WorldWideScience

Sample records for democratic political system

  1. Radical democratic politics and feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Labrin, Soledad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article I present a reflection around the radical democratic project proposed by Chantal Mouffe and Ernesto Laclau. Specifically, I examine the application of the project in the context of the “new social movements” and especially, of feminist movement. I state the need of drawing attention to universalism and essentialism as the main obstacles to generate a collective proposal without margins. Nevertheless, doubts remind about the possibility of building up a feminism tailored by the radical democratic project, in a stage in which the political action of such a movement is characterized by categories that are closed and crystallized

  2. Receptivity, possibility, and democratic politics

    OpenAIRE

    Kompridis, Nikolas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I present a model of receptivity that is composed of ontological and normative dimensions, which I argue answer to the critical-diagnostic and to the possibility-disclosing needs of democratic politics. I distinguish between ‘pre-reflective receptivity,’ understood ontologically as a condition of intelligibility, and ‘reflective receptivity,’ understood normatively as a condition of disclosing new possibilities.Keywords: receptivity; change; possibility; critique; reflective dis...

  3. Democratic theory and comparative politics

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Guillermo

    1999-01-01

    "The present text is, basically, a revision of democratic theory from the perspective of its inadequacies for including into its scope many of the recently democratized countries, as well as some older democracies located outside of the Northwestern quadrant of the world. After warning that it is a first step in a larger and more ambitious endeavor, the paper begins by critically examining various definitions of democracy, especially those that, claiming to follow Schumpeter, a...

  4. Influences of John Locke’s Political Ideas on Western Democratic Politics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂云

    2012-01-01

      John Locke’s political ideas played a very important role in promoting the development of western democratic poli⁃tics. They greatly influenced the drafting of The Declaration of Independence and The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, gave impetus to American Revolution and French Revolution in the eighteenth century, laid the theoretic foundation for modern politics and shaped the modern constitutional system.

  5. Gender, religion and democratic politics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zoya

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the impact of identity politics on gender equality. More specifically it explores the paradoxical and complex relationship of religion and politics in a multi-religious society and the complicated ways in which women's activism has both reinforced and challenged their gender identities. Contrary to the argument that religious politics does not always negate gender equality, the article argues that the Hindu religious politics and women's activism associated with it provides a compelling example of the instrumentalisation of women to accomplish the political goals of the Hindu right. It also examines the approach and strategies of influential political parties, women's organisations and Muslim women's groups towards legal reform and the contested issue of a uniform civil code. Against those who argue that, in the current communal conjuncture, reform within Muslim personal laws or Islamic feminism is the best strategy for enhancing the scope of Muslim women's rights, the article argues that such an approach tends to freeze identities within religious boundaries. It shows how women's and minority rights are used within the politics of religion to sideline the agenda of women's rights.

  6. Democratization and the illegalization of political parties in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    2012-01-01

    state. I identify features of ‘new’ and ‘incomplete’ democracies that help explain proscription. Case studies on Germany, Austria, Russia, Latvia and Greece illustrate the impact of ‘modes of transition’, heightened uncertainty, political tensions and instability on ‘new democracy bans’, and the impact......This article explores the literature on democratization to account for the proscription of political parties in democratizing states. A survey of 22 party bans in 12 European states identifies two distinct classes of proscription derived from the ‘degree of democratization’ present in a banning...... of illiberalism, limited checks on executive power and circumscribed political participation on ‘incomplete democracy bans’....

  7. The Fourth Age of Political Communication: Democratic decay or the rise of phronetic political communication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Aagaard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The ‘fourth age’ of political communication is emerging. In the fourth age the logics of media and digitization shapes the public sphere, because algorithms and polarized drama increasingly determine what we become aware of in digital and mass media. The result may very well be a less informed public sphere. The emerging class of policy professionals has the opportunity to mix the logics of mediatization and digitization. While such a mix may very well lead to democratic decay, based on elitism, it may also hold fruitful potentials for a more democratic and ethical type of political communication, called phronetic political communication.

  8. Political Intersectionality and Democratic Politics in the European Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2015-01-01

    intersections of gender and ethnic diversity in political life at the national and transnational levels across Europe. In this context, political intersectionality refers to the framing of gender and ethnic diversity by major political actors as well as by activities of women’s and anti-racist organisations...... Public Sphere (EPS). It is inspired by results and reflections from the European Gender Project (EGP) , where intersectionality was used as an approach for analysing negotiations between gender and ethno-national diversity in selected European countries and in relation to the European Public Sphere...

  9. Political differences in past, present, and future life satisfaction: Republicans are more sensitive than democrats to political climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Mandel

    Full Text Available Previous research finds that Republicans report being happier or more satisfied with their lives than Democrats. Using representative American samples from 2002, 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2010, we tested a Person × Situation interactionist account in which political affiliation (Democrat, Republican and political climate (favorable when the president in office is of the same party are proposed to affect past, present, and anticipated future life satisfaction. Meta-analyses of related tests of key hypotheses confirmed that (a life satisfaction was greater when the political climate was favorable rather than unfavorable and (b Republicans were more sensitive to political climate than Democrats. As predicted, Republicans also were more politically polarized than Democrats. Taken together, the findings indicate that, compared to Democrats, Republicans are more apt to self-identify in political terms, and core aspects of their subjective well-being are more easily affected by the outcome of political events.

  10. Democratic Government”, Interest Groups and American Trade Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanyu Dong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of American trade politics is of great significance when interpreting U.S.A. trade policies and understanding China-U.S.A. trade relations. In order to explain the mechanism of American trade politics, this paper constructs a new analytical framework of “democratic government-interest groups”, which argues that U.S.A. trade policies are not only the choices made by the democratic government between state interests and political private benefits, but also the outcomes of interaction between the U.S.A. government and interest groups. The case study of the U.S.A. trade policies toward China since the new century also demonstrates how the interaction between the government and interest groups ultimately shapes trade policies. Therefore, we need to understand the logic of American trade politics, generate more mutual benefits for our two countries, and work together to promote the bilateral free trade as well as the bilateral relations between China and the U.S.A.

  11. Schools, Democratic Socialization and Political Participation: Political Activity and Passivity among Swedish Youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Ekman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present text is based on a key note lecture (‘Civic Education, Democracy and Political Participation’ delivered at the symposium Globalization of School Subjects – Challenges for Civics, History, Geography and Religious Education, Karlstad University, 13–14 December, 2012. Drawing on recent developments in research on political participation and civic engagement, the text starts out with a discussion about different ways of understanding political passivity. Subsequently, the text turns to a brief analysis of ways in which schools may provide young people with political skills and competencies needed in a democratic society. Three dimensions of political citizenship are highlighted: political efficacy, political literacy, and political participation; and the analysis focuses on the impact of a number of different school-related factors on these three ‘citizenship competencies’.

  12. Muslim Politics in Malaysia and the Democratization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Thaib

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article will address the Muslim politics in Malaysia in the light of the broader shifts towards democratization and Islamization by focusing on politics among the majority ethnic Malay community, followed an overview of the ideological rivalry between UMNO and PAS, with special reference to the electoral performances of these parties in the past three general elections (November 1999, March 2004 and March 2008 . It then explores the underlying reason for the perceived importance of Islam in understanding the voting trend among the Malay-Muslim electorate which raised the question to what extent was the discourse on Islam instrumental in persuading the Malays to switch their support from PAS to the UMNO during the 2004 elections, and in the process of continued participation as an ‘Islamic Party’ in Malaysian mainstream politics what factors were that encouraged the PAS leaders to compromises and to play by the ‘rule of democracy’. In the concluding part of the article the writer also provide with an overview on reform agenda of Civilizational Islam (Islam Hadhari under premiership of Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi and the current Malaysia’s Transformation Programme (GTP under the leadership of Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun Abdul Razak.

  13. The Democratic System of Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Thomas J.

    Different researchers have suggested a variety of definitions for democratic leadership. As there is no one generally accepted definition, it is difficult to categorically characterize a style as democratic. Democracy in a pure form is based on the assumption that no member of the group is superior to other members. In operation, no organization…

  14. Pentecostalism, gerontocratic rule and democratization in Malawi : the changing position of the young in political culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van R.A.; Haynes, J.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter explores the relationship between the father-metaphor, gerontocratic power, democratization and religion in the context of changing political culture in Malawi. It argues that democratization in Malawi signalled a change in the nature of the dominant gerontocratic power relations associ

  15. Education for All Meets Political Democratization: Free Primary Education and the Neoliberalization of the Malawian School and State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    In recent years sub-Saharan African states, including Malawi, have adopted the Education for All (EFA) goal of universal, fee-free primary education (UPE). The EFA process is often linked to the expansion and sustainability of universal rights, democratic processes, and political systems. The EFA policies have also been tied, discursively and in…

  16. From Pericles to Plato – from democratic political praxis to totalitarian political philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øjvind Larsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plato is normally taken as one of the founders of Western political philosophy, not at least with his Republic. Here, he constructs a hierarchy of forms of governments, beginning with aristocracy at the top as a critical standard for the other forms of governments, and proceeding through timocracy and oligarchy to democracy and tyranny at the bottom. Following Karl Popper, the paper argues that Plato’s is a totalitarian philosophy that emphasizes the similarities between democracy and tyranny, which it considers to be the two worst forms of government. Plato’s denigration of democracy has dominated the tradition of political philosophy until recent times. This paper, however, shows that political philosophy in fact originates in democracy, especially as developed by the sophists and that philosophy is only a form of sophism with a similar origin in ancient Greek democracy. A discussion of Pericles’ funeral oration is used to show that Pericles presented a democratic political philosophy that can serve as a counterpoint to Plato’s political philosophy in the Republic.

  17. Religion, politics and gender equality in Turkey: implications of a democratic paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, Yeşim

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the gendered implications of the intertwining of Islam and politics that took shape after the process of democratisation in Turkey had brought a political party with an Islamist background to power. This development revived the spectre of restrictive sex roles for women. The country is thus confronted with a democratic paradox: the expansion of religious freedoms accompanying potential and/or real threats to gender equality. The ban on the Islamic headscarf in universities has been the most visible terrain of public controversy on Islam. However, the paper argues that a more threatening development is the propagation of patriarchal religious values, sanctioning secondary roles for women through the public bureaucracy as well as through the educational system and civil society organisations.

  18. The Democratic Worth of Celebrity Politics in an Era of Late Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Keywords:\\ud \\ud celebrity politicians;\\ud late modernity;\\ud Barack Obama;\\ud political aesthetics\\ud \\ud In a seminal article published in 2004, John Street argued that celebrity politics has provided a greater expression for the enhancement of democratic behaviour. Consequently, this analysis builds on Street's thesis to consider the worth of celebrity politics in an era of late modernity. To this end, it employs Henrik Bang's and John Keane's constructs of Everyday Makers and Monitory Dem...

  19. The politics of civil society building: European private aid agencies and democratic transitions in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Biekart, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    textabstractStrengthening civil society may be all the rage in the international donor community, but what does it mean in practice? This seminal work critically examines the political aspects of civil society building and the role of non-governmental development aid agencies during recent democratic transitions in Central America. ‘The Politics of Civil Society Building’ is the first comparative study of the policies, practices and political impact of European NGO aid interventions. Drawing ...

  20. From Islamist to Muslim Democrat: The Present Phenomenon of Muslim Politics in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHD IZANI MOHD ZAIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Muslim political rivalry in democracy has triggered the birth of two groups; Islamist and Muslim Democrat. The two groups are competing by using a different approach in getting the support of the people. The Islamist group is championing its Islamic State agenda and the implementation of Shari`a as a political ambition within the framework of democracy while the Muslim Democrat recognises democracy and freedom as the basis of their struggle. Due to a greater development in democracy and a more open political rivalry, the Islamist group that was initially strongly backed by their rigid ideology and approach, has decided to change for a more moderate approach. This can be seen through their political strategy that emphasises on universal issues such as democracy, justice and good governance without rhetorical expressions of Islam and Shari`a. This change from Islamist to that of Muslim Democrat is an exciting development for it shows the transition path and direction of Muslim politics in Malaysia. This paper examines the latest development of the Islamist group, i.e. PAS in political rivalry in Malaysia, particularly in the recent General Election in 2013. This article reveals that due to the changing political landscape and democratization, the Islamist has pragmatically moderated their stance to gain more supports and it has embarked on a new landscape for Muslim political rivalry in Malaysia. Although PAS’s new approach to transform its approach to be more open and democratic is still questionable, this study believes that the participation of the party in democracy is no longer just for the sake of election, on the other hand it should recognise democracy as a political culture that emphasizes justice, freedom and good governance.

  1. Postapartheid South Africa: A Solution for a Democratic and Nonracial Political Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-25

    governmental policies as the 6 % %S % %% 4- establishment of designated black homelands have not given birth to a fair democratic system . Moreover, neither the...students for the wider world." 14 The struggle to set the stage for a more democratic system of education should certainly be on a permanent basis...South Africans themselves, by Igoing towards extreme positions, jeopardize their chances to establish an , -: original democratic system . The case of

  2. Politicians without borders. Transnational networks, political parties and democratization in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando PEDROSA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper lies within the Latin America democratization studies, emphasizing the activity of politicians and political parties as transnational actors and considering the interconnection between different levels (local, national and international was one of the main resour­ces for politicians in democratization contexts. Through them, they built personal relationships networks in a transnational level as a decisive strategy to accumulate power, prestige and other resources. Socialist International missions will be addressed as an example of political action, little considered by specialized literature but very influential at that time.

  3. Oligarchization and extractivism. Locks against the democratization of environmental politics in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pelfini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show that the modernization of Chile’s environmental institutions (called Nueva Institucionalidad Ambiental, introduced in 2009/2010 consolidates the informal networks that have traditionally linked its main actors (investors, State and experts. Consequently, it is a public policy that despite the incorporation of governance standards marked by accountability, transparency and public participation does not contribute to the formation of citizenship and public agenda around models of development and use of natural resources, but limited to assess/ mitigate/legitimize pre-established agendas, introduced by productive, extractive or infrastructure investment projects. In our view, this is due to the tendency to oligarchization of the Chilean political system and of the domination of elites in general and the persistence of an accumulation model based on the extraction of natural resources. Both serve as a structural lock that bolts any substantive change of environmental policy in a more democratic direction

  4. The politics of civil society building: European private aid agencies and democratic transitions in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biekart, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    Strengthening civil society may be all the rage in the international donor community, but what does it mean in practice? This seminal work critically examines the political aspects of civil society building and the role of non-governmental development aid agencies during recent democratic transition

  5. Non-Electoral Accountability in Global Politics: Strengthening Democratic Control within the Global Garment Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macdonald, T

    2006-01-01

    ... in the global garment industry are determined. The article first explains why electoral mechanisms are no longer a viable means for achieving democratic accountability in political contexts such as the global garment industry, that are characterized by the decentralized dispersion of public decision-making power among a range of organizationally disparate st...

  6. Educating Political Adversaries: Chantal Mouffe and Radical Democratic Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Claudia W.

    2009-01-01

    Many scholars in the area of citizenship education take deliberative approaches to democracy, especially as put forward by John Rawls, as their point of departure. From there, they explore how students' capacity for political and/or moral reasoning can be fostered. Recent work by political theorist Chantal Mouffe, however, questions some of the…

  7. Political Identity Convergence: On Being Latino, Becoming a Democrat, and Getting Active

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Huddy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Latinos in the United States identify with the Democratic Party, a tendency with broad political implications as Latinos become an increasingly large segment of the population. Little research, however, has delved into the origins of this preference. In this research, we contrast two explanations for Latinos’ Democratic proclivities: an instrumental explanation grounded in ideological policy preferences and an expressive identity account based on the defense of Latino identity and status. In analysis of data from two large national datasets, the 2012 Latino Immigrant National Election Study and American National Election Study focused on Latino immigrants and citizens respectively, we find strong support for the expressive identity explanation. Hispanic and partisan identities have converged among Latinos in the United States to create a large number of Latino Democrats regardless of citizenship status. Those who identify strongly as Latinos and see pervasive discrimination against Latinos are the strongest Democrats, a process that further intensified over the course of the 2012 election. A strong partisan preference increased political campaign activity, though this activity level was modest overall. Relatively few Latinos had worked on a campaign or given money to a candidate; somewhat larger numbers had tried to convince others about a candidate or worn a button or displayed a sticker. Finally, some support was evident for an instrumental account. Latino support for government-provided health insurance in 2012 consistently increased support for the Democratic Party.

  8. Democratic values and political attitudes in the Macedonian young people

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetanova, Ganka; Naumovska, Bojana

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives an insight into attitudes towards democracy of young people in the Republic of Macedonia, in particular their interest in politics and their engagement in civic and political activities. The findings in the paper rely on the data from following research projects: Virtual and Real Identities in the Republic of Macedonia, Youth Trends in the Republic of Macedonia и Youth Study Macedonia 2013. Throughout the paper, the pursuit of these issues is interlaced with a comparative anal...

  9. Development of Democratic Processes in the People’s Republic of China: Prospects of Transformation of the Political Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Alexandrovich Semenov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic growth of the PRC has brought new challenges and promoted social transformation in Chinese society. China suffers profound changes involving fundamental principles of public relations. The political regime in China is in a changeable condition, and continues to transform. Some decisions of the Chinese government affect not only the economy and public administration, but also in some ways human rights and political changes. Chinese political regime takes on the pending social problems and begins to gently lift old political bans. There is development of processes which at least by the formal features can be attributed to be democratic or quasi-democratic. However, despite a number of political changes and improving of human rights situation in last decades, China is still an illiberal state. Moreover, the level of repression in China has increased in the last few years. All of these actions raise questions about the political future of China. The scale of the socio-economic changes that have occurred in the PRC is so significant, that the maintaining of the existing governance structure is not possible. Rapid economic growth reduced public discontent at the disregard to fundamental human rights. Yet the “economic miracle” is coming to an end, and the country desperately needs economic and political reforms. Lack of reforms or its incorrect implementation can put the existing system out of balance, which will lead to adverse effects not only in China but also in the world. Depending on the reforms we can assume several scenarios for further development of the PRC.

  10. Political elites and foreign policy : democratization in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibisono, Aria Teguh Mahendra

    2009-01-01

    In the investigation, the domestic sources of foreign policy analytical framework were used to analyze the dynamics of elites in foreign policy making. After analyses of the results of mostly personal interviews and historical materials, it was determined that political elites do matter in foreign p

  11. Political elites and foreign policy : democratization in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibisono, Aria Teguh Mahendra

    2009-01-01

    In the investigation, the domestic sources of foreign policy analytical framework were used to analyze the dynamics of elites in foreign policy making. After analyses of the results of mostly personal interviews and historical materials, it was determined that political elites do matter in foreign

  12. Democratization and Political Change as Threats to Collective Sentiments: Testing Durkheim in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex; Kim, Sang-Weon

    2006-05-01

    Durkheim argued that acute political crises result in increased homicide rates because they pose a threat to sentiments about the collective. Though crucial to Durkheim's work on homicide, this idea remains untested. The authors took advantage of the natural experiment of the collapse of the Soviet Union to examine this hypothesis. Using data from Russian regions (N = 78) and controlling for measures of anomie and other covariates, the authors estimated the association between political change and change in homicide rates between 1991 and 2000. Results indicated that regions exhibiting less support for the Communist Party in 2000 (and thus greater change in political ideals because the Party had previously exercised complete control) were regions with greater increases in homicide rates. Thus, while democratization may be a positive development relative to the Communist juggernaut of the past, it appears that the swift political change in Russia is partially responsible for the higher rates of violence there following the collapse of the Soviet Union.

  13. Democratization and Political Change as Threats to Collective Sentiments: Testing Durkheim in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRIDEMORE, WILLIAM ALEX; KIM, SANG-WEON

    2006-01-01

    Durkheim argued that acute political crises result in increased homicide rates because they pose a threat to sentiments about the collective. Though crucial to Durkheim’s work on homicide, this idea remains untested. The authors took advantage of the natural experiment of the collapse of the Soviet Union to examine this hypothesis. Using data from Russian regions (N = 78) and controlling for measures of anomie and other covariates, the authors estimated the association between political change and change in homicide rates between 1991 and 2000. Results indicated that regions exhibiting less support for the Communist Party in 2000 (and thus greater change in political ideals because the Party had previously exercised complete control) were regions with greater increases in homicide rates. Thus, while democratization may be a positive development relative to the Communist juggernaut of the past, it appears that the swift political change in Russia is partially responsible for the higher rates of violence there following the collapse of the Soviet Union. PMID:16880894

  14. 毛泽东民主政治思想及其现实启示%MAO Zedong's Thought about Democratic Politics and Its Realistic Reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴炳林

    2013-01-01

    MAO Zedong's thought about democratic politics mainly includes :the people's democratic dictatorship thought , the inner-party democracy thought and the democratic administration thought .The inspiration of this thought is that the con-struction of socialist democratic politics with Chinese characteristics must proceed from China's basic national conditions ,we must strengthen the democracy and legal system and promote the people's democracy through inner-party democracy .%毛泽东民主政治思想主要包括人民民主专政思想、党内民主思想和民主执政思想。这一思想的现实启示就在于:建设中国特色社会主义民主政治必须从我国的基本国情出发,防止“西化”;必须加强民主的制度化和法制化;必须以党内民主推动人民民主。

  15. Judicial Reform of the 1864 as a Stage of Russian Judicial System Democratic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov F. Miloserdova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, author considers the place of judicial reform of 1864 in the public and social reforms of Alexander II. This paper attempts to show the place of justice in the legal system of Russian Empire in the post-reform period. Author emphasizes democratic and progressive nature of judicial reform of 1864, noting lack of preconditions for the formation of democratic judicial system under the autocracy. Author analyzes relationship and development of the judicial system and the dynamics of social relations. Author also revealed the way of judicial system in the formation of civil society prerequisites. This paper attempts to show and prove that judicial reform is actually a first step towards the formation of the Russian system of powers separation. Author concludes that undertaken by the Government of Russian Empire in the mid-nineteenth century attempt of the Russian Empire judicial system democratization had neither political nor social assumptions. In conclusion, author concludes that in the present conditions of judicial system democratization in modern Russian Federation a number of principles and institutions of judicial reform of 1864 was applied.

  16. Importance of strengthening of the democratic and political capacity in environmental policy of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadić Darko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental policy is one of the new policies in the corpus of public policies in Serbia. Although the beginning of environmental policy in Serbia, or organized directing of society towards the environment, can be noticed even at the beginning of the nineties, the real development and intensification of this policy occurs only in the last five years. The slowness of the acceptance of the political idea that society and the state must change their attitude towards the environment is one of the causes of inefficiency of environmental policy in Serbia. This is also supported by the fact that in the process of conception and implementation of environmental policy in Serbia an essential element is missing that is reflected in the lack of sufficient democratic and political capacity. Environmental policy in Serbia is still defined and viewed as a strictly national policy, as a right and obligation of public authorities to protect the environment, while completely neglecting the role of other social institutions and especially the citizens. The lack of democracy in decision-making on environmental image of Serbia is also visible in the non-use of different models of direct democracy, and lack of objective and timely information of citizens about environmental problems in the country. In that way, the combination of impairment of democracy in decision-making, lack of information, as well as slowness of solving environmental problems and so-called "black spots" in Serbia leads to the conclusion that the environmental policy of the Republic of Serbia, led by the state authorities, shows signs of a specific "eco-monopolism" that is inappropriate in the democratic spirit of environmental policy.

  17. The left and the democratic stability in Latin America: the ideology of the Bolivarian Revolution and its impact on the political processes in Venezuela and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique MOLINA V.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main areas of work in Comparative Politics and Political Theory has been the determination of the variables associated with the stability/instability of political systems in general, and democracy in particular. This paper focuses on one of these variables. One with newly acquired importance after the recent electoral successes by the left, but that nevertheless has not been in the spotlight of scholarly analysis: ideological polarization. Particularly, ideological polarization brought about by the attempt to pursue by the government a leftist political project. The main focus is on the ideological project pursued by the Venezuelan Bolivarian Government and its association with the political instability of 2002 and 2003. The paper considers this topic taken into account mainstream theoretical approaches on political stability, and the experience of previous Latin American leftist governments. The paper reaches the conclusion that in Latin America the attempt to implement a socialist program by a democratically elected government, if it is done without meaningful social and political negotiation, and with authoritarian overtones, is likely to lead to intense political instability and to the ultimate failure of the proposed social change.

  18. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define...... key problems in each of the five areas which need to be overcome in order to launch and sustain a successful net-based political deliberation forum....

  19. How to Exist Politically and Learn from It: Hannah Arendt and the Problem of Democratic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: In discussions about democratic education, there is a strong tendency to see the role of education as that of the preparation of children and young people for their future participation in democratic life. A major problem with this view is that it relies on the idea that the guarantee for democracy lies in the existence of a…

  20. Redesigning Civic Education for the Digital Age: Participatory Politics and the Pursuit of Democratic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahne, Joseph; Hodgin, Erica; Eidman-Aadahl, Elyse

    2016-01-01

    The digital revolution has enabled important changes in political life. Opportunities to engage in "participatory politics" have expanded significantly. Participatory politics differ from institutional politics in that they are peer-based, interactive, and not guided by deference to traditional elites and institutions. These changes…

  1. Rising India: The Political and Economic Effects on the Future of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Democratic System ............................................................................. 68...which ended the thirty years of autocratic political system, and introduced the multiparty democratic system in Nepal. During this time, the king had...diplomatic influence will shape the democratic system of the Himalayan Republic. New Delhi’s involvement in the political system of its tiny

  2. 浅析中国市场经济发展过程中的政治民主化%Analysis of the Process of Market Economy Development of China's Political Democratization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亚丽

    2011-01-01

    市场经济的迅猛发展使我国的经济结构、社会生活、大众心态等发生了重大变化。经济的深刻转型客观上要求民主政治建设与市场经济发展同步。基于我国复杂的历史背景和发展现状,我国政治民主化在经历了长期、曲折的过程之后,必然会逐步探索出一种新型的、现代化的社会主义民主政治体制,从而完善我国社会主义民主政治。%The rapid development of market economy makes the economic structure of our country, social life, mass psychology produced major change. Economic transformation on the objective requirements of democratic political construction and market economy development. Based on China's complicated historical background and development situation, China's political democratization in experienced a long, tortuous process, will progressively exploration gives a new, modern political system of socialist democracy, improve the socialist democratic politics in china.

  3. Democratic Chaos: How Taiwanese Democracy Destabilized Cross-Strait Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    constitutional revisions, the ROC went from a party-state system like the PRC is to a maturing democratic system . With this change came an even...campaign funds becomes especially important in an increasingly evolved democratic system . The role of media outlets, and consequently advertising, grows...independence from the PRC as much as they were necessary to fully implement a more democratic system on the island. As outlined above, the political parties

  4. Political Economy of American Education: Democratic Citizenship in the Heart of Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Thomas Michael

    2012-01-01

    Chief among the goals of American education is the cultivation of democratic citizens. Contrary to State catechism delivered through our schools, America was not born a democracy; rather it emerged as a republic with a distinct bias against democracy. Nonetheless we inherit a great demotic heritage. Abolition, the labor struggle, women's…

  5. The Discussion on Strengthening the Democratic Parties Participating in Politics Mechanism Construction%加强各民主党派参政议政机制建设问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽萍; 马进

    2012-01-01

    民主党派参政议政是中国共产党领导下的多党合作和政治协商制度的重要组成部分,民主党派参政议政机制建设的薄弱是妨碍民主党派参政议政的主要问题。机制建设应从四个方面着手:一是建立和健全话语表达机制,保证信息渠道;二是建立和完善参政议政联动机制,实现整体效能发挥;三是建立健全参政议政与重大决策相统一的机制,反映民主党派的利益诉求;四是建立和完善学习机制,构建学习型民主党派的党组织,培养参政议政的能力。%The democratic Party participating in politics is under the leadership of the communist party of China multi-Party coop eration and political consultation system is an important part of.This paper argues that the Democratic Parties participating in politics mechanism construction is the main problem.The democratic Parties participating in politics is concerned,system construction in our province from four aspects: firstly,to establish and improve words expressing mechanism,ensure that information channels.Secondly,es tablish and perfect the linkage mechanism,realize the overall efficiency of participating in politics.Thirdly,establish and perfect the participating politics of unity with major decision mechanism,reflect democratic interest demand.Fourth,establish and perfect the mech anism of learning,construction of learning-oriented Democratic Party organization,cultivate the ability of participating in politics.

  6. Political Advertising: A Roadblock in Teaching Social Studies Students the Importance of Truthful Political Communication to a Democratic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The author contends that too much political advertising is a form of public relations "spin" in which the truth is sacrificed and the political process damaged as a result. The goal of much of this advertising too frequently focuses on transmitting "disinformation" that, while perhaps not technically a lie, is intended not to inform the public but…

  7. Political Advertising: A Roadblock in Teaching Social Studies Students the Importance of Truthful Political Communication to a Democratic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The author contends that too much political advertising is a form of public relations "spin" in which the truth is sacrificed and the political process damaged as a result. The goal of much of this advertising too frequently focuses on transmitting "disinformation" that, while perhaps not technically a lie, is intended not to inform the public but…

  8. Political Parties and Democracy in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    States continues its xv efforts to hold Haitian elites accountable to the ideals and rules of their democratic system in order for party system...schism between the ruling party and a democratic alternative that seeks political power outside of Haiti�s legitimate democratic system . Such actions...States should continue in its efforts to hold Haitian elites accountable to the ideals and rules of a democratic system . The repressive and corrupt

  9. Linking Political Systems and War Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Decisive parts of the Western political system have demonstrated a seemingly surprising misinterpretation of military might. As Madelaine Albright has suggested, the mighty perceived themselves as "almighty". Political power seems to have invested in instrumental coercive power relations and found...... military coercion to be the appropriate mean. Using the system theory and the theory of systemic risks displayed by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann the article demonstrates how military systems due to their own autonomy and autopoiesis do not fit into the idea of political government....... The Clausewitzian ideal of a political system that could continue its power games by means of war was moderated by Clausewitz' own analysis of "friction". How can a political system be so blind towards the possibilities of another system? What are the risks of systemic blind spots? The argument of the paper...

  10. Linking Political Systems and War Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Decisive parts of the Western political system have demonstrated a seemingly surprising misinterpretation of military might. As Madelaine Albright has suggested, the mighty perceived themselves as "almighty". Political power seems to have invested in instrumental coercive power relations and found...... military coercion to be the appropriate mean. Using the system theory and the theory of systemic risks displayed by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann the article demonstrates how military systems due to their own autonomy and autopoiesis do not fit into the idea of political government....... The Clausewitzian ideal of a political system that could continue its power games by means of war was moderated by Clausewitz' own analysis of "friction". How can a political system be so blind towards the possibilities of another system? What are the risks of systemic blind spots? The argument of the paper...

  11. The research on the problem of the system of the ideological and Political Education under the Democratic embedding target——Empirical Research Based on H City%民主嵌入目标下高校思想政治教育治理体系失范问题研究——基于H市高校的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2015-01-01

    在校大学生拥有较高水平的科学文化知识、自身维权意识较强,对于"民主"的易感性程度较高,但对究竟何为"民主"、如何参与和表达"民主"却没有清晰的认知体系建构,这便导致了其对高校行政、教学工作的"泛民主化"认识、进而造就了高校思想政治教育体系中"师-生"对立的二元张力格局.本次调查研究以问卷法深入、以H市各高校为样本,探求民主语境下高校思想政治教育治理体系失范的突破路径.%College students have a higher level of scientific and cultural knowledge, their awareness of the rights of strong, for "democracy" has a high degree of susceptibility, but on what is "democracy" and to participate in and say "democracy" did not clear the cognitive system construction, this will lead to the understanding of the administration in Colleges and universities, teaching work of "Pan democratic", thus creating a system of Ideological and political education in Colleges and universities "teacher student conflicts between binary tension pattern. This investigation is based on the questionnaire, and takes the college H as sample, explores the breakthrough route of the ideological and political education governance system in the Democratic context.

  12. Cultural democratization and the politics of recognition: notes on the trajectory of the workers´ party (PT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo J. Krischke

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available These research notes raise the hypothesis that the Worker´s Party (PT actively participates in the cultural democratization of the country - for instance, through its initiatives for the recognition of the citizen´s sociopolitical and cultural diversity. First, there is a need to distinguish between the policies of socioeconomic redistribution and those policies geared to sociopolitical and cultural recognition. Second, it is also necessary to focus on the relations between participatory policies and changes in the political culture. Such relations may show that the increasing support to democracy accompanies the recognition of pluralism and of the right to difference, among the youth, and in the locations administered by the PT during the last decade.

  13. Liberalism, Marxism and Democratic Theory Revisited: Proposal of a Joint Index of Political and Economic Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Segrillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Liberalism and Marxism are two schools of thought which have left deep imprints in sociological, political and economic theory. They are usually perceived as opposite, rival approaches. In the field of democracy there is a seemingly insurmountable rift around the question of political versus economic democracy. Liberals emphasize the former, Marxists the latter. Liberals say that economic democracy is too abstract and fuzzy a concept, therefore one should concentrate on the workings of an objective political democracy. Marxists insist that political democracy without economic democracy is insufficient. The article argues that both propositions are valid and not mutually exclusive. It proposes the creation of an operational, quantifiable index of economic democracy that can be used alongside the already existing indexes of political democracy. By using these two indexes jointly, political and economic democracy can be objectively evaluated. Thus, the requirements of both camps are met and maybe a more dialogical approach to democracy can be reached in the debate between liberals and Marxists. The joint index is used to evaluate the levels of economic and political democracy in the transition countries of Eastern Europe.

  14. Political Detainment in the German Democratic Republic: Public Discourse and Personal Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Horvay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 1976 and 1989, about 60,000 East German citizens were in political detention in the former GDR, a fact which was disclaimed by the GDR government. In this article, I focus on the auto-biographies which were collected by the use of narrative interviews. How do people who were politically persecuted and imprisoned remember their detainment now? Are they able to integrate this event in their life history and talk about it in their social environment? On the basis of biographical case-reconstructions and global analysis, I present four types of memory and biographical work. The analysis shows that the limited reprocessing prior to 1989 as well as the political discourse after 1990 about the GDR past produced a politicization of their imprisonment by the biographers, for example, in the construction of their identity as a political opponent. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110218

  15. The democratic soup: mixed meanings of political representation in governance networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores how political representation is enacted in governance networks, where interdependent actors from government, business, and civil society coproduce public policy. A combined dramaturgical and discourse analysis considers how representation is staged, performed, and articulated i

  16. "Women's Rights as Human Rights: A Political and Social Economy Approach within a Deep Democratic Framework"

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Haider A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we offer the social capabilities based approach to women's rights as human rights. We begin with the standard approach and discuss the universal human rights model before developing the social capabilities approach followed throughout the rest of this paper. In this paper by political economy we mean the classical state and civil society and their interactions. By social economy we mean the underlying social basis of the political economy including the family structure. Khan(199...

  17. Multistakeholder partnerships with the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea to improve childhood immunisation: A perspective from global health equity and political determinants of health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hani; Marks, Florian; Novakovic, Uros; Hotez, Peter J; Black, Robert E

    2016-08-01

    To examine the current partnerships to improve the childhood immunisation programme in the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (DPRK) in the context of the political determinants of health equity. A literature search was conducted to identify public health collaborations with the DPRK government. Based on the amount of publicly accessible data and a shared approach in health system strengthening among the partners in immunisation programmes, the search focused on these partnerships. The efforts by WHO, UNICEF, GAVI and IVI with the DPRK government improved the delivery of childhood vaccines (e.g. pentavalent vaccines, inactivated polio vaccine, two-dose measles vaccine and Japanese encephalitis vaccine) and strengthened the DPRK health system by equipping health centres, and training all levels of public health personnel for VPD surveillance and immunisation service delivery. The VPD-focused programmatic activities in the DPRK have improved the delivery of childhood immunisation and have created dialogue and contact with the people of the DPRK. These efforts are likely to ameliorate the political isolation of the people of the DPRK and potentially improve global health equity. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Towards a More Democratic Regime and Society? The Politics of Faith and Ethnicity in a Transitional Multi-Ethnic Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikue Hamayotsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rising antagonistic attitudes and tension between the Malay majority and ethnic and religious minorities in Malaysia since 2007 is intriguing because it has occurred when society experienced an unprecedentedly large-scale and assertive multi-ethnic pro-democracy movement. This article argues that precisely these assertive and confident civil and political societies – and their emphasis on equal rights and equitable development for all Malaysians – have put the traditional Malay and religious elites on the defensive. The pro-democracy movement and the prospects of regime change have threatened not only the party-dominant regime but also – and more importantly – the constitutional and institutional foundations of ethnic exclusivism and privileges. Moreover, two Malay-based parties, the United Malays National Organization (UMNO and the Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS, are viewed as giving too many political concessions to the non-Malay communities to gain an electoral advantage, making the traditional Malay and religious elites even more defensive of their position and power. As a result, religious issues are excessively politicised, further deteriorating the already complicated inter-ethnic relations of the country. The prospects for achieving a democratic regime and society appear grim, although hopes have run high since the electoral rise of the multi-ethnic opposition.

  19. The Democratic Anti-corruption from the Perspective of Political Development with Chinese Characteristics%中国特色政治发展视阈下的民主反腐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘启春

    2014-01-01

    民主反腐是现代反腐倡廉建设的根本形式。民主政治是腐败的“天敌”,其主权在民、完善的民主监督、透明的程序以及健全的法制都发挥着制约与监督公共权力的产生、运行而发挥反腐的功能。我国的人民民主政权的性质、党的民主执政、依法执政的执政方式以及反腐倡廉建设的基本规律决定了民主反腐的进路。加快中国民主政治发展,推进民主反腐,必须继续深化政治体制改革作为实现形式,以党内民主带动人民民主作为基本路径,以依法治国作为根本保证。%Democratic anti-corruption is the basic form of fighting corruption and advocating cleanness in mod-ern countries. Democracy is the“natural enemy”of corruption,and the features of democracy such as people’s sovereignty,perfect democratic supervision,transparent procedure and complete legal system,all facilitate anti-corruption based on functions of constraining the generation and running of public power. The nature of people’ s democratic regime of our country,the ways of the Party’s democratic and law-based governance,and the bas-ic laws of fighting corruption have decided the approaches to democratic anti-corruption. To accelerate the de-velopment of political politics and boost the democratic anti-corruption in China,we must take the deepening of the reform of political system as the form of actualization,the intra-party democracy’s driving the all-the-people democracy as the basic approach,and rule by law as the radical guarantee.

  20. The political economy of 'trauma' in Haiti in the democratic era of insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Erica Caple

    2004-06-01

    This article explores the challenges that emerge at the intersection of economies of compassion and terror: local, national, and international forms of humanitarian assistance; security practices in insecure social and institutional environments; questions of victimization and global reparations; and quests for justice, as revealed through an analysis of political violence and humanitarian interventions in Haiti during and after the 1991-94 coup period. Each domain is constrained by politics and history but can engender "occult economies" that challenge the intended consequences of restitution policies at international, national, and local levels of exchange. 'Trauma' and discourses about traumatic suffering are the hinge around which these economies pivot, generating new forms of political subjectivity for Haitian activists.

  1. Migrants and Democratization: The Political Economy of Chinese Immigrants in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Hok-Wui Wong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we argue that immigrants can serve as staunch support of the conservative incumbents of a regime, due to a self-selection effect; immigrants are more likely to accept the political status quo and be less sympathetic to the opposition who might demand progressive changes. Based on Asian Barometer survey data in Hong Kong, we showed that Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong are more pro-establishment and supportive of pro-government parties. With China’s huge population, this implies a strategic importance of Chinese migrants, whose inflow to other Asian states can significantly skew the politics of neighbouring states in destined directions.

  2. Schools as Incubators of Democratic Participation: Building Long-Term Political Efficacy with Civic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Josh; Feldman, Lauren; Romer, Daniel; Jamieson, Kathleen Hall

    2008-01-01

    Despite a growing consensus that civic education is an important aspect of political socialization, little research has prospectively examined how gains made during civics courses are maintained after high school. This study used a quasi-experimental design to examine longer-term effects of the Student Voices program, which was originally…

  3. The politics of civil society building : European private aid agencies and democratic transitions in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Biekart (Kees)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractStrengthening civil society may be all the rage in the international donor community, but what does it mean in practice? This seminal work critically examines the political aspects of civil society building and the role of non-governmental development aid agencies during recent democrati

  4. Navigating the Waves of Change: Political Education and Democratic School Reform in Postwar West Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puaca, Brian M.

    2008-01-01

    This article concentrates on two pieces of legislation promulgated in the early 1960s in order to investigate the broader ideas and concerns surrounding political education in the postwar Federal Republic of Germany. These pieces of educational policy highlight the consensus for continued reform while recognizing the value of curricular and…

  5. The Political System. SSEC Publication No. 103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, David

    The systems analysis of political life might be used as a basis for teaching about the political process in all grades, including elementary school. A political system is part of an intra-societal environment including ecological, biological, personality, economic, cultural, and other systems, all operating in society and bound by an…

  6. Positive Influence of Religion on Construction of Democratic Politics%论宗教对民主政治建设的积极影响1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓静; 杨天英

    2014-01-01

    The process of democratic politics of the world can be affected by many factors,such as international environment,political factors and economic factors,etc. But one factor is unavoidable--the culture. Religion,a kind of special and important cultural phe-nomenon,has always been influencing on people's political value,political attitude,and political behavior,and ultimately affecting the world in the process of democracy. Therefore,there is undoubtedly great significance to advance democratic politics in correctly guiding various religions to develop scientifically and rationally.%影响世界民主政治进程的因素有很多,比如国际环境、政治因素、经济因素等。但是有一个因素是谁也无法回避的--那就是文化因素。宗教作为一种特殊而重要的文化现象,一直在强力地影响着人们的政治价值观、政治态度、政治行为,并最终影响到世界民主政治的建设进程。因此,正确地引导各类宗教科学、理性地发展,对于推进民主政治无疑具有重要的意义。

  7. Political Education in/as the Practice of Freedom: A Paradoxical Defence from the Perspective of Michael Oakeshott

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    Creating education systems that promote democratic sustainability has been the concern of political thinkers as diverse as J. S. Mill, Dewey, Benjamin Barber and Derek Bok. The classic dichotomisation of democratic theory between deliberative democrats and Schumpeterian democrats suggests that education in the service of democracy can be…

  8. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Pension System Related Public Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to find some answers regarding the long term sustainability of the pension system. Romania’s pension system originates from the invalidity insurances and pension system designed by the German cancellor Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismark in 1889. From a European perspective, Romania has to fill an obvious gap regarding the reformation of the national public pension system. International experience, particularly of the last 130 years, indicates that, in actuality, multiple pension systems have been put into function in most of the world’s countries and which are diferenciated by some elements (organizing and managing the system, defyning pension rights, method of forming the resources, the pension’s level rapported to the average income etc. and after the eficacity degree dependent on internal influences, social, economic and demographic environment, and last but not least by the political factor.

  10. The Political Parties as Organisations of Representation of the Political Rights of Individuals in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klajdi Mone

    2014-01-01

    The development of political parties in Albania has passed in two stages in the communist system where only one party was known and in the democratic system where was recognized political pluralism. Highlighting the role of political parties, as an important promoter of the functioning of state and of the coverage of the political rights of individuals, makes this study important.

  11. The Pitfalls of Democratic Politics in the Era of Network Media---Alienation of Political Logic under the Pretext of Democratic Technology%网络媒体时代民主政治的“陷阱”--民主技术掩盖下政治逻辑的异化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文君

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts may arise between democratic politics and political equality in the era of network media. The causes of the conflicts lie in the fact that network media as a type of democratic technology contains two log-ics simultaneously:politics and market.The market logic is likely to erode and substitute the political logic,thus damaging political equality.Based on the empirical analysis of the data collected from the two cases:network media influence on public opinion and the rumor involving Red Crosses spread by web hypers,the paper ex-pounds the possibilities that netizens be misled by network media which is manipulated by certain interest groups. Finally,strategies are proposed to ward off pitfalls of democratic politics in aspects of the relationships between political logic and market logic,between democratic technology and democratic values,between democratic value and political process.%民主政治过程与政治平等两者之间在网络媒体时代存在着冲突的可能,即民主政治过程可能损害政治平等。造成冲突的原因是网络媒体作为一种民主技术同时包含了政治与市场两种逻辑,并有可能出现市场逻辑对政治逻辑的侵蚀与替代,从而损害政治平等。通过对网络媒体对公众舆论的影响力与网络推手制造“红十字会强行募捐事件”两个方面进行数据与案例的实证分析可以看出,网民被由利益集团操纵的网络媒体所误导具有现实的可能性。在对政治逻辑与市场逻辑、民主技术与民主价值、民主价值与政治过程三个方面对民主政治陷阱存在的原因进行理论分析,可以从制度建设的角度为中国的互联网治理提供有价值的政策建议。

  12. Political Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term...... ’political culture’ refers to the specifically political orientations – attitudes toward the political system and its various parts, and attitudes toward the role of the self in the system” (Almond & Verba, 1963:12). A political culture is among several aspects characterized by the forms and level...... of participation and particularly how individuals regard themselves as active political citizens. Participation, either voter turnout or other forms of public involvement is regarded as a barometer of the quality of democracy in a country and serve to characterize the political culture in a democracy (Diamond...

  13. 中国政治民主化发展障碍的探讨%Obstacles in Developing China’s Political Democratization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏敏; 朱琳

    2014-01-01

    Political democratization is the objective that government -reform pursues, and it is also an objective trend of modern political development.Through longitudinal thinking and combining with the knowledge learned, it is easy to draw a conclusion:obstacles in developing China ’s political democratization are not only for traditional ideological, economical and political factors, but also for public education and psychological cause.%政治民主化一直以来都是政府改革所追求的目标,也是当代政治发展的一种客观趋势。通过对中国政治民主化的发展进行纵向思考和分析,提出阻碍其发展的绝不仅是意识形态的原因,经济水平、政治制度和民众教育及心理因素也是非常重要的因素。

  14. Species protection, the changing informal economy, and the politics of access to the bushmeat trade in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Merode, Emmanuel; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2006-08-01

    Our understanding of the linkages between the bushmeat trade and the wider informal economy is limited. This lack of knowledge is particularly problematic for conservation under conditions of political instability, when the informal economy can be highly dynamic and impacts on wildlife populations can be severe. To explore these interlinked processes, we conducted a study of the bushmeat trade in Garamba National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, through a combination of market surveys, semistructured interviews, and direct observation. We focused on the sale of protected and unprotected species in urban and rural markets, and the bushmeat commodity chains that supplied these markets, under conditions of political stability and armed conflict. During peacetime, protected species from the park (predominantly elephant and buffalo) rarely appeared in the rural markets, but they comprised more than half of all bushmeat sales in the urban markets. This pattern reflected differences in the rural and urban commodity chains. Automatic weapons were urban trade. The use of such weapons was discouraged by the traditional chiefs, who administered the village markets. During wartime, the sales of protected species in the urban markets increased fivefold because the military officers fled, leaving behind an open-access system that led to a massive increase in the exploitation of protected species. In contrast, the rural markets remained relatively stable because of the continued authority of the village chiefs. Our results indicate that sociopolitical factors can be an important determinant of species offtake and, therefore, that knowledge of the bushmeat commodity chain can be vital to controlling theprocesses that drive species extraction. In addition, our findings suggest that traditional authorities can be potentially valuable partners for bushmeat management.

  15. Political innovation as ideal and strategy: the case of aleatoric democracy in the City of Utrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.; Van der Veer, Reinout; Faber, A.; Penning de Vries, J.

    2016-01-01

    Political innovations aim to strengthen democracy but few connect well to the institutionalized democratic context. This paper explores how political innovations can be successfully embedded in existing democratic systems. It builds upon both the literature on political innovation and on new democra

  16. Political innovation as ideal and strategy: the case of aleatoric democracy in the City of Utrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.; Van der Veer, Reinout; Faber, A.; Penning de Vries, J.

    2016-01-01

    Political innovations aim to strengthen democracy but few connect well to the institutionalized democratic context. This paper explores how political innovations can be successfully embedded in existing democratic systems. It builds upon both the literature on political innovation and on new democra

  17. Globalization and democratization in Brazil: an interpretation of John Rawls's political liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Junior, Nythamar Hilario Fernandes de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo reflete os resultados de uma pesquisa em andamento sobre a dimensão normativa da globalização dentro da transição brasileira para a democracia à luz de uma teoria da justiça global, de inspiração rawlsiana. Recorrendo ao que pode-se denominar "a recepção brasileira do liberalismo político de Rawls" –particularmente, à sua contribuição para uma teoria da justiça global–, argumenta-se em favor de uma idéia de razão pública que subscreva tanto a um ethos autônomo, deliberativo, para a ação local (democratização brasileira quanto a uma concepção universalizável, igualitária, de justiça e liberdade (reformulação rawlsiana da social-democracia. Assume-se que o principal desafio da justiça global hoje consiste em efetivar a dimensão normativa da globalização de forma a consolidar a democracia em instituições sociais, econômicas e políticas das chamadas sociedades emergentes, tais como o Brasil. Ao recorrer a uma teoria da justiça global que evita as contradições tanto do neoliberalismo quanto do socialismo de estado, procura-se reformular a idéia rawlsiana de autonomia pública e democracia deliberativa em uma sociedade cujas instituições ainda estão em processo de consolidação. Recorre-se à trilogia de Rawls (A theory of justice, Political liberalism e The law of peoples para defender a social-democracia brasileira e sua inserção no processo globalizante sem subscrever a uma agenda neoliberal nem sucumbir ao dilema universalista-comunitarista

  18. The Dutch Political Reformed Party (SGP and Passive Female Suffrage: A Comparison of Three High Court Judgments From the Viewpoint of Democratic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco van den Brink

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, in the Netherlands the idea was that political parties were essentially private associations in whose internal affairs the state ought not to interfere. However, the case of the Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij (Political Reformed Party, hereafter, SGP has led to a political and public debate on whether this view can be maintained. This article examines the case of the SGP, particularly from the viewpoint of democratic theory. It eventually concludes that party regulation does not need to remain a taboo topic forever, even in the Netherlands, although with the SGP having recently changed its own constitution it may take a while until further provisions will be introduced. Care should be taken, however, that it does not lead to unnecessary infringements on the constitutional freedoms of minorities such as the SGP and its followers. After all, what is the point in pursuing non-discriminatory policies that are themselves discriminatory?

  19. The role and the place of public organizations in the political system of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Arabadjyiev

    2015-06-01

    Based on classical and modern views on democracy, the generalization that democratic political system, citizens participate in elections to prove its direct expression, and the government is aware of the need for fair and transparent elections as proof of the legitimacy of his power. It is concluded that the political system of modern Ukraine NGOs play a triple role, providing a steady realization of citizens’ rights, preventing any attempt to influence the process by the government and at the same time guaranteeing the fairness and transparency of the electoral process.

  20. Involvement and deliberation: Correctives of the democratic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santiago Juárez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Every democratic regime has to guarantee that participation and representation set in both sides of the same coin. In a lot of modern democracies, government doesn’t foment citizen participation, or just do it in case of periodic elections. That’s why is necessary to foment participation and civic virtues. Finally, we have to support deliberative teories to give legitimacy to our democracies.

  1. From social to political. New forms of mobilization and democratization. Conference proceedings

    OpenAIRE

    Tejerina Montaña, Benjamín; Perugorria, Ignacia

    2013-01-01

    In the recent evolution of contemporary social movements three phases can be identified. The first phase is marked by the labour movement and the systemic importance attributed to the labour conflict in industrial societies. This conflict has been interpreted as a consequence of the shortcoming of social integration mechanisms by Emile Durkheim, as a rational conflict by entrepreneurs’ and workers’ interests by Max Wener, and as a central class struggle for the transformation of society by Ka...

  2. Is John Locke a democrat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    (Holden, Held, Ball and Dagger) and monographs on Locke (Dunn, Parry, Marshall). In this paper a new approach to the democratic character of John Locke's political theory is suggested, as his Second Treatise is analysed with Robert A. Dahl's conceptual framework on assumptions for a democratic order......, criteria for a democratic process, and the institutions of polyarchy. The conclusion has implications for the relationship between political liberalism and constitutionalism on the one hand and democracy on the other....

  3. Between the Managerial and the Democratic University: Governance Structure and Academic Freedom as Sites of Political Struggle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalie Giroux; Dimitrios Karmis; Christian Rouillard

    2015-01-01

      In this article we argue that the university cannot fully contribute to democratic life without being both an institution whose governance is collegial and based on principles of equality, equity...

  4. The Potential for Deliberative Democratic Civic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jarrod S.; Howe, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The values of aggregative democracy have dominated much of civic education as its values reflect the realities of the American political system. We argue that deliberative democratic theory better addresses the moral and epistemological demands of democracy when compared to aggregative democracy. It better attends to protecting citizens' autonomy…

  5. Political Instability in Nepal: Examining the Roles of the Parties and Monarchy in the Second Democratic Period (1990-2002)

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak , Surya Prasad; Surya Prasad, Pathak

    2012-01-01

    This paper has related two goals. First, it examines the root causes of the breakdown of democracy in Nepal, focuses on second democratic period (1990-2002), and second, it explores the future prospects of democracy in Nepal. In order to identify the problems of the breakdown of democracy in Nepal, this research draws upon interviews conducted in Nepal with politicians of the two largest parties in the second democratic period (1990-2002), the Nepali Congress and the Communist Party of Nepal ...

  6. 论民主政治中“协商”与“竞争”的区别--兼论街头政治的法治问题%On the Distinction between“Consultation” and“Competition” in the Democratic Politics---On the rule of law in street politics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁虹超; 王智嵬

    2016-01-01

    民主政治产生机制对“协商”与“竞争”的不同偏好,导致在民主政治思维、民主政治形式、民主政治活动方面的较大差异,特别在对待街头政治问题上十分明显。街头政治是一种表达政治诉求的手段,具有偶发性、公开性、撕裂性和暴力倾向,在政治法治化背景下,其在不同民主政治模式中存在着预设前提、成本分析、结果评价等方面的差异化法治问题。%The different preferences of the democratic political generation mechanism for"consultation" and"competition", which lead to the great difference between the democratic political thinking, the form of democratic politics, and the activities of democratic politics. Street politics is a means to express political demands, which has the characteristics of contingency, openness, tearing and violence. In the context of political rule of law, there are different legal issues in the different democratic political model, such as presupposition, cost analysis, result evaluation and so on.

  7. Health Education and the Political System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    David Easton's model describing how political systems operate can help health educators initiate improvements and resist harmful changes. The Memphis (Tennessee) Board of Education's experience with the adoption of family life education is cited as an example of a constructive political strategy. (PP)

  8. [The career of the psychiatrist Dietfried Müller-Hegemann (1910-1989) : Example of a politically motivated rise and fall in the German Democratic Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, H

    2017-01-12

    Dietfried Müller-Hegemann was one of the prominent figures in East German psychiatry and psychotherapy of the 1950s and 1960s. Having been a communist prior to 1933, a resistance fighter during the National Socialist regime and having gone through political training during his exile in Soviet Russia, he proved to be a committed member of the new ruling SED socialist party in Eastern Germany. As such both governmental and party organs regarded him as a promising and reliable party member to be supported and implemented as executive staff within the new, socialist scientific system. Also, due to the fact that he supported the Pavlovian school of thought for modern psychiatry, Müller-Hegemann was installed as the new head of the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry at Leipzig University by the state secretary for higher education, notably against the clear opposition of the university medical faculty. Soon thereafter however Müller-Hegemann fell from favor due to the fact that he supported views that did not follow the strict ideological guidelines, e. g. with regard to the emergence of fascism. Moreover, he strongly opposed the separation of neurology from psychiatry as ruled by the ministry. An attempt in 1963 by junior party members and ministerial staff to remove him from office failed, but still managed to make Müller-Hegemann resign from his Leipzig post and take over that of director of the Griesinger hospital for the mentally ill in East Berlin. In May 1971, after new conflicts with party officials, he did not return from a business trip to Essen in West Germany. This study does not review the scientific and medical merits of Müller-Hegemann, but concentrates on how his career as a leading psychiatrist was manipulated, both supported and sabotaged, and ideologically controlled by the German Democratic Republic (GDR) system. His development is documented proof that party officials did not tolerate opposition, neither in ideological nor in

  9. 论网络民主对民主政治发展的影响%On the Influence of Cyber Democracy on the Development of Democratic Politics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖小霞

    2016-01-01

    Cyber democracy is like a “double-edged sword”, because when it is introduced in promoting the development of demo-cratic politics, it may bring about some threats that can not be ignored.On one hand, cyber democracy makes up for the insufficiency of traditional democracy, reviving the direct democracy idea, bridging the gap between the public and the governments, strengthening the scientification and democratization of public decision-making, broadening the channels of democratic supervision and creating a new way for anti-corruption.On the other, cyber democracy may trigger emotional democracy that will result in political instability, cause the differentiation of political participation between the rich and poor that will widen the democratic gap.What’ s more, it may-be be controlled by the ruling hierarchy and is turned into an authoritarian tool for the society.Therefore, in order to eliminate the shortness of cyber democracy, it is necessary to improve the network quality of citizens, popularize Internet utilization and strengthen the construction of relevant laws and regulations.%网络民主犹如一把“双刃剑”,在促进民主政治发展的同时,也存在某些不可忽视的威胁。一方面,网络民主弥补传统民主形式的不足,复兴直接民主思想;搭建公众与政府对话的桥梁,加强公共决策的科学化和民主化;拓宽民主监督的渠道,开创反腐新途径。另一方面,网络民主也有可能引发情绪性民主,导致政治不稳定;导致贫富阶层参政水平分化,扩大民主鸿沟;还可能被上层统治集团控制,成为控制社会的新型专制宣传工具。因此,需要从提高公民的网络素质、普及网络使用率和加强相关法律法规建设这三方面入手来弥补网络民主的缺陷。

  10. Conceptions of Volunteerism among Recent African Immigrants in Canada: Implications for Democratic Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chareka, Ottilia; Nyemah, Joseph; Manguvo, Angellar

    2010-01-01

    In democratic societies the level of citizens' civic engagement and inclusion in all forms of democratic participation is crucial in maintaining social cohesion and a vibrant democracy. In the historical development of Canada's demographic, political, socio-economic and cultural systems, immigration continues to play an influential role. Our paper…

  11. The politics of retrenchment in a social democratic welfare state : reform of Swedish pensions and unemployment insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Karen M.

    2001-01-01

    What explains the origins and pattern of retrenchment dynamics in Swedish old-age pensions and unemployment insurance during the 1990s? Although the economic crisis created pressure to scale back both programs, the author argues that retrenchment only occurred when and where the Social Democratic Pa

  12. The Complexly Constructed Citizen-Worker: Her/His Centrality to the Struggle for Radical Democratic Politics and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosio, Richard

    This paper examines the role of identity within the radical democratic traditions, specifically the categories known as citizens and worker. The progressive coalition aimed at countering classism, racism, ethnic and gender injustices, homophobia and misogyny must seek an axis around which to organize the diversity of humankind. Retaining the…

  13. The Politics of Retrenchment in a Social Democratic Welfare State, Reform of Swedish Pensions and Unemployment Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, K.M.; Anderson, Karen M.

    2001-01-01

    What explains the origins and pattern of retrenchment dynamics in Swedish old-age pensions and unemployment insurance during the 1990s? Although the economic crisis created pressure to scale back both programs, the author argues that retrenchment only occurred when and where the Social Democratic

  14. What Inverted U Can Do for Your Country: A Curvilinear Relationship Between Confidence in the Social System and Political Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Górska, Paulina; Jost, John T; Sutton, Robbie M; Bilewicz, Michał

    2017-08-24

    We examined the link between political engagement and the tendency to justify the sociopolitical system. On one hand, confidence in the system should be negatively related to political engagement, insofar as it entails reduced desire for social change; on the other hand, system confidence should also be positively related to political engagement to the extent that it carries an assumption that the system is responsive to citizens' political efforts. Because of the combination of these 2 opposing forces, the motivation for political engagement should be highest at intermediate levels of system confidence. Five studies revealed a negative quadratic relationship between system confidence and normative political engagement. In 2 representative surveys, Polish participants with moderate levels of system confidence were more likely to vote in political elections (Study 1) and to participate in solidarity-based collective action (Study 2). Two field studies demonstrated a negative quadratic relationship between system confidence and actual participation in political demonstrations (gender equality and teachers' protests in Poland; Studies 3 and 4). This pattern of results was further corroborated by analyses of data from 50 countries drawn from the World Value Survey: we observed negative quadratic relationships between system confidence and collective action as well as voting. These relationships were stronger in democratic (vs. nondemocratic) regimes (Study 5). Our results suggest that some degree of system confidence might be useful to stimulate political engagement within the norms of the system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Character of the mutual perception of the political system and the environment as a criterion of the political security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Ishchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Political security is connected with the lack of external and internal threats, or the reduction of their severity. The maintenance of the internal public security should start from the explanation of the nature of the relationship between the political and institutional structures and most active social groups. The author suggests using a mental construct as an indicator of conflict/harmony in this sphere. It has been proposed to implement this idea by comparing the mental constructs of political institutions and social environment. One of the methods to implement this idea has been revealed in the article. This method is based on the search of leading values which are characterizing basic political and institutional structures and social environment. Two components have been described in the mental constructor: rational and irrational. Moreover, the formula, that makes it possible to compare and evaluate the congruence of mental constructs of political and institutional structures and the environment on the basis of the detected values, has been suggested. The advantage of this formula is its flexibility. Consequently, it can describe the features of social and political interaction in all political systems. The regularity has four components. The first component describes the level of implementation of the social environment’s values being a result of certain internal and external policies. It contains a self-assessment of individuals - representatives of the social environment level of its own value system’s implementation. Moreover, the author takes into account the assessment of the political and institutional structures that is given by these individuals. Individuals assess these structures in connection to the actions and decisions aimed at the implementation of public interests and values. The second component of the formula describes the level of implementation and the congruence of values of basic political and institutional

  16. A general view of politic system classifications in comparative political science of Ancient Greek era

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Nihat

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of Comparative Political Science, as a sub-discipline of the Political Science, is on a continuous increase today. This discipline receives many attentions as it provides detailed knowledge on politic systems of various countries. The historical background of such an area, which is drawing more and more interest in our day, is traced back to very old eras. The first political system classification made in the Comparative Political Science appeared in the Ancient Greek era. For ...

  17. Political News and Political Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  18. Social Media and Political Participation : Are Facebook, Twitter and YouTube Democratizing Our Political Systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, R. (Robin); Hillegersberg, van J. ( ); Huibers, T. (Theo)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature review in regard to Social Media and participation. Besides that, to understand the meaning and impact of Social Media on elections, we show field results from the 2010 and 2011 elections in the Netherlands. There are several challenges when it comes t

  19. Social media and political participation: are Facebook, Twitter and YouTube democratizing our political systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, R.C.; Hillegersberg, van J.; Huibers, T.W.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature review in regard to Social Media and participation. Besides that, to understand the meaning and impact of Social Media on elections, we show field results from the 2010 and 2011 elections in the Netherlands. There are several challenges when it comes t

  20. Social Media and Political Participation: Are Facebook, Twitter and YouTube Democratizing Our Political Systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, Theo W.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature review in regard to Social Media and participation. Besides that, to understand the meaning and impact of Social Media on elections, we show field results from the 2010 and 2011 elections in the Netherlands. There are several challenges when it comes t

  1. China's Construction of Democratic Politics and Its Implications——Speech at the Fourth Bali Democracy Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yunhu

    2012-01-01

    Your Excellency President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono,Dear Chairman,ladies and gentlemen,I am very glad to have this opportunity to attend the fourth Bali Democracy Forum.Today,state leaders and experts from different countries gather together at Bali,the beautiful "Flower Island," to share experience and exchange views of developing democracy,and explore ways to promote the democratic development of our own countries.

  2. A Clash of Cultures: Improving the "Fit" between Evaluative Independence and the Political Requirements of a Democratic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelimsky, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a plenary address wherein the author talks about cultural clashes, about what happens when evaluation meets politics. In her address, the author talks about the kinds of clashes that occur on a regular basis between evaluative independence and the political culture it challenges, along with possible ways to predict, parry, or…

  3. A Clash of Cultures: Improving the "Fit" between Evaluative Independence and the Political Requirements of a Democratic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelimsky, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a plenary address wherein the author talks about cultural clashes, about what happens when evaluation meets politics. In her address, the author talks about the kinds of clashes that occur on a regular basis between evaluative independence and the political culture it challenges, along with possible ways to predict, parry, or…

  4. Fuzziness, democracy, control and collective decision-choice system a theory on political economy of rent-seeking and profit-harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Dompere, Kofi Kissi

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents an analysis of the problems and solutions of the market mockery of the democratic collective decision-choice system with imperfect information structure composed of defective and deceptive structures using methods of fuzzy rationality. The book is devoted to the political economy of rent-seeking, rent-protection and rent-harvesting to enhance profits under democratic collective decision-choice systems. The toolbox used in the monograph consists of methods of fuzzy decision, approximate reasoning, negotiation games and fuzzy mathematics. The monograph further discusses the rent-seeking phenomenon in the Schumpeterian and Marxian political economies where the rent-seeking activities transform the qualitative character of the general capitalism into oligarchic socialism and making the democratic collective decision-choice system as an ideology rather than social calculus for resolving conflicts in preferences in the collective decision-choice space without violence.    

  5. Political Anthropology and Modern World System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Gačanović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of a book by Vladimir Ribić, Politička antropologija i moderni svetski sistem. [Political Anthropology and Modern World System]. 2011. Beograd: Srpski genealoški centar i Odeljenje za etnologiju i antropologiju Filozofskog fakulteta Univerziteta u Beogradu, Etnološka biblioteka 54, pp. 250.

  6. Democratization in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2013-01-01

    a political conditionality approach. Few countries have felt the weight of conditionality as much as Malawi did in the 1990s. Here, donors were able to use aid sanctions to successfully encourage democratization, while strengthening the demands of domestic opposition forces. This paper argues that three...

  7. Ethics and legality in the Romanian political marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poţincu, C. R.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic system, the legal framework is a guarantee of the favourable development of several activities, including those regarding the implementation of the promotional techniques used in the political marketing.

  8. Systemic Rejection: political pressures seen from the science system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Mitchell; Sørensen, Mads P.; Bloch, Carter Walter

    2016-01-01

    are shared by researchers as well; however, below the surface is a paradox that is rarely discussed. The political system and the science system understand and pursue these concepts and objectives differently. Through two case studies on high-performing university-based research environments in Denmark......, the cases demonstrate why the relationship between the science system and the political system needs to be understood as a horizontal rather than a vertical relationship, and using concepts from organizational theory, provides a model and terminology for identifying and analyzing the types of mechanisms...... and strategic responses that the science system uses to shield itself from political steering pressures....

  9. Is John Locke a democrat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

      Over recent years there has been a tendency to present John Locke as an equalitarian democrat (Ashcraft) and being close to the political views of the levellers (Waldron). This is not a completely new interpretation (Kendall, 1941), but contrasts with the prevalent view presented in textbooks...... (Holden, Held, Ball and Dagger) and monographs on Locke (Dunn, Parry, Marshall). In this paper a new approach to the democratic character of John Locke's political theory is suggested, as his Second Treatise is analysed with Robert A. Dahl's conceptual framework on assumptions for a democratic order...

  10. Political Participation in the Post-Industrial Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman-Wilzig, Sam

    1983-01-01

    In almost all democratic countries, a rising incidence of nonformal means of political communication, e.g., polls, pressure groups, demonstrations, suggests a need to broaden participation in political decision making. Outlines two possible approaches for achieving this goal: the dual weighted-vote system and computerized politics. (Author/CS)

  11. The Democratic Vision of Carl Schmitt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Hviid

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to justify two propositions. One, that Schmitt’s political vision is indeed democratic and second, that Schmitt’s democratic vision, plebiscitary or leadership democracy, is better adapted to our modern political condition and the challenges confronting modern...

  12. Democracy, Education and the Need for Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, Ingerid S.

    2016-01-01

    Even though the interrelationship between education and democratic politics is as old as democracy itself, it is seldom explicitly formulated in the literature. Most of the time, the political system is taken as a given, and education conceptualized as an instrument for stability and social integration. Many contemporary discussions about…

  13. Democracy, Education and the Need for Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, Ingerid S.

    2016-01-01

    Even though the interrelationship between education and democratic politics is as old as democracy itself, it is seldom explicitly formulated in the literature. Most of the time, the political system is taken as a given, and education conceptualized as an instrument for stability and social integration. Many contemporary discussions about…

  14. Shaping Political Preferences: Information Effects in Political-Administrative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Bækgaard, Martin; Serritzlew, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Information is at the heart of politics. However, since information is always sent by someone who is more or less powerful, it is difficult to disentangle the effect of information from the power of the sender. Drawing on a standard model of attitude formation, we argue that presenting informatio...

  15. The Promotion of Democratic Behavior and the Role of Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Khan, Irfanullah; Khan, Ahmad Ali; Jan, Farooq; Ahmad, Riaz; Rauf, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    This study is conducted to measure the influence of social media over the democratic behavior of the students. Social media is the main component of political participation in democratic societies and the study of democratic behavior is a highly specialized sub-field in political and social science. The study was concerned with the reasons that to…

  16. 中国民主选举的政治理念与基本思路%Political Ideas and Guidelines of Democratic Elections in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强世功

    2004-01-01

    @@ At the turn of the 21st century, after more than two decades of its efforts in economic reforms, China has been undergoing a transition from a planned to a market economy. China's overall capability has in great measure been enhanced as well. Along with economic transformation, transformation of the political structure, to better adapt it to providing the economy with a superstructure, has emerged as an urgent need.On the one hand, the market helps diversify social interests and boosts stratification in the social structure. How this plurality of interests-in some cases competitive or conflicting political and social ones-is to reach a political consensus through an institutionalized mechanism so as to confirm and strengthen the political authority, has become a critical issue in guiding China from an economic to a political nation,1 On the other hand,market development has led to increased polarization, which has placed social justice under a spotlight. Resolving this issue largely depends on open negotiation and comproraise among different social groups on the basis of a fair, reasonable procedural system.2All these problems are in one way or another reducible to that of China's political restructuring. In other words, with a view to handling all conflicts of social and political interest (and other potential disputes)

  17. Social and Ideological Basis for Contemporary Chinese Democratic Political Construction---Based on Rawls Justice Theory%论中国当代民主政治建设的社会思想基础--以罗尔斯的正义理论为借镜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳春

    2014-01-01

    Based on taking Rawls justice theory for reference, this paper discusses the social and ideolog-ical basis for contemporary Chinese democratic political construction.Firstly, the construction of democratic politics requires top system design, taking fairness and justice as the basic value orientation of political reform and the design target, based on which to carry out the reform plan and system.A key issue is to handle the re-lationship between procedural justice and substantive justice, and the procedural justice should be put on a more important position.Secondly, with the premise of the practical rationality in institutional choice, the con-struction of democratic politics in China basically is an idea problem.Public rationality and further overlapping consensus should be formed on fairness and justice.Thirdly, this paper citizens should take the responsibilities and obligations of the basic social structure and the political system, economic system and social system.The social citizens’ civilization and political moral are correspondingly required to construct the justice of social system.%文章以罗尔斯的正义理论为参照,将公平正义作为政治改革的基本价值取向和目标,进行民主政治建设的顶层制度设计,其中关键的问题是处理好程序正义与实质正义的关系,要把程序正义放在更加重要的位置。当然,中国民主政治建设从根本上说还是观念问题,需要在公平正义上形成公共理性,达成重叠共识。最后在社会基本结构及其政治制度、经济制度和社会制度层面,还是需要由社会中的公民去承担其责任和义务。因而社会制度的正义性建构,对社会公民的文明素养和政治道德也提出了相应的要求。

  18. Shaping Political Preferences: Information Effects in Political-Administrative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Bækgaard, Martin; Serritzlew, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Information is at the heart of politics. However, since information is always sent by someone who is more or less powerful, it is difficult to disentangle the effect of information from the power of the sender. Drawing on a standard model of attitude formation, we argue that presenting information...... shows that even in a setting where the information is not disclosed by a powerful sender, information may have a stronger impact on political preferences than other well-known determinants such as committee and party affiliation. Our findings speak to learning theories, knowledge perspectives...... can affect preferences of politicians regardless of the power of the sender. We test this proposition in a survey experiment with 1205 Danish local politicians in which the experimental groups were presented with varying levels of cost information but where sender remained constant. The experiment...

  19. The Cause Analysis of the Evolution of the Tripartite Political system%试析三权分立制度嬗变的原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺冬

    2012-01-01

    在梳理三权分立制度的基础上,对其分权性质及分权原则发生嬗变的原因做了系统分析和探讨,认为三权分立制度嬗变是传统代议民主制走向衰落,行政集权民主制基本形成,政党政治民主制有效运作综合作用的产物。%Based on the tripartite system, the paper makes a systemic analysis on the evolution of the decentralization nature and the decentralization principle. It argues that it is the combine action product that involves to the traditional democratic system, the administrative centralization democratic system and party politics democratic sys tem.

  20. Bio-Inspired Political Systems. Opening a Field

    CERN Document Server

    Mezza-Garcia, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the scopes of engineering bio-inspired political systems, which are political systems based on the properties of life that self-organize the increasing complexity of human social systems. We describe bio-inspired political systems and conjecture about various ways to get to them, most notably, metaheuristics, modeling and simulation and complexified topologies. Bio-inspired political systems operate with nature-based dynamics, inspired on the knowledge that has been acquired about complexity from natural social systems and life. Bio-inspired political systems are presented as the best alternative for organizing human sociopolitical interactions as computation and microelectronics-based technology profoundly modify the ways in which humans decide. Therefore, weakening classical political systems. For instance, dwindling top-down power structures, modifying the notion of geographical spatiality and augmenting the political granularity. We also argue that, more than a new theoretical p...

  1. Inequality, legitimacy and the political system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersen, R.; Burgoon, B.; van de Werfhorst, H.; Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter studies the complex relationship between income inequality and the legitimacy of politics. By focusing on outcomes concerning national and supranational politics, the chapter argues that political correlates to inequality may not only widen cleavages in political interest, attitudes to

  2. SOVIET POLITICAL SCHOOLS, THE COMMUNIST PARTY ADULT INSTRUCTION SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MICKIEWICZ, ELLEN PROPPER

    A STUDY WAS MADE OF SOVIET ADULT POLITICAL EDUCATION MAINLY AS IT APPLIES TO RUSSIAN URBAN AREAS, WHERE THE SYSTEM IS MOST HIGHLY DEVELOPED. THIS SYSTEM, AN AGENCY FOR TRANSMITTING POLITICAL DOCTRINE, FORMS A PART OF THE VAST NETWORK OF FORMAL POLITICAL COMMUNICATION, WHICH INCLUDES THE MASS MEDIA, AGITATION, AND COMMUNIST PARTY LEADERSHIP…

  3. Value and Politics of China and Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shuhua

    2008-01-01

    The 17th National Congress stressed that the Party must keep to the path of political development under socialism with Chinese characteristics. Since the introduction of the reform and opening up policy, China's economy has developed quickly, supplementing its political construction. Progress in the economy and political development have raised China's confidence and made the Chinese system more attractive to the rest of the world. Though China's political development has been achieved under the correct democratic development viewpoint, difficulties may yet arise, and China may need to look outside to other political achievements; importantly, China has the confidence and determination to make its political development harmonious, orderly and effective.

  4. The Influence of Democratic Legitimacy on Outcomes in Governance Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans); J. Edelenbos (Jurian)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Drawing on different theories of democracy, this article distinguishes three dimensions of democratic legitimacy: political accountability, voice, and due deliberation. The article operationalizes each form of democratic legitimacy and then looks at how these various fo

  5. PUBLIC POLITICS REGARDING THE PENSION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu RADU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The said paper proposes to seak some answers regarding the long term sustainability of the pension system. Romania’s pension system originates from the invalidity insurances and pension system designed by the German cancellor Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismark in 1889. From a European perspective, Romania has to fill an obvious gap regarding the reformation of the national public pension system. International experience, particularly of the last 130 years, indicates that, in actuality, multiple pension systems have been put into function in most of the world’s countries and which are diferenciated by some elements (organizing and managing the system, defyning pension rights, method of forming the resources, the pension’s level rapported to the average income etc. and after the eficacity degree dependent on internal influences, social, economic and demographic environment, and last but not least by the political factor.

  6. Acceptance of democracy and democratic orientation in Serbia in the context of social changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the support for democratic government and its basic values expressed by the citizens of Serbia. Direct, general evaluation of democracy, operationalized through valuing democracy as a good or bad system of government was analyzed. Unidimensional syndrome of democratic orientation which comprises social tolerance, postmaterialist values, valuing of autonomy, support for gender equality and market orientation was observed as an indicator of the acceptance of the democratic values. The data collected in the three waves of the World Values Survey (N=3700, conducted on representative samples of Serbian citizens in 1996, 2001 and 2006, were analyzed. The results of the analysis indicate that general support for democratic government, as well as the acceptance of the democratic orientation among Serbian citizens, shows a 'zigzag' profile of change - a sharp increase after the democratic changes in 2000, followed by a significant decrease. The congruence between support for democratic government and democratic values is relatively rare. The concluding chapter discusses the importance and implications of the obtained results in the context of social change effects on the changes of value orientations in one society, as well as in the light of the two competing models of the relationship between political culture and political structure, culturalist and institutionalist. .

  7. 达尔的民主政治文化思想及其对中国的启示%An analysis of Dahl’s democratic political culture thought and its revelation to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋

    2015-01-01

    政治文化与民主之关系是古典与当代政治学的重要议题。达尔的民主政治文化理论与当代主流政治文化研究范式既有共性,也有差异。就民主政治文化内涵而言,达尔认为平等价值是其基础、文明利己主义是其重要内涵、政治信念是其直接体现。民主政治文化的生成遵循个体与结构的双元逻辑。人际互动的复杂影响以及市场经济、现代动态多元社会和历史因素都对其发展具有重要影响。当代中国民主政治文化建设与未来发展,不仅需要在社会范围内培育相信民主、认同民主、维护民主的政治文化,发掘、维护和巩固平等的价值意识,引导和培养适宜的公民意识等内在主观层面的嬗变与调整,而且要通过不断发展市场经济和加强社会自治,以利于民主政治文化生长环境的结构性因素的滋养与拱卫。%The correlation between political culture and democracy is one of the important issues in politics from the classical era to the contemporary. There are both similar and different points between Dahl’s theory of democratic political culture and contemporary mainstream political cultural research paradigm. In terms of democratic political culture connotation, Dahl thinks that equal value is the foundation, that the self-interest of civilization is the important content, and that political belief is the direct embodiment. The formation of democratic political culture follows the dual logic of the individual and the structure. The complex effect of interpersonal interaction, market economy, modern dynamic multiple society and historical factors all exert an important influence on its development. Construction and the future development of contemporary China’s democratic political culture need not only to cultivate political culture of believing in democracy, agreeing with democracy, maintaining the democratic, to explore, maintain and consolidate the

  8. Governança global democrática, desigualdade política e a hipótese da resistência nacionalista Democratic global governance, political inequality, and the nationalist retrenchment hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kjerulf Dubrow

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Será a governança global inevitável? Será possível uma governança global democrática? Aponto dois obstáculos para a existência desta: a desigualdade política e a resistência nacionalista. Enquanto a governança global já existe, uma governança global democrática é refreada por desigualdades políticas internas e entre nações. Neste contexto, a resistência nacionalista, refreamento e desvio em direção ao unilateralismo, através da qual as nações evadem-se às estratégias de governança global, também se apresenta como um desafio ao desenvolvimento democrático de instituições deste cunho. Este artigo pretende dar continuidade ao diálogo entre sociólogos e outros cientistas sociais sobre a esperança otimista pela governança global.Is global governance inevitable? Is democratic global governance likely? I point out two obstacles that lie in the path toward democratic global governance: political inequality and nationalist retrenchment. While global governance is already here, democratic global governance is held back by political inequality within and between nations. In this context, nationalist retrenchment, a stop and back-slide toward unilaterialism where nations eschew global governance strategies, also poses a challenge to the democratic development of global governance institutions. This article serves to continue the conversation among sociologists and other social scientists on the optimistic hopes for democratic global governance.

  9. Eventful democratization: why we need methodological pluralism

    OpenAIRE

    Della Porta, Donatella

    2014-01-01

    A keynote for the SCOPE 2014: Science of Politics – International Interdisciplinary Conference of Political Research that took place at the University of Bucharest, Faculty of Political Science between 27 and 29 June 2014, this article assesses at theoretical and methodological level the way in which both agency and structure are relevant in social movements, particularly in processes of eventful democratization. Eventful democratization appears as sudden and unexpected, not only to observers...

  10. The interaction between the political system and the media system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almlund, Pernille

    The paper addresses how the media system and the political system in Denmark interact or couple. The overall question of the paper is whether this interaction should be seen as a strong and continuing structural coupling or as a new emerging system with a new binary code. The paper will be limited...

  11. Resolving the dilemma between equality and liberty: the Swedish political system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie BLANC-NOEL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Swedish democracy ranks very high in international democracy indexes. It fascinates political scientists from all over the world because it seems to have resolved a fundamental political dilemma: the choice between equality and liberty, without the historical inconvenient of regimes which favoured too much equality - but killed liberty, or regimes which favoured liberty - but failed to make citizens equal... The "'egalitarian pluralism" practiced in Swedish political system is rooted in a specific political culture. This culture has opted for popular sovereignty and comes from the ancient peasant society. Lutheran values and the absence of feudalism paved the way to the search for equality and the edification of a strong State. In the 20th century, the Social-democrats endorsed the traditional Swedish values and prolonged them in the so-called Swedish model, with social policies allowing more equality along with more individual autonomy. Nowadays, the model is evolving, coping with globalization, and the definition of equality is under discussion.

  12. "Democratization"of judicial interpretation and the Supreme Court's political function%司法解释"民主化"和最高法院的政治功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈岿

    2008-01-01

    The new provisions on judicial interpretation work issued by the Supreme People's Court (SPC) explicitly establish two procedural institutions:"Citizen motion for project initiation of judicial interpretation"and"Seeking public comment."Under the rubric of democratization.these create "prima facie democratic legitimacy"for it to cany out the political function of developing law through judicial interpretation,and also enable it to broadly absorb information or knowledge in the course of Chinese-style judicial interpretation,especially abstract interpretation.However,the"democratization"trend gives also the impression that the SPC hews so close to public opinion that it will find itself in a quandary if it becomes necessary for it to make an independent and wise judgment.The SPC must find an appropriate balance between following behind and standing aloof from public opinion.Therefore,we should not take any flnther steps in"democratization."An acceptable strategy for the present would be for the SPC to retain abstract interpretation in a limited sphere while working on reforming the content,form and system of concrete interprcmtion and extending its Scope of application,letting the two models of judicial interlnetation coexist and compete for future development and choices.%最高人民法院发布新的关于司法解释工作的规定,明文确立了"公民动议司法解释立项"和"公开征求意见"的机制,从而在"民主化"的话语描述下,为其履行通过解释发展法律的政治功能建构了"表面上的民主合法性",也使其能够在进行中国式司法解释(尤其是抽象司法解释)过程中广泛吸纳信息或知识.然而, "民主化"动向也给人留下最高人民法院无限贴近民意的印象,由此制造了使其很难在必要时进行独立、明智判断的困境.最高人民法院进行司法解释,需要在顺应民意和距离民意之间寻找适当的平衡,为此,不应再采取任何进一步"民主化"的措施.

  13. Systemic Rejection: political pressures seen from the science system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Mitchell; Sørensen, Mads P.; Bloch, Carter Walter

    2016-01-01

    and Sweden, this article uncovers the ways in which highly successful researchers often behave in ways that run counter to policy steering attempts. They do this by shielding themselves and their research group from steering pressures originating in the political system. Using Luhmann’s systems theory...

  14. Civic education, key to democratic consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mardones Arévalo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Assuming the importance for Chile to deepen and improve its democratic system, this article aims first to recognize the status of citizen progressive distancing of political affairs, especially in the youngest segment, based on data provided by various surveys and studies for the period 1990 to 2010. The realization of the above situation leads us to propose that generate citizen involvement is correlated to the field of politics, that citizens understand the importance of political participation, which is made from the educational base. From our perspective, the problem lies in citizenship education, which would be deficient or misguided. Thus, the second objective of this study is to understand the role that has met the Chilean educational system, however the education reform process launched since 1997 has not, apparently, with the formula that involves the creation of citizenship committed to their surroundings and with the complexities of the context of open societies and permeable in a global context.

  15. 加强党内基层民主建设推动国有企业政治优势转化%Strengthening Inner-party Democratic Construction at the Grassroots Level and Promoting the Political Advantage Transformation of State-owned Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏学津

    2014-01-01

    It is the fundamental requirement to strengthen inner-party democratic construction at the grassroots level so as to give full play to the political core role of Party organizations in state-owned enterprises ,and keep the correct development direction of enterprises ;it is also the objective requirement to promote the harmony of state-owned enterprises by inner-par-ty harmony .The Party member desire expression platform and the carrier should be built to strengthen inner-party democrat-ic construction at the grassroots level and promote the political advantage transformation of state-owned enterprises ;The e-lectoral system should be further improved and the inner-party electoral democracy ranges expanded;the electoral procedure should be regulated to respect and represent the will of the electors ;measures should be taken to establish and perfect other systems matching the inner-party election system .%加强党内基层民主建设,是充分发挥国有企业党组织政治核心作用,始终保持企业正确发展方向的根本要求;是国有企业以党内和谐促进企业和谐的客观要求。加强党内基层民主建设,推动国有企业政治优势转化,可采取搭建党员意愿表达平台和载体;进一步完善选举制度,不断扩大党内选举的民主范围;规范尊重和体现选举人意志的选举程序;建立健全与党内选举制度相配套的制度等措施。

  16. The Paraguayan democratization process: advances and opposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel UHARTE POZAS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the new conceptions of democracy in Latin America, this work attempts to evaluate the democratization process that is taking place in Paraguay, as a consequence of the historical defeat suffered by the Colorado Party in the presidential elections of 2008. The analysis identifies the reasons for the triumph of the heterogeneous coalition lead by ex-bishop Fernando Lugo and evaluates three aspects of the process: political democratization, social democratization and mass participation.

  17. Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the State?: National machineries

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Shirin M

    2003-01-01

    Democratization has become an important concept in the last ten years. With the end of the Cold War, the spread of globalization, and the extension of economic regulatory regimes, democratization has come to be seen as important to securing long-term political stability. Much has been written about democratization and gender in works on human rights, citizenship, women's movements and challenges to authoritarian regimes. This book, published in association with the United Nations, builds on t...

  18. A Mathematical Model of Democratic Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mato Nagel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Democratic election is the preferred method for determining political administrators nowadays. The intention is to find the best possible leader in order to improve the group's competitiveness and success. Though preferred, democratic election is far from being optimal in this respect, and is increasingly becoming the target for fraud. A model was developed to scientifically analyze the present electoral system's insufficiency. It is based on fauceir assumptions. Its calculations enable principles to be developed that optimize the election process, while also revealing the limits of elections in societies growing ever more complex, so that in the end elections have to be replaced by processes similar to what has proved optimal throughout naturally occurring evolution-natural selection.

  19. Politics of the Periphery: An Introduction to Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America Política de la periferia. Una introducción a autoritarismo y democratización subnacional en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward L. Gibson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an introduction to the topic featured in JPLA 2/2010 "Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America." It discusses the papers by Carlos Gervasoni, Agustina Giraudy, Julián Durazo Herrmann, Alfred P. Montero, and Tracy Beck Fenwick that follow in this issue. Why feature the topic “subnational authoritarianism and democratization” in the Journal of Politics in Latin America? Because despite widespread agreement that subnational jurisdictions in Latin America vary considerably in the democratic character of their politics, political scientists are still largely in the dark about how to conceptualize and measure this situation, and have scant knowledge about mechanisms that sustain and undermine it. This collection of articles makes major headway toward clearing our methodological and theoretical ignorance of these topics. El artículo es una introducción al tema especial de JPLA 2/2010 "autoritarismo y democratización subnacional en América Latina". Discute las contribuciones de Carlos Gervasoni, Agustina Giraudy, Julián Durazo Herrmann, Alfred P. Montero y Tracy Beck Fenwick que estan unidas en esta edición. ¿Porqué presentar el tema “autoritarismo y democratización subnacional” en el Journal of Politics in Latin America? Porque a pesar del acuerdo general que en América Latina las jurisdicciones subnacionales varian considerablementes  en el carácter democrático de su política, la mayoría de politólogos todavía esta insegura como conceptualizar y medir ésta situación, y tiene poco conocimiento de los mecanismos que la mantienen o subvierten. Esta colección de artículos ofrece aproximaciones metodológicas y teóricas al tema.

  20. Form of Government and Political System: Conditions of Impossibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Iancu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Successful constitutions manage to predetermine in juridical frame the political life of a country, by imposing a durable core equilibrium, i.e., a specific political system. The integrative function of the constitution derives from a reflexive political decision, at the constitution-making moment, for a specific form. The current theoretical difficulty in characterizing with precision the political system established by the Constitution of 1991 reflects the syncopated constitutional conflicts of recent years. The instability can be traced back to the continued absence of the preconditions for a genuine constitutional foundation. The initial indecision has been reinforced by later influences, including the EU accession process.

  1. Reunification, democratization and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee-Hun

    1990-06-01

    The division of the nation into two separate political entities and the later development of dependent capitalism in South Korea have created two important eductional tasks, to do with reunification and democratization. Reunification requires liberation from the influence of foreign powers involved in the national partition and the development of dependent capitalism. Reunification-oriented education emphasizes understanding foreign influences in every sphere of the people's life, understanding the true realities of the two Koreas which have developed in different ways, and overcoming anti-communist ideological obfuscation. Democratization implies the enhancement of people's participation in the exercise and control of political and economic power at every level. For this purpose people need to be educated to participate in order to prevent the abuse of highly centralized power. United and collective action by teachers is required to protect schools from the state monopoly in education and to maintain the integrity and independence of a teaching profession so that pupils can learn and practise democratic values at school.

  2. Rethinking democracy and representation: a proposal to extend the democratic canon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Monsiváis Carrillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rethinking political representation is necessary to understand many contemporary democratic challenges. However, a widely accepted view states that democracy and representation are two irreconcilable principles, thus hindering the theoretical assessment of political representation's democratic relevance. According to this view, what democracy needs is more popular participation; instead, representation involves elitism and political detachment. In this paper I will argue that such a view is inaccurate. Through the reconstruction of the democratic ideal, and the discussion of the concept of political representation, I intend to show that processes of political authorization, accountability and public justification are both elements of political representation and expression of democratic politics.

  3. Robustness of power systems under a democratic fiber bundle-like model

    CERN Document Server

    Yağan, Osman

    2015-01-01

    We consider a power system with $N$ transmission lines whose initial loads (i.e., power flows) $L_1, \\ldots, L_N$ are independent and identically distributed with $P_L(x)$. The capacity $C_i$ defines the maximum flow allowed on line $i$, and is assumed to be given by $C_i=(1+\\alpha)L_i$, with $\\alpha>0$. We study the robustness of this power system against random attacks (or, failures) that target a $p$-{\\em fraction} of the lines, under a democratic fiber bundle-like model. Namely, when a line fails, the load it was carrying is redistributed equally among the remaining lines. Our contributions are as follows: i) we show analytically that the final breakdown of the system always takes place through a first-order transition at the critical attack size $p^{\\star}=1-\\frac{E[L]}{\\max\\{P(L>x)(\\alpha x + E[L ~|~ L>x])\\}}~~~$; ii) we derive conditions on the distribution $P_L(x)$ for which the first order break down of the system occurs abruptly without any preceding diverging rate of failure; iii) we provide a deta...

  4. Transcendental Political Systems and the Gravity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Connor

    2012-01-01

    This summer I have been working on an Army Deep Futures Model project named Themis. Themis is a JPL based modeling framework that anticipates possible future states for the world within the next 25 years. The goal of this framework is to determine the likelihood that the US Army will need to intervene on behalf of the US strategic interests. Key elements that are modeled within this tool include the world structure and major decisions that are made by key actors. Each actor makes decisions based on their goals and within the constraints of the structure of the system in which they are located. In my research I have focused primarily on the effects of structures upon the decision-making processes of the actors within them. This research is a natural extension of my major program at Georgetown University, where I am studying the International Political Economy and the structures that make it up. My basic goal for this summer project was to be a helpful asset to the Themis modeling team, with any research done or processes learned constituting a bonus.

  5. Transcendental Political Systems and the Gravity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Connor

    2012-01-01

    This summer I have been working on an Army Deep Futures Model project named Themis. Themis is a JPL based modeling framework that anticipates possible future states for the world within the next 25 years. The goal of this framework is to determine the likelihood that the US Army will need to intervene on behalf of the US strategic interests. Key elements that are modeled within this tool include the world structure and major decisions that are made by key actors. Each actor makes decisions based on their goals and within the constraints of the structure of the system in which they are located. In my research I have focused primarily on the effects of structures upon the decision-making processes of the actors within them. This research is a natural extension of my major program at Georgetown University, where I am studying the International Political Economy and the structures that make it up. My basic goal for this summer project was to be a helpful asset to the Themis modeling team, with any research done or processes learned constituting a bonus.

  6. Democratic values, emotions and emotivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranić Bojan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the relation between democratic values and emotions. The author argues that democratic values and emotional judgments are inter-reducible: political agents use emotional judgments to reflexively evaluate normative paradigms of political life. In the first part of the paper, the author describes the state of emotions in contemporary political philosophy and identifies Charles Stevenson’s ethical conception of emotivism as the first comprehensive attempt to neutrally conceptualize emotions in moral and political thinking. The second part of the paper explores the shortcomings of emotivism and finds an adequate alternative in Martha Nussbaum’s concept of emotional judgment as the one that contains beliefs and values about social objects. In the final part of the paper, the author identifies that moral and political disagreements emerge in democracies from ranking of the importance of political objects. The evaluation criteria for this type of ranking is derived from democratic values which are reducible to agents’ emotional judgments. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076

  7. Politeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Bergson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the English translation of a speech Bergson made at Lycée Henri-IV on July 30, 1892. This is an interesting text because it anticipates Bergson’s last book, his The Two Sources of Morality and Religion. Like the distinction in The Two Sources between the open and the closed, “Politeness” defines its subject matter in two ways. There is what Bergson calls “manners” and there is true politeness. For Bergson, both kinds of politeness concern equality. Manners or material politeness amount to the ritualized greetings and formalities by means of which we usually define politeness. Unfortunately and like The Two Sources, Bergson attributes this formalized relation to other human beings with primitive and “inferior races.” Nevertheless, Bergson sees in these formalities an attempt, in the name of equality, to ignore other people’s talents and merits so that one can dominate morally superior people. In contrast, true politeness or “spiritual politeness” consists in “intellectual flexibility.” When one meets a person of superior morality, one is flexible in one’s relation to him or her; one abandons the formalities in order to really live her life and think her thoughts. Here we find equality too: “what defines this very polite person is to prefer each of his friends over the others, and to succeed in this way in loving them equally.” After making a comparison to dance, Bergson defines spiritual politeness as “a grace of the mind.” Since both kinds of politeness concern equality, Bergson associates both with justice. However, beyond these two kinds of politeness and justice there is “politeness of the heart,” which concerns charity. In order to indicate politeness of the heart, Bergson describes the kind of person, a sensitive person, who anxiously awaits a word of praise in order to feel good about herself but who also, when she hears a word of reproach, is thrown into sadness. Although Bergson calls the

  8. El discurso político de Manuel Fraga durante la Transición. Aplicaciones metodológicas / The political discourse of Manuel Fraga in the process of Democratic Transition. Methodological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pantoja Chaves

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Para finalizar con esta serie de artículos sobre el análisis de los discursos de los líderes más importantes del proceso de Transición democrática en España, en esta entrega nos centramos en la figura política de Manuel Fraga Iribarne. Su trayectoria estuvo marcada por una activa participación institucional durante los últimos años del régimen de Franco, reconducida hacia una realidad política y social consensuada por los principios democráticos.Summary: To end this series of articles on the analysis of the speeches of the most important leaders of the democratic transition process in Spain, in this issue we focus on the political figure of Manuel Fraga Iribarne. His career was marked by active institutional participation over the last years of the Franco regime, redirected towards a political and social consensus for democratic principles.

  9. Improving democratic governance through institutional design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Skelcher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In this article we provide a conceptual and argumentative framework for studying how institutional design can enhance civic participation and ultimately increase citizens' sense of democratic ownership of governmental processes. First, we set out the socio-political context for enhancing the demo......In this article we provide a conceptual and argumentative framework for studying how institutional design can enhance civic participation and ultimately increase citizens' sense of democratic ownership of governmental processes. First, we set out the socio-political context for enhancing...... the democratic governance of regulatory policies in Europe, and highlight the way in which civic participation and democratic ownership is given equal weight to economic competitiveness. We then discuss the potential for institutionalized participatory governance to develop and its prospects for improving...... effective and democratic governance in the multi-layered European polity. We conclude by outlining a research agenda for the field and identifying the priorities for scholars working interactively with civil society and governments....

  10. Democratic constraints on demographic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, J S

    1984-01-01

    The discussion compares the population policies adopted in Sweden during the 1930s to raise fertiity and the policies considered in the US during the 1970s in response to the high fertility experienced in the 1950s. Both sets of policies recommended increased availability of birth control, more liberal abortion laws, and greater employment opportunities for women. It becomes evident that the constraints imposed by a democratic system of government translate into policy recommendations that place individual freedom of choice and equal opportunity for all citizens as higher goals than any specific demographic target. Consequently, the population commissions of Sweden and the US made similar suggestions on how to resolve their opposite demographic problems. The demographic situations in the 2 nations were antipodal, and the countries also had very different social climates. This additional disparity was insufficient to counterbalance the apparently overwhelming influence of the democratic political systems in making virtually identical policy recommendations. Yet, the contrasting social climates of Sweden in 1935 and the US in 1970-72 may explain the different reactions each commission received. In terms of the responses by both citizens and government officials to the commissions' reports, the Swedish commission was more successful. Practically all of their recommendations were enthusiastically received and quickly adopted by the Swedish Riksdag. Yet, when the criterion for success becomes whether or not a demographic target was met, it increased in the 1940s and then dropped again while the same social policies were in effect. Even before the US commission began its study, fertility in the US had fallen and continues to remain low. These findings suggest that commissions in democratic countries will most likely never recommend dramatic measures in population policy. Thus, it is questionable whether such commissions in democratic nations will totally fulfill the

  11. Robustness of power systems under a democratic-fiber-bundle-like model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaǧan, Osman

    2015-06-01

    We consider a power system with N transmission lines whose initial loads (i.e., power flows) L1,...,LN are independent and identically distributed with PL(x ) =P [L ≤x ] . The capacity Ci defines the maximum flow allowed on line i and is assumed to be given by Ci=(1 +α ) Li , with α >0 . We study the robustness of this power system against random attacks (or failures) that target a p fraction of the lines, under a democratic fiber-bundle-like model. Namely, when a line fails, the load it was carrying is redistributed equally among the remaining lines. Our contributions are as follows. (i) We show analytically that the final breakdown of the system always takes place through a first-order transition at the critical attack size p=1 -E/[L ] maxx(P [L >x ](α x +E [L |L >x ]) ) , where E [.] is the expectation operator; (ii) we derive conditions on the distribution PL(x ) for which the first-order breakdown of the system occurs abruptly without any preceding diverging rate of failure; (iii) we provide a detailed analysis of the robustness of the system under three specific load distributions—uniform, Pareto, and Weibull—showing that with the minimum load Lmin and mean load E [L ] fixed, Pareto distribution is the worst (in terms of robustness) among the three, whereas Weibull distribution is the best with shape parameter selected relatively large; (iv) we provide numerical results that confirm our mean-field analysis; and (v) we show that p is maximized when the load distribution is a Dirac delta function centered at E [L ] , i.e., when all lines carry the same load. This last finding is particularly surprising given that heterogeneity is known to lead to high robustness against random failures in many other systems.

  12. Democratic Theory and the Challenge of Linguistic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Language Policy, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores the relationship between democratic political theory and the reality of linguistic diversity in contemporary political communities. After suggesting a distinction between "liberal" and "participatory" democratic theories, and asserting that there have been fruitful explorations of linguistic diversity in…

  13. Democratic Theory and the Challenge of Linguistic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Language Policy, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores the relationship between democratic political theory and the reality of linguistic diversity in contemporary political communities. After suggesting a distinction between "liberal" and "participatory" democratic theories, and asserting that there have been fruitful explorations of linguistic diversity in…

  14. Homegrown Democracy, Homegrown Democrats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman K. Denzin

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Written on the eve of the 2004 American presidential election, this political narrative offers a critical reading of two models of democracy: Instant-Mix imperial democracy (bring to a boil, add oil, then bomb, criticized by Arundhati Roy, and Garrison Keillor’s Homegrown Democrat. Keillor’s pastoral view of democracy is anchored in LakeWobegon, his imaginary utopian community. His homegrown democracy is narrow, provincial, and White. The author concludes that he must look elsewhere for his alternative view of democracy.

  15. Pragmatizing Democratic Education in Botswana through Business Education: Countering the Scourge of the Diploma Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotia, Agreement Lathi; Sithole, Burman Musa

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful and emancipatory education which empowers citizens as democrats is the ideal education which can propel the socio-economic and political fibre of nay nation-state. After independence, Botswana aligned her education system with the envisioned development process. The sad thing about this ambitious approach in Botswana is that it sought…

  16. The Russian Military’s Role in Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    democratic system . In order to prevent the military from becoming a threat, democratizing governments must re-educate their military professionals and instill in them a sense of respect for democratic institutions and the multi-party system. The goal is to limit the military’s role in politics and develop a tradition of an apolitical army. The problems facing Russia in this regard are multi- fold. It inherited from the USSR an officer corps for which loyalty to both the Soviet Union and the ruling Communist party was a prerequisite to professional advancement.

  17. Referral hospitals in the Democratic Republic of Congo as complex adaptive systems: similar program, different dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karemere, Hermès; Ribesse, Nathalie; Kahindo, Jean-Bosco; Macq, Jean

    2015-01-01

    In many African countries, first referral hospitals received little attention from development agencies until recently. We report the evolution of two of them in an unstable region like Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo when receiving the support from development aid program. Specifically, we aimed at studying how actors' network and institutional framework evolved over time and what could matter the most when looking at their performance in such an environment. We performed two cases studies between 2006 and 2010. We used multiple sources of data: reports to document events; health information system for hospital services production, and "key-informants" interviews to interpret the relation between interventions and services production. Our analysis was inspired from complex adaptive system theory. It started from the analysis of events implementation, to explore interaction process between the main agents in each hospital, and the consequence it could have on hospital health services production. This led to the development of new theoretical propositions. Two events implemented in the frame of the development aid program were identified by most of the key-informants interviewed as having the greatest impact on hospital performance: the development of a hospital plan and the performance based financing. They resulted in contrasting interaction process between the main agents between the two hospitals. Two groups of services production were reviewed: consultation at outpatient department and admissions, and surgery. The evolution of both groups of services production were different between both hospitals. By studying two first referral hospitals through the lens of a Complex Adaptive System, their performance in a context of development aid takes a different meaning. Success is not only measured through increased hospital production but through meaningful process of hospital agents'" network adaptation. Expected process is not necessarily a change; strengthened

  18. Adult Education and Political and Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanakatwe, J. M.

    1970-01-01

    The author, secretary general of the Republic of Zambia, discusses education (and particularly adult education) as a political imperative in Africa. He cites the problems of illiteracy and of the desire for a democratic system, and suggests that population growth must be adjusted to development potential. (MF)

  19. Does Political Ideology Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2005-01-01

    their political ideology, affect economic performance. The paper presents evidence suggesting that rightwing societies have grown faster in the last decades than other democratic societies. Further analysis suggests that these societies develop better legal systems and less government intervention, which in turn...

  20. A Renormalization Group Like Model for a Democratic Dictatorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galam, Serge

    2015-03-01

    We review a model of sociophysics which deals with democratic voting in bottom up hierarchical systems. The connection to the original physical model and technics are outlined underlining both the similarities and the differences. Emphasis is put on the numerous novel and counterintuitive results obtained with respect to the associated social and political framework. Using this model a real political event was successfully predicted with the victory of the French extreme right party in the 2000 first round of French presidential elections. The perspectives and the challenges to make sociophysics a predictive solid field of science are discussed.

  1. Mixed Signals: Democratization and the Myanmar Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Burrett

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the media context of Myanmar’s recent political reforms and transition of power. Drawing on interviews with 57 Yangon-based media professionals, the article analyzes the media’s role as both an agent and subject of political change as Myanmar prepared for parliamentary elections in November 2015. It asks to what extent changes in the Myanmar media system adhere to existing theories of the media’s role in the democratization process. Specifically, the article analyzes the features and functions of Myanmar’s media during the country’s liberalization from 2010 to 2015. The article concludes by assessing what Myanmar’s experience adds to our theoretical understanding of the media’s transformation during liberalization.

  2. Food policy and politics. The political economy of the Public Distribution System in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Mooij (Jos)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper discusses the history and political economy of the Public Distribution System (PDS) in India. This food distribution programme, which dates from 1939, is meant to increase food security both at the national and the household level. Since its emergence, it has passed t

  3. A review of tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment system in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, John A; Tan, Bernard; Casey, Michael

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes the current prevalence of tuberculosis and its management in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. A review of technical reports of NGOs' experience working in North Korea with Democratic People's Republic of Korea officials, tuberculosis healthcare personnel and tuberculosis patients. Site visits, observations and experiences are also included. Until 2001, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, was predominately isolated with an unknown healthcare system but has since allowed NGOs, WHO and international agencies to rehabilitate the healthcare infrastructure involving 200 people's Country Hospitals, 13 Prophylactic Hospitals, 62 Sanitariums and 4 Special Hospitals. The mid 1990s witnessed a resurgence of tuberculosis in North Korea with 100,000 new cases reported yearly. Preliminary analysis revealed that poverty, neglect, lack of resources and isolation resulted in the overall deterioration of public health services. Present estimates suggest a prevalence of 220 per 100,000 with 45,000 new cases. Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in North Korea that will require increased efforts by the national government and international agencies to control

  4. New Political Science of Democratic Age ——The Institutional Approach of Tocqueville's Political Thought%民主时代的新政治科学 ——托克维尔政治思想的制度路径考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单灵芝

    2015-01-01

    贯穿托克维尔全部思想的中心论题是在不可逆转的民主时代如何保存和实现自由. 托克维尔的民主是指身份平等所带来的政治制度、社会文化、法律、道德、民情等社会生活的一切方面的变化及状态,是一种新的不可避免的历史形态. 新的政治科学就是在民主时代避免新型专制,保存和实现自由的科学.制度路径是托克维尔新政治科学的必然选择.以朗格多克省的成功为典型,托克维尔描绘了一幅民主时代共和主义的自由图景.%The central theme throughou t all the Tocqueville 's thought is how to save and obtain freedom in an irreversible democratic era. Tocqueville 's Democracy refers to all aspects of the political institutions, social, cultural, legal, moral, social life of the people and the state of change brought about by the identity of equality; it is a new historical form, and inevitable. The new political science is the art to avoid new demo-cratic despotism, to save and obtain freedom. Institutional approach is the inevitable choice in Tocqueville's new political science. The old Languedoc province was a typical successful example, where Tocqueville painted a picture of a liberal Republicanism in democratic era.

  5. Why Should We Have Political Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velthuis, Ruud

    2002-01-01

    Political education prepares citizens for political, social, economic, and cultural participation. Democratic citizenship is learned formally, nonformally, and informally. A thematic and problem-oriented approach to political education should highlight the various roles of citizens. (SK)

  6. From Dictatorship to Democracy? The Impact of the Collapse of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) on Political Education in Its Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    It is hypothesized in the fields of political education and citizenship studies that a discrepancy exists between the rhetoric of political education as expressed in official policy documents, guidelines, and curricula, on the one hand, and the reality of what happens in the classroom, on the other. This study tests this hypothesis in relation to…

  7. Performing Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy R. E. Paddock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.

  8. Democratically Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Goodin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The 'democracy unbound' project aspires to extend democracy in two dimensions: range and scope. The former would give a wider range of people the vote. The latter would give people a wider scope of things to vote on. In practice, no doubt there is room to do much more of both. But whereas it would be democratically justifiable in an ideal world for democracy to be completely unbounded as regards range, even in an ideal world democracy ought be subject to some limits internal to the logic of democracy itself as regards its scope. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1837428

  9. BRICS Countries and Democratic Contagion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bruno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article explores whether the interstate dynamics of the BRICS can activate those processes of convergence of politicalregimes and practices known as “democratic contagion.” As this contagion was experienced during the “third wave” ofdemocratization, mainly because of homogeneity among states and structural conditions for democratic attraction, theBRICS are not likely to repeat these dynamics. On the contrary, the only real constitutional homogeneity among the BRICScountries is the standard of non-interference in the internal affairs of each member. Non-interference also means abstainingfrom any initiative to condition the transformation of political regimes in consideration of the same interstate cooperation. Thedynamics of the BRICS shows that different political regimes can promote institutionalized forms of interstate cooperationwithout any mutual contamination at the constitutional level. The theories of “transition” and “democratic contagion” areinsufficient to understand these dynamics in the context of the BRICS; for this reason, the theory of democratic transitioncannot provide an adequate analysis of BRICS. With its members “split in unity,” as an institution the BRICS suggests anevolution toward a model of “not eurocentric dependence” that can overcome the “peripheral realism” of the role of eachstate in its own foreign policy.

  10. Post-communist Romanian political system. Since the separation of powers to share power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Buti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the post-communist Romanian political system from a dual perspective, the formal, institutional one and the functional, political perspective. The main novelty posited by the article is the concept of „shared power”. As an expression of political and institutional mechanisms such as algorithm or Romanian-style cohabitation, underlying the domestic political scene and the relations between political actors, „power-sharing” is an element of the Romanian political system. If the formal Romanian political system is based on the principle of separation of powers, in terms of political dynamics, the operating rule is the „power sharing”.

  11. Liberalist Variation in Taiwan: Four Democratization Orientations

    OpenAIRE

    Hung-jen Wang

    2012-01-01

    "In this paper the author analyzes how Taiwanese liberalist scholars have discursively and operationally shaped the meanings of Taiwanese democratization via a mix of liberal values and nationalist concerns. He will argue that a valid understanding of democratization in Taiwan has never emerged in a way that adequately responds to a liberalist perspective of the country's ongoing political development. Instead, such an understanding has been subjectively influenced by liberal intellectuals wr...

  12. Political Values or the Value of Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoska, Emilija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay was motivated by the gap between proclaimed democratic principles and the perceptions of politics which are exhibited by the citizens in transitional countries -more specifically in the Republic of Macedonia. It is based on research data collected in the past few decades, which illustrate that, in their political actions, the citizens are highly motivated by personal benefits and profits, rather than by their internalized values and ideologies. Non-democratic, authoritarian values prevail, while politics is perceived as a value itself, in the most materialistic meaning of the word. It creates a suitable milieu for growth of corruption, nepotism and clientelism. The authors conclude that such a circulus vitsiosus is a corner stone of the Macedonian political regime, and an enormous obstacle for the advancement of the participative, democratic political culture in reality, in spite of its formal acceptance.

  13. Political cleavages in Romania. A theoretical overview of the post-communist parties and party systems

    OpenAIRE

    Olimid, Anca Parmena

    2009-01-01

    The following article examines the emergence of parties in post-communist Romania concluding that the theoretical basis of cleavages (the Lipset-Rokkanian model) is almost impossible to apply in this country. Accordingly, the historical evolution of the post-communist society and the strategic moves of political actors during democratization were often perceived as an „expected moments lacking any theoretical model”. Contrary to this assumption, I argue that even an incipient cleavage suggest...

  14. Bolivia: New Presidential Electoral System and Political Parties Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the incentives generated by presidential electoral systems in Bolivia. The system that was in place until 2005 led to the formation of coalition governments that aimed at giving the Executive the majority in Congress. However, these coalitions gradually lost the electorate confidence, and citizens sought alternative political options to major parties from the early nineties on, giving rise to a social dissatisfaction with democracy. This, in turn, led to the resignation of Sánchez de Lozada and, later, to the triumph of Evo Morales. The new electoral system for electing the president, included in the 2009 Constitution, increases the likelihood that the elected government does not have a majority in Congress. Similar situations in the past led to political crisis and anticipation of elections. In a more favorable context characterized by greater satisfaction with democracy and their parties, the challenge is to take decisions inclusively, something unprecedented in Bolivian politics.

  15. Demokratikleşme Sürecini Tamamlayamamış Toplumların Ekonomik ve Siyasi Açıdan Değerlendirilmesi: Sürdürülebilir Demokrasi( Evaluation of The Societies, Which Did Not Complete Democratization Process, in Terms of Economical and Political Perspectives: Sustainable Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan KUŞAT

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Democracy is the indispensable political regime of 21 century societies. While 20. century century takes place in history as that many countries met with democracy, 21 century seems to be a candidate that will be remembered together with the interventions to the democratic process with a panic to lose the democracy. In each century, with different improvements and different forms, the military-political power, or in other words, the military-civilian relations, has taken place in the agendas of the countries. In history this relationship between the military and political power, exhibits a model which is sometimes moderate and sometimes with conflicts. Finally, it is easy to set up a democratic regime, but it is difficult to make it sustainable. This study is trying to explain to the countries that are willing to digest representative democracy, what to do to make it sustainable.

  16. Party-state relationship, an effect of the political competition. The party system and patronage in Romanian politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Lonean

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the party-state relationship in post-communist Romania. It shows the connections between the existence of patronage, corruption and the states’ weak administrative capacity, on one hand, and the dynamics of the political party system, as an explanatory variable, on the other hand. The instability of the political parties in Romania and their changing relations within the system make the electorates’ task of anticipating and sanctioning their politics impossible. Consequently, the political parties have the possibility of extracting resources from the state without being held accountable in elections, as an effect of their dynamic, but non-robust competition.

  17. 2016 Romanian Parliamentary Election. Between Political Change and Systemic Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Buti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article represents an analysis of the 2016 Romanian general elections in terms of two types of factors. The first factor is a technical one and it is represented by the electoral law, specifically the principle and the methods of converting votes into mandates. The evaluation of the RP system used to elect MPs aims its effects which were operationalized by the electoral disproportionality index. The second factor is a political one and it aims both quantitative and qualitative changes generated by the 8th electoral moment of the Romanian postcommunism. It’s about the party system architecture, but also the political composition of the new parliament. Specifically, the article assesses whether the desideratum of „reforming the political class”, which has a massive presence in the public space, finds its counterpart in the electoral options expressed in the 2016 parliamentary elections.

  18. Study on the Construction of a Democratic System for University Budgets%大学预算民主制度建设的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽明; 陈亚龙; 汪花明

    2013-01-01

    在校院两级财务管理体制改革中,预算改革是切入点和核心内容。而预算改革过程中,预算民主制度建设是关键。我国大学预算民主制度建设,必然要求建立健全民主理财和民主监督机制。结合X大学改革实践分析了大学预算民主制度建设面临的挑战,提出了建设要求和未来发展目标。%Budget reform is the starting point and the core content of two-class financial management of university and college reform.During the budeget reform process, a democratic system of budget is essential.The construction of university budgets democratic system requires erecting and optimizing the democratic management of financial affairs and democratic supervision mechanism.Based on the practice of university reform, this paper discusses challenges and goals about the construction of a democratic system of university budgets.

  19. Technological Determinism and Permissionless Innovation as Technocratic Governing Mentalities: Psychocultural Barriers to the Democratization of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Dotson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite no shortage of thoughtful analysis concerning how to more democratically develop and assess new technologies, practical progress toward democratized innovation has been paltry. This state of affairs suggests that the barriers to such democratic ends merit more attention. Building upon calls to more seriously examine citizens’ understandings of technology as autonomous or deterministic, this paper characterizes the assumptions, beliefs, and patterns of thought undergirding technological determinism and permissionless innovation as technocratic governing mentalities. That is, they contribute to the biasing of political discourses, practices, and organizations toward non-decision making and adaptation with regards to technological change. Indeed, permissionless innovation is quickly becoming the motto of those aiming to legitimate a “hands-off” approach to the sociotechnical “disruptions” sought by Silicon Valley entrepreneurs. Moreover, this paper explores how STS, as both an academic and political endeavor, might better respond to the challenges these modes of thinking present. Drawing upon relevant work within social psychology and communications, several fruitful avenues for engaged research regarding undermining technocratic governing mentalities become apparent. Not only is there a pressing need for accessible and parsimonious counternarratives to technological determinism and permissionless innovation but also rhetorical strategies for making the democratization of technological appear continuous with aspects of status quo systems. Finally, given that technocratic governing mentalities are likely to have practical and material roots, inquiry should be directed toward understanding how different sociotechnical arrangements impact citizens’ perception of the desirability and feasibility of democratizing technology.

  20. Is the political system really related to health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; de Haan, J.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze whether the political system and its stability are related to cross-country differences in health. We apply factor analysis on various national health indicators for a large sample of countries over the period 2000-2005 and use the outcomes of the factor analysis to construct two new heal

  1. Peru's troubled return to democratic government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, J M

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary Peru is a society beset by a host of social, economic, and political problems. In the postwar period Peru has become a paradigm for the phenomena of rapid population growth, internal migration, hyperurbanization, and socioeconomic marginality. These phenomena converged to create the "barriada," a huge squatter settlement brought into being ordinarily by huge invasions of vacant lands in the outskirts of Lima. It is this great and growing marginal mass that weighs so heavily on the city and the country's economy. Their sheer numbers strain the city's resources and capacity to delivery services such as waste disposal. The central reality of the barriada is grinding poverty, which in turn manifests itself in street crime and a general and growing sense of personal insecurity that pervades Lima. For years now the Peruvian economy has been unable to absorb this growing marginal mass productively. There is massive unemployment and underemployment. As in so many cases in contemporary Peru, action to solve 1 problem may simply generate another, possibly more serious elsewhere. This is the essence of the conundrum that awaited Francisco Belaunde Terry when he assumed the presidency in June 1980 as the head of Peru's 1st democratically elected government in over 12 years. The Belaunde government's market-oriented approach to political economy is an adaptation to a more general trend. Essentially, the transition from military authoritarian rule to civil democratic rule between 1978-80 was very smooth. For the present, power was assumed by political forces committed in broad terms to the underlying socioeconomic system rather than to revolutionary transformations. A fundamental aspect of the context was the shift away from populism and toward capital concentration. The negative impact of this shift on the income levels of the majority was exacerbated by the economic crisis of the late 1970s and by the terms of an International Monetary Fund agreement. The

  2. Transnational Political Rights and Electoral Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen

    in electoral system design in order to cater for the special interests of diaspora voters. Most countries allowing voting from abroad simply includes the votes coming from out-of-country among the votes cast in-country, so no special electoral system has been invented or implemented. But at least 14 countries......Voting from abroad is possible in slightly more than half of all countries, even though it may not be an option for all a country’s citizens permanently or temporarily out-of-country. This paper looks at the special electoral systems created for this purpose as it focuses on changes and innovations...... have created exterritorial constituencies, where they in most cases basically use the same electoral system as they do for the ordinary in-country voting. The conclusion is that the creation of new electoral systems for voting from abroad has not – at least not so far – attracted a lot of interest from...

  3. Constituents of political cognition: Race, party politics, and the alliance detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraszewski, David; Curry, Oliver Scott; Petersen, Michael Bang; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2015-07-01

    Research suggests that the mind contains a set of adaptations for detecting alliances: an alliance detection system, which monitors for, encodes, and stores alliance information and then modifies the activation of stored alliance categories according to how likely they will predict behavior within a particular social interaction. Previous studies have established the activation of this system when exposed to explicit competition or cooperation between individuals. In the current studies we examine if shared political opinions produce these same effects. In particular, (1) if participants will spontaneously categorize individuals according to the parties they support, even when explicit cooperation and antagonism are absent, and (2) if party support is sufficiently powerful to decrease participants' categorization by an orthogonal but typically-diagnostic alliance cue (in this case the target's race). Evidence was found for both: Participants spontaneously and implicitly kept track of who supported which party, and when party cross-cut race-such that the race of targets was not predictive of party support-categorization by race was dramatically reduced. To verify that these results reflected the operation of a cognitive system for modifying the activation of alliance categories, and not just socially-relevant categories in general, an identical set of studies was also conducted with in which party was either crossed with sex or age (neither of which is predicted to be primarily an alliance category). As predicted, categorization by party occurred to the same degree, and there was no reduction in either categorization by sex or by age. All effects were replicated across two sets of between-subjects conditions. These studies provide the first direct empirical evidence that party politics engages the mind's systems for detecting alliances and establish two important social categorization phenomena: (1) that categorization by age is, like sex, not affected by alliance

  4. Emancipation or Neo-Colonisation? Global Gender Mainstreaming Policies, Swedish Gender Equality Politics and Local Negotiations about Putting Gender into Education Reforms in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfver, Ann-Louise

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on gender mainstreaming policies post Beijing and their impact on development cooperation and relations between the Global North and Global South. The analysis is based on an examination of gender equality politics in Sweden, their connection with an interpretation of gender mainstreaming and the application of this approach…

  5. Emancipation or Neo-Colonisation? Global Gender Mainstreaming Policies, Swedish Gender Equality Politics and Local Negotiations about Putting Gender into Education Reforms in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfver, Ann-Louise

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on gender mainstreaming policies post Beijing and their impact on development cooperation and relations between the Global North and Global South. The analysis is based on an examination of gender equality politics in Sweden, their connection with an interpretation of gender mainstreaming and the application of this approach…

  6. Educational Conservatism and Democratic Citizenship in Hannah Arendt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Ramona; Popescu, Gheorghe H.; Nica, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to gain a deeper understanding of Arendt's educational philosophy, her perspective of political involvement as a kind of political education, and natality as the fundamental nature of education. The current study has extended past research by elucidating Arendt's view of participatory democratic politics, her…

  7. Political culture in Romania - past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae FRIGIOIU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to tersely present the situation of the political culture in Romania after 1989. The comprehension of the political culture seen as a result of a valorous past full of religious content constitutes the single path that can reveal the imaginary of the Romanian people; moreover, the study has as a purpose to improve the understanding of the political and cultural values which are linked to the consolidation of a democratic system in a similar manner to the connection between the forms and the causes of any social and political change in the country.

  8. Civil Society Organisations and Democratic Consolidation in Uganda1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... fectively empowered, especially through collective action and solidarity ... alisation of democratic practices, complete only when citizens and the political ..... new information and communications technologies as fax machines.

  9. American Presidential and Congressional Politics, 1994-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlup, Leonard

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of U.S. politics from 1994 to 1996 for the secondary school student. Emphasizes election results and the conflicts and compromises between Republicans and Democrats in a system of divided government. Includes an extensive list of questions to be used for class discussions or research papers. (MJP)

  10. The Politics of the Classroom: Toward an Oppositional Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcroft, Minette

    1990-01-01

    In the current conservative climate of higher education, questioning students' political beliefs is imperative for a real democratization of knowledge. Oppositional pedagogy pressures the assumptions of the existing system--the dominant knowledges and institutional and social arrangements derived from them--and enables students to change their…

  11. Democratic Political Culture among Iranian Generations (A Secondary Analysis of the World Values Survey (WVS for Iran, Its Ethnics and Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoob Ahmadi

    2013-08-01

    Younger generation (29-15 achieved a higher mean than the two previous generations in terms of democratic values. Except gender equality, men got better grades in all indices of self- expression values than women, but in their final grade women gained higher mean. In ethnical ranking, Kurds achieved much higher results than other ethnics. After Kurds, Fars, lur, Gilak and Turk tandem come. Finally, in provincial ranking, those with Kurdish Language include Kurdistan, Kermanshah, Western Azarbayjan was located at the top of the table and at the bottom, respectively, and these provinces came: Zanjan, Hormozgan, Sistan and Baluchestan, Ardabil and Hamedan. Moreover, no significant difference between the two generations of middle-aged and older were found among the studied ethnic groups; even though the general trend keeps its ascending order and average of each generation is more than prior generation. Importance of the distinctive life experiences in different generations has led to non-homogeneous effects and it can be seen in the results of this study, it can provide distinction between generations in terms of belief and behavior.

  12. Faculty Organization Policy System as an Illustration of Easton's "Dynamic Response Model of a Political System."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Jay F.

    This paper is an exercise in the study of David Easton's "dynamic response model of a political system," as found in "A Systems Analysis of Political Life." After a brief review of the theory, the development of a local "Reduction in Force" policy is described as an example of faculty organization policy influence on…

  13. Democratic consolidation in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Pérez González

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The contributions made by theory on democratic consolidation in Eastern Europe are also pertinent to analysis of processes of democratization and democratic consolidation in other areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The parameters of analysis highlight the importance of a strong state (organized, with legitimated institutions and a structured society (whether multiethnic or not as necessary conditions for democratization. On the assumption that the colonizing powers basically used two models –the French assimilationist model and the British indirect government model– the study of how these conditions were fulfilled in various sub-Saharan states leads to two conclusions: the first, the possibility of a process of democratization in those states where European (French colonization produced a total assimilation of the colonized society, including above all the colonizer’s political values; and the second, the possibility of processes of democratization in states produced by British colonization where the indigenous structures and those of the metropolis were superimposed, a phenomenon which allowed the application of democratic values by legitimated local institutions.

  14. Measuring the democratic anchorage of governance networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotel, Trine; Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob

    in what we shall call a model for the democratic anchorage of governance networks. As illustrated by our qualitative case study of a multi-level and cross-border governance network involved in the recent decision to build a bridge between Denmark and Germany, the democratic anchorage model helps to assess......There has been a growing debate about the democratic problems and potentials of governance networks among political scientists and public managers. While some claim that governance networks tend to undermine democracy, others argue that they have the potential to improve and strengthen democracy....... This debate is found wanting in two respects. First of all, there has been far too little discussion about what democracy means in relation to pluricentric governance networks. Second, the current debate builds on the assumption that it is possible to give a clear-cut answer to the question of the democratic...

  15. The Challenges of Democratic Governance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enahoro, N. I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This review sets out to examine the challenges of democratic governance in Nigeria. Specifically, the work focuseS on some inescapable facts, such as concept of governance and politics, democratic governance, corruption as well as erosion of federalism by Nigerian leaders. The study observes that a government that does not recognize that it holds power in trust for the people is one of the challenges of Nigerian democratic governance. In addition, the work highlights the importance of willed, handful of well meaning totally committed and uncompromised people, to turn the tide and bring about the much needed change to a true democracy in Nigerian governance. Sequel to the findings of this work, it is recommended that, consistent audit should be carried out in Nigerian democratic governance, the properties of genuine federalism be enhanced, elected officials must possess and demonstrate excellent leadership qualities and credentials for the offices they occupy.

  16. Democratic Learning Processes: Conceptual and Historical Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle

    2009-01-01

    In this article democratic learning is conceptualised with inspiration from two academic traditions, one being the conceptions of citizenship, political identities and deliberative democracy in political sociology; the other theories and research on social and lifelong learning. The first part of...... to abolish of obligatory native language teaching in the Danish elementary school.......In this article democratic learning is conceptualised with inspiration from two academic traditions, one being the conceptions of citizenship, political identities and deliberative democracy in political sociology; the other theories and research on social and lifelong learning. The first part...... of the article outlines the authors' understanding of the core concepts involved. In the second part these conceptual discussions are related to two themes: the question of public adaptation of historical experiences in connection with the German reunification and the learning perspectives related to women...

  17. Citizen Democracy and the Responsiveness of Councillors: The Effects of Democratic Institutionalisation on the Role Orientations and Role Behaviour of Councillors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denters, Sebastianus A.H.; Klok, Pieter J.

    2013-01-01

    In this article the old question: ‘Do institutions matter?’ is answered for institutions that define democratic systems as more citizen-oriented as opposed to systems where political parties play a more important role. The focus is on the possible influence of these institutions on the orientations

  18. Citizen Democracy and the Responsiveness of Councillors: The Effects of Democratic Institutionalisation on the Role Orientations and Role Behaviour of Councillors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denters, S.A.H.; Klok, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this article the old question: ‘Do institutions matter?’ is answered for institutions that define democratic systems as more citizen-oriented as opposed to systems where political parties play a more important role. The focus is on the possible influence of these institutions on the orientations

  19. Left Realism and Social Democratic Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Hogg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At its inception Left Realism argued the need to develop a radical social democratic approach to crime. I argue that its contribution and continuing relevance primarily lies in this political project, the need for which has not dissipated. But this can only be advanced as an integral component of a more general renewal of social democratic ideas and politics that challenges the hegemony of neo-liberalism. This is far from guaranteed. The possibilities and challenges after the global financial crisis are considered. I argue for a rethinking of some core themes from early Left Realism to (as I see it better complement the task of social democratic renewal in the present.

  20. Democratic Learning Processes: Conceptual and Historical Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle

    2009-01-01

    of the article outlines the authors' understanding of the core concepts involved. In the second part these conceptual discussions are related to two themes: the question of public adaptation of historical experiences in connection with the German reunification and the learning perspectives related to women......In this article democratic learning is conceptualised with inspiration from two academic traditions, one being the conceptions of citizenship, political identities and deliberative democracy in political sociology; the other theories and research on social and lifelong learning. The first part......'s empowerment and inclusion in the Danish democratic model. On the background of these two analyses the authors finally discuss some current democratic problems with integrating the diversity represented by ethnic minority groups. The discussion emphasizes the learning theory perspective on the initiative...

  1. Systems Thinking: A Way to Understand Socio-political Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    conflicts; (3) at this time, El Salvador was the biggest recipient of aid in the western hemisphere since the cold war...revolutionary group, the Farabundo Marti Liberation Front (LeoGrande and Robbins 1980). A power struggle between political systems in the environment brewed ...peasant farmer whose land was repossessed by coffee barons in the early 1900s. Motivated by communist literature during his early college years

  2. El discurso político de Santiago Carrillo durante la Transición. Aplicaciones metodológicas / The political discourse of Santiago Carrillo in the process of Democratic Transition. Methodological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pantoja Chaves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Continuando con el análisis de los discursos de los líderes más importantes del proceso de Transición democrática en España, en esta entrega nos centramos en la trayectoria política de Santiago Carrillo y su liderazgo del comunismo en España. A diferencia del resto de los oradores analizados, su perfil no muestra ningún punto de inflexión que refuerce su discurso, más bien asiste a un declive continuo y progresivo, desde un discurso que equilibra dos posiciones contrarias ante un auditorio comprometido y agraciado por las palabras del orador, hasta presentar un perfil que reproduce el eclipse de la autoridad del líder comunista.Summary: Continuing with the analysis of the speeches of the most important leaders of the democratic transition process in Spain, in this installment we focus on the political trajectory of Santiago Carrillo and his leadership of communism in Spain. Unlike the rest of the speakers discussed, his profile shows no turning point to strengthen his speech, rather attends a continuous and progressive decline, from a speech that balances two opposing positions before an audience engaged and graced by the speaker's words, to present a profile that reproduces the eclipse of the communist leader's authority.

  3. Axiological crisis among the factors of development of political system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Kliuchnyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to axiological crisis as one of the factors of development of political system. Intergeneration and civilization crises are separated. It is shown that contradictions between survival and self-expressionpolitical values often lead to political crises. The Arabic Spring is proved to have been a consequence of a deep generation crisis. Dangerous consequences of cultural and civilization crisis within globalization are underlined. The influence of illegal migration, extremism and intolerance on axiological crises is considered. A special attention is paid to modernization possibilities of high school within axiological crisis. The necessity of reforming of high school in order to avoid negative consequences of axiological crises is underlined. International experience in high school reforms is analyzed. The perspectives of its implementation in Ukraine are considered.

  4. Political culture of civil society within synergetic paradigm context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Z. Derzhko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Political culture relates to the development and improvement of human abilities for social life within a community and creates conditions for the realization of these abilities. Typically, it is a state or a particular cultural region within the state. Despite the fact that the political culture of a society cannot and should not be subject to a management, it should be regulated and coordinated through a policy - national, which must be state policy. This paradoxical situation requires the use of specific management approaches. There is some configuration management knowledge, training or life, to work effectively, it is necessary to act at the right time and in the right place. Synergetic paradigm creates a methodological basis for a rather broad and full use of all the cultural, regional and individual diversity. Such use may be appropriate and successful implementa­tion provided competent management and, above all, self, which in turn requires a developed political culture in both the public and the private sector. It is important to understand that social system like any complex system, with not one single and multiple alternative paths of evolution. It should be clearly aware of the existence of different trends of evolution, the ambiguity of the transition to the future. Future states of complex social systems do not just open and predict­able, there are range of possible forms of the future, the field of possible ways forward. Value under the tran­sitional regime elements authoritarian and democratic organization of society is one of the most controversial issues. Between these two forms of political domination exists a close relationship than it may seem at first glance. To determine the influence of civil society in the process of becoming a democratic political regime and democratic political culture, it is necessary to outline the main characteristics of this concept. Without dwelling on the analysis of understanding of civil

  5. Electoral Politics in Zimbabwe: Authoritarianism Versus the People

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-08-31

    Aug 31, 2006 ... John Makumbe is Senior Lecturer in Political Science at the University of. Zimbabwe, Harare ... Political violence also plays a major role in Zimbabwe's electoral politics. The chief perpetrators of ... Introduction. In democratic ...

  6. The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly and the promotion of democratic governance in Central Asia: a critical appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Simão, Licínia

    2014-01-01

    Central Asian regimes have effectively maintained autocratic systems and have been rather impervious to western policies of democratisation. This paper takes a critical reading of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly’s (PA) role in promoting democratic governance in Central Asia, arguing that there are two main reasons for the institution’s limited successes in the region, namely the very nature of the International Parliamentary Institutions, which have limited ability to activate political influ...

  7. Democratic Teaching: An Incomplete Job Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The importance of public education in democratic states is almost beyond dispute. Too often, though, discussions of democratic education focus solely on policies and systems, forgetting the individual teachers who are ultimately responsible for educating future citizens. This paper attempts to illustrate just how complex and significant the role…

  8. SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION CONSORTIUM. PUBLICATION 104, A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO POLITICAL LIFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EASTON, DAVID

    A MORE DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE THEORETICAL POLITICAL SYSTEM DESCRIBED IN THE PREVIOUS REPORT, AA 000 264, IS PRESENTED IN THIS PAPER. THIS POLITICAL SYSTEM IS BASED ON THE AUTHOR'S DEFINITION THAT POLITICAL LIFE CONCERNS ALL THE VARIETIES OF ACTIVITY THAT SIGNIFICANTLY INFLUENCE THE AUTHORITATIVE OR BINDING ALLOCATIONS OF VALUES ADOPTED FOR…

  9. Representação política e participação: reflexões sobre o déficit democrático Political representation and participation: reflection on the democratic deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cristina Vitale Ramos Mendes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o instituto da representação política buscando identificar os limites e as possibilidades que oferece para o aprofundamento da democracia. A partir da reconstrução do debate político de fins do século 18, que introduz o princípio representativo como instrumento-chave para as democracias modernas, o texto levanta os principais argumentos favoráveis e contrários, problematizando as origens do instituto. Em seguida, contextualiza o debate no âmbito das sociedades contemporâneas, discutindo aspectos centrais que permeiam a qualidade da representação, como a vinculação e o controle dos representantes, o papel da deliberação pública e a relação com os mecanismos de democracia direta e semidireta. O artigo conclui que o déficit democrático, calcado na aplicação estrita da representação política, pode ser sanado com a combinação de institutos participativos, como o plebiscito, o referendo, a iniciativa popular de lei, os conselhos gestores de políticas públicas e o orçamento participativo.This article analyzes the institution of political representation seeking to identify the limits and possibilities that it offers to deepening democracy. Based on a reconstruction of the political debate of the late 18th century, which introduced the representative principle as a key tool for modern democracies, the text raises the principal arguments for and against representation and analyzes the origins of the institute. It then contextualizes the debate in contemporary societies by discussing central factors that permeate the quality of representation, such as the ties to and control of representatives, the role of public deliberation and the relationship with the mechanisms of direct and semidirect democracy. The article concludes that the democratic deficit, based on the close application of political representation, can be remedied with the combination of participative tools, such as the plebiscites

  10. An essay on the Muslim Gap. Religiosity and the political system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    The paper analyzes 3 main trends: (t1) The economic development in the Muslim world is slower than in the rest of the world. (t2) The world grows increasingly democratic due to rising incomes, but this trend does not affect the Muslim world. (t3) The world grows increasingly secular due to rising......-Western countries, though at a lower level. Further, it is demonstrated that Muslims deviate as to religiosity, family life values and as to the preference for religion in politics....

  11. Global politics and education systems: towards education markets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoncio Vega Gil

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Our paper has as its first aim to highlight the fact that the approach on which studies about educational policies or the politics of education (the second concept being more widely used in social sciences have been based so far involves returning to the stance posited by J.A. Maravall –a category composed of ideas, foundations, mind-set, ideology, etc.; in other words, politics as an idea. A second analytical category would be expressed by norms, legislation, actions, practices, etc., which represent politics as regulation (Dutercq, 2005. Despite placing our study within the management of both categories from a methodological point of view, our focus is more specifically placed on the second interpretation. Thus, new education policies break the ‘methodological nationalism’ with a view to present standardized, mercantile and global discourses and practices as a demand of international education agencies. These global policies end, or begin, by building a social and practical network identified here as ‘schooling market’ and expressed through private ownership of schools and governance (the social use of education practices, which operates with different degrees of intensity across international education systems

  12. Is the political system really related to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2009-07-01

    We analyze whether the political system and its stability are related to cross-country differences in health. We apply factor analysis on various national health indicators for a large sample of countries over the period 2000-2005 and use the outcomes of the factor analysis to construct two new health measures, i.e., the health of individuals and the quality of the health care sector. Using a cross-country structural equation model with various economic and demographic control variables, we examine the relationship between the type of regime and political stability on the one hand and health on the other. The political variables and the control variables are measured as averages over the period 1980-1999. Our results suggest that democracy has a positive relationship with the health of individuals, while regime instability has a negative relationship with the health of individuals. Government instability is negatively related to individual health via its link with the quality of the health care sector, while democracy is positively related with individual health through its link with income. Our main findings are confirmed by the results of a panel model and various sensitivity tests.

  13. Towards Effective Educational Politics through Improving the Performance Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Reisberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational field is impelled to increase performance and quality, financial discipline, strategic behaviour and its goals in order to enhance “effectiveness”. As a result the incorporation of private sector management practices into the educational field is taking place. But it is important to notice that a proliferation of private managerial practices into the educational field goes along with a conflict-laden and contradictory process. Education provides an important area of implementation for techniques of performance evaluation aimed at improving the performance of public services. One of the most common conceptual frameworks in measuring organisational performance takes the form of a production function where the educational institution is seen as analogous to a company transforming inputs into outputs and outcomes through a production process. But the problems and the vagueness in determining educational system’s inputs, outputs and outcomes cause difficulties in making political decisions and that is why clear policy prescriptions have been difficult to derive. The purpose of this article is to create a discussion whether performance measurement should be a part of decision-making in educational politics. The authors debate about incorporating private sector management practices into the educational field. The debate is based on the example of evaluating the social impact in the educational field and the performance of teachers’ work in the educational system. The article consists of three parts. Firstly, the theoretical background of the performance measurement in educational field is discussed. Secondly, the important criteria for performance measurement design and political issues are argued. Thirdly, the evaluated shortcomings in Estonian educational organisations, which restrict them to be effective, are brought out. Relieving some of these shortcomings could be in authority of Estonian educational politics.

  14. La corrupción política en México: del pasado a la transición democrática (The political corruption in Mexico: from the past to the democratic transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Nieto

    2013-01-01

    guides this work supposes that the PAN reproduced during its ruling similar corruptive practices that the PRI used to apply. The text is developed in four parts. Firstly, it is presented as a brief historical overview of the influence of corruption. Secondly, it is examines the role of corruption during the rule of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI. Thirdly, it is describes the transformation of the patterns of corruption, and finally, it studies the persistence of corruption in the governments of the democratic transition represented by the PAN party. The article contributes an array of elements in order to study the corruption in Mexico from a perspective of socio-political and historical, which describes the development of corruption in Mexico as a widely complex phenomenon, interacting cultural and economical factors, as well as social, juridical and political structures, and conjunctures critical that allows more or less visibility to the phenomenon of corruption.

  15. The Rise and Fall of Candidate Perot: The Outsider versus the Political System--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, John; Hunt, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Uses Ross Perot's campaign for president in 1992 as a case study in how two key political institutions--the conventional political press and the party system--mediate the effects of political communication. Finds that reporters allocated positive and negative coverage to Perot according to the same rules that they normally follow. (TB)

  16. 苏共党内民主制度的长期缺失与苏联剧变%On Long-Term Absence of the Democratic System in Former CPSU and Drastic Changes of Former Soviet Union

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷

    2012-01-01

    Drastic changes of Former Soviet Union are a major event in the world history of the 20th century. It has caused a tremen- dous impact on Former Soviet Union and the world socialist movement. Drastic changes of Former Soviet Union are closely related to the long-term absence of a sound democratic system in the CPSU. The absence caused devastating consequences to the CPSU and the Soviet socialist system and also seriously weakened the party's political ability and destroyed the people's democratic system. It serves as is the major reason for the combination of factors to play a lasting role. Drastic changes in Former Soviet Union marks the defeat of the Soviet-style s~ialism. Long-term absence of a sound democratic system within the party is an important feature of Soviet-style so- cialism and also an important reason for the Soviet-style socialist failure.%苏联剧变是20世纪世界历史上的一件大事,它对苏联和世界社会主义运动造成了巨大影响。苏联剧变与苏共党内长期缺乏完善的民主制度密切相关。党内民主制度的缺失对苏共和苏联社会主义制度造成了灾难性的后果:严重地削弱了党的执政能力,破坏了人民民主制度。苏共党内民主制度的长期缺失是影响苏联剧变的综合因素能够长期发挥作用的主要原因,苏联剧变标志着苏联式社会主义的败亡。党内长期缺乏健全的民主制既是苏联式社会主义的重要特征,又是导致苏联式社会主义败亡的重要原因之一。

  17. The left and the democratic stability in Latin America: the ideology of the Bolivarian Revolution and its impact on the political processes in Venezuela and Latin America Izquierda y estabilidad de la democracia en América latina: la ideología de la revolución bolivariana y su repercusión sobre el proceso político en Venezuela y América latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique MOLINA V.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main areas of work in Comparative Politics and Political Theory has been the determination of the variables associated with the stability/instability of political systems in general, and democracy in particular. This paper focuses on one of these variables. One with newly acquired importance after the recent electoral successes by the left, but that nevertheless has not been in the spotlight of scholarly analysis: ideological polarization. Particularly, ideological polarization brought about by the attempt to pursue by the government a leftist political project. The main focus is on the ideological project pursued by the Venezuelan Bolivarian Government and its association with the political instability of 2002 and 2003. The paper considers this topic taken into account mainstream theoretical approaches on political stability, and the experience of previous Latin American leftist governments. The paper reaches the conclusion that in Latin America the attempt to implement a socialist program by a democratically elected government, if it is done without meaningful social and political negotiation, and with authoritarian overtones, is likely to lead to intense political instability and to the ultimate failure of the proposed social change. Los factores vinculados a la estabilidad o inestabilidad de los sistemas políticos y la democracia han sido una preocupación central de la política comparada y la teoría política. Este trabajo se centra en analizar un factor que adquiere nueva importancia dado el resurgimiento de la izquierda en América Latina, pero que no ha estado en el centro del debate académico sobre la estabilidad democrática: la polarización ideológica producida por el adelanto de un proyecto político de izquierda desde el gobierno. Su análisis se enmarca en los enfoques teóricos sobre la estabilidad de la democracia y los sistemas políticos. Dentro del contexto de los gobiernos de izquierda en América Latina, se

  18. and political discourses in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the social, political and economic climate worsened in Zimbabwe, reli- gious and ... economic refugees within the Southern African region or further afield. Under ... Morgan Tsvangirai of the Movement for Democratic Change, one would.

  19. Detecting Ebola with limited laboratory access in the Democratic Republic of Congo: evaluation of a clinical passive surveillance reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Hayley R; Kuang, Brandon; Gadoth, Adva; Alfonso, Vivian H; Mukadi, Patrick; Doshi, Reena H; Hoff, Nicole A; Sinai, Cyrus; Mossoko, Mathias; Kebela, Benoit Ilunga; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-09-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) can be clinically severe and highly fatal, making surveillance efforts for early disease detection of paramount importance. In areas with limited access to laboratory testing, the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) may be a vital tool in improving outbreak response. Using DRC IDSR data from the nation's four EVD outbreak periods from 2007-2014, we assessed trends of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) and EVD differential diagnoses reportable through IDSR. With official case counts from active surveillance of EVD outbreaks, we assessed accuracy of reporting through the IDSR passive surveillance system. Although the active and passive surveillance represent distinct sets of data, the two were correlated, suggesting that passive surveillance based only on clinical evaluation may be a useful predictor of true cases prior to laboratory confirmation. There were 438 suspect VHF cases reported through the IDSR system and 416 EVD cases officially recorded across the outbreaks examined. Although collected prior to official active surveillance cases, case reporting through the IDSR during the 2007, 2008 and 2012 outbreaks coincided with official EVD epidemic curves. Additionally, all outbreak areas experienced increases in suspected cases for both malaria and typhoid fever during EVD outbreaks, underscoring the importance of training health care workers in recognising EVD differential diagnoses and the potential for co-morbidities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Does Political Ideology Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2005-01-01

    their political ideology, affect economic performance. The paper presents evidence suggesting that rightwing societies have grown faster in the last decades than other democratic societies. Further analysis suggests that these societies develop better legal systems and less government intervention, which in turn......This paper asks the question whether political ideology affects economic growth. Voters may demand inefficient levels of redistribution and government intervention, and they may care too little for aspects that really matter for the economy. Their norms and perceptions of society might, via...

  1. Constitutional Openness in 1991, Ethnic and Cultural Diversity, and Political System: a Philosophical-Political Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Jair Cuchumbé Holguín

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The multicultural approach seems to be the most praiseworthy instrument through which the acknowledgement of cultural diversity could renew the deontic structure legitimised by the socio-political order in Colombia. Facing a State model based on the denial and exclusion of diversity, the multicultural State allows for pluralism to be articulated into it. In this way, the formation of political unity becomes a matter determined by dialogue, mutual acknowledgement and cultural enhancement. Nevertheless, the multicultural interpretation lacks plausibility if the formation of the State is understood in a pragmatic and universalistic way. From this perspective, the inclusion of the Other is likely only if social actors promote interactions regulated by a political culture based on constitutional principles, active participation, public deliberation and the organisational ability of communities. A shared political culture of this nature seems unavoidable if the purpose is to form a citizenship more suited to living in a democracy.

  2. Perceptions on the Political System and the Constitution Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian ANDREI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional reform, issue ballots or policy making in general are the same as and maybe more than elections the subject of interactions between providers of public products, ideas and services, and the public which is the final “consumer”. The “making” or the revision of the Constitution is a long process where both sides of this exchange influence each other and to some extent they acknowledge the opinion of the other. By studying public opinion and reactions to initiatives by politicians in Romania regarding Constitutional change this paper explains what the output of this “conversation” in recent years is. Results of surveys relative to issues and results in previous referendums are also presented. Additionally a discussion is made about the elections results, the electoral system and the party system perceptions. This statistical and numerical report is moreover expected to provide from a political marketing perspective an insight on what kind of strategic posture political parties choose in this process.

  3. Politics of innovation in multi-level water governance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Katherine A.; Coombes, Peter J.; White, Ian

    2014-11-01

    Innovations are being proposed in many countries in order to support change towards more sustainable and water secure futures. However, the extent to which they can be implemented is subject to complex politics and powerful coalitions across multi-level governance systems and scales of interest. Exactly how innovation uptake can be best facilitated or blocked in these complex systems is thus a matter of important practical and research interest in water cycle management. From intervention research studies in Australia, China and Bulgaria, this paper seeks to describe and analyse the behind-the-scenes struggles and coalition-building that occurs between water utility providers, private companies, experts, communities and all levels of government in an effort to support or block specific innovations. The research findings suggest that in order to ensure successful passage of the proposed innovations, champions for it are required from at least two administrative levels, including one with innovation implementation capacity, as part of a larger supportive coalition. Higher governance levels can play an important enabling role in facilitating the passage of certain types of innovations that may be in competition with currently entrenched systems of water management. Due to a range of natural biases, experts on certain innovations and disciplines may form part of supporting or blocking coalitions but their evaluations of worth for water system sustainability and security are likely to be subject to competing claims based on different values and expertise, so may not necessarily be of use in resolving questions of "best courses of action". This remains a political values-based decision to be negotiated through the receiving multi-level water governance system.

  4. Democratic contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will be that also for contract law a democratic basis is a necessary condition for legitimacy. A fully democratic basis may also be a sufficient condition for a legitimate and just contract law. However,...

  5. Comparative social policy and political conflict in advanced welfare states: Denmark and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esping-Andersen, G

    1979-01-01

    There has developed an abundant literature on the social and political determinants of social policies, but few have addressed the question of how state policies, once implemented, affect the system of stratification in civil society. This article examines the political consequences of social policy in Denmark and Sweden, countries in which a social democratic labor movement has predominated for decades. Superficially, these two highly developed welfare states appear very similar. Yet the political and social contexts in which their social policies have evolved differ substantially. I shall demonstrate the argument that the traditional welfare state approach may be conducive to a new and powerful political conflict, which directly questions the legitimacy of the welfare state itself, unless government is successful in subordinating private capitalist growth to effective public regulation. In Denmark, where social democratic governments have failed to match welfare state growth with more control of private capital, social policy has tended to undermine the political unity of the working class. Consequently, the Social Democratic Party has been weakened. Social welfare programs, in effect, have helped create new forms of stratification within the working class. In Sweden, social democratic governments have been quite successful in shifting a decisive degree of power over the private market to the state. This has helped avert a crisis of the welfare state, and has also been an important condition for continued social democratic hegemony and working-class unity. I conclude that social reform politics tend to be problematic from the point of view of the future power of social democratic movements.

  6. [Politics as a tool in National Health System transformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila Torres, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The politics as an activity oriented to the decision making process, seeks to achieve specific objectives, and it is a fundamental tool for the transformation of the National Health System (NHS). It is important to point out that there are different elements, interest and participants that take part in the design and implementation of these policies. Therefore, it should be considered the presence of the health care institutions in the development of the health policies, as well as the participation of the Congress where each political party presents and defends their proposals, negotiate the approval and assignation of the financial budget, among others. Nowadays, there are elements with a relevant presence on these policies and in the transformation process of the NHS such as the media and laboral force represented by the unions. Finally, some general statements are expressed to contribute with the advances in the integration process for a stronger NHS. This should consider the economic, demographic and social changes in the country; furthermore it should focus on universal coverage and provision of a better health care for the Mexican population.

  7. The material politics of waste disposal - decentralization and integrated systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Harvey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article and the previous «Convergence and divergence between the local and regional state around solid waste management. An unresolved problem in the Sacred Valley» from Teresa Tupayachi are published as complementary accounts on the management of solid waste in the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco. Penelope Harvey and Teresa Tupayachi worked together on this theme. The present article explores how discontinuities across diverse instances of the state are experienced and understood. Drawing from an ethnographic study of the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco, the article looks at the material politics of waste disposal in neoliberal times. Faced with the problem of how to dispose of solid waste, people from Cusco experience a lack of institutional responsibility and call for a stronger state presence. The article describes the efforts by technical experts to design integrated waste management systems that maximise the potential for re-cycling, minimise toxic contamination, and turn ‘rubbish’ into the altogether more economically lively category of ‘solid waste’. However while the financialization of waste might appear to offer an indisputable public good, efforts to instigate a viable waste disposal business in a decentralizing political space elicit deep social tensions and contradictions. The social discontinuities that decentralization supports disrupt ambitions for integrated solutions as local actors resist top-down models and look not just for alternative solutions, but alternative ways of framing the problem of urban waste, and by extension their relationship to the state.

  8. Material and Cultural Restriction of Political Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国祥

    2015-01-01

    Material and culture have a certain influence on the political life. In general, the higher level of economic development of the country, people's political life is more democratic. Culture has some negative effect on the political life. China's traditional cul-ture has restricted the people's political life in some ways.

  9. [Children's health protection in the state political system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, A A; Iakovleva, T V; Lapin, Iu E

    2011-01-01

    The system of children's health protection in this country still lacks an adequate legal basis. Its improvement should be considered as a function of the state realized through legal regulation of public relations for the benefit of each child based on the legislatively fixed government policy in the sphere of children's health care. Such an approach may strengthen the role of this sphere in the intersectoral relations and implies the extension of pediatrics toward interaction with the spheres of politics and law. It reflects the understanding that physiological processes behind regulation of the functioning of the child's organism in the course of its development need an adequate support from the outside through regulation of public relations on behalf of children. The definition of state policy in the sphere of children's health care is proposed and its basic principles are considered.

  10. Liberalist Variation in Taiwan: Four Democratization Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-jen Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyse how Taiwanese liberalist scholars have discursively and operationally shaped the meanings of Taiwanese democratization via a mix of liberal values and nationalist concerns. I will argue that a valid understanding of democratization in Taiwan has never emerged in a way that adequately responds to a liberalist perspective of the country’s ongoing political development. Instead, such an understanding has been subjectively influenced by liberal intellectuals writing on the subject. In other words, current discourses in Taiwan represent efforts on the part of scholars to manage connections between liberalist values and nationalist concerns rather than shared views regarding facts emerging from Taiwanese democratization. In this paper I discuss four types of liberalist orientations to Taiwanese democratization – universal, moderate, pragmatic and nationalist – in the contexts of national-identity constraints, a balance between liberal values and national identity, and flexibility regarding liberalist and nationalist concerns. I conclude that democratization research in Taiwan reflects an aspect of knowledge production formulated by the relationship between the researcher and the subject under study.

  11. Global Positioning System: Political Support, Directions of Development, and Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Czaplewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade the Global Positioning System has become a global, multifunctional tool which provides services that are an integral part of U.S. national security as well as the security of other highly developed countries. Economic development, transport security as well as homeland security are important elements of the global economic infrastructure. In 2000 the United States acknowledged the growing significance of GPS for civilian users and stopped intentionally degrading accuracy for non-military signals that are known as “Selective Availability”. Since then, commercial applications of satellite systems have been proliferating even more rapidly, and therefore, their importance in everyday life has greatly increased. Currently, services that depend on information obtained from the Global Positioning System are the driving force behind economic growth, economic development and the improvement in life safety. This economic development would not be possible without the financial and political support of the US government to maintain the operation of the GPS system. Therefore it is important to have knowledge about the intentions of the US government how system GPS will be developed in the future. Decisions taken in the last 3 months are the subject of this article.

  12. Representation as the Core of Democratic Politics---An Analysis of Claude Lefort ’ s Theory of Political Representation%代表制作为民主政治的核心--克劳德·勒弗的政治代表理论探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段德敏

    2015-01-01

    The role of representation in modern democracy has been an issue of debate for a very long time.Some argue that representation constitutes a restraint on democracy , while others believe that representa-tion has an intrinsic value in modern democracy .In this regard , Claude lefort offers a new and insightful per-spective .Lefort’ s theory starts with analysis of the representative relationship between revolutionary party and the people .Then he explores the representative nature of political power in depth .On the basis of this , he ar-gues that competitive representation is what distinguishes modern democratic politics from totalitarianism .It is on this point that Lefort makes one of the greatest contributions to our understanding of political representation in modern politics .%代表制是现代民主政治中的重要一环,但理论界对代表制的态度却大相径庭,既有观点认为代表制限制了民主,也有观点认为代表制在民主政治中具有内在的、不可替代的价值。法国当代政治哲学家克劳德·勒弗( Claude Lefort )为这一讨论提供了新的视角。勒弗从政治人类学的角度分析政治权力本身所包含的代表维度,认为代表与被代表之间的距离正是权力的基础所在。由此,勒弗认为现代民主政治中的代表机制,代表与被代表之间距离的可见性成为现代民主政治的核心特征,并构成开放的民主社会与极权主义社会之间的关键区别。代表制不仅是民主政治之必要,更是其核心,这正是勒弗政治代表理论的最重要贡献。

  13. Whose Canon? Culturalization versus Democratization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Bjurström

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Current accounts – and particularly the critique – of canon formation are primarily based on some form of identity politics. In the 20th century a representational model of social identities replaced cultivation as the primary means to democratize the canons of the fine arts. In a parallel development, the discourse on canons has shifted its focus from processes of inclusion to those of exclusion. This shift corresponds, on the one hand, to the construction of so-called alternative canons or counter-canons, and, on the other hand, to attempts to restore the authority of canons considered to be in a state of crisis or decaying. Regardless of the democratic stance of these efforts, the construction of alternatives or the reestablishment of decaying canons does not seem to achieve their aims, since they break with the explicit and implicit rules of canon formation. Politically motivated attempts to revise or restore a specific canon make the workings of canon formation too visible, transparent and calculated, thereby breaking the spell of its imaginary character. Retracing the history of the canonization of the fine arts reveals that it was originally tied to the disembedding of artists and artworks from social and worldly affairs, whereas debates about canons of the fine arts since the end of the 20th century are heavily dependent on their social, cultural and historical reembedding. The latter has the character of disenchantment, but has also fettered the canon debate in notions of “our” versus “their” culture. However, by emphasizing the dedifferentiation of contemporary processes of culturalization, the advancing canonization of popular culture seems to be able to break with identity politics that foster notions of “our” culture in the present thinking on canons, and push it in a more transgressive, syncretic or hybrid direction.

  14. Enhanced democratic learning within the Aalborg Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    2010-01-01

    The Aalborg PBL Model [Kjersdam & Enemark, 1997; Kolmos et al., 2004] is an example of a democratic learning system [Qvist, 2008]. Writing one project each semester in teams is an important element in the model. Medicine with Industrial Specialisation - a study at the Faculties of Engineering......, Science and Medicine at Aalborg University - has combined the Aalborg Model with solving cases as used by other models. A questionnaire survey related to democratic learning indicates that the democratic learning has been enhanced. This paper presents the results....

  15. Enhanced democratic learning within the Aalborg Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    2010-01-01

    The Aalborg PBL Model [Kjersdam & Enemark, 1997; Kolmos et al., 2004] is an example of a democratic learning system [Qvist, 2008]. Writing one project each semester in teams is an important element in the model. Medicine with Industrial Specialisation - a study at the Faculties of Engineering......, Science and Medicine at Aalborg University - has combined the Aalborg Model with solving cases as used by other models. A questionnaire survey related to democratic learning indicates that the democratic learning has been enhanced. This paper presents the results....

  16. DEMOCRATIC ATTITUDES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge TAÇMAN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to determine the democratic attitudes of the classroomteachers. This study is a descriptive research. In this research, democratic attitude scala which was developed by“published for the attitude research labaratory” and adapted to Turkish educational system by Gözütok (1995 wasused. Research group consisted fifty teachers from four private primary schools in Ankara. The data were analyzed byone way ANOVA. According of the results of the research, democratic attitudes of teachers have been discriminated onteachers’ sexuality, seniority and graduate level

  17. Reorienting Deliberation: Identity Politics in Multicultural Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Mason

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many political theorists argue that cross-cultural communication within multicultural democracies is not best served by a commitment to identity politics. In response, I argue that identity politics only interfere with democratic participation according to an erroneous interpretation of the relationship between identity and reasoning. I argue that recognizing the importance of identity to the intelligibility of reasons offered in the context of civic deliberation is the first step towards the kind of dialogue that democratic participation requires.

  18. The Political Influence in the International Financial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Degtyarev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the impact of sovereign countries in global financial governance. It uses the methodology of international political economy that studies the interaction between political and economic processes in the international arena. It shows the dualistic nature of international financial institutions, which, on the one hand, represent intergovernmental organizations and, on the other hand, are financial institutions with financial goals. The author investigates the principles of sovereign equality, equitable geographical representation and equal (parity representation of groups of countries with distinct interests in the International Monetary Fund (IMF, Group of 20 (G20 and Financial Stability Board (FSB. The IMF’s decision-making mechanism is shown in detail, including its executive board and the recent redistribution of quotas among member states, with special attention on the formula for calculating quotas, its criticism and possible reform. The article shows the major causes of reducing the impact of the IMF and the formation of a new, globally distributed system of financial governance. The article shows the hierarchy (by function as well as by country representativeness of the system of global financial governance, established by 2010. It discusses the leadership of countries according to quantity and to key indicators (revenues, assets and market capitalization of global systemically important financial institutions (banks and insurance company. Based on countries’ membership in the G7 and the G20, the FSB, IMF, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and Bank for International Settlements countries are designated as at the core, semi-periphery or periphery of the international financial system in the context of the world systems theory. The influence of the technical elite, prevailing in the international financial sector, as well as the qualitative composition (education of its members are revealed. The

  19. 中国共产党民主制度建设探析%Analysis on the Construction of Democratic System of the Chinese communist Party

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠; 张秀菊

    2011-01-01

    The communist party of China has established for ninety.After bumpy,to form and content of democracy also experienced by fuzzy,restricted or misunderstanding gradually reached consensus of the mature of the process.It is based on the practice of profound reflection and future national highly responsible attitude.The communist party of China on "what is democracy" and the democratic system architecture for the feasible thinking and construction,made the obvious achievements.At present,China's democratic development strategy should develop long-term,accord with the situation of China democratic development strategy.%中国共产党对民主的内涵、形式的认识经历了由模糊、局限或认识误区,到逐步形成共识、趋于成熟的过程。回顾反思这一发展历程,科学谋划未来,对党的民主政治建设意义深远。当前,中国的民主制度建设应当制定长远的、符合中国国情的发展战略。

  20. Democratization and Transitional Justice in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula NASCIMENTO ARAUJO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil experienced a long process of political transition featured by an intense game of political and social forces, in which different actors with different democratization projects clashed. Despite the leadership of the transition process have been in the hands of conservative elites linked to the military dictatorship, broad sectors of the oposition and of the lefts, as well as representants of social movements, disputed the transitional space and expanded the initial design of the regime. This long transition —marked by negotiations, frustrations and resilience— reflected on the transitional justice model adopted by the country. Almost 30 years after the end of military dictatorship, the Truth Commission established by President Dilma Rousseff in 2012, drew attention to issues related to memory, justice and reparation and showed that the democratization process, in some respects, is still incloncluded. This article aims to restore this historical process highlighting some of its characteristics and specificities.

  1. Models of Democracy: Behind the Design and Use of New Media in Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Jan A. G. M.

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes each of five contemporary models of democracy developed by David Held. Ascertains how changes in information and communication technology (ICT) could help, hinder, or have no consequences within each of those democratic paradigms. Addresses the positive contribution of the use of ICT to the political system in general and political…

  2. The Reforming Trajectory of the Italian Educational System. Site-Based Management and Decentralisation as a Challenge for Democratic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Emiliano; Serpieri, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to present some tensions embedded in the Italian educational reform, arising both from the enactment of neo-liberal policies and the possibilities of democratic development opened up by the introduction of schools' site-based management and decentralisation. The article uses discourses as heuristic devices and presents two case…

  3. A Qualitative Study of Agricultural Literacy in Urban Youth: Understanding for Democratic Participation in Renewing the Agri-Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Alexander J.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Modern agriculture poses ecological problems and opportunities, which defy simple democratic reform without an educated citizenry. Developing an educated citizenry can be accomplished by further developing agricultural literacy in elementary education. While benchmarks for agricultural literacy have been produced, relatively little attention has…

  4. Health systems frameworks in their political context: framing divergent agendas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Olmen Josefien

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the mounting attention for health systems and health systems theories, there is a persisting lack of consensus on their conceptualisation and strengthening. This paper contributes to structuring the debate, presenting landmarks in the development of health systems thinking against the backdrop of the policy context and its dominant actors. We argue that frameworks on health systems are products of their time, emerging from specific discourses. They are purposive, not neutrally descriptive, and are shaped by the agendas of their authors. Discussion The evolution of thinking over time does not reflect a progressive accumulation of insights. Instead, theories and frameworks seem to develop in reaction to one another, partly in line with prevailing paradigms and partly as a response to the very different needs of their developers. The reform perspective considering health systems as projects to be engineered is fundamentally different from the organic view that considers a health system as a mirror of society. The co-existence of health systems and disease-focused approaches indicates that different frameworks are complementary but not synthetic. The contestation of theories and methods for health systems relates almost exclusively to low income countries. At the global level, health system strengthening is largely narrowed down to its instrumental dimension, whereby well-targeted and specific interventions are supposed to strengthen health services and systems or, more selectively, specific core functions essential to programmes. This is in contrast to a broader conceptualization of health systems as social institutions. Summary Health systems theories and frameworks frame health, health systems and policies in particular political and public health paradigms. While there is a clear trend to try to understand the complexity of and dynamic relationships between elements of health systems, there is also a demand to provide

  5. Health systems frameworks in their political context: framing divergent agendas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the mounting attention for health systems and health systems theories, there is a persisting lack of consensus on their conceptualisation and strengthening. This paper contributes to structuring the debate, presenting landmarks in the development of health systems thinking against the backdrop of the policy context and its dominant actors. We argue that frameworks on health systems are products of their time, emerging from specific discourses. They are purposive, not neutrally descriptive, and are shaped by the agendas of their authors. Discussion The evolution of thinking over time does not reflect a progressive accumulation of insights. Instead, theories and frameworks seem to develop in reaction to one another, partly in line with prevailing paradigms and partly as a response to the very different needs of their developers. The reform perspective considering health systems as projects to be engineered is fundamentally different from the organic view that considers a health system as a mirror of society. The co-existence of health systems and disease-focused approaches indicates that different frameworks are complementary but not synthetic. The contestation of theories and methods for health systems relates almost exclusively to low income countries. At the global level, health system strengthening is largely narrowed down to its instrumental dimension, whereby well-targeted and specific interventions are supposed to strengthen health services and systems or, more selectively, specific core functions essential to programmes. This is in contrast to a broader conceptualization of health systems as social institutions. Summary Health systems theories and frameworks frame health, health systems and policies in particular political and public health paradigms. While there is a clear trend to try to understand the complexity of and dynamic relationships between elements of health systems, there is also a demand to provide frameworks that distinguish

  6. A party leader is in the system of political communications : theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai V. Morar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigates the place and role of political communication in party leader image-making. The peculiarities of party communication as an important kind of political communication are uncovered. Analyzed types of party communication and gives the characteristic for changes in the context of the common society information. The results of investigation indicate a significant role and importance of party leader in political communications system. One of the most important direction of politics of party leaders are party communication. It is part of a larger concept - political communication. Political communication is a specific type of political relations and is seen as an inseparable element of the political domain of society. The main purpose of the party communication is creating conditions for public policy and public authority through the informational influence of political actors on each other and the social environment. The feature of party communication is that it provides the variety sort of messages and information that circulates within the party between its structural elements and members. Although this information basis on the initiative of the party can be given to the person, citizen, group, to the other party, political actor or political institutions. Understanding the theoretical foundations of party communication, their creative implementation in the development of party circles is the key to the success of the party leader’s activity and authority increasing among the masses.

  7. Democrats and republicans can be differentiated from their faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas O Rule

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals' faces communicate a great deal of information about them. Although some of this information tends to be perceptually obvious (such as race and sex, much of it is perceptually ambiguous, without clear or obvious visual cues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we found that individuals' political affiliations could be accurately discerned from their faces. In Study 1, perceivers were able to accurately distinguish whether U.S. Senate candidates were either Democrats or Republicans based on photos of their faces. Study 2 showed that these effects extended to Democrat and Republican college students, based on their senior yearbook photos. Study 3 then showed that these judgments were related to differences in perceived traits among the Democrat and Republican faces. Republicans were perceived as more powerful than Democrats. Moreover, as individual targets were perceived to be more powerful, they were more likely to be perceived as Republicans by others. Similarly, as individual targets were perceived to be warmer, they were more likely to be perceived as Democrats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that perceivers' beliefs about who is a Democrat and Republican may be based on perceptions of traits stereotypically associated with the two political parties and that, indeed, the guidance of these stereotypes may lead to categorizations of others' political affiliations at rates significantly more accurate than chance guessing.

  8. The Civil Democratic Control on the Army Forces in Romania 1989-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian SOFRONEA

    2016-01-01

    The end of the Cold War meant for the South-Eastern European countries an increased effort for establishing a market based economy and democratic institutions. One raised issue regarding democratization was the reform of the army forces and the democratization of the relationship between the military and the civil society. The civil control on the army forces and the creation of a democratic control system represents key indicators for the process of democratization and stabilizing and legiti...

  9. The Long-Term Impact of High School Civics Curricula on Political Knowledge, Democratic Attitudes and Civic Behaviors: A Multi-Level Model of Direct and Mediated Effects through Communication. CIRCLE Working Paper #65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Myiah J.; Eveland, William P., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the effects of exposure to various elements of a civics curriculum on civic participation, two forms of political knowledge, internal political efficacy, political cynicism, news elaboration, discussion elaboration and various forms of interpersonal and mediated political communication behaviors. The data are based on a…

  10. THE NEED OF CONNECTING THE TECHNOLOGY, POLITICAL AND CULTURAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Merdzhanovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the need of connecting the technology, political and cultural system in the right way to achieve the companies’ goals in terms of globalization and changes. The leaders have the main role in realizing the company’s strategy. They must be strategy focused and they are responsible for connecting the employees, processes and technologies. In the beginning of the paper, the characteristics of strategy focused leadership are analyzed. The available tools of strategy focused leadership through the model are presented. The matrix of strategy management can be used like a manual which helps the management in connecting systems with managerial instruments: mission and strategy, organization structure and management of human resources. The goal of the paper is to show that with professional approach, the strategy focused leaders play the main role in connecting and changing the existing systems in companies. This is the way of reaching the best performance of companies and surviving at the global world market.

  11. Fast Scramblers, Democratic Walks and Information Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Magan, Javier M

    2015-01-01

    We study a family of weighted random walks on complete graphs. These `democratic walks' turn out to be explicitly solvable, and we find the hierarchy window for which the characteristic time scale saturates the so-called fast scrambling conjecture. We show that these democratic walks describe well the properties of information spreading in systems in which every degree of freedom interacts with every other degree of freedom, such as Matrix or infinite range models. The argument is based on the analysis of suitably defined `Information fields' ($\\mathcal{I}$), which are shown to evolve stochastically towards stationarity due to unitarity of the microscopic model. The model implies that in democratic systems, stabilization of one subsystem is equivalent to global scrambling. We use these results to study scrambling of infalling perturbations in black hole backgrounds, and argue that the near horizon running coupling constants are connected to entanglement evolution of single particle perturbations in democratic...

  12. PRINCIPLES AND FUNCTIONS OF POLITICAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Vojvodić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern democratic society the politics is considered to be a skill of governing, that is, conquering and maintaining the political governance and the inevitable activity in all spheres of human activities. In the sense of negotiations the contemporary politics is "the maximal in the sphere of the possible", when, in a terrible struggle using arguments and other democratic means, one comes from the maximalistic request to the solution acceptable for both sides. Political activities would mean putting every political subject in the function of the efficient and economical satisfaction of the political needs and desires, aspirations and volitions of the political public. If the political scene is represented by the free market of political ideas, then there could be established the strategy of sensible and responsible managing in the political structures of the community, which is based on the previously researched and familiar expectations of the political public.

  13. A democratic responsiveness approach to real reform: an exploration of health care systems' resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignon, Michel

    2012-08-01

    Real reforms attempt to change how health care is financed and how it is rationed. Three main explanations have been offered to explain why such reforms are so difficult: institutional gridlock, path dependency, and societal preferences. The latter posits that choices made regarding the health care system in a given country reflect the broader societal set of values in that country and that as a result public resistance to real reform may more accurately reflect citizens' personal convictions, self-interest, or even active social choices. "Conscientious objectors" may do more to derail reform than previously recognized.

  14. Political System of the Great Cultural Revolution Reflected in Misty Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Oberstar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines Chinese literature following the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in relation to Mao’s Communist policy. It presents the occurrence of Misty poetry as an opposition to the political ideology of the Great Cultural Revolution (1966–1976. Misty poetry is understood as a spontaneous illegal poetic movement of individuals who veiled their political demands directed against Mao’s ideology in metaphors. This oppositional stance resembled the movement of 4th May 1919 which took place after the collapse of the last Chinese dynasty and criticised the traditional dominant ideology of Confucianism and sought democratization of the Chinese society. The same desire was shared by the Misty poets but this time under the dominance of the political ideology of the Chinese Communist Party in the period following 1942 which was indicated by Mao Zedong in his speech in Yan’an. Mao’s policy was repressive in nature since the role of literature and art, and thereby also poetry, was seen only as being utilitarian and was thus sealed in the dictated reflection of the class struggle. Therefore, in essence, the communist period laid its path to capitalism.

  15. Systemic Rejection: Political Pressures Seen from the Science System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mitchell; Sørensen, Mads P.; Bloch, Carter; Degn, Lise

    2017-01-01

    The emphasis on competitiveness and the knowledge-based economy in European policymaking has resulted in a heightened focus on monitoring and steering the science system, particularly through metric-based instruments. Policymakers' general aims of fostering excellent research and breakthroughs are shared by researchers as well; however, below the…

  16. It’s the Geography, Stupid!:An Introduction to Geographical Information Systems in Political Science

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Rasmus Fonnesbæk

    2016-01-01

    Much research in political science examines either countries or individuals. However, technological advances in geographic information systems (GIS) software and the ubiquity of geo-coded data in recent years have opened up the possibility of political science research that is attentive to (1) spatial aspects of political phenomena and (2) potential biases resulting from the dominance of country- and individual-based analysis in the discipline. In this article, I first present GIS and its pos...

  17. The Democratic Invention. A Reading of Lefort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Sirczuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will present the way in which Lefort interprets modern democracy as a new form of society in regard to the sources of law and legitimacy. Lefort is a thinker who is difficult to place within the context of contemporary political theory: he not only defends democracy against Marxism but also thinks that this form of society cannot be circumscribed within the limits of the modern state, nor be understood through the categories that the tradition of political philosophy has developed to distinguish between political regimes. Lefort combines the defense of democracy with a radical critique of the established order. He identifies the democratic invention with the institution of a dynamic that makes, by right, the radical questioning of law the source of political legitimacy.

  18. Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte

    2004-01-01

    identities. Politics of empowerment has to do with the agency and mobilisation dimension of social and political change. The title of the book "Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment" address the leitmotiv: namely to discuss plussumgame between politics of inclusion and politics of empowerment......The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... theproductive/innovative linkage of politics of redistributuin and politics og resognition, whnich over a longer time span creates sustainable paths of democratic and social development, which increases the capacity to handle both conflicts about economic resources and life-chances and conflicts about...

  19. Methodological approach and tools for systems thinking in health systems research: technical assistants' support of health administration reform in the Democratic Republic of Congo as an application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribesse, Nathalie; Bossyns, Paul; Marchal, Bruno; Karemere, Hermes; Burman, Christopher J; Macq, Jean

    2017-03-01

    In the field of development cooperation, interest in systems thinking and complex systems theories as a methodological approach is increasingly recognised. And so it is in health systems research, which informs health development aid interventions. However, practical applications remain scarce to date. The objective of this article is to contribute to the body of knowledge by presenting the tools inspired by systems thinking and complexity theories and methodological lessons learned from their application. These tools were used in a case study. Detailed results of this study are in process for publication in additional articles. Applying a complexity 'lens', the subject of the case study is the role of long-term international technical assistance in supporting health administration reform at the provincial level in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Methods section presents the guiding principles of systems thinking and complex systems, their relevance and implication for the subject under study, and the existing tools associated with those theories which inspired us in the design of the data collection and analysis process. The tools and their application processes are presented in the results section, and followed in the discussion section by the critical analysis of their innovative potential and emergent challenges. The overall methodology provides a coherent whole, each tool bringing a different and complementary perspective on the system.

  20. Political Diversity in Six Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel B.; Stern, Charlotta

    2004-01-01

    During the past 35 years, Seymour Martin Lipset and his collaborators have generated a series of studies and reports on the political alignment in academia. They have all found the social sciences and humanities to be preponderantly Democratic. In the past decade there has been little scholarly inquiry into the political orientation of faculty.…

  1. Political leaders: the paradox of freedom and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Teles

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that political leadership still makes a difference. However, research seems unable to offer the proper tools to provide further and relevant understanding on the theme, particularly when we consider liberal democracy’s current trends, namely its egalitarian ethos and the personalization of politics. One of its key features, even in controlled democracies, with strong checks and counterweight systems in place, is the dominance of assertive leaders, to whom voters look-up to when deciding which party to vote for. Therefore, a dispassionate assessment of political leadership is needed in order to adjust our analysis. This article aims to identify the specific nature and distinctiveness of contemporary political leadership, arguing that the neglect of this issue by mainstream democratic theory is a consequence of an egalitarian bias that considers political leadership as in conflict with the ethos of democracy.

  2. "More Rain and Less Thunder": Substitute Vocabularies, Richard Nixon, and the Construction of Political Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard; Stuckey, Mary E.

    1997-01-01

    Sketches a key mechanism called "Substitute Vocabularies" whereby practitioners of democracies seek to reconcile contradictions between democratic political principle and repressive political action. Illustrates this by identifying the Richard Nixon administration's political principles regarding Native Americans as articulated in…

  3. Democratization, social crisis and the impact of military domestic roles in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Pion-Berlin,David; Trinkunas, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Civil-military relations theorists have long warned against the participation of armed forces in domestic missions in democratic societies. They argue that such domestic roles bolster the military politically and eventually lead to the overthrow of democratic governments. Yet for two decades now, democratic governments have enlisted the help of their militaries domestically without risk to the regime. Civilian leaders often provide the military with internal roles to compensate/or th...

  4. More democracy, less politics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Josje den Ridder; Paul Dekker

    2015-01-01

    Original Title: Meer democratie, minder politiek?   Concerns about the functioning and future of democracy in the Netherlands can have a variety of causes. One such is the attitude of the demos: there is an assumption that political dissatisfaction is growing and that democratic engagement is

  5. Political information opportunities in Europe: a longitudinal and comparative study of thirteen television systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, F.; de Vreese, C.H.; Strömbäck, J.; van Aelst, P.; Aalberg, T.; Stanyer, J.; Lengauer, G.; Berganza, R.; Legnante, G.; Papathanassopoulos, S.; Salgado, S.; Sheafer, T.; Reinemann, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the supply of political information programming across thirteen European broadcast systems over three decades. The cross-national and cross-temporal design traces the composition and development of political information environments with regard to the amount and placement of news

  6. Democratic Attitudes among High-School Pupils: The Role Played by Perceptions of Class Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perliger, Arie; Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Pedahzur, Ami

    2006-01-01

    The present study shed light on the continuing debate among students of political socialisation regarding the effects of civic education on the upholding of democratic attitudes. Our major conclusion is that civic education, in and of itself, has only minor effects on democratic attitudes of pupils. Furthermore, among pupils who attended civic…

  7. Trade unions and liberal values: struggle or complementarity in a democratic society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Tupitzya

    2014-02-01

    Thus, viewing the political position of trade unions in a modern democratic society suggests that the trade union units are fully capable to absorb some elements of liberal doctrines. This indicates a broad base complementarity and mutual conceptual foundations of trade unionism and democratic society.

  8. Promoting democratic citizenship through non-formal adult education : the case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Bern Jensen, Tore

    activities organized by the non-formal adult education system in cooperation with national NGOs, which aim at promoting CCs among the out-of-school and unemployed population. The analysis will draw extensively on the Danish "folkeoplysning" research tradition, which provides a useful frame for interpreting......Since the mid-90es the importance of strengthening democratic citizenship (DC) through learning activities has become an important aspect of European education policy. Accordingly, civic competences (CCs), "based on knowledge of social and political concepts and structures and a commitment...... to active and democratic participation" have been identified by the European Commission (2005) among those key competences to be given priority in all Member States in a lifelong learning perspective. In 2006 a "Stocktaking study on lifelong learning for DC through adult education" was granted...

  9. Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Benatar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Striking disparities in access to healthcare and in health outcomes are major characteristics of health across the globe. This inequitable state of global health and how it could be improved has become a highly popularized field of academic study. In a series of articles in this journal the roles of power and politics in global health have been addressed in considerable detail. Three points are added here to this debate. The first is consideration of how the use of definitions and common terms, for example ‘poverty eradication,’ can mask full exposure of the extent of rectification required, with consequent failure to understand what poverty eradication should mean, how this could be achieved and that a new definition is called for. Secondly, a criticism is offered of how the term ‘global health’ is used in a restricted manner to describe activities that focus on an anthropocentric and biomedical conception of health across the world. It is proposed that the discourse on ‘global health’ should be extended beyond conventional boundaries towards an ecocentric conception of global/planetary health in an increasingly interdependent planet characterised by a multitude of interlinked crises. Finally, it is noted that the paucity of workable strategies towards achieving greater equity in sustainable global health is not so much due to lack of understanding of, or insight into, the invisible dimensions of power, but is rather the outcome of seeking solutions from within belief systems and cognitive biases that cannot offer solutions. Hence the need for a new framing perspective for global health that could reshape our thinking and actions.

  10. Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, Solomon

    2016-08-06

    Striking disparities in access to healthcare and in health outcomes are major characteristics of health across the globe. This inequitable state of global health and how it could be improved has become a highly popularized field of academic study. In a series of articles in this journal the roles of power and politics in global health have been addressed in considerable detail. Three points are added here to this debate. The first is consideration of how the use of definitions and common terms, for example 'poverty eradication,' can mask full exposure of the extent of rectification required, with consequent failure to understand what poverty eradication should mean, how this could be achieved and that a new definition is called for. Secondly, a criticism is offered of how the term 'global health' is used in a restricted manner to describe activities that focus on an anthropocentric and biomedical conception of health across the world. It is proposed that the discourse on 'global health' should be extended beyond conventional boundaries towards an ecocentric conception of global/planetary health in an increasingly interdependent planet characterised by a multitude of interlinked crises. Finally, it is noted that the paucity of workable strategies towards achieving greater equity in sustainable global health is not so much due to lack of understanding of, or insight into, the invisible dimensions of power, but is rather the outcome of seeking solutions from within belief systems and cognitive biases that cannot offer solutions. Hence the need for a new framing perspective for global health that could reshape our thinking and actions. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  11. Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Striking disparities in access to healthcare and in health outcomes are major characteristics of health across the globe. This inequitable state of global health and how it could be improved has become a highly popularized field of academic study. In a series of articles in this journal the roles of power and politics in global health have been addressed in considerable detail. Three points are added here to this debate. The first is consideration of how the use of definitions and common terms, for example ‘poverty eradication,’ can mask full exposure of the extent of rectification required, with consequent failure to understand what poverty eradication should mean, how this could be achieved and that a new definition is called for. Secondly, a criticism is offered of how the term ‘global health’ is used in a restricted manner to describe activities that focus on an anthropocentric and biomedical conception of health across the world. It is proposed that the discourse on ‘global health’ should be extended beyond conventional boundaries towards an ecocentric conception of global/planetary health in an increasingly interdependent planet characterised by a multitude of interlinked crises. Finally, it is noted that the paucity of workable strategies towards achieving greater equity in sustainable global health is not so much due to lack of understanding of, or insight into, the invisible dimensions of power, but is rather the outcome of seeking solutions from within belief systems and cognitive biases that cannot offer solutions. Hence the need for a new framing perspective for global health that could reshape our thinking and actions. PMID:27694651

  12. Law of “good and evil”, non-linear function of justice, political regimes and deformation of political systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Gennadyevich Ol’kov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to clarify the law of good and evil the function rule of justice and to construct mathematical models of political regimes. Methods 1 observation analysis and synthesis 2 deduction and induction 3 using the laws of formal logic 4 formal legal method 5 mathematical modeling 6 the study of mathematical functions 7 differential calculus 8 plotting. Results the author has deduced 1 the nonlinear law function of good and evil 2 the nonlinear function of justice 3 the law function of political regimes. Scientific novelty the author has calculated and found 1 a nonlinear formula DLcol ndashLcol3 which represents the relationship between the acts of legal public relations subjects D and thecollective freedom Lcol ndash the law of quotgood and evilquot 2 a nonlinear formula YD D3 illustrating the relationship between the acts of legal relations subjects D and responsibility for their actions Y ndash a nonlinear function of justice 3 a nonlinear formulanbsp that shows the relationship between the individual Lind and collective freedom Lcol in the negative area of the function definition collective negative freedom and a formulanbsp reflecting the relationship between the individual and collective freedom in the positive area of the function definition collective positive freedom 4 has given a general classification of political regimes in the world describing their functions showing the types of political systems deformation that occur due to the leftwise and rightwise shifts of collective freedom. Practical value the possibility to use the obtained scientific results in the development of various legal theories. nbsp

  13. Construction and Practice of Democratic Management Information System for Cloud Technology in Colleges and Uni-versities%云技术高校民主工作信息系统的搭建与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶晓环; 张丽艳; 陈海舰; 李玉香

    2015-01-01

    高校民主的公平性决定了高校教师的幸福工作指数,伴随云计算技术的深入应用,在高校民主管理领域结合云计算技术转变高校民主管理模式,搭建基于云技术的高校民主工作信息系统,进一步增强高校教师民主管理意识,创新民主参与范围,优化民主管理流程,提高民主管理和民主监督的效率和质量,全面提升高校民主管理的决策水平和执政能,是高校民主管理值得深入研究的课题。文章论述基于云计算技术搭建高校民主工作信息系统的可行性分析、搭建需要的基本软硬件环境、构建系统方案及云迁移策略。%The fairness of college democratic decision of University Teachers' work happinessindex, with the further application of cloud computing technology, cloud computing technology combined with the transformation of college democratic management mode in the field of democratic management in Colleges and universities, to build a democraticwork of University Information Sys⁃tem Based on cloud technology, further strengthening the Democratic management of teachers in Colleges and universities innova⁃tionconsciousness, democratic participation, democratic management optimization process,improve the democratic management and supervision efficiency and quality, enhance the decision-making level of democratic management in Colleges and universi⁃ties and theruling, democratic management in Colleges and universities is a subject worthy of further study. This paper discuss⁃es the feasibility based on cloud computing technology to build the University democratic work information system analysis, the need to build the basichardware and software environment, construction scheme and cloud migration strategy.

  14. Lesson Plan on Comparative Political Systems: Compare and Contrast the Presidential Election System of the USA to the Parliamentary Election System of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel W.

    This lesson describes the current government of Hungary and its underlying political and electoral systems. The lesson is structured with: (1) background on the parliamentary model of government, political parties, and Hungary's unique electoral system; (2) a summary of the six major political parties in Hungary and voter information for the 1990…

  15. A Probe into the Singaporean Politics in its Transition Period%新加坡政治转型探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖小健; 刘郄清良

    2004-01-01

    From the mid and late 1980s, the countries with fastest economic development in East Asia successively began their political transitions from authoritarian power to democracy. In Singapore, it began its transition with the government' s guidance and gradually adjusted the original structures so that the authoritarian structures were slowly shifted into a steady democratic system. As a result, it saved itself from paying both huge social and political cost , maintaining the concerted development in its society and economy.

  16. Signs of Fascism Rising: A European Americanist Looks at Recent Political Trends in the U.S. and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Rob

    2017-01-01

    This paper's central concern is with signs of fascism in recent political developments in a number of European countries and the United States. It takes the reader back to earlier periods in European and American history when this same anguished question was raised. Thus a longer intellectual history of concerns about the viability of democratic systems is drawn to guide us in our current political evaluations.

  17. Policy without politics: the limits of social engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente

    2003-01-01

    The extent of coverage provided by a country's health services is directly related to the level of development of that country's democratic process (and its power relations). The United States is the only developed country whose government does not guarantee access to health care for its citizens. It is also the developed country with the least representative and most insufficient democratic institutions, owing to the constitutional framework of the political system, the privatization of the electoral process, and the enormous power of corporate interests in both the media and the political process. As international experience shows, without a strong labor-based movement willing to be radical in its protests, a universal health care program will never be accepted by the US establishment.

  18. Political discourse in the news: democratizing responsibility or aestheticizing politics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chouliaraki, Syragoula Milner

    2000-01-01

    critical discourse analysis, deliberative democracy, media discourse, nationalism, recontextualization......critical discourse analysis, deliberative democracy, media discourse, nationalism, recontextualization...

  19. Democracy and democratization in contemporary Muslim societies: A theoretical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahabuddin Ra’ees

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of democracy and democratization on contemporary Muslim societies. The institutional and philosophical approaches to democracy and democratization are inseparable. The paper investigates the relationship between the philosophical dimension of Western democracy and the Muslim philosophy of life and concludes that the democratization of contemporary Muslim societies leads to serious and destabilizing ideological polarization and division of Muslim societies into supporters of secularism and political Islam. The Islamist-secularists relation radicalizes: (1 when the Islamists are prevented from capturing power through democratic institutions and (2 when the advanced Western democratic states cooperate with non-democratic secular elites of Muslim societies. The destabilizing role of democracy can be moderated if the Islamists are engaged in the democratic process, and the debate between the Islamists, the secularists and the West – based on the view that the West should conceive Islam as an alternative weltanschauung [worldview] – focuses on issues that are human properties, irrespective of religion, ethnicity or language. The institutional approach to democracy provides a common ground for cooperation and dialogue between the Islamists, the secularists and the West.

  20. Democratic survival in Latin America (1945-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal PÉREZ-LIÑÁN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Why do democracies survive or break down? In this paper, it returns to this classic question with an empirical focus on Latin America from 1945 to 2005. The argument deviates from the quantitative literature and a good part of the qualitative literature on democratic survival and breakdown. It is argued that structural variables such as the level of development and inequalities have not shaped prospects for democratic survival in Latin America. Nor, contrary to findings in some of the literature, has economic performance affected the survival of competitive regimes. Instead, it is focused on the regional political environment and on actors’ normative preferences about democracy and dictatorship and their policy radicalism or moderation. It is argued that 1 a higher level of development did not increase the likelihood of democratic survival in Latin America over this long time; 2 if actors have a normative preference for democracy, it is more likely to survive; and 3 policy moderation facilitates democratic survival.

  1. An Application of the Theory of Open Quantum Systems to Model the Dynamics of Party Governance in the US Political System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikova, Polina; Haven, Emmanuel; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2014-04-01

    The Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad equation allows us to model the process of decision making in US elections. The crucial point we attempt to make is that the voter's mental state can be represented as a superposition of two possible choices for either republicans or democrats. However, reality dictates a more complicated situation: typically a voter participates in two elections, i.e. the congress and the presidential elections. In both elections the voter has to decide between two choices. This very feature of the US election system requires that the mental state is represented by a 2-qubit state corresponding to the superposition of 4 different choices. The main issue is to describe the dynamics of the voters' mental states taking into account the mental and political environment. What is novel in this paper is that we apply the theory of open quantum systems to social science. The quantum master equation describes the resolution of uncertainty (represented in the form of superposition) to a definite choice.

  2. Discourse, the political and the ontological dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Dreyer; Sonnichsen, André

    2014-01-01

    In this interview, Ernesto Laclau discusses his theoretico-political endeavour from the publication of Hegemony and Socialist Strategy; questions of radical democratic subjectivity; the social order, sedimentation and change; and finally his relationship to the work of Michel Foucault....

  3. Theorizing Environmental Governance of the World System: Global Political Economy Theory and Some Applications to Stratospheric Ozone Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Gareau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper incorporates world-systems perspectives into an analysis of global environmental politics, thus adjoining a political economic analysis of scale with studies of global environmental policy. It is the ability of some social groups and institutions to jump scale that determines how global environmental policies are shaped. The United States’ carbon-intensive economy is seen to face larger short-term costs from global environmental agreements than many other countries in the core of the world-system, but what remains unexplored in the environmental politics literature is the question of why the United States sees its long-term economic condition hindered by these agreements. This analysis points to the ways industry actors intervene at multiple scales of global environmental negotiations to affect national policy positions as well as larger discourses about science and risk. The article reviews the methyl bromide controversy in the Montreal Protocol to explain why this agreement has recently failed to live up to expectations in removing ozone-depleting substances. The United States is particularly responsible for this impediment: rather than innovate in response to new information and changing international contexts, industry actors have drawn upon US hegemony to enforce their dominant market positions. As the parties to the Montreal Protocol remain polarized over questions of methyl bromide use, this analysis calls for attention to the ways capital, states, and other social institutions are embedded in international environmental agreements and how they use such arrangements to obstruct successful multilateral agreements. I conclude by suggesting that environmental and other social movements might strategize in two ways: 1 by helping support an emergent ‘green hegemony’ (most apparent in Chinese policy as a counterhegemonic alternative, and 2 by developing strategies that account for the ways industry interests overlap with declining

  4. China and the Soviet Union: Some Aspects of Comparative Analysis of Their Political Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vladimirovich Lukin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes historical peculiarities of the research of political systems and political processes in the Soviet Union and China. The author reveals the problems of Soviet sinology, including its politicized character, the advantages and disadvantages of the Soviet school, the similarities and differences of the both political systems, as well as differences in their academic approaches. The author also uses a civilizational approach to explain the uniqueness of the Chinese civilization. According to the author, nowadays it is essential to avoid politicization in academic research in order to improve the objectivity of comparative international studies.

  5. A dimensão político-democrática nas teorias de desenvolvimento sustentável e suas implicações para a gestão local Political-democratic dimension within sustainable development theories and its implications for local management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Frey

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa diversas concepções de desenvolvimento sustentável, com ênfase nas dimensões do modelo político-administrativo, do papel do Estado e do potencial democrático inerente às abordagens propostas. São analisadas primeiro aquelas concepções que apostam no mercado como força reguladora do desenvolvimento (abordagem econômico-liberal de mercado. Segundo, as abordagens que consideram o Estado e suas instituições de regulação e de planejamento como instrumentos indispensáveis para garantir a prevalência do bem comum no processo de desenvolvimento (abordagem ecológico-tecnocrata de planejamento. Finalmente, as concepções que salientam a necessidade de uma ampla mobilização política e um maior envolvimento da própria população e das organizações da sociedade civil na busca de um modo sustentável de desenvolvimento (abordagem política de participação democrática. Ao final do trabalho, são discutidas as implicações dessas abordagens para a gestão local e sugeridos alguns elementos essenciais na busca de um modelo democratizante de gestão do desenvolvimento sustentável das cidades.The article analyses several concepts of sustainable development, focusing on the following dimensions: the political-administrative model, the role of the State, and the democratic potential of these approaches. First, the paper analyses those approaches that consider the market as the fundamental regulative force of development (market approach of economic liberalism. Second, it tackles approaches that consider the State and its regulatory and planning institutions indispensable instruments to guarantee the prevalence of the common good in developing processes (ecological-technocratic planning approach. Finally, it examines conceptions that highlight the necessity of an extended political mobilisation and an enhanced involvement of the population and civil society organisations in the search for a sustainable mode of

  6. Latin American Challenge: Consolidation of a Democratic Ideal

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Dostoievsky Ernesto de Melo; Sabino, Carla Danielle Barreto de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    The quality of democracy is analyzed by the ability to leverage the potential of various dimensions that characterize the mechanisms that control the exercise of political power. In Latin America the particular mode of relationship between state and citizens is weakened by social, economic and political context. Indeed, in Latin America, one of the democratic quality problems is the weakness of these control mechanisms and the consequences of this model affects the transgressive culture. Esta...

  7. “All for the sake of Freedom”: Hannah Arendt’s Democratic Dissent, Trauma, and American Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Mehring

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    As an intellectual Jewish immigrant, Hannah Arendt’s work is informed by two key factors: the failures of German intellectuals regarding the rise of fascism and the promise of American democracy. Arendt was haunted by the past and the memories of how the democratic structures of the Weimar Republic had been undermined, manipulated, and finally transformed into a totalitarian terror regime. The issues of freedom, equality, and the shortcomings of democratic societies form a transcultural nexus in her oeuvre. This reading of Arendt will reveal how her efforts to deal with a transatlantic traumatic past shaped the felt need to voice democratic dissent in the United States. While much has been said about her theoretical groundwork on the mechanisms of totalitarian systems, Arendt’s living conditions as a naturalized foreigner, her enthusiasm for American democracy, and her refusal to return to Germany have been largely neglected. Arendt is usually rooted firmly in a European philosophical context. She has been canonized as one of the foremost philosophical thinkers from Germany on the emergence of totalitarian systems and the Holocaust. This transatlantic force field looms large over the second half of the twentieth century in the realm of culture and politics. Among her fellow intellectual émigrés and exiles such as Adorno, Horkheimer, Marcuse, or Fraenkel, Arendt stands out. She decided not to return to the new democratic Germany with its Grundgesetz fashioned along the lines of the American Constitution. Instead, she insisted on becoming naturalized and used her transnational background as a basis to address democratic gaps from the vantage point of an American citizen. First, Mehring shows in which ways Arendt identified herself as an American and wished to become recognized as an American citizen. Second, he reconnects Arendt’s democratic dissent with her efforts to become recognized as an American citizen.

  8. Development of an efficient callus proliferation system for Rheum coreanum Nakai, a rare medicinal plant growing in Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Chol Mun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A clonal mass propagation to obtain mountainous sources of Rheum coreanum Nakai, a rare medicinal plant in Democratic People’s Republic of Korea was established by rhizome tissue culture. Whole plants were selected and collected as a vigorous individual free from blights and harmful insects among wild plants of R. coreanum grown on the top of Mt. Langrim (1.540 m above the sea situated at the northern extremity of Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Induction of the callus was determined using four organs separated from the whole plant and different plant growth regulators. The callus was successfully induced from rhizome explant on MS medium containing 2.4-D (0.2–0.3 mg/l. In the MS medium supplemented with a combination of BAP (2 mg/l and NAA (0.2 mg/l, single NAA (0.5 mg/l, or IBA (0.5 mg/l, a higher number of shoot, root and plantlets was achieved. The survival rate on the mountainous region of the plantlets successfully acclimatized (100% in greenhouse reached 95%, and yields of crude drug and contents of active principles were higher than those obtained by sexual and vegetative propagation. This first report of R. coreanum tissue culture provides an opportunity to control extinction threats and an efficient callus proliferation system for growing resources rapidly on a large scale.

  9. Development of an efficient callus proliferation system for Rheum coreanum Nakai, a rare medicinal plant growing in Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Song-Chol; Mun, Gwan-Sim

    2016-07-01

    A clonal mass propagation to obtain mountainous sources of Rheum coreanum Nakai, a rare medicinal plant in Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established by rhizome tissue culture. Whole plants were selected and collected as a vigorous individual free from blights and harmful insects among wild plants of R. coreanum grown on the top of Mt. Langrim (1.540 m above the sea) situated at the northern extremity of Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Induction of the callus was determined using four organs separated from the whole plant and different plant growth regulators. The callus was successfully induced from rhizome explant on MS medium containing 2.4-D (0.2-0.3 mg/l). In the MS medium supplemented with a combination of BAP (2 mg/l) and NAA (0.2 mg/l), single NAA (0.5 mg/l), or IBA (0.5 mg/l), a higher number of shoot, root and plantlets was achieved. The survival rate on the mountainous region of the plantlets successfully acclimatized (100%) in greenhouse reached 95%, and yields of crude drug and contents of active principles were higher than those obtained by sexual and vegetative propagation. This first report of R. coreanum tissue culture provides an opportunity to control extinction threats and an efficient callus proliferation system for growing resources rapidly on a large scale.

  10. Education in the new practice of democratic citizenship: databases of John Dewey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannina Burlando

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The bases of the political art of John Dewey or his new practice of democratic citizenship are reviewed. Dewey is acknowledged as one of the most prominent of the American philosophers in the first half of the twentieth century. He is also the most influential due to endowing philosophy a public task, namely, political and educational concern. From the instrumentalist method applied to the political area, crucial postulates in the major writings of Dewey are selected to revitalize the meaning and draw up the practical impacts of the central element of his political philosophy: ‘the collective power of democratic community’.

  11. Twenty years of revolutionary democratic Ethiopia, 1991 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias; Abbink, Jon

    2011-01-01

    with a short summary of these 11 papers, but then moves to a substantive review of Ethiopia's political history over the past two decades, featuring consideration of the extent of transformation and continuity under the ruling Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), the importance...

  12. Preparing for Citizenship: Teaching Youth To Live Democratically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Ralph; And Others

    This book explores the issues of democratic education and student responsibilities in the schools. There are three compelling reasons to engage students to have a direct experience of democracy as an integral part of their schooling: (1) students are most likely to understand and value democracy and develop the political skills required for…

  13. In Defense of a Deliberative Democratic Civics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jarrod S.

    2013-01-01

    Political divides in our democracy are ever-widening. Deliberative democratic civics education provides a new way for civics education to prepare students for a democracy that addresses the diversity in moral perspectives that have created the divides in a more constructive way. Civics education traditionally has been tied to aggregative theories…

  14. Neoliberal Project of Globalization: Prospects for Democratization of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannu, R. S.

    1996-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, neoliberalism has become the hegemonic ideology and has expedited the globalization of economies and the emergence of the market as the central organizing principle of social relations and collective life. Surveys the impact of these structural and ideological changes on politics (including democratization), economies, and…

  15. Transformations of television systems: Implications for media content, political parties and political attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbaoui, B.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates the transformation of West-European television systems since the onset of the liberalisation process through a systematic comparison of 17 television systems between 1980 and 2008. The transformation of West-European television systems is analysed through a dualistic

  16. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  17. Personality, Negativity, and Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Weinschenk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have recently started to integrate personality traits into models of political participation. In this paper, we present the results of a survey experiment (N = 724 designed to test whether negative political messages differentially impact people with different personality traits. We found evidence that individuals with high scores on agreeableness were less likely, and individuals with high scores on extraversion were more likely, to report intending to participate in politics than their counterparts after being exposed to negative political messages. Agreeableness and extraversion also interacted with negative messages to influence specific intentions to make a political donation, attend a meeting, rally, or event, and volunteer for a political campaign. We also found suggestive evidence that agreeableness interacted with negativity to influence turnout intentions. The results of this study have important implications for the study of political engagement, the ways in which people interact with political information, and the practice of democratic politics.

  18. Discovering the Political in Non-Political Young Immigrant Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard; Solhaug, Trond

    The theme of this paper is the political participation and political involvement among migrant youth in Denmark. It is well documented (Kulbranstad 2009) that second-generation immigrants posses poorer skills than their school fellows with an ethnic Danish background. These pupils in general start...... to a situation with less possibilities for a democratic citizenship. But how do these second-generation immigrants orient themselves politically and democratically? How are their political affiliations? And how is their sense of citizenship?...... out with a lower average, and when they leave the school they are also behind. Especially, the Danish language skills often place them in a worse situation in the lessons as well as in the public life. From a political resource perspective it could easily be argued that such conditions lead...

  19. Paradoxes and Principles of Functioning of the Contemporary Political Democracies: Democracies in Transition in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veton LATIFI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical debate on democracy for a longer period is one of the most dynamic debates within the political sciences, associated with plenty of controversies and paradoxes in terms of lack of consistent principles of functions of contemporary democracies. Various authors continue to disagree regarding the exact foundations of democratic systems, their ideal principles and optimal outcomes for these systems as a result of functioning and failures of the democracy. The situation then is not a source of paradoxes, but rather it brings in visible the paradoxes of functioning of the contemporary political democracies often associated with camouflages under the flag of democracy and abuses under the umbrella of democratic rhetoric in many political processes around the world. The paradoxes of the frontier line what is allowed and what not in a democracy often serves as a starting point for justification of the abuses and misinterpretation of democratic values by the authorities?! The paper is interested in exploring how closely these various conceptualizations of democracy are related to our intuitive sense of what democracy means, or should mean?! In the second part of the paper, using the methods of case study and functional analyses the paradoxes are considered on the practices of the contemporary democracies for the countries in transition of the Balkans, especially discussing the manifestations of the illiberal democratic tendencies.

  20. A Democratically Accountable External Action Service: Three Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Bátora

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Democratic accountability is an aspect that seems to have been almost entirely overlooked in the discussions on the evolving role of the European External Action Service (EEAS. In modern democratic societies, it is increasingly difficult to sustain the claim that foreign policy and diplomacy are incompatible with democratic decision-making and accountability. What is more, for the external service representing the EU as an entity aspiring to play the role of a mentor in state- and democracy-building processes in various countries around the world, ensuring democratic accountability necessarily becomes a key concern. While this is the case, the literature on the EEAS has at best only partially addressed this issue so far. This article seeks to bridge that gap and discuss ways of how democratic accountability could be ensured in the EEAS in its various possible organizational configurations. It hence addresses some of the key issues addressed by this special issue – institutionalization of administrative arrangements in support of the ESDP, the role of non-elected officials in the EU’s external relations and, indeed, evolving mechanisms for ensuring political control of the EU’s external action. In the first section, the paper discusses the notion of democratic accountability and reviews the state of the debate regarding democratic accountability in the EEAS. Three models of a democratic order in the EU are then suggested (cf Eriksen and Fossum and based on those, three scenarios of developing democratic accountability in the EEAS are elaborated upon - the EEAS as a support agency for member state diplomacy; the EEAS as a federal foreign service of the EU; and the EEAS as a cosmopolitan normative entrepreneur.

  1. Political scandal and the politics of exposure : from Watergate to Lewinsky and beyond.

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, S. E.

    2007-01-01

    The paper advances an interpretation of political scandal and its place in democratic politics, taking the scandals of the ‘Watergate era’ in American politics as its evidential basis. The interpretation focuses on an aspect of political scandal that has been neglected in existing treatments, namely the politically constructed rather than epistemologically simple nature of scandalous ‘exposure’. The career of the ‘smoking gun’ in the Watergate era provides illustration. The paper goes on to r...

  2. THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE OF CHANGES IN GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION AND LAW: With Special Reference to the Development of Legal Political System in Post-Reformasi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasid Yasid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate surrounding theocracy and secularism among Indonesian Muslims has been recorded since pre-independence period in early part of the 20th Century until now. This article is an effort to examine the compatibility of Islam with the idea of democracy and the inclusion of shari’ah in it. The focus is on government administration and law. Using the approach of Islamic law perspective, the writer argues that the dichotomy between theocracy and secularism does not apply to Indonesia because he treats shari’ah as merely a philosophical reference. Shari’ah evolves as a living organism that transcends any debatable issues for benefit of ummah. In contemporary Indonesian political context, the substance of shari’ah had been manifested by implementing a democratic system based on a legal foundation for the benefit and welfare of ummah. Therefore, some political-legal institutions like Constitutional Court and Anti-Corruption Commission are considered as part of shari’ah implementation although they are not textually sanctioned by shari’ah.

  3. Reconfiguring Ethiopia: The Politics of Authoritarian Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    reconfigured Ethiopian society and state in the past two decades. Yet, as the contributors to this volume demonstrate, ‘democracy’ in Ethiopia has not changed the authority structures and the culture of centralist decision-making of the past. The political system is tightly engineered and controlled from top...... to bottom by the ruling Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Navigating between its 1991 announcements to democratise the country and its aversion to power-sharing, the EPRDF has established a de facto one-party state that enjoys considerable international support. This ruling party...

  4. The Political System of Russia in the Program of National Union of New Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luydmila V. Klimovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Russian emigration developed a complex of ideological and political concepts on changing system in Soviet Russia. The focus of the article is on the political program of the National Union of the New Generation. The union was formed in 1930 in Yugoslavia and had offices in many countries. It proclaimed the overthrow of the Bolshevik government. On the base of the involvement of archive documents of the People Labor Union of Russian Solidarists (Frankfurt am Main, the author concludes that this organization does not define the future of political structure of Russia, adopted the position called "nepredreshenchestvo". The analysis shows that the program of this organization was perceived ambiguously.

  5. Civic education and religious education in the function of democratization of education in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemenović Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the socio-political context of changes that have affected the education systems of Eastern European countries, the authors summarize the specific nature of the process of democratization of education in Europe at the turn of the century. The paper analyzes the purpose of democratization of education and of introduction of Civic Education and Religious Education classes in the education system of the Republic of Serbia, observing the idea that education may serve as a generator of social changes, and stating that school is an important support pillar in promoting and accepting the values of the community, as well as in personal growth and the development of every individual. The presented theoretical concepts are supported by the summary of results of empirical studies that have been focused on the analysis of the pedagogical aspects of the implementation of teaching these subjects at the secondary level of education from the perspective of teachers, pupils and parents. Based on the insight into the topic, the authors suggest searching for a “common tangent” in Civic Education and Religious Education teaching process via an open and tolerant dialogue of participants of both subjects, which would enable the exchange of experiences, attitudes, and opinions of pupils, as well as coinciding and permeating of spiritual and democratic values as a foundation for further democratization of school in general. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179036: Pedagogical Pluralism as the Basis for Education Policy

  6. Educação e sociedade democrática: interpretações sociológicas e desafios à formação política do educador Education and democratic society: sociological interpretations and challenges to political education of educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Silva Virginio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, procuramos situar o papel da educação na constituição de uma sociedade democrática. A relação entre democracia e educação funda-se na identificação dos predicados da primeira, sobretudo, a partir das contribuições de Karl Mannheim, e nas propriedades da segunda, mormente em sua dimensão política, estribo para a convergência entre processos curriculares e necessidades sociais. Tomando por base a realidade nacional, asseveramos que a construção de uma consciência e personalidade democrática decorre da consecução de uma outra sociabilidade, qual seja, consoante aos valores da reciprocidade e da cooperação, tanto quanto sensível à qualificação dos termos que definem, objetiva e subjetivamente, a qualidade de vida. Tal qualidade decorre, ademais, do desenvolvimento das interpretações críticas e/ou propostas criativas colocadas na e pela experiência cotidiana. Considerando a natureza precária de nossa cidadania, tanto quanto os desafios educacionais em curso, colocamos em relevo o desafio da formação política do educador. Esta dimensão formativa, principalmente se levarmos em conta as carências e dificuldades das classes populares, pode, se observadas e desenvolvidas as relações ético-políticas que permeiam o saber e o fazer docente, conferir um outro cariz, de natureza humanista, ao processo de socialização escolar. Mais do que isso, pode significar a mediação necessária, ainda que não suficiente, entre utopia democrática e sociedade democrática, entre realidade social e contextos de cidadania e entre necessidade da política e mudança social.In this work we aim at pointing out the role of education in the constitution of a democratic society. The relationship between democracy and education is established by the identification of the predicates of the first, mainly from the contributions of Karl Mannheim, and the properties of the latter, especially in its political dimension

  7. The Democratic Albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Dan F.; Gonchar, Ruth M.

    This paper discusses ideologues, both of the far Left and the far Right, and their influences on the American political structure and our "traditional pluralistic politics," which is defined as the concept traditionally held in this country that politics function within a clash of interests, sectional and group, and that political…

  8. Democratic design experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehn, Pelle; Brandt, Eva; Halse, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    we here see design engagements which are both controversial in their commitment to agendas of social change and experimental in the sense that they openly probe for what can possibly be enacted. In this conversation we want to explore how such engagements may be seen as democratic design experiments...

  9. Learning Democratic Global Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus

    1996-01-01

    Outlines a model process of developing knowledge from within different groups and cultures to allow more equitable participation of all world societies in the definition of global governance. Reviews concepts relevant to education's contributions toward learning and creating democratic global governance. Discusses the educational utility of…

  10. Democratic design experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehn, Pelle; Brandt, Eva; Halse, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    we here see design engagements which are both controversial in their commitment to agendas of social change and experimental in the sense that they openly probe for what can possibly be enacted. In this conversation we want to explore how such engagements may be seen as democratic design experiments...

  11. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  12. Democratic Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Erik K.; Tate, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, democratic values have called for abandoning coercive approaches and teaching children and youth to be responsible citizens. The authors explore strategies for creating respectful environments and positive group cultures with challenging youth. They offer suggestions to adult group facilitators to support youth in developing…

  13. The Democratization of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult Education Quarterly, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Although adult education is committed to democratic values, its knowledge base reproduces the structures and values of larger academic culture, which excludes many. Although the field speaks of empowerment for others, it has yet to realize such empowerment for itself. (Author/SK)

  14. “Resource Curse” and System Problems of Political Management in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrenko Inna Aleksandrovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of problems in the field of political management in modern Russia is carried out. Initially, the author considers the possibility of explaining the nature of these problems through the theory of the “Resource curse”, but it allows only updating the vulnerable areas of the system of political governance in our country, without identification of their nature. The author highlights such aspects of the current state of the political system of Russia, as ethno-federalism, its risks in modern conditions, state capitalism and examines its manifestations in the economy and politics of the country. From the author’s point of view, the analyzed theory of “resource curse” cannot fully explain and solve the multidimensional problems of political management of modern Russia. There are deeper and more systematic characters than a statement about possession of hydrocarbon resources, the sale of which is in the ground budget replenishment. The attention is focused on the fact that one of the weak points in the political management of modern Russia is a decreased credibility and role of the Parliament, as well as the weak institutionalization of small and medium businesses. The factor causing destabilization of social relations and inefficiency of the system of state administration in the Russian Federation is an established model of ethno-federalism – “Matreshka”. Such system of administrative and territorial structure of the country decreases the values of the statehood. The author highlights that the article largely reflects the positions of those political scientists who try to go beyond logical, but at the same time limited postulates of liberal theories when searching for a way out from difficult socio-political situation in the country. These concepts are ideologized and cannot escape the temptation of stigmatization of Russia as a country “cursed” by its natural resources.

  15. Smartparticipation a fuzzy-based recommender system for political community-building

    CERN Document Server

    Terán Tamayo, Luis Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In this book a fuzzy-based recommender system architecture for stimulating political participation and collaboration is proposed. It showcases the ""Smart Participation"" project, which uses the database of ""smart vote"", a well-known voting advice application (VAA) for local, cantonal and national elections in Switzerland. Additionally, an evaluation framework for e Participation is presented, which allows to analyze different projects and their development towards the enhancement of citizen's participation and empowerment. The book demonstrates the potential for building political communiti

  16. Democratic learning in the Aalborg Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    A democratic learning system can be defined as a system where decisions, processes and behaviour related to learning are established through argumentation (discussion) or negotiation (dialog), voting or consensus (alone or in combination) between those affected by the decision simultaneously reac...

  17. The reconstitution of political theory: David Easton, behavioralism, and the long road to system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, John G

    2013-01-01

    During the last half of the twentieth century, the concept of system was arguably the most important concept in the theoretical repertoire of the discipline of American political science. Although systems analysis was broadly employed in the behavioral sciences, David Easton's work was particularly influential in the study of politics. This is in part because he attempted to develop a distinct account of the political system that was not theoretically subservient either to general systems theory or to conceptions of the social system such as that advanced by Talcott Parsons. Although a great deal of attention has been devoted to Easton's theory, the origins and evolution of the system concept in his work have not been carefully reconstructed and analyzed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997 allows emission trade between countries that have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. This paper considers two schemes of emission trading: trade between governments and trade between emission sources. The two schemes are analyzed and the strengths......, at the international level, industrial lobbyism was non-significant. Only the 'fossil fuel lobby' played a role. Third, at the national level, one could expect strong political opposition from industry lobbies in case quotas are actually to be distributed at firm level. But trade among countries may benefit industry......, the best 'second-best' solution is argued to be that of trade between governments....

  19. Monumentality on space and cultural democratization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a reflection on the idea of monumentality in political and religious power, and its reconversion of a democratic society. There are 3+1 types of cultural exhibition space that are analyzed: the traditional palace or the church, which contain great works of classical art, inside of the historic centers; the art galleries associated with market economy, tend to stimulate the city centre area, and the autonomy of the architectural object in the vicinity of the traditional city. Lastly it is referred the case study - Silo Cultural Space - inside the Norteshopping, but arranged in a peripheral form, which is distinguished by an apparent proximity to multiple public.

  20. 论现代政治体系中的政治录用%On the Political Recruitment of Modern Political System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹高丁

    2012-01-01

    Political recruitment is the selection and induction of members from the society or organization, in order to fill a political role in the system. It mainly includes the hiring of two political roles, one is a civic role of recruitment, and the other is the recruitment of elite roles. The standards of political hiring in the form is divided into two types of political criteria and professional standards, the two types conflicted but indispensable. Political recruitment has the functions of maintaining the stability of the political system, enhancing the quality of citizens" political, and guarantying social value orientation, the scientif- ic of policy-making and the validity of policy implementation. It is the necessary condition of a national political system con- tinues.%政治录用是政治系统为了填充体系中的政治角色对社会成员或组织进行的选择与诱导。它主要包括两种政治角色的录用,一种是公民角色的录用;一种是精英角色的录用。政治录用的标准在形式上分为政治标准与专业标准两个类型,二者相互矛盾又缺一不可。对于国家政权来说,政治录用具有保持政治体系的稳定性、提升公民政治素质、社会价值导向和政策制定的科学性与政策执行的有效性的功能,是一个国家政治制度延续的必要条件。

  1. CONTRIBUTION OF INDONESIAN DEMOCRATIC TO ISLAMIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Haryanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show up the reason that Indonesian democratic can give contribution to developing of Islamic education theory, in order to responds of contemporary issues. To achieve of the purpose, this paper was discussing a number of democratic theory and Islamic education contemporary literature with holding a dialogue to Indonesian culture background. Recently, Islamic education theory and practice has undergone some transformations, in its system, curriculum, and institutions. One of the trigger was a demand to implementing a conception of democracy in Islamic education praxis. In Indonesia it was adopted from Pancasila, exactly the Bhineka Tunggal Ika slogan. To realized of that, Indonesian Islamic education institution like madrassa, since 1980s was combined between curriculum Indonesia national and Islamic education. It is be a sign that Indonesian democracy can be an alternative to developing a theory of democratic Islamic education.

  2. Atomic-powered democracy: Policy against politics in the quest for American nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the relationship of American nuclear energy to democracy. It examines whether the nuclear policy processes have furthered the legitimacy-government accountability and citizen participation-which the democratic institutes are based. Nuclear policy and its institutions have placed severe limitations on democratic practices. Contravened democracy is seen most clearly in the decoupling of policy from politics. Decoupling refers to the weakening of institutional linkages between citizens and government, and to the erosion of the norms that ground liberal democracy. Decoupling is manifested in policy centralization, procedural biases, technical rationality, and the spatial displacement of conflict. Decoupling has normative implications: While federal accountability was limited and citizen participation was shackled, other major groups enjoyed privileged access to policy making. The decoupling of nuclear policy from politics arose within the context of US liberal-democratic capitalism. The federal government pursued its own goals of defense and world leadership. Yet, it was not structurally autonomous from the hegemony of the political-economic context. Economically, the Atomic Energy Act did not permit federal agencies to directly invest in power plant construction, and did not authorize them to commercially generate electricity. Private industry was structurally placed to domesticate the atom. Politically, the liberal-democratic system hampered an unquestioning pursuit of atomic energy. Federal institutions have been forced to heed some of the anti-nuclear concerns. The pervasive influence of the US political economy on nuclear policy has come to transgress democracy. Nuclear power's growth faltered during the 1970s. The political and economic constraints on federal actions have limited the means available to revive a becalmed nuclear industry; this has exerted strong pressure on federal institutions to decouple policy from

  3. Sistema de partidos y cambio democrático: aproximaciones al caso dominicano Party system and democratic change: approaches to the Dominican case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo LOZANO

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las transformaciones de los partidos políticos y del sistema de partidos, tras la desaparición de los líderes fundadores de los tres principales partidos políticos modernos: Bosch (PLD, Peña Gómez (PRD y Balaguer (PRSC. Se analizan los procesos constitutivos del sistema de partidos y los estilos de liderazgo. Se discute la relación del sistema de partidos con el Estado, destacando su ascendiente neopatrimonialista y la función del clientelismo. Finalmente, se proponen algunas notas destacando el proceso de formación de una élite neopatrimonialista y el manejo clientelar de la política electoral.The analysis of transformation of political parties as well as the party system have taken place after the disappearance of the three mayor political leaders and founders of the three most important modern political parties: Bosch (PLD, Peña Gómez (PRD and Balaguer (PRSC. The constituent process of party system and leadership styles have been studied. The relationship between party systems and the State have been discussed, emphasizing its neopatrimonialist ascending and clientelism performance. Finally, a few notes have been provided in order to address the development of a neopatrimonialist elite and clientelistic management of electoral politics.

  4. Dingpolitik and the Expansion of the Democratic Public Sphere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephensen, Jan Løhmann

    2016-01-01

    Theories that challenge the anthropocentric view of democracy and political participation in broader terms have in recent years attracted much attention. This has for instance been the case with Bruno Latour’s so-called ‘politics of things’ (Dingpolitik); and in direct extension of this, Noortje......, that on closer scrutiny turns out to be anything but democratic, this cluster of new theories, that often go under the name of ‘new materialism', seem to radicalize this critique in order to include non-human agency into the realms of politics and democracy. Rather than subscribing to this metaphor of a rupture...

  5. Political Parties between Conflict and Consensus, with Special Review on Party Finance: the Example of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Matakovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Political parties as voluntary organizations of free citizens in democratic state feature their candidates for parliament and strive to gain the best results in elections. In order to participate in elections and accomplish the tasks they were founded for, political parties should have access to financial resources for paying expenditures related to their activities. This paper will show that political parties in Germany, contrary to the conflicts shown in public have build up mutual cooperation in developing generous system of party financing from public sources. Cooperation in political life and consensual decision making were developed in Germany as the outcome of the totalitarian past, and this conceptual background has been used by political parties in order to develop the system of public party financing. In this way party cartel was created, and parties took over the country and created party state.

  6. Energy policies and politics for sustainable world-system development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    environmental impacts of renewable energy sources. Normatively, (a) parts of the 1987 Brundtland report and (b) Danish experiences with regulated markets and innovations (Hvelplund 1995) are discussed and supplemented by (c) a critique of EU energy policies, especially the continued support of nuclear industry......  Analytically, (a) Barry Commoner's theses of 1976 on the connections between energy, environmental and economic crises are discussed from thermo-dynamical inefficiencies through sector analyses to barriers of energy reform, actualized by (b) the contribution of Sterling 2002 reminding upon...... by Euratom (Woodman 2003). A political approach to preconditions for sustainable energy policies is finally developed from (a) Barry Commoner's critique of 1979 of president Carter's energy plan followed by the impasse of the Reagan era with the US government's retreat from federal energy and environmental...

  7. DDoS Attacks as Political Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbie Fordyce

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to unpack the idea of the automaton as a figure of political dissent within technological networks. The idea of the automaton is that of a body where the concepts of life, agency, and subjectivity are in question; these questions have made the automaton into an important element in the projects of Enlightenment humanism and as an unspoken element in posthumanist examination of the cyborg. The figure of the automaton is an expression of Cartesian mind-body dualism that reverses the idea of cogito ergo sum, by questioning the intentionality that lies behind the acts of another body. The body exists, but does it think? This article is not concerned with the idea of the automaton as an object of transcendental dualism, but rather aims to investigate this idea in terms of its immanence within network communication. The automaton is an idea that deliberately complicates the relationship between machines and individuals within a network, without prioritising either perspective. As Alan Turing shows, we cannot predict whether a computer on a network (or other machine is being used by a human agent, or whether the machine is simply programmed to act autonomously. The issue is then, are the actions of political dissent of a single node on a computer network the product of an independent agent working in tandem within a democratic framework? Or, is it the reverse: are these acts of political dissidence the automated actions of a small number of individuals exploiting systems of automation in order to achieve political goals? If we use the automaton to stand in as a figure that is neither entirely human nor entirely cyborgean, then certain concerns of network politics and assumptions about the democratic nature of network communications become destabilised.

  8. ISLAMIST PARTY, ELECTORAL POLITICS AND DA’WAH MOBILIZATION AMONG YOUTH: The Prosperous Justice Party (PKS in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorhaidi Hasan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS, Partai Keadilan Sejahtera in the electoral democratic system in Indonesia raises a question whether it is possible for a political party with a deeply religious ideology to liberalize and entertain democracy. The decision to enter politics does not infrequently entail an abandonment of ideological purity. It represents an acceptance of the political order and power sharing-based politics. While identity and ideology are instrumental in political mobilization for PKS, it has no choice but to negotiate and interact with other political actors through coalitions and parliamentary politics. A modern party involved in a competitive and rule-based system, it is also required to broaden its electorate and reach out to non-Islamist voters. It is intriguing in this context to explore the party’s strategy to maintain its Islamist platforms and the base of support while allying itself with distinctly non-Islamist ruling elites, and engage in the pragmatic ruling coalition. Understanding the paradoxical roles of an Islamist party when involved in the on-going electoral democratic process, this paper also looks at the future of political Islam in Indonesia.

  9. Indonesia: Nation-building and democratic governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Montobbio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The constitution of a state in democracy and development in what is Indonesia today is just one of the possible stories of History. To explain what has made it possible and what will determine Indonesia’s future and transformations, this paper offers an approach to the structuring axis of Indonesia’s national construction; it also analyses the process that led to the replacing of the political regime established by Sukarno after independence by Suharto’s “New Order”, and its consolidation and crisis, which subsequently led to political transition, then to the present democratic regime in consolidation and to the overcoming of Indonesia’s historical challenges. The paper concludes with an analysis of the current situation and the challenges Indonesia faces in the future.

  10. The Democratizing Effects of Transjudicial Coordination

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    Eyal Benvenisti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There are growing indications that transjudicial dialogue among national courts has increased in recent years and that it has become more routinized. We argue below that this trend is at least partially motivated by the efforts of these courts to: (1 address a 'judicial deficit' that has resulted from the broad transfer of regulatory policy-making authority from the domestic to the international sphere; and (2 curb pro-executive interpretations of regulatory rules on the part of less politically insulated international tribunals. While recognizing the dangers of 'le gouvernement des juges', we suggest that, at least in the short term, the expanded role of national courts can operate to enhance rather than pre-empt domestic political processes and promote accountability to diverse democratic concerns by providing opportunities for national legislatures and civil society to weigh in on matters subject to executive discretion or international regulation.

  11. System Justice: the Key of Political Development in China%制度正义:中国政治发展的关键议题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐皇凤

    2012-01-01

    正义是社会制度的首要原则,实现制度正义是人类政治文明发展的基本目标。在现代社会,缺乏制衡的国家权力和资本权力往往成为威胁自由、民主与法治的压迫性力量。在中国政治发展的特定情势下,有效制衡国家权力与规训资本权力既是确保制度正义的关键,也是转型中国政治发展的关键议题。制度正义的实现,仰赖于一个高度组织化与制度化的现代社会的存在,并在一个开放的民主宪政制度框架中,通过各种政治行动者之间的平等博弈、公共协商和理性妥协而得以保障。%Justice is the essential principle of social system and the fulfillment of system justice is the ultimate goal of human political culture development.In modern society,the state and capital power without balance could be the restrict strength that is harmful to freedom,democracy and law.The key to guarantee system justice and Chinese political development transformation is the balance of state and capital power in current situation.The fulfillment of system justice relys on a modern society that is highly organized and institutionalized,and on an open democratic and constitutional system to ensure through fair play,public deliberation and rational compromise among politicians.

  12. The Networked Democratic Spectator

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kreiss

    2015-01-01

    In this brief essay, I argue that the idea of “social media” is symbolically powerful in the political domain precisely because political actors conflate it broadly with “social relations” and, even more, “public opinion.” To do so, I draw on two recent empirical studies I conducted that analyze social media and contemporary media events. These studies reveal that social media platforms provide unprecedented opportunities for people to participate in political discourse. I argue that politica...

  13. Teaching Democratic Values in the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Marilyn

    The values that are the foundations of the democratic system should be defined, taught, learned, and then put into action in the classroom. The issues associated with teaching values are so complex and controversial that many schools avoid dealing with them. These issues include: (1) teaching about religion; (2) teaching about citizenship and…

  14. The impact of democratic transitions on the representation of women in the national parliaments of southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, van W.M.J.; Maloka, E.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter examines what democratic transition in the 1990s has meant for women in southern Africa. It focuses in particular on the impact of democratization processes on political participation by women, notably women's representation in parliament in Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius,

  15. The impact of democratic transitions on the representation of women in the national parliaments of southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, van W.M.J.; Maloka, E.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter examines what democratic transition in the 1990s has meant for women in southern Africa. It focuses in particular on the impact of democratization processes on political participation by women, notably women's representation in parliament in Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius,

  16. Democratic Deliberations in the Finnish Elementary Classroom: The Dilemmas of Deliberations and the Teacher's Role in an Action Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammi, Tuure

    2013-01-01

    Finnish youth are found to be, despite their broad knowledge, uninterested in politics and in societal participation. As a remedy, international studies suggest enabling democratic experiences in schools. This article discusses an action research project aimed at developing deliberation-based democratic practice in an elementary classroom. Results…

  17. Theory of Systems and Social-Political Realities of Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Annikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the process of forming the theory of systems as a scientific paradigm of social-humanitarian cognition. Focusing their attention on the interpretations of the structural composition of a political system, the authors analyze the relations between the state and the citizens of modern Russia, the actually effective mechanisms of interaction between the authorities and public associations.

  18. The Rise of China’s Middle Class and Prospects for Democratization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    David Zweig whose survey portrays Chinese in China, Taiwan and Hong Kong preferring democracy.15 The survey, however, only addresses the rural...15 David Zweig , Democratic Values, Political Structures, and Alternative Politics in Greater China (Washington D.C.: United...state intervention.82 78 Potter, 21. 79 Zweig , 39. 80 Sue Williams. “China in the Red,” Front Line

  19. 中东欧民主化与市场化关系初探%A Primary Study of Relations between Democratization and Marketization in Central & Eastern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高歌

    2014-01-01

    In Central & Eastern Europe, the democratization and marketization are in a malignant interactive relationship when both of them are caught in difficult positions. Marketization during political unrest and democratization under economic recession bring adverse effects to each other and intensify difficulties for each other. However, the two sides have a benign interaction when both democratization and marketization processes are in smooth development. The higher degree of democratization and marketization makes the two sides promote each other and makes them step forward together. Therefore, generally speaking, countries with fast democratization, solid democratic systems and stable political situation have a faster pace of marketization, a more mature market economy and more rapid economic development. In addition to the compatibility between democratic systems and market economies, the positive relationship between the democratization and marketization of Central & Eastern Europe also benefits from the regulating and driving functions of the European Union.%中东欧国家的民主化与市场化遭遇困境时呈恶性互动关系,政治动荡中的市场化和经济衰退中的民主化给彼此带来不利影响,加剧各自的困难;民主化与市场化发展顺畅时呈良性互动关系,民主化和市场化程度越高,越是相互促进,共同进步。因此,民主化进度较快、民主制度较为巩固、政局较为稳定的国家一般也是市场化步子较大、市场经济较为成熟、经济发展较为迅速的国家。中东欧国家民主化与市场化的这种正相关关系得益于民主制度与市场经济之间的兼容性,更得益于欧盟在其中所起的规范和推动作用。

  20. The political reference point: How geography shapes political identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Tullett, Alexa M.; Mensch, Zachary; Hart, William; Gottlieb, Sara

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that how individuals identify on the political spectrum–whether liberal, conservative, or moderate–has a universal meaning when it comes to policy stances and voting behavior. But, does political identity mean the same thing from place to place? Using data collected from across the U.S. we find that even when people share the same political identity, those in “bluer” locations are more likely to support left-leaning policies and vote for Democratic candidates than those in “redder” locations. Because the meaning of political identity is inconsistent across locations, individuals who share the same political identity sometimes espouse opposing policy stances. Meanwhile, those with opposing identities sometimes endorse identical policy stances. Such findings suggest that researchers, campaigners, and pollsters must use caution when extrapolating policy preferences and voting behavior from political identity, and that animosity toward the other end of the political spectrum is sometimes misplaced. PMID:28207906

  1. The Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte

    identities. Politics of empowerment has to do with the agency and mobilisation dimension of social and political change. The title of the book "Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment" address the leitmotiv: namely to discuss plussumgame between politics of inclusion and politics of empowerment......The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... theproductive/innovative linkage of politics of redistributuin and politics og resognition, whnich over a longer time span creates sustainable paths of democratic and social development, which increases the capacity to handle both conflicts about economic resources and life-chances and conflicts about...

  2. Democratic citizenship vs. national identity: the political rights of foreigners in Spain / Ciudadanía democrática vs. identidad nacional: los derechos políticos de los extranjeros en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Durán Ayago

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between sovereignty-people-nationality-citizenship should be revised. Democratic citizenship, only valid in the 21st century concept implies that all people, regardless of their origin, could have direct involvement in the affairs of public life that concerns you. In Spain, this right only possessed by citizens of the European Union in local elections and the European Parliament, and nationals of the 12 countries with which Spain has signed agreements, and only for exercising the right to vote in elections municipal. This means that in the upcoming municipal elections of May 2015, only 15% of non-national EU foreigners residing in our country may exercise the right to vote.

  3. Members of Parliament on Facebook: Towards an Understanding of the Pros and Cons of Online Political Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    at political party meetings and at public meetings and hearings. However, the rise of new social media like Facebook provides new, interesting platforms for these conversations—and many opinion makers and scholars have high expectations for their democratic potential. This chapter examines what happens when...... as experienced by the MPs. The paper builds on a former quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities between Danish MPs and their followers on Facebook (Sørensen 2016).......Key to the idea of a democratic public sphere has always been the ongoing conversations among citizens and between citizens and politicians (Koch, Mansbridge, Habermas, etc.). The conversations between politicians and citizens in the Danish political system have traditionally taken place...

  4. The political economy of dominant investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    2004-01-01

    We allow the preference of a political majority to determine both the corporate governance structure and the division of profits between human and financial capital. In a democratic society where financial wealth is concentrated, a political majority may prefer to restrain governance by dispersed eq

  5. Political Activism: Post-communist Challenges and Opportunities in East Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Iancu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to standard narratives on the declining function of parties in fostering political participation, this article argues that far from abandoning the cause of participation, post-communist political parties diversified the understanding of the party as a mobilizing agency by adapting their internal organizations. On the basis of a mid-range number of cases (e.g. Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia the study identified different patterns of evolution within a complex interaction effect between participation and organizational development. The peculiarity of the parties’ organization and functions has shaped political participation both as an opportunity structure (legitimizing the political system and increasing citizens’ involvement in politics and as a democratic challenge (increasing the pro-pensity of parties towards populism, ‘seasonal’ membership, corruption and clientelism.

  6. Reorienting Deliberation: Identity Politics in Multicultural Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Mason

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Many political theorists argue that cross-cultural communication within multicultural democracies is not best served by a commitment to identity politics. In response, I argue that identity politics only interfere with democratic participation according to an erroneous interpretation of the relationship between identity and reasoning. I argue that recognizing the importance of identity to the intelligibility of reasons offered in the context of civic deliberation is the first step towards the kind of dialogue that democratic participation requires.


  7. Political Consensus and Fiscal Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming difficult to maintain consensus in a period of economic austerity, and this possibly challenges the ability of democratic institutions to take decisions on tough economic questions. In order to find out how political consensus influences fiscal outcomes, this article sets out...

  8. Aesthetics, Affect, and Educational Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a…

  9. Political Parody and Public Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Parody and related forms of political humor are essential resources for sustaining democratic public culture. They do so by exposing the limits of public speech, transforming discursive demands into virtual images, setting those images before a carnivalesque audience, and celebrating social leveling while decentering all discourses within the…

  10. Political Parody and Public Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Parody and related forms of political humor are essential resources for sustaining democratic public culture. They do so by exposing the limits of public speech, transforming discursive demands into virtual images, setting those images before a carnivalesque audience, and celebrating social leveling while decentering all discourses within the…

  11. Integral Politics as Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Atlee

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the definition proposed here, integral politics can be a process of integrating diverse perspectives into wholesome guidance for a community or society. Characteristics that follow from this definition have ramifications for understanding what such political processes involve. Politics becomes integral as it transcends partisan battle and nurtures generative conversation toward the common good. Problems, conflicts and crises become opportunities for new (or renewed social coherence. Conversational methodologies abound that can help citizen awareness temporarily expand during policy-making, thus helping raise society’s manifested developmental stage. Convening archetypal stakeholders or randomly selected citizens in conversations designed to engage the broader public enhances democratic legitimacy. With minimal issue- and candidate-advocacy, integral political leaders would develop society’s capacity to use integral conversational tools to improve its health, resilience, and collective intelligence. This both furthers and manifests evolution becoming conscious of itself.

  12. Political economy. On the endogeneity of political preferences: evidence from individual experience with democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Schündeln, Nicola; Schündeln, Matthias

    2015-03-06

    Democracies depend on the support of the general population, but little is known about the determinants of this support. We investigated whether support for democracy increases with the length of time spent under the system and whether preferences are thus affected by the political system. Relying on 380,000 individual-level observations from 104 countries over the years 1994 to 2013, and exploiting individual-level variation within a country and a given year in the length of time spent under democracy, we find evidence that political preferences are endogenous. For new democracies, our findings imply that popular support needs time to develop. For example, the effect of around 8.5 more years of democratic experience corresponds to the difference in support for democracy between primary and secondary education.

  13. 27 Mayıs Darbesi Sonrası Celal Bayar ve Eski Demokrat Partililerin Türk Siyasi Hayatına Etkileri Ss, 2585-2598 The Effects of Celal Bayar and Former-Democratic Party Members on Turkish Political Life After the Coup of 27th May

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim YALANSIZ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Coup of 27th May 1960 was made against the Democratic Partygovernment. Other actors of the multi-party political life in Turkey,such as Republican Peoples Party and Republican Peasants’ NationParty were keeping its position, Democratic Party was officially bannedby the new regime. After the coup, 500 members of the party, includingex-prime ministers, ministers, parliamentarians and officials werearrested. A new court named Supreme Court of Justice wasestablished. After a year of prosecution process, Supreme Court ofJustice sentenced these members ranging from life imprisonment todeath penalty. The ex-president and the ministers who were sentencedto life imprisonment and death penalty were all pardoned after theheavy pressures of the Democratic Party electorates. The need for astabilization and the political anticipations of the new parties alsoplayed an important role on this decision. Some of them was freedbefore because of their health problems. After gaining their freedom,these politicians struggled for their political rights and fought to gettheir reestablishments. Although these politicians were all freed fromtheir penalties, they were also banned from any politicial activities, suchas membership to parties and participation in elections. They also werebanned from doing their previous jobs. At the end they got their rightsafter the reconciliation of the government and the opposition. With thenegative effects of 12th March 1971 and 12th September 1980 events,this process turned into a very harsh one. Former Democratic Partymembers at that time initiated to form their ex-party again. By doingthis they also wanted to establish the center-right policy again inTurkey. They were unsuccessful at this initiative because of the newand powerful parties of that time, most of which were founded by theex-Democrats, and their supporters from the young generations. In thisarticle, the struggle of the ex-Democrats will be evaluated. 27 Mayıs darbesi

  14. Democratic Parenting: Paradoxical Messages in Democratic Parent Education Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Shlomit; Gastil, John

    2013-01-01

    Some prominent parent education theories in the United States and other Western countries base their educational viewpoint explicitly on democratic values, such as mutual respect, equality and personal freedom. These democratic parenting theories advocate sharing power with children and including them in family decision making. This study presents…

  15. Estonian Political Parties in the mid-2010s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanko Dmitry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an analysis of political party system of the Republic of Estonia in the mid-2010s. The analysis is based on the works of Moris Duverger. As one might expect, the establishment of proportionate electoral system in Estonia has resulted in the formation of a multi-party system, in which no single party dominates in the parliament even in a short run. The article demonstrates that though Estonian political party system develops in line with the tendencies typical to political party systems of most European countries, some of its elements are more common to postcommunist countries. It indicates that the political party system in Estonia has stabilized throughout the past decade. Today, five sixths of voters support one of the four main political parties. A minority of voters does not consider any of the four dominant parties as a representative of their interests; thus, they vote for parties that had not been previously represented in the parliament. This allowed for two minor political parties to pass into the parliament at 2015 elections: the Estonian Conservative People’s Party, and Free Party. In the long run the minor parties will be able to keep parliamentary seats depending on their ability to build coalitions, either with the three governing parties — Reform Party, Pro Patria and Republic Union, and Social-Democratic Party, or with opposition Centre Party. The article considers the impact of the split in the Estonian society between ethnic Estonians and Russophonic people on political party system. It demonstrates that the majority of Russophonic voters in Estonia support the Centre Party, every major political party in the country has its Russophonic voters, while Estonian United Left Party, which promotes itself as a particular representative of the country’s Russophonic minority, remains a marginal political force.

  16. FEATURES OF THE SOCIO-POLITICAL PROCESS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Evgenevna Beydina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the study of political and social developments of the USA at the present stage. There are four stages of the American tradition of studying political processes. The first stage is connected with substantiation of the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches of political system (works of F. Pollack and R. Sili. The second one includes behavioral studies of politics. Besides studying political processes Charles Merriam has studied their similarities and differences. The third stage is characterized by political system studies – the works of T. Parsons, D. Easton, R. Aron, G. Almond and K. Deutsch. The fourth stage is characterized by superpower and the systems democratization problem (S. Huntington, Zb. Bzhezinsky. American social processes were qualified by R. Park, P. Sorokin, E. Giddens. The work is concentrated on the divided explanation of social and political processes of the us and the reflection of unity of American social-political reality. Academic novelty is composed of substantiation of the US social-political process concept and characterization of its features. The US social-political process is characterized by two channels: soft power and aggression. Soft power appears in the US economy dominancy. The main results of the research are features of the socio-political process in the United States. Purpose: the main goal of the research is to systematize the definition of social-political process of the USA and estimate the line of its study within American political tradition. Methodology: in this article have used methods: such as system, comparison and historical analysis, structural-functional analysis. Results: during the research the analysis of the dynamics of social and political processes of the United States had been made. Practical implications it is expedient to apply the received results in the international relation theory and practice.

  17. Politics for cities, cities for the political. About possibility (and necessity of radical urban politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Marzec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Essay faces the problem of determinacy of global capitalism processes for the reality of urban political life. The city is naturally communitarian form of human life and seems to be the place where radical pro-community politics could be undertaken. Already existing and operating forms of power could fruitfully influence the city social relations. Values and norms of conduct are broadly delegated on the urban space and materiality, thus conscious shaping of city space has severe consequences for community life. If a crisis of the political partly has its roots in metamorphoses of the cities, then also remedies, rising from the urban materiality and reestablishing political subjects, could be thought. City, as most real place of political life could be either reduced to the aggregate of consumers or reestablished as a political community. Due to this is the place where undesired course of action could be stopped, hence precisely here the radical democratic politics can emerge.

  18. Political Correctness and the System of Education: Selected Examples and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Rojek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing political correctness in the context of education. Political correctness has already been widely studied and commented on; however, the phenomenon has received surprisingly little attention in relation to schooling and, particularly, teachers. In the Polish system of education, political correctness is manifest first of all in the overt policy applied by people in charge of education, who refrain from using terminology of e.g. “free market,” “commercial value,” “product,” “competition,” or “profit,” which could be unfavourably received or assessed by teachers. It turns out that political correctness, though founded upon proper assumptions and ideally contributing to common good, can be incorrectly understood or used for political purposes, and thus lose its initial sense, thwart communication between politicians and teachers and hinder their mutual understanding or even render it impossible. This paper attempts to reveal yet another set of conditions, this time the language-related ones, in which contemporary teachers work.

  19. The political undertones of building national health research systems – reflections from The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch Paul

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In developing countries building national health research systems is a movement similar to a political leadership contest. Increasingly, political campaigns to select leaders depend less on ideologies and political messages and more on promising change that will promptly improve the quality of life of the voters. In this process the benefits and risks of every action and statement made by the candidates are carefully assessed. Approaches currently promoted to strengthen health research within ministries of health in developing countries place emphasis on implementing logical steps towards building national health research systems including developing a national health research policy and strategic plan, conducting a situational analysis of research in the country, setting a national health research agenda, establishing research ethics and scientific committees, and building human and institutional capacity for health research management and conduct. Although these processes have successfully improved the standards of health research in some settings, many developing countries struggle to get the process going. One reason is that this approach does not deal with basic questions posed within a ministry of health, namely, "What is the political benefit of the ministry assuming control of the process?" and "What are the political implications for the ministry if another institution spearheads the process?" Seen from the perspective of non-governmental organizations, academic institutions and donors trying to support the processes of strengthening national health research systems, one of the foremost activities that needs to be undertaken is to analyze the political context of national health research and, on that basis, plan and implement appropriate political health research advocacy initiatives. This includes the development of explicit messages on the political benefits to the leadership in the ministry of health of their role in the

  20. Global Warming and the Political Ecology of Health: Emerging Crisis and Systemic Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Kate Smith

    2012-01-01

    Review of Global Warming and the Political Ecology of Health: Emerging Crisis and Systemic Solutions. Hans Baer and Merrill Singer. 2008. Left Coast Press, Inc., Walnut Creek, CA. Pp. 238. $32.95 (paperback). ISBN 978-1-59874-354-8.

  1. Entrepreneurial environmental management model of marketing in a political-administrative system of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadchenko Olena Vasylivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with proposals for entrepreneurial model of environmental management, in particular environmental marketing in modern political and administrative systems. In the context of the complexity of the social structure, forming a dense network of communications, globalization, cultural and economic-ecological space offers new mechanisms for the relationship between the state and civil society in environmental management.

  2. The Role of Politics and Governance in Educational Accountability Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Killeen, Kieran M.; Welsh, Richard O.

    2013-01-01

    This brief utilizes case study methodology to illustrate the role of governance in educational accountability systems. Most research on the effectiveness of such systems has focused on technical components, such as standards-setting, assessments, rewards and sanctions, and data collection and reporting. This brief seeks to demonstrate that this…

  3. Cursed Resources? Political Conditions and Oil Market Outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert E. Metcalf; Catherine Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    We analyze how a country's political institutions affect oil production within its borders. We find a pronounced negative relationship between political openness and volatility in oil production, with democratic regimes exhibiting less volatility than more autocratic regimes. This relationship holds across a number of robustness checks including using different measures of political conditions, instrumenting for political conditions and using several measures of production volatility. Politic...

  4. Peoples Democratic Party in the Fourth Republic of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Mukhtar Katsina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Their nature and functions make political parties central to democratic governance especially in the new democracies of Africa that face the challenge of building strong and enduring democratic institutions. It is accepted that the existing trend in most of these democracies of one big party dominating the political space weakens democracy and undermines its prospects for consolidation. Big parties—usually the ruling ones—exhibit tendencies such as absence of internal democracy that are antithetical to democratic governance. While observations such as these are incontestable, there is little understanding into the nature, character, ideology, and internal structure of big parties generally. In this article, I attempt to address this concern. Specifically, I examine the nature, structure, and ideology of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP, Nigeria’s ruling party at the federal level with considerable strength at local level between 1999 and 2015. Relying on data obtained from multiple sources, I investigate the process of its formation, the nature of its ideology, internal organization, its electoral strength, and how absence of internal democracy contributed significantly to its defeat in 2015 general elections.

  5. Effects of untreated hospital effluents on the accumulation of toxic metals in sediments of receiving system under tropical conditions: case of South India and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubedi, Josué Ilunga; Devarajan, Naresh; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mputu, John Kayembe; Atibu, Emmanuel K; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mpiana, Pius T; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2013-10-01

    Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses have been performed to assess the quality of sediments receiving untreated hospital effluents from Indian and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) hospitals. The sediments were collected monthly and characterized for grain size, organic matter, total organic carbon, total carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, toxic metals and ecotoxicity. The results highlight the high concentration of toxic metals from the Indian hospital effluent receiving systems, especially for Cr, Cu, As, Zn and Hg. On the other hand, the metal concentrations in the sediment receiving system from DRC are low (e.g. maximum Hg and Zn concentration were 0.46 and 48.84 mg kg(-1) respectively). Ostracods exposed to sediment samples H2 (September month sample) and H3 (June and September month samples) were found dead after 6d of exposure whereas the higher mortality rate for Congo sediments was 23% but was accompanied with 33 ± 7% of growth inhibition. The results of this study show the variation of sediment composition on toxic metal levels as well as toxicity related to both, the type of hospitals and the sampling period. Additionally, hospital effluent disposal practices at the study sites can lead to the pollution of water resources and may generate risks for aquatic organisms and human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Style and Architecture in a Democratic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain de Bleeckere

    2012-11-01

    the first modern, democratic state. The second reflection dwells on the only consistent democratic philosophy of the 20th century, that of John Dewey. His concept of creative democracy is relevant to educate the 'democratic consciousness' of young architects. It is further assumed that thinking in such a'democratic way' can help to release architecture from a dogmatic stylistic canon.The third and final step addresses the implications for architectural education. The challenge is the shaping of the student's social and political consciousness via an analysis of historical buildings freed from an encyclopaedic and uncritical approach.

  7. Howard Zinn on Democratic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Howard

    2004-01-01

    Perhaps no other historian has had a more profound and revolutionary impact on American education than Howard Zinn. This is the first book devoted to his views on education and its role in a democratic society. "Howard Zinn on Democratic Education" describes what is missing from school textbooks and in classrooms--and how we move beyond these…

  8. Optical network democratization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejabati, Reza; Peng, Shuping; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-06

    The current Internet infrastructure is not able to support independent evolution and innovation at physical and network layer functionalities, protocols and services, while at same time supporting the increasing bandwidth demands of evolving and heterogeneous applications. This paper addresses this problem by proposing a completely democratized optical network infrastructure. It introduces the novel concepts of the optical white box and bare metal optical switch as key technology enablers for democratizing optical networks. These are programmable optical switches whose hardware is loosely connected internally and is completely separated from their control software. To alleviate their complexity, a multi-dimensional abstraction mechanism using software-defined network technology is proposed. It creates a universal model of the proposed switches without exposing their technological details. It also enables a conventional network programmer to develop network applications for control of the optical network without specific technical knowledge of the physical layer. Furthermore, a novel optical network virtualization mechanism is proposed, enabling the composition and operation of multiple coexisting and application-specific virtual optical networks sharing the same physical infrastructure. Finally, the optical white box and the abstraction mechanism are experimentally evaluated, while the virtualization mechanism is evaluated with simulation.

  9. From Representation to Participation: A More Democratic European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Monica Stoica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes the evolution and characteristics of the democratic process in theEuropean Union from the perspective of political science using the recent theories in this field. Following theentry into force, the Treaty of Lisbon establishes the principle of participatory democracy that puts the focusof the European citizen, a citizen who is actively involved in European Union life, strengthening EU - citizenrelationship. The essence of participatory democracy is the destruction of political apathy and the maximizingof active participation of citizens in the democratic tasks. So, the basic principle of the participatorydemocracy is solidarity. The results of this analysis show that although participatory democracy is establishedin the European law, citizens are less involved in the decision-making in EU and are more and moreindividual, contradicting thus the very foundations of this type of democracy.

  10. The Voice of Exit - Towards a Theory of Democratic Inconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Goli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The international armed conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan are only the most apparent manifestation of the dilemmas that challenge the European liberal democracy. A much more crucial paradox, as far as certain European countries are concerned, is produced by the inertia of the democratic game it self. That is the construction of religious and ethnic affiliation as the very entrance ticket for immigrant populations to political participation. Taking departure in populism as the common denominator for major actors, as well as the characterising feature of the very arena for political competition between elites, e.g. media, the tendency becomes more and more obvious. Based on empirical evidences with Denmark as a critical case, that is both with regard to democracy and participation, this article introduces a “Theoretical proposition of Democratic Inconsistency”, arguing for the emergence of a new development in liberal democracy, addressing a situation characterised by a growing ethnic division of specific European counties.

  11. El discurso político de Adolfo Suárez durante la Transición. Aplicaciones metodológicas / The political discourse of Adolfo Suárez in the process of Democratic Transition. Methodological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pantoja Chaves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente artículo se centra, como primera toma de contacto , en el análisis del discurso político de Adolfo Suárez y de su componente ideológico durante la Transición, dentro del conjunto de las diferentes fuerzas políticas que más protagonismo tuvieron a lo largo de todo el proceso. La coalición de personalidades políticas que se reunieron en torno a la formación de la Unión de Centro Democrático, con la figura destacada del joven presidente Adolfo Suárez, presenta, no ya sólo para aquella época sino en la actualidad, un interés constante como objeto de estudio a partir de nuestro particular análisis metodológico. Summary: The present article concentrates, as an introduction, in the analysis of the political discourse of Adolfo Suárez and his ideological component during the Transition, within the set of the most outstanding political forces throughout the whole process. The coalition of political personalities that gathered in the formation of the Unión de Centro Democrático, with the prominent figure of young president Adolfo Suárez, is, not only for that one time but at present, a constant interest as object of study from our particular methodological analysis.

  12. Social Politics: Agenda Setting and Political Communication on Social Media

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xinxin; Maity, Mrinmoy; Ferrara, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Social media play an increasingly important role in political communication. Various studies investigated how individuals adopt social media for political discussion, to share their views about politics and policy, or to mobilize and protest against social issues. Yet, little attention has been devoted to the main actors of political discussions: the politicians. In this paper, we explore the topics of discussion of U.S. President Obama and the 50 U.S. State Governors using Twitter data and agenda-setting theory as a tool to describe the patterns of daily political discussion, uncovering the main topics of attention and interest of these actors. We examine over one hundred thousand tweets produced by these politicians and identify seven macro-topics of conversation, finding that Twitter represents a particularly appealing vehicle of conversation for American opposition politicians. We highlight the main motifs of political conversation of the two parties, discovering that Republican and Democrat Governors are...

  13. Counter-Democratic Surveillance: The Watchful Eye of a Local Institution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    ). The watchful eyes of counter-democratic organizations are particularly made powerful by the rise of the Internet with its spontaneous adaption of watchful functions. However increased awareness and mistrust have led not to broader participation in traditional liberal institutions but to a greater social...... attention and demand for transparency of information. This paper takes a closer look at dynamics of counter-democratic surveillance from the perspective of a local political institution. The paper reports on a 3-year research project on counter-democratic functions of institutional oversight and organised...

  14. Comparing Adult Learning Systems: An Emerging Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Adult learning systems have come to be dominated by the view that the essential role of adult learning is to generate the high levels of skills deemed necessary for competitiveness and growth in the globalised economy. This 'education gospel' is underpinned by human capital theory (HCT) and its contemporary conceptualisation in terms of…

  15. The Democratic Republic of Congo: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    Seko began in the city of Goma in the mid-1990s. The second rebellion in the late 1990s began also in eastern Congo. The root causes of the current...Democratic Rally (RCD- Goma ), the Movement for the Congolese Liberation (MLC), and representatives of the unarmed political groups. The agreement...from the border until a solution is found. In January 2007, several dozen rebel groups and the DRC government signed the Goma Accord, primarily

  16. Civil-Military relations and democratization in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Berrios, Carlos G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine civil-military relations in Guatemala and their effect on democratic consolidation. The issue of civil- military relations in Guatemala is one of particular importance as political and military leaders as well as members of civil society attempt to redefine the role of the military after 36 years of civil war. Applying Felipe Aguero's theory of civilian supremacy, this thesis argues that since 1982, the Guatemalan military has evolved into a profession...

  17. Democratization in the Gulf Monarchies and American Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, M. Nazrul Islam and Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts made by American private sector and civil society actors after 2000 to popularize democratic values and norms in the six Gulf states, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The study is focused on areas including politics, education, culture, media, human rights, and women empowerment. The paper also deals with approaches adopted, goals and objectives set and strategies devised and employed by the American NGOs regardi...

  18. The rise of China's middle class and prospects for democratization

    OpenAIRE

    Cichon, Frederick A.

    2007-01-01

    Since Deng Xiaoping instituted economic reforms under the "reform and open" policy in 1978, the Chinese Communist Party has overseen a gradualist approach to modernizing China's economy. A new Chinese middle class has emerged with China's economic reforms and economic growth. According to Seymour Martin Lipset's modernization theory, there is a strong relationship between socioeconomic development and the emergence of democratic politics accompanying the growth of an educated middle class...

  19. 政党协商与推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化%Political Consultation and Accelerating the Modernization of National Governance System and Governance Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洪宇

    2014-01-01

    It was stressed in the Report at the 1 8 th National Congress that we shall“enhance the political consultation with the democratic parties”.This is a clearly defined task for us to strengthen the construction of consultative democ-racy system.The writer discussed the importance of consultation between political parties in constructing consultative democracy system and accelerating the modernization of national governance system and governance capability,as well as the current situation and issues of the political party consultation in China.The writer also provided solutions and recommendations on how to strengthen political party consultation and accelerate the modernization of national govern-ance system and governance capability in the future.%当前,加强协商民主制度建设是我国政治建设的一个重要组成部分。党的十八大报告强调,要“加强同民主党派的政治协商”,这就给加强协商民主制度建设提出了明确任务。本文对政党协商在协商民主制度建设、推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化中的地位以及我国政党协商的现状与问题进行了详细论述,并就未来如何加强政党协商、推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化提出了对策与建议。

  20. On the Democratic Recommendation System of Party Recruitment in Colleges%大学生党员发展对象民主推荐机制探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长平

    2011-01-01

    In response to some problems in recruiting Party members among college student,such as lack of comprehensive knowledge of the candidates,inadequate poll and so on,it is proposed that a "five-level recommendation" system be established,namely,recommendations from Party member candidates,student Party members,headteachers,counselors and self-recommendation.Hence the recruitment will be more democratic and the quality of the student Party members will be guaranteed.%针对基层大学生党支部确定发展对象过程中存在的考察不全面、民意表达不充分等现象,可以通过构建入党积极分子推荐、学生党员推荐、班主任推荐、辅导员老师推荐和个人自荐的"五位一体"发展对象推荐模式,使党支部发展党员民主氛围更为浓厚,发展党员的质量得到提升,从而增加群众满意度,密切党群关系,推进基层党支部民主制度建设。

  1. MIND GAMES IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY: THE FUTURE OF THE NATION STATE AND HEGEMONIC SYSTEM CONFLICTS

    OpenAIRE

    YÜCEL, Doç.Dr. Fatih

    2015-01-01

    With the Second World War, the world economic order has been changed from the colonial system to the hegemonic system. In this process, many new nation-states had given struggle for survival post-war in the new world order. Today, led to the culmination of globalization has metamorphosed in the structure of the nation-state. Within the framework of game theory, modern nation-state structure shows significant progress strategic moves in terms of political relations and international economy. I...

  2. Features of transformation of the civil identity in the Russian political process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponedelkov Aleksander Vasilievich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the dynamics of the political process in Russia shows that institutional changes are taking place in the political system. Integration into the world community is accompanied with a request from the Russian society to a civil dialogue with the government, social stability based on democratic principles, the institutionalization of the turnover of the elites. Problems of search of civil identity are caused by the actualization in the public mind the necessity to mobilize the nation on the principles of patriotism, moral revival.

  3. Electoral system of Slovakia: Perspective of political geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuš Roman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than twenty years after fall of communism Slovakia has experienced unprecedented fall of electoral turnout. It is important to look into the problem of how low turnout may impact ability to get elected in different stages of elections. In the past, there were problems with gerrymandering. This article follows how Slovakia was able to deal with the biggest flaw of its electoral system of the past and investigates its problems today. The article gives a short historical overview of the elections in the region of Slovakia. The stress of the article is on the analysis of the official electoral results of 3 stages of elections to parliament, self-governing regions and municipalities. As electoral systems within the different stages of elections are varied, it is necessary to give an overview on that as well. Analysis of the data will be in the years 1990- 2013 with stress on the years 2001-2013. All input data has been provided by the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. If low voter turnout combined with mobilization of extremists or dissatisfied electorate it may result in election of extremists into office like in Banská Bystrica self-governing region in the 2013 elections.

  4. Democracy, development, and career trajectories of former political leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Baturo, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    One of the obstacles to democratic development is the reluctance of political leaders to leave office. This paper argues that alongside democratic constraints and accountability, leaders’ career concerns — specifically, the possibility of post-tenure careers — is an important factor behind their rotation in office. While literature exists about leaders’ exit and fate, we lack a systematic understanding of their careers and whether former rulers retire, remain in politics, pursue civil service...

  5. Political tolerance in Serbia and Europe: Social and psychological roots

    OpenAIRE

    Todosijević Bojan

    2008-01-01

    Tolerance of political opponents is one of the basic preconditions of a democratic society. Empirical research, however, typically reveals low levels of tolerance even in societies with long democratic tradition. This paper presents a comparative study of the sources of individual differences in the degree of political tolerance in Europe, with special reference to Serbia. According to Sullivan et al.'s theory (Sullivan et al. 1979, 53-55), socio-demographic factors are decisive for the choic...

  6. Political Transmigrants: Rethinking Hmong Political Activism in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengher N. Vang, Ph.D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial resettlement of the Hmong in the United States in the mid-1970s, they have maintained strong political and military relationships with the Lao People‘s Democratic Republic (LPDR. Yet, there is little research on that relationship and the involvement of the Hmong in the United States in political developments in Laos. Most works on Hmong political activism have focused on the electoral participation and representation of Hmong Americans in relation to American domestic politics. In this article, using archival, ethnographic, and interview data that I have collected between 2006 and 2009 in Laos, Thailand, and the United States, I describe and analyze the non-domestic or transnational form of Hmong American political expression and participation. I argue that Hmong political activism in America not only was transnational from the outset, but that their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government also had a significant impact on their ethnic politics. Many Hmong political activists made their entry into ethnic politics through the door of transnational politics, and many were motivated by transnational political issues to participate in domestic American politics. By exploring their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government, we get a more complete and dynamic understanding of Hmong political activism in the United States than is possible by focusing exclusively on domestic and electoral participation. Examining their transnational politics also allows us to see the transnationality of not only their culture, identity, and community but also that of their political activities and aspirations.

  7. Development of Citizens’ Political Participation in Local Administration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Çukurçayır

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of modern local governments in Turkey was laid with an imperial edict in 1839. This reform also called Gulhane Hatt-i Hümayunu or Tanzimat Edict, paved the way for local and regional councils. Since the 1850s, the municipalities have been established. However, it is not possible to talk about the functionality of these municipalities in current terms. Since the proclamation of the Turkish Republic, modern laws regulating local governments were issued. Village Law and Municipal Law are the first examples of these reformations. With the 1961 Constitution, modern participatory local government approach was adopted and mayors began to be elected directly by people for the first time. From 1960 to present, many local government reforms were made, but none of them were so fundamental as in 2012. With this reform, local government system has completely changed. Aim of this study is investigation of results of this reform and find out needs for a new wave of reform. New Metropolitan Municipalities Law is problematic in terms of local governance and local participation. Although European Charter of Local Self-Government and the European Urban Charter paying special importance to citizen’s participation, last developments in Turkey as a European Union candidate continues in the opposite direction. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss all aspects of the new regulation. So that, field researches will be analyzed and recommendations will be presented in the light of these field studies relevant to the reforms.

  8. Smallholder pig production systems along a periurban-rural gradient in the Western provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bienvenu Kambashi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, pigs are raised almost exclusively by smallholders either in periurban areas of major cities such as Kinshasa or in rural villages. Unfortunately, little information is available regarding pig production in the Western part of the DRC, wherefore a survey was carried out to characterize and compare 319 pig production systems in their management and feeding strategies, along a periurban - rural gradient inWestern provinces of the DRC. Pig breeding was the main source of income (43% and half of respondents were active in mixed pig and crop production, mainly vegetable garden. Depending on the location, smallholders owned on average 18 pigs, including four sows. Piglet mortality rate varied from 9.5 to 21.8% while average weaned age ranged between 2.2 and 2.8 months. The major causes of mortality reported by the farmers were African swine fever 98 %, swine erysipelas (60 %, erysipelas trypanosomiasis (31 %, swine worm infection (17 %, and diarrhoea (12 %. The majority of the pigs were reared in pens without free roaming and fed essentially with locally available by-products and forage plants whose nature varied according with the location of the farm. The pig production systems depended on the local environment; particularly in terms of workforces, herd structure and characteristics, production parameters, pig building materials, selling price and in feed resources. It can be concluded that an improvement of Congolese pig production systems should consider (1 a reduction of inbreeding, (2 an improvement in biosafety to reduce the incidence of African swine fever and the spread of other diseases, and (3 an improvement in feeding practices.

  9. On New Beginnings and Democratic Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Larsen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to discuss the enigma of revolutionary new political beginnings of constitutional orders. The problem is that when a political community is constituted, the act of constituting per definition is unconstitutional or extra-legal. For this reason the question of new beginnings is a political and not a legal question. The question of what the authority of the constituent act is presents an important question since the constitution is the fundamental law from which the legitimacy or authority of all other laws is derived. The problem for this paper is whether and in what way it is possible to think new beginnings that are not merely institutionalizations of factual relations of domination or arbitrary acts of violence. This problem is discussed on basis of two revolutionary theories in the tradition of constituent power—Emmanuel Sieyès and Hannah Arendt—that both understand power to emanate from below and not from above whereby they both, though in different way, present arguments against the understanding that new beginnings merely are institutionalizations of relations of domination and arbitrary acts of violence. The question of whether and to what extent they are successful and whether their theories are democratic will finally be discussed.

  10. Minority representation in a semi-democratic regime: the Georgian case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zollinger, Daniel; Bochsler, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Guinea, Tanzania, Gabon, Kenya, Mauritania, and Congo (Brazzaville). This article highlights the impact of the electoral system and the importance of political plurality and electoral district design in such contexts. The article argues that the interests of minorities are best protected if they can......This article suggests that in most semi-democracies, the same solution might not be that favourable to minorities. Many semi-democratic countries either restrict party competition or limit parties of ethnic minorities, including: Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kirgistan, Cameron, Equatorial...... elect their representatives in small, ethnically homogeneous electoral districts. Plurality or majority voting systems offer minorities the possibility to run with independent candidates. The case study in this article elections to municipal councils in Georgia in 2006 under a mixed electoral system...

  11. Democratic Quality in Stable Democracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijphart, Arend

    2011-02-01

    The major predecessor to Ringen's and my own efforts to measure democratic quality in terms of the purpose of democracy is Robert Dahl's seminal book Polyarchy (1971). Measuring the quality of democracy requires two prior judgments: (1) making sure that, in terms of institutional characteristics, a country is sufficiently democratic, and that, as a minimum, it has universal suffrage, and (2) that its democracy has been uninterrupted for a minimum number of years. To an important extent, higher democratic quality can be attributed to institutional characteristics of consensus democracy, especially proportional representation.

  12. Adult education for democratic citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The research literature review was designed as the foundation for the investigation of what is know about how adults can achieve competencies relevant for democratic citizenship in various European countries, what type of educational interventions have proven effective in this regards and how educational......The report presents, in brief, the findings from the study of research literature on Adult Education for Democratic Citizenship, which was carried out in the nine EU member states represented by the project: Austria, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Spain and United Kingdom...... policy intervene in the field of Adult Education for Democratic Citizenship....

  13. Foucault's Political Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    If one reads Michel Foucault "backward," so to speak, one can sense the contours of a "big narrative" of "the political" which is founded on the claim that "Where there is obedience there cannot be parrhesia" (Foucault, 2011, p. 336). What Foucault is doing with this sentence is breaking the circle...... between representation of the multitude and obedience as the political means of creating unity. He is no longer just problematizing how "We the People" and its "free individuals" are constructed in, and through, the exercise of disciplinary subjection. He is moving into a recoding enterprise, starting...... from showing how obedience is incompatible with a politics of truth. The unity created by centralized domination, he holds, is democratically "false," however legitimate it may be. There can be no real democracy where laypeople are commanded to hand over their capacity and right to govern themselves...

  14. Health system strengthening in Myanmar during political reforms: perspectives from international agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso-Gill, Isabelle; McKee, Martin; Coker, Richard; Piot, Peter; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2014-07-01

    Myanmar has undergone a remarkable political transformation in the last 2 years, with its leadership voluntarily transitioning from an isolated military regime to a quasi-civilian government intent on re-engaging with the international community. Decades of underinvestment have left the country underdeveloped with a fragile health system and poor health outcomes. International aid agencies have found engagement with the Myanmar government difficult but this is changing rapidly and it is opportune to consider how Myanmar can engage with the global health system strengthening (HSS) agenda. Nineteen semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with representatives from international agencies working in Myanmar to capture their perspectives on HSS following political reform. They explored their perceptions of HSS and the opportunities for implementation. Participants reported challenges in engaging with government, reflecting the disharmony between actors, economic sanctions and barriers to service delivery due to health system weaknesses and bureaucracy. Weaknesses included human resources, data and medical products/infrastructure and logistical challenges. Agencies had mixed views of health system finance and governance, identifying problems and also some positive aspects. There is little consensus on how HSS should be approached in Myanmar, but much interest in collaborating to achieve it. Despite myriad challenges and concerns, participants were generally positive about the recent political changes, and remain optimistic as they engage in HSS activities with the government.

  15. Democratic parenting: paradoxical messages in democratic parent education theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Shlomit; Gastil, John

    2013-06-01

    Some prominent parent education theories in the United States and other Western countries base their educational viewpoint explicitly on democratic values, such as mutual respect, equality and personal freedom. These democratic parenting theories advocate sharing power with children and including them in family decision making. This study presents a textual analysis of two such theories, the Adlerian model of parent education and the Parent Effectiveness Training (PET) model, as they are embodied in two original bestselling textbooks. Through content and argumentation analysis of these influential texts, this study examines the paradoxes inherent in these two theories when they articulate how to implement fully democratic principles within the parent-child relationship. We discover that in spite of their democratic rationale, both books offer communication practices that guide the child to modify misbehaviour, enforce parental power, and manipulate the child to make decisions that follow parental judgment, and thus do not endorse the use of a truly democratic parenting style. We suggest, as an alternative to the democratic parenting style, that parents be introduced to a guardianship management style, in which they do not share authority with children, but seek opportunities for enabling children to make more autonomous decisions and participate in more family decision making.

  16. Trace metals and persistent organic pollutants in sediments from river-reservoir systems in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): Spatial distribution and potential ecotoxicological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Thevenon, Florian; Birane, Niane; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Grandjean, Dominique; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses the occurrence and spatial distribution of metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs: including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from a river-reservoir system. Surface sediments were sampled from thirteen sites of the Congo River Basin and Lake Ma Vallée, both situated in the vicinity of the capital city Kinshasa (Congo Democratic Republic). Sediment qualities were evaluated using toxicity test based on exposing Ostracods to the sediment samples. The highest metal concentrations were observed in sediments subjected to anthropogenic influences, urban runoff and domestic and industrial wastewaters, discharge into the Congo River basin. Ostracods exposed to the sediments resulted in 100% mortality rates after 6d of incubation, indicating the ultimate toxicity of these sediments as well as potential environmental risks. The POPs and PAHs levels in all sediment samples were low, with maximum concentration found in the sediments (area of pool Malebo): OCP value ranged from 0.02 to 2.50 with ∑OCPs: 3.3μgkg(-1); PCB ranged from 0.07 to 0.99 with Total PCBs (∑7×4.3): 15.31μgkg(-1); PAH value ranged from 0.12 to 9.39 with ∑PAHs: 63.89μgkg(-1). Our results indicate that the deterioration of urban river-reservoir water quality result mainly from urban stormwater runoff, untreated industrial effluents which discharge into the river-reservoirs, human activities and uncontrolled urbanization. This study represents useful tools incorporated to evaluate sediment quality in river-reservoir systems which can be applied to similar aquatic environments.

  17. Political strike. Viability analysis in the legal system of the Republic of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Goldstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several motivations have led unionized workers to exercise this fundamental right recognized under Article 57 of the Constitution of the Republic of Uruguay. This right has been the subject doctrine discussions by legal scholars when strikes are considered atypical. In this paper, the viability of strikes when they are motivated by politics is discussed, as well as the response of the national legal system to this phenomenon.

  18. Civil Society, Democratic Space, and Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelmani Jaysawal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Civil Society envisages the growth of civilization in a way that the society is in “civilized form.” It has been prominent in Social science since time immemorial. Till 18th century, it was synonymous with the state or political society. It was more or less direct translation of Cicero’s Societas’ Civilis and Aristotle’s Koinonia politike. According to Karl Marx, “Civil Society embraces the whole material intercourse of individuals within a definite stage of development of productive forces.” Civil Society is an arena where modern man legitimately gratifies his self-interest and develops his individuality, but also learns the value of group action, social solidarity which educates him for citizenship and equips him to participate in the political sphere of the state. It provides “networks of civic engagement” within which reciprocity is learned and enforced, trust is generated. An active and diverse civil society plays a valuable role in advancement of democracy. It seeks to ensure that citizen’s interests are taken seriously. The social work intervention may not be democratically envisaged until it is promulgated by civic engagement through Civil Society. Methodology: This is a descriptive study which consists of secondary source of data collection based on reports, books, periodic journals, web-based articles. There have been utilized three case studies for reaching the findings of study. This article will highlight on role of civil society in providing democratic space and assisting social workers to ensure inclusive growth through conglomeration of state and individuals.

  19. A felicidade da política: ou sobre a importância de a política democrática se rejuvenescer (The importance of the rejuvenation of democratic politics - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n27p937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leno Francisco Danner

    2012-10-01

    that each individual achieves their happiness correlatively in the promotion of the welfare of others. A reconsideration of the policy as an ethos that allows us to be happy and achieve the accomplishment as citizens is extremely important in today`s society in which political corruption, authoritarianism and paternalism discredit politics and tend to  depart the political institutions of the average citizen, thus fomenting civil privatism and undermining the democratic process and its effectiveness. Key-Words: Democracy; Politics; Happiness; Corruption; Authoritarianism 

  20. Analysis on the Cultivation of Modern Chinese Farmers’ Values from the Perspective of Traditional Political Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwen; Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Farmers in traditional China have formed the cultural psychology of being reluctant to move from native land and hate to change during the long- term closed production and life. This has exerted negative effect on the values cultivation of farmers today,who possess weak democratic consciousness,low legal spirit and cultural quality as well as strong antagonistic psychology. Measures should be carried out to cultivate their modern values. Firstly,construction of villagers’ self-governance system should be stressed. Secondly,political socialization should be perfected to improve farmers’ political culture. Furthermore,channels of political participation should be widened in order to gradually promote the ordered political participation of farmers.

  1. 'Submission': Ambiguity, hypocrisy and misanthropy in Michel Houellebecq's imaginary politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Sørensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    to Houellebecq’s book as contesting the political thought-practices mapping the ideological landscape in contemporary Europe from below. The paper pays special attention to the ambiguity in Houellebecq’s criticism of Islamism and nationalism, his portrayal of the hypocrisy of liberal democrats and his...... misanthropy as regards the role of democratic citizens in future politics. The paper also questions whether the satirical point of view that Houellebecq adopts constitutes an adequate point of departure for invigorating democratic imaginations. The argument is that the kind of negative ideological diagnosis...

  2. Democratic learning in the Aalborg Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    reaching the learning outcomes, the technical and professional knowledge and insight. In principle the participants must be equal with equal rights and feel committed to the values of rationality and impartiality. The Aalborg Model is an example of a democratic learning system although not 100% democratic....... The influence of the students in relation to their own learning is not extended to e.g. the teaching in courses and the facilitation of the groups might be elitist. But the learning in groups during the project work is in principle learning in a communication community, free and without supremacy. Decisions......, processes and behaviour related to learning can be established through argumentation (discussion) or negotiation (dialog), voting or consensus (alone or in combination) within the group simultaneously reaching the learning outcomes, the technical and professional knowledge and insight. This article...

  3. Critical thinking, politics on a large scale and media democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio IBÁÑEZ-MARTÍN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first approximation to the social current reality offers us numerous motives for the worry. The spectacle of violence and of immorality can scare us easily. But more worrying still it is to verify that the horizon of conviviality, peace and wellbeing that Europe had been developing from the Treaty of Rome of 1957 has compromised itself seriously for the economic crisis. Today we are before an assault to the democratic politics, which is qualified, on the part of the media democracy, as an exhausted system, which is required to be changed into a new and great politics, a politics on a large scale. The article analyses the concept of a politics on a large scale, primarily attending to Nietzsche, and noting its union with the great philosophy and the great education. The study of the texts of Nietzsche leads us to the conclusion of how in them we often find an interesting analysis of the problems and a misguided proposal for solutions. We cannot think to suggest solutions to all the problems, but we outline various proposals about changes of political activity, that reasonably are defended from the media democracy. In conclusion, we point out that a politics on a large scale requires statesmen, able to suggest modes of life in common that can structure a long-term coexistence.

  4. Democratic Quality in Stable Democracies

    OpenAIRE

    Lijphart, Arend

    2011-01-01

    The major predecessor to Ringen’s and my own efforts to measure democratic quality in terms of the purpose of democracy is Robert Dahl’s seminal book Polyarchy (1971). Measuring the quality of democracy requires two prior judgments: (1) making sure that, in terms of institutional characteristics, a country is sufficiently democratic, and that, as a minimum, it has universal suffrage, and (2) that its democracy has been uninterrupted for a minimum number of years. To an important extent, highe...

  5. Making International Organizations More Democratic

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Bruno S.; Alois Stutzer

    2017-01-01

    World governance today is characterized by international organizations lacking democratic legitimacy and control by the citizens they claim to represent. They are also criticized for being inefficient. This leads to violent protests and to NGOs having great influence. To address these problems, we propose international governance based on the democratic idea of citizen participation: All citizens of the member countries of international organizations have the potential right to participate in...

  6. Coping with the New System: Self-Assessment, Role-Definition and Professional Expectations of Journalism Students in Former GDR after Democratization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Romy

    A study investigated what kind of expectations former GDR (German Democratic Republic) journalism students have about their futures as journalists and what their general perceptions of journalism are. About 80 journalism students in their last semester at Leipzig University were administered surveys during the two days directly preceding the…

  7. A model for analysis, systemic planning and strategic synthesis for health science teaching in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a vision for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levêque Alain

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The problem of training human resources in health is a real concern in public health in Central Africa. What can be changed in order to train more competent health professionals? This is of utmost importance in primary health care. Methods Taking into account the level of training of secondary-level nurses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, a systemic approach, based on the PRECEDE PROCEED model of analysis, led to a better understanding of the educational determinants and of the factors favourable to a better match between training in health sciences and the expected competences of the health professionals. This article must be read on two complementary levels: one reading, focused on the methodological process, should allow our findings to be transferred to other problems (adaptation of a health promotion model to the educational sphere. The other reading, revolving around the specific theme and results, should provide a frame of reference and specific avenues for action to improve human resources in the health field (using the results of its application in health science teaching in the DRC. Results The results show that it is important to start this training with a global and integrated approach shared by all the actors. The strategies of action entail the need for an approach taking into account all the aspects, i.e. sociological, educational, medical and public health. Conclusions The analysis of the results shows that one cannot bring any change without integrated strategies of action and a multidisciplinary approach that includes all the complex determinants of health behaviour, and to do it within the organization of local structures and institutions in the ministry of health in the DRC.

  8. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  9. Connecting political csr and the organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    In the growing amount of literature on political corporate social responsibility (PCSR) emanating from Scherer and Palazzo (2007, 2011) it is seldom discussed what sort of organization is required to satisfy the theory of PCSR. Part of the literature on PCSR does raise this question, e.g. by poin......In the growing amount of literature on political corporate social responsibility (PCSR) emanating from Scherer and Palazzo (2007, 2011) it is seldom discussed what sort of organization is required to satisfy the theory of PCSR. Part of the literature on PCSR does raise this question, e...... as a corporate citizen due to its preference for non-metaphysical foundations (the priority of democracy to philosophy) as well as its commitment to CSR as a process of deliberation (Scherer & Palazzo 2007). Hence, a non-metaphysical, proceduralist and pragmatist view the organization as a system is suggested...... – since assuming the corporation could be as democratic as PCSR suggests, it will be insufficient if the wider systemic context does not provide conditions for deliberative democracy. Keywords: Political CSR, organization, deliberative democracy, justification, institutions, system. Introduction...

  10. Research about "pluralism" academic comprehensive evaluation system of ideological and political course on college%高校思政课“多元一体”学业综合评价体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱翠玉

    2016-01-01

    学业评价是高校“思政课”教学的重要环节。应秉持“多元化”评价理念,坚持过程性评价与终结性评价、学习能力评价与创新思维能力评价、理论知识水平评价与行为表现评价、定性评价与定量评价、权威评价与民主评价“一体化”的原则,建构以实施性课程体系和课程学业评价指标体系为核心的“思政课”学业评价体系。创造必要条件,实施“多元一体”综合学业评价。%Academic assessment is an important link in university "ideological and political course" teaching. Uphold the principle of "diversification" evaluation idea construct"pluralism" comprehensive academic evaluation system on college"ideo⁃logical and political course" adhere to the principle of comprehensive combining process evaluation and summative evaluation combining evaluation of learning ability and the ability of creative thinking combining knowledge evaluation and behavior evalu⁃ation combining qualitative evaluation and quantitative evaluation combining authority evaluation and democratic evaluation. To construct the curriculum system and the implementation of academic evaluation index system for the core content system of ideo⁃logical and political theory course evaluation of higher. To create the necessary conditions in order to implement"pluralism" aca⁃demic comprehensive evaluation system.

  11. POLITICAL WILL AND ANTICORRUPTION CRUSADE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in all ramifications has continued to jeopardize the efforts of governments in forging national unity, infrastructural development and in most cases, leaving the majority of a nation’s citizens to live in absolute poverty. The phenomenon has persisted in many countries mostly due to weak political will or the lack of it necessary to curb the menace. In its simplest form corruption reflects the use of public office for private gain. As a remedy to this there should be a demonstration of credible intent by political leaders, stakeholders groups to attack perceived causes or effects of corruption at a systemic level. This demonstration of credible capacity reflects political will. The political will to curb corruption is also the political will to pursue other goals like good governance and national unity. Political will is not equivalent to political manifesto rhetoric or pressure group statements. Rather, it is the manifestation of a robust system of checks and balances and strong political institutions for combating corruption and promoting good governance as well as restoring trust and confidence in democratic politics. Gowon’s  proposal reflects strong political will for good governance, because, if political will is to be more than just a slogan, it must be understood in a broad context. This reinforces the believe that if there is an absence of political will at the top, there will be a general lack of commitment to combat corruption, and pursue other important national goals as political development and poverty reduction. The exploratory research design was adopted for the study. Secondary data were generated through a format designed by the investigator for the purpose of the study. Because of the sensitive nature of the study primary data were also generate through a Liker-type questionnaire to supplement the secondary data. Data generated were analyzed through descriptive and X2 statistics and presented in tables with

  12. Intermediate Conditions of Democratic Accountability: A Response to Electoral Skepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Maloy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to respond to “democratic deficits” in modern constitutional republics must contend with the broad scholarly trend of electoral skepticism. While generally casting doubt on periodic competitive elections’ suitability as vehicles of accountability, electoral skepticism does not necessarily entail an absolute devaluation of elections. Some normative and empirical research responds to this trend by refocusing attention on values other than popular power, such as civil peace, which might be served by periodic competitive elections. Another response short of abandoning the value of popular power, however, is to draw out possibilities for institutional design from the restricted conditions under which previous study has found electoral accountability to be plausible or likely. This second task requires an empirically informed exercise in political theory. Pursuing it in a programmatic and policy-relevant way requires descending from the grand, systemic level of constitutional structures and electoral formulae to intermediate (or middle-range institutional conditions of accountability, such as rules about parties, campaigns, and election administration. My analysis reinterprets principal-agent models to develop four general types of crucial condition for electoral accountability, and then ramifies this scheme by reference to recent empirical research. The result is a “top ten” list of specific institutional factors that could be theoretically decisive in helping or hindering electoral accountability. These ten conditions could guide future research designs and reform proposals alike.

  13. Linking Health System Responsiveness to Political Rights and Civil Liberties: A Multilevel Analysis Using Data From 44 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Margot I; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2015-01-01

    Responsiveness is a dimension of health system functioning and might be dependent upon contextual factors related to politics. Given this, we performed cross-national comparisons with the aim of investigating: 1) the associations of political factors with patients' reports of health system responsiveness and 2) the extent to which health input and output might explain these associations. World Health Survey data were analyzed for 44 countries (n = 103 541). Main outcomes included, respectively, 8 and 7 responsiveness domains for inpatient and outpatient care. Linear multilevel regressions were used to assess the associations of politics (namely, civil liberties and political rights), socioeconomic development, health system input, and health system output (measured by maternal mortality) with responsiveness domains, adjusted for demographic factors. Political rights showed positive associations with dignity (regression coefficient = 0.086 [standard error = 0.039]), quality (0.092 [0.049]), and support (0.113 [0.048]) for inpatient care and with dignity (0.075 [0.040]), confidentiality (0.089 [0.043]), and quality (0.124 [0.053]) for outpatient care. Positive associations were observed for civil liberties as well. Health system input and output reduced observed associations. Results tentatively suggest that strengthening political rights and, to a certain extent, civil liberties might improve health system responsiveness, in part through their effect on health system input and output.

  14. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/176991662

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  15. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  16. On the Contemporary Value of Yan'an Democratic Model%延安民主模式及其当代价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安雅珍

    2012-01-01

    Yan'an democratic model is a good example for CPC's practice of democracy.The political model is "Tripartite regime"and the direct election system;the economic model mainly embodies in fiscal democracy;the cultural model mainly refers to the cultural programme of the new democracy.The supreme principle of Yan'an democratic model is the new three principles of the people,aiming to build a new democratic anti-Japan democratic system including the democracy within the party and people's democracy.Yan'an democratic model still plays an important part in CPC's contemporary construction of democracy.%延安民主模式是中国共产党民主政治实践的光辉典范,其政治模式是"三三制"的抗日民主政权和各级参议制的直接选举制,经济模式主要体现在民主财政方面,文化模式主要指新民主主义的文化纲领。延安民主模式的最高原则是新三民主义,建立的是新民主主义的抗日民主制度,包括党内民主和人民民主两大部分。延安民主模式对于当代中国共产党推进民主政治建设具有重要意义。

  17. The left and the democratic stability in Latin America: the ideology of the Bolivarian Revolution and its impact on the political processes in Venezuela and Latin America Izquierda y estabilidad de la democracia en América latina: la ideología de la revolución bolivariana y su repercusión sobre el proceso político en Venezuela y América latina

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    One of the main areas of work in Comparative Politics and Political Theory has been the determination of the variables associated with the stability/instability of political systems in general, and democracy in particular. This paper focuses on one of these variables. One with newly acquired importance after the recent electoral successes by the left, but that nevertheless has not been in the spotlight of scholarly analysis: ideological polarization. Particularly, ideological polarization bro...

  18. El discurso político de Felipe González durante la Transición. Aplicaciones metodológicas / The political discourse of Felipe González in the process of democratic Transition. Methodological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pantoja Chaves

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Continuando con el análisis de los discursos de los líderes más importantes del proceso de Transición democrática en España, en esta entrega nos centramos en la trayectoria política de Felipe González y del socialismo español en esos años. En referencia a su recorrido, asistimos a dos tipos de discursos diferenciados. Por un lado contamos con las intervenciones parlamentarias, más numerosas, y que nos han permitido observar con mayor precisión las oscilaciones de su perfil con respecto al resto de grupos parlamentarios; por otro, los discursos pronunciados en los Congresos del partido, que han sido seleccionados por la relevancia de sus conclusiones, y cuya inclusión complementa y enriquece la explicación de los cambios producidos en las estrategias de su discurso. Una complementariedad que conforma de forma genérica el tipo de perfil y apunta las matizaciones del líder socialista durante el proceso de transición.Summary: In reference to González’s journey, we are present with two types of differentiated speeches. On the one hand we rely on the parliamentary, more numerous interventions, which have allowed us to observe with greater precision the oscillations of his profile with regard to the rest of parliamentary groups; on the other hand, the speeches declared in the Meetings of the political party, selected because of the relevance of their conclusions, and whose incorporation complements and enriches the explanation of the changes produced in the strategies of his speech. This complementary factor shapes the type of profile in a generic way and notes the nuances of the socialist leader during the process of transition.

  19. The recent process of decentralization and democratic management of education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Filho, José Camilo Dos

    1993-09-01

    Brazilian society is beginning a new historical period in which the principle of decentralization is beginning to predominate over centralization, which held sway during the last 25 years. In contrast to recent Brazilian history, there is now a search for political, democratic and participatory decentralization more consonant with grass-roots aspirations. The first section of this article presents a brief analysis of some decentralization policies implemented by the military regime of 1964, and discusses relevant facts related to the resistance of civil society to state authoritarianism, and to the struggle for the democratization and organization of civil society up to the end of the 1970s. The second section analyzes some new experiences of democratic public school administration initiated in the 1970s and 1980s. The final section discusses the move toward decentralization and democratization of public school administration in the new Federal and State Constitutions, and in the draft of the new Law of National Education.

  20. Investigation of the impact of political brand personality on political participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abbas nargesian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available an important concern of democratic regimes in the political realm, as a consequence researchers explore related factors to this phenomenon to find how they influence the phenomenon. So the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of factors like advertisements, political party activities, famous endorsers, and political events on political brand personality as a mediator variable which has an impact on public contribution. Statistical sample of this research consists of 386 citizens of Tehran-district 5- which has been selected via simple random sampling for analysis. This article employs Structural Equation Modeling and LISREL V.8.54 for the sake of information analysis. The results show that advertisements, political party activities, famous endorsers, and political events have a positive and meaningful influence on political brand personality, also political brand personality has a similar impact on citizen’s political contribution

  1. Politics without Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dean (Jodi)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractProf.dr. Jodi Dean, hoogleraar politieke filosofie aan Hobart and William Smith Colleges (Geneva, New York), sprak donderdag 19 februari 2009 haar inaugurele rede uit, getiteld "Politics without politics". Dean is dit jaar Erasmus Professor op de Erasmus Chair of Humanities in de Faculte

  2. The Romanian Social Democratic Party versus the authoritarian monarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Grecu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches the Romanian social-democratic collaboration during 1938-1940 with the authoritarian monarch regime. Even though the party leaders had diverging political views, regards to the acceptance or the non-acceptance of the authoritarian regime, the influential PSDR members held leading positions within the single party and the corporate parliament and within the union structures. The positions were offered by the regime, so that the union leaders would stop instigating workers to go on strike, and to accept the governmental policies. The freedom of speech and the political actions were ceded to the monarch, who governed at the place of the political parties and he controlled the unions, by using the guilds.

  3. How Does Football Influence the Political System and Juridify Social Movements? Brazil, June 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Schwartz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available According to current trends in the analysis of new social movements, protests are related to economic issues or social inequalities, particularly those of a religious or ethnic nature which, in turn, produce new communications directed at the political system. The present study aims to determine the relationship between football and the social movements that occurred in Brazil in June 2013, as well as investigate the responses of the political system to these social grievances, centered primarily on the juridification of these social spheres. Thus, it focuses on how the legal and political systems absorb these communications into their self-referential logic. To that end, the methodology used is based on the structural functionalism of Niklas Luhmann and his theory of autopoietic social systems. The results demonstrate that both systemspolitical and legal – were significantly influenced by football, specifically by the substantial investments allocated to hosting the 2014 World Cup in Brazil which, when contrasted with the low return of public services in the country, reveal the root causes of June 2013. Según las tendencias actuales en el análisis de los nuevos movimientos sociales, las protestas están relacionadas con cuestiones económicas o desigualdades sociales, en particular las de carácter religioso o étnico que, a su vez, producen nuevas comunicaciones dirigidas al sistema político. Este estudio pretende determinar la relación entre el fútbol y los movimientos sociales que se produjeron en Brasil en junio de 2013, así como investigar las respuestas del sistema político a estas demandas sociales, centradas principalmente en la juridificación de estas esferas sociales. Por lo tanto, se centra en cómo los sistemas legales y políticos absorben estas comunicaciones en su lógica autorreferencial. Para ello, la metodología empleada se basa en el funcionalismo estructural de Niklas Luhmann y su teoría de los sistemas

  4. Compromise and Disagreement in Comtemporary Political Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.; Scavenius, Theresa

    Compromise and Disagreement in Contemporary Political Theory provides a critical discussion of when and to what extent compromise is the best response to pluralism and disagreement in democratic decision-making and beyond. Organized into four parts, the book begins by discussing the justification...... and limits of compromise. Part II discusses the practice of compromise and considers the ethics required for compromise as well as the institutions that facilitate compromise. Part III focuses on pluralism and connects the topic of compromise to current discussions in political theory on public reason......, political liberalism, and respect for diversity. Part IV discusses different challenges to compromise in the context of the current political environment....

  5. The Political Economy of Information Exchange : Politics and Property Rights in the Development and Use of Interorganizational Information Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.M.F. Homburg (Vincent)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractInterorganizational information systems are information systems that cross organizational boundaries. Information managers and system developers often assume that the more integrated these information systems are, the more successful the system will be. Such an assumption is indeed intui

  6. Brazilian foreign affairs: social capital and the democratic discourse in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Duarte Villa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian elites as well as foreign policy-makers have long shared a common belief that the ideas of democracy and democratization should serve as some "road map" to foreign policy-making. In areas such as security, regional integration, and disarmament, the goal has been to generate a positive social capital as well as to build trusting relations with Brazilian neighbors in South America. Therefore, under the impact of ideas brought about by new world visions, Brazilian foreign policy has changed a domestic policy feature - the democratic rearrangement of the political system - into a condition and resource for foreign policy-making towards South America. The result has been a fine improvement of Brazilian image and credibility in the regional South American scenario. In other words, there has been a significant increment in "trust" towards Brazil. This argument has been developed based on extracts and transcripts from official diplomatic speeches from Brazilian foreign policy-makers as well as a historical reconstruction of Brazil's diplomatic relations with two South American countries. Our study was based on two cases: Brazilian-Venezuelan and Brazilian-Argentine relations in the 80's and the 90's.

  7. Fundamentalists toward democracy? Empirical analysis of fundamentalist attitudes and democratic attitudes in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Hajizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington asks an important question in The Third Wave: if traditional Islamic values and beliefs have significantly retarded democratic progress in the past, to what extent are they likely to continue to do so in the future? Unlike Huntington’s work, this paper is primarily a micro-level analysis. It seeks to show how Muslim people interpret and evaluate Islam and democracy. So we want to attach more data to Huntington’s theory and wish to demonstrate that non-democratic political space and authoritarian governments in Muslim countries can’t be explained by the features of Islam; there are considerable reasons and facts to convince scholars to look for other factors. The results illustrate nearly all Muslims tend to Islam and democracy at the same time. It seems Large populations of moderate fundamentalists in Muslim countries are appearing who struggle to actualize Islamic teachings in a democratic political model.

  8. Democratic Public Discourse in the Coming Autarchic Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe-Ilie Farte

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to tackle the problem of living together – as dignified human beings – in a certain territory in the field of social philosophy, on the theoretical grounding ensured by some remarkable exponents of the Austrian School − and by means of the praxeologic method. Because political tools diminish the human nature not only of those who use them, but also of those who undergo their effects, people can live a life worthy of a human being only as members of some autarchic or self-governing communities. As a spontaneous order, every autarchic community is inherently democratic, inasmuch as it makes possible free involvement, peaceful coordination, free expression and the free reproduction of ideas. The members of autarchic communities are moral individuals who avoid aggression, practice self-control, seek a dynamical efficiency and establish (together with their fellow human beings a democratic public discourse.

  9. Creating clones, kids & chimera: liberal democratic compromise at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nathan A

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this article is to find middle ground between the supporters and opponents of biotechnology by perpetuating the existing legal compromise pertaining to the complete range of health and welfare doctrines relevant to the biotechnological industry. The author aspires neither to add to nor detract from this liberal democratic consensus, but to preserve its constitutive balance between positivism and natural law and over-regulation and under-regulation in the hopes of stabilizing new political fault lines developing around the few biotechnological innovations already grabbing headlines. The most feasible solution is to extend the existing liberal democratic compromise with respect to equal protection, reproductive rights, the First Amendment, human subject experimentation, patent law, and parental rights. This includes banning or monopolizing certain biotechnologies and extending substantive special respect to the ex vivo living human embryo. Biotechnology must not be left to regulate itself.

  10. Nigeria and Democratic Progress by Elections in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Carbone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Elections do not always advance democratisation, yet they can. We outline a democratisation-by-elections model according to which the opportunities for political change opened up by each electoral round build on previous election-related democratic progress. We focus on Nigeria, interpret the recent executive turnover in light of previous elections, and set the country within the comparative context of Africa’s democratisation. Using a new Africa Leadership Change dataset, we use election-related events to examine the diverse routes that African regimes have taken since 1990. The analysis highlights two major syndromes: democratic stagnation and recession. In a sizeable group, however, the institutionalisation of democracy has been making gradual progress. While there is no predetermined way to advance democracy, the reiteration of elections can be instrumental in such advancement.

  11. Techno economic systems and excessive consumption: a political economy of 'pathological' gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Gerda

    2013-12-01

    This article argues that gambling is a paradigmatic form of consumption that captures the intensified logic at the heart of late modern capitalist societies. As well as a site of intensified consumption, it claims that gambling has also become the location of what has been described as a new form of 'social pathology' related to excess play. Drawing on Castells' (1996) notion of techno-economic systems, it explores the ways that intersections between technology, capital and states have generated the conditions for this situation, and critiques the unequal distribution of gambling environments that result. It argues that, while the products of these systems are consumed on a global scale, the risks associated with them tend to be articulated in bio-psychological discourses of 'pathology' which are typical of certain types of knowledge that have salience in neo-liberal societies, and which work to conceal wider structural relationships. We argue that a deeper understanding of the political and cultural economy of gambling environments is necessary, and provide a synoptic overview of the conditions upon which gambling expansion is based. This perspective highlights parallels with the wider global economy of finance capital, as well as the significance of intensified consumption, of which gambling is an exemplary instance. It also reveals the existence of a geo-political dispersal of 'harms', conceived as deteriorations of financial, temporal and social relationships, which disproportionately affect vulnerable social groups. From this, we urge an understanding of commercial gambling based on a critique of the wider social body of gambling environments within techno economic systems, rather than the (flawed) individual bodies within them. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  12. The paradox of technocratic democracy and the democratic deficit of european institutions by Jürgen Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Adriano Lubenow

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the nineties, Habermas redirected his political writings to the post-national constellation (global and European and the possibilities of a society politically integrated through transnational democracy (or post-national democracy. This thematic reorientation took place on two fronts. The first one is the global transnational democracy, which includes the impacts of the economic globalization on national democracies, as well the proposal for a political Constitution for a pluralistic world society, based on a constitutionalization of international law. The second one is the European transnational democracy, which includes the redefinition of the political profile of European welfare state for an economic liberal profile, as well the paradox of democratic technocracy operated by European institutions and the proposal to overcome the decoupled technocratic policy model. This paper will address only this last topic, describing the reasons of the democratic deficit and the consequent delay of European political Union. Despite numerous reforms, the technocratic policies have not eliminated the discrepancy between centralization and democratization, and mistakenly indicate another direction further reinforcing the problem of European undemocratic institutions. In contrast, Habermas argues that the democratic deficit could only be overcome replacing the technocratic approach by a deeper democratization of European institutions.

  13. The Democratic Paradox. Dutch Revolutionary Struggles over Democratisation and Centralisation (1780-1813)

    OpenAIRE

    Poell, T.

    2007-01-01

    The Democratic Paradox aims to cast a new light on the Dutch Revolution (1780-1813) specifically, and political modernisation in general. The current perspectives on the Dutch Revolution mostly focus on the socio-economic, financial, and cultural backgrounds of this revolution. In contrast, this book concentrates on the revolutionary process itself. Through a close analysis of the Amsterdam political elite, it dissects the interaction between various groups of politicians, the popular revolut...

  14. China's Democratic Party organization development problem and countermeasure analysis%我国民主党派组织发展问题及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏; 张二妹

    2014-01-01

    in the new historical period, along with the development of the society in our country, and the change of social economic structure, in the development of Democratic Party organization, the democratic parties members of the organization development convergence and guide the development of the Democratic Party organization theory construction relative lag, the Democratic Party's basic-level organization vitality not strong party responsibility consciousness, party members and political consciousness and other issues to be studied.From the thought construction, the theory of construction, organization construction, system construction, etc, respectively, puts forward the overall thinking and specific countermeasures and Suggestions, in order to improve the present democratic construction of organization development.%在新的历史时期,随着我国社会的发展,及社会经济结构的变化,在民主党派组织发展过程中,民主党派组织发展成员趋同现象、指导民主党派组织发展的理论建设相对滞后、民主党派基层组织活力不强、党派成员政党责任意识和参政意识淡薄等问题亟待研究。从思想建设、理论建设、组织建设、制度建设等方面分别提出总体思路和具体对策建议,以期完善现阶段民主党派组织发展建设。

  15. El Salvador and Guatemala: Security Sector Reform and Political Party System Effects on Organized Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Labor Unrest and Organized Crime.” September 1995. http://www.envio.org.ni/ articulo /1891 (accessed June 8, 2009). 117 Ibid. 118 Call...Free Market Myth.” June 2005. http://www.envio.org.ni/ articulo /2975 (accessed May 22, 2009). ———. “Labor Unrest and Organized Crime.” September 1995...http://www.envio.org.ni/ articulo /1891 (accessed June 8, 2009). Richani, Nazih. “Systems of Violence and their Political Economy in Post-Conflict

  16. Citizens meetings in democratic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Citizens meeting is one of the forms of practically applied local self-administration realization by the population. However, it is necessary to carry out further work, concerning perfection of the given institution regulation.

  17. Political and CulturalFoundations of Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomir Novak

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available My thesis is based on the premise that the change of the political system from socialism to post-socialism was not based on the otherwise branched­ out political education in socialism, but rather, on other factors of which the essential one is the third wave of democracy that swept across the Central, South and East European countries. (Interactive citizenship can de­velop synergistically together with a positive attitude towards one's own country and with a stimulative influence on the citizens; with co-operation among the various (civil groups and with modern education for citizenship (not only as the school subject of Citizenship Education and Ethics as well as with its alternative goals together with the democratic and spiritual political culture. In view of the projected deadline for stability of democracy, which is expected to last 50 to 60 years, both types of culture are only at the initial phase of development in the new Slovenian state.

  18. Ethical English Teaching: Learning Democratic Values or Living by the Tao?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article begins by drawing attention to the similarities between the aims of critical literacy within English and Education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC). It then considers subscribing to liberal values in the English classrooms of a plural society and concludes that, as political liberalism is unlikely to be universally endorsed, we need…

  19. Democratic Freedom and the Concept of Freedom in Plato and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Herman Hansen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several meanings of eleutheria used by Greeks in the classical period, democratic freedom is rejected by both Plato and Aristotle, who do not articulate a theory of political freedom but rather confine eleutheria to a social context.

  20. Democratic Orientations among High School Seniors in the United States and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, William L.; Payne, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates strength of national identity and degrees of democratic orientation among honors high school seniors taking advanced political science courses in 1986 in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. Finds West German students less tolerant of minority free speech, more fearful of consequences of dissent, and less politically…

  1. Democratic elements in group and project organized PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    2006-01-01

    Students in a democratic learning system as the Aalborg Model knows of and uses democratics skills as e.g. the ability to discuss and accept other points of view, negotiate, compromise, reach consensus or accept the result of a vote in striving to reach specific common or personal learning goals,...... that students make decisions related to learning and learning goals, learning processes and behaviour after discussions and so called rounds which indicates hat they develop democratic skill useful in social relations....... learning system. It contrasts it to an authoritarian or elitist systems. Then it brings the results from an investigation of 9 process analyses’ written at the end of the second semester 2005 by project groups from The Technical Natural Scientific Basic Year at Aalborg University and concludes...

  2. The Reasons for Existing Moral Defects in Democratic System Operation%民主制度运行过程中产生道德缺陷的原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓菁

    2012-01-01

    Democracy consists of three different levels,such as value concept,a kind of system and a method or means.Democracy as a kind of system,it exists some moral defects when it is operating.The main reasons are as follows:it pays attention to legality,stesses on technicality and the design imperfection.Meanwile,moral defects in democratic system operation don't mean that the democratic system exists moral defects.%民主包括价值理念、制度、方法或手段三个不同的层次。作为一种制度的民主在运行过程中存在着道德缺陷,主要原因是:民主制度运行关注合法性、注重技术性以及民主制度本身设计的不完善。民主制度运行的道德缺陷并非意味着民主制度存在道德缺陷。

  3. 论《比较政治制度》在大学生政治社会化过程的作用%Theory of comparative political system in college students' political socialization process role

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖勇

    2011-01-01

    大学生政治社会化具有实施主渠道的特定性、政治社会化过程的互动性、政治社会化环境的变动性等特征。大学生政治社会化的基本内容主要有政治理论知识、方向、情感和能力社会化四个方面。大学生政治社会过程存在“大学生接受正规政治系统影响的主动性不强”、“大学生继承创新主流政治文化的能力不够”、“政治行为能力不足”等障碍。影响大学生政治社会化的主要因素有政治社会化基础的脆弱、消极的政治态度定势、思维方式的缺陷等。比较政治制度的学习有助于提高大学生的政治修养和政治素质、有助力完善大学生的政治人格、有助力提高大学生的政治参与能力。%College students" political socialization of specificity in main channel with implementation of political socialization, interactivity, political socialization environmental changes in features. The basic content of college students " political socialization basically has political theory knowledge, the direction, the emotion and the socialization four aspects ability. College students" political social process exists "college students accept regular political system influence initiative is not strong", "college students of mainstream political culture inherited innovation ability enough" ,"political behavior ability inadequacy" barriers. The main affecting the university students" political socialization of political socialization factors are based vulnerability, negative political attitude, mode of thinking mode of flaws. Comparison of the political system study will help improve college students " political culture and political quality, help to improve college students" political personality, help improve university students" political participation ability.

  4. The Political Economy of Information Exchange : Politics and Property Rights in the Development and Use of Interorganizational Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    textabstractInterorganizational information systems are information systems that cross organizational boundaries. Information managers and system developers often assume that the more integrated these information systems are, the more successful the system will be. Such an assumption is indeed intuitively appealing, and, from a technological standpoint, readily understandable. In practice, development and use of integrated information systems that cross organizational boundaries often result ...

  5. The impact of democratic transitions on the representation of women in the national parliaments of southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This chapter examines what democratic transition in the 1990s has meant for women in southern Africa. It focuses in particular on the impact of democratization processes on political participation by women, notably women's representation in parliament in Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. This is compared with developments in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, where the introduction of multip...

  6. THE POLITICAL BEHAVIOR INTENTION IN INFORMATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT FROM MIS PROFESSIONALS' PERSPECTIVE: A STUDY BASED ON THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTINA LING-HSING CHANG

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the major variables influencing the political behavior of MIS professionals in information system development (ISD). The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is used to create the research model. We found that (1) Attitude, subjective norm, perceived political behavior control and perceived political efficacy have different effects on MIS professionals' intention with regard to political behavior in four scenarios; (2) Machiavellism significantly affects MI...

  7. A Functional Approach to Televised Political Spots: Acclaiming, Attacking, Defending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Pier, P. M.; Blaney, Joseph R.

    1997-01-01

    Articulates a theoretical framework for understanding the fundamental functions of political advertising (acclaiming, attacking, defending) which occur on the twin grounds of policy considerations and character. Applies this theory of political discourse to presidential general election television spots from 1980-1996, finding that Democrats and…

  8. Danish Political Culture: Fair Conditions for Inclusion of Immigrants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2011-01-01

    In the age of migration, the inclusion of immigrants in national politics is crucial for democratic reasons, and because it increases the coordination and cooperation ability of society. The informal norms, values and beliefs of the political culture are one aspect of the institutional and discur...

  9. Comparing Political Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...

  10. Democratization of Learning through Thematic Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellu, Christophil S.; Lumingkewas, S.; Walangitan, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the results of research on learning democratization in Sangihe. This study is the first year of a five-year plan. Long-term goal of this research is to create the democratic science learning in schools. Democratic learning model was developed through thematic assignment, involving the participation of parents and…

  11. The Politics of African Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Therkildsen, Ole; Buur, Lars;

    in the early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies....

  12. Do political budget cycles really exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Most recent cross-country studies on election-motivated fiscal policy assume that the data can be pooled. As various tests suggest that our data for some 70 democratic countries for the period 1970–2007 cannot be pooled, we use the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimator to test whether Political Budget C

  13. Presentation of political Alliances in the Romanian audiovisual media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviu Calin RUS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This material wishes to highlight the way in which the main political alliances have been formed in Romania in the last 20 years, as well as the way they have been reflected in the media. Moreover, we have tried to analyze the involvement of journalists and political analysts in explaining these political events. The study will focus on four political alliances, namely: CDR (the Romanian Democratic Convention, D.A. (Y.E.S. - Justice and Truth between PNL – the National Liberal Party and PD - the Democratic Party, ACD (the Centre-Right Alliance between PNL and PC – the Conservative Party and USL (the Social-Liberal Union between PSD – the Social Democrat Party, PNL and PC.

  14. Democratisation of Denmark - the Inclusion of Women in Political Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Fiig, Christina

    Democratic Party, the political institutions opened up for demands from the farmers' and working class movements. The struggle for women's vote was based upon a democratic alliance and it was part of the general political transformation after the take over of government by the Liberal Left in 1901. Compared...... to Western democratic countries like France and Britain there was a relatively short period between women and men's general and equal right to vote. Nordic women obtained relatively early political rights compared to other western European countries with strong republican traditions like France......Introduction By obtaining the right to parliamentary enfranchisement in 1915, women in Denmark strengthened their political citizenship. On Constitution Day, June 5th 1915, the Danish suffragettes dressed in white, marched through the streets of Copenhagen to the royal palaces and to the King...

  15. 论民主制度的政治文化条件%On Political and Cultural Conditions for Democratic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施雪华; 李凯

    2008-01-01

    政治文化对于民主政治建设具有重要意义.本文从欧洲启蒙运动对近现代西方民主制度的影响谈起,论述了中国传统政治文化的特征及其与现代民主政治精神的悖离,最后从宏观上提出了当代中国建立社会主义民主政治所需要的政治文化条件.本文的理论支撑点是政治文化对政治行为具有逻辑上的解释力和预见性.

  16. 政治文明·民主制度·选举程序%Political Civilization, Democratic System and Electoral Procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明华

    2005-01-01

    政治文明与民主制度、选举程序之间有着内在的关联性.民主是政治文明在制度上最重要的衡量标准,选举程序是民主制度落实的基本保障,民主制度是政治文明的核心内容,而民主制度建设的关键是选举程序的建立和完善.出于建设政治文明的需要,必须首先完善我国的选举程序,落实公民的选举权.

  17. Students' Participation to the Decision-Making Process as a Tool for Democratic School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Selma

    2013-01-01

    This research has been designed because it has been realized that there is only little research carried out about the student participation in the administration for the structuring of the democratic authority in the higher education system in Turkey. In the relevant literature, concepts of democratic authority and education have been approached…

  18. Children's Right to Democratic Upbringings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Marita

    2005-01-01

    Western preschools and schools find it important to nurture democracy. However, in order to succeed in nurturing democracy, democratic ideas must be implemented in all situations. Education alone, therefore, is not enough. All children must experience real influence over their situations, and experience the opportunity for self-determination in…

  19. Deliberative Democratic Evaluation in Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hreinsdottir, Anna Magnea; Davidsdottir, Sigurlina

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the merit of using deliberative democratic evaluations is studied in light of ten questions asked by House and Howe, which defined the approach and raise issues of interests, representation, and choice of stakeholders, power balances and procedures for controlling them, participation, reflection and deliberation. Suggestions by…

  20. Matryoshka of Special Democratic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Devchand, Chandrashekar; Weingart, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    Special p-forms are forms which have components \\phi_{\\mu_1...\\mu_p} equal to +1,-1 or 0 in some orthonormal basis. A p-form \\phi\\in \\Lambda^p R^d is called democratic if the set of nonzero components {\\phi_{\\mu_1...\\mu_p}} is symmetric under the transitive action of a subgroup of O(d,Z) on the indices {1,...,d}. Knowledge of these symmetry groups allows us to define mappings of special democratic p-forms in d dimensions to special democratic P-forms in D dimensions for successively higher P \\geq p and D \\geq d. In particular, we display a remarkable nested stucture of special forms including a U(3)-invariant 2-form in six dimensions, a G_2-invariant 3-form in seven dimensions, a Spin(7)-invariant 4-form in eight dimensions and a special democratic 6-form \\Omega in ten dimensions. The latter has the remarkable property that its contraction with one of five distinct bivectors, yields, in the orthogonal eight dimensions, the Spin(7)-invariant 4-form. We discuss various properties of this ten dimensional form.

  1. MAPPING CHILDREN'S POLITICS: SPATIAL STORIES, DIALOGIC RELATIONS AND POLITICAL FORMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Sarah; Mitchell, Katharyne

    2012-03-01

    This article confronts a persistent challenge in research on children's geographies and politics: the difficulty of recognizing forms of political agency and practice that by definition fall outside of existing political theory. Children are effectively "always already" positioned outside most of the structures and ideals of modernist democratic theory, such as the public sphere and abstracted notions of communicative action or "rational" speech. Recent emphases on embodied tactics of everyday life have offered important ways to recognize children's political agency and practice. However, we argue here that a focus on spatial practices and critical knowledge alone cannot capture the full range of children's politics, and show how representational and dialogic practices remain a critical element of their politics in everyday life. Drawing on de Certeau's notion of spatial stories, and Bakhtin's concept of dialogic relations, we argue that children's representations and dialogues comprise a significant space of their political agency and formation, in which they can make and negotiate social meanings, subjectivities, and relationships. We develop these arguments with evidence from an after-school activity programme we conducted with 10-13 year olds in Seattle, Washington, in which participants explored, mapped, wrote and spoke about the spaces and experiences of their everyday lives. Within these practices, children negotiate autonomy and self-determination, and forward ideas, representations, and expressions of agreement or disagreement that are critical to their formation as political actors.

  2. Driving forces of main landscape change processes from past 200 years in Central Europe - differences between old democratic and post-socialist countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skokanová Hana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article compares and points out differences in driving forces of four main landscape change processes that shaped post-socialist countries and old democratic countries of Central Europe during the last two centuries. Studying landscape change processes and corresponding driving forces helps in understanding patterns of present landscape and can help among others in better prediction of future landscape change trends. Here, the presented results are based on review of scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2014. Driving forces affecting these processes were grouped into four categories. Economic forces drove mainly agricultural intensification; agricultural land abandonment and urbanisation and were pronounced especially in the second half of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century. Technological driving forces affected agricultural intensification especially in the 19th century and the second half of the 20th century while cultural driving forces had the biggest impact on urbanisation at the beginning of the 21st century. Political driving forces affected agricultural intensification, urbanisation as well as agricultural land abandonment and were pronounced mainly during the second half of the 20th century in the post-socialist countries. Political forces in the form of subsidies drove agricultural extensification at the beginning of the 21st century. The drivers for the agricultural intensification as well as urbanisation seem to be similar for both old democratic and post-socialist countries. In contrast, agricultural land abandonment in the old democratic countries was driven by technological, cultural and economic driving forces while in the post-socialist countries the political driving forces were mainly responsible. Changes in systems for subsidies and changes in the agricultural commodity markets are also responsible for different frequencies and rates of extensification of

  3. The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torbacke, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History

    1996-12-01

    The societal function of the historians are pointed out, to describe and explain, in cooperation with the archives, the chain of political, economic, social and cultural events that has shaped the country`s history. The lessons of the past, whether pleasant or unpleasant, should be passed on to the posterity. Open information is an important element in a democratic society and is normally one of the criteria that distinguishes democracy from autocracy. In the closed and controlled information society all that is hushed up and covered up leads to bitterness and rage among the citizens.

  4. The role of the judge in a democratic society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Duquelsky Goméz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The debate on the role of judiciary in a society and the foundations of the democratic legitimacy of its power has recently acquired a singular relevance. This article aims to bring clarity to the discussion, showing how legal theories have followed a pendulum, swinging between those who think the judicial role and hermeneutical task as an intellectual activity -an act of knowledge-and those who see it as a creative activity-an act of will. Reflecting on the role of judges today raises questions about false dichotomies and encourages to collectively build a new legal and political common sense abandoning traditional legal paradigms.

  5. Some Quantum-Like Features of Mass Politics in Two-Party Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    We expand the substantive terrain of QI's reach by illuminating a body of political theory that to date has been elaborated in strictly classical language and formalisms but has complex features that seem to merit generalizations of the problem outside the confines of classicality. The line of research, initiated by Fiorina in the 1980s, seeks to understand the origins and nature of party governance in two-party political systems wherein voters cast partisan ballots in two contests, one that determines partisan control of the executive branch and another that determines party control of a legislature. We describe how research in this area evolved in the last two decades in directions that bring it now to the point where further elaboration and study seem natural in the more general formalistic and philosophical environments embraced in QI research. In the process, we find evidence that a restriction of a classical model that has animated work in the field appears violated in a form that leads one naturally to...

  6. Crisis, neoliberal health policy, and political processes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, A C

    1991-01-01

    The Mexican case represents an orthodox neoliberal health policy in the context of the structural adjustment adopted by the Mexican government in 1983. The social costs of this strategy are very high, including an increase in unemployment, wage depression, regressive redistribution of wealth, and profound changes in social policies. These transformations are reflected in the health sector, where the four main axes of neoliberal policy--expenditure restrictions, targeting, decentralization, and privatization--have been implemented. This represents a change in social policy from a model based on citizens' social rights and the state's obligation to guarantee them, to a model characterized by selective public charity. This strategy has been imposed on society as a result of the Mexican corporative political regime based on a state party system. Since 1985, however, there has been a growing process of independent organization of civil society. This led in the presidential elections of 1988 to the defeat of the candidate of the governing party by the candidate of a popular-democratic opposition front. Although the government party imposed its candidate through electoral fraud, social mobilization against neoliberal policies continues in the midst of an important political crisis that can only be resolved by profound democratization of Mexican society.

  7. Critical Thinking and Political Participation: Development and Assessment of a Casual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith M.

    1988-01-01

    This study assessed a model of the relationship between critical thinking and political participation. Findings indicated that critical thinking has indirect positive effects on orientations toward political participation, that critical thinking positively affects personal control, political efficacy, and democratic attitude, and that personal…

  8. Critical Thinking and Political Participation: Development and Assessment of a Casual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith M.

    1988-01-01

    This study assessed a model of the relationship between critical thinking and political participation. Findings indicated that critical thinking has indirect positive effects on orientations toward political participation, that critical thinking positively affects personal control, political efficacy, and democratic attitude, and that personal…

  9. Attachment to community and civic and political engagement: a case study of students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulianne, Shelley; Brailey, Michelle

    2014-11-01

    Youth's low level of civic and political engagement may detrimentally affect the health of communities and the democratic system. This paper examines the role of community attachment in explaining youth's levels of civic and engagement. This examination requires an evaluation of existing measures of community attachment and their relevance for understanding youth's experiences. The paper uses a student sample, highlighting a group of youth who have a degree of variation in their experiences of community attachment. We find that subjective measures of community attachment are related to volunteering and voting, but the objective measure of community attachment, that is, years of residence, affects voting and not volunteering. Different mechanisms explain civic engagement versus political engagement. As such, different strategies are required to combat low levels of civic versus political engagement.

  10. Team Work and Democratic Learning in Projectmanagement Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidon, Ivan; Rebollar, Ruben; Qvist, Palle

    of Zaragoza, which makes it possible to detect problems of teamwork functioning in groups while they develop their projects, in order to prevent possible failure once projects are completed. The Democratic Learning Questionnaire developed at Aalborg University, which studies the decision-making process within...... project groups in order to obtain an indication of the degree of student participation in a democratic learning system. The results obtained have confirmed the validity of the first questionnaire for the early detection of teamwork functioning problems in groups. The second questionnaire has made....... The functioning of a team will be characterized, among other things, by the way it is organized and the way decisions are reached within it. A new term has appeared lately to refer to this concept: Democratic Learning. This paper shows the results obtained in an experiment carried out at the Universities...

  11. Cliophysics: Socio-political Reliability Theory, Polity Duration and African Political (In)stabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Cherif, Alhaji

    2010-01-01

    Beginning with the Berlin Conference in 1884 - leading to the colonial despotism, to the National Conference of 1989 in Benin - marking the beginning of the democratic renewal, Africa continues to experience various patterns of political-economic regulations, mostly shifting away from autocratic regimes and toward more open governance. The continent has seen an increasing number of incomplete transitions to democracy, resulting in a high vulnerability to outbreaks of conflict [1-6]. Hypotheses for the proneness of the continent to conflicts include the inherent contradictions of being both partly open and repressive, the political incoherence associated with anocratic (semi-democratic) regimes, economic under-development, poor managerial styles, and ethnic politics and polarization [7-15]. However, in the past decades, there has been a fewer political instabilities in anocratic regimes than predicted by historical data and previous studies. Here we develop a simple model of polity duration that explains histo...

  12. Improvement and Path Innovation of Teachers’ Congress System in the Democratic Management Process of Colleges and Universities%高校民主管理进程中教代会制度的完善与路径创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄丽君

    2015-01-01

    Teachers’ congress system is the basic form for teachers to participate in school democratic management according to law. Compared with other democratic management means, it is characterized by wide distribution, popularity of representatives, power law basis, organizational rules, completeness of work system, and diversity of authority. At present, Chinese colleges and universities have the main problems, namely that they take regularly holding teachers’ congress as the only content of system construction and that long-run mechanism is lacked in the closing period of teachers’ congress. Therefore, the teachers’ congress system construction of Chinese colleges and universities shall be improved through establishment of second-level teachers’ congress system, teachers’ congress representatives attending principal offi ce meeting system and teachers’ congress representative inspection system.%教代会制度是教职工依法参与学校民主管理的基本形式,与其他民主管理方式相比,具有广设性和代表的广泛性、强力的法律依据、组织规则和工作制度的完整性、职权的多样性等特点。针对当前我国高校存在将定期召开教代会作为教代会制度建设的全部内容、教代会闭会期间缺少长效运行机制等主要问题,建议通过建立二级教代会制度、教代会代表列席校长办公会制度、教代会代表巡视制度来健全我国高校的教代会制度建设。

  13. The msi and the role of fascism in Italian political culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran GALLEGO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the role of the italian social movement in Italy (MSI in the twentieth century. The key to understand its influence would lie in the peculiarities of the political regime emerged from the ruins of fascism. With the proclamation of the republic many fascists enrolled in the ranks of the christian Democrats and other parties of the right, leaving the MSI as sole heir of fascism. That did not stop working with the christian Democrats through the strategy of «inserimento». When the christian Democrats began their approach to the italian socialist Party, the MSI was clearly excluded and located in a relatively marginal position. Its later resurgence may be explained considering the radical changes in italian politics in the sixties and seventies; circumstances which favoured the arrival of Giorgio Almirante as leader of MSI in 1969. In that period, the MSI presented itself as the political party of restored order and ready to fight subversion (communist itself. During the 80s, the MSI moved between the ‘strategy-Party Protest’ leaded by Almirante and the idea of a ‘civil society Party’ defended by Rauti. In the end, the MSI, after the change of leadership of Almirante by Gianfranco Fini, began a new path which stated loyalty to the values of fascism, strengthened by the crisis of communism. This MSI new discourse eased its growth in circumstances in which the traditional parties and the Italian Republican system as a whole were practically about to collapse. Subsequently, the post-fascist Alianza Nacional emerged; a political formation which later on merged into Forza Italia, leaded by Silvio Berlusconi.

  14. Education for Democracy: A Paper Promise? The Democratic Deficit in Finnish Educational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Rautiainen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents one way of changing the participatory culture of training teachers – the Critical Integrative Teacher Education (CITE programme now being implemented at Jyväskylä University. For the last ten years the Finnish school system has been the centre of considerable international attention because of its success in PISA. The Finnish school, however, has two faces. In the shadow of those good learning outcomes there lurks a democratic deficit in school and a lack of school wellbeing amongst children. This article examines the nature of the Finnish school and teacher education from the perspective of democracy. If participatory culture in Finnish schools is restricted, then the same also applies to teacher education. The long tradition of education as well as the radical school democracy experiment in the early 1970s resulted in the neutralization of teacher education and the removal of politics and politicality. This led to a teacher education with the emphasis on didactics and psychology but with a social viewpoint conspicuous by its absence. Even though the system offers opportunities to implement even radically different training methods, there is little that is done differently.

  15. Legal Corruption, Politically Connected Corporate Governance and Firm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Domadenik, Polona; Prašnikar, Janez; Svejnar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present and test a theory of how political corruption, found in many transition and emerging market economies, affects corporate governance and productive efficiency of firms. Our model predicts that underdeveloped democratic institutions that do not punish political corruption result in political connectedness of firms that in turn has a negative effect on performance. We test this prediction on an almost complete population of Slovenian joint stock companies with 100 or mor...

  16. An analytical framework for a political economy of football

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Wyn

    2007-01-01

    A political economy of football has become more essential as the game has been colonized by elements of the business class. There is a tension between its profit maximizing understanding of football and a more community oriented, democratic vision that seeks to pursue government policy goals. The insights of economics and politics are both necessary to understand the political economy of football, but they should not be hybridized. Economics allows us to understand the distinctive characteris...

  17. The Five Buddha Districts on the Yunnan-Burma Frontier: A Political System Attached to the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiong Ma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Five Buddha Districts system prevailed from the 1790s to the 1880s on the frontier between Yunnan, in Southwest China, and the Burmese Kingdom, in the mountainous areas to the west of the Mekong River. Through more than a century of political mobilization, the Lahu communities in this area became an integrated and militarized society, and their culture was reconstructed in the historical context of ethnic conflicts, competition, and cooperation among the Wa, Dai, and Han Chinese settlers. The political elites of the Five Buddha Districts, however, were monks who had escaped the strict orthodoxy of the Qing government to become local chieftains, or rebels, depending on political changes in southern Yunnan. As a centralized polity, the Five Buddha Districts system was attached to the frontier politics of the Qing state before the coming of European colonial powers. The Qing state provided a sociopolitical space for local groups to develop their political ideals between various powerful Dai-Shan chieftains. The negotiation, competition, and cooperation between the Five Buddha leadership and the Qing, Dai chieftains, and neighboring political powers had been thoroughly integrated into the frontier politics of this interdependent society for more than two hundred years. As the history of the Yunnan-Burma frontier formation shows that no mountain space existed to allow the natives to escape from the state through their shifting agriculture, and anarchism was not practiced by the mountain people who were separated from the state, the author argues that a stateless region like James Scott’s “Zomia” did not historically exist in this region.

  18. The more the merrier? Strengthening the role of regional governance over the fragmented municipal political system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Švikruha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is rather difficult to determine the appropriate proportion and size of a single administrative unit from the principle of its effectiveness. This problem occurs in many European countries, including Slovakia and its geopolitical situation. Based on the observation and analysis, the size of local administration units differs significantly from the comparative measures. The paper discusses the problems of high level fragmentation of the Slovak municipal political system where the effectiveness of regional governance is substantial and often plays a dominant role within the decentralization process. Thus, the exclusive powers at local level are partially or to some extent transferred into the regional perspective. Compared to Nordic countries, the region of Central Europe lacks the comprehensive municipalization process so the authors argue about the options of strengthening the competences of regional governments over the local administration.

  19. 174 Political Conflicts and Godfatherism in Nigeria: A Focus on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2006-03-16

    Mar 16, 2006 ... democratic experiments, but also on the very essence and validity of our ... them out of economic and social doldrums, the political elites maintain ... They spend huge sums of money to sponsor their clients and even hire thugs.

  20. Finding a Place in the Discourse: Film, Literature and the Process of Becoming Politically Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane McDonnell

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the role of the narrative arts in young people’s political subjectivity and democratic learning. Drawing on theoretical insights into the process of subjectification and the relationship between politics and aesthetics, the paper discusses a number of findings from an empirical research project carried out with young people in two arts contexts. Interpreting these in the light of a theoretical framework that privileges a performative understanding of subjectivity, the paper argues that narrative art forms such as literature, film and television play an important role in the ways young people construct and perform their political subjectivity, and that this is an important part of their overall democratic learning. The implications of this for democratic education are discussed and the paper concludes with the suggestion that we need to rethink political literacy, civic engagement and democratic learning in aesthetic and imaginative terms.

  1. Constituting the polity, constituting the demos: on the place of the all affected interests principle in democratic theory and in resolving the democratic boundary problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Owen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers the role of the ‘all affected interests’ principle in democratic theory, focusing on debates concerning its form, substance and relationship to the resolution of the democratic boundary problem. It begins by defending an ‘all actually affected’ formulation of the principle against Goodin's ‘incoherence argument’ critique of this formulation, before addressing issues concerning how to specify the choice set appropriate to the principle. Turning to the substance of the principle, the argument rejects Nozick's dismissal of its intuitive appeal and considers the two arguments advanced in favour of the principle as a criterion of democratic inclusion: the interlinked interests argument and the tracking power argument. It is shown that neither of these arguments can substantiate a view of the principle as a criterion of democratic inclusion, although both ground a constitutional understanding of the principle as specifying the scope of a duty of justification. It is then proposed that the principle can play an important role in a two-stage resolution of the democratic boundary problem in which it addresses the question of who is entitled to inclusion in the ‘pre-political’ demos that determines whether to constitute a polity. The second stage of this resolution requires an answer to the question of who should constitute the ‘political demos’, that is, the demos of a constituted polity and it is argued that a version of the “all subjected persons” principle can appropriately play this role.

  2. İbn Haldun’un Siyaset Teorisi Ve Siyasal Sistem Sınıflandırması Political Theory And Politic System Classification Of Ibn Khaldun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ÇİFTÇİ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The past of the scientific works of administration methods is quiteold. The struggle of finding out the best one by examining politicalsystems comperatively were not only limited with the past. It has beencarried on until today. As well as the works that have been performed inWest since the Ancient Greek Period, The Islamic World have submittedmany precious works in aforementioned topic. One of those whosubmitted precious works for political theory and politic systemclassification was Ibn Khaldun. He, with the light of his experience andobservations as someone who have taken part in politic life itself, hasexamined politic systems that could have been considered as beyondfrom his era. While the politic system classification has decreased tominimum with the theoratic thought came into prominence in themiddle age of the west, In Islamic World, Researching the politicalsystems which have been submitted by Ibn Khaldun without dependingon the absolute theoratic thoughts keeps this essay valuable. In thisrespect, the very place of Ibn Khaldun in social sciences is consideredprimarily. Afterward, The concepts of State, Relationship andPresidency-Estate which are irrevocable for his politic theory areelaborated. Finally, Politic system classification of Ibn Khaldun, Thebasic contect, is studied generaly. Ibn Khaldun bisects them astheoratic based system and Estate based system whilke secting politicalsystems. He also generalizes Estate based policy in two main topics asabsolute estate and politic estate. What Ibn Khaldun named andidealized administration method as a theoratic based policy isCaliphate or Imamate. Yönetim şekilleri ile ilgili bilimsel çalışmaların geçmişi oldukça eskidir. Siyasal sistemleri karşılaştırmalı şekilde inceleyerek en iyisini bulma çabası sadece geçmişle sınırlı kalmamış günümüze kadar da devam edegelmiştir. En iyi yönetimin nasıl olması gerektiği üzerine Antik Yunan döneminden itibaren Bat

  3. Special Report: Political Violence and Democratic Uncertainty in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Washington, D.C. • María otero (Vice Chair), President, ACCION International, Boston, Mass. • Betty f. Bumpers, Founder and former President, Peace Links...well- planned intervention by Ethiopian forces in December 2006. Aside from its regional implications, the conflict suggests a smolder- ing tension among...from a national census of vital bureaucratic and administrative importance in a decentralized state such as Ethiopia, it is an invalu- able planning

  4. Meritocratic administration and democratic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornell, Agnes; Lapuente, Victor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a hypothesis for understanding democratic stability based on the distinction between politicized and meritocratic bureaucracies. We argue that in a politicized administration, the professional careers of large numbers of government officials depend directly upon which party wins...... the elections. This increases the likelihood that the government will take opportunistic actions aimed at surviving in office at any cost; that is, benefiting core supporters at the expense of other groups. In turn, this may foster pre-emptive actions from the opposition, such as military coups. Conversely...... stability. Empirically, we illustrate the mechanisms with two well-documented cases of democratic transitions that enshrined a politicized administration – Spain (1876–1936) and Venezuela (1958–1998) – and one transition that kept a meritocratic bureaucracy, Spain (1975–)....

  5. How Many Political Parties Should Brazil Have? A Data-Driven Method to Assess and Reduce Fragmentation in Multi-Party Political Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz de Melo, Pedro O S

    2015-01-01

    In June 2013, Brazil faced the largest and most significant mass protests in a generation. These were exacerbated by the population's disenchantment towards its highly fragmented party system, which is composed by a very large number of political parties. Under these circumstances, presidents are constrained by informal coalition governments, bringing very harmful consequences to the country. In this work I propose ARRANGE, a dAta dRiven method foR Assessing and reduciNG party fragmEntation in a country. ARRANGE uses as input the roll call data for congress votes on bills and amendments as a proxy for political preferences and ideology. With that, ARRANGE finds the minimum number of parties required to house all congressmen without decreasing party discipline. When applied to Brazil's historical roll call data, ARRANGE was able to generate 31 distinct configurations that, compared with the status quo, have (i) a significant smaller number of parties, (ii) a higher discipline of partisans towards their parties and (iii) a more even distribution of partisans into parties. ARRANGE is fast and parsimonious, relying on a single, intuitive parameter.

  6. Is Participation Rooted in Colonialism? Agricultural Innovation Systems and Participation in the Netherlands Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, H.

    2007-01-01

    Participation is connected to technology through the notion of innovation systems. To make the connection work, it is argued, the focus has to shift from a framing of participation in terms of democratic entitlement to a framing in terms of the settlement of issues (i.e. politics from below), The in

  7. Is Participation Rooted in Colonialism? Agricultural Innovation Systems and Participation in the Netherlands Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, H.

    2007-01-01

    Participation is connected to technology through the notion of innovation systems. To make the connection work, it is argued, the focus has to shift from a framing of participation in terms of democratic entitlement to a framing in terms of the settlement of issues (i.e. politics from below), The in

  8. The Main Features and the Key Challenges of the Education System in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chiu-Kuei Chang; Lin, Lung-Chi; Chen, Chun-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Taiwan has undergone radical innovation of its educational system in the wake of political liberalization and democratization, with a request for a change in the idea which diverts from "de-centralization" to "individualization." The reforms have led to two main features of pluralism and generalization of education in our…

  9. Brazilian pharmaceutical diplomacy: social democratic principles versus soft power interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Current debates concerning the rise of health diplomacy are polarized between competing international relations theories of realism, based on power politics, and constructivist approaches, which emphasize the norms, values, and identities shaping foreign policies. A case study of Brazil's health diplomacy over the past 10 years, focusing on issues related to pharmaceuticals, seeks to provide data to assess these theories. The country's intellectual property disputes, multilateral lobbying efforts, and foreign assistance programs are contrasted with those of the United States, Mexico, and other countries. Instead of viewing Brazilian efforts as a form of soft power, the evidence suggests that the origins of Brazil's involvement and continued efforts in this arena stem more from values based on human rights and social democratic principles. A close examination of domestic political considerations leads to a more nuanced understanding of the drivers behind a country's health diplomacy.

  10. Nominating Procedures in Democratic Polities

    OpenAIRE

    Kasapović, Mirjana

    2002-01-01

    One of the focuses of the study of political parties at the end of the 20th century has been the organizational structure and the relations within political parties, including the nominating procedures for the candidate selection for general elections. The manner in which parties fulfill their recruiting function and, eventually, the quality of the political and the governing elite in a “party” state directly depends on these procedures. Typologically, there are differences between the nomina...

  11. Sexual Politics and Religious Actors in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pecheny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of religious actors in sexual politics in Argentina. Sexual politics has become a critical battlefield when it comes to the role of religion in the Argentinean liberal-democratic regime, while gender and sexuality have been the main political targets of religious institutions since the 1980s and 1990s. In this context, progressive legislation on gender, sexual, and reproductive rights was passed, including same-sex marriage and the recognition of transgender identities, despite the opposition of the Catholic Church. Paradoxically, abortion remains largely illegal, allowed only in exceptional circumstances.

  12. Leadership, Gender, and Politics: Political Perceptions and Participation of Young Female Voters in a Presidential Primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwart, Mary Christine; Winfrey, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    The political arena, where historically women in the United States have been under-represented, provides an important laboratory for examining leadership and gender via the candidacy of now Secretary of State Hilary Rodham Clinton, who in 2008 was the first woman to run competitively for the Democratic presidential nomination. This study sought to…

  13. A Choice, Not an Echo: Polarization and the Transformation of the American Party System

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenfeld, Sam Hoffmann

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation offers an intellectual and institutional history of party polarization and ideological realignment in the postwar United States. It treats the construction of an ideologically sorted party system as a political project carried out by conscious actors within and around the Democratic and Republican parties. The work of these activists, interest groups, and political elites helped to produce, by the last decades of the twentieth century, an unpredicted and still-continuing er...

  14. Rolling-out Lean in the Saskatchewan Health Care System: Politics Derailing Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom McIntosh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Following on the work of Marchildon (2013 this paper examines the political challenges faced by the government of Saskatchewan in rolling out their Lean reforms to the entire provincial health system. The government’s Lean reforms were meant as a vehicle to empower patients and workers in the redesign of service delivery and the creation of a patient-centred system. Lean focuses on continuous improvement, priority setting, employee engagement and the elimination of waste. The reforms appear to have been derailed to a significant degree insofar as key actors inside the system, the media and the public have challenged the goals of the reform, the Lean methodology and process, as well as the cost of the consultants employed to oversee the process. The government’s implementation of the roll-out suffered both from the ability of key actors to withdraw their support and challenge the viability of the reforms in public as well as from a public relations perspective that put the government on the defensive about how people inside the system were being treated with the reforms. As the government moves forward it will have to adjust its implementation processes and strategy in order to overcome the now strong resistance within the health sector.

  15. Rolling-out Lean in the Saskatchewan Health Care System: Politics Derailing Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom McIntosh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Following on the work of Marchildon (2013 this paper examines the political challenges faced by the government of Saskatchewan in rolling out their Lean reforms to the entire provincial health system. The government’s Lean reforms were meant as a vehicle to empower patients and workers in the redesign of service delivery and the creation of a patient-centred system. Lean focuses on continuous improvement, priority setting, employee engagement and the elimination of waste. The reforms appear to have been derailed to a significant degree insofar as key actors inside the system, the media and the public have challenged the goals of the reform, the Lean methodology and process, as well as the cost of the consultants employed to oversee the process. The government’s implementation of the roll-out suffered both from the ability of key actors to withdraw their support and challenge the viability of the reforms in public as well as from a public relations perspective that put the government on the defensive about how people inside the system were being treated with the reforms. As the government moves forward it will have to adjust its implementation processes and strategy in order to overcome the now strong resistance within the health sector.

  16. ``Political'' Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to

  17. Social Mobilization and Reaffirmation of Democratic Participation : The Brotherhood as Expression of a New Relational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Crystine Corrêa Sanches

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Democracy represents a fundamental right for citizens. Democracy and citizen par- ticipation are developing and they complement each other, given that there is no demo- cracy without the active and conscious participation of citizens in the political process. This democratic participation occurs through tools that enable the practice of citizenship, and, among them, the social movements stand out. There is a direct relationship between the social movements and democracy: whilst the social movements exist only in demo- cratic systems, democracy requires the participation of civil society with the state. The social movements consist on a structured organization that has the purpose of uniting people to defend and promote rights, containing social identity and a particular way of thinking and acting collectively to achieve the common good and a new sort of life. The particularities of the social movements let one glimpse that the major expression of civic participation contributes to a cultural change in society, given that, with common goals, the differences are overcome, encouraging a relatedness which looks for ethics, sharing and fraternity. The understanding of fraternity in its various forms – historical, political, legal and ethical – contributes to a development in respect among people, acceptance of socio-economic and cultural differences, emphasizing the feeling of a group belonging. This way, this article aims to analyse social movements and its cooperation in building a new relational culture, more Humane, Fair And Fraternal.

  18. The Political Economy of Financial Systems : Evidence from Suffrage Reforms in the Last Two Centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Lambert, T.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Initially, voting rights were limited to wealthy elites providing political support for stock markets. The franchise expansion induces the median voter to provide political support for banking development as this new electorate has lower financial holdings and benefits less from the uncert

  19. The institutional structure and political economy of food distribution systems: A comparative analysis of six Eastern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    are analysed and important developments in the institutional structure are noted. The internal political economy of distribution channels in Eastern Europe is analysed and the modernisation of distribution systems discussed. Finally, some conclusions are offered and areas for future research suggested....

  20. Warhead politics: Livermore and the competitive system of nuclear weapon design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Sybil [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    From the 1950s onward, US evolved a two-laboratory system to design, develop, and test nuclear weapons. LANL (New Mexico) dates from World War II. The founding in 1952 of LLNL in California effectively established the two-laboratory system. Despite essentially identical missions, LANL and LLNL adopted different strategies and approaches to the development of nuclear weapons. This thesis looks to their joint history for an explanation of this and consequent questions (how did the two-laboratory system originate and evolve? how did it function? what impact did it have on nuclear weapons development?) The incentives and constraints that shaped laboratory strategies and outputs was determined by military demand for nuclear weapons, an informal mandate against laboratory duplication, congressional support for competition, and Livermore`s role as the ``second lab.`` This thesis discusses the laboratories` role in the arms race, organizational strategies for coping with changing political environments, dynamics of technological innovation, and the leverage of policymakers over large organizations.