidewater Virginia area and asked to rate the comfort (on a 7-point scale) of random aircraft motion typical of that encountered during STOL flights. Test subject characteristics of age, sex, and previous flying history (number of previous airplane flights) were studied in a two by three by three factorial design. Correlations were computed between one dependent measure, the subject's mean comfort rating, and various demographic characteristics, attitudinal variables, and the scores on Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. An effect of sex was found in one of the studies. Males made higher (more uncomfortable) ratings of the ride than females. Age and number of previous flights were not significantly related to comfort ratings. No significant interactions between the variables of age, sex, or previous number of flights were observed.

  4. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4):33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile s...

  5. Similarity measures for protein ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of similarities and changes in protein conformation can provide important information regarding protein function and evolution. Many scores, including the commonly used root mean square deviation, have therefore been developed to quantify the similarities of different protein conformatio...

  6. Bolivia 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    This document presents the results of the Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), or Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud 1998, conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, La Paz, Bolivia, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data were collected from 12,109 households and complete interviews were conducted with 11,187 women aged 15-49. A male survey was also conducted, which collected data from 3780 men aged 15-64. The information collected include the following: 1) general characteristics of the population, 2) fertility, 3) fertility preferences, 4) current contraceptive use, 5) contraception, 6) marital and contraceptive status, 7) postpartum variables, 8) infant mortality, 9) health: disease prevention and treatment, and 10) nutritional status: anthropometric measures.

  7. Demographic, criminogenic, and psychiatric factors that predict competency restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Lori H; Gianesini, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has investigated the characteristics of competent and incompetent defendants and restorable and nonrestorable defendants. However, less is known about the influence of current treatment variables and other systemic factors on restorability. In the present study, we sought to examine the impact of demographic, criminogenic, historical clinical, and current treatment variables on the restorability and length of stay (LOS) of incompetent defendants. We reviewed the records of 71 male patients who had been court ordered for competency restoration and subsequently discharged from a maximum-security forensic hospital. Results indicated that nonrestorable patients had more prior hospitalizations, incarcerations, and episodes of incompetence, had lower level charges, were diagnosed with a psychotic and cognitive disorder, were prescribed more medications, and had lower global assessment of functioning (GAF) scores. Nonrestorable patients were hospitalized nearly twice as long as those eventually found competent, and patients with lower IQs and lower GAFs and who spent more days on special observations had longer LOS.

  8. Epidemiology of adult congenital heart disease: demographic variations worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, B J M

    2012-12-01

    The population of adults with a congenital heart defect (CHD) is increasing, due to improved survival after cardiac surgery. To accommodate the specialised care for these patients, a profound interest in the epidemiology of CHD is required. The exact size of the current population of adults with CHD is unknown, but the best available evidence suggests that currently overall prevalence of CHD in the adult population is about 3000 per million. Regional differences in CHD prevalence have been described, due to both variations in incidence and in mortality. Knowledge of demographic variations of CHD may lead to new aetiological insights and may be useful for preventive therapies. Socioeconomic status, education, urbanisation, climatological factors, ethnicity and patient-related factors, such as comorbidity, lifestyle and healthcare-seeking behaviour, may play a role in CHD incidence and mortality. The higher risk of several major cardiac outcomes in males with CHD might well explain at least partly the increased mortality rate in men. Regional differences in quality of life among CHD patients have been reported and although methodological differences may play a role, sociocultural differences warrant further attention. Socioeconomic outcomes in CHD patients, such as lower education, more unemployment and less relationships, might have a different impact on quality of life in different cultures. To gain more insight into demographic differences around the world large international multicentre studies on the epidemiology of CHD are needed.

  9. Male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  10. Attitudes of dog owners to neutering pets: demographic data and effects of owner attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackshaw, J K; Day, C

    1994-04-01

    A survey of the attitudes of dog owners to desexing male and female dogs was conducted in the Brisbane area. Over 15,800 replies (35% response) were returned for analyses and included both demographic and attitude data. The most common reasons given by owners for not having the dog desexed were that it was unnecessary or they wanted to breed from it or could not afford it or did not agree with it or that the dog was too old or it might get fat. Nearly twice as many male owners agreed that desexing male dogs removed maleness and also more males agreed with the question "Do you equate dog sexuality with human sexuality?" Female owners were more aware than males that their female dogs did not need to have a season (oestrus) or a litter before being desexed. More male owners thought that desexing changed a male or female dog's personality. A disturbing fact was that 61.1% of male owners and 47.3% of female owners would now not have their dog desexed if it had not already been done. More male than female dog owners were ignorant about whether desexing changed personality, made dogs frustrated, or if female dogs should have a season or a litter before desexing. The study showed a gender bias in owner attitudes to all the attitude questions.

  11. Demographic side effects of selective hunting in ungulates and carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Jos M; Nilsen, Erlend B; Andreassen, Harry P

    2007-02-01

    Selective harvesting regimes are often implemented because age and sex classes contribute differently to population dynamics and hunters show preferences associated with body size and trophy value. We reviewed the literature on how such cropping regimes affect the demography of the remaining population (here termed demographic side effects). First, we examined the implications of removing a large proportion of a specific age or sex class. Such harvesting strategies often bias the population sex ratio toward females and reduce the mean age of males, which may consequently delay birth dates, reduce birth synchrony, delay body mass development, and alter offspring sex ratios. Second, we reviewed the side effects associated with the selective removal of relatively few specific individuals, often large trophy males. Such selective harvesting can destabilize social structures and the dominance hierarchy and may cause loss of social knowledge, sexually selected infanticide, habitat changes among reproductive females, and changes in offspring sex ratio. A common feature of many of the reported mechanisms is that they ultimately depress recruitment and in some extreme cases even cause total reproductive collapse. These effects could act additively and destabilize the dynamics of populations, thus having a stronger effect on population growth rate than first anticipated. Although more experimental than observational studies reported demographic side effects, we argue that this may reflect the quite subtle mechanisms involved, which are unlikely to be detected in observational studies without rigorous monitoring regimes. We call for more detailed studies of hunted populations with marked individuals that address how the expression of these effects varies across mating systems, habitats, and with population density. Theoretical models investigating how strongly these effects influence population growth rates are also required.

  12. Demographic Costs Associated with Differences in Habitat Space Occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kelly A; Miles, Donald B

    2016-01-01

    Delimiting the habitat characteristics describing the environmental conditions required by a species has become a critical tool for predicting organismal responses to environmental change. Grinnell emphasized the effects of environmental factors on the ability of a population to maintain a positive growth rate, yet few studies have included demographic or reproductive data in analyses of the Grinnellian niche. Identifying differences in habitat exploitation patterns in response to structural variation in the environment presents an incomplete description of the ability of species to adapt to changing habitats if demographic traits are not included. We estimated the vegetation characteristics used by individuals within a population of hooded warblers (Setophaga citrina) across a spatial transect that includes three structurally different forest habitats. We predicted individuals should select similar structural characteristics within each habitat and have similar reproductive success across sample sites. In the two years post burn, adults were present but no young fledged indicating the habitat requirements necessary for reproduction were absent in this habitat. We found significant differences in habitat space occupied by individuals in unaltered and harvested habitats. Nesting habitats used by female warblers differed from available habitat. Fledging success was lower in the harvested habitat 10 to 12 years post-harvest. In the harvested habitat, fledging success was greater on mesic slopes but decreased along a habitat gradient to xeric ridgetops, suggesting compensation in habitat use does not ameliorate fitness costs. In contrast, there was no difference in the number of fledged young along this gradient in the unaltered habitat. Based solely on occupancy data, traditional ecological niche models would incorrectly conclude the environmental characteristics found across the three forested habitats are included in the Grinnellian niche of the hooded warbler

  13. Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic…

  14. Demographic development in ASEAN: a comparative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, A N; Pardoko, H; Lim, L L; Hongladorom, C

    1981-01-01

    A comparative overview of recent demographic developments in the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region is presented. Countries discussed include Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Separate consideration is given to mortality; fertility; and migration, spatial distribution, and employment. A final section is concerned with emerging issues and directions for population policy.

  15. Second demographic transition de-blocked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobić Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is re-examining the previously established dilemma related to whether Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohija is the country of second demographic transition, i.e.: has the transition been de-blocked, under the assumption that this is a worldwide historical process of transformation of industrialized countries. The last thesis, around which there exists a lot of controversy in the contemporary population theory, is however not dealt with in detail; to the contrary, it is used as the general theoretical framework for the exploration of the most recent tendencies in the transformation of nuptiality and fertility regime in Serbia, as well as in the western and countries in post-socialist transformation. Special attention is given to the ideational changes, more precisely to the specific features of the value profile of the Serbian population, which is one of the most important determinants of the societal framework, that acts in the back of the afore mentioned aggregate demographic indicators. Finally, the hypothesis is posed (which should be further investigated by means of in-depth research and complementary approach that the speeding-up of the second demographic transition and intensification of the individualisation not only of the partnership but of the parenthood as well, accompanied with the rise of living standard and social support to balancing work and family, would have produced important emancipating and, concomitantly, positive socioeconomic and demographic effects.

  16. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's…

  17. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's corporal…

  18. Economic and Demographic Predictors of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosier, Meghan E.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated economic and demographic predictors of levels of inclusion of students with disabilities in 129 school districts. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to address the following research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between economic factors and percentage of highly included students with disabilities in general…

  19. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  20. Demographic effects on fruit set in the dioecious shrub Canada buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate M. Johnson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pollen limitation on reproductive success in plants have been well-documented using pollen supplementation experiments. However, the role of local demographics in determining pollen limitation, particularly in terms of the additive and interactive effects of pollen availability and competition are not well known. We measured fruit set in the dioecious shrub Canada buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis in Central Alberta, Canada to evaluate whether local demographics measured at three spatial scales (25, 50, and 100 m2 affect fruit set in buffaloberry. We test whether density-dependence (population density, pollen donor (measured as male density, distance to nearest male plant and size of nearest male plant, female competitor (measured as female density and distance to nearest female plant, or the combined pollen donor and competitor hypotheses best explain natural variations in fruit set for a population of Canada buffaloberry. Support was highest for the combined pollen donor and competitor hypothesis at an intermediate spatial scale of 50 m2. Proportion fruit set increased with male shrub density (pollen donors and decreased with female shrub density (pollen competitors, but was more affected by the presence of males than females. This illustrates that access to male shrubs within a 3.99 m radius affects pollen availability, while nearby females compete intra-specifically for pollen.

  1. Lisping and male homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borsel, John; Van de Putte, Anneleen

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the popular stereotype that gay men lisp by evaluating to what extent listeners associated dental or frontal articulation/lisping with gayness. Fifteen heterosexual males and 15 heterosexual females listened to 275 samples of read speech and judged the sexual orientation of the speakers. A total of 175 of the samples were of homosexual men, 74 (42.3 %) of which had been identified with lisping in a previous study; 100 were of heterosexual men, 18 (18 %) of which had been identified with lisping previously. Based on the ratings of the listeners of the present study, lisping speakers were significantly more often judged to be homosexual. This was true for the group as a whole as well as for the subgroup of homosexual and heterosexual men separately. Furthermore, there was no significant gender difference with respect to associating lisping with gayness. Male and female judges associated lisping with gayness to a similar degree. Additional analysis showed that overall 56.2 % of the time the judges were correct in their judgment of the speakers' sexual orientation. The results of this study confirmed previous preliminary findings that suggested that frontal or dental articulation/lisping is a feature that listeners associate with gayness. The reason for this association remains to be clarified.

  2. A COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MODELS IN EVALUATING CONCEPT SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. X. Xu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  3. a Comparison of Semantic Similarity Models in Evaluating Concept Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q. X.; Shi, W. Z.

    2012-08-01

    The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  4. Learning Multi-modal Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    McFee, Brian

    2010-01-01

    In many applications involving multi-media data, the definition of similarity between items is integral to several key tasks, e.g., nearest-neighbor retrieval, classification, and recommendation. Data in such regimes typically exhibits multiple modalities, such as acoustic and visual content of video. Integrating such heterogeneous data to form a holistic similarity space is therefore a key challenge to be overcome in many real-world applications. We present a novel multiple kernel learning technique for integrating heterogeneous data into a single, unified similarity space. Our algorithm learns an optimal ensemble of kernel transfor- mations which conform to measurements of human perceptual similarity, as expressed by relative comparisons. To cope with the ubiquitous problems of subjectivity and inconsistency in multi- media similarity, we develop graph-based techniques to filter similarity measurements, resulting in a simplified and robust training procedure.

  5. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  6. Similarity Learning of Manifold Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si-Bao; Ding, Chris H Q; Luo, Bin

    2015-09-01

    Without constructing adjacency graph for neighborhood, we propose a method to learn similarity among sample points of manifold in Laplacian embedding (LE) based on adding constraints of linear reconstruction and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator type minimization. Two algorithms and corresponding analyses are presented to learn similarity for mix-signed and nonnegative data respectively. The similarity learning method is further extended to kernel spaces. The experiments on both synthetic and real world benchmark data sets demonstrate that the proposed LE with new similarity has better visualization and achieves higher accuracy in classification.

  7. Gender inequality on the example of socio-demographic structures of Belgrade population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuburović Ankica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of demographic characteristics from the gender perspective represents a contribution to enlightening the social relations between female and male population in Belgrade. Gender specificity and explicitness of socio-demographic structures indicate to different positions and statuses of the female and male populations. There are more females than men in the total population of the capital city of Serbia. The sex imbalance of age groups is determined by gender differences in the number of born boys and girls, in migration characteristics and in the level of mortality. The male population is greater in the age group up to 20 years old, while the female population is more numerous among the middle-aged and older generations. Gender differences in marital structure, level of education and economic activities cannot be reduced only to demographic limits. A larger rate of married persons among the males in relation to female population is determined by the different behavior in view of remarriage in case of divorce or death of partner. Women are widowed or divorced more often than men, which can be interpreted as a less favorable position in everyday functioning, especially when the women have small or school-age children, as well as in the case of older women. Gender differences in the level of education of Belgrade population are not exceptionally pronounced and are a consequence of unfavorable positions of older women to a certain degree. Differences in economic activity, among other things, are determined by uneven utilization of female and male work force. The rate of economic activity is greater in the male population, and the coefficient of economic dependency in the female population. The gender difference in the rate of supported persons among the work capable population increases the unfavorable social position of women. The characteristics of socio-demographic structures of female and male population of the city of Belgrade vary

  8. Waterpipe use among high school students in Ontario: Demographic and substance use correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Hayley A; Ferrence, Roberta; Boak, Angela; O'Connor, Shawn; Mann, Robert E; Schwartz, Robert; Adlaf, Edward M

    2015-03-12

    To examine waterpipe use and its association with demographic factors, tobacco cigarette smoking, ever use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and alcohol use among high school students. Data were derived from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a school-based survey of 7th to 12th grade students. This province-wide survey was based on a stratified two-stage cluster design. Analyses were based on a subsample of 2,873 high school students and included adjustments for the complex sample design. Overall, 12.5% of high school students (grades 9-12) had used a waterpipe in the previous year. Awareness of waterpipes was high - 68.4% of students reported that they were aware of waterpipes but had not used one in the past year; 19.1% had never heard of waterpipes or hookah. The percentage of high school students reporting waterpipe use in the past year was similar to reports of tobacco cigarette use (12.5% and 11% respectively). Waterpipe use was highly associated with past-year tobacco cigarette and regular alcohol use as well as ever use of e-cigarettes. In multivariate analyses, males and females had similar odds of waterpipe use, and non-White students and those in higher grades had greater odds of use after controlling for other substance use. These findings suggest that waterpipe use among high school students should be of some concern and suggest the need for policy measures to address potential risks associated with use.

  9. Impact of Demographic Structure on Paddy and Forestland Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tiehua; XIANG Wenhua; XU Guozhen; ZENG Guangzheng

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the impact of demographic structure on paddy and forestland management after the convening of the Third Plenary Session of the 11"1 CPC (Communist Party of China) Central Committee and the implementation of the Household Responsibility System (the government divided up land among peasants for cultivating and the peasants sell a set part of their produced goods to the government at stipulated prices by contract in the countryside of China), 147 households in 6 villages, belonging to Xiangtan County and Zhuzhou County in Hunan Province, were selected as research samples, and interview, questionnaire survey and second hand data analyzing were used as the methods. The results showed: Persons with different ages had different ideas, and young peasants would like to work in towns or cities for more income, so they used and depended on land less; In terms of sex, the male was still the main user of land, and therefore the ability, idea and activity of male played an important role in land management; Generally, the labors with better educational background grasped more knowledge and technologies, and they had more opportunity to get jobs and had better working condition and more income in town or cities, so they depended on and used land less.

  10. Examination of recreational motives of individuals: Demographic differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Alper Güngörmüş

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the motivational factors that motivate individuals to the recreational exercise participation with regard to demographic variables. 302 male (55,1% and 246 female (44,9% with a total of 548 recreational exercise participants from 9 health and fitness centers, in Ankara, participated voluntarily to this study. “Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure” was used as means of data collection instrument. Independent Samples t-test was used to examine the mean differences with regard to gender and marital status considering 5 subscales. The results of independent samples t-test indicated that, there was a significant mean difference between males and females in “health” and status” (p<0,05. Results of the ANOVA analyses demonstrated statistically mean differences with “competition” subscales (p<0,05. Furthermore, there was a significant mean difference in 4 subscales except “health” with the effect of “marital regard to age (p<0,05. (competition, body shape/appearance, education (health (p<0,05, As a result of this study, “health”, “skill development” and ”body shape/appearance” were found to be the top three factors which motivate individuals to participate recreational exercise.

  11. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  12. Wavelet transform in similarity paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.R. Struzik; A.P.J.M. Siebes (Arno)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[INS-R9802] Searching for similarity in time series finds still broader applications in data mining. However, due to the very broad spectrum of data involved, there is no possibility of defining one single notion of similarity suitable to serve all applications. We present a powerful

  13. Male adolescent birth control behavior: the importance of developmental factors and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D D; Rose, R D

    1984-06-01

    A survey of sex and birth control behavior of 51 male adolescents aged 15-17 was conducted utilizing a structured interview protocol. The sample was drawn from 3 community agencies. The respondents resided in a major northeastern metropolitan part of Pennsylvania. The purpose of the study was to describe male adolescent birth control behavior incorporating developmental issues, and to interpret the findings in light of what is known about female birth control behavior. Based on research with teenage females, 3 social influences were examined for their possible impact on male birth control behavior. An interview schedule was undertaken to form the basis of the demographic items, the description of the social network, history of sex and birth control behavior, pregnancy history and communication about sex and birth control. A questionnaire, designed to measure the influence of significant others on females' birth control behavior, formed the basis of the items concerning the expectations of others about contraceptive behavior. Thirdly, questions on perceived power relations with girlfriends were used to determin the influence of teenage females' self-perceptions of power in dyadic relationships on their own contraceptive usage. A new operational definition of male effective birth control usage involving the effectiveness of the method and the consistency of its usage was developed. Findings similar to those obtained in the research on females suggest that adolescent sexual partners may be the only direct social influence on adolescents' birth control usage. Results indicating differences from research with females suggest that in general: male birth control behavior is primarily self-oriented, males are more likely to be effective contraceptors with casual partners than with girlfriends, males are more likely to communicate about sex and birth control with similar age peers than with family members and/or other adults, and that teen males view sex and birth control

  14. TEENAGE PREGNANCY: DEMOGRAPHICS, MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Gollapudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pregnancy though is a physiological event in a woman’s life, it has its own associated complications. In teenage pregnancies, the physical and emotional state of stress coupled with biological immaturity leads to adverse effect both on the health of the mother and the foetus. METHODS This study is a clinical prospective study analysing the demographics, maternal health issues and the foetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. The study was conducted over a period of one year at a government tertiary care center. Pregnant women in the age group of 13-19 years who delivered during the study period were included in the study group. All pregnant women over 20 years of age who delivered during the same period were taken as control group. Women who had medical disorders complicating pregnancy were excluded from the study. Anaemia, pregnancy induced hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and mode of delivery were the maternal outcomes that were noted. Intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, low birth weight, APGAR score were analysed with respect to the foetus. RESULTS In this study, the total number of pregnant women who delivered during the study period were 4782, 536 were teenage mothers, constituting 11.2% of the total pregnancies. Of the 536 teenage mothers, 69.78% belonged to the rural areas and 71.64% were found to have inadequate antenatal visits to the hospital. The mean age of teenage pregnancy was 17.18 years. Incidence of anaemia was 44.2% in comparison, the control group had an incidence of 33.02%. In our study, incidence of Pregnancy induced hypertension was 18.64% in teenage mothers and 10.6% in non-teenage mothers. The incidence of Antepartum Haemorrhage in our study was 8.94% in teenage mothers. Incidence of lower segment caesarean section was 22.76% in the teenage group as compared to 14.57% in the non-teenage group. In our study, 13.05% of teenage mothers had preterm deliveries as compared to 6.40% of non-teenage mothers

  15. Demographic variables in coal miners’ safety attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-wen; Wu, Xiang; Ci, Hui-Peng; Qin, Shu-Qi; Liu, Jia-Long

    2017-03-01

    To change unsafe behavior through adjusting people’s safety attitudes has become an important measure to prevent accidents. Demographic variables, as influential factors of safety attitude, are fundamental and essential for the research. This research does a questionnaire survey among coal mine industry workers, and makes variance analysis and correlation analysis of the results in light of age, length of working years, educational level and experiences of accidents. The results show that the coal miners’ age, length of working years and accident experiences correlate lowly with safety attitudes, and those older coal miners with longer working years have better safety attitude, as coal miners without experiences of accident do.However, educational level has nothing to do with the safety attitude. Therefore, during the process of safety management, coal miners with different demographic characteristics should be put more attention to.

  16. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  17. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets.......This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...

  18. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets.......This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...

  19. New Approaches to Demographic Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Donald J.; Lu, Yao; Qi, Yaqiang

    2013-01-01

    As population scientists have expanded the range of topics they study, increasingly considering the interrelationship between population phenomena and social, economic, and health conditions, they have expanded the kinds of data collected and have brought to bear new data collection techniques and procedures, often borrowed from other fields. These new approaches to demographic data collection are the concern of this essay. We consider three main topics: new developments in sampling procedures; new developments in fieldwork procedures; and new developments in the kind of information collected in demographic and social surveys. We conclude with some comments on data sharing in the social research community and a list of major Chinese surveys publicly available to researchers. Where possible we illustrate our points with Chinese examples. PMID:23844330

  20. The demographic cycle and optimal schooling choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, B P; Berger, M C

    1996-10-01

    A model is developed that enables the authors to estimate the effects of demographic cycles on both earnings and schooling. The model is tested using data from the 1991 Korean Occupational Wage Survey. The results indicate that cohorts following large birth cohorts in the cycle choose relatively less formal schooling compared to pre-peak cohorts, and that post-peak cohorts also have lower incomes. This result concerning South Korea is consistent with findings from previous studies concerning the United States.

  1. Regions of Demographic Dynamism in Haryana

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Goel

    2014-01-01

    There are different types of population structures in different parts of the world, the nature of demographic challenges also differ accordingly. The developed countries like USA, Canada, Japan, Australia and many European countries face a problem of slow or even negative population growth. The main concern of the government in these countries remains on population ageing, decline in working force and increasing dependency ratio. The developing countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and L...

  2. DEMOGRAPHIC PREDICTORS WITHIN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Florina Maria

    2014-12-01

    Design/methodology/approach- Using a quantitative methodological approach, a survey based on SERVQUAL instrument was applied in order to evaluate local public communication. Data from a sample of 380 citizens within Western Romanian were analyzed. Specific demographic predictors that can influence citizens' satisfaction regarding the quality of communication are analyzed. Findings-By analyzing data it was possible to determine citizen satisfaction and to assess its relationship with different demographic characteristics. The results illustrate that gender does not significantly affect satisfaction, instead age, marital status, residence location (urban versus rural, income, education and occupational status of the respondents significantly affect satisfaction regarding local public communication. In addition, the findings confirm a relationship between the citizens' satisfaction and the age, income, education and occupational status of the respondents. Research limitations/implications- Owing to the budget and time limits, only a one-shot survey was conducted, therefore the comparison between “before” and “after” analysis could not be performed. In addition, further research should investigate the local public communication within national contexts. Practical implications -The adapted SERVQUAL scale may be used by institution managers to objectively assess communication performance and local authority service quality. Originality/value- There continues to be a lack of research regarding the communication process within local public administration and the effect of demographic predictors of communication satisfaction. This paper examines both the perceptions and the expectations of citizens regarding public communication. The results offer insights into residence location, age, income, education and occupational status effects on evaluations of communication satisfaction. Finally, the study contributes to studies of perceived service quality by bearing out

  3. TEENAGE PREGNANCY: DEMOGRAPHICS, MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Gollapudi; Jagadeeshwari Sistla

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pregnancy though is a physiological event in a woman’s life, it has its own associated complications. In teenage pregnancies, the physical and emotional state of stress coupled with biological immaturity leads to adverse effect both on the health of the mother and the foetus. METHODS This study is a clinical prospective study analysing the demographics, maternal health issues and the foetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. The study was conducted over a period of o...

  4. Demographic Pressure in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Marga; Groot, Loek

    2012-01-01

    On top of the sovereign debt crisis in the European Union, demographic change is exerting enormous pressure on public finances. We analyse four policy options: lowering pension benefits, increasing labour market participation of the native population, immigration and participation of older people. Our results show that the most publically indebted EU economies face the highest increases in public spending on the retiring baby boom generations over the coming decades. Fortunately for these eco...

  5. Mortality versus Morbidity in the Demographic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Aksan, Anna-Maria; Chakraborty, Shankha

    2014-01-01

    The link between the mortality and epidemiological transitions is used to identify the effect of the former on the fertility transition: a mortality transition that is not accompanied by improving morbidity causes slower demographic and economic change. In a model where children may die from infectious disease, childhood health affects human capital and noninfectious-disease-related adult mortality. When child mortality falls from lower prevalence, as it did in western Europe, labor productiv...

  6. Evolving demographics of advanced dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P; Cinotti, Debra A

    2009-01-01

    The numbers of dental school graduates and students enrolled in post graduate programs have increased. Decreases are noted in the enrollment in Periodontics and Prosthodontics programs and a marked increase in the enrollment in Pediatric Dentistry programs. A review of these changes, by gender and race/ethnicity provides an overview of the future demographics of the profession. Some concerns regarding the future are considered.

  7. Family and sexual orientation: the family-demographic correlates of homosexuality in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Andrew M

    2008-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of young adults, I identify the family-demographic correlates of sexual orientation in men and women. Hence, I test the maternal immune hypothesis, which posits that the only biodemographic correlate of male homosexuality is the number of older brothers, and there are no biodemographic correlates of female homosexuality. For men, I find that having one older brother does not raise the likelihood of homosexuality. Although having multiple older brothers has a positive coefficient, it is not significant. Moreover, having any older sisters lowers the likelihood of homosexual or bisexual identity. For women, I find that having an older brother or having any sisters decreases the likelihood of homosexuality. Family structure, ethnicity, and education are also significantly correlated with male and female sexual orientation. Therefore, the maternal immune hypothesis cannot explain the entire pattern of family-demographic correlates. The findings are consistent with either biological or social theories of sexual orientation.

  8. Entropy Based Modelling for Estimating Demographic Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqi Li

    Full Text Available In this paper, an entropy-based method is proposed to forecast the demographical changes of countries. We formulate the estimation of future demographical profiles as a constrained optimization problem, anchored on the empirically validated assumption that the entropy of age distribution is increasing in time. The procedure of the proposed method involves three stages, namely: 1 Prediction of the age distribution of a country's population based on an "age-structured population model"; 2 Estimation the age distribution of each individual household size with an entropy-based formulation based on an "individual household size model"; and 3 Estimation the number of each household size based on a "total household size model". The last stage is achieved by projecting the age distribution of the country's population (obtained in stage 1 onto the age distributions of individual household sizes (obtained in stage 2. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by feeding real world data, and it is general and versatile enough to be extended to other time dependent demographic variables.

  9. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

    2008-02-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  10. Development of reprogenetics and its demographic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of reprogenetics during the last two decades of the XX century has brought a new age of reproduction. The paper surveys different types of reprogenetics in a wider sense, i.e. different assisted reproductive technologies (ART that include manipulation of female reproductive cell out of a woman's womb. Development of reprogenetics is documented by available quantitative indicators of the number and success of ART procedures in developed countries at the beginning of the XXI century. Since 1978, when the first baby was born from in vitro fertilization, the number of children born that way has reached 1% of all children, and in some countries even over 3%. Moreover, existing documentation is incomplete and does not include all forms of assisted reproduction - in reality, the importance of assisted reproduction is even higher and becomes demographically significant. Hence the paper indicates existing and potential effects of the ART development on the demographic development i.e. on specific demographic aspects of this phenomenon. It also points out the effects on the level of fertility, on the changes of direct fertility determinants, and on the levels of mortality and infant mortality, as well as a new understanding of birth control, the possibility of affecting biological structures, and the changes of the fundaments of marriage and family. Development perspectives of reprogenetics are also being raised in the context of bioethical discussions and indicate ethical dilemmas related to assisted reproduction. Solutions to the dilemmas define the scope of applying new reproductive technologies in the future.

  11. Intelligent system to study demographic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. de Fatima; Ramos, Carlos; Henriques, Pedro R.

    1999-02-01

    With three centuries of existence, the study of population's behavior implies the manipulation of large amounts of incomplete and imprecise data with high dimensionality. By virtue of its multidisciplinary character, the work in demography involves at least historicists, statisticians and computer scientists/programmers. Moreover, successful demographic analysis requires qualified experts, who have succeeded in analysing data through many views and relate different sources of information, including their personal knowledge of the epoch or regions under study. In this paper, we present an intelligent system to study demographic evolution (ISSDE). This system has a module based on on-line analytical processing (OLAP), which permits conducting multiple analysis, combining many data dimensions. It has a deductive database system, which allows the execution of elaborated queries through the database. It has another module for date treatment (generalization and/or reduction); and, at last, a data mining module to discover nontrivial relations hidden within data. We discover the data treatment procedure with two phases: data generalization and data reduction. In data generalization, utilizing knowledge about concept hierarchies and relevance of data, aggregation of attribute values is performed. In the data reduction phase, rough set theory is applied to compute the minimal attribute set. We highlight the advantages of combining attribute value generalization with rough set theory, to find a subset of attributes that lets the mining process discover more useful patterns, by providing results from the application of the C5.0 algorithm in a demographic relational database.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of oral human papillomavirus infection among healthy males and females in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brian J; Walter, Leora; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrerra, Lilia; Gravitt, Patti E; Marks, Morgan A

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated head and neck cancers (HNCs) have been increasing in Peru. However, the burden of oral HPV infection in Peru has not been assessed. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral HPV infection in a population-based sample from males and females from Lima, Peru. Between January 2010 and June 2011, a population-based sample of 1099 individuals between the ages of 10 and 85 from a low-income neighbourhood in Lima, Peru was identified through random household sampling. Information on demographic, sexual behaviours, reproductive factors and oral hygiene were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Oral rinse specimens were collected from each participant, and these specimens were genotyped using the Roche Linear Array assay. ORs were used to assess differences in the prevalence of any oral HPV and any high-risk oral HPV infection by demographic factors, sexual practices and oral hygiene among individuals 15+ years of age. The prevalence of any HPV and any high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.8% and 2.0%, respectively. The three most common types were HPV 55 (3.4%), HPV 6 (1.5%) and HPV 16 (1.1%). Male sex (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI 1.22 to 4.03) was associated with any HPV infection after adjustment. The prevalence of oral HPV in this study was similar to estimates observed in the USA. Higher prevalence of oral infections in males was consistent with a male predominance of HPV-associated HNCs and may signal a sex-specific aetiology in the natural history of infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Robust demographic inference from genomic and SNP data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Excoffier

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a flexible and robust simulation-based framework to infer demographic parameters from the site frequency spectrum (SFS computed on large genomic datasets. We show that our composite-likelihood approach allows one to study evolutionary models of arbitrary complexity, which cannot be tackled by other current likelihood-based methods. For simple scenarios, our approach compares favorably in terms of accuracy and speed with ∂a∂i, the current reference in the field, while showing better convergence properties for complex models. We first apply our methodology to non-coding genomic SNP data from four human populations. To infer their demographic history, we compare neutral evolutionary models of increasing complexity, including unsampled populations. We further show the versatility of our framework by extending it to the inference of demographic parameters from SNP chips with known ascertainment, such as that recently released by Affymetrix to study human origins. Whereas previous ways of handling ascertained SNPs were either restricted to a single population or only allowed the inference of divergence time between a pair of populations, our framework can correctly infer parameters of more complex models including the divergence of several populations, bottlenecks and migration. We apply this approach to the reconstruction of African demography using two distinct ascertained human SNP panels studied under two evolutionary models. The two SNP panels lead to globally very similar estimates and confidence intervals, and suggest an ancient divergence (>110 Ky between Yoruba and San populations. Our methodology appears well suited to the study of complex scenarios from large genomic data sets.

  14. Similarity of samples and trimming

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez-Esteban, Pedro C; Cuesta-Albertos, Juan A; Matrán, Carlos; 10.3150/11-BEJ351

    2012-01-01

    We say that two probabilities are similar at level $\\alpha$ if they are contaminated versions (up to an $\\alpha$ fraction) of the same common probability. We show how this model is related to minimal distances between sets of trimmed probabilities. Empirical versions turn out to present an overfitting effect in the sense that trimming beyond the similarity level results in trimmed samples that are closer than expected to each other. We show how this can be combined with a bootstrap approach to assess similarity from two data samples.

  15. Familial aspects of male homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, K; Pillard, R C; Horvath, C; Revelle, W; Bailey, J M

    2000-04-01

    Research has generally supported the existence of familial-genetic factors for male sexual orientation, but has not shed much light on the specific nature of those influences. Gay men with gay brothers provide the opportunity to examine several hypotheses. Sixty-six men, representing 37 gay male sibling pairs, completed questionnaires assessing behavior on various measures including childhood and adult gender nonconformity, timing of awareness of homosexual feelings, self-acceptance, and the quality of family relationships. Consistent with prior findings using twins, gay brothers were similar in their degree of childhood gender non-conformity, suggesting that this variable may distinguish etiologically (e.g., genetically) heterogeneous subtypes. The large majority of gay men with brothers knew about their own homosexual feelings before they learned about their brothers' homosexual feelings, suggesting that discovery of brothers' homosexuality is not an important cause of male homosexuality.

  16. Demographic Characteristics of Syphilis Patients Followed Between 1994 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Adışen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Backgorund and Design: We undertook this retrospective study to analyze demographics of patients with syphilis that had attended to Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology between 1994 and 2006. Material and Method: In this retrospective study, data including age, sex, stage of the disease, clinical finding at the time of presentation, transmission route and source, and serology results of 53 patients with syphilis were recorded. Positive VDRL test and TPHA was essential in the diagnosis of the disease. Results: Fifty-three patients (43 male, 10 female were evaluated in the study. Male/female ratio was 4.3. Patients’ age ranged between 19-58 (mean, 32.92±8.7. Forty-two (80.6%; 34 male, 8 female of 53 patients were married. Of 53 patients 50 (94.3% was Turkish, 3 (5.6% was foreigner. The source of the transmission was not defined in 26 patients (49.1% while all of married women defined their husbands as source of the infection. Of 53 patients, 40 (75.47% were primary syphilis, 7 (12.8% were secondary syphilis, 6 (11.32% were latent syphilis. 14 had (++++, 20 had (+++, one had (++ and 18 had (+ VDRL. All patients were positive for TPHA. In 1994, syphilis patients attending to outpatient clinic constituted 0.027% of the total visits of the outpatient clinic, whereas it was 0.004% in 2006.Conclusion: Syphilis is still an epidemiologic problem in our country. Prevalence is higher in some other countries. This disease may mimic almost every disease, therefore it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of disorders affecting oral and genital mucosal surfaces. Our study shows that syphilis have a tendency to decrease in Ankara and patients’ preference regarding the health services have changed during past years, in our country. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 9-12

  17. Associations of psychological capital, demographic and occupational factors with cigarette smoking among Chinese underground coal miners

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li; Xu, Xin; Wu, Hui; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background As a specific male occupational group, underground coal miners have been commonly found to have a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. It is of urgent need to explore some factors that could be intervened to reduce smoking from personal or internal perspective. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of psychological capital (PsyCap), demographic and occupational factors with smoking among Chinese underground coal miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey w...

  18. The Relationship between Demographic Factors and Substance Craving Among Drug-Dependents

    OpenAIRE

    F PoorSeyedMousaiee; V. Mousavi; M Kafi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted with the aim of examining the role of demographic factors such as age, marital status, education degree, the age of initiating addiction, duration of addiction, monthly cost of drug use, and an incarceration history in the intensity of addicts’ craving for substance use. Method: In this descriptive and cross-sectional study, 195 male addicts, after being interviewed, were selected as the participants of the study via convenience sampling method. They consti...

  19. Demographic Transformations of the Russian Regional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viktorovna Kurushina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the transformations of the quantitative components of human capital, which is the main driver of economic growth in the material, institutional and mental space. According to the author’s concept of stratified space, the processes of self-reproduction and self-renewal of a system are carried out in the material space. This can be determined by the indicators of fertility, mortality and migration in the demographic subsystem. The process of self-regulation of a system on the basis of legislative acts and behavior patterns is carried out in the institutional space. Institutional transformations are also manifested in the implementation of federal target programs for socio-economic development, affecting the state of the demographic subsystem. The processes of self-reflection, self-determination and self-development are carried out in the mental space. Mental transformations in the demographic subsystem are manifested in the change of value orientations. In accordance with the system of values that are conceptualized in modern development strategies the authors define the following models of Man: Economic Man, Socio-Economic Man (who lives in agglomeration centers and at the periphery, Socio-Natural Man (Environmental Man and Householder Man and Innovative Man. Demographic shifts are investigated in 83 Russian regions on the determinants of birth rate and mortality. The analyzed period of transformation covers 2005 and 2012. Methods of matrix analysis are used to visualize the process of demographic shifts. The assessment of transformation of the stratified regional space spheres is given on the basis of the multifactor models of the population natural growth rate. The paper reveals the reduction in the level and variation of mortality rate, the increasing importance and differentiation of regions according to fertility rate, and the effectiveness of introducing the institution of maternity capital from a perspective of the

  20. Demographical and psychological determinants of depression, among a sample of iranian male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlollah Ghofranipour

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Self-efficacy and perceived stress can be related to depression but the role of stress and self-efficacy in the etiology and forming of depression in adolescent are discussed. Therefore, more studies for approval of these associations should be considered.

  1. Contextual Bandits with Similarity Information

    CERN Document Server

    Slivkins, Aleksandrs

    2009-01-01

    In a multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem, an online algorithm makes a sequence of choices. In each round it chooses from a time-invariant set of alternatives and receives the payoff associated with this alternative. While the case of small strategy sets is by now well-understood, a lot of recent work has focused on MAB problems with exponentially or infinitely large strategy sets, where one needs to assume extra structure in order to make the problem tractable. In particular, recent literature considered information on similarity between arms. We consider similarity information in the setting of "contextual bandits", a natural extension of the basic MAB problem where before each round an algorithm is given the "context" -- a hint about the payoffs in this round. Contextual bandits are directly motivated by placing advertisements on webpages, one of the crucial problems in sponsored search. A particularly simple way to represent similarity information in the contextual bandit setting is via a "similarity distance...

  2. Self-similar aftershock rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise—an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes—the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  3. Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available -bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals in complex mixtures be obtained using hyperspectral data? Debba (CSIR) Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals MERAKA 2009 3 / 18 Method of spectral unmixing Old method: problem Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA...

  4. Self-similar aftershock rates

    CERN Document Server

    Davidsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise --- intermittent avalanche-like relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes --- the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is in particular true for the case of seismicity and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing in particular clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved way of time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  5. Community Detection by Neighborhood Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xu; XIE Zheng; YI Dong-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Detection of the community structure in a network is important for understanding the structure and dynamics of the network.By exploring the neighborhood of vertices,a local similarity metric is proposed,which can be quickly computed.The resulting similarity matrix retains the same support as the adjacency matrix.Based on local similarity,an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is proposed for community detection.The algorithm is implemented by an efficient max-heap data structure and runs in nearly linear time,thus is capable of dealing with large sparse networks with tens of thousands of nodes.Experiments on synthesized and real-world networks demonstrate that our method is efficient to detect community structures,and the proposed metric is the most suitable one among all the tested similarity indices.%Detection of the community structure in a network is important for understanding the structure and dynamics of the network. By exploring the neighborhood of vertices, a local similarity metric is proposed, which can be quickly computed. The resulting similarity matrix retains the same support as the adjacency matrix. Based on local similarity, an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is proposed for community detection. The algorithm is implemented by an efficient max-heap data structure and runs in nearly linear time, thus is capable of dealing with large sparse networks with tens of thousands of nodes. Experiments on synthesized and real-world networks demonstrate that our method is efficient to detect community structures, and the proposed metric is the most suitable one among all the tested similarity indices.

  6. Similarity measures for protein ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of similarities and changes in protein conformation can provide important information regarding protein function and evolution. Many scores, including the commonly used root mean square deviation, have therefore been developed to quantify the similarities of different protein conformations...... a synthetic example from molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply the algorithms to revisit the problem of ensemble averaging during structure determination of proteins, and find that an ensemble refinement method is able to recover the correct distribution of conformations better than standard single...

  7. Attitude to substance abuse: do personality and socio-demographic factors matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian Boogar, Isaac; Tabatabaee, Sayed Mosa; Tosi, Jalileh

    2014-09-01

    Substance abuse is a serious global problem that is affected by multiple psychosocial and socio-demographic factors. This study aimed to investigate the leading factors in positive attitude and tendency toward substance abuse in terms of personality, socio-economic, and socio-demographic factors. In a cross-sectional study, 200 college students (105 females and 95 males) residing in Damghan University dormitory in northeast of Iran were recruited by random sampling from March to July 2013. The participants were instructed and asked to complete the NEO FIVE-factor Inventory, the attitude to substance abuse scale, and the demographic questionnaire. Then data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression employing PASW 18. Being male sex and neuroticism had a significant positive role in predicting positive attitude toward substance abuse in university students. In addition, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and socio-economic status had a significant negative role in predicting tendency toward substance abuse (P 0.05). Lower agreeableness, decreased conscientiousness, higher neuroticism, diminished openness, low socio-economic status, and male sex might make university students more inclined to substance abuse. Thus, it is reasonable to show the importance of these factors in tailored prevention programs.

  8. Status competition, inequality, and fertility: implications for the demographic transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Kaplan, Hillard S; Hooper, Paul L

    2016-04-19

    The role that social status plays in small-scale societies suggests that status may be important for understanding the evolution of human fertility decisions, and for understanding how such decisions play out in modern contexts. This paper explores whether modelling competition for status--in the sense of relative rank within a society--can help shed light on fertility decline and the demographic transition. We develop a model of how levels of inequality and status competition affect optimal investment by parents in the embodied capital (health, strength, and skills) and social status of offspring, focusing on feedbacks between individual decisions and socio-ecological conditions. We find that conditions similar to those in demographic transition societies yield increased investment in both embodied capital and social status, generating substantial decreases in fertility, particularly under conditions of high inequality and intense status competition. We suggest that a complete explanation for both fertility variation in small-scale societies and modern fertility decline will take into account the effects of status competition and inequality. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Diversity and Demographics of Zooarchaeologists: Results from a Digital Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne E. Pilaar Birch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25 years ago, a “Zooarchaeology Practitioner Survey” was distributed via conventional mail to individuals in the USA and Canada and received 122 responses over a period of several months in 1991. Now, a revised “Demographics in Zooarchaeology Survey” provides an update to  those data and assesses the current state of the field. The 2014 survey remained open for 3 months and received 288 responses from practitioners worldwide. Global participation was made possible by hosting the survey online. Key findings of the 1991 survey included disparities in employment rank for women despite similar levels of degree level attainment as men, a point which the 2014 survey sought to investigate. This trend appears to persist for those without the PhD and at the highest levels of income for those holding a PhD. In addition, the recent survey asked participants about their racial or ethnic identity in order to evaluate the demographic diversity of the discipline beyond sex, age, and nationality. Data regarding topical and geographic research area were also collected and reflect a subtle bias towards working with mammals and a focus on research questions grounded in prehistory in Europe and North America, followed by Australia and Southwest Asia. Results are compared with those of the earlier survey and membership information from the International Council for Archaeozoology.

  10. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  11. Credibility of a salesperson in retailing: judgments on the basis of their demographic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Urbonavicius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The study aims to add the scientific and managerial knowledge about the fit between buyer and salesperson, by analyzing judgments of buyers about salespeople, based just on visual information. The results of the analysis. Buyers evaluate credibility of salespeople based on a relatively large number of their characteristics, forming factors of salesperson credibility. The result of this evaluation predetermines whether an advice of this person is to be considered, and, subsequently, whether the purchase will be made. The decision whether to ask for an assistance of a salesperson is often made spontaneously, based just on a visual presence of a salesperson. The stereotyping of visual impressions can be limited to the age and genders of a salesperson, and out of these characteristics potential buyers derive believes about personal and professional characteristics of a salesperson, and develop overall judgments regarding the trustfulness of the recommendations. In the study, three research questions have been analyzed: RQ1: How evaluations of salesperson credibility differ, depending on his/her age and gender?; RQ2: What dimensions of salesperson credibility have influenced higher or lower judgments about the overall credibility of salespeople who have different demographic characteristics?; RQ3: How evaluations of credibility of salespeople, who differ in age and gender, vary depending on the age and gender of buyers? Respondents have been shown four pre-tested pictures of salespeople, who differ among themselves in terms of their age and gender. The age categories matched to those of the respondents; two salespeople (male and female represented younger adults, two others – elder adults. The research instrument measured eight dimensions of salesperson credibility: Attractiveness, Experience, Dynamism, Comprehensiveness, Objectiveness, Sincerity, Expertise, and Accommodation on a seven point Likert scale. RQ1. Repeated

  12. Codependency in male and female helping professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martsolf, D S; Hughes-Hammer, C; Estok, P; Zeller, R A

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine and compare the prevalence of codependency in a group of 77 female and a group of 72 male helping professionals. Relatively low rates of codependency were observed in this sample, and the five-factor structure of the Codependency Assessment Tool (CODAT) was replicated. Males showed slightly higher codependency than females on the total CODAT and on the Hiding Self and Family of Origin Issues subscales. The CODAT was shown to be relevant to both males and females. Further research is needed to determine if a general population of male and female subjects would yield similar results.

  13. Trauma-associated tinnitus: audiological, demographic and clinical characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Kreuzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinnitus can result from different etiologies. Frequently, patients report the development of tinnitus after traumatic injuries. However, to which extent this specific etiologic factor plays a role for the phenomenology of tinnitus is still incompletely understood. Additionally, it remains a matter of debate whether the etiology of tinnitus constitutes a relevant criterion for defining tinnitus subtypes. OBJECTIVE: By investigating a worldwide sample of tinnitus patients derived from the Tinnitus Research Initiative (TRI Database, we aimed to identify differences in demographic, clinical and audiological characteristics between tinnitus patients with and without preceding trauma. MATERIALS: A total of 1,604 patients were investigated. Assessment included demographic data, tinnitus related clinical data, audiological data, the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, the Tinnitus Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, various numeric tinnitus rating scales, and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life Scale (WHOQoL. RESULTS: Our data clearly indicate differences between tinnitus patients with and without trauma at tinnitus onset. Patients suffering from trauma-associated tinnitus suffer from a higher mental burden than tinnitus patients presenting with phantom perceptions based on other or unknown etiologic factors. This is especially the case for patients with whiplash and head trauma. Patients with posttraumatic noise-related tinnitus experience more frequently hyperacousis, were younger, had longer tinnitus duration, and were more frequently of male gender. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma before tinnitus onset seems to represent a relevant criterion for subtypization of tinnitus. Patients with posttraumatic tinnitus may require specific diagnostic and therapeutic management. A more systematic and - at best - standardized assessment for hearing related sequelae of trauma is needed for a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and

  14. Variation in School Health Policies and Programs by Demographic Characteristics of US Schools, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B.; Brener, Nancy D.; McManus, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background: To identify whether school health policies and programs vary by demographic characteristics of schools, using data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006. This study updates a similar study conducted with SHPPS 2000 data and assesses several additional policies and programs measured for the first time in SHPPS…

  15. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, TA de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment o

  16. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  17. Similarity of atoms in molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioslowski, J.; Nanayakkara, A. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Similarity of atoms in molecules is quantitatively assessed with a measure that employs electron densities within respective atomic basins. This atomic similarity measure does not rely on arbitrary assumptions concerning basis functions or 'atomic orbitals', is relatively inexpensive to compute, and has straightforward interpretation. Inspection of similarities between pairs of carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine atoms in the CH[sub 4], CH[sub 3]F, CH[sub 2]F[sub 2], CHF[sub 3], CF[sub 4], C[sub 2]H[sub 2], C[sub 2]H[sub 4], and C[sub 2]H[sub 6] molecules, calculated at the MP2/6-311G[sup **] level of theory, reveals that the atomic similarity is greatly reduced by a change in the number or the character of ligands (i.e. the atoms with nuclei linked through bond paths to the nucleus of the atom in question). On the other hand, atoms with formally identical (i.e. having the same nuclei and numbers of ligands) ligands resemble each other to a large degree, with the similarity indices greater than 0.95 for hydrogens and 0.99 for non-hydrogens. 19 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Quantifying Similarity in Seismic Polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Jones, J. P.; Caffagni, E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring similarity in seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low S/N signals, and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via. computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Using records of the Mw=8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake from CNSN broadband sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and vertical borehole array data from a monitoring experiment at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Because histogram distance metrics are bounded by [0 1], clustering allows empirical time-frequency separation of seismic phase arrivals on single-station three-component records. Array processing for automatic seismic phase classification may be possible using subspace clustering of polarization similarity, but efficient algorithms are required to reduce the dimensionality.

  19. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  20. Professionals and Power Vacuums on Demographic Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    Aging populations across advanced industrialized countries are expected to have a great impact on a range of socio-economic policies, ranging from welfare and pensions provision to industrial, labor market and financial policies. While populations are aging there has also been a drop in birth rates....... Demographic change is acknowledged as a policy concern within many advanced industrialize countries, but discussions about low fertility are not explicitly expressed in terms of policy objectives. Governments, sensitive to the authoritarian implications of prescriptive natalist policies, focus instead...

  1. THE PROCESS AND EFFECTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION IN PENANG, MALAYSIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usman Haji Yaakob; Nik Norliati Fitri Md Nor

    2013-01-01

      This article describes the demographic transition in Penang, Malaysia based on the demographic transition theory, which explains the decline of birth and death rates in European countries during the 18th century...

  2. The association of demographic variables and dietary habits on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association of demographic variables and dietary habits on body mass ... socio-demographic variables, weight, height, frequency of physical activity, and food ... in Korea should focus on reducing the intake of meat and high energy foods.

  3. Demographic analysis reveals gradual senescence in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeckman Bart P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Free-living flatworms ("Turbellaria" are appropriate model organisms to gain better insight into the role of stem cells in ageing and rejuvenation. Ageing research in flatworms is, however, still scarce. This is partly due to culture difficulties and the lack of a complete set of demographic data, including parameters such as median lifespan and age-specific mortality rate. In this paper, we report on the first flatworm survival analysis. We used the species Macrostomum lignano, which is an emerging model for studying the reciprocal influence between stem cells, ageing and rejuvenation. This species has a median lifespan of 205 ± 13 days (average ± standard deviation [SD] and a 90th percentile lifespan of 373 ± 32 days. The maximum lifespan, however, is more than 745 days, and the average survival curve is characterised by a long tail because a small number of individuals lives twice as long as 90% of the population. Similar to earlier observations in a wide range of animals, in M. lignano the age-specific mortality rate increases exponentially, but levels off at the oldest ages. To compare the senescence of M. lignano with that of other ageing models, we determined the mortality rate doubling time, which is 0.20 ± 0.02 years. As a result, we can conclude that M. lignano shows gradual senescence at a rate similar to the vertebrate ageing models Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus. We argue that M. lignano is a suitable model for ageing and rejuvenation research, and especially for the role of stem cells in these processes, due to its accessible stem cell system and regeneration capacity, and the possibility of combining stem cell studies with demographic analyses.

  4. Distance learning for similarity estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, J.; Amores, J.; Sebe, N.; Radeva, P.; Tian, Q.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general guideline to find a better distance measure for similarity estimation based on statistical analysis of distribution models and distance functions. A new set of distance measures are derived from the harmonic distance, the geometric distance, and their generalized

  5. Distance learning for similarity estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Amores, Jaume; Sebe, Nicu; Radeva, Petia; Tian, Qi

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we present a general guideline to find a better distance measure for similarity estimation based on statistical analysis of distribution models and distance functions. A new set of distance measures are derived from the harmonic distance, the geometric distance, and their generalized variants according to the Maximum Likelihood theory. These measures can provide a more accurate feature model than the classical Euclidean and Manhattan distances. We also find that the feature elements are often from heterogeneous sources that may have different influence on similarity estimation. Therefore, the assumption of single isotropic distribution model is often inappropriate. To alleviate this problem, we use a boosted distance measure framework that finds multiple distance measures which fit the distribution of selected feature elements best for accurate similarity estimation. The new distance measures for similarity estimation are tested on two applications: stereo matching and motion tracking in video sequences. The performance of boosted distance measure is further evaluated on several benchmark data sets from the UCI repository and two image retrieval applications. In all the experiments, robust results are obtained based on the proposed methods.

  6. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...

  7. Comparison of hydrological similarity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianna, Maura; Ridolfi, Elena; Manciola, Piergiorgio; Napolitano, Francesco; Russo, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The use of a traditional at site approach for the statistical characterization and simulation of spatio-temporal precipitation fields has a major recognized drawback. Indeed, the weakness of the methodology is related to the estimation of rare events and it involves the uncertainty of the at-site sample statistical inference, because of the limited length of records. In order to overcome the lack of at-site observations, regional frequency approach uses the idea of substituting space for time to estimate design floods. The conventional regional frequency analysis estimates quantile values at a specific site from multi-site analysis. The main idea is that homogeneous sites, once pooled together, have similar probability distribution curves of extremes, except for a scaling factor. The method for pooling groups of sites can be based on geographical or climatological considerations. In this work the region of influence (ROI) pooling method is compared with an entropy-based one. The ROI is a flexible pooling group approach which defines for each site its own "region" formed by a unique set of similar stations. The similarity is found through the Euclidean distance metric in the attribute space. Here an alternative approach based on entropy is introduced to cluster homogeneous sites. The core idea is that homogeneous sites share a redundant (i.e. similar) amount of information. Homogeneous sites are pooled through a hierarchical selection based on the mutual information index (i.e. a measure of redundancy). The method is tested on precipitation data in Central Italy area.

  8. HOW DISSIMILARLY SIMILAR ARE BIOSIMILARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramshankar Vijayalakshmi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently Biopharmaceuticals are the new chemotherapeutical agents that are called as “Biosimilars” or “follow on protein products” by the European Medicines Agency (EMA and the American regulatory agencies (Food and Drug Administration respectively. Biosimilars are extremely similar to the reference molecule but not identical, however close their similarities may be. A regulatory framework is therefore in place to assess the application for marketing authorisation of biosimilars. When a biosimilar is similar to the reference biopharmaceutical in terms of safety, quality, and efficacy, it can be registered. It is important to document data from clinical trials with a view of similar safety and efficacy. If the development time for a generic medicine is around 3 years, a biosimilar takes about 6-9 years. Generic medicines need to demonstrate bioequivalence only unlike biosimilars that need to conduct phase I and Phase III clinical trials. In this review, different biosimilars that are already being used successfully in the field on Oncology is discussed. Their similarity, differences and guidelines to be followed before a clinically informed decision to be taken, is discussed. More importantly the regulatory guidelines that are operational in India with a work flow of making a biosimilar with relevant dos and dont’s are discussed. For a large populous country like India, where with improved treatments in all sectors including oncology, our ageing population is increasing. For the health care of this sector, we need more newer, cheaper and effective biosimilars in the market. It becomes therefore important to understand the regulatory guidelines and steps to come up with more biosimilars for the existing population and also more information is mandatory for the practicing clinicians to translate these effectively into clinical practice.

  9. Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Irving

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominance of Jamaican sprinters in international meets remains largely unexplained. Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters. Questionnaires administered to 120 members of the Jamaican national team and 125 controls elicited information on place of birth, language, ethnicity, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were divided into three groups based on athletic disciplines: sprint (s: 100–400 m; n=80, jump and throw (j/t: jump and throw; n=25 and, middle distance (md: 800–3000 m; n=15. Frequency differences between groups were assessed using chi-square tests. Regional or county distribution of sprint differed from that of middle distance (P<0.001 but not from that of jump and throw athletes (P=0.24 and that of controls (P=0.59. Sprint athletes predominately originated from the Surrey county (s = 46%, j/t = 37%, md = 17, C = 53%, whilst middle distance athletes exhibited excess from the Middlesex county (md = 60%. The language distribution of all groups showed uniformity with a predominance of English. A higher proportion of middle distance and jump and throw athletes walked to school (md = 80%, j/t = 52%, s = 10%, and C = 12% and travelled greater distances to school. In conclusion, Jamaica’s success in sprinting may be related to environmental and social factors.

  10. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  11. Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Acharya, Pawan; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Hatløy, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013-14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children. Height-for-Age Z score was calculated and classified according to the WHO guideline. The association between stunting and bio-demographic characteristics was assessed using logistic regression. Prevalence of stunting was much higher in boys than girls. There was a significant rural urban gap in the prevalence of stunting with rural areas having a larger proportion of children living with stunting than urban. Male children, older than 6 months, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, being from lower wealth quintiles had the highest odds of stunting. Several provinces had in particular high odds of stunting. Early initiation of breastfeeding, mother's age more than 20 years at the time of delivery had lower odds of stunting. The taller the mother the less likely the child was to be stunted. Similarly, mother's BMI, access to safe water, access to hygienic toilet, mother's education were found negatively correlated with child stunting in the bivariate logistic regression, but they lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis together with numbers of children in the family and place of residence. Child stunting is widespread in the DRC and increasing prevalence is worrisome. This study has identified modifiable factors determining high prevalence of stunting in the DRC. Policy implementation should in particular target provinces with high prevalence of stunting and address modifiable determinants such as reducing socioeconomic disparity. Nutrition

  12. Composite likelihood estimation of demographic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrigan Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most existing likelihood-based methods for fitting historical demographic models to DNA sequence polymorphism data to do not scale feasibly up to the level of whole-genome data sets. Computational economies can be achieved by incorporating two forms of pseudo-likelihood: composite and approximate likelihood methods. Composite likelihood enables scaling up to large data sets because it takes the product of marginal likelihoods as an estimator of the likelihood of the complete data set. This approach is especially useful when a large number of genomic regions constitutes the data set. Additionally, approximate likelihood methods can reduce the dimensionality of the data by summarizing the information in the original data by either a sufficient statistic, or a set of statistics. Both composite and approximate likelihood methods hold promise for analyzing large data sets or for use in situations where the underlying demographic model is complex and has many parameters. This paper considers a simple demographic model of allopatric divergence between two populations, in which one of the population is hypothesized to have experienced a founder event, or population bottleneck. A large resequencing data set from human populations is summarized by the joint frequency spectrum, which is a matrix of the genomic frequency spectrum of derived base frequencies in two populations. A Bayesian Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMCMC method for parameter estimation is developed that uses both composite and likelihood methods and is applied to the three different pairwise combinations of the human population resequence data. The accuracy of the method is also tested on data sets sampled from a simulated population model with known parameters. Results The Bayesian MCMCMC method also estimates the ratio of effective population size for the X chromosome versus that of the autosomes. The method is shown to estimate, with reasonable

  13. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds.

  14. Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with urinary tract hydatid disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by flatworm larvae of Echinococcus granulosus and is endemic in many parts of the world. In humans, CE cysts primarily affect the liver and pulmonary system, but can also affect the renal system. However, the clinical manifestations of renal CE can be subtle, so healthcare professionals often overlook renal CE in differential diagnosis. In this study, we examined the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with urinary tract CE and analyzed the diagnosis and treatment procedures for this disease. METHODS: The records of 19 consecutive renal CE patients who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from January 1983 to April 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. In all cases, CE of the urinary tract was confirmed by pathological examination and visual inspection during surgery. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were males and 4 were females. The most common symptoms were non-specific lower back pain and percussion tenderness on the kidney region. All patients were followed up for 9-180 months after surgery. None of the patients experienced a recurrence of renal CE, but 4 patients experienced non-renal recurrence of hydatid disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hydatid cysts from E. granulosus are structurally similar in the liver and urinary tract. Thus, the treatment regimen for liver CE developed by the World Health Organization/Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis (WHO/IWGE could also be used for urinary tract CE. In our patients, the use of ultrasound, computed tomography, serology, and clinical characteristics provided a diagnostic accuracy of 66.7% to 92.3%.

  15. Demographic and histopathological variation of ameloblastoma: A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Patsa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ameloblastoma is the second most common odontogenic tumor after odontoma which occurs exclusively in the jaws and very rarely in the sinonasal cavities. Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the demographic and histopathological variations of ameloblastoma in Eastern Indian population by retrospectively comparing and evaluating diagnosed cases of ameloblastoma using different parameters. Materials and Methods: Histopathologically diagnosed cases of ameloblastoma retrieved from past records of the Department of Oral Pathology were selected for the study. Totally, 148 cases were isolated from record of previous 7 years. The patients were divided according to (a gender, (b age group, (c site of the lesion and (d histopathological types. The findings of this study were compared with those available in literature. Statistical Analysis Used: This is a retrospective study, mean and standard deviation was calculated. Results: Among 148 patients, 88 (59.45% were male and 60 (40.55% were female. A maximum number of cases (101 of 148 of ameloblastoma were found in the second to fourth decades of life. Mandiblular posterior region was commonly involved (48.6%. Solid/multicystic variety was found in 63.1% followed by unicystic with 21.5%. We found one case each of extraosseous and desmoplastic ameloblastoma. It was difficult for panel of experienced oral pathologists to pinpoint the exact type in 15 (10% cases, this was due to mixture of follicular and plexiform variety with equal presence of both types of architecture, without predominance of any variety in particular. Conclusions: These data may serve as baseline information on occurrence of various histopathological types of ameloblastoma in Eastern Indian population and helps comparing it with other similar studies conducted in different geographic population.

  16. Demographic and histopathological variation of ameloblastoma: A hospital-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsa, Santanu; Jadav, Riteshkumar Baldevbhai; Halder, Gopal Chandra; Ray, Jay Gopal; Datta, Sila; Deb, Tushar

    2016-01-01

    Context: Ameloblastoma is the second most common odontogenic tumor after odontoma which occurs exclusively in the jaws and very rarely in the sinonasal cavities. Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the demographic and histopathological variations of ameloblastoma in Eastern Indian population by retrospectively comparing and evaluating diagnosed cases of ameloblastoma using different parameters. Materials and Methods: Histopathologically diagnosed cases of ameloblastoma retrieved from past records of the Department of Oral Pathology were selected for the study. Totally, 148 cases were isolated from record of previous 7 years. The patients were divided according to (a) gender, (b) age group, (c) site of the lesion and (d) histopathological types. The findings of this study were compared with those available in literature. Statistical Analysis Used: This is a retrospective study, mean and standard deviation was calculated. Results: Among 148 patients, 88 (59.45%) were male and 60 (40.55%) were female. A maximum number of cases (101 of 148) of ameloblastoma were found in the second to fourth decades of life. Mandiblular posterior region was commonly involved (48.6%). Solid/multicystic variety was found in 63.1% followed by unicystic with 21.5%. We found one case each of extraosseous and desmoplastic ameloblastoma. It was difficult for panel of experienced oral pathologists to pinpoint the exact type in 15 (10%) cases, this was due to mixture of follicular and plexiform variety with equal presence of both types of architecture, without predominance of any variety in particular. Conclusions: These data may serve as baseline information on occurrence of various histopathological types of ameloblastoma in Eastern Indian population and helps comparing it with other similar studies conducted in different geographic population. PMID:27601814

  17. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S; Requião, Marinalva G; Marasaldi, Renata F; Filomensky, Tatiana Z; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the diagnosis of compulsive buying. Of the 171 participants, 95.9% (n = 164) met criteria for at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder. The results found that male and female compulsive buyers did not differ in problem severity as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale. However, several significant demographic and psychiatric differences were found in a multivariate binary logistic regression. Specifically, male compulsive buyers were more likely to report being non-heterosexual, and reported fewer years of formal education. In regards to psychiatric co-morbidities, male compulsive buyers were more likely to be diagnosed with sexual addiction, and intermittent explosive disorder. Conversely, men had lower scores on the shopping subscale of the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire. The results suggest that male compulsive buyers are more likely to present with co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Treatment planning for compulsive buying disorder would do well to take gender into account to address for potential psychiatric co-morbidities.

  18. Self-similarity Driven Demosaicking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Buades

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital cameras record only one color component per pixel, red, green or blue. Demosaicking is the process by which one can infer a whole color matrix from such a matrix of values, thus interpolating the two missing color values per pixel. In this article we propose a demosaicking method based on the property of non-local self-similarity of images.

  19. Sparse Similarity-Based Fisherfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Gomez, David Delgado; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann;

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the effect of introducing Sparse Principal Component Analysis within the Similarity-based Fisherfaces algorithm is examined. The technique aims at mimicking the human ability to discriminate faces by projecting the faces in a highly discriminative and easy interpretative way. Pixel...... obtain the same recognition results as the technique in a dense version using only a fraction of the input data. Furthermore, the presented results suggest that using SPCA in the technique offers robustness to occlusions....

  20. Roget's Thesaurus and Semantic Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Jarmasz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    We have implemented a system that measures semantic similarity using a computerized 1987 Roget's Thesaurus, and evaluated it by performing a few typical tests. We compare the results of these tests with those produced by WordNet-based similarity measures. One of the benchmarks is Miller and Charles' list of 30 noun pairs to which human judges had assigned similarity measures. We correlate these measures with those computed by several NLP systems. The 30 pairs can be traced back to Rubenstein and Goodenough's 65 pairs, which we have also studied. Our Roget's-based system gets correlations of .878 for the smaller and .818 for the larger list of noun pairs; this is quite close to the .885 that Resnik obtained when he employed humans to replicate the Miller and Charles experiment. We further evaluate our measure by using Roget's and WordNet to answer 80 TOEFL, 50 ESL and 300 Reader's Digest questions: the correct synonym must be selected amongst a group of four words. Our system gets 78.75%, 82.00% and 74.33% of ...

  1. Active browsing using similarity pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jau-Yuen; Bouman, Charles A.; Dalton, John C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach to managing large image databases, which we call active browsing. Active browsing integrates relevance feedback into the browsing environment, so that users can modify the database's organization to suit the desired task. Our method is based on a similarity pyramid data structure, which hierarchically organizes the database, so that it can be efficiently browsed. At coarse levels, the similarity pyramid allows users to view the database as large clusters of similar images. Alternatively, users can 'zoom into' finer levels to view individual images. We discuss relevance feedback for the browsing process, and argue that it is fundamentally different from relevance feedback for more traditional search-by-query tasks. We propose two fundamental operations for active browsing: pruning and reorganization. Both of these operations depend on a user-defined relevance set, which represents the image or set of images desired by the user. We present statistical methods for accurately pruning the database, and we propose a new 'worm hole' distance metric for reorganizing the database, so that members of the relevance set are grouped together.

  2. Self-Similar Collisionless Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, B; Waxman, E; Katz, Boaz; Keshet, Uri; Waxman, Eli

    2006-01-01

    Observations of gamma-ray burst afterglows suggest that the correlation length of magnetic field fluctuations downstream of relativistic non-magnetized collisionless shocks grows with distance from the shock to scales much larger than the plasma skin depth. We argue that this indicates that the plasma properties are described by a self-similar solution, and derive constraints on the scaling properties of the solution. For example, we find that the scaling of the characteristic magnetic field amplitude with distance from the shock is B \\propto D^{s_B} with -1 \\propto x^{2s_B} (for x>>D). We show that the plasma may be approximated as a combination of two self-similar components: a kinetic component of energetic particles and an MHD-like component representing "thermal" particles. We argue that the latter may be considered as infinitely conducting, in which case s_B=0 and the scalings are completely determined (e.g. dn/dE \\propto E^{-2} and B \\propto D^0). Similar claims apply to non- relativistic shocks such a...

  3. Demographic Profile and Pathological Patterns of Head Injury in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Hoxha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head injury (HI is a serious morbid state caused by structural changes of the scalp, skull, and/or its contents, due to mechanical forces. Generally, the most frequent cause of HI is road traffic accident (RTA, followed by homicidal and falling injuries. The aim of present study is to assess epidemiology data, causes and patterns responsible for HI among Albanian subjects. Methodology: All HI cases (1000 are collected by the Forensic Institute of Albania, based on medical and forensic records of traumatized subjects between 2007- 2012. The prospectively-collected and descriptive information is focused on demographic data, responsible factors, type and level of cranial and brain injury, as well as their outcome. Results: The majority of HI victims were male (84% of age range of 15yrs -35yrs (70%. RTA was the HI cause in 88%, followed by homicides (3.8%, falling (3% etc. With respect to injury mechanisms, extra-dural hematoma was found in 93% of cases, followed by cerebral edema (61%, cerebral contusion (37%, skull bone fractures (35%, etc. Severe alteration of the consciousness was observed in 57% of the cases, while amnesia lasted longer than 4 weeks in 44% of the subjects included in our study. Discussion: This survey demonstrates that the majority of HI victims' is young and middle age males target group exposed to RTA. The increase of vehicles' use in placecountry-regionAlbania is more evident than RTA-related HI, indicating that driving newer vehicles with safer technology or helmets use while motorcycling can potentially decline the fatal outcome.

  4. Chiropractors in Finland – a demographic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmqvist Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Finnish chiropractic profession is young and not fully accepted by Finnish healthcare authorities. The demographic profile and style of practice has not been described to date. However, as the profession seems to be under rapid development, it would be of interest to stakeholders, both chiropractic and political, to obtain a baseline description of this profession with a view to the development of future goals and strategies for the profession. The purpose of this study was to describe the chiropractic profession in Finland in relation to its demographic background, the demographics of their clinics, practice patterns, interactions with other health care practitioners and some of the professions' plans for the future. Methods A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 2005, in which all 50 members of the Finnish Chiropractic Union were invited to participate. Results In all, 44 questionnaires were returned (response rate 88%. Eighty percent of the respondents were men, and 77% were aged 30 to 44 years old, most of whom graduated after 1990 with either a university-based bachelors' or masters' degree in chiropractic. Solo practice was their main practice pattern. The vast majority described their scope of practice to be based on a musculoskeletal approach, using the Diversified Technique, performing Soft Tissue Therapy and about two-thirds also used an Activator Instrument (mechanical adjusting instrument. The mean number of patient visits reported to have been seen weekly was 59 of which nine were new patients. Most practitioners found this number of patients satisfactory. At the initial consultation, 80% of respondents spent 30–45 minutes with their patients, 75% spent 20–30 minutes with "new old" patients and on subsequent visits 80% of respondents spent 15–30 minutes. Interactions with other health care professions were reasonably good and most of chiropractors intended to remain within the profession

  5. Demographic shifts in the Czech Republic after 1989 : A second demographic transition view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobotka, T.; Zeman, K.; Kantorova, V.

    2003-01-01

    A dramatic change in fertility, family formation and living arrangements took place in the Czech Republic over the 1990s. The establishment of democracy, profound social transformation and transition to the market economy affected the values and demographic behaviour of the young Czech generation.

  6. Demographic, physical, and radiographic factors associated with functional flatfoot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Kitterman, Ryan T; LaFontaine, Javier; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    In 1 of our previous studies, the occurrence of self-reported flatfoot was associated with self-reported increased age, male gender, Asian and African American races, veteran status, poor health, increased body mass index, callus, bunion, hammertoe, and arthritis. However, we had to rely on survey data to identify these risk factors, and the accuracy of the survey results was unknown. Therefore, we decided to identify the risk factors associated with flatfeet using objectively and more accurately measured data. A total of 94 patients were enrolled in the present study. The demographic data and physical and radiographic examination results were recorded by the investigators in the clinic. The data were then analyzed to identify the factors unique to flatfoot, measured and defined using a plantar pressure measurement system during natural gait. We learned that a painful tibialis posterior tendon was associated with flatfoot. The calcaneal inclination angle was also decreased in the flatfoot group. The talar declination, intermetatarsal, hallux abductus, and calcaneal cuboid angles, and static calcaneal stance eversion were elevated in the flatfoot group compared with the non-flatfoot group. Systematic evaluation of these associated factors will help in the understanding of the functional status of the flatfoot deformity.

  7. Osteosarcoma of the jaws: demographic and CT imaging features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Shi, H; Yu, Q

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the patient demographic and CT imaging findings of primary osteosarcoma of the jaws. Methods 88 primary osteosarcomas of the jaws histopathologically diagnosed during 1997–2007 were reviewed. 21 cases of CT images were reviewed. Results Of 88 patients, 51 (58%) had tumours in the mandible and 37 (42%) in the maxilla. The mean age was 37.8 years (range 9–80 years). The male-to-female ratio was 1.32:1. The mean age of patients with mandibular lesions was 41.04 years and in those with maxillary lesions it was 33.3 years. CT imaging findings were available in 21 patients. In the maxilla (n = 9), all tumours (100%) arose from the alveolar ridge. In the mandible (n = 12), most tumours (9 cases, 75%), arose from the ramus and/or condyle. All except two lesions had the epicentrum within the medullary cavity of the involved bone. The presence of periosteal reaction was demonstrated in 13 cases (62%). Soft-tissue extension was present in 18 lesions (86%), with calcification identified in 13 (72%). Conclusions This study provides age, sex distribution, location and CT imaging features of primary osteosarcoma of the jaws. PMID:22074870

  8. Demographic differences in sport performers' experiences of organizational stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, R; Fletcher, D; Daniels, K

    2016-03-01

    Organizational stressors are particularly prevalent across sport performers' experiences and can influence their performance, health, and well-being. Research has been conducted to identify which organizational stressors are encountered by sport performers, but little is known about how these experiences vary from athlete to athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine if the frequency, intensity, and duration of the organizational stressors that sport performers encounter vary as a function of gender, sport type, and performance level. Participants (n = 1277) completed the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP; Arnold et al., 2013), and the resultant data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings show that demographic differences are apparent in the dimensions of the goals and development, logistics and operations, team and culture, coaching, and selection organizational stressors that sport performers encounter. More specifically, significant differences were found between males and females, between team and individual-based performers, and between performers competing at national or international, regional or university, and county or club levels. These findings have important implications for theory and research on organizational stress, and for the development of stress management interventions with sport performers.

  9. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success.

  10. Mortality-fertility synergies during the demographic transition in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2017-07-01

    The classic theory used to explain the demographic transition assumes that mortality is the key explanatory variable influencing the decline in fertility. However, the empirical results obtained in what is known as the Princeton European Fertility Project have led many specialists to question this assumption. Using both national and provincial aggregated data for 25 countries over a long time span, the analysis reported in this paper found that mortality does indeed play a fundamental role in accounting for the main demographic changes that occurred both before and during the transitional period. Others' research based on individual data has shown clearly that the number of surviving children was indeed an important factor for reproductive decisions. My analysis, using aggregated data, reached largely similar conclusions regarding the role of mortality in changing reproductive trends, via its impact on nuptiality and marital fertility at different stages of the demographic transition.

  11. Virtual water controlled demographic growth of nations

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, Samir; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects throu...

  12. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  13. Trust and its Relationship to Demographic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Mirfardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Social trust is the main theme in the social life. Trust is “the expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms”. Development, social trust and security are intertwined categories and have interaction to each other. Social trust, as a main factor in social capital, provide social context for developmental programs. This study, examine the affect of Demographic factors on the social trust to others. As social trust is a key factor in social relationship, this study is needed to evaluate such factor according to demographic factors. Approach: This study has been done on existing data about Iranian values and attitudes. Some factors such as gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation have been studied in this study. Some of these variables such as education, correspondence to development level, especially in social development. This study is done via documental method (archive and Documental data about mentioned themes and second analysis of The Iranian National Values and attitudes Survey (2000. Results: Findings of this study indicated that there is significant relationship between all of independent variables (Gender, age, education level, job situation, marital situation and social trust to families and relatives, there is significant relationship between variables such as gender, education level, job situation, marital situation (independent variables and social trust to friends. Analyzing the data showed that, the residents of less and more developed cities have different situation in trust. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study introduces three types of trust upon the development level of societies. Trust in Iran is an example of trust structure in developing societies.

  14. Geriatric trauma: demographics, injuries, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Julie M; Sciadini, Marcus F; Sinclair, Elizabeth; O'Toole, Robert V

    2012-09-01

    To identify injuries that elderly sustain during high-energy trauma and determine which are associated with mortality. Retrospective review of prospectively collected database. Academic trauma center. Patients selected from database of all trauma admissions from January 2004 through June 2009. Study population consisted of patients directly admitted from scene of injury who sustained high-energy trauma with at least one orthopaedic injury and were 65 years or older (n = 597). Review of demographics, trauma markers, injuries, and disposition statuses. Statistical analysis using χ test, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis. The most common fractures were of the rib, distal radius, pelvic ring, facial bones, proximal humerus, clavicle, ankle, and sacrum. The injuries associated with the highest mortality rates were fractures of the cervical spine with neurological deficit (47%), at the C2 level (44%), and of the proximal femur (25%), pelvic ring (25%), clavicle (24%), and distal humerus (24%). The fractures significantly associated with mortality were fractures of the clavicle (P = 0.001), foot joints (P = 0.001), proximal humerus or shaft and head of the humerus (P = 0.002), sacroiliac joint (P = 0.004), and distal ulna (P = 0.002). Elderly patients present with significantly worse injuries, remain in the hospital longer, require greater use of resources after discharge, and die at 3 times the rate of the younger population. Although the high mortality rates associated with cervical spine, hip, and pelvic ring fractures were not unexpected, the injuries that were statistically associated with mortality were unexpected. Injuries such as clavicle fracture were statistically associated with mortality. As our population ages and becomes more active, the demographic may gain in clinical importance. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  15. Assessing protein kinase target similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Osman A; Thakkar, Balmukund; Narayanan, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    : focussed chemical libraries, drug repurposing, polypharmacological design, to name a few. Protein kinase target similarity is easily quantified by sequence, and its relevance to ligand design includes broad classification by key binding sites, evaluation of resistance mutations, and the use of surrogate......" of sequence and crystal structure information, with statistical methods able to identify key correlates to activity but also here, "the devil is in the details." Examples from specific repurposing and polypharmacology applications illustrate these points. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled...

  16. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  17. Socio-demographic characteristics of transsexuals referred to the forensic medicine center in southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hedjazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transsexualism or gender identity disorder affects person′s gender identity. Aim: This study was to describe socio-demographic characteristics in a population of transsexuals. Materials and Methods: We studied 44 persons of both sexes with diagnostic criteria of gender identity disorder who were referred to the Legal Medicine Organization of Fars, southwest of Iran during the time period 2005-2010. The general practitioners examined the following socio-demographic characteristics and then recorded them in a semi-structured questionnaire, which was developed by the Forensic Medicine Center in Shiraz: Sex, age, educational level, place of residence, marital status, duration of treatment, and employment status. Results: A total of 44 persons (18 (40.9% males versus 26 (59.1% females were referred for sex change during the study period. The sex ratio was 0.69:1. The mean age was 27.6 ± 2.9 years. The majority of patients were diploma and higher diploma education (77.3%, lived in urban areas (81.8%, were employed (56.9%, were single (93.1%, and were under six months of hormonal treatment (61.4%. Conclusions: It seems that social acceptance is lower for male to female transsexuals, since these patients have lower employment and literacy statuses. Further studies should be designed to evaluate and deeper analyze more socio-demographic, clinical, and psychiatric variables about transsexual patients.

  18. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  19. 46,XX Male Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Uçan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 46, XX male syndrome – testicular disorder of sexual differentiation (DSD is a rare condition characterized by a spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from ambiguous to normal male genitalia. These cases are diagnosed more easily in childhood. In adults, the diagnosis can be difficult due to the current normal gender development. Here, we report hormonal, molecular and cytogenetic results in an adult male patient with primary hypogonadism who was diagnosed with 46, XX male syndrome in our clinic. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 46-8

  20. Genetic analysis reveals demographic fragmentation of grizzly bears yielding vulnerably small populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Michael F; McLellan, Bruce N; Strobeck, Curtis; Barclay, Robert M R

    2005-11-22

    Ecosystem conservation requires the presence of native carnivores, yet in North America, the distributions of many larger carnivores have contracted. Large carnivores live at low densities and require large areas to thrive at the population level. Therefore, if human-dominated landscapes fragment remaining carnivore populations, small and demographically vulnerable populations may result. Grizzly bear range contraction in the conterminous USA has left four fragmented populations, three of which remain along the Canada-USA border. A tenet of grizzly bear conservation is that the viability of these populations requires demographic linkage (i.e. inter-population movement of both sexes) to Canadian bears. Using individual-based genetic analysis, our results suggest this demographic connection has been severed across their entire range in southern Canada by a highway and associated settlements, limiting female and reducing male movement. Two resulting populations are vulnerably small (bear populations may be more threatened than previously thought and that conservation efforts must expand to include international connectivity management. They also demonstrate the ability of genetic analysis to detect gender-specific demographic population fragmentation in recently disturbed systems, a traditionally intractable yet increasingly important ecological measurement worldwide.

  1. Simulating free-roaming cat population management options in open demographic environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S Miller

    Full Text Available Large populations of free-roaming cats (FRCs generate ongoing concerns for welfare of both individual animals and populations, for human public health, for viability of native wildlife populations, and for local ecological damage. Managing FRC populations is a complex task, without universal agreement on best practices. Previous analyses that use simulation modeling tools to evaluate alternative management methods have focused on relative efficacy of removal (or trap-return, TR, typically involving euthanasia, and sterilization (or trap-neuter-return, TNR in demographically isolated populations. We used a stochastic demographic simulation approach to evaluate removal, permanent sterilization, and two postulated methods of temporary contraception for FRC population management. Our models include demographic connectivity to neighboring untreated cat populations through natural dispersal in a metapopulation context across urban and rural landscapes, and also feature abandonment of owned animals. Within population type, a given implementation rate of the TR strategy results in the most rapid rate of population decline and (when populations are isolated the highest probability of population elimination, followed in order of decreasing efficacy by equivalent rates of implementation of TNR and temporary contraception. Even low levels of demographic connectivity significantly reduce the effectiveness of any management intervention, and continued abandonment is similarly problematic. This is the first demographic simulation analysis to consider the use of temporary contraception and account for the realities of FRC dispersal and owned cat abandonment.

  2. Effect of demographic data on neuropsychological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Evlice

    2016-09-01

    Material and Methods: Between 2014-2016 years; mini mental state examination, forward and backward digit span, verbal fluency (semantic and lexical, clock drawing, verbal and visual memory tests were performed to healthy people. The presence of correlation between neuropsychological tests and gender, age and education were researched in healthy people. Results: Hundred subjects (60 female, 40 male were included to study. No difference was observed between male and female subjects on neuropsychological tests. There was negative correlation between age and mini mental state examination, digit span and semantic fluency tests. And also there was positive correlation between education and all neuropsychological tests (except verbal memory test. Conclusion: The mean neuropsychological test scores in healthy people were not shown differences by gender, but they were affected by age and education. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 528-532

  3. Interneurons targeting similar layers receive synaptic inputs with similar kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossart, Rosa; Petanjek, Zdravko; Dumitriu, Dani; Hirsch, June C; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Esclapez, Monique; Bernard, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    GABAergic interneurons play diverse and important roles in controlling neuronal network dynamics. They are characterized by an extreme heterogeneity morphologically, neurochemically, and physiologically, but a functionally relevant classification is still lacking. Present taxonomy is essentially based on their postsynaptic targets, but a physiological counterpart to this classification has not yet been determined. Using a quantitative analysis based on multidimensional clustering of morphological and physiological variables, we now demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of glutamate and GABA miniature synaptic currents received by CA1 hippocampal interneurons and the laminar distribution of their axons: neurons that project to the same layer(s) receive synaptic inputs with similar kinetics distributions. In contrast, the kinetics distributions of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic events received by a given interneuron do not depend upon its somatic location or dendritic arborization. Although the mechanisms responsible for this unexpected observation are still unclear, our results suggest that interneurons may be programmed to receive synaptic currents with specific temporal dynamics depending on their targets and the local networks in which they operate.

  4. Predator-induced demographic shifts in coral reef fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin I Ruttenberg

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become apparent that human impacts have altered community structure in coastal and marine ecosystems worldwide. Of these, fishing is one of the most pervasive, and a growing body of work suggests that fishing can have strong effects on the ecology of target species, especially top predators. However, the effects of removing top predators on lower trophic groups of prey fishes are less clear, particularly in highly diverse and trophically complex coral reef ecosystems. We examined patterns of abundance, size structure, and age-based demography through surveys and collection-based studies of five fish species from a variety of trophic levels at Kiritimati and Palmyra, two nearby atolls in the Northern Line Islands. These islands have similar biogeography and oceanography, and yet Kiritimati has ∼10,000 people with extensive local fishing while Palmyra is a US National Wildlife Refuge with no permanent human population, no fishing, and an intact predator fauna. Surveys indicated that top predators were relatively larger and more abundant at unfished Palmyra, while prey functional groups were relatively smaller but showed no clear trends in abundance as would be expected from classic trophic cascades. Through detailed analyses of focal species, we found that size and longevity of a top predator were lower at fished Kiritimati than at unfished Palmyra. Demographic patterns also shifted dramatically for 4 of 5 fish species in lower trophic groups, opposite in direction to the top predator, including decreases in average size and longevity at Palmyra relative to Kiritimati. Overall, these results suggest that fishing may alter community structure in complex and non-intuitive ways, and that indirect demographic effects should be considered more broadly in ecosystem-based management.

  5. Parental Characteristics, Ecological Factors, and the Academic Achievement of African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Erik M.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Parental characteristics, ecological factors, and the academic achievement of African American male high school students were examined. One hundred fifty-three 11th and 12th grade African American males completed the Parenting Style Index (Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994) and a demographic questionnaire. Results…

  6. Similarity in romantic couples' drinking motivations and drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayes, Ivy-Lee L; Mackinnon, Sean P; Sherry, Simon B; Leonard, Kenneth E; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-07-20

    Research suggests that enhancement, conformity, social, coping-with-anxiety, and coping-with-depression drinking motives are linked to specific drinking outcomes in a theoretically expected manner. Social learning theory suggests that people who spend more time together emulate each other's behavior to acquire reinforcing outcomes. The present study sought to integrate drinking motives theory and social learning theory to investigate similarity in drinking behaviors and drinking motives in romantic couples. We hypothesized that couples would be more similar than chance in their drinking behaviors and motives. We also hypothesized that demographics reflecting time around and interactions with romantic partners (e.g., days spent drinking together) would positively correlate with similarity in drinking behaviors and motivations. The present study tested hypotheses in 203 romantic couples. Participants completed a Timeline Follow-Back measure and the Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised to track their alcohol use and drinking motives. Similarity profiles were calculated using McCrae's (J Pers Assess. 2008;90:105-109) coefficient of profile agreement, rpa. Couples were more similar in their drinking behavioral and motivational profiles than could be explained by chance. Days spent drinking together and days with face-to-face contact predicted increased similarity in drinking behavior profiles, but not similarity in drinking motives profiles. Results are partially consistent with social learning theory and suggest that social influences within couples could be important intervention targets to prevent escalations in drinking.

  7. Semantically enabled image similarity search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casterline, May V.; Emerick, Timothy; Sadeghi, Kolia; Gosse, C. A.; Bartlett, Brent; Casey, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Georeferenced data of various modalities are increasingly available for intelligence and commercial use, however effectively exploiting these sources demands a unified data space capable of capturing the unique contribution of each input. This work presents a suite of software tools for representing geospatial vector data and overhead imagery in a shared high-dimension vector or embedding" space that supports fused learning and similarity search across dissimilar modalities. While the approach is suitable for fusing arbitrary input types, including free text, the present work exploits the obvious but computationally difficult relationship between GIS and overhead imagery. GIS is comprised of temporally-smoothed but information-limited content of a GIS, while overhead imagery provides an information-rich but temporally-limited perspective. This processing framework includes some important extensions of concepts in literature but, more critically, presents a means to accomplish them as a unified framework at scale on commodity cloud architectures.

  8. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAGY CRISTINA MIHAELA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available act: Similarities between the accounting of companies and territorial administrative units accounting are the following: organizing double entry accounting; accounting method both in terms of fundamental theoretical principles and specific practical tools. The differences between the accounting of companies and of territorial administrative units refer to: the accounting of territorial administrative units includes besides general accounting (financial also budgetary accounting, and the accounts system of the budgetary accounting is completely different from that of companies; financial statements of territorial administrative units to which leaders are not main authorizing officers are submitted to the hierarchically superior body (not at MPF; the accounts of territorial administrative units are opened at treasury and financial institutions, accounts at commercial banks being prohibited; equity accounts in territorial administrative units are structured into groups of funds; long term debts have a specific structure in territorial administrative units (internal local public debt and external local public debt.

  9. Performance Indexes: Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Machado Caldeira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The investor of today is more rigorous on monitoring a financial assets portfolio. He no longer thinks only in terms of the expected return (one dimension, but in terms of risk-return (two dimensions. Thus new perception is more complex, since the risk measurement can vary according to anyone’s perception; some use the standard deviation for that, others disagree with this measure by proposing others. In addition to this difficulty, there is the problem of how to consider these two dimensions. The objective of this essay is to study the main performance indexes through an empirical study in order to verify the differences and similarities for some of the selected assets. One performance index proposed in Caldeira (2005 shall be included in this analysis.

  10. Features Based Text Similarity Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Chow Kok

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet help us cross cultural border by providing different information, plagiarism issue is bound to arise. As a result, plagiarism detection becomes more demanding in overcoming this issue. Different plagiarism detection tools have been developed based on various detection techniques. Nowadays, fingerprint matching technique plays an important role in those detection tools. However, in handling some large content articles, there are some weaknesses in fingerprint matching technique especially in space and time consumption issue. In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect plagiarism which integrates the use of fingerprint matching technique with four key features to assist in the detection process. These proposed features are capable to choose the main point or key sentence in the articles to be compared. Those selected sentence will be undergo the fingerprint matching process in order to detect the similarity between the sentences. Hence, time and space usage for the comparison process is r...

  11. Ocean acidification changes the male fitness landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anna L.; Levitan, Don R.; Hosken, David J.; Lewis, Ceri

    2016-01-01

    Sperm competition is extremely common in many ecologically important marine taxa. Ocean acidification (OA) is driving rapid changes to the marine environments in which freely spawned sperm operate, yet the consequences of OA on sperm performance are poorly understood in the context of sperm competition. Here, we investigated the impacts of OA (+1000 μatm pCO2) on sperm competitiveness for the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Males with faster sperm had greater competitive fertilisation success in both seawater conditions. Similarly, males with more motile sperm had greater sperm competitiveness, but only under current pCO2 levels. Under OA the strength of this association was significantly reduced and there were male sperm performance rank changes under OA, such that the best males in current conditions are not necessarily best under OA. Therefore OA will likely change the male fitness landscape, providing a mechanism by which environmental change alters the genetic landscape of marine species. PMID:27531458

  12. Ocean acidification changes the male fitness landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anna L.; Levitan, Don R.; Hosken, David J.; Lewis, Ceri

    2016-08-01

    Sperm competition is extremely common in many ecologically important marine taxa. Ocean acidification (OA) is driving rapid changes to the marine environments in which freely spawned sperm operate, yet the consequences of OA on sperm performance are poorly understood in the context of sperm competition. Here, we investigated the impacts of OA (+1000 μatm pCO2) on sperm competitiveness for the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Males with faster sperm had greater competitive fertilisation success in both seawater conditions. Similarly, males with more motile sperm had greater sperm competitiveness, but only under current pCO2 levels. Under OA the strength of this association was significantly reduced and there were male sperm performance rank changes under OA, such that the best males in current conditions are not necessarily best under OA. Therefore OA will likely change the male fitness landscape, providing a mechanism by which environmental change alters the genetic landscape of marine species.

  13. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  14. Impact of demographic policy on population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podyashchikh, P

    1968-01-01

    Various bourgeois theories, including the reactionary Malthusianism and its variants, challenge the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary theory on the growth of population. Bourgeois science maintains that unchanging biological laws of proliferation form the foundation of social life. Malthus, in his "An Essay on the Principle of Population," contends that population increases in a geometric rate, while means of subsistence tend to increase only in an arithmetic rate: neither the way of production nor social conditions but this law of nature in control of proliferation had been the cause of overpopulation, which again leads to misery, hunger, and unemployment. From this follows the possible conclusion that the working classes should be concerned not about how to change the social order but how to reduce the number of childbirths. Progressive science views the laws of social life in a totally different way. Marxism-Leninism teaches that population size, despite the markedly important role played by it in historical progress, fails to represent that main force of social progress which determines the mode of production and of the distribution of material goods, but just the reverse: the mode of production determines the growth of population, the changes in its density and composition. Marxism-Leninism teaches that each historical stage of production (slavery, feudalism, capitalism) has its own special, historically valid demographic law. Bourgeois science maintains that humankind faces an absolute overpopulation caused by the means of production lagging behind the growth of population. Actually this is only a relative overpopulation due to the fact that capitalistic production is subjected to the interests of increasing capitalistic profit and not to those of meeting the demands of population. In socialist countries, production is incessantly developing and expanding, and employment of the entire productive population is ensured. Consequently, the problem of relative

  15. Demographic, Clinical and Genetic Features of the Patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Karakayali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to analyze the demographic, clinical and genetic features ofthe patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF. Material and Method: A total of 150 patients (96 men and 54 women with FMF were included to this study. Demographic characteristics, clinical findings, and genotypic features of the patients were statistically evaluated. Results: Percentages of male and female subjects were64% and36%, respectively.The most common clinical finding in both sexeswasabdominal pain. Amyloidosis was determined in 3patients (2%, and all of them were men. The most common mutation observed in thepatients was M694V (n=153, 51%. Mutation analyseswere negative in 7 (4.6% patients. M694V/M694Vwas the most common genotype.In the patients with homozygous M694V mutation, amyloidosis (p

  16. Characterization of salt consumption among hypertensives according to socio-demographic and clinical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Sia Perin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHOD: sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption, 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108. RESULTS: elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. CONCLUSION: the data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.

  17. Characterization of salt consumption among hypertensives according to socio-demographic and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Milena Sia; Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. Sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption), 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108). Elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. The data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.

  18. Correlation of Demographic and Clinical Characteristics with Rheumatoid Factor Seropositivity in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Maizatul Akmal; Ghazali, Wan Syamimee Wan; Yahya, Nurul Khaiza; Wong, Kah Keng

    2016-11-01

    The rheumatoid factor (RF) blood test is the most commonly adopted test for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA patients who are seropositive for RF might face a greater likelihood of developing more aggressive symptoms. Our goal was to study the demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their correlation with RF seropositivity, among a series of 80 RA patients aged ≥ 18 years who attend Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Of the 80 RA patients included in this study, 66 (82.5%) were female and 14 (17.5%) were male. No significant associations between RF seropositivity and demographic and/or clinical characteristics or other laboratory investigations were observed, including gender, morning stiffness, individual joint involvement (from multiple sites of the body), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurement. However, a significant association between RF seropositivity and patients aged ≥ 50 was found (P = 0.032). RF seropositivity was found to be more common in much older RA patients.

  19. Some Demographic Changes in the Population of Montenegro with the Projection of Future Demographic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Rajović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic demographic changes through which in recent decade’s passes Montenegrin society, the consequences arising from the new realities require a serious socio-political engagement. Process of population aging, that began the seventies of the 20th century, represents a significant problem. The process of demographic change was accompanied by an internal migration to major urban centers, primarily Podgorica and Montenegrin coast, leading to emptying the interior of Montenegro. Unfortunately, this development of the population structure of Montenegro opens a series of questions and challenges that would the creators of the future you should put high on the scale of its priorities. In this text we will point out on change of total number of citizens of Montenegro according to the base and chain indexes of 1921-2011 and population in Montenegro 2016–2091 (cohort model projections.

  20. Demographics and Angiographic Findings in Patients under 35 Years of Age with Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbasi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality worldwide.There are differences between very young patients with STEMI and their older counterparts. This study investigates the demographics and clinical findings in very young patients with STEMI.Methods: Through a review of the angiography registry, 108 patients aged ≤ 35 years (Group I were compared with 5544 patients aged > 35 years (Group II who underwent coronary angiography after STEMI.Results: Group I patients were more likely to be male (92.6%, smokers, and have a family history of cardiovascular diseases (34.6%. The prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension was higher in the old patients. Triglyceride and hemoglobin were significantly higher in Group I. Normal coronary angiogram was reported in 18.5% of the young patients, and in 2.1% of the older patients. The prevalence of single-vessel and multi-vessel coronary artery disease was similar in the two groups (34.3% vs. 35.2%. The younger subjects were more commonly candidates for medical treatmentand percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI (84.2%, while coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG was considered for the 39.5% of their older counterparts.Conclusion: In the young adults with STEMI, male gender, smoking, family history, and high triglyceride level were moreoften observed. A considerable proportion of the young patients presented with multi-vessel coronary disease. PCI or medicaltreatment was the preferred treatment in the younger patients; in contrast to their older counterparts, in whom CABG was more commonly chosen for revascularization.

  1. Deaths ascribed to non-communicable diseases among rural Kenyan adults are proportionately increasing: evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system, 2003-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope A Phillips-Howard

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs result in more deaths globally than other causes. Monitoring systems require strengthening to attribute the NCD burden and deaths in low and middle-income countries (LMICs. Data from health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSS can contribute towards this goal.Between 2003 and 2010, 15,228 deaths in adults aged 15 years (y and older were identified retrospectively using the HDSS census and verbal autopsy in rural western Kenya, attributed into broad categories using InterVA-4 computer algorithms; 37% were ascribed to NCDs, 60% to communicable diseases (CDs, 3% to injuries, and <1% maternal causes. Median age at death for NCDs was 66y and 71y for females and males, respectively, with 43% (39% male, 48% female of NCD deaths occurring prematurely among adults aged below 65y. NCD deaths were mainly attributed to cancers (35% and cardio-vascular diseases (CVDs; 29%. The proportionate mortality from NCDs rose from 35% in 2003 to 45% in 2010 (χ2 linear trend 93.4; p<0.001. While overall annual mortality rates (MRs for NCDs fell, cancer-specific MRs rose from 200 to 262 per 100,000 population, mainly due to increasing deaths in adults aged 65y and older, and to respiratory neoplasms in all age groups. The substantial fall in CD MRs resulted in similar MRs for CDs and NCDs among all adult females by 2010. NCD MRs for adults aged 15y to <65y fell from 409 to 183 per 100,000 among females and from 517 to 283 per 100,000 population among males. NCD MRs were higher among males than females aged both below, and at or above, 65y.NCDs constitute a significant proportion of deaths in rural western Kenya. Evidence of the increasing contribution of NCDs to overall mortality supports international recommendations to introduce or enhance prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment programmes in LMICs.

  2. Climatic conditions produce contrasting influences on demographic traits in a long-distance Arctic migrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleasby, Ian R; Bodey, Thomas W; Vigfusdottir, Freydis; McDonald, Jenni L; McElwaine, Graham; Mackie, Kerry; Colhoun, Kendrew; Bearhop, Stuart

    2017-03-01

    The manner in which patterns of variation and interactions among demographic rates contribute to population growth rate (λ) is key to understanding how animal populations will respond to changing climatic conditions. Migratory species are likely to be particularly sensitive to climatic conditions as they experience a range of different environments throughout their annual cycle. However, few studies have provided fully integrated demographic analyses of migratory populations in response to changing climatic conditions. Here, we employed integrated population models to demonstrate that the environmental conditions experienced during a short but critical period play a central role in the demography of a long-distance migrant, the light-bellied Brent goose (Branta bernicla hrota). Female survival was positively associated with June North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) values, whereas male survival was not. In contrast, breeding productivity was negatively associated with June NAO, suggesting a trade-off between female survival and reproductive success. Both adult female and adult male survival showed low temporal variation, whereas there was high temporal variation in recruitment and breeding productivity. In addition, while annual population growth was positively correlated with annual breeding productivity, a sensitivity analysis revealed that population growth was most sensitive to changes in adult survival. Our results demonstrate that the environmental conditions experienced during a relatively short-time window at the start of the breeding season play a critical role in shaping the demography of a long-distant Arctic migrant. Crucially, different demographic rates responded in opposing directions to climatic variation, emphasising the need for integrated analysis of multiple demographic traits when understanding population dynamics. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  3. Demographic controls of future global fire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, W.; Arneth, A.; Jiang, L.

    2016-08-01

    Wildfires are an important component of terrestrial ecosystem ecology but also a major natural hazard to societies, and their frequency and spatial distribution must be better understood. At a given location, risk from wildfire is associated with the annual fraction of burned area, which is expected to increase in response to climate warming. Until recently, however, only a few global studies of future fire have considered the effects of other important global environmental change factors such as atmospheric CO2 levels and human activities, and how these influence fires in different regions. Here, we contrast the impact of climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 content on burned area with that of demographic dynamics, using ensembles of climate simulations combined with historical and projected population changes under different socio-economic development pathways for 1901-2100. Historically, humans notably suppressed wildfires. For future scenarios, global burned area will continue to decline under a moderate emissions scenario, except for low population growth and fast urbanization, but start to increase again from around mid-century under high greenhouse gas emissions. Contrary to common perception, we find that human exposure to wildfires increases in the future mainly owing to projected population growth in areas with frequent wildfires, rather than by a general increase in burned area.

  4. Demographic impact of vaccination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, P

    1999-10-29

    Vaccination is one of the most powerful means to save lives and to increase the level of health of mankind. However, the impact of immunization against the most threatening infectious agents on life expectancy has been the object of a still open debate. The main issues are: the relative influence of nutrition and infectious diseases on demographic patterns of populations; the possibility that lives saved thanks to vaccination are subsequently lost due to other competing causes of death; the positive indirect effect of immunization on other causes of death. With regard to past evidence, several data from the United Kingdom and Scandinavian countries show that the widespread use of smallpox vaccination starting at the beginning of the nineteenth century resulted in a marked and sustained decline not only of smallpox-related deaths, but also of the overall crude death rate, and contributed greatly to an unprecedented growth of European population. As to the present, it is estimated that 3 million children are saved annually by vaccination, but 2 million still die because they are not immunized. Tetanus, measles and pertussis are the main vaccine-preventable killers in the first years of life. Data from Bangladesh show that full implementation of EPI vaccines has the potential of reducing mortality by almost one half in children aged 1-4 years. Recent progress in the development of vaccines against agents responsible for much mortality in the developing countries make it possible to forecast a further substantial reduction of deaths for infectious diseases in the next century.

  5. The shifting demographic landscape of pandemic influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    Full Text Available As Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza spreads around the globe, it strikes school-age children more often than adults. Although there is some evidence of pre-existing immunity among older adults, this alone may not explain the significant gap in age-specific infection rates.Based on a retrospective analysis of pandemic strains of influenza from the last century, we show that school-age children typically experience the highest attack rates in primarily naive populations, with the burden shifting to adults during the subsequent season. Using a parsimonious network-based mathematical model which incorporates the changing distribution of contacts in the susceptible population, we demonstrate that new pandemic strains of influenza are expected to shift the epidemiological landscape in exactly this way.Our analysis provides a simple demographic explanation for the age bias observed for H1N1/09 attack rates, and suggests that this bias may shift in coming months. These results have significant implications for the allocation of public health resources for H1N1/09 and future influenza pandemics.

  6. Coping behaviour of female teachers: Demographic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chaturvedi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study investigates the role of certain demographic variables in determining stress-coping behavior of female teachers. Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 150 female teachers selected by stratified sampling method from various schools of Bhopal. Stress-coping behavior was measured with the help of a subscale of ′The Occupational Stress Indicator′ (Wendy Lord, 1993 consisting of 28 items encompassing six dimensions of coping strategies i.e. Logics, Involvement, Social Support, Task Strategies, Time Management and Home and Work Relations. The scores of the subjects were compared in terms of marital status, age, and level of teaching with the help of ′t′ test and ′F′ test was used for comparing experience. Results: Marital status, age, and experience were found to be significant determinants of stress-coping, whereas the sores did not differ significantly on the basis of level of teaching. Conclusion: Married teachers in the age range of 40-60 years, with higher experience can cope better with the job stress than their counterparts.

  7. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4:33-37.Abstract Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16. Results Of the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months, 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3% occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls. Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%. All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever. Conclusion Most of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.  References: Huang MC, Huang CC, Thomas K. Febrile convulsions: development and validation of a questionnaire to measure

  8. Demographics of Resonances in Exoplanetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozzine, Darin; Conaway, James L.; MacDonald, Mariah G.; Sallee, Victor

    2016-10-01

    NASA's Kepler Space Telescope has identified ~700 systems of multiple transiting exoplanets containing ~1700 planets. Most of these multi-transiting systems have 3-5 planets small planets with periods of roughly 5-50 days and are known as Systems with Tightly-spaced Inner Planets (STIPs). These information-rich exoplanetary systems have precisely measured period ratios which allows for the identification and characterization of orbital mean motion resonances. Improved understanding of the resonant populations will reveal much about the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Lissauer, Ragozzine, et al. 2011 found that most Kepler systems were not in resonance, but that there was a small excess of planets wide of resonance. We present new analyses that rigorously identify the frequency of planets in multiple resonances (including three-body resonances) and thus identify many specific new results on the demographics of resonances. We also show that the apparent over-abundance of resonances can be attributed to a difference in inclinations (potentially from dissipation) with implications for the true underlying frequency of resonant systems. We compare the period ratio distribution of Kepler (corrected for inclination biases) to Radial Velocity (RV) surveys and conclude that RV systems are often missing small intermediate planets. This has serious implications for the completeness of RV identification of planets in STIPs.

  9. Demographic evidence for adaptive theories of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteldorf, J J

    2012-07-01

    Pleiotropic theories for the evolutionary origins of senescence have been ascendant for forty years (see, for example, G. Williams (1957) Evolution, 11, 398-411; T. Kirkwood (1977) Nature, 270, 301-304), and it is not surprising that interpreters of demographic data seek to frame their results in this context. But some of that evidence finds a much more natural explanation in terms of adaptive aging. Here we re-interpret the 1997 results of the Centenarian Study in Boston, which found in their sample of centenarian women an excess of late childbearing. The finding was originally interpreted as a selection effect: a metabolic link between late menopause and longevity. But we demonstrate that this interpretation is statistically strained, and that the data in fact indicate a causal link: bearing a child late in life induces a metabolic response that promotes longevity. This conclusion directly contradicts some pleiotropic theories of aging that postulate a "cost of reproduction", and it supports theories of aging as an adaptive genetic program.

  10. Behçet’s disease: The clinical and demographic characteristics of 182 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karabacak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Behçet’s disease (BD is a multisystem inflammatory disorder that is an important cause of morbidity worldwide. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical and demographic characteristics of Turkish patients diagnosed with BD. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the hospital records of patients with BD who attended the Dermatoveneorology Department at the GATA Haydarpaşa Teaching and Research Hospital between 2001 and 2012. One hundred eighty-two male patients who met the diagnostic criteria of the International Study Group for BD were included in the study. The clinical and demographic characteristics, including symptoms and age at onset, systemic symptoms, duration of the disease and initial signs were recorded. Results: The ages of the 182 male patients included in the study varied from 20 to 53. The mean age at disease onset was 20.59±4.55 years. The leading clinical features were aphthous ulcers (100% followed by genital ulcers (86.8% and papulopustular lesions (80.3%. The pathergy test was positive in 57.3% of the patients. Ocular involvement was present in 527%, vascular involvement in 22.5%, and neurological manifestations was found in 7.1% of the patients. Joint involvement was reported in 18.1% of the subjects. Only 0.5% had genitourinary involvement. There was no relationship of BD with the age at onset and disease duration. Conclusion: We assume that the present study will contribute to the data on demographic and clinical characteristics of especially male BD patients in Turkey

  11. Estimating demographic parameters from large-scale population genomic data using Approximate Bayesian Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC approach has been used to infer demographic parameters for numerous species, including humans. However, most applications of ABC still use limited amounts of data, from a small number of loci, compared to the large amount of genome-wide population-genetic data which have become available in the last few years. Results We evaluated the performance of the ABC approach for three 'population divergence' models - similar to the 'isolation with migration' model - when the data consists of several hundred thousand SNPs typed for multiple individuals by simulating data from known demographic models. The ABC approach was used to infer demographic parameters of interest and we compared the inferred values to the true parameter values that was used to generate hypothetical "observed" data. For all three case models, the ABC approach inferred most demographic parameters quite well with narrow credible intervals, for example, population divergence times and past population sizes, but some parameters were more difficult to infer, such as population sizes at present and migration rates. We compared the ability of different summary statistics to infer demographic parameters, including haplotype and LD based statistics, and found that the accuracy of the parameter estimates can be improved by combining summary statistics that capture different parts of information in the data. Furthermore, our results suggest that poor choices of prior distributions can in some circumstances be detected using ABC. Finally, increasing the amount of data beyond some hundred loci will substantially improve the accuracy of many parameter estimates using ABC. Conclusions We conclude that the ABC approach can accommodate realistic genome-wide population genetic data, which may be difficult to analyze with full likelihood approaches, and that the ABC can provide accurate and precise inference of demographic parameters from

  12. Do knowledge and cultural perceptions of modern female contraceptives predict male involvement in Ayete, Nigeria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanusi, A; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun O; Onoviran, Oghemetega O

    2014-12-01

    Male involvement is crucial to female contraceptive use. This study examined how male knowledge and cultural perceptions of modern female contraceptives influence involvement in contraceptive use. A cross-sectional survey of 389 men from Ayete, Nigeria was used to regress a continuous male involvement score on demographic variables, knowledge of at least one method of modern female contraception and a scored male perception variable using Ordinary Least Squares regression. Controlling for perception, the knowledge of at least one method of modern female contraception was not significantly associated with a change in male involvement (p=0.264). Increasing positive perception was associated with higher male involvement scores (p=0.001). Higher educated males, those with a current desire to have children and males whose partners were currently using a method had greater male involvement scores (pknowledge of contraceptive methods.

  13. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveBecause of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht.Materials & MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16.ResultsOf the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months, 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3% occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls. Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%. All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever.ConclusionMost of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.

  14. The Epidemiology and Demographics of Hip Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Randall T.; Skopelja, Elaine N.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is unknown. There are many insights, however, from epidemiologic/demographic information. A systematic medical literature review regarding DDH was performed. There is a predominance of left-sided (64.0%) and unilateral disease (63.4%). The incidence per 1000 live births ranges from 0.06 in Africans in Africa to 76.1 in Native Americans. There is significant variability in incidence within each racial group by geographic location. The incidence of clinical neonatal hip instability at birth ranges from 0.4 in Africans to 61.7 in Polish Caucasians. Predictors of DDH are breech presentation, positive family history, and gender (female). Children born premature, with low birth weights, or to multifetal pregnancies are somewhat protected from DDH. Certain HLA A, B, and D types demonstrate an increase in DDH. Chromosome 17q21 is strongly associated with DDH. Ligamentous laxity and abnormalities in collagen metabolism, estrogen metabolism, and pregnancy-associated pelvic instability are well-described associations with DDH. Many studies demonstrate an increase of DDH in the winter, both in the northern and southern hemispheres. Swaddling is strongly associated with DDH. Amniocentesis, premature labor, and massive radiation exposure may increase the risk of DDH. Associated conditions are congenital muscular torticollis and congenital foot deformities. The opposite hip is frequently abnormal when using rigorous radiographic assessments. The role of acetabular dysplasia and adult hip osteoarthritis is complex. Archeological studies demonstrate that the epidemiology of DDH may be changing. PMID:24977057

  15. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Chauzat

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera. Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities. The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations. This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding

  16. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Cauquil, Laura; Roy, Lise; Franco, Stéphanie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ribière-Chabert, Magali

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance) affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities). The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations). This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding the ability of

  17. Oxidative stress & male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh

    2009-04-01

    The male factor is considered a major contributory factor to infertility. Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma, and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified: oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body. It is a powerful mechanism that can lead to sperm damage, deformity and eventually, male infertility. This review discusses the physiological need for ROS and their role in normal sperm function. It also highlights the mechanism of production and the pathophysiology of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system and enumerate the benefits of incorporating antioxidants in clinical and experimental settings.

  18. Males and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  19. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer include exposure to radiation, a family history of breast cancer, and having high estrogen levels, which can happen with diseases like cirrhosis or Klinefelter's syndrome. Treatment for male breast cancer is usually ...

  20. Agression level of the young wrestlers to assess interms of social-demographic (Example of Ankara)

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdi Sancaklı; Ünsal Tazegül; Adnan Ersoy

    2012-01-01

     The aim of the study is to survey the level of aggression of young male wrestlers according to socio-demographic features. For this aim Aggression Scale, created by Tuzgöl(1998), used. The obtained data has been resolved by using spss package program 15 and seen that the data is non parametric. Statistical analysis methods Kruskal-Wallis H Test, Mann-Whitney U Test and Spearman Test have been used. As a result, no significant difference has been emerged (p>0,05) between the vari...

  1. [Model calculations of the effect of demographic changes on the incidence of cancer in Saarland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, H; Ziegler, H

    1989-12-01

    Resulting from the population structure and current fertility and mortality rates, a rapid aging of the West German society is to be expected. The impact of these demographic changes on numbers of cancer cases and incidence rates is quantitatively assessed for the Saarland, which is the only state with reliable population-based cancer registration in the FRG. Despite a projected decrease in population size during the next decades, numbers of incident cases are expected to rise substantially in males and to remain almost constant in females for all of the most common forms of cancer. The projected changes have model character for other parts of the FRG.

  2. Demographic factors and cancer mortality. A mathematical model for cancer mortality in Denmark 1943-78

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K

    1983-01-01

    Deaths from cancer in Denmark from 1943-1978 were extracted from the Danish National Death Register at the Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology. This paper illustrates the relationship between demographic factors and mortality from a large group of cancers, which increases progressively from...... likelihood estimates of b and k were found iteratively for each of the 280 combinations of sex--cancer site--residence--cohort. For fixed sex and cancer site the relationship between age, residence and cohort was examined. It appeared that k was independent of residence. For 10 of the male cancers and 12...

  3. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  4. Dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism

    OpenAIRE

    Proença, E; Freitas, S.; Fonseca, M.; Figueiredo, S; Rodrigues, C.

    2001-01-01

    Acta Med Port. 2001 Sep-Dec;14(5-6):511-4. [Dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism] [Article in Portuguese] Proença E, Freitas S, Fonseca M, Figueiredo S, Rodrigues C. Serviço de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Hospital Maria Pia, Porto. Abstract Dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism is the result of a defect of testis development that encompasses a large clinical heterogeneity. It is characterized by bilateral dysgenetic testis, absence of mullerian regression, ambiguous genitalia and/...

  5. Socio-demographic and clinical aspects of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owino, B O; Oyoo, G O; Otieno, C F

    2009-05-01

    To determine the socio-demographic profiles and some clinical aspects of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Prospective, cross-sectional study. Ambulatory out- patient clinics of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a public national and referral hospital. Out of 180 patients interviewed and examined, 60 met American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic criteria of RA. Of the 60 patients recruited 52 (87%) were females with male: female ratio of 1: 6.5. The mean age of patients was 41.38(+/- 16.8) years. There were two peaks of age of occurrence, 20-29 and 40-49 years. In 75% of the study patients, one or more of metacarpophalangeal joints of the hand were involved in the disease. Other frequently involved sites were--wrists, elbows, knees, ankles and glenohumeral joints of shoulders in a symmetrical manner. Serum rheumatoid factor was positive in 78.9% while rheumatoid nodules were present in 13.3% of the study patients. A large majority of patients (88%) had active disease with 18% having mild disease, 38% moderate activity and 32% having severe disease. Only 12% of patients had disease in remission. Forty six point seven per cent (46.7%) of the study patients were on at least one Disease Modifying anti Rheumatic Drugs (DMARD) from a selection of methotrexate, sulphasalazine, hydroxychloroquine and leflunamide. The most frequent drug combination was methotrexate plus prednisolone at 30% of the study population; while 66.7% were on oral prednisolone with 25% of the study patients taking only Non-Steroidal anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS). A large majority of ambulatory patients with RA had active disease. Most of them were sub-optimally treated, especially the use of DMARDS. About two thirds were on oral steroids. Sub-optimal therapy in relatively young patients, peak 20-29 and 40-49 years is likely to impact negatively on their disease control and quality of life.

  6. DEMOGRAPHIC STUDY OF PSORIASIS IN EASTERN UTTAR PRADESH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrityunjay Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic, immune - mediated inflammatory skin disease. It ranges in severity from a few scattered red, scaly plaques to involvement of almost the entire body surface. OBJECTIVE: Demographic study of psoriasis in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients of both gender and age diagnosed with psoriasis were enrolled for the study. Apart from the onset, duration, symptoms, lesion’s location, aggravating factors and association with other diseases were noted. Routine investigations were done in each and every patient. RESULT: There were 342 patients (207 males and 135 females, with ages between 1 and 74 years. Disease was more prevalent in house hold workers as seen in 99 (28.94% patients. The most common type of psoriasis was chronic p laque psoriasis found in 255 (74.56% patients. The scalp was the most common site of involvement seen in 243( 79.82% patients. Nails were also affected in psoriasis and finger nail involvement (132 patients was more than toe nails (82 patients. Most com mon aggravating factor for psoriasis was winter followed by trauma. Psoriasis was associated with other diseases in 138 patients. Disease was cleared spontaneously in 30(8.77% patients and with proper treatment in in159 (46.49% of cases while disease per sisted in 153(44.73% cases. LIMITATION: Limitation includes case series study design from one tertiary center. CONCLUSION: Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing and remitting dermatosis that can affect any age group and sex with different clinical presentation s and influenced by environmental factors.

  7. Socio Demographic Factors Related to Smoking among Rural Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of premature death, disease, and disability. Adolescence is the period of physical, psychological and social maturation from childhood to adulthood and adolescent smoking is a continuous process which is related to many disease factors. Objective: To find out the factors related to smoking among rural adolescents. Materials and method: One hundred and fifty one male adolescent aged 13 to 19 years from rural areas were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire during January to June 2013, at Dhamrai Upazilla Health Complex, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The socio demographic details, smoking and depression history were recorded. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale was used to measure the presence of depression. Smoking behavior was measured by a number of questions. Results: Mean(±SD age of the study subjects was 16.8(±1.9 years. Most of the respondents started smoking around the average age of 14.3 years. The study shows that 64% respondents were smokers. Among smokers 80% were influenced by their friends about smoking. Seventy eight percent of the smokers were suffering from depression while 22% of nonsmokers were depressed (p<0.001. Majority (72% of the issues of the smoker parents were smoker (p<0.5. Domestic violence (p<0.001 and stressful events in life (p<0.05 also played significant roles for smoking. Conclusion: Depression, parent smoking and peer smoking, domestic violence, and stressful life events are important factors to start smoking in rural adolescents.

  8. Demographic Features in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Meryem Alkan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary Özet Orijinal Araştırma / Original Investigation 77 Aim: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is characterized by pain, vasomotor and sudomotor changes and trophic disturbances. It may develop as a result of trauma, especially extremity fractures and surgery. Although the pathogenesis of CRPS is not exactly clear explained, it has been suggested that central and periferal mechanisms play role and neurogenic inflamatuar and microvasculer functional impairmensts are accompanying to the process. Not all but some of the patients with past trauma or with other possible etiological factors develop CRPS. This suggests the presence of an individual predisposition. In this article, we searched post fractüred CRPS-I patients demographic characteristics, current systemic diseases and symptoms that accompany a CRPS in our records. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study conducted in Ankara Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, medical records of 356 patients admitted to physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatient clinics with fractures between January 2011 and June 2011 were evaluated and 34 patients diagnosed as CRPS-1 were included in the study. Results: 34 of 356 patients (9.56% with fractures were diagnosed as CRPS-1 in our outpatient clinics. Mean age of the patients was 46.05 years and 10 patients were females (29.4% and 24 patients (70.6% were males. Fractures were in upper extremities in 18 patients (52.9% and in lower extremities in 16 (47.1% patients. Neuropsychiatric disorders and other systemic diseases that may have a role in etiology of CRPS were found in lower rates in medical records of our patients. Conclusion: CRPS does not develop in every patients after travma who has etiologic risk factors, so it reminds that there exists a tendency to CRPS. We have observed that CRPS-1 risk was increased in male patients and in upper extremity fractures. We did not observe any other impertant factor which increases

  9. Epigenetics, spermatogenesis and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajender, Singh; Avery, Kelsey; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications characterized by DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling are important regulators in a number of biological processes, including spermatogenesis. Several genes in the testes are regulated through epigenetic mechanisms, indicating a direct influence of epigenetic mechanisms on the process of spermatogenesis. In the present article, we have provided a comprehensive review of the epigenetic processes in the testes, correlation of epigenetic aberrations with male infertility, impact of environmental factors on the epigenome and male fertility, and significance of epigenetic changes/aberrations in assisted reproduction. The literature review suggested a significant impact of epigenetic aberrations (epimutations) on spermatogenesis, and this could lead to male infertility. Epimutations (often hypermethylation) in several genes, namely MTHFR, PAX8, NTF3, SFN, HRAS, JHM2DA, IGF2, H19, RASGRF1, GTL2, PLAG1, D1RAS3, MEST, KCNQ1, LIT1, and SNRPN, have been reported in association with poor semen parameters or male infertility. Environmental toxins/drugs may affect fertility via epigenetic modifications. For example, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, an anticancer agent, causes a decrease in global DNA methylation that leads to altered sperm morphology, decreased sperm motility, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased embryo survival. Similarly, Endocrine disruptors, such as methoxychlor (an estrogenic pesticide) and vinclozolin (an anti-androgenic fungicide) have been found by experiments on animals to affect epigenetic modifications that may cause spermatogenic defects in subsequent generations. Assisted reproduction procedures that have been considered rather safe, are now being implicated in inducing epigenetic changes that could affect fertility in subsequent generations. Techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and round spermatid injection (ROSI) may increase the incidence of imprinting disorders and

  10. Measuring male infertility: epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualotto Fábio Firmbach

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that human semen quality may have been deteriorating in recent years. Most of the evidence is retrospective, based on analysis of data sets collected for other purposes. Measures of male infertility are needed if we want to monitor the biological capacity for males to reproduce over time or between different populations. We also need these measures in analytical epidemiology if we want to identify risk indicators, risk factors, or even causes of an impaired male fecundity-that is, the male component in the biological ability to reproduce. The most direct evaluation of fecundity is to measure the time it takes to conceive. Since the time of conception may be missed in the case of an early abortion, time to get pregnant is often measured as the time it takes to obtain a conception that survives until a clinically recognized pregnancy or even a pregnancy that ends with a live born child occurs. A prolonged time required to produce pregnancy may therefore be due to a failure to conceive or a failure to maintain a pregnancy until clinical recognition. Studies that focus on quantitative changes in fecundity (that does not cause sterility should in principle be possible in a pregnancy sample. The most important limitation in fertility studies is that the design requires equal persistency in trying to become pregnant and rather similar fertility desires and family planning methods in the groups to be compared. This design is probably achievable in exposure studies that make comparisons with reasonable comparable groups concerning social conditions and use of contraceptive methods.

  11. Are Males and Females with Autism Spectrum Disorder More Similar than We Thought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussey, Joanna L.; Ginn, Nicole C.; Klinger, Laura G.

    2017-01-01

    Differences in behavioral and cognitive profiles have been suggested to potentially impact the presentation of social and communication symptoms in females with autism spectrum disorder. This study examined gender differences in age of diagnosis, cognitive profiles, social communication symptomatology, and autism spectrum disorder symptom severity…

  12. Mate choice and friendship in twins: evidence for genetic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J Philippe; Bons, Trudy Ann

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the genetic and environmental contribution to people's preference for spouses and friends to be similar to themselves. In their responses to 130 personality, attitude, and demographic questions, 174 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins resembled each other (r= .53) more than did 148 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins (r= .32), 322 pairs of spouses (r= .32), and 563 pairs of best friends (r= .20). It was not previously recognized that spouses and friends are as similar as DZ twins. MZ twins also chose spouses and best friends more similar to their co-twins' friends and spouses than did DZ twins (mean rs = .22 vs. .14). The twins' preference for spouses and friends similar to themselves was about 34% due to the twins' genes, 12% due to the twins' common environment, and 54% due to the twins' unique (nonshared) environment. Similarity to partners was more pronounced on the more heritable items than the less heritable items. It is concluded that people are genetically inclined to choose as social partners those who resemble themselves at a genetic level.

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study to Understand Socio Demographic Profile of Couples Who Adopted Permanent Sterilization in Urban Slums of Surat City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan B Parmar, S L Kantharia, Naresh R Godara, Hitesh M Shah, MohamedAnas M Patni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is big gap in the adoption of male and female sterilization. It is necessary to understand socio demographic factors of couples who adopted permanent sterilization. Aims & Objectives: The study was done with the aim to docu-ment the socio demographic profile of couples who adopted permanent sterilization in urban slums of Surat city. Material and Methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted during March-April 2011 in urban slums of Surat City. 532 couples who adopted permanent sterilization were interviewed for their socio demographic profile. Results: Maximum males and females in our study who had adopted permanent sterilization operation were in age group of 30-34 yrs and 25-29 yrs respectively. 40.6% of couples were from joint family and 59.4% were from nuclear family. 58.83% of the families of study couples had family members of 4-6 persons. Literacy rate in studied population was 68.43% among males and 58.64% among females, with maximum no. of respondents had studied up to primary level education in both male and female. male sterilization is more common in Hindus as compared to Muslims. Males were more dominant than female regarding decision making for contraceptive use. Conclusion: Female sterilization was more common in families with low socio economic status, low literacy and Muslim families. While male sterilization was more common in Hindu families and where husbands have high literacy levels.

  14. Demographic Estimation from Face Images: Human vs. Machine Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hu; Otto, Charles; Liu, Xiaoming; Jain, Anil K

    2015-06-01

    Demographic estimation entails automatic estimation of age, gender and race of a person from his face image, which has many potential applications ranging from forensics to social media. Automatic demographic estimation, particularly age estimation, remains a challenging problem because persons belonging to the same demographic group can be vastly different in their facial appearances due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper, we present a generic framework for automatic demographic (age, gender and race) estimation. Given a face image, we first extract demographic informative features via a boosting algorithm, and then employ a hierarchical approach consisting of between-group classification, and within-group regression. Quality assessment is also developed to identify low-quality face images that are difficult to obtain reliable demographic estimates. Experimental results on a diverse set of face image databases, FG-NET (1K images), FERET (3K images), MORPH II (75K images), PCSO (100K images), and a subset of LFW (4K images), show that the proposed approach has superior performance compared to the state of the art. Finally, we use crowdsourcing to study the human perception ability of estimating demographics from face images. A side-by-side comparison of the demographic estimates from crowdsourced data and the proposed algorithm provides a number of insights into this challenging problem.

  15. China's Demographic Challenge Requires an Integrated Coping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    China has entered into a new stage of demographic dynamics whereby population-related challenges are more complicated than ever before. The current one-child policy should be modified. However, the anticipated impacts of such a policy change should not be over-exaggerated. China's demographic challenge requires an integrated coping strategy.…

  16. Making the Case for Demographic Data in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine J.; Verdoff, Daniel; Rizzo, Bill; Beaudoin, James

    2012-01-01

    Understanding one's community is essential for effective Extension programming across all program areas. The use of current and reliable demographic data is crucial for Extension to develop effective education and programming to track change and to uncover hidden community characteristics. We discuss what demographic data are, present…

  17. Europe at the crossroads: demographic challenges and international migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Two demographic challenges confront Europe today: population ageing and population decline. These challenges are two sides of the same demographic coin. While low fertility and increasing longevity cause populations to rapidly grow older, low fertility also leads to population decline. This paper de

  18. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  19. Making the Case for Demographic Data in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine J.; Verdoff, Daniel; Rizzo, Bill; Beaudoin, James

    2012-01-01

    Understanding one's community is essential for effective Extension programming across all program areas. The use of current and reliable demographic data is crucial for Extension to develop effective education and programming to track change and to uncover hidden community characteristics. We discuss what demographic data are, present…

  20. The Impact of Extrinsic Demographic Factors on Cantonese Speech Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education,…

  1. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  2. Risk Factors of Enacting Spouse Abuse in a Sample of Iranian Male Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jafari

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:The aim of this study was to investigate the modelling of different processes that could account for the link between psychopathology,cognitive social and demographic risk factors and enacting assault by husband. Method: This article reports a test using data on 230 males who participated in a family violence survey study.The sample was selected by a multiclustral sampling method from 4 different randomized regions of Tehran. All participants completed Conflict Tactic Scales, Personal and Relationship Profile, Marital Attitude Survey Questionnaire, Symptoms Checklist Inventory, Social and Demographic Measure. Logistics regression was used to estimate spouse abuse model for men. Results: The findings were consistent with the theoretical model.The path from social- demographic,cognitive and psychopathological risk factors to enacting spouse abuse was demonstrated.Conclusion:The implications of the findings for understanding spouse assaults,cognitive, psychopathological,social and demographic differences in male population are discussed.

  3. Demographic aspects of the island syndrome in two Afrotropical Mastomys rodent species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespin, Laurent; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Granjon, Laurent

    2012-02-01

    The island syndrome is the name given to the particularities of the behavioural, morphological and demographical characteristics of island populations. As concerns demography, the island syndrome model states that densities and survival are greater in island than in mainland populations. Most previous studies aimed at confirming this prediction for small mammals have addressed species from the North Temperate Zone. Here, we tested the demographic expectations of the island syndrome using data gathered over two years for island and mainland populations of two African rodent species, Mastomys erytholeucus and Mastomys huberti, at two different sites in Senegal. Capture-Mark-Recapture methods allowing for variation in catchability of the individuals were used to yield estimates of both abundance (or density) and probability of survival and seniority (which is a demographic parameter inversely related to recruitment). As predicted from the island syndrome, survival and densities were indeed higher in island populations for the two study sites; however, only for the population with stronger island syndrome was the difference in survival biologically important. Estimates of the probability of seniority were similar for island and mainland populations at the two sites. Our findings provide support for the demographic expectations of the model of island syndrome in an Afrotropical context and thus confirm the general applicability of this syndrome while revealing differences according to particular insular situations.

  4. Socio-demographic characteristics of cancer patients: Hospital based cancer registry in a tertiary care hospital of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Puri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the socio-demographic characteristics of cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Review of the Cancer registry, and patient interview. Information on socio-demographic profile, medical history, family history and previous treatment, if any, was retrieved from the patient. If the patient couldn′t be contacted then information was taken from pathology/radiotherapy or medical records department. Results: A total of 684 patients participated in the study. More than 40% of males and 53.7% of females were illiterate, P < 0.05. The majority (33.5% of participants were of low socioeconomic status. The most frequently reported cancer (ca in males it was ca lung (40.9 and ca oesophagus (9.8. In females most common cancer were ca breast (23.9 followed by ca cervix (11.7.

  5. The impact of clinical and demographic variables on cognitive performance in methamphetamine-dependent individuals in rural South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kimber L; DeSantis, Stacia M; Simpson, Annie N; Tolliver, Bryan K; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Wagner, Mark T; Brady, Kathleen T

    2011-01-01

    Inconsistencies in reports on methamphetamine (METH) associated cognitive dysfunction may be attributed, at least in part, to the diversity of study sample features (eg, clinical and demographic characteristics). The current study assessed cognitive function in a METH-dependent population from rural South Carolina, and the impact of demographic and clinical characteristics on performance. Seventy-one male (28.2%) and female (71.8%) METH-dependent subjects were administered a battery of neurocognitive tests including the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Shipley Institute of Living Scale, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Grooved Pegboard Test, California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Demographic and clinical characteristics (eg, gender, frequency of METH use) were examined as predictors of performance. Subjects scored significantly lower than expected on one test of attention and one of fine motor function, but performed adequately on all other tests. There were no predictors of performance on attention; however, more frequent METH use was associated with better performance for males and worse for females on fine motor skills. The METH-dependent individuals in this population exhibit very limited cognitive impairment. The marked differences in education, Intellectual Quotient (IQ), and gender in our sample when compared to the published literature may contribute to these findings. Characterization of the impact of clinical and/or demographic features on cognitive deficits could be important in guiding the development of treatment interventions. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  6. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Katie Dugger,; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  7. Responses of female rock lizards to multiple scent marks of males: effects of male age, male density and scent over-marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2013-03-01

    Scent-marked substrates may inform conspecifics on the characteristics of territorial males. Scent-marks of male Carpetan rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni) affect space use of females, which by selecting an area may increase the probability of mating with the male that has scent-marked that area. However, males do not hold exclusive territories, and scent-marks of different individual males are often together. This may provide complex information from multiple sources on the social structure. Here, we examined female preference in response to scent marks of various males and combinations in a laboratory experiment. Females preferred areas scent-marked by territorial old males against those scent-marked by young satellite-sneaker males. This reflected the known preference of females for mating with old males. In a second experiment, females preferred areas scent-marked by two males to areas of similar size marked by a single male. This may increase the probability of obtaining multiple copulations with different males, which may favour sperm competition and cryptic female choice, or may be a way to avoid infertile males. Finally, when we experimentally over-marked the scent-marks of an old male with scent-marks of a young male, females did not avoid, nor prefer, the over-marked area, suggesting that the quality of the old male may override the presence of a satellite male. We suggest that, irrespective of the causes underlying why a female selects a scent-marked area, this strategy may affect her reproductive success, which may have the same evolutionary consequences that "direct" mate choice decisions of other animals.

  8. Demographic Characteristics of a Maine Woodcock Population and Effects of Habitat Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, T.J.; Sepik, G.F.; Derleth, E.L.; McAuley, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    A population of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) was studied on a 3,401-ha area of the Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Maine from 1976 through 1985. During 1976-83, from 4 to 64 clearcuts were created each year, opening up large contiguous blocks of forest. A combination of mist nets, ground traps, nightlighting techniques, and trained dogs were used to capture and band 1,884 birds during the first 5 years. Capture and recapture data (totaling 3,009 observations) were used with both demographically closed and open population models to estimate population size and, for open population models, summer survival. Flying young, especially young males, represented the greatest proportion of all captures; analysis showed that young males were more prone to capture than young females. Male courtship began about 24 March each year, usually when there was still snow in wooded areas. Males ~2 years old dominated singing grounds during April each year, but this situation changed and first-year males dominated singing grounds in May. Singing males shifted from older established singing grounds to new clearcuts soon after we initiated forest management. Many males were subdominant at singing grounds despite an abundance of unoccupied openings. Three hundred adult females were captured and, except for 1978, the majority were ~2 years old. The year in which female homing rate was lowest(1979) was preceded by the year with the largest number of l-year-old brood female captures and a summer drought. Summer survival of young was lowest in 1978 and was attributed to summer drought. The year 1979 had an abnormally cool and wet spring, and was the poorest for production of young. Capture ratios of young-to-adult females obtained by nightlighting could be used to predict production on our study area. Closed population model estimates did not seem to fit either young or adult data sets well. Instead, a partially open capture-recapture model that allowed death but no

  9. Socio-Demographic Factors, Social Support, Quality of Life, and HIV/AIDS in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Okundaye, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the access to biomedical interventions for people living with HIV/AIDS in the developing world has not been adequately matched with the requisite psychosocial treatments to help improve the effectiveness of biomedical interventions. Therefore, in this study the author seeks to determine whether socio-demographic characteristics and social support are associated with quality of life in individuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. A convenience sample of 300 HIV/AIDS support group members was obtained via cross-sectional design survey. The Medical Outcome Studies (MOS) HIV Health Survey, the MOS Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS), and demographic questionnaire instruments were used to assess quality of life, social support, and demographic information respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that there was a positive association between overall social support and overall quality of life (r = .51). It also showed that being younger, male, attending support group meetings for over a year, and having ≥ 13 years of schooling related to higher quality of life. Implications of the findings for practice, policy, and research in Ghana and the rest of the developing world are discussed.

  10. Socio-demographic Correlates of Rhinosporidiosis: A Hospital-Based Epidemiologic Study in Purulia, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sirshak; Haldar, Dibakar; Dutta, Mainak; Barik, Sabyasachi; Das Biswas, Kaustuv; Sinha, Ramanuj

    2017-03-01

    The present paper attempts to explore the socio-demographic profile of patients with rhinosporidiosis in an endemic area. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary-care hospital in Purulia district, India, including consecutive patients with histologically-proved rhinosporidiosis. Their socio-demographic profiles were obtained through a pre-designed proforma with given epidemiologic parameters. Data was statistically analyzed with inputs from literature review. Of the 39 patients included, 87 % were fresh/new cases. The age-group of 10-20 years was mostly involved, with multiple peaks around 50. About 82 % were from rural background, commonly involved in cattle farming and agriculture, with a universal habit of pond-bathing. There was a male preponderance; however women were being increasingly affected. Nasal cavity was the predominant site involved; nasal obstruction and epistaxis were the primary complaints. About 13 % had recurrent lesions that were statistically related to higher age-group (≥15 years) and occupation (agriculture, labor). Rhinosporidiosis is predominantly the disease of young rural adults engaged in field activities and habituated to pond-bathing. A bimodal age distribution was noticed. The present article provides an update on the socio-demographic perspectives of rhinosporidiosis in an endemic zone. It also summarizes the factors that would identify the vulnerable population and help formulate preventive measures.

  11. Can Psychological, Social and Demographical Factors Predict Clinical Characteristics Symptomatology of Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Pawlak, Joanna; Kapelski, Pawel; Łabędzka, Magdalena; Skibinska, Maria; Zaremba, Dorota; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Hauser, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) is a complex, psychiatric disorder affecting 1 % of population. Its clinical phenotype is heterogeneous with delusions, hallucinations, depression, disorganized behaviour and negative symptoms. Bipolar affective disorder (BD) refers to periodic changes in mood and activity from depression to mania. It affects 0.5-1.5 % of population. Two types of disorder (type I and type II) are distinguished by severity of mania episodes. In our analysis, we aimed to check if clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions occurrence in BD and SCH cases. We included total sample of 443 bipolar and 439 schizophrenia patients. Diagnosis was based on DSM-IV criteria using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. We applied regression models to analyse associations between clinical and demographical traits from OPCRIT and symptom dimensions. We used previously computed dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder as quantitative traits for regression models. Male gender seemed protective factor for depression dimension in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder sample. Presence of definite psychosocial stressor prior disease seemed risk factor for depressive and suicidal domain in BD and SCH. OPCRIT items describing premorbid functioning seemed related with depression, positive and disorganised dimensions in schizophrenia and psychotic in BD. We proved clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We also saw relation between clinical dimensions and course of disorder and impairment during disorder.

  12. The Relationship between Demographic Factors and Substance Craving Among Drug-Dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F PoorSeyedMousaiee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted with the aim of examining the role of demographic factors such as age, marital status, education degree, the age of initiating addiction, duration of addiction, monthly cost of drug use, and an incarceration history in the intensity of addicts’ craving for substance use. Method: In this descriptive and cross-sectional study, 195 male addicts, after being interviewed, were selected as the participants of the study via convenience sampling method. They constituted six groups of opium smokers, heroin inhalers, heroin smokers, heroin injectors, methamphetamine smokers, and crack smokers and answered the questions of demographic characteristics and Franken’s desire for drug questionnaire. Indeed, substance craving of the respondents was measured by the computerized test of measuring visual indicators of substance craving. Results: The results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between education degree and induced substance craving, monthly cost of drug use and induced substance craving, and also between education degree and instantaneous substance craving. Conclusion: Some demographic factors can be important factors in predicting substance craving in addicts, which is, in itself, among the significant dimensions in treatment process.

  13. Injustice Experience Questionnaire, Japanese Version: Cross-Cultural Factor-Structure Comparison and Demographics Associated with Perceived Injustice

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Injustice Experience Questionnaire (IEQ) assesses injury-related perceived injustice. This study aimed to (1) develop a Japanese version (IEQ-J), (2) examine its factor structure, validity, and reliability, and (3) discover which demographic variable(s) positively contributed to prediction of IEQ-J scores. Methods Data from 71 patients (33 male, 38 female; age = 20+) with injury pain were employed to investigate factor structure by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. C...

  14. Male dimorphism in the harem-forming gnathiid isopod Elaphognathia discolor (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Nishi, Eijiroh

    2011-08-01

    Previously unreported males of a gnathiid isopod were found in reproductive aggregations of the harem-forming gnathiid Elaphognathia discolor. Although the male gnathiids were small in size and morphologically different from E. discolor males, the male sexual organ, appendix masculina, was similar to that of E. discolor males, and possible conspecific larvae and females of the small male gnathiid were never found. In the laboratory, the small male gnathiids as well as male E. discolor successfully copulated with female E. discolor, and the development of embryos in female brood pouches was observed. Offspring of small male gnathiids develop to adults of E. discolor after molting three times, or small male gnathiids after molting two times. Thus, the small male gnathiid was concluded to be an alternative male form compared to the regular large male form of E. discolor. This male polymorphism was thought to have a genetic basis, since no small male specimens appeared in offspring of regular E. discolor males. Field sampling showed that a regular large male formed a harem composed of one large male and several females and never coexisted with other large males as previously reported. However, small males were often found together with large males. Therefore, small males are thought to be sneakers intruding into harems dominated by large males.

  15. A Comparison of Grizzly Bear Demographic Parameters Estimated from Non-Spatial and Spatial Open Population Capture-Recapture Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Whittington

    Full Text Available Capture-recapture studies are frequently used to monitor the status and trends of wildlife populations. Detection histories from individual animals are used to estimate probability of detection and abundance or density. The accuracy of abundance and density estimates depends on the ability to model factors affecting detection probability. Non-spatial capture-recapture models have recently evolved into spatial capture-recapture models that directly include the effect of distances between an animal's home range centre and trap locations on detection probability. Most studies comparing non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture biases focussed on single year models and no studies have compared the accuracy of demographic parameter estimates from open population models. We applied open population non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture models to three years of grizzly bear DNA-based data from Banff National Park and simulated data sets. The two models produced similar estimates of grizzly bear apparent survival, per capita recruitment, and population growth rates but the spatial capture-recapture models had better fit. Simulations showed that spatial capture-recapture models produced more accurate parameter estimates with better credible interval coverage than non-spatial capture-recapture models. Non-spatial capture-recapture models produced negatively biased estimates of apparent survival and positively biased estimates of per capita recruitment. The spatial capture-recapture grizzly bear population growth rates and 95% highest posterior density averaged across the three years were 0.925 (0.786-1.071 for females, 0.844 (0.703-0.975 for males, and 0.882 (0.779-0.981 for females and males combined. The non-spatial capture-recapture population growth rates were 0.894 (0.758-1.024 for females, 0.825 (0.700-0.948 for males, and 0.863 (0.771-0.957 for both sexes. The combination of low densities, low reproductive rates, and predominantly negative

  16. A Comparison of Grizzly Bear Demographic Parameters Estimated from Non-Spatial and Spatial Open Population Capture-Recapture Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Jesse; Sawaya, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Capture-recapture studies are frequently used to monitor the status and trends of wildlife populations. Detection histories from individual animals are used to estimate probability of detection and abundance or density. The accuracy of abundance and density estimates depends on the ability to model factors affecting detection probability. Non-spatial capture-recapture models have recently evolved into spatial capture-recapture models that directly include the effect of distances between an animal's home range centre and trap locations on detection probability. Most studies comparing non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture biases focussed on single year models and no studies have compared the accuracy of demographic parameter estimates from open population models. We applied open population non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture models to three years of grizzly bear DNA-based data from Banff National Park and simulated data sets. The two models produced similar estimates of grizzly bear apparent survival, per capita recruitment, and population growth rates but the spatial capture-recapture models had better fit. Simulations showed that spatial capture-recapture models produced more accurate parameter estimates with better credible interval coverage than non-spatial capture-recapture models. Non-spatial capture-recapture models produced negatively biased estimates of apparent survival and positively biased estimates of per capita recruitment. The spatial capture-recapture grizzly bear population growth rates and 95% highest posterior density averaged across the three years were 0.925 (0.786-1.071) for females, 0.844 (0.703-0.975) for males, and 0.882 (0.779-0.981) for females and males combined. The non-spatial capture-recapture population growth rates were 0.894 (0.758-1.024) for females, 0.825 (0.700-0.948) for males, and 0.863 (0.771-0.957) for both sexes. The combination of low densities, low reproductive rates, and predominantly negative population growth

  17. Demographic future of Serbia from a different angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitović Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the assessment of the empirical errors in the official population forecasts of Serbia, the paper shows why forecast users might want a change of the current official concept. The article consists of three parts. The first gives a brief chronological overview of the methods and hypotheses in the official population forecasts of Serbia during the last 60 years. The second refers to the quantification of the past forecast errors in projecting total fertility rate, life expectancy at birth and total population aiming at assessment of the empirical variability. The third part shows the probabilistic population forecast of Serbia based on Bayesian hierarchical models of vital components, as implemented in the 2012 revision of United Nations World population prospects. The empirical error served as an evaluation tool of the probabilistic distributions of total population. In spite of the increased availability and quality of input data and developing of advanced projection techniques during the period, there was no obvious improvement noted neither in accuracy nor in the expression of the uncertainty inherent to forecasting in the official population forecasts in Serbia up to date. In general, fertility has been overestimated while improvements in mortality have been underestimated. It has been shown that accuracy largely depends on the stability of demographic processes throughout the projection horizon, which confirms findings from similar studies in other countries. The uncertainty in the demographic trends remains a major challenge for forecasters. A typical judgment that the smallest error will be made if a recently observed trend is assumed to continue has been linked to the low fertility variant in the past Serbian forecasts. The target level of the medium fertility, interpreted as "most likely" outcome, was firmly bound to replacement fertility until recently thus reflecting desirable rather than realistic future. Therefore, the

  18. Male infertility microsurgical training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akanksha Mehta; Philip S Li

    2013-01-01

    Microsurgical training is imperative for urologists and clinical andrologists specializing in male infertility.Success in male infertility microsurgery is heavily dependent on the surgeon's microsurgical skills.Laboratory-based practice to enhance microsurgical skills improves the surgeon's confidence,and reduces stress and operating time,benefiting both the patient and the surgeon.This review provides guidelines for setting up a microsurgical laboratory to develop and enhance microsurgical skills using synthetic and animal models.The role of emerging techniques,such as robotic-assisted microsurgery,is also discussed.

  19. Three demographic consequences of gender-specific behavior pattern: The case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šobot Ankica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus point in this paper referes to three issues of demographic development in Serbia presented from the gender perspective. Feminization, mortality in men and low reproductive norms are analyzed as effects of relevant behavior of both sexes. This choice is the result of earlier analyses of gender socio-demographic characteristics as well as the researches of demographic phenomena from the perspective of gender roles and gender relations. The gender aspect, as a cognitive concept, implies the importance of the female and male behavior pattern in understanding demographic structures, processes and phenomena. The theoretical foundation was found in the anthropological character of contemporary demography which focuses on the individual’s behavior in the context of interactive relations with the concrete environment. In the context of a complex deterministic basis and interactive connection of various factors, gender roles and gender relations represent a relative segment of social dimension of various demographic issues. Feminization of the middle-aged and older population emphasizes the importance of female perspective, taking into consideration space diversity. Feminization is most intensive in Belgrade. Among the middle-aged women there is a higher proportion of tertiary educated and divorced, and less share of the economically independent, in relation to the remaining region of Central Serbia. As regards older women, irrespective of spatial distribution, widowhood, unfavorable education characteristics, lower economic activity and greater economic dependency are important matters. The issue of retirement has specific importance, and should be solved in the context of educated and socio-professional characteristics of women, in order to promote their social position and gender equality. A shorter life span of the male population requires recognizing specific mortality factors of the middle-aged and older males, in order to eliminate the

  20. Decision making and age differences among gay male couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, J

    1982-01-01

    There appear to have been three major historical forms for male homosexual relationships: the Latin American model patterned after gender-roles, the Greek model involving a mature adult male and an adolescent male, and the modern form between males of approximately equal ages. The patterning of attractions among men of various ages is explored in a sample of 1,556 Chicago area homosexual males. The dominant trend found was for attraction towards persons of similar ages. Age differences between partners in liaisons were found to be associated with differences in decision making.

  1. Inequalities between similarities for numerical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2016-01-01

    Similarity measures are entities that can be used to quantify the similarity between two vectors with real numbers. We present inequalities between seven well known similarities. The inequalities are valid if the vectors contain non-negative real numbers.

  2. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  3. Inferring population structure and demographic history using Y-STR data from worldwide populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongyang; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Shrestha, Rukesh; Wang, Ling-Xiang; Zhang, Manfei; He, Yungang; Kidd, Judith R; Kidd, Kenneth K; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2015-02-01

    The Y chromosome is one of the best genetic materials to explore the evolutionary history of human populations. Global analyses of Y chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) data can reveal very interesting world population structures and histories. However, previous Y-STR works tended to focus on small geographical ranges or only included limited sample sizes. In this study, we have investigated population structure and demographic history using 17 Y chromosomal STRs data of 979 males from 44 worldwide populations. The largest genetic distances have been observed between pairs of African and non-African populations. American populations with the lowest genetic diversities also showed large genetic distances and coancestry coefficients with other populations, whereas Eurasian populations displayed close genetic affinities. African populations tend to have the oldest time to the most recent common ancestors (TMRCAs), the largest effective population sizes and the earliest expansion times, whereas the American, Siberian, Melanesian, and isolated Atayal populations have the most recent TMRCAs and expansion times, and the smallest effective population sizes. This clear geographic pattern is well consistent with serial founder model for the origin of populations outside Africa. The Y-STR dataset presented here provides the most detailed view of worldwide population structure and human male demographic history, and additionally will be of great benefit to future forensic applications and population genetic studies.

  4. Clinical and Demographic Profile of Attendees at Baghdad’s Walk-in Psychiatric Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha S. Younis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Few studies have examined clinical and demographic profile of attendees of a walk-in psychiatric clinic in countries ravaged by wars. The aim of this study is to quantify the characteristics of attendees of an open walk-in psychiatric clinic in a general hospital in Baghdad and the suburb towns of Iraq in the year 2010.Methods: As part of a retrospective survey, information on specific variables (socio-demographic background, clinical characteristics and attendance rate were sought from medical records in the year 2010 (January to December.Results: Despite the shortcomings expected from a country coming out of the ravage of war, the survey included 2,979 attendees (1,864 [63%] males and 1,115 [37%] females of a walk-in psychiatric clinic who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The profile of attendees indicated that a majority of the cohort was self-referred with a predominance of employed males, aged 19 to 49 years, residing in Baghdad City. Depression and psychosis were the most common diagnosis given.Conclusion: The observed patterns are discussed within the available literature relevant to consultation liaison psychiatry, and specific to situations in Iraq and Arab/Islamic cultural patterning.

  5. Spatio-temporal variation and socio-demographic characters of malaria in Chimoio municipality, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão, João Luís; Mendes, Jorge M; Painho, Marco; João, Sara Z

    2016-06-21

    In Africa, urban malaria is a major concern, since the towns and especially their suburbs are growing quickly. In Mozambique, malaria represents 45 % of all cases of outpatient visits and 56 % of inpatient visits at paediatric clinics. Malaria is a major public health burden in Chimoio Mozambique and few studies on malaria exist. The study was carried out to establish the spatiality and temporality of malaria and describe socio-demographic characteristics of malaria patients in Chimoio. Weekly malaria data for 9 years (2006-2014) were collected from the district Epidemiological Bulletin and incidence by season, age, gender, and residence was calculated. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and ArcGis 10.1 was used to produce maps. The annual overall average of malaria incidence was 20.1 % and the attributable fraction (AF) of malaria was 16 %. There were differences in weekly and yearly malaria occurrences throughout the period. There was no difference in malaria cases between male and female patients. Children under 5 years of age are three times more prone to malaria than adults (p < 0.05). Three temporal clusters of malaria were identified: cluster 1, weeks 25-47 with average weekly cases of 618 (sd = 251.9), cluster 2, weeks 18-24 and 48-51 with average weekly cases of 1066 (sd = 317.4). cluster 3, weeks 1-17 and 52 with average weekly cases of 1587 (sd = 722.4). Similarly, three different clusters were identified according to residential areas: cluster 1 (10 %) mostly urban, cluster 2 (22 %) mostly suburbs, cluster 3 (28 %) mostly rural areas. Malaria is increasing in the suburbs, and rural areas present more cases of malaria compared to urban areas. This article is an initial step to understand the dynamics of malaria in Chimoio. Results suggest that malaria varies in time and space, and that precision public health strategy should be used to control malaria occurrence. Studies on weather factors affecting malaria cases, bed net

  6. Young adults' sources of contraceptive information: variations based on demographic characteristics and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Bleakley, Amy

    2015-02-01

    Sexual information sources used by young adults can influence their contraceptive knowledge and behaviors, yet little is known about sources most frequently used by young adults, especially by groups with histories of sexual risk involvement. Nationally representative data from 1800 unmarried young adults, aged 18-29 years, were analyzed to (1) examine the sources of contraceptive information most frequently used by young adults and (2) assess variations (if any) in source use based on demographic characteristics and sexual risk history (determined based on past sexual behaviors). "Doctors/nurses" was the most frequently used contraceptive information source reported by young adults. Significant variations existed in source use based on demographic characteristics and sexual risk history. Females were more likely to obtain contraceptive information from health care professionals, whereas males were more likely to report friends, partners, internet and television/radio as their frequently used source. Young adults with a sexual risk history were more likely to rely on doctors/nurses and less likely to report friends and internet as their frequently used source than those without a sexual risk history. Receiving contraceptive information from doctors/nurses was associated with greater accuracy in knowledge about contraceptive use and efficacy as compared to all other sources. Young adults' use of specific contraceptive information sources can vary based on their demographic characteristics and sexual risk involvement. Future research should identify better strategies to connect young adults, especially young males, with sexual risk histories to more reliable sources of information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mental health problems in a regional population of Australian adolescents: association with socio-demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Campbell, Elizabeth; Hodder, Rebecca K; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Population level data regarding the general mental health status, and the socio-demographic factors associated with the mental health status of adolescents in Australia aged 12-16 years is limited. This study assessed prevalence of mental health problems in a regional population of Australian students in Grades 7-10, and investigated associations between mental health problems and socio-demographic factors. A web-based survey was conducted in 21 secondary schools located in disadvantaged local government areas in one regional local health district of NSW Australia. Mental health problems were measured using the youth self-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total SDQ score and three subscale scores (internalising problems, externalising problems and prosocial behaviour). Associations between each SDQ outcome and student socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Status, remoteness of residential location and socio-economic disadvantage) were investigated. Data are reported for 6793 students aged 12-16 years. Nineteen percent of participants scored in the 'very high' range for the total SDQ, 18.0 % for internalising problems, 11.3 % for externalising problems and 8.9 % for prosocial behaviour problems. Gender and Aboriginal status were associated with all four SDQ outcomes, while age was associated with two, excluding externalising problems and prosocial behaviour. Aboriginal adolescents scored higher for mental health problems than non-Aboriginal adolescents for all four SDQ outcomes. Females scored higher than males for total SDQ and internalising problems, with mean difference greatest at age 15. Males scored higher for externalising problems and lower for prosocial behaviour than females. The finding that mental health problems significantly varied by age, gender and Aboriginality may suggest a need for tailored interventions for groups of adolescents with highest levels of mental health

  8. Lycopene and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam; Ashok Agarwal; Chloe Ong; Pallavi Prashast

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inlficted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneifcial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility.

  9. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... designed to produce, nourish, and transport either the egg or sperm. Unlike the female, whose sex organs are located ... zygote and contains 46 chromosomes — half from the egg and half from the sperm. The genetic material from the male and female ...

  10. Lycopene and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility.

  11. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    . Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  12. Male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmo, A

    1997-05-01

    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems.

  13. Predictors of male microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills...

  14. Demographic-Based Content Analysis of Web-Based Health-Related Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Moloud; Wiley, Matthew T; Hristidis, Vagelis

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of patients from diverse demographic groups share and search for health-related information on Web-based social media. However, little is known about the content of the posted information with respect to the users’ demographics. Objective The aims of this study were to analyze the content of Web-based health-related social media based on users’ demographics to identify which health topics are discussed in which social media by which demographic groups and to help guide educational and research activities. Methods We analyze 3 different types of health-related social media: (1) general Web-based social networks Twitter and Google+; (2) drug review websites; and (3) health Web forums, with a total of about 6 million users and 20 million posts. We analyzed the content of these posts based on the demographic group of their authors, in terms of sentiment and emotion, top distinctive terms, and top medical concepts. Results The results of this study are: (1) Pregnancy is the dominant topic for female users in drug review websites and health Web forums, whereas for male users, it is cardiac problems, HIV, and back pain, but this is not the case for Twitter; (2) younger users (0-17 years) mainly talk about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression-related drugs, users aged 35-44 years discuss about multiple sclerosis (MS) drugs, and middle-aged users (45-64 years) talk about alcohol and smoking; (3) users from the Northeast United States talk about physical disorders, whereas users from the West United States talk about mental disorders and addictive behaviors; (4) Users with higher writing level express less anger in their posts. Conclusion We studied the popular topics and the sentiment based on users' demographics in Web-based health-related social media. Our results provide valuable information, which can help create targeted and effective educational campaigns and guide experts to reach the right users on Web

  15. The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart

    CERN Document Server

    Wilder, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intell

  16. TEMPORAL VARIATION IN THE RED GROUPER, EPINEPHELUS MORIO, DEMOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE FROM SOUTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralice Caballero-Arango

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the demographic structure of red grouper Epinephelus morio from the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico, were evaluated during periods when total catches, CPUE and annual yields of the specie decreased. Fishery-dependent samples (n = 1887 were obtained between August 1989 and February 2004 from the Campeche Bank, and size-frequency distributions by sex, sex ratios and sizes of sexual maturation and sex change were compared between three periods: P11989-1992 (n = 886; P21996-1998 (n = 413; and P32003-2004 (n = 588. The temporal stability of size-frequency distribution by sex, with males always being larger than females, and the sex ratios always biased towards females, were consistent with this species’ type of sexuality. Size for females and males, as well as sizes at first sexual maturity and at sex reversal all decreased from the oldest period to the more recent one and could be a consequence of the fishing intensity applied to this stock. The reductions in size of females and males associated with a relatively stable sex ratio and the lack of any drastic decrease in the number of males can be explained by this species’ reproductive ecology. Results are discussed regarding the capacity for reproductive resilience of red grouper in response to fishing pressure like that currently experienced by the Campeche Bank stock.

  17. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF PEDIATRIC OSTEOSARCOMA IN SOUTH INDIA: A SINGLE INSTITUTION EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok S Komaranchath, L. Appaji, K. C. Lakshmaiah, Mangesh Kamath, Rekha V Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents, accounting for 4% of all childhood cancers worldwide. In India, the incidence varies from 4.7% to 11.6%, where this malignancy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There is paucity of demographic and clinical data for osteosarcoma in India. Objective: To retrospectively assess the demographic and clinical profile of pediatric osteosarcoma presenting at a tertiary cancer care centre of South India. Materials and Methods: From January 2010 to December 2013, all children under the age of 15 years diagnosed with osteosarcoma on histopathology were retrospectively analyzed for age, gender, rural or urban location, history, location of tumour, investigations, stage and histopathological subtype. The findings were formulated to chart the demographic and clinical profile. Results: A total of 37 cases of pediatric osteosarcoma were analyzed. The median age was 13 years with only three patients under the age of 10 years. There was a slight female preponderance with male: female ratio of 1:1.3. Most common mode of presentation was with pain and swelling of local site. Three patients had presented with a pathological fracture. The most common site involved was the distal femur. Over 90% of the cases were conventional osteosarcoma. Around 32% of patients had stage IV disease at presentation. Around 37% of patients from rural areas and 20% of patients from urban areas presented with metastatic disease. Conclusions: The aim of the study was the demographic and clinical description of osteosarcoma in the pediatric age group. A slight female preponderance was noted. The most common sites were consistent with western data except for an increased incidence in the fibula. There was an increased incidence of metastatic disease as compared to western population and a larger proportion of these patients seemed to come from rural areas.

  18. Pattern of rheumatic diseases in two outpatient clinics in Iran: Similarities with some different features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owlia Mohammad Bagher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatic diseases are among the most prevalent diseases recognized in the world. Musculoskeletal disorders are one of the main causes of disability around the world and expend a large amount of health care and social resources and have a substantial impact on the quality of life of those affected. To identify preventable risk factors and to gain insights into the burden of the diseases, it is important to know the prevalence and demographics of them. Herein we are to describe the pattern of different rheumatic disorders and characteristics of the patients attending in rheumatology clinics in Yazd, Iran, with addressing some different points of views in this regards. Materials and Methods:In this retrospective study, medical records of all patients referred to two main referral rheumatology clinics in Yazd from March 2009 to February 2010 were reviewed. A questionnaire including sex, age, chief complaint, diagnoses, and co-morbid diseases was used for gathering the data. Results:All medical records were reviewed, of whom 5187 patients had specific diagnoses. The mean age of the patients was 38.57 year ± 19.4 SD. 70.81% were females and 29.19% were males. The most common diagnoses were: degenerative joint disease (58.33%, autoimmune disorders (17.88%, and soft tissue rheumatism (12.47%. The most frequent complaints were knee pain (32%. 55.6% of the patients were overweight (BMI >29 and 923 (17.8 % of the patients had diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: Our findings were similar to other studies from Iran and the other countries in most features. The prevalence of autoimmune disorders was rather higher than the other studies; this is perhaps due to our belief that some of periarthritis conditions were part of systemic autoimmune diseases by careful history taking and using pertinent laboratory investigations.

  19. Physical Attrativeness, Perceived Attitude Similarity, and Academic Achievement as Contributors to Interpersonal Attraction among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavior, Norman N.; Dokecki, Paul R.

    1973-01-01

    Fifth- and eleventh-grade males and females who knew each other ( knowers'') judged classmates' photographs on physical attractiveness, perceived attitude similarity, and interpersonal attraction. Nonknowers'' (male and female classmates in different schools in the same grades) judged the same photographs on physical attractiveness. (Editor)

  20. Physical Attrativeness, Perceived Attitude Similarity, and Academic Achievement as Contributors to Interpersonal Attraction among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavior, Norman N.; Dokecki, Paul R.

    1973-01-01

    Fifth- and eleventh-grade males and females who knew each other ( knowers'') judged classmates' photographs on physical attractiveness, perceived attitude similarity, and interpersonal attraction. Nonknowers'' (male and female classmates in different schools in the same grades) judged the same photographs on physical attractiveness. (Editor)

  1. Does Halitosis Effect Sexual Life in Males?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Soylu Ozler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Halitosis is an unpleasant alteration of the halitus. The aim of the study is to assess the quality of sexual life of males with and without halitosis. Material and Method: Males between 20-50 years old; with a complaint of halitosis; married and able to complete the study were included in the study. The control group were healthy, adult, married males who have normal otorhinolaryngologic examination. The International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire(IIEF were used to assess the quality of sexual life  of males with halitosis and the results were compared with a similar group of healthy men. Results: A total of 80 adult subjects completed the study. When the groups were compared in terms of age, body mass index(BMI and duration of marriage, they were similar (p=0.65, p= 0.20, p= 0.08 respectively.The halitosis group had significantly lower scores for all function domains (p=0.0001.There was no correlation between degree of halitosis and the scores of IIEF (p< 0.05. Discussion: This is the first study investigating the sexual health of males with halitosis. Halitosis not only effects oral health status but also strongly declines quality of life. The otorhinolaryngologist must not only treat halitosis but also help the patient to stand up to social and sexual problems concomitting halitosis.

  2. Delineating demographic units of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Ontario: cautions and insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Shuter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Delineating demographic structure across an organism’s range can reveal the extent to which population dynamics in different geographic areas are driven by local or external factors and can be crucial for effective conservation and management. Obtaining optimal data for such analyses can be time and resource-intensive and impending development and resource extraction pressures may necessitate the examination of existing data, even when they are less than ideal. We analyzed a historic telemetry dataset containing satellite radio-collar locations of 73 forest-dwelling woodland caribou in northern Ontario to determine demographic structure. We applied several clustering methods (i.e., agglomerative, divisive and fuzzy k-means to median seasonal locations. Results were used to distinguish demographic units and minimum convex polygons and fixed-kernel density estimates were used to delineate unit boundaries and core areas. For areas where sampling was considered representative of the distribution of caribou on the landscape, we assessed demographic distinctness by evaluating intra-individual variation in cluster membership, membership strength and distance between boundaries and core areas of adjacent units. The number and composition of clusters identified was similar among methods and caribou were grouped into 6 general clusters. The distinctions between the three clusters identified in the central portion of the province (i.e., Lac Seul, Wabakimi, Geraldton and the two clusters identified in the eastern portion of the province (i.e., Cochrane and Cochrane-Quebec were determined to represent demographic structuring. Additional distinctions in other areas (i.e., between The Red Lake and Lac Seul clusters in the west and between the central and eastern clusters may just be artifacts of the original sampling effort. Amongst demographic units, there was no evidence of individual flexibility in cluster membership and average membership strength was

  3. The Geography of Happiness: Connecting Twitter Sentiment and Expression, Demographics, and Objective Characteristics of Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lewis; Frank, Morgan R.; Harris, Kameron Decker; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a detailed investigation of correlations between real-time expressions of individuals made across the United States and a wide range of emotional, geographic, demographic, and health characteristics. We do so by combining (1) a massive, geo-tagged data set comprising over 80 million words generated in 2011 on the social network service Twitter and (2) annually-surveyed characteristics of all 50 states and close to 400 urban populations. Among many results, we generate taxonomies of states and cities based on their similarities in word use; estimate the happiness levels of states and cities; correlate highly-resolved demographic characteristics with happiness levels; and connect word choice and message length with urban characteristics such as education levels and obesity rates. Our results show how social media may potentially be used to estimate real-time levels and changes in population-scale measures such as obesity rates. PMID:23734200

  4. The geography of happiness: connecting twitter sentiment and expression, demographics, and objective characteristics of place.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Mitchell

    Full Text Available We conduct a detailed investigation of correlations between real-time expressions of individuals made across the United States and a wide range of emotional, geographic, demographic, and health characteristics. We do so by combining (1 a massive, geo-tagged data set comprising over 80 million words generated in 2011 on the social network service Twitter and (2 annually-surveyed characteristics of all 50 states and close to 400 urban populations. Among many results, we generate taxonomies of states and cities based on their similarities in word use; estimate the happiness levels of states and cities; correlate highly-resolved demographic characteristics with happiness levels; and connect word choice and message length with urban characteristics such as education levels and obesity rates. Our results show how social media may potentially be used to estimate real-time levels and changes in population-scale measures such as obesity rates.

  5. The Geography of Happiness: Connecting Twitter sentiment and expression, demographics, and objective characteristics of place

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Lewis; Frank, Morgan R; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a detailed investigation of correlations between real-time expressions of individuals made across the United States and a wide range of emotional, geographic, demographic, and health characteristics. We do so by combining (1) a massive, geo-tagged data set comprising over 80 million words generated over the course of several recent years on the social network service Twitter and (2) annually-surveyed characteristics of all 50 states and close to 400 urban populations. Among many results, we generate taxonomies of states and cities based on their similarities in word use; estimate the happiness levels of states and cities; correlate highly-resolved demographic characteristics with happiness levels; and connect word choice and message length with urban characteristics such as education levels and obesity rates. Our results show how social media may potentially be used to estimate real-time levels and changes in population-level measures such as obesity rates.

  6. Demographic noise and resilience in a semi-arid ecosystem model

    CERN Document Server

    Realpe-Gomez, John; Galla, Tobias; McKane, Alan J; Rietkerk, Max

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of water characterizing drylands forces vegetation to adopt appropriate survival strategies. Some of these generate water-vegetation feedback mechanisms that can lead to spatial self-organisation of vegetation. To date these phenomena have mostly been studied with models representing plants by a density of biomass, varying continuously in time and space. Such models disregard the discrete nature of plant individuals and their intrinsically stochastic behaviour. These features give rise to demographic noise, which can influence the qualitative dynamics of ecosystem models. In the present work we explore the effects of demographic noise on the resilience of a model semi-arid ecosystem. We introduce a spatial stochastic eco-hydrological hybrid model in which plants are modelled as discrete entities subject to stochastic dynamical rules, while the dynamics of surface and soil water are described by continuous variables. The model has a deterministic approximation very similar to previous continuous m...

  7. Peculiarities of gender and demographically targeted advertising texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Teletov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article highlightes the individual components in the total advertising by gender. Examples of typical advertising products for men, women, youth, children, the elderly are given. The classification of objects advertising by gender is made. It is analyzed the specific drafting advertising copy, including headlines and slogans. The basic provisions for advertising of products segmented by demographic principle. The results of the analysis. The analysis of consumer advertising texts revealed some gender peculiarities. It is confirmed that advertising for female audience is informative headlines, because it usually knows what the needed product is at the moment. It shows that an important psychological feature for women is the attention to detail that is normally ignored by men; text ads feature women is the use of a large number of emotionally charged, interrogative and incentive offers. Grounded in advertising to appeal to men innovations more often than other types of uses is provocative headlines. Semantic orientation lexicon in advertising for men focuses on external data and character traits a man on his professionalism. A small number of adjectives emphasizes restraint and courage recipient. Relative adjectives in texts predominate in advertising addressed to men and more qualitative adjectives containing the emotional evaluation of the advertised product – for women. It is proposed to take into account the physiological differences between male (analytical and female (figurative thinking: men do not like when they are run, so do not use verbs in the imperative mood, and women often act as wingmen, they need advice, call to action, so the imperative verb form is more appropriate. It is confirmed that promotional texts baby goods semantics vocabulary related to the development, nutrition, child health and feelings to it, because advertising is designed for parents and other adults. It is better to use verbs in the

  8. low birthweight babies: socio-demographic and obstetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-10-01

    Oct 1, 2002 ... mothers (aged below 20 years) and older mothers of low birthweight ( ... have unfavourable socio-demographic and obstetric factors like ... having less formal education, being unemployed and having obstetric risks for poor.

  9. Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status on the Prevalence of. Health Hazards ... management provide food and harbourage for rodents, mosquitoes .... were factors influencing solid waste management in. Abeokuta.

  10. Demographic profile and epidemiology of injury in Mthatha, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    1997-01-01

    Jan 1, 1997 ... Demographic profile and epidemiology of injury in Mthatha, South. Africa. Dhaffala A1 ... Department of Surgery, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa,. 2. Faculty of Health ..... of concern in nursing science. J Nurs ...

  11. Socio-demographic determinants of the knowledge of diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic determinants of the knowledge of diabetes mellitus in Onitsha-North Local Government Area, Anambra State, ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The instrument used for the collection of data was self-administered ...

  12. Customers Demographics Influence on Usage of Retail Banking Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha GUPTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the usage of retail banking influenced by customers’ demographics of selected Public Sector Banks (PSBs of India. The study was based on primary data collected through structured questionnaire. The simple random sampling technique used for data collection for sample size 692. The study finds that public sector banks need to understand the usage pattern of an individual customer using delivery channel to add greater value to customers. Respondent age groups influence ATMs usage. Internet banking is majorly influenced by the customers’ demographics. Respondents’ age group and qualification influence mobile banking. Branch lobby kiosk is not influenced by any demographics. The identification of most influential demographic variable will help to build strong and effective cross-selling and up-selling of financial products and services. Our study was limited to the customers of PSBs of India. This study may be helpful to PSBs for enhancing effective usage of delivery channels.

  13. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  15. EnviroAtlas - New Haven, CT - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  16. Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ... The findings showed that students from lower socio-economic status homes and those ... The need to involve the students\\' parents in career education programmes and ...

  17. China’s grave demographic challenges in coming decades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任强; 郑晓瑛

    2009-01-01

    This paper systematically analyzes the uncertainties of major demographic indicators from China’s 2000 census,such as fertility,gender ratio at birth,and age structure,and through a probability demographic forecast gives an assessment of the situation facing the country.Research outcomes suggest that great differences exist in the estimate of China’s fertility,gender ratio at birth and low-age child population.These differences directly affect China’s current and future demographic uncertainties,and have implications for policy and future research.The demographic uncertainties caused by current conditions are of great value to decision-makers and the public alike.

  18. Political demography: Powerful trends under-attended by demographic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The interconnections between politics and the dramatic demographic changes under way around the world have been neglected by the two research disciplines that could contribute most to their understanding: demography and political science. Instead, this area of 'political demography' has largely been ceded to political activists, pundits, and journalists, leading often to exaggerated or garbled interpretation. The terrain includes some of the most politically sensitive and contested issues: alleged demographically determined shifts in the international balance of power; low fertility, population decline, and demographic ageing; international migration; change in national identity; and compositional shifts in politically sensitive social categories and human rights. Meanwhile many governments and non-governmental actors have actively pursued varieties of 'strategic demography', deploying fertility, mortality, or migration as instruments of domestic or international policy. Political scientists and demographers could and should use their knowledge and analytic techniques to improve understanding and to moderate excessive claims and fears on these topics.

  19. Gender in Science and Engineering Faculties: Demographic Inertia Revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole R Thomas

    Full Text Available The under-representation of women on faculties of science and engineering is ascribed in part to demographic inertia, which is the lag between retirement of current faculty and future hires. The assumption of demographic inertia implies that, given enough time, gender parity will be achieved. We examine that assumption via a semi-Markov model to predict the future faculty, with simulations that predict the convergence demographic state. Our model shows that existing practices that produce gender gaps in recruitment, retention, and career progression preclude eventual gender parity. Further, we examine sensitivity of the convergence state to current gender gaps to show that all sources of disparity across the entire faculty career must be erased to produce parity: we cannot blame demographic inertia.

  20. Gender in Science and Engineering Faculties: Demographic Inertia Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicole R; Poole, Daniel J; Herbers, Joan M

    2015-01-01

    The under-representation of women on faculties of science and engineering is ascribed in part to demographic inertia, which is the lag between retirement of current faculty and future hires. The assumption of demographic inertia implies that, given enough time, gender parity will be achieved. We examine that assumption via a semi-Markov model to predict the future faculty, with simulations that predict the convergence demographic state. Our model shows that existing practices that produce gender gaps in recruitment, retention, and career progression preclude eventual gender parity. Further, we examine sensitivity of the convergence state to current gender gaps to show that all sources of disparity across the entire faculty career must be erased to produce parity: we cannot blame demographic inertia.

  1. socio-demographic factors in under five children with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Their socio-demographic factors such as age, sex, breastfeeding status, parents ... acute diarrhoea among under five children in Enugu, Nigeria. ... Malnutrition predisposes .... Determinants of the utilization of children's Health.

  2. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  3. Demographic Trends (1970-2010) for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Demographic Trends (1970-2010) were derived from Census Block Group Data for 13 different coastal geographies. For a full listing of the geographies available,...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  8. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Overweight and Obesity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    demographic factors with increased BMI among Nigeria women aged 20-49 years using secondary data collected for the .... Half (50.2%) of the women were of the Islamic .... South East .... demonstrates evidence of good living, makes them.

  9. [Integration of demographic variables into development plans in the Sahel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wane, H R

    1992-07-01

    A founding principle of the Program of Action of N'Djamena is the interdependence of population and development and the need for development strategies to take demographic factors into account. The concept of integration of population variables into development has evolved since its introduction in the 1974 World Population Plan of Action from a simple description of population size, growth rates, and distribution to a stress on harmonizing population policies and development policies with macroeconomic variables. The essence of the concept is the consideration given by development policies and programs to the interrelations between population, resources, the environment, and development factors. Population variables and goals should ideally be treated as endogenous variables in development planning, but in practice the extreme complexity of such a systematic approach limits its ability to be made operational. Usually the most crucial problems only are included. Integrated planning is composed of explicit or implicit population policies intended to influence demographic variables and of socioeconomic policies intended to adapt to demographic change. In the Sahel, only Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Mali have formal population policies, but around 1980 several countries of the region began to show interest in influencing demographic variables as they did economic variables. Fundamental principles for developing an integration strategy can be applied regardless or whether the plan is based on projections, analysis of interaction of a demographic variable with factors specific to a sector, or a monosectorial or multisectorial demoeconomic planning model. Demographic data is used more frequently in diagnosing problems than in developing projections or formulating objectives. The level of disaggregation of demographic projections and estimates tends to be low, despite the great potential utility of demographic projections in planning. Demographic projections can be useful

  10. Demographic Dynamics and the Empirics of Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Sarel

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of demographic dynamics on the measured rates of economic growth. First, it develops a model of production with labor productivity that varies with age. Second, it uses macroeconomic and demographic data to estimate the relative productivity of different age groups. Third, it constructs a panel database of effective labor supply in order to reflect the changing age-structure of the population. Fourth, it decomposes the historical measured growth rates into effe...

  11. Pension Reform and Demographic Uncertainty : The Case of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The present paper compares the distributional and risk-sharing consequences of two pension reform proposals in Germany which both aim to improve the sustainability of the current system by introducing demographic variables to the benefit calculation. While the first reform proposes a so-called "sustainability factor" which measures the changes in the dependency ratio, the second reform proposes a so-called "demographic factor" which takes into account the changes in life expectancy. Our simul...

  12. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Timothy R.; Pennington, R. Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F.; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J. M. M.; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Roel J.W. Brienen

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits - short turnover times - are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rat...

  13. The Gender and Intergenerational Consequences of the Demographic Dividend

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The demographic transition changes the age composition of a population, potentially affecting resource allocation at the household level and exerting general equilibrium effects at the aggregate level. If age profiles of income, consumption, and savings were stable and estimable for the entire population, they might imply how the demographic transition would affect national savings rates, but there is little agreement on the impact of age composition. These age profiles differ by gender and a...

  14. A Statistical Assessment of Demographic Bonus towards Poverty Alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abdul Nasir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The shift of birth and death rates from high to low level in any population is referred as demographic transition. Mechanically, the transition of a society creates more working member of its own population commonly called demographic bonus. This articleempirically explores the realistic soundness of demographic bonus in reducing the poverty level of the society. Three contrasting regions namely Eastern Asia, Central America and Oceania were selected for analytical purposes. The findings indicate that Eastern Asia and Oceania are currently facing the end of their transition whereas theCentral America is lagged behind in transition. Central America due to last runner in transition race is the sustained recipient of its own demographic bonus by the year 2030.On the basis of three mechanisms namely: labour supply, savings and human capital, the Eastern Asian region is found to be successful beneficiary of its own demographic gift which concludes that many million people have escaped from poverty. Under the right policy environment on the above three mechanisms, Eastern Asia experience indicates the realistic contribution of demographic bonus to reduce poverty.

  15. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Russell; Ericson, Bret; Caravanos, Jack; Grigsby, Patrick; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw

    2015-10-27

    Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy) and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth's Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478) between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

  16. Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land and Socio Demographics in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dowling

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Associations between contaminated land and socio demographics are well documented in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries, however, little is known about the extent of contaminated land and possible demographic correlations. This is an important yet sparsely researched topic with potentially significant public health implications as exposure to pollution remains a leading source of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. In this study, we review the associations between several socio demographic factors (population, population density, unemployment, education, and literacy and contaminated sites in Ghana. Within this context, both correlation and association intend to show the relationship between two variables, namely contaminated sites and socio demographics. Aggregated district level 2010 census data from Ghana Statistical Service and contaminated site location data from Pure Earth’s Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP were spatially evaluated using the number of sites per kilometer squared within districts as the unit of measurement. We found a low to medium positive correlation (ρ range: 0.285 to 0.478 between contaminated sites and the following socio demographics: higher population density, higher unemployment, greater education, and higher literacy rate. These results support previous studies and suggest that several socio demographic factors may be reasonably accurate predictors of contaminated site locations. More research and targeted data collection is needed to better understand these associations with the ultimate goal of developing a predictive model.

  17. The male of Nancyana curva (Homoptera: Cicadellidae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Boa Nova Coelho

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult male of Nancyana curva is described and illustrated for the first time, based on four specimens from the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Male diagnostic characters include the presence of a pair of inner projections on the dorsal lobe of the pygofer, and a dorsal pair of short subapical processes on the aedeagus. The female color pattern is similar to that of male, with dark brown bands on torax not so clear.

  18. Male Gender Role Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Daig, Isolde

    2010-01-01

    Background: Men have a higher alcohol and cigarette consumption than women, they use more drugs, they have twice as high a suicide rate and only a minority of men attend on preventive medical checkups. Hypotheses: The central questions of the present study pertained to the identification of dysfunctional aspects of a male self concept and the possible correlations with risk behaviour of men in different age stages. One possible explanation for this high risk behaviour may be higher mascul...

  19. Adolescent male health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years.

  20. Intimate Partner Violence Victimization in LGBT Young Adults: Demographic Differences and Associations with Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tyson R; Newcomb, Michael E; Whitton, Sarah W; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health problem with high prevalence and serious costs. Although literature has largely focused on IPV among heterosexuals, studies have recently begun examining IPV in LGBT samples, with mounting evidence suggesting IPV may be more common among LGBT individuals than heterosexuals. Less research has examined the specific health consequences of IPV in this population, particularly across time and among young people, and it remains unclear whether experiences of IPV differ between subgroups within the LGBT population (e.g. race, gender identity, and sexual orientation). An ethnically diverse sample of 172 LGBT young adults completed self-report measures of IPV, sexual behavior, mental health, and substance abuse at two time points (4- and 5-year follow-up) of an ongoing longitudinal study of LGBT youth. IPV was experienced non-uniformly across demographic groups. Specifically, female, male-to-female transgender, and Black/African-American young adults were at higher risk compared to those who identified as male, female-to-male transgender, and other races. Being a victim of IPV was associated with concurrent sexual risk taking and prospective mental health outcomes but was not associated with substance abuse. Demographic differences in IPV found in heterosexuals were replicated in this LGBT sample, though additional research is needed to clarify why traditional risk factors found in heterosexual young people may not translate to LGBT individuals. Studies examining the impact of IPV on negative outcomes and revictimization over time may guide our understanding of the immediate and delayed consequences of IPV for LGBT young people.

  1. Demographic connectivity for ursid populations at wildlife crossing structures in Banff National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, Michael A; Clevenger, Anthony P; Kalinowski, Steven T

    2013-08-01

    Wildlife crossing structures are one solution to mitigating the fragmentation of wildlife populations caused by roads, but their effectiveness in providing connectivity has only been superficially evaluated. Hundreds of grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bear (Ursus americanus) passages through under and overpasses have been recorded in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. However, the ability of crossing structures to allow individual and population-level movements across road networks remains unknown. In April 2006, we initiated a 3-year investigation into whether crossing structures provide demographic connectivity for grizzly and black bears in Banff National Park. We collected hair with multiple noninvasive methods to obtain genetic samples from grizzly and black bears around the Bow Valley. Our objectives were to determine the number of male and female grizzly and black bears that use crossing structures; examine spatial and temporal patterns of crossings; and estimate the proportions of grizzly and black bear populations in the Bow Valley that use crossing structures. Fifteen grizzly (7 female, 8 male) and 17 black bears (8 female, 9 male) used wildlife crossing structures. The number of individuals detected at wildlife crossing structures was highly correlated with the number of passages in space and time. Grizzly bears used open crossing structures (e.g., overpasses) more often than constricted crossings (e.g., culverts). Peak use of crossing structures for both bear species occurred in July, when high rates of foraging activity coincide with mating season. We compared the number of bears that used crossings with estimates of population abundance from a related study and determined that substantial percentages of grizzly (15.0% in 2006, 19.8% in 2008) and black bear (17.6% in 2006, 11.0% in 2008) populations used crossing structures. On the basis of our results, we concluded wildlife crossing structures provide demographic connectivity for bear populations

  2. Effect of Demographic and Clinical Factors on New- Onset Diabetes Mellitus after Liver Transplantation in Iranian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha Namazi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: New- onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT is a serious complication which runs the risk of infections, morbidity and mortality. Older age, male sex, immunosuppressive agents and hepatitis C are reported as risk factors. The focus of this research is evaluating some demographic and clinical factors in development of NODAT in hepatic transplanted patients. This study aims to help identifying high risk recipients in order to prevent NODAT and improve transplantation prognosis.METHODS: In this study 134 liver recipients without pre- transplantation diabetes were investigated; 70 euglycemic and 64 with NODAT within 2 years after transplantation. All the patients were on tacrolimus- based immunosuppressive regimen. The role of recipients’ age, sex, body mass index (BMI, model for end- stage liver disease (MELD score, blood group, diseases leading to transplantation, tacrolimus dose and serum level, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF and prednisolone dose in the incidence of NODAT were assessed.RESULTS: The prevalence of NODAT in this study was 17.92%. The means of duration after transplantation that NODAT occurred, was 98.36± 21.62 days. The mean age of all patients was 37.83±16.26 years and 60.40% were females. Two groups were similar in terms of pre- transplantation fasting blood sugar (FBS (P=0.091. Age (P=0.001,OR=1.063,CI:1.025-1.102 and prednisolone dose (P<0.0001,OR=1.270,CI:1.163-1.388 the only independent predictors of NODAT, while tacrolimus daily dose and plasma level, MMF daily dose, sex, BMI and underlying diseases were not risk factors for NODAT.CONCLUSIONS: Recipients with older age and higher prednisolone dose are more prone to NODAT and need more accurate monitoring.

  3. Social cliques in male northern muriquis Brachyteles hypoxanthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcos TOKUDA; Jean P. BOUBLI; Patrícia IZAR; Karen B. STRIER

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of spatial relationships and social interactions provide insights into the social structure of animal societies and the ways in which social preferences among and between dyads affect higher order social relationships.In this paper we describe the patterns of spatial associations and social interactions among adult male northern muriquis in order to evaluate the dynamics of their social networks above the dyadic levels.Systematic observations were made on the 17 adult males present in a multi-male/multi-female group from April 2004 through February 2005,and in July 2005.Analyses of their spatial relationships identified two distinct male cliques; some adult males (called "N" males) were more connected to the females and immatures than other adult males ("MU" males),which were more connected to one another.Affiliative interactions were significantly higher among dyads belonging to the same clique than to different cliques.Although frequencies of dyadic agonistic interactions were similarly low among individuals within and between cliques,MU males appeared to be subordinate to N males.Nonetheless,there were no significant differences in the copulation rates estimated for MU males and N males.Mutual benefits of cooperation between MU and N cliques in intergroup encounters might explain their ongoing associations in the same mixed-sex group [Current Zoology 58 (2):342-352,2012].

  4. ANATOMY OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-10

    Dec 10, 2014 ... 1Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of ... The male reproductive anatomy of the African sideneck turtle is similar ... Experimental Animals .... clinical practice as well as the improved.

  5. Reconstructing propagation networks with temporal similarity metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Node similarity is a significant property driving the growth of real networks. In this paper, based on the observed spreading results we apply the node similarity metrics to reconstruct propagation networks. We find that the reconstruction accuracy of the similarity metrics is strongly influenced by the infection rate of the spreading process. Moreover, there is a range of infection rate in which the reconstruction accuracy of some similarity metrics drops to nearly zero. In order to improve the similarity-based reconstruction method, we finally propose a temporal similarity metric to take into account the time information of the spreading. The reconstruction results are remarkably improved with the new method.

  6. Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Katie G; Moreno, Megan A

    2011-09-01

    Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males' Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students' alcohol use.

  7. Conditional Similarity Solutions of the Boussinesq Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiao-Yan; LIN Ji; LOU Sen-Yue

    2001-01-01

    The direct method proposed by Clarkson and Kruskal is modified to obtain some conditional similarity solutions of a nonlinear physics model. Taking the (1+ 1 )-dimensional Boussinesq equation as a simple example, six types of conditional similarity reductions are obtained.

  8. Seasonal resource value and male size influence male aggressive interactions in the leaf footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Zachary J; Allen, Pablo E; Miller, Christine W

    2017-05-01

    In animal contests, resource value (the quality of a given resource) and resource holding potential (a male's absolute fighting ability) are two important factors determining the level of engagement and outcome of contests. Few studies have tested these factors simultaneously. Here, we investigated whether natural, seasonal differences in cactus phenology (fruit quality) influence interactions between males in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae). We also considered whether males were more likely to interact when they were similar in size, as predicted by theory. Finally, we examined if male size relative to the size of an opponent predicted competitive success. We found that males have more interactions on cactus with high value ripe fruit, as we predicted. Further, we found that males that were closer in size were more likely to interact, and larger males were more likely to become dominant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis: epidemiologic and demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmat R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The preferred modality of dialysis is a controversial issue in nephrology. In this study we compare some demographic and epidemiological characteristics of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in an attempt to analyze this issue."n"n Methods: The results of the research protocol "A survey of the epidemiological characteristics of chronic dialyzed patients in Khorassan province", was used to compare some demographic and epidemiological aspects of chronic hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in search of any statistically significant difference."n"n Results: A total of 836 chronic dialysis patients entered this study, 802 (95.9% of which were under chronic hemodialysis, and 34 (4.1% patients were undergoing peritoneal dialysis, with 339 (42.3% and 12 (35.3% being female, respectively. The mean age for each group was 47.57 and 46.75 years, respectively. The causes of end-stage renal disease in hemodialzed patients were most commonly hypertension (32.2%, followed by diabetes mellitus (22.3%, unknown causes (19.6% and chronic glomeru-lonephritis (10.2%. In the peritoneal dialysis group, chronic glomerulonephritis (32.4% was the most common reason for dialysis, followed by diabetes mellitus (26

  10. Shape Similarity Measures of Linear Entities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The essential of feature matching technology lies in how to measure the similarity of spatial entities.Among all the possible similarity measures,the shape similarity measure is one of the most important measures because it is easy to collect the necessary parameters and it is also well matched with the human intuition.In this paper a new shape similarity measure of linear entities based on the differences of direction change along each line is presented and its effectiveness is illustrated.

  11. The prevalence of substance use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Dušica B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround/Aim. Adolescence is the period of greatest risk of starting to use substances: cigarette smoking, alcohol and illicit drugs. In the first decade of this millennium substance use among adolescents has increased. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of substances use among adolescents and its correlation with social and demographic factors. Methods. The study was conducted among adolescents in Novi Sad during 2010-2011 and included 594 conveniently selected adolescents (275 male and 319 female, aged 15-19 years. A special questionnaire was used and statistical analysis performed in SPSS17. The correlation between parameters was evaluated by the Pearson correlation method and frequency differences were analysed using χ2 test and starting level was p < 0.05. Results. The prevalence of substance use was statistically higher in males. Cigarettes were smoked daily by 21.45% males and 15.67% females (p < 0.01, alcohol was consumed by 81.6% males and 69.11% females (p < 0.001 and illicit drugs were used by 13.65% males and 8.30% females (p < 0.05. There was a positive correlation between smoking cigarettes and alcohol consumption, but negative between smoking cigarettes and the use of illicit drugs (p < 0.01. The prevalence of substance use was statistically higher among adolescents with poor achievement in school (p < 0.01, who lived in a broken home (illicit drugs p < 0.01 and who had more pocket money (cigarette smoking p < 0.01, and alcohol consumption p < 0.5. Conclusion. Stable family, lower amount of pocket money weekly and good school performance are protective factors in prevention of substances use among adolescents.

  12. Advanced Procedures in Male Incontinence: The Male Sling

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Advanced Procedures in Male Incontinence: The Virtue® Male Sling Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Advanced Procedures in Male Incontinence: The Male Sling

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Advanced Procedures in Male Incontinence: The Virtue® Male Sling Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Projection of male fantasies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Hans

    2013-01-01

    -war period. Advocates of women's athletics interpreted competitive sports as perfect tools for women's conquest of male territory, whereas supporters of female gymnastics considered athletics to be an antidote to the health-promoting and graceful essence of femininity. Agnete Bertram was one of Lindhard......-1949) laid the foundation for the birth of exercise physiology in Scandinavia. In addition to his basic-level studies of physiology, Lindhard also became deeply involved in developing a theory of gymnastics that would bring a wide range of Danish gymnastics traditions onto a surer theoretical footing...

  15. [Urethrocele in males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Mrini, M; Bennani, S; Aboutaieb, R; Joual, A; Benjelloun, S

    1993-01-01

    Concerning one case of male urethral diverticulum, the characteristics of this rare affection are reviewed. Carriage for long time of urethral catheter and urethroplasty are the more frequent etiologies of this affection. The diagnosis is clinic, based on the discovery of tumefaction on the urethral track which pression makes spring up urine through urethral meatus. The urethrography confirms the diagnosis. Surgical approach consists on the resection of the diverticulum and urethrorrhaphy in one or two stages, based on diverticular neck size and sheet quality.

  16. Unprotected Anal Intercourse With Casual Male Partners in Urban Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantalone, David W; Tomassilli, Julia C; Starks, Tyrel J; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated trends in, and predictors of, unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual male partners of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM). Methods. We analyzed data from cross-sectional intercept surveys conducted annually (2003-2008) at 2 large lesbian, gay, and bisexual community events in New York City. Survey data covered GBMSM's highest-risk behaviors for HIV acquisition (HIV-negative or unknown status GBMSM, any UAI) and transmission (HIV-positive GBMSM, any serodiscordant unprotected UAI). Results. Across years, 32.3% to 51.5% of the HIV-negative or unknown status men endorsed any UAI, and 36.9% to 52.9% of the HIV-positive men endorsed serodiscordant UAI. We observed a few statistically significant fluctuations in engagement in high-risk behavior. However, these do not appear to constitute meaningful trends. Similarly, in some years, one or another demographic predictor of UAI was significant. Across years, however, no reliable pattern emerged. Conclusions. A significant proportion of urban GBMSM engage in high-risk sex, regardless of serostatus. No consistent demographic predictors emerged, implying a need for broad-based interventions that target all GBMSM.

  17. Phylogeography and demographic history of two widespread Indo-Pacific mudskippers (Gobiidae: Periophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgar, G; Zane, L; Babbucci, M; Barbisan, F; Patarnello, T; Rüber, L; Papetti, C

    2014-04-01

    This study provides a first description of the phylogeographic patterns and evolutionary history of two species of the mudskipper genus Periophthalmus. These amphibious gobies are distributed throughout the whole Indo-Pacific region and Atlantic coast of Africa, in peritidal habitats of soft-bottom coastal ecosystems. Three sequence datasets of two widely distributed species, Periophthalmus argentilineatus and P. kalolo, were obtained by amplifying and sequencing two mtDNA markers (D-loop and 16S rDNA) and the nDNA rag1 region. The three datasets were then used to perform phylogeographic, demographic and population genetic analyses. Our results indicate that tectonic events and past climatic oscillations strongly contributed to shape present genetic differentiation, phylogeographic and demographic patterns. We found support for the monophyly of P. kalolo, and only shallow genetic differentiation between East-African and Indo-Malayan populations of this species. However, our collections of the morphospecies P. argentilineatus include three molecularly distinct lineages, one of them more closely related to P. kalolo. The presence of Miocenic timings for the most recent common ancestors of some of these morphologically similar clades, suggests the presence of strong stabilising selection in mudskippers' habitats. At population level, demographic analyses and palaeoecological records of mangrove ecosystems suggest that Pleistocene bottlenecks and expansion plus secondary contact events of the studied species were associated with recurrent sea transgressions during interglacials, and sea regressions or stable regimes during glacials, respectively.

  18. CDC Kerala 12: Socio-demographic factors among children (2-6 y) with autism--a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Babu; Padmam, M S Razeena; Nair, M K C; Leena, M L; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-12-01

    To compare the socio-demographic factors among children between 2 and 6 y of age with autism and a control group of normal children. One hundred forty three confirmed cases of 2-6 y-old children with autism, attending autism clinic of Child Development Centre, who had a CARS score of more than 30 were included in the study. Two hundred normal children in the same age group were recruited from the well-baby/immunization clinic of SAT Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram. Data was collected using a structured pre-piloted questionnaire consisting of 11 socio-demographic possible risk factors. The multivariate analysis on socio-demographic characteristics as possible risk factors for autism has shown that (i) upper and upper middle socioeconomic status (OR: 7.13; CI: 3.26-15.57) and (ii) male gender (OR: 3.95; CI: 2.22-7.04) were significant risk factors for autism, whereas place of residence, rural (OR: 0.41; CI: 0.24-0.68) is a protective factor. This case control study involving 143 children between 2 and 6 y with autism as per CARS criteria and a control group of 200 normal children has shown that upper and upper middle socioeconomic status and (ii) male gender are significant risk factors for autism, whereas place of residence, rule is a protective factor.

  19. A Rural Community in a Brazilian Western Amazonian Region: Some Demographic and Epidemiological Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camargo LMA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Some demographic and epidemiological patterns of the rural population of Monte Negro, locality situated in the State of Rondônia (Brazil, Western Amazonia, are described based on a sample of 924 randomly selected individuals, approximately 10% of the whole population. The main features of this sample are (1 the illiteracy rates in the parental generation were 23% for fathers and 20% for mothers. Among children, this figure dropped to 6%; (2 housing in Monte Negro is characterized by being constructed with wood (92%, and also a floor (75%. Nevertheless, only 32% of these houses had electric energy; (3 the mean ages for the parental generation were 41.9 for males and 36.3 for females. These values for the offspring generation were 12.2 and 10.5, respectively; (4 the sex-ratio of the offspring generation was 1.32;(5 the bioassay of kinship was estimated as .033 for this long range migrant population; (6 the prevalence of some macrophage dependent infectious disease was conspicuously high; (7 the reported number of malarial episodes among males and females was statistically different, suggesting that malaria may be, in part, a "professional" disease; (8 the prevalence of serum-positive reactions against B-hepatitis is distressing. It has a strong age dependence and reaches 74% among adult males. Conversely, signs of active infection (AgHbs rises to 16% among children.

  20. Demographic, Behavioural and Normative Risk Factors for Gambling Problems Amongst Sports Bettors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Vitartas, Peter; Lamont, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Sports betting is growing exponentially, is heavily marketed and successfully targets young adult males. Associated gambling problems are increasing. Therefore, understanding risk factors for problem gambling amongst sports bettors is an increasingly important area of research to inform the appropriate design and targeting of public health and treatment interventions. This study aimed to identify demographic, behavioural and normative risk factors for gambling problems amongst sports bettors. An online survey of 639 Australian sports bettors using online, telephone and retail betting channels was conducted. Results indicated that vulnerable sports bettors for higher risk gambling are those who are young, male, single, educated, and employed full-time or a full-time student. Risk of problem gambling was also found to increase with greater frequency and expenditure on sports betting, greater diversity of gambling involvement, and with more impulsive responses to betting opportunities, including in-play live action betting. Normative influences from media advertising and from significant others were also associated with greater problem gambling risk. The results of this study can inform a suite of intervention, protection and treatment initiatives targeted especially at young male adults and adolescents that can help to limit the harm from this gambling form.

  1. Demographics of HIV-1 infection in Denmark: results from the Danish HIV Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Kronborg, Gitte; Kvinesdal, Birgit; Pedersen, Court; Larsen, Carsten S; Møller, Axel; Willumsen, Lars; Obel, Niels

    2005-01-01

    We used a population-based cohort study design to describe the demographic characteristics of the HIV-infected population in Denmark and their variation over time. HIV treatment in Denmark is restricted to 9 centres, and all 3941 HIV-1 infected patients more than 15 y old seen at these centres in 1995-2003 were included. We found an estimated HIV prevalence of 70 per 100,000, and a mean annual incidence rate of 5.1 per 100,000 persons. The number of newly infected individuals was stable with a median of 231 per y (period 1995-2002), whereas the number of deaths decreased from 166 in 1995 to 50 in 2000 (p=0.000) and remained stable thereafter. Of the enrolled patients, 75% were males, 80% were Caucasian, 13% were black African, and the primary risk behaviour was male-to-male sexual contact (44%), heterosexual contact (36%), and injection drug use (11%). During the y 1995-2003 we found an increase in age at diagnosis (p=0.000), and no major changes in gender, race, mode of infection, or baseline CD4+ cell count and viral load, neither overall not within subgroups of patients. In this period 14.5% had AIDS at the time of HIV diagnosis. Our data do not confirm concerns about unmonitored evolution in the HIV epidemic in Denmark.

  2. Demographic model of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Galeta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several recent lines of evidence indicate more intensive contact between LBK farmers and indigenous foragers in Central Europe (5600–5400 calBC. Strong continuity has been identified between Mesolithic and Neolithic material cultures; faunal assemblages, and isotopic analyses of diet have revealed a greater role of hunting in LBK communities; genetic analyses have suggested that the modern Central European gene pool is mainly of Palaeolithic origin. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to demographic aspects of the Neolithic transition. In our study, demographic simulations were performed to assess the demographic conditions that would allow LBK farmers to spread across central Europe without any admixture with Mesolithic foragers. We constructed a stochastic demographic model of changes in farming population size. Model parameters were constrained by data from human demography, archaeology, and human ecology. Our results indicate that the establishment of farming communities in Central Europe without an admixture with foragers was highly improbable. The demographic conditions necessary for colonization were beyond the potential of the Neolithic population. Our study supports the integrationists’ view of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe.

  3. Accounting for rate variation among lineages in comparative demographic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Malaney, Jason L.; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analyses of contemporary populations can be used to estimate the demographic histories of species within an ecological community. Comparison of these demographic histories can shed light on community responses to past climatic events. However, species experience different rates of molecular evolution, and this presents a major obstacle to comparative demographic analyses. We address this problem by using a Bayesian relaxed-clock method to estimate the relative evolutionary rates of 22 small mammal taxa distributed across northwestern North America. We found that estimates of the relative molecular substitution rate for each taxon were consistent across the range of sampling schemes that we compared. Using three different reference rates, we rescaled the relative rates so that they could be used to estimate absolute evolutionary timescales. Accounting for rate variation among taxa led to temporal shifts in our skyline-plot estimates of demographic history, highlighting both uniform and idiosyncratic evolutionary responses to directional climate trends for distinct ecological subsets of the small mammal community. Our approach can be used in evolutionary analyses of populations from multiple species, including comparative demographic studies.

  4. Stability of similarity measurements for bipartite networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Pan, Xue; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental measure in network analyses and machine learning algorithms, with wide applications ranging from personalized recommendation to socio-economic dynamics. We argue that an effective similarity measurement should guarantee the stability even under some information loss. With six bipartite networks, we investigate the stabilities of fifteen similarity measurements by comparing the similarity matrixes of two data samples which are randomly divided from original data sets. Results show that, the fifteen measurements can be well classified into three clusters according to their stabilities, and measurements in the same cluster have similar mathematical definitions. In addition, we develop a top-$n$-stability method for personalized recommendation, and find that the unstable similarities would recommend false information to users, and the performance of recommendation would be largely improved by using stable similarity measurements. This work provides a novel dimension to analyze and eval...

  5. Significant demographic and fine-scale genetic structure in expanding and senescing populations of the terrestrial orchid Cymbidium goeringii (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mi Yoon; Nason, John D; Chung, Myong Gi

    2011-12-01

    Fine-scale genetic structure (FSGS) in plants is influenced by variation in spatial and temporal demographic processes. To determine how demographic structure and FSGS change with stages of population succession, we studied replicate expanding and senescing populations of the Asian terrestrial orchid Cymbidium goeringii. We used spatial autocorrelation methods (O-ring and kinship statistics) to quantify spatial demographic structure and FSGS in two expanding and two senescing populations, also measuring genetic diversity and inbreeding in each. All populations exhibited significant aggregation of individuals and FSGS at short spatial scales. In expanding populations, this finding was associated with high recruitment rates, suggesting restricted seed dispersal. In senescing populations, recruitment was minimal, suggesting alternative mechanisms of aggregation, perhaps including spatial associations with mycorrhizal fungi. All populations had significant evidence of genetic bottlenecks, and inbreeding levels were consistently high. Our results indicate that different successional stages can generate similar patterns of spatial demographic and genetic structure, but as a consequence of different processes. These results contrast with the only other study of senescence effects on population genetic structure in an herbaceous perennial, which found little to no FSGS in senescing populations. With the exception of populations subject to mass collection by orchid sellers, significant FSGS is characteristic of the 16 terrestrial orchid species examined to date. From a conservation perspective, this result suggests that inference of orchid population history will benefit from analyses of both FSGS and demographic structure in combination with other ecological field data.

  6. [Prolactin and male fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, G; Börner, A; Lauterbach, H; Thiel, W

    1983-03-01

    On 68 selected patients with disturbances of the potentia generandi et/sive coeundi (25 males with healthy metabolism and 43 males with diabetes) as well as 14 control persons PRL, LH, FSH, testosterone and oestradiol were determined radioimmunologically and the results were ascribed to sexological, clinical, spermatological and testo-histological findings. A statistically secure correlation was found between PRL values and disturbance of the libido as well as the presence of a gynaecomasty. PRL did not correlate with the spermatological variables volume of ejaculate, relative and absolute number of spermatozoa and motility. PRL did also not correlate with the testohistological findings. A relation between PRL and the peptide hormones LH and FSH as well as the steroid hormones testosterone and oestradiol could not be ascertained. Therefore the diagnostic values of a PRL determination is much limited; the pertinency of a hyperprolactinaemia may be increased by the proof of the symptoms reduction of libido and gynaecomasty with simultaneous disturbance of fertility. In our opinion the definition of hyperprolactinaemia needs revision, since at only determination of the basal value of more than 800 mU/l no more frequently pathologically andrological findings are to be observed than below 200 mU/l.

  7. Experiencing Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the qualitative research literature that exists in relation to men’s experiences of male infertility. Since men have often been marginalized in the realm of reproduction, including academic research on infertility, it is important to focus on any qualitative research that gives voices to male perspectives and concerns. Given the distress documented by studies of infertile women, we focus in particular on the emotive responses and lived experiences of men in relation to infertility. In this article then, we present an analysis of the core themes across 19 qualitative articles, which include “infertility as crisis”; “emoting infertility- men as “being strong”’ “infertility as a source of stigma”; and the “desire for fatherhood.” In light of these insights, we identify key areas for future research and development including men’s emotional responses to infertility, how men seek support for infertility, the intersection between masculinity and infertility, the relationship between the desire to father and infertility, and the outcomes of infertility for men in terms of other aspects of their lives. We suggest that such research would facilitate making the experiences of men more central within our understandings of infertility within a field that has primarily been female focused.

  8. [Orchitis and male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppe, H-C; Pilatz, A; Hossain, H; Meinhardt, A; Bergmann, M; Haidl, G; Weidner, W

    2010-05-01

    Infections and inflammations of the genital tract are considered the most frequent causes of reduced male fertility, but conclusive epidemiological data are not available. In view of the exposure of germ cells to pathogenic components as well as the cells and mediators involved in the inflammatory processes, irreversible damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding decline of ejaculate quality are to be expected, particularly in cases of chronic orchitis. While the consequences of orchitis and epididymo-orchitis that exhibit clinical symptoms due to systemic or local infections are well known, including testicular atrophy and complete loss of fertility, those cases of inflammatory reactions of the testicles that manifest an asymptomatic or subclinical course, or are not even due to an infection, have received little attention until now. However, systematic histopathological analyses have shown a high prevalence of asymptomatic inflammatory reactions in testicular biopsies from infertile men. The mostly focal lymphocytic infiltrates correlate with the degree of damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding clinical and endocrinological parameters of testicular function. Noninvasive diagnostic techniques are not yet available so that chronic asymptomatic inflammations of the testicles as the primary cause or cofactor of male fertility disorders are underestimated. Except for administration of pathogen-specific antibiotics, treatment recommendations are to a large extent still lacking.

  9. Acoustic and perceptual similarity of Japanese and American English vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kanae; Strange, Winifred; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko; Kubo, Rieko; Trent-Brown, Sonja A

    2008-07-01

    Acoustic and perceptual similarities between Japanese and American English (AE) vowels were investigated in two studies. In study 1, a series of discriminant analyses were performed to determine acoustic similarities between Japanese and AE vowels, each spoken by four native male speakers using F1, F2, and vocalic duration as input parameters. In study 2, the Japanese vowels were presented to native AE listeners in a perceptual assimilation task, in which the listeners categorized each Japanese vowel token as most similar to an AE category and rated its goodness as an exemplar of the chosen AE category. Results showed that the majority of AE listeners assimilated all Japanese vowels into long AE categories, apparently ignoring temporal differences between 1- and 2-mora Japanese vowels. In addition, not all perceptual assimilation patterns reflected context-specific spectral similarity patterns established by discriminant analysis. It was hypothesized that this incongruity between acoustic and perceptual similarity may be due to differences in distributional characteristics of native and non-native vowel categories that affect the listeners' perceptual judgments.

  10. Toxic effect of blood feeding in male mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood R Nikbakhtzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood- and sugar feeding of female mosquitoes has been frequently observed in the laboratory and in the field, but only sugar feeding of males has been reported. Here, we describe for the first time that Culex quinquefasciatus males feed on blood as well. Blood feeding easily happened on a blood-soaked cotton roll and, to a lesser extent, through a thin artificial layer. Mating history of a male specimen does not affect his blood feeding behavior. Male mosquitoes feed on blood even when they have a readily available sugar source. Nevertheless, feeding on blood reduces the survival rate of males to just a few days, as compared to more than a month for mosquitoes fed only on sugar. Comparing survival of male mosquitoes fed on blood only, sugar only, and a combination of both clearly demonstrated that mortality is not affected by malnutrition (reduced sugar levels, but rather due to ingested blood. On average male mosquitoes ingested ca. 0.5 µl of blood, i.e., about 10% of the amount of blood ingested by an engorged female. Although this unexpected observation of blood feeding in the laboratory by male mosquitoes is interesting, structural impairment prevents male feeding on vertebrate blood. In agreement with the literature, male and female proboscises and stylets were in general of similar size, but male mandibles were significantly shorter than female counterparts, thus explaining their inability to pierce through skin layers.

  11. Trade-Offs in Male Display Activity with Lek Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, César; Loiselle, Bette A.; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    In lek mating systems, males aggregate and defend arenas where they display for females; females select and mate with a male and then solely raise their offspring. Generally, female visits and copulations increase and reproductive variance in male mating success declines with lek size. Here we investigate how male display effort changes across a gradient in lek size. We expect male display effort, an energetically expensive activity, will increase with lek size and male rank due to changes in breeding opportunities and competition among males. We test the interaction of male rank and lek size on display effort using the white-bearded manakin, Manacus manacus (Aves: Pipridae), a well-studied species with a wide geographic distribution in the new world tropics. We used mini-video recorders to simultaneously capture female visits and display behaviors of 41 males distributed over 10 leks. We found that overall display effort increased disproportionately with lek size due to males of both high and low ranks increasing their display effort at larger leks. Our results suggest that increased breeding opportunities and intrasexual competition at larger leks result in males of different ranks investing similarly in increased display effort in order to attract females. PMID:27680489

  12. Evaluating vegetation effects on animal demographics: the role of plant phenology and sampling bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel; Blomberg, Erik J; Sedinger, James S

    2016-04-24

    Plant phenological processes produce temporal variation in the height and cover of vegetation. Key aspects of animal life cycles, such as reproduction, often coincide with the growing season and therefore may inherently covary with plant growth. When evaluating the influence of vegetation variables on demographic rates, the decision about when to measure vegetation relative to the timing of demographic events is important to avoid confounding between the demographic rate of interest and vegetation covariates. Such confounding could bias estimated effect sizes or produce results that are entirely spurious. We investigated how the timing of vegetation sampling affected the modeled relationship between vegetation structure and nest survival of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), using both simulated and observational data. We used the height of live grasses surrounding nests as an explanatory covariate, and analyzed its effect on daily nest survival. We compared results between models that included grass height measured at the time of nest fate (hatch or failure) with models where grass height was measured on a standardized date - that of predicted hatch date. Parameters linking grass height to nest survival based on measurements at nest fate produced more competitive models, but slope coefficients of grass height effects were biased high relative to truth in simulated scenarios. In contrast, measurements taken at predicted hatch date accurately predicted the influence of grass height on nest survival. Observational data produced similar results. Our results demonstrate the importance of properly considering confounding between demographic traits and plant phenology. Not doing so can produce results that are plausible, but ultimately inaccurate.

  13. Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Charpentier, Marie; Knapp, Leslie A; Wickings, E Jean

    2008-07-01

    Sexual selection theory explains the evolution of exaggerated male morphologies and weaponry, but the fitness consequences of developmental and age-related changes in these features remain poorly understood. This long-term study of mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx) demonstrates how age-related changes in canine tooth weaponry and adult canine size correlate closely with male lifetime reproductive success. Combining long-term demographic and morphometric data reveals that male fitness covaries simply and directly with canine ontogeny, adult maximum size, and wear. However, fitness is largely independent of other somatometrics. Male mandrills sire offspring almost exclusively when their canines exceed approximately 30 mm, or two-thirds of average adult value (45 mm). Moreover, sires have larger canines than nonsires. The tooth diminishes through wear as animals age, corresponding with, and perhaps influencing, reproductive senescence. These factors combine to constrain male reproductive opportunities to a brief timespan, defined by the period of maximum canine length. Sexually-selected weaponry, especially when it is nonrenewable like the primate canine tooth, is intimately tied to the male life course. Our analyses of this extremely dimorphic species indicate that sexual selection is closely intertwined with growth, development, and aging, pointing to new directions for sexual selection theory. Moreover, the primate canine tooth has potential as a simple mammalian system for testing genetically-based models of aging. Finally, the tooth may record details of life histories in fossil primates, especially when sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of dimorphism.

  14. Occupational causes of male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens P E

    2013-01-01

    To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function.......To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function....

  15. Bilateral synchronous male breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nwashilli, Nnamdi J; Ugiagbe, Ezekiel E

    2015-01-01

    .... The importance of this case report is to create more awareness that breast cancer can occur in males just as in females, though the incidence is rare in males. Early presentation and compliance with treatment modality provide a better outcome.

  16. Therapeugenic Factors in Psychotherapy: The Effect of Attitude Similarity on Therapist Credibility and Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautt, Gregory M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The therapist with similar attitudes was seen as more qualified, higher in interpersonal attraction, and more likeable. Subjects were more willing to recommend or seek therapy from these therapists. Significant interaction indicated that male subjects were more affected by the degree of attitude similarity. (Author)

  17. Therapeugenic Factors in Psychotherapy: The Effect of Attitude Similarity on Therapist Credibility and Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautt, Gregory M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The therapist with similar attitudes was seen as more qualified, higher in interpersonal attraction, and more likeable. Subjects were more willing to recommend or seek therapy from these therapists. Significant interaction indicated that male subjects were more affected by the degree of attitude similarity. (Author)

  18. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to use individual data on socio-demographic characteristics to identify predictors of participation in mammography screening and control to what extent they can explain the regional difference. We used data from mammography screening programmes in Copenhagen, 1991-1999, and Funen......, 1993-2001, Denmark. Target groups were identified from the Population Register, screening data came from the health authority, and socio-demographic data from Statistics Denmark. Included were women eligible for at least 3 screens. The crude RR of never use versus always use was 3.21 (95%CI, 3...... women in Copenhagen, irrespective of their socio-demographic characteristics, had low participation. Screening programmes have to find ways to handle this urbanity factor....

  19. Memory endowed US cities and their demographic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Hernando, A; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory-time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in an European country (Spain), giving to the US a more coherent evolution. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (as the Civil War) or economic crisis (as the 1929 Stock Market Crash).

  20. Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Veronica Litra

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compared with the other european countries. It may be said that the transition in Romania over the period 1990-2004 adjusted the classical pattern of demographic evolution. Not fully felt at this moment, we will probably find ourselves few decades later older, less, deprived of skilled labor force and unbalanced as gender ratio.

  1. Memory-endowed US cities and their demographic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, A; Hernando, R; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

    2015-01-06

    A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in a European country (Spain), indicating more coherent evolution in US cities. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (such as the American Civil War) or economic crisis (such as the 1929 Stock Market Crash).

  2. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.

  3. Demographic potential as a component of life quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Vladimirovna Polkova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and methodical reasons for allocation of components of life quality with the particular importance of population quality, including demographic (reproduction potential are provided in the article. The integrated indicators of population quality in Ural federal district regions were calculated and analyzed in dynamics, basing on an author’s technique of integrated index estimation of population quality. Advantages of use the integrated index of population quality (IIKN before the human development index (HDI caused by inclusion in it the major demographic indicators in regional estimates are proved. Peculiarities of HDI and IIKN dynamics in Russia regions for the last decade are demonstrated; their value for efficiency evaluation of realizing state programs in the social and demographic sphere is shown.

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL IN FUNCTION OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalce Gjorgievski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features.In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc. for the tourism economy. We know that the basic elements of tourism are the natural and cultural wealth that detect, evaluate and put into operation in tourism. However, it has its function, the basic factor are the people who need to visit those places, so it is very important to understand the demographic characteristics of people in every region of the globe in order to come to some understanding of the habits, needs and affinities of people depending on age, nationality and religious affiliation, etc. when choosing their travel destination.

  5. THE SECOND DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORY: A Review and Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Batool; Morgan, S. Philip

    2017-01-01

    References to the second demographic transition (SDT) concept/theoretical framework have increased dramatically in the last two decades. The SDT predicts unilinear change toward very low fertility and a diversity of union and family types. The primary driver of these changes is a powerful, inevitable and irreversible shift in attitudes and norms in the direction of greater individual freedom and self-actualization. First, we describe the origin of this framework and its evolution over time. Second, we review the empirical fit of the framework to major changes in demographic and family behavior in the U.S., the West, and beyond. As has been the case for other unilinear, developmental theories of demographic/family change, the SDT failed to predict many contemporary patterns of change/difference. Finally, we review previous critiques and identify fundamental weaknesses of this perspective, and provide brief comparisons to selected alternative approaches. PMID:28798523

  6. Demographic changes in towns of Central Serbia: Comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Marko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to intensive urbanization, Central Serbia's urban population reached almost 60% in the total population. Despite the fact that the urban residents share in Serbia is still bellow the level of urbanization in developed countries, in which the percentage of urban residents exudes 70% (in majority of cases even more than 80%, it is an impression that demographic "resources" of rural areas have bean rather exhausted and that all demographic revitalization potential of Central Serbia is concentrated in towns. This paper treats the demographic changes which encompassed the towns of Central Serbia since 1981 census onwards, with special emphasis on the population migrations as well as on the natural growth, i.e. age - gender structure formation featuring the towns of Central Serbia. The changes will be analyzed trough a comparative analysis at the level of small, medium sized towns and big cities, while Belgrade will be represent as a special category.

  7. Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Veronica Litra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compared with the other european countries. It may be said that the transition in Romania over the period 1990-2004 adjusted the classical pattern of demographic evolution. Not fully felt at this moment, we will probably find ourselves few decades later older, less, deprived of skilled labor force and unbalanced as gender ratio.

  8. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji

    2016-07-14

    Self-similar processes have been widely used in modeling real-world phenomena occurring in environmetrics, network traffic, image processing, and stock pricing, to name but a few. The estimation of the degree of self-similarity has been studied extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi-self-similarity for a random field indexed in higher dimensions. If self-similarity is not rejected, our test provides a set of estimated self-similarity indexes. The key is to test stationarity of the inverse Lamperti transformations of the process. The inverse Lamperti transformation of a self-similar process is a strongly stationary process, revealing a theoretical connection between the two processes. To demonstrate the capability of our test, we test self-similarity of fractional Brownian motions and sheets, their time deformations and mixtures with Gaussian white noise, and the generalized Cauchy family. We also apply the self-similarity test to real data: annual minimum water levels of the Nile River, network traffic records, and surface heights of food wrappings. © 2016, International Biometric Society.

  9. Male-male pheromone signalling in a lekking Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widemo, Fredrik; Johansson, Björn G

    2006-03-22

    Interest in sex pheromones has mainly been focused on mate finding, while relatively little attention has been given to the role of sex pheromones in mate choice and almost none to competition over mates. Here, we study male response to male pheromones in the lekking Drosophila grimshawi, where males deposit long-lasting pheromone streaks that attract males and females to the leks and influence mate assessment. We used two stocks of flies and both stocks adjusted their pheromone depositing behaviour in response to experimental manipulation, strongly indicating male ability to distinguish between competitors from qualitative differences in pheromone streaks alone. This is the first example of an insect distinguishing between individual odour signatures. Pheromone signalling influenced competition over mates, as males adjusted their investment in pheromone deposition in response to foreign pheromone streaks. Both sexes adapt their behaviour according to information from olfactory cues in D. grimshawi, but the relative benefits from male-female, as compared to male-male signalling, remain unknown. It seems likely that the pheromone signalling system originally evolved for attracting females to leks. The transition to a signalling system for conveying information about individuals may well, however, at least in part have been driven by benefits from male-male signalling.

  10. Motivations, enrollment decisions, and socio-demographic characteristics of healthy volunteers in phase 1 research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Christine; Bedarida, Gabriella; Sinaii, Ninet; Gregorio, Mark Anthony; Emanuel, Ezekiel J

    2017-08-01

    Phase 1 trials with healthy volunteers are an integral step in drug development. Commentators worry about the possible exploitation of healthy volunteers because they are assumed to be disadvantaged, marginalized, and inappropriately influenced by the offer of money for research for which they do not appreciate the inherent risks. Yet there are limited data to support or refute these concerns. This study aims to describe the socio-demographic characteristics, motivations, and enrollment decision-making of a large cohort of healthy volunteers. We used a cross-sectional anonymous survey of 1194 healthy volunteers considering enrollment in phase 1 studies at Pfizer Clinical Research Units in New Haven, CT; Brussels, Belgium; and Singapore. Descriptive statistics describe motivations and socio-demographic characteristics. Comparisons between groups were examined. The majority rated consideration of risks as more important to their enrollment decision than the amount of money, despite reporting that their primary motivation was financial. Risk, time, money, the competence and friendliness of research staff, and contributing to medical research were important factors influencing enrollment decisions for most participants. The majority of healthy volunteers in this cohort were male, single, reported higher than high school education, and 70% had previous research experience. Many reported low annual incomes (50% below USD$25,000) and high rates of unemployment (33% overall). Nonetheless, risk as an important consideration, money, and other reported considerations and motivations, except for time, did not vary by income, employment, education, or previous experience. There were regional differences in both socio-demographic characteristics and factors important to participation decisions. Healthy volunteers in phase 1 studies consider risks as more important to their enrollment decisions than the amount of money offered, although most are motivated to participate by the

  11. Overweight and Obesity in Italian Adolescents: Examined Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galfo, Myriam; D'Addezio, Laura; Censi, Laura; Roccaldo, Romana; Martone, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity derived from measured data of weight and height in a cross-sectional sample of adolescents in the Italian region of Lazio and to analyse their association with different socio-demographic factors. The study was conducted in a representative sample of 15-16-year-old adolescents recruited in secondary schools between December 2011 and May 2012. 369 adolescents were investigated. Body weight, height and waist circumference were measured. The BMI of each subject was calculated, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined by age and sex using the IOTF reference values and WHO growth standards. Waist circumference/height ratio (WC/Ht) was calculated and the subjects were classified using the cut-off of 0.5: WC/Ht≥0.5 and WC/Htsocio-demographic characteristics were assessed via questionnaire. The percentages of overweight and obesity were high, 15.4% and 7.9%, respectively, with significant difference between males and females (19.1% vs. 12.6% for overweight and 11.1% vs. 5.3% for obese) using the IOFT reference. The ratio WC/Ht≥0.5 was observed in 12.7% of the sample (all the obese and 29.8% of the overweight subjects). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that gender, school municipality, mother's employment status, and family structure had a significant effect on ponderal status (overweight/obesity vs. normal weight). These findings show a high prevalence of body weight excess associated with socio-demographic factors in the Italian sample investigated, and the need for effective public health interventions to combact obesity with particular attention to disadvantaged adolescents.

  12. Direct cost of dengue hospitalization in Zhongshan, China: Associations with demographics, virus types and hospital accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing Hua; Yuan, Juan; Wang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    Zhongshan City of Guangdong Province (China) is a key provincial and national level area for dengue fever prevention and control. The aim of this study is to analyze how the direct hospitalization costs and the length of stay of dengue hospitalization cases vary according to associated factors such as the demographics, virus types and hospital accreditation. This study is based on retrospective census data from the Chinese National Disease Surveillance Reporting System. Totally, the hospital administrative data of 1432 confirmed dengue inpatients during 2013-2014 was obtained. A quantile regression model was applied to analyze how the direct cost of Dengue hospitalization varies with the patient demographics and hospital accreditation across the data distribution. The Length of Stay (LOS) was also examined. The average direct hospitalization cost of a dengue case in this study is US$ 499.64 during 2013, which corresponded to about 3.71% of the gross domestic product per capita in Zhongshan that year. The mean of the Length of Stay (LOS) is 7.2 days. The multivariate quantile regression results suggest that, after controlling potential compounding variables, the median hospitalization costs of male dengue patients were significantly higher than female ones by about US$ 18.23 (pdengue cases vary widely according to the associated demographics factors, virus types and hospital accreditations. The findings in this study provide information for adopting hospitalization strategy, cost containment and patient allocation in dengue prevention and control. Also the results can be used as the cost-effective reference for future dengue vaccine adoption strategy in China.

  13. Segmentation analysis of financial savings markets through the lens of psycho-demographics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendy Matenge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study seeks to contribute to the discourse of financial savings market segmentation. The study explores different segments of savers on the basis of demographic and psychographic characteristics that are unique to each segment relying on the perspectives of a sample of consumers of financial saving programmes. Design/methodology/approach: Principles of perceptual mapping were used to analyse 33 semi-structured interviews that gathered data on the participants’ psychographic make-up such as personal values, motives for saving, attitudes towards savings and perceived conditions of savings. Findings: Eight distinct segments emerged on each psychographic characteristic based on the participants’ demographics of income, gender and age. However, only five were sizeable enough to be interpreted, being three segments from the males’ category and two from the females’ category. The three segments that emerged within the male category are young low-income earners (YoLI, young high-income earners (YoHI and old high-income earners (OHI while the two female segments include YoLI and OHI. The most sizeable segment of savers in both gender-based categories is one of old adults who have a high income. These segments vary in terms of values, motives and perceptions. Originality/value: The study suggests that a multi-dimensional approach of segmenting financial savings markets is more effective, as neither the demographic nor the psychographic segmentation can fully describe the saving behaviour of consumers. Research implications: The findings of the present study provide strategic communication implications for financial institutions for the respective segments.

  14. Total elbow arthroplasty in the United States: evaluation of cost, patient demographics, and complication rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA is utilized in the treatment of rheumatoid and post-traumatic elbow arthritis. TEA is a relatively low volume surgery in comparison to other types of arthroplasty and therefore little is known about current surgical utilization, patient demographics and complication rates in the United States. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the current practice trends and associated inpatient complications of TEA at academic centers in the United States. We queried the University Health Systems Consortium administrative database from 2007 to 2011 for patients who underwent an elective TEA. A descriptive analysis of demographics was performed which included patient age, sex, race, and insurance status. We also evaluated the following patient clinical benchmarks: hospital length of stay (LOS, hospital direct cost, inhospital mortality, complications, and 30-day readmission rates. Our cohort consisted of 3146 adult patients (36.5% male and 63.5% female with an average age of 58 years who underwent a total elbow arthroplasty (159 academic medical centers in the United States. The racial demographics included 2334 (74% Caucasian, 285 (9% black, 236 (7.5% Hispanic, 16 (0.5% Asian, and 283 (9% other patients. The mean LOS was 4.2±5 days and the mean total direct cost for the hospital was 16,300±4000 US Dollars per case. The overall inpatient complication rate was 3.1% and included mortality <1%, DVT (0.8%, re-operation (0.5%, and infection (0.4%. The 30-day readmission rate was 4.4%. TEA is a relatively uncommon surgery in comparison to other forms of arthroplasty but is associated with low in-patient and 30-day perioperative complication rate. Additionally, the 30-day readmission rate and overall hospital costs are comparable to the traditional total hip and knee arthroplasty surgeries.

  15. Effect of similarity of ego identity status on interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, J A; Rosenzweig, C M; Lutter, A D

    1980-04-01

    Similarity of ego identity status, assessed by Marcia's four-category classification system, was related to interpersonal attraction. Using male and female college students as subjects, this study found that (1) while all judges preferred targets who had or who are undergoing a crisis to those who have not had a crisis, (2) diffuse judges preferred targets with no commitments to those with commitments, and (3) judges with commitments preferred a foreclosure target more than judges without commitments. Differential evaluations of the targets' intelligence, knowledge of current events, adjustment, and morality were also found. Results are discussed both in terms of previous research positively relating personality similarity to attraction and Erikson's theory of the relationship between ego identity development and intimacy in interpersonal relations.

  16. Motivating the population to cope with the demographic change

    OpenAIRE

    König, Armin

    2009-01-01

    The effects of the demographic challenge will change the nature of politics and the emphasis of political sectors over the next 20 years, especially on a local level. This calls for new ways of thinking, new social skills and a new frame of awareness to allow for sustainable development. The community of Illingen in the Saarland, a town of 18,000 residents, has not denied the demographic change, but has accepted it. It shows how the populace, politics and administration have been confronted w...

  17. Demographic and labor market in the Chilean countryside Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos René Rodríguez Garcés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the information provided by the National Socioeconomic Survey of 1990 and 2013, the Chilean countryside reconfigurations are analyzed in terms of their demographic trends and labor market restructuring. A continuous process of depopulation and aging of the rural population is demographically notes. The agricultural activities of the rural labor market charge less important in terms of jobs and income, showing a strong process and favoring deagrarianisation positioning services area. Finally, a growing number of households that hold informal consensual unions and a greater presence of single-parent households, mainly consisting of female-headed households is observed.

  18. Sessile serrated adenomas:Demographic,endoscopic and pathological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suryakanth; R; Gurudu; Russell; I; Heigh; Giovanni; De; Petris; Evelyn; G; Heigh; Jonathan; A; Leighton; Shabana; F; Pasha; Isaac; B; Malagon; Ananya; Das

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To study the demographic and endoscopic characteristics of patients with sessile serrated adenoma(SSA) in a single center.METHODS:Patients with SSA were identified by review of the pathology database of Mayo Clinic Arizona from 2005 to 2007.A retrospective chart review was performed to extract data on demographics,polyp characteristics,presence of synchronous adenomatous polyps or cancer,polypectomy methods,and related complications.RESULTS:One hundred and seventy-one(2.9%) of all patients undergoing co...

  19. Plague mortality and demographic depression in later medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poos, L R

    1981-01-01

    Both direct and indirect evidence implies that England experienced a lengthy period of stagnant or declining population during the later fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The Black Death of 1348-1349 had brought about profound changes in England's agrarian economy, and this subsequent demographic depression is most commonly interpreted by historians as the result of plague mortality, recurring in severe outbreaks after the disease's introduction into the country. This paper reviews the evidence and assumptions behind this interpretation, in light of recent research by historical demographers and epidemiologists into bubonic plague epidemics and general mortality crises during the post-medieval period.

  20. Contrasting demographic histories of the neighboring bonobo and chimpanzee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Carlsen, Frands; Heller, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    analyzed complete mitochondrial genomes representing all four recognized chimpanzee subspecies and the bonobo to infer the recent demographic history and used simulations to exclude a confounding effect of population structure. Our genus-wide Bayesian coalescent-based analysis revealed surprisingly...... dissimilar demographic histories of the chimpanzee subspecies and the bonobo, despite their overlapping habitat requirements. Whereas the central and eastern chimpanzee subspecies were inferred to have expanded tenfold between around 50,000 and 80,000 years ago and today, the population size...