WorldWideScience

Sample records for deltah degrees deltas

  1. Lattice energies of apatites and the estimation of DeltaH f degrees (PO 4 3-, g).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Natalie J; Yoder, Claude H; Jenkins, H Donald Brooke

    2004-04-01

    Experimentally based lattice energies are calculated for the apatite family of double salts M(5)(PO(4))(3)X, where M is a divalent metal cation (Ca, Sr, Ba) and X is hydroxide or a halide. These values are also shown to be estimable, generally to within 4%, using the recently derived Glasser-Jenkins equation, U(POT) = AI(2I/V(m))(1/3), where A = 121.39 kJ mol(-)(1). The apatites exhibiting greater covalent character (e.g., M = Pb, Cd, etc.) are less well reproduced but are within 8% of the experimentally based value. The lattice energy for ionic apatites (having identical lattice ionic strengths, I) takes the particularly simple form U(POT)/kJ mol(-)(1) = 26680/(V(m)/nm(3))(1/3), reproducing cycle values of U(POT) well when V(m) is estimated by ion volume summation and employing a volume for the PO(4)(3)(-) ion (not previously quantified with an associated error) of 0.063 +/- 0.003 nm(3). A value for the enthalpy of formation of the gaseous phosphate ion, DeltaH(f)( ) degrees (PO(4)(3)(-), g), is absent from current thermochemical tabulations. Examination of solution and solid state thermochemical cycles for apatites, however, leads us to a remarkably consistent value of 321.8 +/- 1.2 kJ mol(-)(1). Experimental and estimated lattice energies were used along with other thermodynamic data to determine enthalpies, entropies, and free energies of dissolution for apatites of uncertain stabilities. These dissolution values are compared with the corresponding values for stable apatites and are used to rationalize the relative instability of certain derivatives.

  2. [Quantitative relationship between molecular structure of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and enthalpy change (deltaH), entropy change (deltaS') in chromatographic process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Dai, Chaozheng

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between the rule of chromatographic retention value and molecular structure is an important part in the research of chromatographic thermodynamics. The topological index structural parameter JG and the topological index adjoining parameter LJ are put forward. Parameter J(G) describes the correlation of quantity and position of chlorine atoms in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) molecules. Parameter L(J) describes the ortho-position correlation of chlorine atoms in PCB molecules. The relational expression between the PCB molecular structures and their enthalpy change (deltaH), entropy change (deltaS') in chromatographic process was discovered. The values of enthalpy change and entropy change for about 140 kinds of polychlorinated biphenyls in chromatographic process on three stationary phases, DB-1, DB-5 and DB-1701, were determined. In comparison with deltaH and deltaS' of the experimental data those calculated from the relational expression had the average relative deviations for deltaH and deltaS' are 0.56% -0.97% and 0.55% - 1.06%, respectively.

  3. The lateral-directional characteristics of a 74-degree Delta wing employing gothic planform vortex flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    The low speed lateral/directional characteristics of a generic 74 degree delta wing body configuration employing the latest generation, gothic planform vortex flaps was determined. Longitudinal effects are also presented. The data are compared with theoretical estimates from VORSTAB, an extension of the Quasi vortex lattice Method of Lan which empirically accounts for vortex breakdown effects in the calculation of longitudinal and lateral/directional aerodynamic characteristics. It is indicated that leading edge deflections of 30 and 40 degrees reduce the magnitude of the wing effective dihedral relative to the baseline for a specified angle of attack or lift coefficient. For angles of attack greater than 15 degrees, these flap deflections reduce the configuration directional stability despite improved vertical tail effectiveness. It is shown that asymmetric leading edge deflections are inferior to conventional ailerons in generating rolling moments. VORSTAB calculations provide coarse lateral/directional estimates at low to moderate angles of attack. The theory does not account for vortex flow induced, vertical tail effects.

  4. Pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions in chiral effective field theory with Delta(1232)-degrees of freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Filin, A A; Epelbaum, E; Hanhart, C; Krebs, H; Myhrer, F

    2013-01-01

    A calculation of the pion-production operator up to next-to-next-to-leading order for s-wave pions is performed within chiral effective field theory. In the previous study [Phys. Rev. C 85, 054001 (2012)] we discussed the contribution of the pion-nucleon loops at the same order. Here we extend that study to include explicit Delta degrees of freedom and the 1/m_N^2 corrections to the pion-production amplitude. Using the power counting scheme where the Delta-nucleon mass difference is of the order of the characteristic momentum scale in the production process, we calculate all tree-level and loop diagrams involving Delta up to next-to-next-to-leading order. The long-range part of the Delta loop contributions is found to be of similar size to that from the pion-nucleon loops which supports the counting scheme. The net effect of pion-nucleon and Delta loops is expected to play a crucial role in understanding of the neutral pion production data.

  5. Compton scattering from the proton in an effective field theory with explicit Delta degrees of freedom

    CERN Document Server

    McGovern, Judith A; Grießhammer, Harald W

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the proton Compton-scattering differential cross section for photon energies up to 325 MeV using Chiral Effective Field Theory and extract new values for the electric and magnetic polarisabilities of the proton. Our EFT treatment builds in the key physics in two different regimes: photon energies around the pion mass ("low energy") and the higher energies where the Delta(1232) resonance plays a key role. The Compton amplitude is complete at N4L0, O(e^2 delta^4), in the low-energy region, and at NLO, O(e^2 delta^0), in the resonance region. Throughout, the Delta-pole graphs are dressed with pi-N loops and gamma-N-Delta vertex corrections. A statistically consistent database of proton Compton experiments is used to constrain the free parameters in our amplitude: the M1 gamma-N-Delta transition strength b_1 (which is fixed in the resonance region) and the polarisabilities alpha and beta (which are fixed from data below 170 MeV). In order to obtain a reasonable fit we find it necessary to add the spin ...

  6. Effects of. Delta. -isobar degrees of freedom on the reactions sup 3 He(n,. gamma. ) sup 4 He and sup 3 He(p,e sup +. nu. sub e ) sup 4 He at low-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiavilla, R.

    1991-01-01

    The cross sections of the radiative {sup 3}He(n,{gamma}){sup 4}He and weak {sup 3}He(p,e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}){sup 4}He capture reactions at thermal neutron and keV proton energies have been calculated with the Variational Monte Carlo method. The ground state and low-energy continuum wave functions have been determined variationally from a realistic Hamiltonian, and include both nucleon and {Delta}-isobar degrees of freedom. The electroweak transition operator contains one- and two-body components in the N + {Delta} Hilbert space.

  7. Effects of {Delta}-isobar degrees of freedom on the reactions {sup 3}He(n,{gamma}){sup 4}He and {sup 3}He(p,e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}){sup 4}He at low-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiavilla, R.

    1991-12-31

    The cross sections of the radiative {sup 3}He(n,{gamma}){sup 4}He and weak {sup 3}He(p,e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}){sup 4}He capture reactions at thermal neutron and keV proton energies have been calculated with the Variational Monte Carlo method. The ground state and low-energy continuum wave functions have been determined variationally from a realistic Hamiltonian, and include both nucleon and {Delta}-isobar degrees of freedom. The electroweak transition operator contains one- and two-body components in the N + {Delta} Hilbert space.

  8. Estimation of enthalpy data for reactions involving gas phase ions utilizing lattice potential energies: fluoride ion affinities (FIA) and pF- values of mSbF5(l) and mSbF5(g) (m = 1, 2, 3), AsF5(g), AsF5.SO2(c). Standard enthalpies of formation: Delta(f)H degrees (SbmF5m+1)(-),g) (m = 1, 2, 3), Delta(f)H degrees (AsF6(-),g), and Delta(f)H degrees (NF4+,g).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, H Donald Brooke; Roobottom, H K; Passmore, Jack

    2003-05-01

    Fluoride ion affinity (FIA) values (and the associated pF(-) values) are difficult to establish experimentally for pentafluorides of arsenic and antimony. Our approach, utilizing estimated lattice potential energies, provides a further opportunity to establish this data for liquid (and gaseous) SbF(5) and gaseous AsF(5) which compliments values obtained using ab initio routes for monomeric gas phase molecules and adds to results based on rigorous methods. A strategy is developed whereby construction of (multiple) Born-Fajans-Haber cycles centered around the (target) FIA reaction of interest yield a plethora of estimates for the enthalpy change of interest. This general approach is illustrated here by specific estimation of some experimentally based FIA values of SbF(5) and AsF(5). FIA values/kJ mol(-1) and pF- values estimated in this paper are FIA(SbF(5),l) approximately equal to -475 (+/-63), pF-(SbF(5),l) = 11.4 (+/-1.5); FIA(SbF(5),g) approximately equal to -506 (+/-63), pF-(SbF(5),g) = 12.4 (+/-1.5); FIA(2SbF(5),l) approximately equal to -609 (+/-63), pF- (2SbF(5),l) = 14.6 (+/-1.5); FIA (2SbF(5),g) approximately equal to -671 (+/-63), pF- (2SbF(5),g) = 16.0 (+/-1.5); FIA (3SbF(5),l) approximately -635 (+/-39), pF(-) (3SbF(5),l) = 15.2 (+/-0.9); FIA(3SbF(5),g) approximately -728 (+/-39), pF(-) (3SbF(5),g) = 17.4 (+/-0.9); FIA(AsF(5),g) approximately equal to -421 (+/-22), pF(-) (AsF(5),g) = 10.1 (+/- 0.5); and FIA (AsF(5).SO(2),s) approximately equal to -390 (+/-22), pF(-) (AsF(5).SO(2),s) = 9.3 (+/-0.5). Related standard enthalpies of formation (in kJ mol(-1)) are also assigned: Delta(f)H degrees (SbF(6)(-),g) approximately equal to -2075 (+/-52); Delta(f)H degrees (Sb(2)F(11)(-),g) approximately equal to -3520 (+/-63); Delta(f)H degrees (Sb(3)F(16)(-),g) approximately equal to -4874 (+/-39); Delta(f)H degrees (NF(4)(+),g) approximately equal to 903 (+/-32); Delta(f)H degrees (AsF(6)(-),g) approximately equal to -1907 (+/-22).

  9. Thermochemical properties, DeltafH degrees (298), S degrees (298), and Cp degrees (T), for n-butyl and n-pentyl hydroperoxides and the alkyl and peroxy radicals, transition states, and kinetics for intramolecular hydrogen shift reactions of the peroxy radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Bozzelli, Joseph W; Kardos, Lisa M

    2007-07-19

    Alkyl radicals in atmospheric and combustion environments undergo a rapid association with molecular oxygen (3O2) to form an alkyl peroxy radical (ROO*). One important reaction of these peroxy radicals is the intramolecular H-shift (intramolecular abstraction) to form a hydroperoxide alkyl radical (R'*COOH), where the hydroperoxide alkyl radical may undergo chemical activation reaction with O2 and result in chain branching at moderate to low temperatures. The thermochemistry and trends in kinetic parameters for the hydrogen shift reactions from each carbon (4-8-member-ring TST's) in n-butyl and n-pentyl peroxy radicals (CCCCOO* and CCCCCOO*) are analyzed using density functional and ab initio calculation methods. Thermochemical properties, DeltafH degrees (298 K), C-H bond energies, S degrees (298 K), and Cp degrees (T) of saturated linear C4 and C5 aliphatic peroxides (ROOH), as well as the corresponding hydroperoxide alkyl radicals (R'*COOH), are determined. DeltafH degrees (298 K) are obtained from isodesmic reactions and the total energies of the CBS-QB3 and B3LYP computational methods. Contributions to the entropy and the heat capacity from translation, vibration, and external rotation are calculated using the rigid-rotor-harmonic-oscillator approximation based on the CBS-QB3 frequencies and structures. The results indicate that pre-exponential factors, A(T), decrease with the increase of the ring size (4-8-member-ring TS, H-atom included). The DeltaH for 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-member rings in n-butyl (and n-pentyl) peroxy are 40.8 (40.8), 31.4 (31.5), 20.5 (20.0), 22.6-p (19.4) kcal mol(-1), respectively. The DeltaH for the 8-member ring in n-pentylperoxy is 23.8-p kcal mol(-1), All abstractions are from secondary (-CH2-) groups except those marked (-p), which are from primary sites. Enthalpy and barrier values from the B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,p) and BHandHLYP/6-311G(d,p) methods are compared with CBS-QB3 results. The B3LYP results show good agreement with the higher

  10. Observational $\\Delta\

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Antonio García; Monteiro, Mário J P F G; Suárez, Juan Carlos; Reese, Daniel R; Pascual-Granado, Javier; Garrido, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Delta Scuti ($\\delta$ Sct) stars are intermediate-mass pulsators, whose intrinsic oscillations have been studied for decades. However, modelling their pulsations remains a real theoretical challenge, thereby even hampering the precise determination of global stellar parameters. In this work, we used space photometry observations of eclipsing binaries with a $\\delta$ Sct component to obtain reliable physical parameters and oscillation frequencies. Using that information, we derived an observational scaling relation between the stellar mean density and a frequency pattern in the oscillation spectrum. This pattern is analogous to the solar-like large separation but in the low order regime. We also show that this relation is independent of the rotation rate. These findings open the possibility of accurately characterizing this type of pulsator and validate the frequency pattern as a new observable for $\\delta$ Sct stars.

  11. Delta robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, J.L.; Van der Wijk, V.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a delta robot comprising a stationary base (2) and a movable platform (3) that is connected to the base with three chains of links (4,5,6), and comprising a balancing system incorporating at least one pantograph (7) for balancing the robot's center of mass, wherein the at le

  12. Delta robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, J.L.; Van der Wijk, V.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a delta robot comprising a stationary base (2) and a movable platform (3) that is connected to the base with three chains of links (4,5,6), and comprising a balancing system incorporating at least one pantograph (7) for balancing the robot's center of mass, wherein the at le

  13. Quantitative modeling of degree-degree correlation in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Niño, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the modeling of degree-degree correlation in complex networks. Thus, a simple function, \\Delta(k', k), describing specific degree-to- degree correlations is considered. The function is well suited to graphically depict assortative and disassortative variations within networks. To quantify degree correlation variations, the joint probability distribution between nodes with arbitrary degrees, P(k', k), is used. Introduction of the end-degree probability function as a basic variable allows using group theory to derive mathematical models for P(k', k). In this form, an expression, representing a family of seven models, is constructed with the needed normalization conditions. Applied to \\Delta(k', k), this expression predicts a nonuniform distribution of degree correlation in networks, organized in two assortative and two disassortative zones. This structure is actually observed in a set of four modeled, technological, social, and biological networks. A regression study performed...

  14. Evolution of coordination degree of eco-economic system and early-warning in the Yangtze River Delta%长江三角洲地区生态经济系统协调度及其预警

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhenbo; FANG Chuanglin; CHENG Shaowen; WANG Jing

    2013-01-01

    @@%On the basis of Landsat TM data of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) Economic Zone in 1991,2001 and 2008,this article,taking 90 counties in this region as study units,built spatial data transformation models,ecosystem service value (ESV) and coordination degree of eco-economic system (CDES) models.With the aid of ArcGIS9.3,mass grid and vector data has been processed for spatial analyses.ESV and CDES indexes have demonstrated the relationship between economic development and eco-environment system and its evolution characteristics in the researched areas.Furthermore,the indexes have also been used for functional zoning and pattern recognition.Some results can be shown as follows.Firstly,since 1991,land use in the YRD has greatly changed:urban land area has increased primarily from original paddy land,dry land,grassland,garden plot and other land.Secondly,the ESV model has proved the deterioration trend of the YRD ecological system from 1991 to 2001 and slower degradation trend during 2001-2008.Also,it is illustrated that land-use conversion from water area and paddy field to urban area and dry land could cause great damage to ecosystem stabilization.Thirdly,GDP in the central and southern parts of the YRD is higher than that in the northern part since 1991.GDP growth rate in the central part is higher than that in the northern part during 1991-2001.This growth rate in the central part is also higher than that in the southern and northern parts of the YRD from 2001 to 2008.Fourthly,the YRD could be categorized into 12 types of subregions in terms of CDES index.According to its spatial characteristic of CDES index value in the study area,eco-economic conflict area with low CDES value which is located in the central part is surrounded by eco-coordinated areas with high CDES values.This illustrates a core-periphery spatial structure exists in the YRD.During 1991-2001,the CDES value implied the convergent deterioration trend of eco-economic system in the study area

  15. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Delta III—an evolutionary delta growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvesen, R. J.; Simpson, J. S.

    1996-03-01

    In order to remain competitive in the future and expand the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace market share, MDA has developed an expendable launch system strategy that devices cost-effective launch systems from the Delta II with a growth vehicle configuration called Delta III. The Delta III evolves from the Delta II launch system through development of a larger payload fairing (4-meter diameter), new cryogenically propelled upper stage, new first stage fuel tank, and larger strap-on solid rocket motors. We are developing the Delta III using Integrated Product Development Teams that capitalize on the experience base that has led us to a world record breaking mission success of 49 consecutive Delta II missions. The Delta III first-launch capability is currently planned for the spring of 1998 in support of our first spacecraft customer, Hughes Space and Communications International.

  17. The Delta 2 launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, Gilbert W., Sr.

    1991-12-01

    The utilization of the Delta 2 as the vehicle for launching Aristoteles into its near Sun synchronous orbit is addressed. Delta is NASA's most reliable launch vehicle and is well suited for placing the present Aristoteles spacecraft into a 400 m circular orbit. A summary of some of the Delta 2 flight parameters is presented. Diagrams of a typical Delta 2 two stage separation are included along with statistics on delta reliability and launch plans.

  18. Delta Plaza kohvik = Delta Plaza cafe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Tiiu Truusi tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Büroohoone Delta Plaza arhitektid Marika Lõoke ja Jüri Okas (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke)

  19. Delta Plaza kohvik = Delta Plaza cafe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Tiiu Truusi tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Büroohoone Delta Plaza arhitektid Marika Lõoke ja Jüri Okas (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke)

  20. Indicators of radioresistance modified by radioprotective agents report 1. delta. pO/sub 2/ as indicator of degree of mexamine-induced enhancement of radioresistance of rat bone marrow. [X rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhdestvenskii, L.M.; Nikolaeva, S.I.

    1978-01-01

    The indicator approach to evaluation of effects of radioprotective agents is substantiated. A correlation was obtained between hypoxic and radioprotective effects of mexamine, given 5 min prior to irradiation, in rat bone marrow cells in vivo. An evaluation was made of both mean effectiveness of varying degrees of hypoxia and effectiveness in an individual animal on the basis of the DMF criterion.

  1. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P. (eds.)

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta ..delta..(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe ..delta..-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  2. Delta hedging strategies comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico; Ortobelli, S.; Rachev, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we implement dynamic delta hedging strategies based on several option pricing models. We analyze different subordinated option pricing models and we examine delta hedging costs using ex-post daily prices of S&P 500. Furthermore, we compare the performance of each subordinated model ...

  3. Counting independent sets of a fixed size in graphs with a given minimum degree

    CERN Document Server

    Engbers, John

    2012-01-01

    Galvin showed that for all fixed $\\delta$ and sufficiently large $n$, the $n$-vertex graph with minimum degree $\\delta$ that admits the most independent sets is the complete bipartite graph $K_{\\delta,n-\\delta}$. He conjectured that except perhaps for some small values of $t$, the same graph yields the maximum count of independent sets of size $t$ for each possible $t$. Evidence for this conjecture was recently provided by Alexander, Cutler, and Mink, who showed that for all triples $(n,\\delta, t)$ with $t\\geq 3$, no $n$-vertex {\\em bipartite} graph with minimum degree $\\delta$ admits more independent sets of size $t$ than $K_{\\delta,n-\\delta}$. Here we make further progress. We show that for all triples $(n,\\delta,t)$ with $\\delta \\leq 3$ and $t\\geq 3$, no $n$-vertex graph with minimum degree $\\delta$ admits more independent sets of size $t$ than $K_{\\delta,n-\\delta}$, and we obtain the same conclusion for $\\delta > 3$ and $t \\geq 2\\delta +1$. Our proofs lead us naturally to the study of an interesting famil...

  4. Horizontal Symmetries $\\Delta(150)$ and $\\Delta(600)$

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, C S

    2013-01-01

    Using group theory of mixing to examine all finite subgroups of SU(3) with an order less than 512, we found recently that only the group $\\Delta(150)$ can give rise to a correct reactor angle $\\th_{13}$ of neutrino mixing without any free parameter. It predicts $\\sin^22\\th_{13}=0.11$ and a sub-maximal atmospheric angle with $\\sin^22\\th_{23}=0.94$, in good agreement with experiment. The solar angle $\\th_{12}$, the CP phase $\\d$, and the neutrino masses $m_i$ are left as free parameters. In this article we provide more details of this case, discuss possible gain and loss by introducing right-handed symmetries, and/or valons to construct dynamical models. A simple model is discussed where the solar angle agrees with experiment, and all its mixing parameters can be obtained from the group $\\Delta(600)$ by symmetry alone. The promotion of $\\Delta(150)$ to $\\Delta(600)$ is on the one hand analogous to the promotion of $S_3$ to $S_4$ in the presence of tribimaximal mixing, and on the other hand similar to the extens...

  5. Delta-excitations and the three-nucleon force

    CERN Document Server

    Epelbaum, E; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2007-01-01

    We study the three-nucleon force in chiral effective field theory with explicit Delta-resonance degrees of freedom. We show that up to next-to-next-to-leading order, the only contribution to the isospin symmetric three-nucleon force involving the spin-3/2 degrees of freedom is given by the two-pion-exchange diagram with an intermediate delta, frequently called the Fujita-Miyazawa force. We also analyze the leading isospin-breaking corrections due to the delta. For that, we give the first analysis of the delta quartet mass splittings in chiral effective field theory. The charge-symmetry breaking three-nucleon force due to an intermediate delta excitation is small, of the order of a few keV.

  6. Automatic Detection of Magnetic delta in Sunspot Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Padinhatteeri, Sreejith; Bloomfield, D Shaun; Gallagher, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    Large and magnetically complex sunspot groups are known to be associated with flares. To date, the Mount Wilson scheme has been used to classify sunspot groups based on their morphological and magnetic properties. The most flare prolific class, the delta sunspot-group, is characterised by opposite polarity umbrae within a common penumbra, separated by less than 2 degrees. In this article, we present a new system, called the Solar Monitor Active Region Tracker - Delta Finder (SMART-DF), that can be used to automatically detect and classify magnetic deltas in near-realtime. Using continuum images and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we first estimate distances between opposite polarity umbrae. Opposite polarity pairs having distances of less that 2 degrees are then identified, and if these pairs are found to share a common penumbra, they are identified as a magnetic delta configuration. The algorithm was compared to manual delta detect...

  7. On the width of N-Delta and Delta-Delta states

    CERN Document Server

    Niskanen, J A

    2016-01-01

    It is seen by a coupled-channel calculation that in the two-baryon N-Delta or Delta-Delta system the width of the state is greatly diminished due to the relative kinetic energy of the two baryons, since the internal energy of the particles, available for pionic decay, is smaller. A similar state dependent effect arises from the centrifugal barrier in N-Delta or Delta-Delta systems with non-zero orbital angular momentum. The double-Delta width can become even smaller than the free width of a single Delta. This has some bearing to the interpretation of the d'(2380) resonance recently discovered at COSY.

  8. geomorphology_delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Surficial geology of the Delta area of California by Brian Atwater of the U.S. Geological Survey. Source maps are from the USGS publication MF-1401. This digital...

  9. NATO-3C/Delta launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    NATO-3C, the third in a series of NATO defense-related communication satellites, is scheduled to be launched on a delta vehicle from the Eastern Test Range no earlier than November 15, 1978. NATO-3A and -3B were successfully launched by Delta vehicles in April 1976 and January 1977, respectively. The NATO-3C spacecraft will be capable of transmitting voice, data, facsimile, and telex messages among military ground stations. The launch vehicle for the NATO-3C mission will be the Delta 2914 configuration. The launch vehicle is to place the spacecraft in a synchronous transfer orbit. The spacecraft Apogee Kick motor is to be fired at fifth transfer orbit apogee to circularize its orbit at geosynchronous altitude of 35,900 km(22,260 miles) above the equator over the Atlantic Ocean somewhere between 45 and 50 degrees W longitude.

  10. Delta-Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Eugster, P.; Guerraoui, R.; Kouznetsov, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new, non-binary measure of the reliability of broadcast algorithms, called Delta-Reliability. This measure quantifies the reliability of practical broadcast algorithms that, on the one hand, were devised with some form of reliability in mind, but, on the other hand, are not considered reliable according to the ``traditional'' notion of broadcast reliability [HT94]. Our specification of Delta-Reliability suggests a further step towards bridging the gap between theory and...

  11. {\\delta}M Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Talebian-Ashkezari, Alireza; Abolhasani, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    We study the evolution of the "non-perturbative" metric perturbations in a Bianchi background in the long-wavelength limit. By applying the gradient expansion to the equations of motion we exhibit a generalized "Separate Universe" approach to the cosmological perturbation theory. Having found this consistent separate universe picture, we introduce the "{\\delta}M formalism" for calculating the evolution of the tensor perturbations in anisotropic inflation models in almost similar way as the so-called {\\delta}N formula for the super-horizon dynamics of the curvature perturbations. Likewise its ancestor, {\\delta}N formalism, this new method can substantially reduce the amount of calculations related to the evolution of the tensor modes.

  12. The Niger Delta Crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... lions de barils par jour à environ 1 million au plus fort de la crise du Delta ... (JTF) between 13 May 2009 and 4 October 2009 (the deadline for embrac- ..... He had just ended his welcome address as the occasion's chairman.

  13. Towards Optimal Degree-distributions for Left-perfect Matchings in Random Bipartite Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Dietzfelbinger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Consider a random bipartite multigraph $G$ with $n$ left nodes and $m \\geq n \\geq 2$ right nodes. Each left node $x$ has $d_x \\geq 1$ random right neighbors. The average left degree $\\Delta$ is fixed, $\\Delta \\geq 2$. We ask whether for the probability that $G$ has a left-perfect matching it is advantageous not to fix $d_x$ for each left node $x$ but rather choose it at random according to some (cleverly chosen) distribution. We show the following, provided that the degrees of the left nodes are independent: If $\\Delta$ is an integer then it is optimal to use a fixed degree of $\\Delta$ for all left nodes. If $\\Delta$ is non-integral then an optimal degree-distribution has the property that each left node $x$ has two possible degrees, $\\floor{\\Delta}$ and $\\ceil{\\Delta}$, with probability $p_x$ and $1-p_x$, respectively, where $p_x$ is from the closed interval $[0,1]$ and the average over all $p_x$ equals $\\ceil{\\Delta}-\\Delta$. Furthermore, if $n=c\\cdot m$ and $\\Delta>2$ is constant, then each distribution of...

  14. DELTAS: A new Global Delta Sustainability Initiative (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2013-12-01

    Deltas are economic and environmental hotspots, food baskets for many nations, home to a large part of the world population, and hosts of exceptional biodiversity and rich ecosystems. Deltas, being at the land-water interface, are international, regional, and local transport hubs, thus providing the basis for intense economic activities. Yet, deltas are deteriorating at an alarming rate as 'victims' of human actions (e.g. water and sediment reduction due to upstream basin development), climatic impacts (e.g. sea level rise and flooding from rivers and intense tropical storms), and local exploration (e.g. sand or aggregates, groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction). Although many efforts exist on individual deltas around the world, a comprehensive global delta sustainability initiative that promotes awareness, science integration, data and knowledge sharing, and development of decision support tools for an effective dialogue between scientists, managers and policy makers is lacking. Recently, the international scientific community proposed to establish the International Year of Deltas (IYD) to serve as the beginning of such a Global Delta Sustainability Initiative. The IYD was proposed as a year to: (1) increase awareness and attention to the value and vulnerability of deltas worldwide; (2) promote and enhance international and regional cooperation at the scientific, policy, and stakeholder level; and (3) serve as a launching pad for a 10-year committed effort to understand deltas as complex socio-ecological systems and ensure preparedness in protecting and restoring them in a rapidly changing environment. In this talk, the vision for such an international coordinated effort on delta sustainability will be presented as developed by a large number of international experts and recently funded through the Belmont Forum International Opportunities Fund. Participating countries include: U.S., France, Germany, U.K., India, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Brazil, Bangladesh

  15. Timelike gamma* N -> Delta form factors and Delta Dalitz decay

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalho, G

    2012-01-01

    We extend a covariant model, tested before in the spacelike region for the physical and lattice QCD regimes, to a calculation of the gamma* N -> Delta reaction in the timelike region, where the square of the transfered momentum, q^2, is positive (q^2>0). We estimate the Dalitz decay Delta -> Ne+e- and the Delta distribution mass distribution function. The results presented here can be used to simulate the NN -> NNe+e- reactions at moderate beam kinetic energies.

  16. Isospin-breaking two-nucleon force with explicit Delta-excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Epelbaum, E; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2008-01-01

    We study the leading isospin-breaking contributions to the two-nucleon two-pion exchange potential due to explicit Delta degrees of freedom in chiral effective field theory. In particular, we find important contributions due to the delta mass splittings to the charge symmetry breaking potential that act opposite to the effects induced by the nucleon mass splitting.

  17. Constructions of hamiltonian graphs with bounded degree and diameter O (log n)

    CERN Document Server

    c, Aleksandar Ili\\'

    2011-01-01

    Token ring topology has been frequently used in the design of distributed loop computer networks and one measure of its performance is the diameter. We propose an algorithm for constructing hamiltonian graphs with $n$ vertices and maximum degree $\\Delta$ and diameter $O (\\log n)$, where $n$ is an arbitrary number. The number of edges is asymptotically bounded by $(2 - \\frac{1}{\\Delta - 1} - \\frac{(\\Delta - 2)^2}{(\\Delta - 1)^3}) n$. In particular, we construct a family of hamiltonian graphs with diameter at most $2 \\lfloor \\log_2 n \\rfloor$, maximum degree 3 and at most $1+11n/8$ edges.

  18. Delta II commercial space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J. F.

    1988-07-01

    Delta II is an upgraded variant of the Delta family of launch vehicles that has been in use by NASA since 1960. Among the design improvements incorporated by Delta II is a cryogenic-propellant second stage, a 2.89-m diameter satellite-protecting nose fairing, graphite/epoxy solid rocket motor cases, and 12:1 main engine expansion nozzle. The manufacturer/operator offers Delta II customers a dedicated, single satellite launch capability fully tailored to the given spacecraft's unique mission requirements.

  19. Phenotypic expressions of CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, GT; Carrington, M; Beeler, JA; Dean, M; Aledort, LM; Blatt, PM; Cohen, AR; DiMichele, D; Eyster, ME; Kessler, CM; Konkle, B; Leissinger, C; Luban, N; O'Brien, SJ; Goedert, JJ; O'Brien, TR

    1999-01-01

    Objective: As blockade of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has been proposed as therapy for HIV-1, we examined whether the CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygous genotype has phenotypic expressions other than those related to HIV-1. Design: Study subjects were white homosexual men or men with hemophilia

  20. Phenotypic expressions of CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, GT; Carrington, M; Beeler, JA; Dean, M; Aledort, LM; Blatt, PM; Cohen, AR; DiMichele, D; Eyster, ME; Kessler, CM; Konkle, B; Leissinger, C; Luban, N; O'Brien, SJ; Goedert, JJ; O'Brien, TR

    1999-01-01

    Objective: As blockade of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has been proposed as therapy for HIV-1, we examined whether the CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygous genotype has phenotypic expressions other than those related to HIV-1. Design: Study subjects were white homosexual men or men with hemophilia wh

  1. Peat compaction in deltas : implications for Holocene delta evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselen, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838101

    2010-01-01

    Many deltas contain substantial amounts of peat, which is the most compressible soil type. Therefore, peat compaction potentially leads to high amounts of subsidence in deltas. The main objective of this research was to quantify subsidence due to peat compaction in Holocene fluvial-deltaic settings

  2. Phenotypic expressions of CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, GT; Carrington, M; Beeler, JA; Dean, M; Aledort, LM; Blatt, PM; Cohen, AR; DiMichele, D; Eyster, ME; Kessler, CM; Konkle, B; Leissinger, C; Luban, N; O'Brien, SJ; Goedert, JJ; O'Brien, TR

    1999-01-01

    Objective: As blockade of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has been proposed as therapy for HIV-1, we examined whether the CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygous genotype has phenotypic expressions other than those related to HIV-1. Design: Study subjects were white homosexual men or men with hemophilia wh

  3. Is there a self-organization principle of river deltas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-04-01

    River deltas are known to possess a complex topological and flux-partitioning structure which has recently been quantified using spectral graph theory [Tejedor et al., 2015a,b]. By analysis of real and simulated deltas it has also been shown that there is promise in formalizing relationships between this topo-dynamic delta structure and the underlying delta forming processes [e.g., Tejedor et al., 2016]. The question we pose here is whether there exists a first order organizational principle behind the self-organization of river deltas and whether this principle can be unraveled from the co-evolving topo-dynamic structure encoded in the delta planform. To answer this question, we introduce a new metric, the nonlocal Entropy Rate (nER) that captures the information content of a delta network in terms of the degree of uncertainty in delivering fluxes from any point of the network to the shoreline. We hypothesize that if the "guiding principle" of undisturbed deltas is to efficiently and robustly build land by increasing the diversity of their flux pathways over the delta plane, then they would exhibit maximum nonlocal Entropy Rate at states at which geometry and flux dynamics are at equilibrium. At the same time, their nER would be non-optimal at transient states, such as before and after major avulsions during which topology and dynamics adjust to each other to reach a new equilibrium state. We will present our results for field and simulated deltas, which confirm this hypothesis and open up new ways of thinking about self-organization, complexity and robustness in river deltas. One particular connection of interest might have important implications since entropy rate and resilience are related by the fluctuation theorem [Demetrius and Manke, 2005], and therefore our results suggest that deltas might in fact self-organize to maximize their resilience to structural and dynamic perturbations. References: Tejedor, A., A. Longjas, I. Zaliapin, and E. Foufoula

  4. $\\Delta$-N Electromagnetic Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Loan, M

    1999-01-01

    The EM ratio for a free Delta electromagnetic transition is discussed within the frame work of nonrelativistic approach. Such an approach gives a good account of data for a free Delta but is less important for an intrinsically relativistic nuclear many body problem.

  5. Mida pakub Delta? / Teele Kurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurm, Teele

    2011-01-01

    Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet võtab kasutusele ühise Siseministeeriumi infotehnoloogia- ja arenduskeskuse ning Webmedia AS koostööna loodud dokumendihaldussüsteemi Delta. Kust sai Delta oma nime? Projekti "Dokumendihaldussüsteemi juurutamine Siseministeeriumi haldusalas" eesmärgid

  6. Delta Electroproduction in 12-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven McLauchlan

    2003-01-31

    The Delta-nucleus potential is a crucial element in the understanding of the nuclear system. Previous electroexcitation measurements in the delta region reported a Q2 dependence of the delta mass indicating that this potential is dependent on the momentum of the delta. Such a dependence is not observed for protons and neutrons in the nuclear medium. This thesis presents the experimental study of the electroexcitation of the delta resonance in 12C, performed using the high energy electron beam at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and the near 4(pie) acceptance detector CLAS that enables the detection of the full reaction final state. Inclusive, semi inclusive, and exclusive cross sections were measured with an incident electron beam energy of 1.162GeV over the Q2 range 0.175-0.475 (GeV/c)2. A Q2 dependence of the delta mass was only observed in the exclusive measurements indicating that the delta-nucleus potential is affected by the momentum of the delta.

  7. Mida pakub Delta? / Teele Kurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurm, Teele

    2011-01-01

    Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet võtab kasutusele ühise Siseministeeriumi infotehnoloogia- ja arenduskeskuse ning Webmedia AS koostööna loodud dokumendihaldussüsteemi Delta. Kust sai Delta oma nime? Projekti "Dokumendihaldussüsteemi juurutamine Siseministeeriumi haldusalas" eesmärgid

  8. Binding thermodynamics at the human cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merighi, Stefania; Simioni, Carolina; Gessi, Stefania; Varani, Katia; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2010-02-01

    The thermodynamic parameters DeltaG degrees , DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees of the binding equilibrium of agonists and antagonists at cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors were determined by means of affinity measurements at different temperatures and van't Hoff plots were constructed. Affinity constants were measured on CHO cells transfected with the human CB(1) and CB(2) receptors by inhibition assays of the binding of the cannabinoid receptor agonist [(3)H]-CP-55,940. van't Hoff plots were linear for agonists and antagonists in the temperature range 0-30 degrees C. The thermodynamic parameters for CB(1) receptors fall in the ranges 17< or =DeltaH degrees < or =59 kJ/mol and 213< or =DeltaS degrees < or =361 kJ/mol for agonists and -52< or =DeltaH degrees < or =-26 kJ/mol and -12< or =DeltaS degrees < or =38 kJ/mol for antagonists. The thermodynamic parameters for CB(2) receptors fall in the ranges 27< or =DeltaH degrees < or =48 kJ/mol and 234< or =DeltaS degrees < or =300 kJ/mol for agonists and -19< or =DeltaH degrees < or =-17 kJ/mol and 43< or =DeltaS degrees < or =74 kJ/mol for antagonists. Collectively, these data show that agonist binding is always totally entropy-driven while antagonist binding is enthalpy and entropy-driven, indicating that CB(1) and CB(2) receptors are thermodynamically discriminated. These data could give new details on the nature of the forces driving the CB(1) and CB(2) binding at a molecular level. Enthalpy, entropy, free energy and binding affinity for each ligand to its receptor can all be assessed and therefore the optimal binding profile discovered. Carrying out these binding investigations as early as possible in the discovery process increases the probability that a lead compound will become a successful pharmaceutical compound.

  9. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  10. Individual protein balance strongly influences delta15N and delta13C values in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaye-Siessegger, Julia; Focken, Ulfert; Abel, Hansjörg; Becker, Klaus

    2004-02-01

    Although stable isotope ratios in animals have often been used as indicators of the trophic level and for the back-calculation of diets, few experiments have been done under standardized laboratory conditions to investigate factors influencing delta(15)N and delta(13)C values. An experiment using Nile tilapia [ Oreochromis niloticus (L.)] was therefore carried out to test the effect of different dietary protein contents (35.4, 42.3, and 50.9%) on delta(15)N and delta(13)C values of the whole tilapia. The fish were fed the isoenergetic and isolipidic semi-synthetic diets at a relatively low level. delta(15)N and delta(13)C values of the lipid-free body did not differ between the fish fed the diets with different protein contents, but the trophic shift for N and C isotopes decreased with increasing protein accretion in the individual fish, for N from 6.5 per thousand to 4 per thousand and for C in the lipid-free body from 4 per thousand to 2.5 per thousand. This is the first study showing the strong influence of the individual protein balance to the degree to which the isotopic signature of dietary protein was modified in tissue protein of fish. The extrapolation of the trophic level or the reconstruction of the diet of an animal from stable isotope ratios without knowledge of the individual physiological condition and the feeding rate may lead to erroneous results.

  11. Within-canopy and ozone fumigation effects on delta13C and Delta18O in adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees: relation to meteorological and gas exchange parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Arthur; Löw, Markus; Heerdt, Christian; de Beeck, Maarten Op; Schumacher, Johannes; Grams, Thorsten E E; Bahnweg, Günther; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Werner, Herbert; Matyssek, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz; Haberer, Kristine

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the effects of different light intensities either in direct sunlight or in the shade crown of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees on delta13C and Delta18O were determined under ambient (1 x O3) and twice-ambient (2 x O3) atmospheric ozone concentrations during two consecutive years (2003 and 2004). We analysed the isotopic composition in leaf bulk, leaf cellulose, phloem and xylem material and related the results to (a) meteorological data (air temperature, T and relative humidity, RH), (b) leaf gas exchange measurements (stomatal conductance, g(s); transpiration rate, E; and maximum photosynthetic activity, A(max)) and (c) the outcome of a steady-state evaporative enrichment model. Delta13C was significantly lower in the shade than in the sun crown in all plant materials, whilst Delta18O was increased significantly in the shade than in the sun crown in bulk material and cellulose. Elevated ozone had no effect on delta13C, although Delta18O was influenced by ozone to varied degrees during single months. We observed significant seasonal changes for both parameters, especially in 2004, and also significant differences between the study years. Relating the findings to meteorological data and gas exchange parameters, we conclude that the differences in Delta18O between the sun and the shade crown were predominantly caused by the Péclet effect. This assumption was supported by the modelled Delta18O values for leaf cellulose. It was demonstrated that independent of RH, light-dependent reduction of stomatal conductance (and thus transpiration) and of A(max) can drive the pattern of Delta18O increase with the concomitant decrease of delta13C in the shade crown. The effect of doubling ozone levels on time-integrated stomatal conductance and transpiration as indicated by the combined analysis of Delta18O and delta13C was much lower than the influence caused by the light exposure.

  12. A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Deltas as Coupled Social-Ecological Systems: An example from the Amazon Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondizio, E.; Vogt, N. D.; Hetrick, S.; da Costa, S. M. F.; Anthony, E.

    2015-12-01

    At the nexus of watersheds, land, coastal areas, oceans, and human settlements, river delta regions pose specific challenges to environmental governance and sustainability. Using the Amazon Delta (AD) as our focus we reflect on the challenges created by the high degree of functional interdependencies shaping social-ecological dynamics of delta regions. The article introduces the initial design of an integrated conceptual framework to analyze delta regions as coupled social-ecological systems (SES). The first component of the framework is used to provide integrated definitions of delta regions according to a problem and/or collective action dilemma. Five different systematic components are suggested: social-economic systems, governance systems, ecosystems-resource systems, topographic-hydrological systems, and oceanic-climate systems. The second component of the framework presents a strategy for nested social ecological analysis to examine collective action situations in delta regions from local to regional and basin levels. The article provides illustrative applications of the framework to the Amazon Delta. First, it is used to define the AD region as a coupled, multi-level SES. We further proposed a definition of what we call the core SES of the AD. We then utilize the framework to diagnose an example collective action problem related to the impacts of urban growth and pollution on small-scale fishing resources. We argue that the functional interdependencies characteristic of delta regions require new approaches to understand, diagnose, and evaluate the current and future impact of social and environmental changes and potential solutions to the sustainability dilemmas characteristic of these regions.

  13. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  14. WORLD DELTAS AND THEIR EVOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In August 1998, an international symposium on the world deltas was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. This symposium attracted discussion about more than 25 deltas from around the world with emphasis placed on those that are most densely populated and impacted by humans. Keynote papers printed details about the physical, biological, engineering and socioeconomic aspects of six deltas including the Mississippi, Nile, Ganges-Brahmaputra, Rhine-Meuse, Changjiang and Po. The main purpose of this symposium was to inform scientists, engineers and decision-makers about information that is currently available and to provide them a basis for working in such environments.

  15. Dynamical Casimir effect with $\\delta-\\delta^{\\prime}$ mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Jeferson Danilo L; Alves, Danilo T

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the spectrum and the total rate of created particles for a real massless scalar field in $1+1$ dimensions, in the presence of a partially transparent moving mirror simulated by a Dirac $\\delta-\\delta^{\\prime}$ point interaction. We show that, strikingly, a partially reflecting mirror can produce a larger number of particles in comparison with a perfectly reflecting one. In the limit of a perfect mirror, our formulas recover those found in the literature for the Robin boundary condition.

  16. Intraspecific variation in hair delta(13)C and delta(15)N values of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) with known individual histories, behavior, and feeding ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, James E; Sponheimer, Matt; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P

    2007-07-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions were analyzed from hair samples of 30 sympatric ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) inhabiting the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar. All lemurs were known individuals involved in a longitudinal study, which allowed us to explore the degree to which group membership, sex, health status, and migration influenced their stable isotope compositions. The differences in delta(13)C and delta(15)N values between groups were small (lemur conservation. There were few sex differences, but significant differences did occur between individuals of normal and suboptimal health, with those in poor health (especially those in the worst condition) being enriched in (15)N and to a lesser degree (13)C compared with healthy individuals. Moreover, lemurs that had emigrated between 2003 and 2004 had different delta(13)C and delta(15)N compositions than their original groups. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. PARAMETRIC DESIGN OF DELTA ROBOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Gürgen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a sophisticated determination and presentation of a workspace volume for a delta robot, with consideration of its kinematic behavior. With the help of theoretical equations, optimization is performed with the aid of the stiffness and dexterity analysis. Theoretical substructure is coded in Matlab and three-dimensional (3D data for delta robot are developed in computer-aided design (CAD environment. In later stages of the project, both 3D and theoretical data are linked together and thus, with the changing design parameter of the robot itself, the Solidworks CAD output adapts and regenerates output with a new set of parameters. To achieve an optimum workspace volume with predefined parameters, a different set of robot parameters are iterated through design optimization in Matlab, and the delta robot design is finalized and illustrated in the 3D CAD environment, Solidworks. This study provides a technical solution to accomplish a generic delta robot with optimized workspace volume.

  18. Microstructural evolution of delta ferrite in SAVE12 steel under heat treatment and short-term creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shengzhi, E-mail: lishengzhi@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Eliniyaz, Zumrat; Zhang, Lanting; Sun, Feng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shen, Yinzhong [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shan, Aidang, E-mail: adshan@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2012-11-15

    This research focused on the formation and microstructural evolution of delta ferrite phase in SAVE12 steel. The formation of delta ferrite was due to the high content of ferrite forming alloy elements such as Cr, W, and Ta. This was interpreted through either JMatPro-4.1 computer program or Cr{sub eq} calculations. Delta ferrite was found in bamboo-like shape and contained large amount of MX phase. It was surrounded by Laves phases before creep or aging treatment. Annealing treatments were performed under temperatures from 1050 Degree-Sign C to 1100 Degree-Sign C and various time periods to study its dissolution kinetics. The result showed that most of the delta ferrite can be dissolved by annealing in single phase austenitic region. Dissolution process of delta ferrite may largely depend on dissolution kinetic factors, rather than on thermodynamic factors. Precipitation behavior during short-term (1100 h) creep was investigated at temperature of 600 Degree-Sign C under a stress of 180 MPa. The results demonstrated that delta ferrite became preferential nucleation sites for Laves phase at the early stage of creep. Laves phase on the boundary around delta ferrite showed relatively slower growth and coarsening rate than that inside delta ferrite. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Delta ferrite is systematically studied under heat treatment and short-term creep. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Delta ferrite contains large number of MX phase and is surrounded by Laves phases before creep or aging treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of delta ferrite is interpreted by theoretical and empirical methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most of the delta ferrite is dissolved by annealing in single phase austenitic region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Delta ferrite becomes preferential nucleation sites for Laves phase at the early stage of creep.

  19. $\\Delta(1232)$ resonance in the $\\vec{\\gamma}p\\rightarrow p\\pi^0$ reaction at threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Blin, Astrid Hiller; Vacas, Manuel Vicente

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the neutral pion photoproduction on the proton near threshold in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory, including the $\\Delta(1232)$ resonance as an explicit degree of freedom, up to chiral order $p^{7/2}$ in the $\\delta$ counting. We compare our results with recent low-energy data from the Mainz Microtron for angular distributions and photon asymmetries. The convergence of the chiral series of the covariant approach is found to improve substantially with the inclusion of the $\\Delta(1232)$ resonance.

  20. Analysis of Marketing of Garri in Delta State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ebewore S O; Idoge D E

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the marketing of a cassava-based product (garri) in Delta State, Nigeria. Data was collected from 168 respondents using structured questionnaire. A multi-stage sampling procedure was employed in selecting 168 respondents from six markets in Delta State where garri is produced and marketed. Data was analyzed by the calculation of percentages, means and running of regression. The study revealed that the marketing of garri in Delta State was predominantly a female activity. The study also revealed that the garri was marketed in three channels and that 46.4% were retailers. The study further revealed a reasonable degree of freedom of entry and exit in the garri business in Delta State. Each trader or marketer was able to earn an average profit margin of N2 190.00 (for garri marketers), while the marketing margins for garri was 13.1%. Although the marketers were faced with some challenges the average profit per marketer per month was reasonably high (N40 722). The study further showed that the socio-economic characteristics of the marketers to a large extent had a positive influence on the quantity of garri sold in the study area. From the findings it was recommended that storage facilities, extension services and good road network among others should be provided to improve the marketing of garri in Delta State, Nigeria.

  1. Trimmed Moebius Inversion and Graphs of Bounded Degree

    CERN Document Server

    Björklund, Andreas; Kaski, Petteri; Koivisto, Mikko

    2008-01-01

    We study ways to expedite Yates's algorithm for computing the zeta and Moebius transforms of a function defined on the subset lattice. We develop a trimmed variant of Moebius inversion that proceeds point by point, finishing the calculation at a subset before considering its supersets. For an $n$-element universe $U$ and a family $\\scr F$ of its subsets, trimmed Moebius inversion allows us to compute the number of packings, coverings, and partitions of $U$ with $k$ sets from $\\scr F$ in time within a polynomial factor (in $n$) of the number of supersets of the members of $\\scr F$. Relying on an intersection theorem of Chung et al. (1986) to bound the sizes of set families, we apply these ideas to well-studied combinatorial optimisation problems on graphs of maximum degree $\\Delta$. In particular, we show how to compute the Domatic Number in time within a polynomial factor of $(2^{\\Delta+1-2)^{n/(\\Delta+1)$ and the Chromatic Number in time within a polynomial factor of $(2^{\\Delta+1-\\Delta-1)^{n/(\\Delta+1)$. F...

  2. Student Difficulties with the Dirac Delta Function

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Bethany R

    2014-01-01

    The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool used in multiple topical areas in the undergraduate physics curriculum. While Dirac delta functions are usually introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students often struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To better understand student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined responses to traditional exam questions and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Challenges included: invoking the delta function spontaneously, constructing two- and three-dimensional delta functions, integrating novel delta function expressions, and recognizing that the delta function can have units.

  3. {Delta}I = 3/2 and {Delta}S = 2 Hyperon decays in chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.G. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Valencia, G. [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States). Department of Physics and Astronomy

    1997-05-01

    We study the| {Delta}I| = 3/2 and |{Delta}S| = 2 amplitudes for hyperon decays of the form B {yields} B`{pi} at lowest order in chiral perturbation theory. At this order, the {Delta}I = 3/2 amplitudes depend on only one constant. We extract the value of this constant from experiment and find a reasonable description of these processes within experimental errors. The same constant determines the {Delta}S = 2 transitions which, in the standard model, are too small to be observed. We find that new physics with parity odd {Delta}S = 2 interactions can produce observable rates in hyperon decays while evading the bounds from K{sup 0} - K-bar{sup 0} mixing. (authors) 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Electrical properties of nanocrystalline Ce(0.8)Sm(0.2)O(2-delta) and Ce(1-x)Gd(x)O(2-delta) (0.1 SOFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J W; Hwang, H K; Nam, S W; Park, K

    2010-11-01

    Ce(0.8)Sm(0.2)O(2-delta) and Ce(1-x)Gd(x)O(2-delta) (0.1 < or = x < or = 0.3) nano-sized powders were successfully synthesized by the solution combustion synthesis process. The calcined nanopowders showed a ceria-based single phase with a cubic fluorite structure. In this study, we discussed the structural and electrical characteristics of the sintered Ce(0.8)Sm(0.2)O(2-delta) and Ce(1-x)Gd(x)O(2-delta). We obtained high-quality Ce(0.8)Sm(0.2)O(2-delta) and Ce(1-x)Gd(x)O(2-delta) ceramics with a high density, ultra-fine grain size, and high electrical conductivity even at low sintering temperature using the nanosized powders. The electrical conductivities at 800 degrees C for the Ce(0.8)Sm(0.2)O(2-delta) sintered at 1400 degrees C and the Ce(0.8)Gd(0.2)O(2-delta) sintered at 1350 degrees C were 0.110 and 0.104 Scm(-1), respectively.

  5. Reactive versus anticipative adaptive management of Deltas: The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Rhine-Meuse Delta compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg, T.J.; Zandvoort, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper Californian Adaptive Management (AM) and Dutch Adaptive Delta Management (ADM) are compared. The concepts are introduced in a policy context to deal with prevailing types of uncertainty in water management in the Californian Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Dutch Rhine-Meuse Delta

  6. Facts About Delta Pi Epsilon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The article discusses the purpose and structure of Delta Pi Epsilon and the general qualifications for membership. Service projects and publications, research awards, timely facts, the year of each chapter's origination, national presidents, and executive secretaries for the last 40 years are listed. (BP)

  7. Hydrological and Climatic Significance of Martian Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Achille, G.; Vaz, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    We a) review the geomorphology, sedimentology, and mineralogy of the martian deltas record and b) present the results of a quantitative study of the hydrology and sedimentology of martian deltas using modified version of terrestrial model Sedflux.

  8. Yellow River Delta Faces a Historic Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's State Council has endorsed the Development Plan of an Efficient Eco-Economic Zone at Yellow River Delta. The plan is meant to create a more ecologically sustainable economic zone along the river delta.

  9. Yellow River Delta Faces a Historic Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's State Council has endorsed the Development Plan of an Efficient Eco-Economic Zone at Yellow River Delta.The plan is meant to create a more ecologically sustainable economic zone along the river delta.

  10. On the modelling of river delta formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleynse, N.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents approaches to the modelling of river delta formation. In particular, it provides results of numerical stratigraphic-morphodynamic modelling of river delta formation under various environmental forcings.

  11. Adaptive delta management: Roots and branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, J.S.; Haasnoot, M.; Hermans, L.M.; Kwakkel, J.H.; Rutten, M.M.; Thissen, W.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy, metropoli

  12. Delta Vegetation and Land Use [ds292

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vegetation and land use are mapped for the approximately 725,000 acres constituting the Legal Delta portion of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta area....

  13. Inverse Degree and Connectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-ling; TIAN Ying-zhi

    2013-01-01

    Let G be a connected graph with vertex set V(G),order n =丨V(G)丨,minimum degree δ(G) and connectivity κ(G).The graph G is called maximally connected if κ(G) =δ(G).Define the inverse degree of G with no isolated vertices as R(G) =Σv∈V(G)1/d(v),where d(v) denotes the degree of the vertex v.We show that G is maximally connected if R(G) < 1 + 2/δ + n-2δ+1/(n-1)(n-3).

  14. Limited junctional diversity of V delta 5-J delta 1 rearrangement in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, J S; Michałowska-Wender, G; Januszkiewicz, D; Wender, M

    1997-01-01

    T-cell receptor (TCR) delta gene repertoire, as assessed by V delta-J delta rearrangements, has been analyzed in nine multiple sclerosis (MS) cases and in 30 healthy individuals by seminested PCR technique. Among the V delta-J delta junctional diversities studied, the most striking result has been observed in V delta 5-J delta 1 rearrangement. The detection of repeated V delta 5-J delta 1 nucleotide sequences in all analyzed clones from seven out of nine patients studied proved the monoclonal nature of gamma delta T-cells with V delta 5-J delta 1 rearrangement. The clonal nature of this rearrangement proved by PAGE and sequencing analysis may suggest an antigen-driven expansion of gamma delta T cells and argues for a significant role of gamma delta T-cells with V delta 5-J delta 1 rearrangement in MS pathogenesis. However, it cannot be excluded that clonal expansion of these lymphocytes may represent secondary change to central nervous system damage.

  15. Reflections on Development Strategy of Pearl River Delta: In Comparison with Yangtze River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>1. A comparison between Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta 1.1 Basic conditions 1.1.1 Location, area and scope Located in the southeast of Guangdong Province, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) as an economic zone is a compound delta

  16. Degree by Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtis, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Discusses a student's experience with a research project on the synthesis and reactions of an organo-platinum complex with an organo-Group IV linkage, including the advantages and disadvantages of such a degree by thesis course. (CC)

  17. What is $\\Delta m^2_{ee}$ ?

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The current short baseline reactor experiments, Daya Bay and RENO (Double Chooz) have measured (or are capable of measuring) an effective $\\Delta m^2$ associated with the atmospheric oscillation scale of 0.5 km/MeV in electron anti-neutrino disappearance. In this paper, I compare and contrast the different definitions of such an effective $\\Delta m^2$ and argue that the simple, L/E independent, definition given by $\\Delta m^2_{ee} \\equiv \\cos^2 \\theta_{12} \\Delta m^2_{31}+ \\sin^2 \\theta_{12} \\Delta m^2_{32}$, i.e. "the $\

  18. [delta-Aminolevulinate dehydratase deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, H; Ishida, N; Akagi, R

    1995-06-01

    delta-Aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD: E. C. 4.2.1.24), the second enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, condenses two moles of delta-aminolevulinic acid to form porphobilinogen. ALAD deficiency is well known to develop signs and symptoms of typical hepatic porphyria, and classified into three categories as follows: (i) ALAD porphyria, a genetic defect of the enzyme, (ii) tyrosinemia type I, a genetic defect of fumarylacetoacetase in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, producing succinylacetone (a potent inhibitor of ALAD), and (iii) ALAD inhibition by environmental hazards, such as lead, trichloroethylene, and styrene. In the present article, we will describe molecular and biochemical mechanisms to cause the enzyme defect to discuss the significance of ALAD defect on human health.

  19. Periodicity in Delta-modulated feedback control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohua XIA; Guanrong CHEN; Rudong GAI; Alan S. I. ZINOBER

    2008-01-01

    The Delta-modulated feedback control of a linear system introduces nonlinearity into the system through switchings between two input values. It has been found that Delta-modulation gives rise to periodic orbits. The existence of periodic points of all orders of Sigma-Delta modulation with "leaky" integration is completely characterized by some interesting groups of polynomials with "sign" coefficients. The results are naturally generalized to Sigma-Delta modulations with multiple delays, Delta-modulations in the "downlink", unbalanced Delta-modulations and systems with two-level quantized feedback. Further extensions relate to the existence of periodic points arising from Delta-modulated feedback control of a stable linear system in an arbitrary direction, for which some necessary and sufficient conditions are given.

  20. Entendiendo Delta desde las Humanidades

    OpenAIRE

    José Calvo Tello

    2016-01-01

    Stylometry is one of the research areas in greater development within Digital Humanities. However, few studies have worked until recently with texts in Spanish and even less so from Spanish-speaking countries. The aim of this paper is to present in Spanish, and without prior statistical knowledge from the reader, one of the main methods used in stylometry, the measure of textual distance Burrows’ Delta. This paper explains this measure using a very small corpus of proverbs and then checks the...

  1. The reaction pi N-> pi pi N in chiral effective field theory with explicit Delta(1232)

    CERN Document Server

    Siemens, D; Epelbaum, E; Krebs, H; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2014-01-01

    The reaction pi N -> pi pi N is studied at tree level up to next-to-leading order in the framework of manifestly covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory with explicit Delta(1232) degrees of freedom. Using total cross section data to determine the relevant low-energy constants, predictions are made for various differential as well as total cross sections at higher energies. A detailed comparison of results based on the heavy-baryon and relativistic formulations of chiral perturbation theory with and without explicit Delta degrees of freedom is given.

  2. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N

    2013-01-01

    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  3. Physics to a degree

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, EG

    2014-01-01

    Physics to a Degree provides an extensive collection of problems suitable for self-study or tutorial and group work at the level of an undergraduate physics course. This novel set of exercises draws together the core elements of an undergraduate physics degree and provides students with the problem solving skills needed for general physics' examinations and for real-life situations encountered by the professional physicist. Topics include force, momentum, gravitation, Bernoulli's Theorem, magnetic fields, blackbody radiation, relativistic travel, mechanics near the speed of light, radioactive

  4. Challenges, Approaches and Experiences from Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta : Regional Training Workshop on Delta Planning and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

    2013-01-01

    River delta's, like the Mekong Delta (Vietnam), Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh), Ayeyarwady Delta (Myanmar), Nile (Egypt) and Ciliwung Delta (Indonesia) are developing rapidly and are characterised by large-scale urbanisation and industrialization processes. They are facing serious planning ch

  5. M2000 an astrometric catalog in the Bordeaux Carte du Ciel zone +11 degrees < {delta} < +18 degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Rapaport, M S; Soubiran, C; Daigne, G; Perié, J P; Bosq, F; Colin, J; Desbats, J M; Ducourant, C; Mazurier, J M; Montignac, G; Ralite, N; Réquième, Y; Viateau, B

    2001-01-01

    During four years, systematic observations have been conducted in drift scan mode with the Bordeaux automated meridian circle in the declination band [+11 ; +18]. The resulting astrometric catalog includes about 2 300 000 stars down to the magnitude limit V_M=16.3. Nearly all stars (96%) have been observed at least 6 times, the catalog being complete down to V_M=15.4. The median internal standard error in position is about 35 mas in the V_M magnitude range [11 ; 15], which degrades to about 50 mas when the faintest stars are considered. M2000 provides also one band photometry with a median internal standard error of 0.04 mag. Comparisons with the Hipparcos and bright part of Tycho-2 catalogs have enabled to estimate external errors in position to be lower than 40 mas. In this zone and at epoch 1998, the faint part of Tycho-2 is found to have an accuracy of 116 mas in alpha instead of 82 mas deduced from the model-based standard errors given in the catalog.

  6. Deformation characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y., E-mail: haiyanzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, S.H., E-mail: shzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Cheng, M. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Z.X. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautica1 Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The hot working characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy during isothermal compression deformation at temperature of 950 deg. C and strain rate of 0.005 s{sup -1}, were studied by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and quantitative X-ray diffraction technique. The results showed that the dissolution of plate-like {delta} phase and the precipitation of spherical {delta} phase particles coexisted during the deformation, and the content of {delta} phase decreased from 7.05 wt.% to 5.14 wt.%. As a result of deformation breakage and dissolution breakage, the plate-like {delta} phase was spheroidized and transferred to spherical {delta} phase particles. In the center with largest strain, the plate-like {delta} phase disappeared and spherical {delta} phase appeared in the interior of grains and grain boundaries.

  7. Migration in Deltas: An Integrated Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Hutton, Craig W.; Lazar, Attila; Adger, W. Neil; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Inaki; Vincent, Katharine; Rahman, Munsur; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Sugata, Hazra; Ghosh, Tuhin; Codjoe, Sam; Appeaning-Addo, Kwasi

    2017-04-01

    Deltas and low-lying coastal regions have long been perceived as vulnerable to global sea-level rise, with the potential for mass displacement of exposed populations. The assumption of mass displacement of populations in deltas requires a comprehensive reassessment in the light of present and future migration in deltas, including the potential role of adaptation to influence these decisions. At present, deltas are subject to multiple drivers of environmental change and often have high population densities as they are accessible and productive ecosystems. Climate change, catchment management, subsidence and land cover change drive environmental change across all deltas. Populations in deltas are also highly mobile, with significant urbanization trends and the growth of large cities and mega-cities within or adjacent to deltas across Asia and Africa. Such migration is driven primarily by economic opportunity, yet environmental change in general, and climate change in particular, are likely to play an increasing direct and indirect role in future migration trends. The policy challenges centre on the role of migration within regional adaptation strategies to climate change; the protection of vulnerable populations; and the future of urban settlements within deltas. This paper reviews current knowledge on migration and adaptation to environmental change to discern specific issues pertinent to delta regions. It develops a new integrated methodology to assess present and future migration in deltas using the Volta delta in Ghana, Mahanadi delta in India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta across India and Bangladesh. The integrated method focuses on: biophysical changes and spatial distribution of vulnerability; demographic changes and migration decision-making using multiple methods and data; macro-economic trends and scenarios in the deltas; and the policies and governance structures that constrain and enable adaptation. The analysis is facilitated by a range of

  8. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  9. One Degree of Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jean

    2012-01-01

    A 2011 survey of young adults conducted by Public Agenda found that a cluster of obstacles have prevented many of them from competing college. The author describes the opportunity, college awareness, and funding gaps that put a postsecondary degree out of the reach of so many young people. For example, just 3 in 10 non-college-completers are aware…

  10. Casimir force between $\\delta-\\delta^{\\prime}$ mirrors transparent at high frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, Alessandra N; Alves, Danilo T

    2016-01-01

    We investigate, in the context of a real massless scalar field in $1+1$ dimensions, models of partially reflecting mirrors simulated by Dirac $\\delta-\\delta^{\\prime}$ point interactions. In the literature, these models do not exhibit full transparency at high frequencies. In order to provide a more realistic feature for these models, we propose a modified $\\delta-\\delta^{\\prime}$ point interaction that enables to achieve full transparency in the limit of high frequencies. Taking this modified $\\delta-\\delta^{\\prime}$ model into account, we investigate the Casimir force, comparing our results with those found in the literature.

  11. Evolving deltas: Conceptualising coevolution with engineered interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Amy; Nicholls, Robert; Lazar, Attila

    2017-04-01

    Mid to low latitude deltas have been populated for thousands of years due to their fertile soil and coastal location. This has led to an alteration in the land cover of deltas to primary agriculture and dense rural settlements and more recently, major cities and megacities have developed on or adjacent to many deltas. Deltas may be prosperous in terms of their outputs and services; however, they are also susceptible to many hazards due to their location and low-lying nature. Hazards include storm surges, fluvial flooding and erosion of both coastal and riverine areas, as well as subsidence, relative sea-level rise and pollution. This can have severe impacts on the delta, its population and its services. Therefore engineered interventions have been used for some time to protect the population and the valuable land from the consequences of hazards. Coevolution can be described as a feedback loop between nature and humans: each has an effect on how the other behaves and hence this inter-dependence interaction continues. Therefore the natural evolution of the delta interacts with engineered interventions, such as promoting accelerated subsidence over time, necessitating further adaptation. The deltaic landscape and associated livelihoods are thus the result of this co-evolution process between natural delta processes and engineered interventions. This presentation will identify and discuss various drivers and consequences of large scale engineered interventions, comparing and contrasting the management approaches taken in five populated deltas (Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna, Yangtze, Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt, Mekong and Nile). The type of engineered intervention and management approaches had a direct effect on the coevolution of deltas, with each of the deltas being at different stages in terms of extent of coevolution. A qualitative timeline of the typical steps of coevolution between the human system and the delta system of the studied deltas was produced. The major

  12. Delta hepatitis agent: structural and antigenic properties of the delta-associated particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, F; Hoyer, B; Shih, J W; Rizzetto, M; Purcell, R H; Gerin, J L

    1984-01-01

    Delta agent (delta) was serially passaged to a second and third hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier chimpanzee, using as inoculum the peak delta antigen (delta Ag) serum of an animal previously infected with human serum. The characteristics of serially transmitted delta Ag were similar to those described in first-passage animals. It was consistently detected before the development of anti-delta, in association with a 35- to 37-nm subpopulation of HBsAg particles and a unique low-molecular-weight (5.5 X 10(5)) RNA. RNase susceptibility of the delta-associated RNA and release of delta Ag activity upon treatment of delta-associated particles with detergent revealed that this particle is organized into a virion-like form with the RNA and delta Ag as internal components within a coat of HBsAg. Surface determinants of the delta-associated particle other than HBsAg were not detected by radioimmunoprecipitation experiments, using sera of humans and chimpanzees convalescent from delta hepatitis. The HBsAg-associated particle is the "candidate agent" of delta hepatitis. Images PMID:6698598

  13. The Niger Delta Amnesty Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Okonofua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The armed conflict between militias and government forces in Nigeria’s Niger Delta region has spanned for more than two decades, defying all solutions. A disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR program was established in August 2015 in effort to end the violence and has remained in place. It is a radically different approach from past approaches that displayed zero tolerance to all political challenges to oil production or the allocation of oil profits. The approach appeared to be immediately successful in that it forced a ceasefire, engaged militants in planned programs to rehabilitate and reintegrate them into civilian society, and opened up the oil wells (many of which had been shut due to the crisis with the effect of increasing government revenue, which depends 85% on oil exports. Yet, few studies have attempted to understand the dynamics within the country that are responsible for the design and implementation of this broad policy shift or to understand whether and how the current initiative is able to end the conflict and institute peace beyond the short term. This study, therefore, is important because it provides a critical perspective that anticipates and explains emerging issues with the Niger Delta Amnesty Program, which have implications for DDR adaptation and implementation all over the world. Ultimately, the research demonstrates how the DDR program both transforms the Niger Delta conflict and becomes embroiled in intense contestations not only about the mechanism for transforming the targeted population but also whether and how the program incorporates women who are being deprioritized by the program.

  14. Analysis and Synthesis of Delta Operator Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hongjiu; Shi, Peng; Zhao, Ling

    2012-01-01

    This book is devoted to analysis and design on delta operator systems. When sampling is fast, a dynamical system will become difficult to control, which can be seen in wide real world applications. Delta operator approach is very effective to deal with fast sampling systems. Moreover, it is easy to observe and analyze the control effect with different sampling periods in delta operator systems. The framework of this book has been carefully constructed for delta operator systems to handle sliding mode control, time delays, filter design, finite frequency and networked control. These problems indeed are especially important and significant in automation and control systems design. Through the clear framework of the book, readers can easily go through the learning process on delta operator systems via a precise and comfortable learning sequence. Following this enjoyable trail, readers will come out knowing how to use delta operator approach to deal with control problems under fast sampling case. This book should...

  15. Delta Clipper - Design for supportability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljanic, Ray R.; Conrad, Charles; Spaulding, Ed; Gisburne, Don

    1993-07-01

    The 'Delta Clipper' Single Stage Rocket Technology (SSRT) currently under development in the DC-X program will implement reliability-centered maintenance and support, involving on-equipment/off-equipment two-level maintenance, a logistics and spares pipeline, and a minimization of 'blue suit' skill-level personnel. Attention is given to the range of SSRT features that are to be validated via the DC-X test program; these prominently involve LRUs replaceability and accessibility, standardization and interchangeability, and 'aircraft-like' automated data collection.

  16. Climate change and the Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Anderson, Jamie; Anderson, Michael L.; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel; Maurer, Edwin P.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change amounts to a rapidly approaching, “new” stressor in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta system. In response to California’s extreme natural hydroclimatic variability, complex water-management systems have been developed, even as the Delta’s natural ecosystems have been largely devastated. Climate change is projected to challenge these management and ecological systems in different ways that are characterized by different levels of uncertainty. For example, there is high certainty that climate will warm by about 2°C more (than late-20th-century averages) by mid-century and about 4°C by end of century, if greenhouse-gas emissions continue their current rates of acceleration. Future precipitation changes are much less certain, with as many climate models projecting wetter conditions as drier. However, the same projections agree that precipitation will be more intense when storms do arrive, even as more dry days will separate storms. Warmer temperatures will likely enhance evaporative demands and raise water temperatures. Consequently, climate change is projected to yield both more extreme flood risks and greater drought risks. Sea level rise (SLR) during the 20th century was about 22cm, and is projected to increase by at least 3-fold this century. SLR together with land subsidence threatens the Delta with greater vulnerabilities to inundation and salinity intrusion. Effects on the Delta ecosystem that are traceable to warming include SLR, reduced snowpack, earlier snowmelt and larger storm-driven streamflows, warmer and longer summers, warmer summer water temperatures, and water-quality changes. These changes and their uncertainties will challenge the operations of water projects and uses throughout the Delta’s watershed and delivery areas. Although the effects of climate change on Delta ecosystems may be profound, the end results are difficult to predict, except that native species will fare worse than invaders. Successful

  17. Synthesis of nanocrystalline Ce(0.8)Gd(0.2)O(2-delta) electrolyte materials for IT-SOFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K; Choi, J W; Hwang, H K; Saradha, T

    2010-11-01

    We successfully synthesized nano-sized Ce(0.8)Gd(0.2)O(2-delta) powders by combustion method, using gelatin as fuel. The calcined powders showed high-quality characteristics, i.e., nano-scale size (14-35 nm) and narrow size distribution. The structural, morphological, and electrical characteristics of the sintered Ce(0.8)Gd(0.2)O(2-delta) were studied systematically, depending on sintering temperature. The crystal structure of the Ce(0.8)Gd(0.2)O(2-delta) belonged to the cubic fluorite structure. The gelatin-assisted combustion synthesized Ce(0.8)Gd(0.2)O(2-delta) powders allowed to sinter well at low temperature for dense and ultra-fine Ce(0.8)Gd(0.2)O(2-delta) electrolyte with good electrical conductivity. The sintering temperature of the Ce(0.8)Gd(0.2)O2 powder was approximately 300 degrees C lower than that of conventional solid-state synthesized powder. The nanopowder produced was sintered into pellets with relative densities over 99.1% of the theoretical value even at 1400 degrees C. The Ce(0.8)Gd(0.2)O(2-delta) sintered at 1400 degrees C exhibited a conductivity of 0.101 S/cm at 800 degrees C in air.

  18. Large-scale coastal and fluvial models constrain the late Holocene evolution of the Ebro Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Kettner, Albert J.; Giosan, Liviu

    2017-09-01

    The distinctive plan-view shape of the Ebro Delta coast reveals a rich morphologic history. The degree to which the form and depositional history of the Ebro and other deltas represent autogenic (internal) dynamics or allogenic (external) forcing remains a prominent challenge for paleo-environmental reconstructions. Here we use simple coastal and fluvial morphodynamic models to quantify paleo-environmental changes affecting the Ebro Delta over the late Holocene. Our findings show that these models are able to broadly reproduce the Ebro Delta morphology, with simple fluvial and wave climate histories. Based on numerical model experiments and the preserved and modern shape of the Ebro Delta plain, we estimate that a phase of rapid shoreline progradation began approximately 2100 years BP, requiring approximately a doubling in coarse-grained fluvial sediment supply to the delta. River profile simulations suggest that an instantaneous and sustained increase in coarse-grained sediment supply to the delta requires a combined increase in both flood discharge and sediment supply from the drainage basin. The persistence of rapid delta progradation throughout the last 2100 years suggests an anthropogenic control on sediment supply and flood intensity. Using proxy records of the North Atlantic Oscillation, we do not find evidence that changes in wave climate aided this delta expansion. Our findings highlight how scenario-based investigations of deltaic systems using simple models can assist first-order quantitative paleo-environmental reconstructions, elucidating the effects of past human influence and climate change, and allowing a better understanding of the future of deltaic landforms.

  19. Collaborative Innovation Research on High-tech Industry in the Center Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jingdong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a strong point in the Middle Rises Strategy, the Center Delta is of great significance to high-tech industry development. While the collaborative innovation is an effective way to promote the coordinated development of regional economy. This article selected electronic and communication equipment manufacturing industry of 3 provinces in the Center Delta as samples, built evaluation index system of collaborative innovation of high-tech industry, and put the relevant data into the system coordination degree model, in order to get the synergy of industrial innovation system and innovation environment system of 3 provinces. The empirical results shown that the industrial innovation system and innovation environment system coordination degree of Hubei province was the highest, while Jiangxi province was the lowest. Based on the empirical result analysis of the above-mentioned systems, this article put forward suggestions to promote the development of the high-tech industry collaborative innovation in the Center Delta.

  20. Delta Haptic Device as a nanomanipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Sebastien; Conti, Francois; Helmer, Patrick; Rouiller, Patrice; Baur, Charles

    2001-10-01

    At the EPFL, we have developed a force-feedback device and control architecture for high-end research and industrial applications. The Delta Haptic Device (DHD) consists of a 6 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) mecatronic device driven by a PC. Several experiments have been carried out in the fields of manipulation and simulation to assess the dramatic improvement haptic information brings to manipulation. This system is particularly well suited for scaled manipulation such as micro-, nano- and biomanipulation. Not only can it perform geometric and force scaling, but it can also include fairly complex physical models into the control loop to assist manipulation and enhance human understanding of the environment. To demonstrate this ability, we are currently interfacing our DHD with an atomic force microscope (AFM). In a first stage, we will be able to feel in real-time the topology of a given sample while visualizing it in 3D. The aim of the project is to make manipulation of carbon nanotubes possible by including physical models of such nanotubes behavior into the control loop, thus allowing humans to control complex structures. In this paper, we give a brief description of our device and present preliminary results of its interfacing with the AFM.

  1. From Natural to Design River Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    Productive and biologically diverse, deltaic lowlands attracted humans since prehistory and may have spurred the emergence of the first urban civilizations. Deltas continued to be an important nexus for economic development across the world and are currently home for over half a billion people. But recently, under the double whammy of sea level rise and inland sediment capture behind dams, they have become the most threatened coastal landscape. Here I will address several deceptively simple questions to sketch some unexpected answers using example deltas from across the world from the Arctic to the Tropics, from the Danube to the Indus, Mississippi to Godavari and Krishna, Mackenzie to Yukon. What is a river delta? What is natural and what is not in a river delta? Are the geological and human histories of a delta important for its current management? Is maintaining a delta the same to building a new one? Can we design better deltas than Nature? These answers help us see clearly that survival of deltas in the next century depends on human intervention and is neither assured nor simple to address or universally applicable. Empirical observations on the hydrology, geology, biology and biochemistry of deltas are significantly lagging behind modeling capabilities endangering the applicability of numerical-based reconstruction solutions and need to be ramped up significantly and rapidly across the world.

  2. Charged current weak electroproduction of $\\Delta$ resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, L; Vacas, M J V

    1998-01-01

    We study the weak production of $\\Delta$ (i.e. $e^{-} + p \\to \\Delta^{0}+ energy range corresponding to the Mainz and TJNAF electron accelerators. The differential cross sections $\\sigma(\\theta)$ are found to be of the order of $ 10^{-39}$ cm$^2$/sr, over a range of angles which increases with energy. The possibility of observing these reactions with the high luminosities available at these accelerators, and studying the weak N-$\\Delta$ transition form factors through these reactions is discussed. The production cross section of N$^*(1440)$ in the kinematic region of $\\Delta$ production is also estimated and found to be small.

  3. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...... and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  4. SNC 80 and related delta opioid agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, S N; Coop, A

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of the selective delta (delta) opioid agonists SNC 80 and BW373U86, which possess a diarylmethylpiperazine structure unique among opioids, was a major advance in the field of delta-opioid ligands. Much research has been performed to uncover the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of this class of ligands and also to compare the diarylmethylpiperazines with the traditional morphinan-based delta opioids. This review focuses on the development of the SAR of this unique series of ligands, and discusses questions which remain unanswered.

  5. The duplicated longitudinal epiphysis or ''kissing delta phalanx'': evolution and variation in three different disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, University of Manitoba, 770 Bannatyne Avenue, R3E 0W3, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Evans, Jane A.; Chudley, Albert E. [Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, University of Manitoba, 770 Bannatyne Avenue, R3E 0W3, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba and Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, University of Manitoba, 770 Bannatyne Avenue, R3E 0W3, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba and Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba and Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

    2004-06-01

    The delta phalanx, also known as the delta bone, or longitudinal epiphyseal bracket (LEB), has been described in a variety of syndromes and dysplasias. However, the ''kissing delta phalanx'' is not as well recognized in the literature; it consists of a duplicated longitudinal bracketed epiphysis, or a complex of two adjacent delta bones, with opposing convex portions facing each other. Magnetic resonance imaging of the kissing delta phalanx has not been previously described. To describe the evolution, variation and associated osseous anomalies of the kissing delta phalanx in three patients with distinct distal limb malformations using both plain films and magnetic resonance imaging. Patient 1 had Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome and, in addition to a kissing delta phalanx in both feet, had corresponding delta metatarsals (MT1). Patient 2 had Cenani-Lenz syndactyly with distinct variation of the kissing delta phalanx in each hand. He had a disorganized appearance to the phalanges, metacarpal fusions and carpal coalitions. Patient 3 had an isolated oligosyndactyly of the left hand with metacarpal fusions and carpal coalitions. All three patients were followed over time. We describe two types of kissing delta phalanges: separated (without fusion of the corresponding epiphyseal brackets) and nonseparated (with fusion of the corresponding epiphyseal brackets). Both types can be seen in the same patient and are a reflection of the relative degree of segmentation of the two delta bones. (orig.)

  6. Determination of optimum processing temperature for transformation of glyceryl monostearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Toshio; Itai, Shigeru; Takeuchi, Hirofumi; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the mechanism of transformation from alpha-form to beta-form via beta'-form of glyceryl monostearate (GM) and to determine the optimum conditions of heat-treatment for physically stabilizing GM in a pharmaceutical formulation. Thermal analysis repeated twice using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were performed on mixtures of two crystal forms. In the first run (enthalpy of melting: DeltaH1), two endothermic peaks of alpha-form and beta-form were observed. However, in the second run (enthalpy of melting: DeltaH2), only the endothermic peak of the alpha-form was observed. From a strong correlation observed between the beta-form content in the mixture of alpha-form and beta-form and the enthalpy change, (DeltaH1-DeltaH2)/DeltaH2, beta-form content was expressed as a function of the enthalpy change. Using this relation, the stable beta-form content during the heat-treatment could be determined, and the maximum beta-form content was obtained when the heat-treatment was carried out at 50 degrees C. An inflection point existed in the time course of transformation of alpha-form to beta-form. It was assumed that almost all of alpha-form transformed to beta'-form at this point, and that subsequently only transformation from beta'-form to beta-form occurred. Based on this aspect, the transformation rate equations were derived as consecutive reaction. Experimental data coincided well with the theoretical curve. In conclusion, GM was transformed in the consecutive reaction, and 50 degrees C was the optimum heat-treatment temperature for transforming GM from the alpha-form to the stable beta-form.

  7. $\\Delta$ decay in nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, B K; Kundu, Bijoy

    1996-01-01

    Proton-nucleus collisions, where the beam proton gets excited to the delta resonance and then decays to p\\pi ^+, either inside or outside the nuclear medium, are studied. Cross-sections for various kinematics for the (p,p' \\pi ^+) reaction between 500 MeV and 1 GeV beam energy are calculated to see the effects of the nuclear medium on the propagation and decay of the resonance. The cross-sections studied include proton energy spectra in coincidence with the pion, four momentum transfer distributions, and the invariant p\\pi^+ mass distributions. We find that the effect of the nuclear medium on these cross-sections mainly reduces their magnitudes. Comparing these cross-sections with those considering the decay of the delta outside the nucleus only, we further find that at 500 MeV the two sets of cross-sections have large differences, while by 1 GeV the differences between them become much smaller.

  8. Comparative assessment of the vulnerability and resilience of deltas : extended version with 14 deltas : synthesis report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucx, T.; Driel, van W.F.; Boer, de H.; Graas, S.; Langenberg, V.; Marchand, M.; Guchte, van de C.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, deltas host dense populations and are important centres of agricultural and industrial production, and economic activity. Many deltas are areas of great ecological importance as well, featuring wetlands of high and unique biodiversity. Deltas are vulnerable to changes by natural forces an

  9. $\\Delta I=4$ and $\\Delta I=8$ bifurcations in rotational bands of diatomic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatsos, Dennis; Lalazissis, G A; Drenska, S B; Minkov, N; Raychev, P P; Roussev, R P; Bonatsos, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the recently observed $\\Delta I=4$ bifurcation seen in superdeformed nuclear bands is also occurring in rotational bands of diatomic molecules. In addition, signs of a $\\Delta I=8$ bifurcation, of the same order of magnitude as the $\\Delta I=4$ one, are observed both in superdeformed nuclear bands and rotational bands of diatomic molecules.

  10. INFLUENCE OF THE DELTA-DELTA-MESON COUPLING ON NUCLEON AND DELTA PROPERTIES IN NUCLEAR-MATTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEJONG, F; MALFLIET, R

    1994-01-01

    We introduce a scalar and a vector DELTADELTA-meson vertex in the relativistic Dirac-Brueckner model for nuclear matter and investigate the consequences. We find small effects on the effective nucleon properties. The effects in the DELTA sector are more profound, although the DELTA is still effectiv

  11. A Grand Delta(96) x SU(5) Flavour Model

    CERN Document Server

    King, Stephen F; Stuart, Alexander J

    2012-01-01

    Recent results from the Daya Bay and RENO reactor experiments have measured the smallest lepton mixing angle and found it to have a value of theta_13 approximately 9 degrees. This result presents a new challenge for the existing paradigms of discrete flavour symmetries which attempt to describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. Here we propose a Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory of Flavour based on Delta(96) x SU(5), together with a U(1) x Z3 symmetry, including a full discussion of Delta(96) in a convenient basis. The Grand Delta(96) x SU(5) Flavour Model relates the quark mixing angles and masses in the form of the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation and realises the Georgi-Jarlskog mass relations between the charged leptons and down-type quarks. We predict a Bi-trimaximal (not Tri-bimaximal) form of neutrino mixing matrix, which, after including charged lepton corrections with zero phase, leads to the following GUT scale predictions for the atmospheric, solar, and reactor mixing angles: theta_23=36...

  12. A Grand {Delta}(96) Multiplication-Sign SU(5) Flavour Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Stephen F., E-mail: king@soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Luhn, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.luhn@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Stuart, Alexander J., E-mail: a.stuart@soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-11

    Recent results from the Daya Bay and RENO reactor experiments have measured the smallest lepton mixing angle and found it to have a value of {theta}{sub 13} Almost-Equal-To 9 Degree-Sign . This result presents a new challenge for the existing paradigms of discrete flavour symmetries which attempt to describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. Here we propose a Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory of Flavour based on {Delta}(96) Multiplication-Sign SU(5), together with a U(1) Multiplication-Sign Z{sub 3} symmetry, including a full discussion of {Delta}(96) in a convenient basis. The Grand {Delta}(96) Multiplication-Sign SU(5) Flavour Model relates the quark mixing angles and masses in the form of the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation and realises the Georgi-Jarlskog mass relations between the charged leptons and down-type quarks. We predict a Bi-trimaximal (not Tri-bimaximal) form of neutrino mixing matrix, which, after including charged lepton corrections with zero phase, leads to the following GUT scale predictions for the atmospheric, solar, and reactor mixing angles: {theta}{sub 23} Almost-Equal-To 36.9 Degree-Sign , {theta}{sub 12} Almost-Equal-To 32.7 Degree-Sign and {theta}{sub 13} Almost-Equal-To 9.6 Degree-Sign , in good agreement with recent global fits, and a zero Dirac CP phase {delta} Almost-Equal-To 0.

  13. Baryonic {sup 3}P{sub 2} superfluidity under charged-pion condensation with {delta} isobar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsuka, T.; Tamagaki, R. [Iwate Univ., Morioka, Iwate (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We study the baryonic {sup 3}P{sup 2} superfluidity under charged-pion condensation with isobar ({delta}) degrees of freedom. After a remark on motivations of the present study, the outline of theoretical framework is briefly described, typical results of the superfluid critical temperature are shown, and the possibility of coexistence of the superfluid with charged-pion condensation is discussed. (author)

  14. When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…

  15. Electromagnetic excitation of the Delta(1232) resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Pascalutsa; M. Vanderhaeghen; Shin Nan Yang

    2006-09-05

    We review the description of the lowest-energy nucleon excitation--the Delta(1232)-resonance. Much of the recent effort has been focused on the precision measurements of the nucleon to Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes. We review the results of those measurements and confront them with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, and QCD-inspired models. Some of the theoretical approaches are reviewed in detail. In particular, we describe the chiral EFT of QCD in the energy domain of the Delta-resonance, and its applications to the electromagnetic nucleon-to-Delta transition (gamma N Delta). We also describe the recent dynamical and unitary-isobar models of pion electroproduction which are extensively used in the extraction of the gamma* N Delta form factors from experiment. Furthermore, we discuss the link of the gamma* N Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs), as well as the predictions of perturbative QCD for these transition form factors. The present status of understanding the Delta-resonance properties and the nature of its excitation is summarized.

  16. Structure and replication of hepatitis delta virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Unidade de Biologia Molecular, Centro de Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, ... molecules of both delta antigens (Ryu et al., 1993). This ..... Glenn JS, Watson JA, Havel CM, White JO (1992). ... HDV RNA encoding the large delta antigen cannot replicate. J. Gen.

  17. Generalised CP and $\\Delta (96)$ Family Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Gui-Jun

    2014-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive study of the $\\Delta (96)$ family symmetry combined with the generalised CP symmetry $H_{\\rm{CP}}$. We investigate the lepton mixing parameters which can be obtained from the original symmetry $\\Delta (96)\\rtimes H_{\\rm{CP}}$ breaking to different remnant symmetries in the neutrino and charged lepton sectors, namely $G_{\

  18. Delta Blues Scholarship and Imperialist Nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, William P.

    When Delta blues are considered to be "folk music," the genre is inextricably tied to the neocolonial, sharecropping system of cotton production characteristic of the Mississippi Delta region between the Civil War and World War II. "Imperialist nostalgia," then, arises in accounts which pay primary and positive tribute to blues…

  19. The delta opioid receptor tool box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Sanchez, Ana; Segura, Laura; Pradhan, Amynah A

    2016-12-03

    In recent years, the delta opioid receptor has attracted increasing interest as a target for the treatment of chronic pain and emotional disorders. Due to their therapeutic potential, numerous tools have been developed to study the delta opioid receptor from both a molecular and a functional perspective. This review summarizes the most commonly available tools, with an emphasis on their use and limitations. Here, we describe (1) the cell-based assays used to study the delta opioid receptor. (2) The features of several delta opioid receptor ligands, including peptide and non-peptide drugs. (3) The existing approaches to detect delta opioid receptors in fixed tissue, and debates that surround these techniques. (4) Behavioral assays used to study the in vivo effects of delta opioid receptor agonists; including locomotor stimulation and convulsions that are induced by some ligands, but not others. (5) The characterization of genetically modified mice used specifically to study the delta opioid receptor. Overall, this review aims to provide a guideline for the use of these tools with the final goal of increasing our understanding of delta opioid receptor physiology.

  20. Transient dynamics of sparsely connected Hopfield neural networks with arbitrary degree distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Chen, Yong

    2008-02-01

    Using probabilistic approach, the transient dynamics of sparsely connected Hopfield neural networks is studied for arbitrary degree distributions. A recursive scheme is developed to determine the time evolution of overlap parameters. As illustrative examples, the explicit calculations of dynamics for networks with binomial, power-law, and uniform degree distribution are performed. The results are good agreement with the extensive numerical simulations. It indicates that with the same average degree, there is a gradual improvement of network performance with increasing sharpness of its degree distribution, and the most efficient degree distribution for global storage of patterns is the delta function.

  1. Entendiendo Delta desde las Humanidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calvo Tello

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stylometry is one of the research areas in greater development within Digital Humanities. However, few studies have worked until recently with texts in Spanish and even less so from Spanish-speaking countries. The aim of this paper is to present in Spanish, and without prior statistical knowledge from the reader, one of the main methods used in stylometry, the measure of textual distance Burrows’ Delta. This paper explains this measure using a very small corpus of proverbs and then checks the results in a corpus of Spanish novels. Both data and Python scripts are available to the community through GitHub, commented step by step so that you can play and visualize each step.

  2. Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Thermal Properties of Organic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelia, Ronald; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F.

    2007-01-01

    In first-year general chemistry undergraduate courses, thermodynamics and thermal properties such as melting points and changes in enthalpy ([Delta]H) and entropy ([Delta]S) of phase changes are frequently discussed. Typically, classical calorimetric methods of analysis are used to determine [Delta]H of reactions. Differential scanning calorimetry…

  3. Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Thermal Properties of Organic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelia, Ronald; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F.

    2007-01-01

    In first-year general chemistry undergraduate courses, thermodynamics and thermal properties such as melting points and changes in enthalpy ([Delta]H) and entropy ([Delta]S) of phase changes are frequently discussed. Typically, classical calorimetric methods of analysis are used to determine [Delta]H of reactions. Differential scanning calorimetry…

  4. Jiaxing: Delicacy of the Yangtze River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUXINYI; WANGNAN

    2004-01-01

    THE yangtze River Delta,where the Yangtzc River crosses China's east coast,has one of the country's most dynamic economies.In 1976Jcan Gottmann.a french geographer,called shanghai and its neighboring Yangtze River Delta the world's "sixth largest megalopolis." The Yangtze River Delta has 15 cities. Its territory accounts for one percent of China's total, 5.8 percent of hthe population, and 19.5 percent of the national GDP.In terms of both aggregate economy and growth speed, the Delta currently leads China and could likely be the "enginc" of the world's future economic growth. Located at the juncition of Shanghai Jiangsu and Zhejiang, Jiaxing City holds a central economic belt. It is within 100 kilometers of Shanghai, Hangzhou and Suzhou. In 200 and 2003, Jiaxing's GDP growth rate was first in Zhejiang Province and second among the 1.5 Delta cities.

  5. Cortical delta activity reflects reward prediction error and related behavioral adjustments, but at different times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, James F

    2015-04-15

    Recent work has suggested that reward prediction errors elicit a positive voltage deflection in the scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG); an event sometimes termed a reward positivity. However, a strong test of this proposed relationship remains to be defined. Other important questions remain unaddressed: such as the role of the reward positivity in predicting future behavioral adjustments that maximize reward. To answer these questions, a three-armed bandit task was used to investigate the role of positive prediction errors during trial-by-trial exploration and task-set based exploitation. The feedback-locked reward positivity was characterized by delta band activities, and these related EEG features scaled with the degree of a computationally derived positive prediction error. However, these phenomena were also dissociated: the computational model predicted exploitative action selection and related response time speeding whereas the feedback-locked EEG features did not. Compellingly, delta band dynamics time-locked to the subsequent bandit (the P3) successfully predicted these behaviors. These bandit-locked findings included an enhanced parietal to motor cortex delta phase lag that correlated with the degree of response time speeding, suggesting a mechanistic role for delta band activities in motivating action selection. This dissociation in feedback vs. bandit locked EEG signals is interpreted as a differentiation in hierarchically distinct types of prediction error, yielding novel predictions about these dissociable delta band phenomena during reinforcement learning and decision making.

  6. Clay aquitards as archives of holocene paleoclimate: delta18O and thermal profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, M Jim; Woodbury, A D

    2007-01-01

    Paleoclimatic conditions in the Holocene were reconstructed from a detailed vertical profile of pore water delta(18)O and a series of downhole thermal profiles at a thick, hydrogeologically simple, aquitard research site in the Northern Great Plains of Saskatchewan. Reconstructions were obtained using the theory of one-dimensional diffusive transport and an empirical Bayesian inversion technique. Inversion of the delta(18)O profile shows that input signal consists of a sudden increase of +6 per thousand (corresponding to a temperature increase of about 18 degrees C) at about 12,000 years before present (BP), after which no measurable change in delta(18)O is apparent to present day. This research shows, at this location, that there is no evidence of large amplitude temperature shifts in the Holocene and supports the commonly used assumption in ground water studies of constant atmospheric delta(18)O values throughout the Holocene. Inversion of the temperature profiles suggests the ground surface temperature increased primarily in the last half of the 20th century, with a peak temperature (about 3 degrees C) circa 1990. For both profiles, the ability to resolve historical variability decays rapidly with time. For the temperature profiles, the decay in resolution precluded the development of reliable estimates of climatic conditions prior to about 1950 and, in the case of the delta(18)O profile, it prevented the precise definition of climate changes (e.g., Hypsithermal and Little Ice Age) in the Holocene.

  7. Differentiation of Boc-protected alpha,delta-/delta,alpha- and beta,delta-/delta,beta-hybrid peptide positional isomers by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, G; Ramesh, V; Srinivas, R; Sharma, G V M; Shoban Babu, B

    2010-06-01

    Two new series of Boc-N-alpha,delta-/delta,alpha- and beta,delta-/delta,beta-hybrid peptides containing repeats of L-Ala-delta(5)-Caa/delta(5)-Caa-L-Ala and beta(3)-Caa-delta(5)-Caa/delta(5)-Caa-beta(3)-Caa (L-Ala = L-alanine, Caa = C-linked carbo amino acid derived from D-xylose) have been differentiated by both positive and negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS(n) spectra of protonated isomeric peptides produce characteristic fragmentation involving the peptide backbone, the Boc-group, and the side chain. The dipeptide positional isomers are differentiated by the collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the protonated peptides. The loss of 2-methylprop-1-ene is more pronounced for Boc-NH-L-Ala-delta-Caa-OCH(3) (1), whereas it is totally absent for its positional isomer Boc-NH-delta-Caa-L-Ala-OCH(3) (7), instead it shows significant loss of t-butanol. On the other hand, second isomeric pair shows significant loss of t-butanol and loss of acetone for Boc-NH-delta-Caa-beta-Caa-OCH(3) (18), whereas these are insignificant for its positional isomer Boc-NH-beta-Caa-delta-Caa-OCH(3) (13). The tetra- and hexapeptide positional isomers also show significant differences in MS(2) and MS(3) CID spectra. It is observed that 'b' ions are abundant when oxazolone structures are formed through five-membered cyclic transition state and cyclization process for larger 'b' ions led to its insignificant abundance. However, b(1)(+) ion is formed in case of delta,alpha-dipeptide that may have a six-membered substituted piperidone ion structure. Furthermore, ESI negative ion MS/MS has also been found to be useful for differentiating these isomeric peptide acids. Thus, the results of MS/MS of pairs of di-, tetra-, and hexapeptide positional isomers provide peptide sequencing information and distinguish the positional isomers.

  8. Influence of different organic fertilizers on quality parameters and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Paolo; Camin, Federica; Fabroni, Simona; Perini, Matteo; Torrisi, Biagio; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of different types of fertilizers on quality parameters, N-containing compounds, and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta (34)S, and delta(18)O values of citrus fruit, a study was performed on the orange fruit cv. 'Valencia late' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), which was harvested in four plots (three organic and one conventional) located on the same farm. The results demonstrated that different types of organic fertilizers containing the same amount of nitrogen did not effect important changes in orange fruit quality parameters. The levels of total N and N-containing compounds such as synephrine in fruit juice were not statistically different among the different treatments. The delta(15)N values of orange fruit grown under fertilizer derived from animal origin as well as from vegetable compost were statistically higher than those grown with mineral fertilizer. Therefore, delta(15)N values can be used as an indicator of citrus fertilization management (organic or conventional), because even when applied organic fertilizers are of different origins, the natural abundance of (15)N in organic citrus fruit remains higher than in conventional ones. These treatments also did not effect differences in the delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of fruit.

  9. Degree-degree dependencies in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstad, van der Remco; Litvak, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar degre

  10. Degree-Degree Dependencies in Random Graphs with Heavy-Tailed Degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hofstad, Remco; Litvak, Nelli

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  11. Identifying hazards associated with lava deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Orr, Tim R.

    2014-01-01

    Lava deltas, formed where lava enters the ocean and builds a shelf of new land extending from the coastline, represent a significant local hazard, especially on populated ocean island volcanoes. Such structures are unstable and prone to collapse—events that are often accompanied by small explosions that can deposit boulders and cobbles hundreds of meters inland. Explosions that coincide with collapses of the East Lae ‘Apuki lava delta at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, during 2005–2007 followed an evolutionary progression mirroring that of the delta itself. A collapse that occurred when the lava–ocean entry was active was associated with a blast of lithic blocks and dispersal of spatter and fine, glassy tephra. Shortly after delta growth ceased, a collapse exposed hot rock to cold ocean water, resulting in an explosion composed entirely of lithic blocks and lapilli. Further collapse of the delta after several months of inactivity, by which time it had cooled significantly, resulted in no recognizable explosion deposit. Seaward displacement and subsidence of the coastline immediately inland of the delta was measured by both satellite and ground-based sensors and occurred at rates of several centimeters per month even after the lava–ocean entry had ceased. The anomalous deformation ended only after complete collapse of the delta. Monitoring of ground deformation may therefore provide an indication of the potential for delta collapse, while the hazard associated with collapse can be inferred from the level of activity, or the time since the last activity, on the delta.

  12. [Studies on local anesthetics. Part 183: micellization and thermodynamic parameters of heptacainium chloride in the solution of potassium bromide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamainty, F; Cizmárik, J; Malík, I; Horvat, S

    2008-06-01

    The critical micellar concentration (CMC) of the local anaesthetic agent heptacainium chloride in the solution of KBr was determined by the spectrophotometric method in the UV region of the spectrum at the temperature range of t = 20-40 degrees C and pH = 4.5-5.0. The dependence of CMC on the temperature T turned out forming the U-shape with the minimum at the temperature of t = 25 degrees C. The parabolic dependence of CMC on the temperature T was drawn by the fitting of the values using the polynomial function and the so-called power law equation. The CMC dependence on the temperature T was fitted by the second degree polynomial function. The obtained parabolic equations were applied to the "phase separation model", so the following thermodynamic parameters could be calculated: standard Gibbs free energy (deltaG), enthalpy (deltaH degrees), and entropy (deltaS degrees). The thermodynamic parameters were further used to determine the so-called entropy-enthalpy compensation of the systems under study. The compensation temperature was in the following range: (301 +/- 1-303 +/- 3)K. Then the temperature dependence of the enthalpy (deltaH degrees) and entropy (-TdeltaS degrees) contributions to the standard Gibbs free energy (deltaG degrees) for all prepared concentrations of the compound were calculated.

  13. Delta Electroproduction in 12-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLauchlan, Steven [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    The Δ-nucleus potential is a crucial element in the understanding of the nuclear system. Previous electroexcitation measurements in the delta region reported a Q2 dependence of the Δ mass indicating that this potential is dependent on the momentum of the Δ. Such a dependence is not observed for protons and neutrons in the nuclear medium. This thesis presents the experimental study of the electroexcitation of the Δ resonance in 12C, performed using the high energy electron beam at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and the near 4π acceptance detector CLAS that enables the detection of the full reaction final state. Inclusive, semi inclusive, and exclusive cross sections were measured with an incident electron beam energy of 1.162GeV over the Q2 range 0.175-0.475 (GeV/c)2. A Q2 dependence of the Δ mass was only observed in the exclusive measurements indicating that the Δ-nucleus potential is affected by the momentum of the Δ.

  14. Novel diazabicycloalkane delta opioid agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loriga, Giovanni; Lazzari, Paolo; Manca, Ilaria; Ruiu, Stefania; Falzoi, Matteo; Murineddu, Gabriele; Bottazzi, Mirko Emilio Heiner; Pinna, Giovanni; Pinna, Gérard Aimè

    2015-09-01

    Here we report the investigation of diazabicycloalkane cores as potential new scaffolds for the development of novel analogues of the previously reported diazatricyclodecane selective delta (δ) opioid agonists, as conformationally constrained homologues of the reference δ agonist (+)-4-[(αR)-α((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide (SNC80). In particular, we have simplified the diazatricyclodecane motif of δ opioid agonist prototype 1a with bridged bicyclic cores. 3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, 3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane, 3,9-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane, 3,9-diazabicyclo[4.2.1]nonane, and 3,10-diazabicyclo[4.3.1]decane were adopted as core motifs of the novel derivatives. The compounds were synthesized and biologically assayed as racemic (3-5) or diastereoisomeric (6,7) mixtures. All the novel compounds 3-7 showed δ agonism behaviour and remarkable affinity to δ receptors. Amongst the novel derivatives, 3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane based compound 4 evidenced improved δ affinity and selectivity relative to SNC80. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. {delta}-ALAD activity variations in red blood cells in response to lead accumulation in rock doves (Columba livia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M.; Tejedor, M.C. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    1992-10-01

    The enzyme {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase ({delta}-ALAD, E.C. 4.2.1.24), catalyses the second step of the haeme biosynthetic pathway and is required to maintain the haemoglobin and cytochrome content in red cells. {delta}-ALAD is not only found in bone marrow cells, the major site of haeme synthesis, but also in circulating erythrocytes and other tissues. An inverse correlation was found between {delta}-ALAD activity in red blood cells and lead concentration in the blood. The degree of {delta}-ALAD inhibition in erythrocytes has been widely accepted as a standard bioassay to detect acute and chronic lead exposure in humans and in avians. The value of this parameter as an indicator for environmental lead has been often reported in doves and Scanlon. In lead-treated rats, an increase in {delta}-ALAD activity in bone marrow cells and in blood samples was shown by radioimmunoassay at 5 and 9 days after the treatment. Similarly, the amount of {delta}-ALAD seems to be more sensitive to lead in avian species than in mammals, the usefulness of blood {delta}-ALAD activity as an index of lead exposure has already been questioned by Hutton in the pigeon and by Jaffe et al. in humans. The present investigation studied the toxic effects of lead on rock dove red blood cell {delta}-ALAD activity in two situations: in doves treated with lead acetate in the laboratory and in doves exposed to the environment of Alcala de Henares. The final lead blood concentrations were lower in the environmental than in the laboratory doves. {delta}-ALAD activity in bone marrow cells and the relationships between lead accumulation and enzyme activity in red cells, are examined. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Rethinking the Bachelor Degree Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Anne Elisabeth; Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The text contains reflections on the background for rethinking the bachelor degree course at the Aarhus School of Architecture.......The text contains reflections on the background for rethinking the bachelor degree course at the Aarhus School of Architecture....

  17. Damped Oscillator with Delta-Kicked Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manko, O. V.

    1996-01-01

    Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation for quantum damped oscillator subject to frequency delta-kick describing squeezed states are obtained. The cases of strong, intermediate, and weak damping are investigated.

  18. in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    suggestions as policy options for the resolution of the armed conflict in the. Niger Delta ... indiscriminate use of lethal weapons by local militias, the cumulative effect of which is the ... of many 'child' soldiers in local conflicts or wars nowadays.

  19. Contemporary depositional environments of the Omo delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, K W

    1970-05-02

    Geomorphological and sedimentological studies of depositional environments of the modern Omo River delta and floodplain are essential to an understanding of the Pliocene to Pleistocene Mursi, Nkalabong and Kibish Formations of the Lower Omo Basin (southwestern Ethiopia).

  20. Legal Delta Boundary, 2001, DWR [ds586

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The original topographic maps containing the drawn delta border were scanned from the Department of Water Resources. Images were registered to 1:24,000 USGS DRG's in...

  1. Cackling Canada goose nesting populations, Yukon Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Number of potential territories, number of cackling Canada Goose nests, and percent occupancy of available territories from CCG plots on the Yukon Delta National...

  2. Water quality in the Okavango Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-12

    Mar 12, 2010 ... water and sediments in the Okavango Delta published between 2000 and 2010. Despite the shortage ... Their interactions with light, water, dissolved nutrients and suspended solids ...... temporal remote sensing. Int. J. Remote ...

  3. California Black Rail - Central Delta [ds17

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Results of taped-call black rail surveys of in-stream habitat within certain waterways in the central Sacramento / San Joaquin Delta during 1992 and 1993. TIME...

  4. Propagator for the double delta potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciari, Ilaria [Istituto di Fisica Applicata ' Nello Carrara' , CNR, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Moretti, Paolo [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, CNR, Sezione di Firenze, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: paolo.moretti@isc.cnr.it

    2006-12-04

    The propagator for the double delta potential is calculated starting from the integral form of the Schroedinger equation. A compact expression of its Laplace transform is found, that can be explicitly inverted in some limiting cases.

  5. The Atchafalaya River Delta. Report 4. Generic Analysis of Delta Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    contemporaneously with delta growth (Donaldson, Martin , and Kanes 1970). The average rate of contour advancement has been ap- proximately 12 m/yr. Assuming the...Donaldson, Martin , ’, and Kanes 1970) shows that the delta has transgressed over 60 m. Average rates of deterioration are reported to be 2.75 m/yr...after 1965 ( Keown , Dardeau, and Causey 1980). Coarse sediment not reaching the delta is precisely the material needed for subaerial land. Third, the

  6. Cetacean diversity on the Parnaiba Delta, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, F A; Tosi, C H; Garri, R G; Chellappa, S; Silva, F L

    2008-08-01

    The increase in the research of cetacean surveys on the Brazilian coast has brought new data on the distribution of species never reported before. The present work reviews the current knowledge on cetaceans species and extends this knowledge with an analysis of cetaceans stranded in the Parnaiba Delta, on the coast of Maranhão State, Brazil. The studies on cetacean diversity on the coast of the Parnaíba Delta were made from August 2004 to August 2006. Fourteen strandings were reported, representing six distinct species, such as the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera edeni), dwarf minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), pigmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) and two specimens which have not yet been identified. The significant degree of cetacean diversity in the region shows that the Parnaíba Delta is, possibly, of an important area for cetacean studies in Brasil.

  7. Cetacean diversity on the Parnaiba Delta, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA. Magalhães

    Full Text Available The increase in the research of cetacean surveys on the Brazilian coast has brought new data on the distribution of species never reported before. The present work reviews the current knowledge on cetaceans species and extends this knowledge with an analysis of cetaceans stranded in the Parnaiba Delta, on the coast of Maranhão State, Brazil. The studies on cetacean diversity on the coast of the Parnaíba Delta were made from August 2004 to August 2006. Fourteen strandings were reported, representing six distinct species, such as the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis, humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera edeni, dwarf minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata, pigmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata, sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus and two specimens which have not yet been identified. The significant degree of cetacean diversity in the region shows that the Parnaíba Delta is, possibly, of an important area for cetacean studies in Brasil.

  8. Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

  9. Optimized $\\delta$ expansion for relativistic nuclear models

    CERN Document Server

    Krein, G I; Peres-Menezes, D; Nielsen, M; Pinto, M B

    1998-01-01

    The optimized $\\delta$-expansion is a nonperturbative approach for field theoretic models which combines the techniques of perturbation theory and the variational principle. This technique is discussed in the $\\lambda \\phi^4$ model and then implemented in the Walecka model for the equation of state of nuclear matter. The results obtained with the $\\delta$ expansion are compared with those obtained with the traditional mean field, relativistic Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximations.

  10. Migration in Vulnerable Deltas: A Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, C.; Nicholls, R. J.; Allan, A.

    2015-12-01

    C. Hutton1, & R. J. Nicholls1, , 1 University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom, SO17 1BJ. cwh@geodata. soton.ac.ukAbstractGlobally, deltas contain 500 million people and with rising sea levels often linked to large number of forced migrants are expected in the coming century. However, migration is already a major process in deltas, such as the growth of major cities such as Dhaka and Kolkata. Climate and environmental change interacts with a range of catchment and delta level drivers, which encompass a nexus of sea-level rise, storms, freshwater and sediment supply from the catchment, land degradation, subsidence, agricultural loss and socio-economic stresses. DECCMA (Deltas, Vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation/CARRIA) is investigating migration in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM), Mahanadi and Volta Deltas, including the influence of climate change. The research will explore migration from a range of perspectives including governance and stakeholder analysis, demographic analysis, household surveys of sending and receiving areas, macro-economic analysis, and hazards and hotspot analysis both historically and into the future. Migration under climate change will depend on other adaptation in the deltas and this will be examined. Collectively, integrated analysis will be developed to examine migration, other adaptation and development pathways with a particular focus on the implications for the poorest. This will require the development of input scenarios, including expert-derived exogenous scenarios (e.g., climate change) and endogenous scenarios of the delta developed in a participatory manner. This applied research will facilitate decision support methods for the development of deltas under climate change, with a focus on migration and other adaptation strategies.

  11. Stellar delta matter with delta-meson coupling constants constrained by QCD sum rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Antonio Ferreira da [Secretaria de Educacao, Cultura e Desportos do Estado de Roraima (SECD/RR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); Oliveira, Jose Carlos Teixeira de [Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); Rodrigues, Hilario [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, Sergio Barbosa [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chiapparini, Marcelo [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The considerable presence of delta-resonances (30% of baryonic population) in the dense phase of relativistic heavy ion collisions leads to a great interest in the study of the delta matter formation in the deep interior of compact stars. In the present work we determine the equation of state and the population of baryons and leptons and discuss the effects of the baryon-meson coupling constants to the formation of delta matter in the stellar medium. We use the non-linear Walecka model consisting of the octet of baryons of spin 1=2 (n, p, {Lambda}{sup 0}, {Sigma}{sup -}, {Sigma}{sup 0}, {Sigma}{sup +}, {Xi}{sup -}, {Xi}{sup 0}) and baryonic resonances of spin 3=2, represented by the delta resonances ({Delta}{sup -}, ({Delta}{sup 0}, ({Delta}{sup +}, ({Delta}{sup ++}) and {Omega}{sup -}, in the baryonic sector. In the leptonic sector we consider the electrons and muons. The coupling constants between the hyperons {Lambda}, {Sigma}, and {Xi} and the mesons {omega} and {rho} are fixed by using SU(6) symmetry, while the hyperons-{sigma} coupling constants are constrained by the consistence of the hypernuclear potential in the nuclear matter with hypernuclear data. In addition, we use the finite density QCD sum rule to determine the possible values of delta-meson coupling constants. (author)

  12. delta(13)C and delta(2)H isotope ratios in amphetamine synthesized from benzaldehyde and nitroethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael; Salouros, Helen; Cawley, Adam T; Robertson, James; Heagney, Aaron C; Arenas-Queralt, Andrea

    2010-06-15

    Previous work in these laboratories and by Butzenlechner et al. and Culp et al. has demonstrated that the delta(2)H isotope value of industrial benzaldehyde produced by the catalytic oxidation of toluene is profoundly positive, usually in the range +300 per thousand to +500 per thousand. Synthetic routes leading to amphetamine, methylamphetamine or their precursors and commencing with such benzaldehyde may be expected to exhibit unusually positive delta(2)H values. Results are presented for delta(13)C and delta(2)H isotope values of 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene synthesized from an industrial source of benzaldehyde, having a positive delta(2)H isotope value, by a Knoevenagel condensation with nitroethane. Results are also presented for delta(13)C and delta(2)H isotope values for amphetamine prepared from the resulting 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene. The values obtained were compared with delta(13)C and delta(2)H isotope values obtained for an amphetamine sample prepared using a synthetic route that did not involve benzaldehyde. Finally, results are presented for samples of benzaldehyde, 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene and amphetamine that had been seized at a clandestine amphetamine laboratory.

  13. Measuring the Cost of a College Degree: A Case Study of a SUNY Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Richard M.; Losinger, Regina; Millard, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by a white paper produced by the Delta Project on Postsecondary Education Costs, Productivity, and Accountability, this study uses different measures of calculating the cost of a college degree at an upstate community college in New York. Departmental cost per credit hour, direct instructional costs, and full costs are all explained. A…

  14. A truncated CFTR protein rescues endogenous DeltaF508-CFTR and corrects chloride transport in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Hong, Jeong S; Berdiev, Bakhram K; Fortenberry, James A; Rennolds, Jessica; Clancy, J P; Benos, Dale J; Boyaka, Prosper N; Sorscher, Eric J

    2009-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is most frequently associated with deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 (DeltaF508) in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The DeltaF508-CFTR mutant protein exhibits a folding defect that affects its processing and impairs chloride-channel function. This study aimed to determine whether CFTR fragments approximately half the size of wild-type CFTR and complementary to the portion of CFTR bearing the mutation can specifically rescue the processing of endogenous DeltaF508-CFTR in vivo. cDNA encoding CFTR fragments were delivered to human airway epithelial cells and mice harboring endogenous DeltaF508-CFTR. Delivery of small CFTR fragments, which do not act as chloride channels by themselves, rescue DeltaF508-CFTR. Therefore, we can speculate that the presence of the CFTR fragment, which does not harbor a mutation, might facilitate intermolecular interactions. The rescue of CFTR was evident by the restoration of chloride transport in human CFBE41o- bronchial epithelial cells expressing DeltaF508-CFTR in vitro. More important, nasal administration of an adenovirus expressing a complementary CFTR fragment restored some degree of CFTR activity in the nasal airways of DeltaF508 homozygous mice in vivo. These findings identify complementary protein fragments as a viable in vivo approach for correcting disease-causing misfolding of plasma membrane proteins.

  15. River delta network hydraulic residence time distributions and their role in coastal nutrient biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, M. R.; Castaneda, E.; Twilley, R.; Hodges, B. R.; Passalacqua, P.

    2015-12-01

    River deltas have the potential to mitigate increased nutrient loading to coastal waters by acting as biofilters that reduce the impact of nutrient enrichment on downstream ecosystems. Hydraulic residence time (HRT) is known to be a major control on biogeochemical processes and deltaic floodplains are hypothesized to have relatively long HRTs. Hydrological connectivity and delta floodplain inundation induced by riverine forces, tides, and winds likely alter surface water flow patterns and HRTs. Since deltaic floodplains are important elements of delta networks and receive significant fluxes of water, sediment, and nutrients from distributary channels, biogeochemical transformations occurring within these zones could significantly reduce nutrient loading to coastal receiving waters. However, network-scale estimates of HRT in river deltas are lacking and little is known about the effects of tides, wind, and the riverine input on the HRT distribution. Subsequently, there lacks a benchmark for evaluating the impact of engineered river diversions on coastal nutrient ecology. In this study, we estimate the HRT of a coastal river delta by using hydrodynamic modeling supported by field data and relate the HRT to spatial and temporal patterns in nitrate levels measured at discrete stations inside a delta island at Wax Lake Delta. We highlight the control of the degree of hydrological connectivity between distributary channels and interdistributary islands on the network HRT distribution and address the roles of tides and wind on altering the shape of the distribution. We compare the observed nitrate concentrations to patterns of channel-floodplain hydrological connectivity and find this connectivity to play a significant role in the nutrient removal. Our results provide insight into the potential role of deltaic wetlands in reducing the nutrient loading to near-shore waters in response to large-scale river diversions.

  16. Erythromycin and azithromycin transport into Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 19418 under conditions of depressed proton motive force (delta mu H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capobianco, J.O.; Goldman, R.C. (Abbott Laboratories, IL (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The effect of collapsing the electrochemical proton gradient (delta mu H) on ({sup 3}H)erythromycin and ({sup 14}C)azithromycin transport in Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 19418 was studied. The proton gradient and membrane potential were determined from the distribution of (2-{sup 14}C)dimethadione and rubidium-86, respectively. delta mu H was reduced from 124 to 3 mV in EDTA-valinomycin-treated cells at 22{degrees}C with 150 mM KCl and 0.1 mM carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. During the collapse of delta mu H, macrolide uptake increased. Erythromycin efflux studies strongly suggested that this increase was not due to an energy-dependent efflux pump but was likely due to increased outer membrane permeability. These data indicated that macrolide entry was not a delta mu H-driven active transport process but rather a passive diffusion process.

  17. Nuclear matter properties from local chiral interactions with $\\Delta$ isobar intermediate states

    CERN Document Server

    Logoteta, Domenico; Kievsky, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Using two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) with and without the explicit $\\Delta$ isobar contributions, we calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter in the framework of the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. In particular, we present for the first time nuclear matter calculations using the new fully local in coordinate-space two-nucleon interaction at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N3LO) of ChPT with $\\Delta$ isobar intermediate states (N3LO$\\Delta$) recently developed by Piarulli et al. [arXiv:1606:06335]. We find that using this N3LO$\\Delta$ potential, supplemented with a local N2LO three-nucleon interaction with explicit $\\Delta$ isobar degrees of freedom, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. For this combination of two- and three-nucleon interactions we also calculate the nuclear symmetry energy and we compare our results wit...

  18. First Measurement of the Neutral Current Excitation of the Delta Resonance on a Proton Target

    CERN Document Server

    Androic, D; Arvieux, J; Bailey, S L; Beck, D H; Beise, E J; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bimbot, L; Birchall, J; Bosted, P; Breuer, H; Capuano, C L; Chao, Y -C; Coppens, A; Davis, C A; Ellis, C; Flores, G; Franklin, G; Furget, C; Gaskell, D; Grames, J; Gericke, M T W; Guillard, G; Hansknecht, J; Horn, T; Jones, M K; King, P M; Korsch, W; Kox, S; Lee, L; Liu, J; Lung, A; Mammei, J; Martin, J W; McKeown, R D; Micherdzinska, A; Mihovilovic, M; Mkrtchyan, H; Muether, M; Page, S A; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Phillips, S K; Pillot, P; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Quinn, B; Ramsay, W D; Real, J -S; Roche, J; Roos, P; Schaub, J; Seva, T; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Spayde, D T; Stutzman, M; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; van Oers, W T H; Versteegen, M; Voutier, E; Vulcan, W; Wells, S P; Williamson, S E; Wood, S A

    2012-01-01

    The parity-violating asymmetry arising from inelastic electron-nucleon scattering at backward angle (~95 degrees) near the Delta(1232) resonance has been measured using a hydrogen target. From this asymmetry, we extracted the axial transition form factor G^A_{N\\Delta}, a function of the axial Adler form factors C^A_i. Though G^A_{N\\Delta} has been previously studied using charged current reactions, this is the first measurement of the weak neutral current excitation of the Delta using a proton target. For Q^2 = 0.34 (GeV/c)^2 and W = 1.18 GeV, the asymmetry was measured to be -33.4 \\pm (5.3)_{stat} \\pm (5.1)_{sys} ppm. The value of G^A_{N\\Delta} determined from the hydrogen asymmetry was -0.05 \\pm (0.35)_{stat} \\pm (0.34)_{sys} \\pm (0.06)_{theory}. These findings agree within errors with theoretical predictions for both the total asymmetry and the form factor. In addition to the hydrogen measurement, the asymmetry was measured at the same kinematics using a deuterium target. The asymmetry for deuterium was de...

  19. Quantifying the effects of tidal amplitude on river delta network flow partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, M. R.; Sendrowski, A.; Passalacqua, P.

    2014-12-01

    Deltas are generally classified as river-, tide-, or wave-dominated systems, but the influences of all environmental forces cannot be ignored when fully addressing the dynamics of the system. For example, in river-dominated deltas, river flow from the feeder channel acts as the primary driver of dynamics within the system by delivering water, sediment, and nutrients through the distributary channels, but tides and waves may affect their allocation within the network. There has been work on the asymmetry of environmental fluxes at bifurcations, but relatively few studies exist on the water partitioning at the network scale. Understanding the network and environmental effects on the flux of water, sediment, and nutrients would benefit delta restoration projects and management practices. In this study, we investigate the allocation of water flow among the five major distributary channels at Wax Lake Delta (WLD), a micro-tidal river-dominated delta in coastal Louisiana, and the effects of tidal amplitude on distributary channel discharges. We collect and compare discharge results from acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) velocity transects between spring and neap tide and between falling and rising tide. The results show that discharges increased from spring to neap tide and from rising to falling tide. We investigate the spatial gradients of tidal influence within the network and validate hydraulic geometry relations for tidally influenced channels. Our results give insight into the control of network structure on flow partitioning and show the degree of tidal influence on channel flow in the river-dominated WLD.

  20. Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; van der Hofstad, Remco

    2012-01-01

    We investigate degree-degree correlations for scale-free graph sequences. The main conclusion of this paper is that the assortativity coefficient is not the appropriate way to describe degree-dependences in scale-free random graphs. Indeed, we study the infinite volume limit of the assortativity

  1. Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; van der Hofstad, Remco

    2012-01-01

    We investigate degree-degree correlations for scale-free graph sequences. The main conclusion of this paper is that the assortativity coefficient is not the appropriate way to describe degree-dependences in scale-free random graphs. Indeed, we study the infinite volume limit of the assortativity coe

  2. The Okavango: Whose Delta is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magole, Lapologang; Magole, Lefatshe Innocent

    The Okavango Delta is amongst the largest Ramsar sites ( http://www.ramsar.org/sitelist.pdf) in the world and an important wetland for community livelihoods, conservation and tourism in Botswana. Over the years, the utilization of the delta has shifted from communal use to state control, with an increased use for conservation and tourism. This increased use for conservation and tourism has manifested in the physical expansion of the conservation area - Moremi Game Reserve and the formation of Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) around the reserve, whose primary land use is wildlife utilization. The expansion of the conservation area has translated into several practical matters, including expansion of the area for non-hunting activities or photographic areas. The livelihoods of local communities of the Okavango delta who depended on fishing, hunter-gathering, livestock rearing, rain-fed agriculture and flood recession farming have been negatively affected by the expansion of conservation and tourism in the delta. The livelihoods alternatives in the form of Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) and tourism have not provided substitutes for the people as the communities are still reliant on the same old livelihood sources as in the past, albeit within smaller and restricted areas. This paper explores the ownership of the natural resources within the Okavango Delta. It asks and attempts to answer the following questions: Who owns and controls the use of the land? Who has access to other resources there in? Who makes the decisions on how the delta resources should be managed and used? Who benefits from the delta resources? We argue firstly that ownership of the delta as defined by legal parameters and demonstrated in natural resource management practice is vested on government. Secondly, government, after assuming ownership of the delta continues to sell its stake to the international community, at the expense of local ownership and access to resources. We

  3. Graduate Physics Degrees: Largest Departments and Degree Distribution. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    In the 2011-12 academic year there were 751 degree-granting physics departments in the U.S. Of these, 195 offered a PhD and 62 departments offered a master's as the highest physics degree. The remaining 494 departments offered a bachelor's as their highest physics degree. There were six universities that had two doctoral-granting physics…

  4. Delta 机器人控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷盛江; 于复生; 时维康; 孙中国

    2015-01-01

    In view of the motion properties of Delta robot,the control system applicable to motion function of 3 de-grees of freedom is designed in the paper,which consists of mechanical structure module and robot vision module.The me-chanical structure module can be controlled by LPC1114 processor in order to realize movement,opening,and closing with-in the paw 3D space;robot vision module adopts LabView graphical programming language,which can shorten the program-ming time and contain corresponding introduction to each program.Combination of mechanical structure module and robot vision module can improve motion control precision of Delta robot.%针对Delta机器人的运动特点,设计了可实现3自由度运动功能的控制系统,该系统由机械结构模块和机器视觉模块两部分组成。机械结构模块的控制采用 LPC1114处理器,实现手爪三维空间内的移动与开合;机器视觉控制模块采用 LabView 图形化编程语言,可视化编程减少了编程时间,对各部分程序进行了相应的介绍。机械结构模块的控制与机器视觉模块的控制相结合,提高了 Delta 机器人的运动控制精度。

  5. Impact of sea-level rise in a Mediteranean delta: The Ebro delta cast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, A.; Stive, M.D.F.; Jiménez, J.A.; García, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    In anticipation of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary study on the impact of climatic change on the Ebro Delta preliminary results are here presented of the response of the outer delta coast to present and future relative sea-level rise. Due to the absence of observations and predictions of regional

  6. Final State Interactions and Delta S=-1, Delta C=\\pm 1 B--decays

    CERN Document Server

    Fayyazuddin, A

    2002-01-01

    The final state interactions (FSI) in Delta S=-1, Delta C=\\pm 1, decays of B-meson are discussed. The rescattering corrections are found to be of order of 15-20%. The strong interaction phase shifts are estimated and their effects on CP-asymmetry are discussed.

  7. A model for the Delta(1600) resonance and gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalho, G

    2010-01-01

    A covariant spectator constituent quark model is applied to study the gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition. Two processes are important in the transition: a photon couples to the individual quarks of the Delta(1600) core (quark core), and a photon couples to the intermediate pion-baryon states (pion cloud). While the quark core contributions are estimated assuming Delta(1600) as the first radial excitation of Delta(1232), the pion cloud contributions are estimated based on an analogy with the gamma N -> Delta(1232) transition. To estimate the pion cloud contributions in the gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition, we include the relevant intermediate states, pi-N, pi-Delta, pi-N(1440) and pi-Delta(1600). Dependence on the four-momentum transfer squared, Q2, is predicted for the magnetic dipole transition form factor, GM*(Q2), as well as the helicity amplitudes, A_1/2(Q2) and A_3/2(Q2). The results at Q2=0 are compared with the existing data.

  8. A model for the Delta(1600) resonance and gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ramalho, K. Tsushima

    2010-10-01

    A covariant spectator constituent quark model is applied to study the gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition. Two processes are important in the transition: a photon couples to the individual quarks of the Delta(1600) core (quark core), and a photon couples to the intermediate pion-baryon states (pion cloud). While the quark core contributions are estimated assuming Delta(1600) as the first radial excitation of Delta(1232), the pion cloud contributions are estimated based on an analogy with the gamma N -> Delta(1232) transition. To estimate the pion cloud contributions in the gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition, we include the relevant intermediate states, pi-N, pi-Delta, pi-N(1440) and pi-Delta(1600). Dependence on the four-momentum transfer squared, Q2, is predicted for the magnetic dipole transition form factor, GM*(Q2), as well as the helicity amplitudes, A_1/2(Q2) and A_3/2(Q2). The results at Q2=0 are compared with the existing data.

  9. Impact of sea-level rise in a Mediteranean delta: The Ebro delta cast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, A.; Stive, M.D.F.; Jiménez, J.A.; García, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    In anticipation of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary study on the impact of climatic change on the Ebro Delta preliminary results are here presented of the response of the outer delta coast to present and future relative sea-level rise. Due to the absence of observations and predictions of regional

  10. The Enabling Delta Life Initiative - Global Programme of Action on Deltas - Programme description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, van W.F.; Skyllerstedt, S.; Wosten, J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Being ‘hotspots’ of human activity with generally high population densities, deltas are vulnerable to changes induced by a range of driving forces, both natural and anthropogenic. In addition to already existing challenges, uncertainty of the possible impacts of climate change, low lying deltas arou

  11. Houtman Abrolhos Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) Data for 1795 to 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DESCRIPTION: VARIABLES AND UNITS: Column #1: core depth in mm Column #2: delta C-13 vs V-PDB Column #3: delta O-18 vs V-PDB Column #4: assigned date in years A.D....

  12. \\Delta Y/ \\Delta Z from the analysis of local K dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Gennaro, Mario; Degl'Innocenti, Scilla

    2010-01-01

    The stellar helium-to-metal enrichment ratio, \\Delta Y/\\Delta Z, is a widely studied astrophysical quantity. However, its value is still not precisely constrained. This paper is focused on the study of the main sources of uncertainty which affect the \\Delta Y/\\Delta Z derived from the analysis of the low-main sequence (MS) stars in the solar neighborhood. The possibility to infer the value of \\Delta Y/\\Delta Z from the study of low-MS stars relies on the dependence of the stellar luminosity and effective temperature on the initial Y and Z. The \\Delta Y/\\Delta Z ratio is obtained by comparing the magnitude difference between the observed stars and a reference theoretical zero age main sequence (ZAMS) with the related theoretical magnitude differences computed from a new set of stellar models with up-to-date input physics and a fine grid of chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo approach has been used to evaluate the impact on the result of different sources of uncertainty, i.e. observational errors, evolutionary...

  13. Holocene delta plain development in the Song Hong (Red River) delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabiki, Ayako; Haruyama, Shigeko; Quy, Nguyen Van; Hai, Pham Van; Thai, Dinh Hung

    2007-05-01

    Holocene delta plain development was investigated based on three sediment cores analyzed in detail from the Song Hong (Red River) delta plain in Vietnam. Two cores (DA and PD) from the western delta plain showed both the landward limit of the transgressive estuarine system in the valley incised during the last glacial maximum and floodplain evolution since the middle Holocene. On the other hand, a core (TL) from the eastern delta plain revealed a Pleistocene terrace buried under the deltaic sediments and a slow accumulation rate compared with that in the west. At 8 cal ky BP, the shoreline migrated very close to the present Hanoi city area, and the sedimentary environment changed to tidal flat or salt marsh. Hanoi city marks the northern limit of shoreline transgression. The mangrove swamp expanded from 8 to 5 cal ky BP to the landward limit of the delta plain. Subsequently, the shoreline migrated seaward as a result of delta progradation and sea-level lowering. From 5 cal ky BP, the emerged area evolved into a floodplain and natural levees formed along the abandoned river channels on the western delta plain, but at 2 cal ky, archeological sites indicate that the Holocene terrace in the eastern delta plain was still inundated.

  14. Asteroseismology of the $\\delta$ Scuti star HD 50844

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X H; Lai, X J; Wu, T

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We aim to probe the internal structure and investigate more detailed information of the $\\delta$ Scuti star HD 50844 with asteroseismology. Methods. We analyse the observed frequencies of the $\\delta$ Scuti star HD 50844 obtained by Balona (2014), and search for possible multiplets based on the rotational splitting law of g-mode. We tried to disentangle the frequency spectra of HD 50844 by means of the rotational splitting only. We then compare them with theoretical pulsation modes, which correspond to stellar evolutionary models with various sets of initial metallicity and stellar mass, to find the best-fitting model. Results. There are three multiplets including two complete triplets and one incomplete quintuplet, in which mode identifications for spherical harmonic degree $l$ and azimuthal number $m$ are unique. The corresponding rotational period of HD 50844 is found to be 2.44$^{+0.13}_{-0.08}$ days. The physical parameters of HD 50844 are well limited in a small region by three modes identified as...

  15. Degree Depreciation: A Fait Accompli for the Liberal Arts Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplass, James A.

    1976-01-01

    The liberal arts degree will continue to lack the credibility needed to compete with professional school degrees in the job market unless a return is made to rigourous standards, subjective tests, term papers, comprehensive exams, improvement in instructional methods, and more stringent curriculum requirements for foreign language, composition,…

  16. MODIFICATION OF DELTA FOR CHOOSER OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Ďurica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Correctly used financial derivatives can help investors increase their expected returns and minimize their exposure to risk. To ensure the specific needs of investors, a large number of different types of non-standard exotic options is used. Chooser option is one of them. It is an option that gives its holder the right to choose at some predetermined future time whether the option will be a standard call or put with predetermined strike price and maturity time. Although the chooser options are more expensive than standard European-style options, in many cases they are a more suitable instrument for investors in hedging their portfolio value. For an effective use of the chooser option as a hedging instrument, it is necessary to check the values of the Greek parameters delta and gamma for the options. Especially, if the value of the parameter gamma is too large, hedging of the portfolio value using only parameter delta is insufficient and brings high transaction costs because the portfolio has to be reviewed relatively often. Therefore, in this article, a modification of delta-hedging as well as using the value of parameter gamma is suggested. Error of the delta modification is analyzed and compared with the error of widely used parameter delta. Typical patterns for the modified hedging parameter variation with various time to choose time for chooser options are also presented in this article.

  17. Notched delta, phenotype, and Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korff, Christian M; Kelley, Kent R; Nordli, Douglas R

    2005-08-01

    The notched delta pattern is one of the characteristic EEG features found in Angelman syndrome patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using the notched delta pattern as a detection tool for Angelman syndrome patients by analyzing its frequency in a tertiary care pediatric center, its specificity for Angelman syndrome, and the age at which it was observed. The authors performed a retrospective review of the video-EEG recordings of all the patients who had either the notched delta pattern or a phenotype consistent with Angelman syndrome. The notched delta was observed in 1.1% of all the EEGs performed. Its specificity for Angelman syndrome was evaluated at 38%. The youngest age at which it was noted was 14 months. The results indicate that the notched delta pattern is relatively rare, but more frequent than expected, and is easily recognizable. The pattern was observed not only in Angelman syndrome patients, but also in children with a spectrum of conditions wider than reported. It is a powerful detection tool for Angelman syndrome when correlated to a suggestive phenotype, and the association of these features should raise suspicion for Angelman syndrome in both infants and adults.

  18. Tracking Nile Delta vulnerability to Holocene change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Marriner

    Full Text Available Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the 'monsoon pacemaker', attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile's deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan 'depeopling', reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world's deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction.

  19. QCD in the {delta}-regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, W. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Cundy, N. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Lattice Gauge Theory Research Center; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Nakamura, Y. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Center for Computational Sciences; Pleiter, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The {delta}-regime of QCD is characterised by light quarks in a small spatial box, but a large extent in (Euclidean) time. In this setting a specific variant of chiral perturbation theory - the {delta}-expansion - applies, based on a quantum mechanical treatment of the quasi onedimensional system. In particular, for vanishing quark masses one obtains a residual pion mass M{sup R}{sub {pi}}, which has been computed to the third order in the {delta}-expansion. A comparison with numerical measurements of this residual mass allows for a new determination of some Low Energy Constants, which appear in the chiral Lagrangian. We first review the attempts to simulate 2-flavour QCD directly in the {delta}-regime. This is very tedious, but results compatible with the predictions for M{sup R}{sub {pi}} have been obtained. Then we show that an extrapolation of pion masses measured in a larger volume towards the {delta}-regime leads to good agreement with the theoretical predictions. From those results, we also extract a value for the (controversial) sub-leading Low Energy Constant anti l{sub 3}. (orig.)

  20. Interactions among mu- and delta-opioid receptors, especially putative delta1- and delta2-opioid receptors, promote dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirose, N.; Murakawa, K.; Takada, K.; Oi, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Nagase, H.; Cools, A.R.; Koshikawa, N.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of interactions among mu- and delta-opioid receptors, especially the putative delta(1)- and delta(2)-opioid receptors, in the nucleus accumbens on accumbal dopamine release was investigated in awake rats by in vivo brain microdialysis. In agreement with previous studies, perfusion of the

  1. Hydraulic engineering in the social-ecological delta: understanding the interplay between social, ecological, and technological systems in the Dutch delta by means of “delta trajectories”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, van M.F.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Several of the world's largest deltas have recently been conceptualized as social-ecological delta systems. Although such conceptualizations are valuable in emphasizing complex interaction between social actors and ecological processes in deltas, they do not go into specific dynamics that surround t

  2. Interactions among mu- and delta-opioid receptors, especially putative delta1- and delta2-opioid receptors, promote dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirose, N.; Murakawa, K.; Takada, K.; Oi, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Nagase, H.; Cools, A.R.; Koshikawa, N.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of interactions among mu- and delta-opioid receptors, especially the putative delta(1)- and delta(2)-opioid receptors, in the nucleus accumbens on accumbal dopamine release was investigated in awake rats by in vivo brain microdialysis. In agreement with previous studies, perfusion of the

  3. El plan del delta - Holanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1963-09-01

    Full Text Available Holland is very poor in land resources. Hence its development has been directed towards intensive industrialization and maximum agricultural exploitation. The western part of the country is below sea level and is occupied by 65 percent of the population. Originally the coast consisted of a number of islands, estuaries and slight elevations. Man has transformed this coastline, first making a number of artificial lakes, or polders, and then converting these into fertile districts. These projects protect the soil by means of dykes, which require careful conservation, but even so violent floods are not infrequent. One of the difficult problems involved in this vast enterprise is the complex system of water supply, lines of communication and flow of the rivers into the sea along the estuary zone. This zone is on the south west, and to protect it a National Commission has been set up. After careful study, it was decided that the best defense against the violence of the sea would consist in closing off the inroads of the sea into the continental coastline. The set of hydraulic projects which constitutes this plan for the improvement of the sea defences will take 25 years to fulfil. The general project is highly ambitious and includes both maritime, road and structural works, in which there is a variety of stonework constructions. This paper describes, in brief outline, the main contents of the 11 headings into which the general construction project has been subdivided. In addition, this is supplemented with information on the projects which are already initiated and on the constructional procedure that is being adopted. Of these latter projects, the Nabla bridge is of particular interest. It is situated on the delta. It is made in prestressed concrete, and consists of 17 spans, of 60 length each. This enormous structure, in addition to its great length, and supporting a 22.8 ms wide roadway, is subjected to the tremendous forces 11» of the sea on one

  4. Commissioning of the Delta Polarizing Undulator at LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    2015-09-25

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) generates linearly polarized, intense, high-brightness x-ray pulses from planar fixed-gap undulators. While the fixed-gap design supports a very successful and tightly controlled alignment concept, it provides only limited taper capability (up to 1% through canted pole and horizontal position adjustability) and lacks polarization control. The latter is of great importance for soft x-ray experiments. A new 3.2-m-long compact undulator (based on the Cornell University Delta design) has been developed and installed in place of the last LCLS undulator segment (U33) in October 2014. This undulator provides full control of the polarization degree and K value. Used on its own, it produces fully polarized radiation in the selected state (linear, circular or elliptical) but at low intensity. To increase the output power by orders of magnitude, the electron beam is micro-bunched by several (~10) of the upstream LCLS undulator segments operated in the linear FEL regime. As unavoidable by-product, this microbunching process produces moderate amounts of horizontally linear polarized radiation which mixes with the radiation produced by the Delta undulator. This unwanted radiation component has been greatly reduced by the reverse taper configuration, as suggested by E. Schneidmiller and M. Yurkov. Full elimination of the linear polarized component was achieved through spatial separation combined with transverse collimation. The paper describes these and other methods tested during commissioning. It also presents results of polarization measurements showing high degrees of circular polarization in the soft x-ray wavelength range (500 eV - 1500 eV).

  5. Neutral pion photoproduction on protons in fully covariant ChPT with Delta(1232) loop contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Blin, Astrid Hiller; Vacas, Manuel Vicente

    2015-01-01

    We study the neutral pion photoproduction at near-threshold energies in fully covariant chiral perturbation theory up to O(p^3). When including only nucleonic virtual states in the model, the convergence is too slow. Therefore we test the model when introducing the Delta(1232) resonance as an additional degree of freedom. Some low-energy constants were fitted, converging to values in good agreement with those expected from literature.

  6. Research Degrees as Professional Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…

  7. In-line broadband 270 degrees (3lambda/4) chevron four-reflection wave retarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R M A; Khanfar, H K

    2008-09-20

    The net differential phase shift Delta(t) introduced between the orthogonal p and s linear polarizations after four successive total internal reflections inside an in-line chevron dual-Fresnel-rhomb retarder is a function of the first internal angle of incidence phi and prism refractive index n. Retardance of 3lambda/4 (i.e., Delta(t)=270 degrees) is achieved with minimum angular sensitivity when phi=45 degrees and n=1.900822. Several optical glasses with this refractive index are identified. For Schott glass SF66 the deviation of Delta(t) from 270 degrees is three octaves (0.5 to 4.5 microm) in the visible, near-, and mid-IR spectral range. Another mid-IR 3lambda/4 retarder uses a Si prism, which is coated by an optically thick silicon oxynitride film of the proper composition, to achieve retardance that differs from 270 degrees by < 0.5 degrees over the 3-5 microm spectral range.

  8. Liquefaction potential of Nile delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergany, Elsayed; Omar, Khaled

    2017-06-01

    Understanding how sedimentary basins respond to seismic-wave energy generated by earthquake events is a significant concern for seismic-hazard estimation and risk analysis. The main goal of this study is assessing the vulnerability index, Kg, as an indicator for liquefaction potential sites in the Nile delta basin based on the microtremor measurements. Horizontal to Vertical spectral ratio analyses (HVSR) of ambient noise data, which was conducted in 2006 at 120 sites covering the Nile delta from south to north were reprocessed using Geopsy software. HVSR factors of amplification, A, and fundamental frequency, F, were calculated and Kg was estimated for each measurement. The Kg value varies widely from south toward north delta and the potential liquefaction places were estimated. The higher vulnerability indices are associated with sites located in southern part of the Nile delta and close to the branches of Nile River. The HVSR factors were correlated with geologic setting of the Nile delta and show good correlations with the sediment thickness and subsurface stratigraphic boundaries. However, we note that sites located in areas that have greatest percentage of sand also yielded relatively high Kg values with respect to sites in areas where clay is abundant. We concluded that any earthquake with ground acceleration more than 50 gal at hard rock can cause a perceived deformation of sandy sediments and liquefaction can take place in the weak zones of Kg ≥ 20. The worst potential liquefaction zones (Kg > 30) are frequently joined to the Damietta and Rosetta Nile River branches and south Delta where relatively coarser sand exists. The HVSR technique is a very sensitive tool for lithological stratigraphy variations in two dimensions and varying liquefaction susceptibility.

  9. The mappings of degree 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The maps of the form f( x = ∑ i=1 n a i ⋅x⋅ b i , called 1-degree maps, are introduced and investigated. For noncommutative algebras and modules over them 1-degree maps give an analogy of linear maps and differentials. Under some conditions on the algebra 𝒜 , contractibility of the group of 1-degree isomorphisms is proved for the module l 2 ( 𝒜 . It is shown that these conditions are fulfilled for the algebra of linear maps of a finite-dimensional linear space. The notion of 1-degree map gives a possibility to define a nonlinear Fredholm map of l 2 ( 𝒜 and a Fredholm manifold modelled by l 2 ( 𝒜 . 1-degree maps are also applied to some problems of Markov chains.

  10. All optical binary delta-sigma modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeh, Mohammad R.; Siahmakoun, Azad

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a novel A/D converter called "Binary Delta-Sigma Modulator" (BDSM) which operates only with nonnegative signal with positive feedback and binary threshold. This important modification to the conventional delta-sigma modulator makes the high-speed (>100GHz) all-optical implementation possible. It has also the capability to modify its own sampling frequency as well as its input dynamic range. This adaptive feature helps designers to optimize the system performance under highly noisy environment and also manage the power consumption of the A/D converters.

  11. Measurement of the Muon Decay Parameter delta

    CERN Document Server

    Gaponenko, A N; Davydov, Yu I; Depommier, P; Doornbos, J; Faszer, W; Fujiwara, M C; Gagliardi, C A; Gill, D R; Green, P; Gumplinger, P; Hasinoff, M D; Henderson, R S; Hu, J; Jamieson, B; Kitching, P; Koetke, D D; Krushinsky, A A; Lachin, Yu Yu; MacDonald, J A; MacDonald, R P; Marshall, G M; Mathie, E L; Miasoedov, L V; Mischke, R E; Musser, J R; Nord, P M; Nozar, M; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Openshaw, R; Porcelli, T A; Poutissou, J M; Poutissou, R; Quraan, M A; Rodning, N L; Selivanov, V; Sheffer, G; Shin, B; Sobratee, F; Stanislaus, T D S; Tacik, R; Torokhov, V D; Tribble, R E; Vasilev, M A; Wright, D H

    2004-01-01

    The muon decay parameter delta has been measured by the TWIST collaboration. We find delta = 0.74964 +- 0.00066(stat.) +- 0.00112(syst.), consistent with the Standard Model value of 3/4. This result implies that the product Pmuxi of the muon polarization in pion decay, Pmu, and the muon decay parameter xi falls within the 90% confidence interval 0.9960 < Pmuxi < xi < 1.0040. It also has implications for left-right-symmetric and other extensions of the Standard Model.

  12. Flood Inundation Modelling in Data Sparse Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Laurence; Bates, Paul; Neal, Jeffrey

    2017-04-01

    An estimated 7% of global population currently live in deltas, and this number is increasing over time. This has resulted in numerous human induced impacts on deltas ranging from subsidence, upstream sediment trapping and coastal erosion amongst others. These threats have already impacted on flood dynamics in deltas and could intensify in line with human activities. However, the myriad of threats creates a large number of potential scenarios that need to be evaluated. Therefore, to assess the impacts of these scenarios, a pre-requisite is a flood inundation model that is both computationally efficient and flexible in its setup so it can be applied in data-sparse settings. An intermediate scale, which compromises between the computational speed of a global model and the detail of a case specific bespoke model, was chosen to achieve this. To this end, we have developed an intermediate scale flood inundation model at a resolution of 540m of the Mekong Delta, built with freely available data, using the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model. The purpose of this is to answer the following questions: 1) How much detail is required to accurately simulate flooding in the Mekong Delta? , 2) What characteristics of deltas are most important to include in flood inundation models? Models were run using a vegetation removed SRTM DEM and a hind-casting of tidal heights as a downstream boundary. Results indicate the importance of vegetation removal in the DEM for inundation extent and the sensitivity of water level to roughness coefficients. The propagation of the tidal signal was found to be sensitive to bathymetry, both within the river channel and offshore, yet data availability for this is poor, meaning the modeller has to be careful in his or her choice of bathymetry interpolation Supplementing global river channel data with more localised data demonstrated minor improvements in results suggesting detailed channel information is not always needed to produce good results. It is

  13. DNA polymerase III accessory proteins. I. holA and holB encoding delta and delta'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Z; Onrust, R; Skangalis, M; O'Donnell, M

    1993-06-05

    The genes encoding the delta and delta' subunits of the 10-subunit Escherichia coli replicase, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, have been identified and sequenced. The holA gene encoding delta is located downstream of rlpB at 15.2 min and predicts a 38.7 kda protein. The holB gene encoding delta' is located at 24.3 min and predicts a 36.9-kDa protein. Hence the delta and delta' subunits are unrelated proteins encoded by separate genes. The genes have been used to express and purify delta and delta' in quantity. The predicted amino acid sequence of delta' is homologous to the sequences of the tau and gamma subunits revealing a large amount of structural redundancy within the holoenzyme.

  14. Heat Kernel Estimate for $\\Delta+\\Delta^{\\alpha/2}$ in $C^{1,1}$ open sets

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhen-Qing; Song, Renming

    2010-01-01

    We consider a family of pseudo differential operators $\\{\\Delta+ a^\\alpha \\Delta^{\\alpha/2}; a\\in (0, 1]\\}$ on $\\bR^d$ for every $d\\geq 1$ that evolves continuously from $\\Delta$ to $\\Delta + \\Delta^{\\alpha/2}$, where $\\alpha \\in (0, 2)$. It gives rise to a family of L\\'evy processes $\\{X^a, a\\in (0, 1]\\}$ in $\\bR^d$, where $X^a$ is the sum of a Brownian motion and an independent symmetric $\\alpha$-stable process with weight $a$. We establish sharp two-sided estimates for the heat kernel of $\\Delta + a^{\\alpha} \\Delta^{\\alpha/2}$ with zero exterior condition in a family of open subsets, including bounded $C^{1, 1}$ (possibly disconnected) open sets. This heat kernel is also the transition density of the sum of a Brownian motion and an independent symmetric $\\alpha$-stable process with weight $a$ in such open sets. Our result is the first sharp two-sided estimates for the transition density of a Markov process with both diffusion and jump components in open sets. Moreover, our result is uniform in $a$ in the s...

  15. Abraham Reef Stable Isotope Data (delta 13C, delta 18O, delta 14C) for 1635-1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site: Abraham Reef, 22ó 06'S, 153ó 00'E, Porites australiensus, Radiocarbon (delta 14C) and Stable Isotope (del 18O and del 13C) results from bi-annual samples from...

  16. HadISST (1-degree)/HadISST (1-degree)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature component (1-degree). See Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C. K., Alexander, L. V., Rowell,...

  17. SNC 80, a selective, nonpeptidic and systemically active opioid delta agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsky, E J; Calderon, S N; Wang, T; Bernstein, R N; Davis, P; Hruby, V J; McNutt, R W; Rothman, R B; Rice, K C; Porreca, F

    1995-04-01

    The present study has investigated the pharmacology of SNC 80, a nonpeptidic ligand proposed to be a selective delta agonist in vitro and in vivo. SNC 80 was potent in producing inhibition of electrically induced contractions of mouse vas deferens, but not in inhibiting contractions of the guinea pig isolated ileum (IC50 values of 2.73 nM and 5457 nM, respectively). The delta selective antagonist ICI 174,864 (1 microM) and the mu selective antagonist CTAP (1 microM) produced 236- and 1.9-fold increases, respectively, in the SNC 80 IC50 value in the mouse vas deferens. SNC 80 preferentially competed against sites labeled by [3H]naltrindole (delta receptors) rather than against those labeled by [3H]DAMGO (mu receptors) or [3H]U69, 593 kappa receptors) in mouse whole-brain assays. The ratios of the calculated Ki values for SNC 80 at mu/delta and kappa/delta sites were 495- and 248-fold, respectively, which indicates a significant degree of delta selectivity for this compound in radioligand binding assays. SNC 80 produced dose- and time-related antinociception in the mouse warm-water tail-flick test after i.c.v., i.th. and i.p. administration. The calculated A50 values (and 95% C.I.) for SNC 80 administered i.c.v., i.th. and i.p. were 104.9 (63.7-172.7) nmol, 69 (51.8-92.1) nmol and 57 (44.5-73.1) mg/kg, respectively. The i.c.v. administration of SNC 80 also produced dose- and time-related antinociception in the hot-plate test, with a calculated A50 value (and 95% C.I.) of 91.9 (60.3-140.0) nmol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The microscopic structure of $\\pi NN$, $\\pi N\\Delta$ and $\\pi\\Delta\\Delta$ vertices in a hybrid constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Ju-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We present a microscopic description of the strong $\\pi NN$, $\\pi N\\Delta$ and $\\pi\\Delta\\Delta$ vertices. Our starting point is a constituent-quark model supplemented by an additional $3q\\pi$ non-valence component. In the spirit of chiral constituent-quark models, quarks are allowed to emit and reabsorb a pion. This multichannel system is treated in a relativistically invariant way within the framework of point-form quantum mechanics. Starting with a common $SU(6)$ spin-flavor-symmetric wave function for $N$ and $\\Delta$, we calculate the strength of the $\\pi NN$, $\\pi N\\Delta$ and $\\pi\\Delta\\Delta$ couplings and the corresponding vertex form factors. Our results are in accordance with phenomenological fits of these quantities that have been obtained within purely hadronic multichannel models for baryon resonances.

  19. Degree-degree correlations in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van der Pim; Litvak, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson's correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and out-degr

  20. Degree-degree dependencies in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van der Pim; Litvak, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson’s correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and out-degr

  1. Killing Horizons Kill Horizon Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, L.; Grumiller, D.

    Frequently, it is argued that the microstates responsible for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy should arise from some physical degrees of freedom located near or on the black hole horizon. In this essay, we elucidate that instead entropy may emerge from the conversion of physical degrees of freedom, attached to a generic boundary, into unobservable gauge degrees of freedom attached to the horizon. By constructing the reduced phase space, it can be demonstrated that such a transmutation indeed takes place for a large class of black holes, including Schwarzschild.

  2. Killing horizons kill horizon degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Bergamin, L

    2006-01-01

    Frequently it is argued that the microstates responsible for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy should arise from some physical degrees of freedom located near or on the black hole horizon. In this Essay we elucidate that instead entropy may emerge from the conversion of physical degrees of freedom, attached to a generic boundary, into unobservable gauge degrees of freedom attached to the horizon. By constructing the reduced phase space it can be demonstrated that such a transmutation indeed takes place for a large class of black holes, including Schwarzschild.

  3. Sublimation rate of molecular crystals - role of internal degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, A; Zepeda-Ruiz, L A; Gee, R H; Burnham, A

    2007-01-19

    It is a common practice to estimate site desorption rate from crystal surfaces with an Arrhenius expression of the form v{sub eff} exp(-{Delta}E/k{sub B}T), where {Delta}E is an activation barrier to desorb and v{sub eff} is an effective vibrational frequency {approx} 10{sup 12} sec{sup -1}. However, such a formula can lead to several to many orders of magnitude underestimation of sublimation rates in molecular crystals due to internal degrees of freedom. We carry out a quantitative comparison of two energetic molecular crystals with crystals of smaller entities like ice and Argon (solid) and uncover the errors involved as a function of molecule size. In the process, we also develop a formal definition of v{sub eff} and an accurate working expression for equilibrium vapor pressure.

  4. Reduced complexity MASH delta-sigma modulator

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Zhipeng; Kennedy, Michael Peter

    2007-01-01

    A reduced complexity digital multi-stage noise shaping (MASH) delta-sigma modulator for fractional-N frequency synthesizer applications is proposed. A long word is used for the first modulator in a MASH structure; the sequence length is maximized by setting the least significant bit of the input to 1; shorter words are used in subsequent stages. Experimental results confirm simulations

  5. Strong decays of nucleon and $\\Delta$ resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Bijker, R

    1996-01-01

    We study the strong couplings of the nucleon and delta resonances in a collective model. In the ensuing algebraic treatment we derive closed expressions for decay widths which are used to analyze the experimental data for strong decays into the pion and eta channels.

  6. How stable is the Mississippi Delta?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Törnqvist, T.E.; Bick, S.J.; van der Borg, K.; de Jong, A.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Large deltas are commonly believed to exhibit rapid rates of tectonic subsidence, largely due to sediment loading of the lithosphere. As a result, deltaic plains are prone to accelerated relative sea-level rise, coastal erosion, and wetland loss. Hurricane Katrina's devastation testifies to the seve

  7. Design of Low Power Sigma Delta ADC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Arifuddin Sohel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A Low power discrete time sigma delta ADC consisting of a second order sigma delta modulator and third order Cascaded Integrated Comb (CIC filter is proposed. The second order modulator is designed to work at a signal band of 20 K Hz at an oversampling ratio of 64 with a sampling frequency of 2.56 MHz. It achieves a signal to noise ratio of 85.2dB and a resolution of 14 bits. The CIC digital filter is designed to implement a decimation factor of 64, operating at a maximum sampling frequency of 2.56 MHz. A second order sigma delta modulator is implemented in 0.18 micron CMOS technology using full custom design and the third order digital CIC decimation filter is implemented in verilog HDL. The complete Sigma Delta ADC, consisting of analog block of second order modulator and digital block of decimator consumes a total power 1.96mW.

  8. Design of Low Power Sigma Delta ADC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Arifuddin Sohel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Low power discrete time sigma delta ADC consisting of a second order sigma delta modulator and third order Cascaded Integrated Comb (CIC filter is proposed. The second order modulator is designed to work at a signal band of 20K Hz at an oversampling ratio of 64 with a sampling frequency of 2.56 MHz. It achieves a signal to noise ratio of 85.2dB and a resolution of 14 bits. The CIC digital filter is designed to implement a decimation factor of 64, operating at a maximum sampling frequency of 2.56 MHz. A second order sigma delta modulator is implemented in 0.18micron CMOS technology using full custom design and the third order digital CIC decimation filter is implemented in verilog HDL. The complete Sigma Delta ADC, consisting of analog block of second order modulator and digital block of decimator consumes a total power 1.96mW.

  9. The Niger Delta Avengers, Autonomous Ethnic Clans and Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    The situation in Niger Delta region has remained an unanswered research question. When oil was discovered .... From the foregone analysis, the greed factor is sufficient to explain the crisis in Niger. Delta given the ..... homeless. The sizeable ...

  10. Habitat Management Plan for Delta and Breton National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Delta and Breton NWRs Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at Delta and...

  11. $\\delta-\\delta^\\prime$ generalized Robin boundary conditions and quantum vacuum fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Castaneda, J M

    2014-01-01

    The effects induced by the quantum vacuum fluctuations of one massless real scalar field on a configuration of two partially transparent plates are investigated. The physical properties of the infinitely thin plates are simulated by means of Dirac-$\\delta-\\delta^\\prime$ point interactions. It is shown that the distortion caused on the fluctuations by this external background gives rise to a generalization of Robin boundary conditions. The $T$-operator for potentials concentrated on points with non defined parity is computed with total generality. The quantum vacuum interaction energy between the two plates is computed using the $TGTG$ formula to find positive, negative, and zero Casimir energies. The parity properties of the $\\delta-\\delta^\\prime$ potential allow repulsive quantum vacuum force between identical plates.

  12. Delta-Bar-Delta and directed random search algorithms to study capacitor banks switching overvoltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghkhani Iman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an approach to analyse transient overvoltages during capacitor banks switching based on artificial neural networks (ANN. Three learning algorithms, delta-bar-delta (DBD, extended delta-bar-delta (EDBD and directed random search (DRS were used to train the ANNs. The ANN training is based on equivalent parameters of the network and therefore, a trained ANN is applicable to every studied system. The developed ANN is trained with extensive simulated results and tested for typical cases. The new algorithms are presented and demonstrated for a partial 39-bus New England test system. The simulated results show the proposed technique can accurately estimate the peak values of switching overvoltages.

  13. Delta Delta Excitation in Proton-Proton Induced pi0pi0 Production

    CERN Document Server

    Skorodko, T; Bogoslawsky, D; Calen, H; Clement, H; Doroshkevich, E; Demiroers, L; Ekstroem, C; Fransson, K; Gustafsson, L; Hoistad, B; Ivanov, G; Jacewicz, M; Jiganov, E; Johansson, T; Khakimova, O; Keleta, S; Koch, I; Kren, F; Kullander, S; Kupsc, A; Marciniewski, P; Meier, R; Morosov, B; Pauly, C; Petren, H; Petukhov, Y; Povtorejko, A; Ruber, R J M Y; Schoenning, K; Scobel, W; Shwartz, B; Stepaniak, J; Thoerngren-Engblom, P; Tikhomirov, V; Wagner, G J; Wolke, M; Yamamoto, A; Zabierowski, J; Zlomanczuk, J

    2010-01-01

    Exclusive measurements of the $pp \\to pp\\pi^0\\pi^0$ reaction have been performed at CELSIUS/WASA at energies from threshold up to $T_p$ = 1.3 GeV. Total and differential cross sections have been obtained. Here we concentrate on energies $T_p \\ge$ 1 GeV, where the $\\Delta\\Delta$ excitation becomes the leading process. No evidence is found for a significant ABC effect beyond that given by the conventional $t$-channel $\\Delta\\Delta$ excitation. This holds also for the double-pionic fusion to the quasibound $^2$He. The data are compared to model predictions, which are based on both pion and $\\rho$ exchange. Total and differential cross sections are at variance with these predictions and call for a profound modification of the $\\rho$-exchange. A phenomenological modification allowing only a small $\\rho$ exchange contribution leads to a quantitative description of the data.

  14. {Delta}{Delta} excitation in proton-proton induced {pi}{sup 0{pi}0} production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorodko, T.; Bashkanov, M. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Bogoslawsky, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Calen, H. [The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Clement, H., E-mail: Clement@pit.physik.uni-tuebingen.d [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Doroshkevich, E. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Demiroers, L. [Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Ekstroem, C.; Fransson, K. [The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Gustafsson, L.; Hoeistad, B. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Ivanov, G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Jacewicz, M. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Jiganov, E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Johansson, T. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Khakimova, O. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Keleta, S.; Koch, I. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Kren, F. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Kullander, S. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-10

    Exclusive measurements of the pp{yields}pp{pi}{sup 0{pi}0} reaction have been performed at CELSIUS/WASA at energies from threshold up to T{sub p}=1.3 GeV. Total and differential cross sections have been obtained. Here we concentrate on energies T{sub p{>=}}1 GeV, where the {Delta}{Delta} excitation becomes the leading process. No evidence is found for a significant ABC effect beyond that given by the conventional t-channel {Delta}{Delta} excitation. This holds also for the double-pionic fusion to the quasibound {sup 2}He. The data are compared to model predictions, which are based on both {pi}- and {rho}-exchange. Total and differential cross sections are at variance with these predictions and call for a profound modification of the {rho}-exchange. A phenomenological modification allowing only a small {rho}-exchange contribution leads to a quantitative description of the data.

  15. Paleo-environmental evolution based on high-resolution phytolith since 26 ka B. P. in Huanghe River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping; DU Jun; DU Na; GAO Wei

    2016-01-01

    The Huanghe River Delta is one of the world's large rivers, the Huanghe River Delta paleoenvironmental evolution in the Huanghe River has been a hot issue since the Last Glacial. Based on the core time series established by combining AMS14C dating of Core DYZK1 sediments in submerged of Huanghe River Delta and acoustic sequence on sub-bottom profile, phytolith analyses are carried out on 96 sediment samples. The grain size parameters, magnetic susceptibility are combined with the vertical changes of biostratum to reconstruct the paleo-sedimentary and climatic conditions in the Huanghe River Delta. The study results show that there is a significant vertical change law in the index parameters, and that sedimentary environment of Huanghe River Delta experienced an evolutionary process of fluvial facies-sealand transition facies-tidal flat facies-neritic facies-delta facies since 26.0 ka B. P.. The phytolith analyses results are as following. Firstly, The phytoliths are divided into lanceolate, smooth-elongated, spiny-elongated, rondel, long rectangular, bulliform and other types. In different sedimental environment, the phytolith content changes regularly, indicating that the phytolith assembles in the same sedimentary environment has a certain degree of stability. Secondly, The lanceolate, smooth-elongated and spiny-elongated categories of phytoliths have greater contents in the tidal flat facies and delta deposition, while have a smaller contents in the neritic facies and fluvial facies environment. Thirdly, Through comparative analysis of variation coefficient, the content of major phytolith categories in the sediment has a greater change amplitude in the sealand transition facies and fluvial facies deposition, while being more stable in the tidalflat facies and delta facies deposition.

  16. [Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers and its driving mechanism in Pan-Yangtze River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Xia; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Cui, Jian-Xin

    2014-11-01

    Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers is the response of environmental special formation during the industry transfer process, in order to prove the responding of industrial pollution gravity centers to industry transfer in economically developed areas, this paper calculates the gravity centers of industrial wastewater, gas and solid patterns and reveals the shifting path and its driving mechanism, using the data of industrial pollution in the Pan-Yangtze River Delta from 2000 to 2010. The results show that the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts for sure in the last 10 years, and gravity center of solid waste shifts the maximum distance within the three wastes, which was 180.18 km, and shifting distances for waste gas and waste water were 109.51 km and 85.92 km respectively. Moreover, the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts westwards, and gravity centers of waste water, gas and solid shift for 0.40 degrees, 0.17 degrees and 0.03 degrees respectively. The shifting of industrial pollution gravity centers is driven by many factors. The rapid development of the heavy industry in Anhui and Jiangxi provinces results in the westward shifting of the pollutions. The optimization and adjustment of industrial structures in Yangtze River Delta region benefit to alleviating industrial pollution, and high-polluting industries shifted to Anhui and Jiangxi provinces promotes pollution gravity center shifting to west. While the development of massive clean enterprise, strong environmental management efforts and better environmental monitoring system slow the shifting trend of industrial pollution to the east in Yangtze River Delta. The study of industrial pollution gravity shift and its driving mechanism provides a new angle of view to analyze the relationship between economic development and environmental pollution, and also provides academic basis for synthetical management and control of

  17. A delta-catenin signaling pathway leading to dendritic protrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Elneel, Kawther; Ochiishi, Tomoyo; Medina, Miguel; Remedi, Monica; Gastaldi, Laura; Caceres, Alfredo; Kosik, Kenneth S

    2008-11-21

    Delta-catenin is a synaptic adherens junction protein pivotally positioned to serve as a signaling sensor and integrator. Expression of delta-catenin induces filopodia-like protrusions in neurons. Here we show that the small GTPases of the Rho family act coordinately as downstream effectors of delta-catenin. A dominant negative Rac prevented delta-catenin-induced protrusions, and Cdc42 activity was dramatically increased by delta-catenin expression. A kinase dead LIMK (LIM kinase) and a mutant Cofilin also prevented delta-catenin-induced protrusions. To link the effects of delta-catenin to a physiological pathway, we noted that (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors induced dendritic protrusions that are very similar to those induced by delta-catenin. Furthermore, delta-catenin RNA-mediated interference can block the induction of dendritic protrusions by DHPG. Interestingly, DHPG dissociated PSD-95 and N-cadherin from the delta-catenin complex, increased the association of delta-catenin with Cortactin, and induced the phosphorylation of delta-catenin within the sites that bind to these protein partners.

  18. Morphodynamics of a cyclic prograding delta: the Red River, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maren, D.S. van

    2004-01-01

    River deltas are inhabited by over 60% of the world population, and are, consequently, of paramount agricultural and economical importance. They constitute unique wetland envi ronments which gives river deltas ecological importance as well. Additionally, many deltas contain large accumulations of oi

  19. 78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45 East Avenue... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). DeltaPoint Capital IV,...

  20. Delta: An object-oriented finite element code architecture for massively parallel computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weatherby, J.R.; Schutt, J.A.; Peery, J.S.; Hogan, R.E.

    1996-02-01

    Delta is an object-oriented code architecture based on the finite element method which enables simulation of a wide range of engineering mechanics problems in a parallel processing environment. Written in C{sup ++}, Delta is a natural framework for algorithm development and for research involving coupling of mechanics from different Engineering Science disciplines. To enhance flexibility and encourage code reuse, the architecture provides a clean separation of the major aspects of finite element programming. Spatial discretization, temporal discretization, and the solution of linear and nonlinear systems of equations are each implemented separately, independent from the governing field equations. Other attractive features of the Delta architecture include support for constitutive models with internal variables, reusable ``matrix-free`` equation solvers, and support for region-to-region variations in the governing equations and the active degrees of freedom. A demonstration code built from the Delta architecture has been used in two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations involving dynamic and quasi-static solid mechanics, transient and steady heat transport, and flow in porous media.

  1. A sigma-delta-based sparse synthetic aperture beamformer for real-time 3-D ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inerfield, M; Lockwood, G R; Garverick, S L

    2002-02-01

    Sigma-delta modulation allows delay resolution in ultrasound beamformers to be achieved by simple clock cycle delays applied to the undecimated bit-stream, greatly reducing the complexity of the signal processing and the number of bits in the datapath. The simplifications offered by this technique have the potential for low power and portable operation in advanced systems such as 3-D and color Doppler imagers. In this paper, an architecture for a portable, real-time, 3-D sparse synthetic aperture ultrasound beamformer based on sigma-delta modulation is presented, and its simulated performance is analyzed. Specifically, with a 65-element linear phased array and three transmit events, this architecture is shown to achieve a 1.1 degrees beamwidth, a -54-dB secondary lobe level, and a theoretical frame rate of 1700 frames/s at lambda/64 delay resolution using a second-order low pass sigma-delta modulator. Finally, a technique for modifying the proposed multi-beam architecture to allow improved analog-to-digital (A/D) resolution by premodulating the input signal for bandpass sigma-delta modulation is also presented.

  2. Development of sea level rise scenarios for climate change assessments of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Day, Richard H.; Michot, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Rising sea level poses critical ecological and economical consequences for the low-lying megadeltas of the world where dependent populations and agriculture are at risk. The Mekong Delta of Vietnam is one of many deltas that are especially vulnerable because much of the land surface is below mean sea level and because there is a lack of coastal barrier protection. Food security related to rice and shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta is currently under threat from saltwater intrusion, relative sea level rise, and storm surge potential. Understanding the degree of potential change in sea level under climate change is needed to undertake regional assessments of potential impacts and to formulate adaptation strategies. This report provides constructed time series of potential sea level rise scenarios for the Mekong Delta region by incorporating (1) aspects of observed intra- and inter-annual sea level variability from tide records and (2) projected estimates for different rates of regional subsidence and accelerated eustacy through the year 2100 corresponding with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate models and emission scenarios.

  3. Pion-nucleon scattering in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory with explicit Delta resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, De-Liang; Bernard, V; Epelbaum, E; Gasparyan, A M; Gegelia, J; Krebs, H; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a third order calculation of the pion-nucleon scattering amplitude in a chiral effective field theory with pions, nucleons and delta resonances as explicit degrees of freedom. We work in a manifestly Lorentz invariant formulation of baryon chiral perturbation theory using dimensional regularization and the extended on-mass-shell renormalization scheme. In the delta resonance sector, the on mass-shell renormalization is realized as a complex-mass scheme. By fitting the low-energy constants of the effective Lagrangian to the $S$- and $P$-partial waves a satisfactory description of the phase shifts from the analysis of the Roy-Steiner equations is obtained. We predict the phase shifts for the $D$ and $F$ waves and compare them with the results of the analysis of the George Washington University group. The threshold parameters are calculated both in the delta-less and delta-full cases. Based on the determined low-energy constants, we discuss the pion-nucleon sigma term. Additionally, in ...

  4. Pion-nucleon scattering in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory with explicit Delta resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, De-Liang; Siemens, D.; Bernard, V.; Epelbaum, E.; Gasparyan, A. M.; Gegelia, J.; Krebs, H.; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of a third order calculation of the pion-nucleon scattering amplitude in a chiral effective field theory with pions, nucleons and delta resonances as explicit degrees of freedom. We work in a manifestly Lorentz invariant formulation of baryon chiral perturbation theory using dimensional regularization and the extended on-mass-shell renormalization scheme. In the delta resonance sector, the on mass-shell renormalization is realized as a complex-mass scheme. By fitting the low-energy constants of the effective Lagrangian to the S- and P -partial waves a satisfactory description of the phase shifts from the analysis of the Roy-Steiner equations is obtained. We predict the phase shifts for the D and F waves and compare them with the results of the analysis of the George Washington University group. The threshold parameters are calculated both in the delta-less and delta-full cases. Based on the determined low-energy constants, we discuss the pion-nucleon sigma term. Additionally, in order to determine the strangeness content of the nucleon, we calculate the octet baryon masses in the presence of decuplet resonances up to next-to-next-to-leading order in SU(3) baryon chiral perturbation theory. The octet baryon sigma terms are predicted as a byproduct of this calculation.

  5. On degree-degree correlations in multilayer networks

    CERN Document Server

    de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Moreno, Yamir; Rodrigues, Francisco A

    2015-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the concept of assortativity based on the tensorial representation of multilayer networks, covering the definitions given in terms of Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Our approach can also be applied to weighted networks and provides information about correlations considering pairs of layers. By analyzing the multilayer representation of the airport transportation network, we show that contrasting results are obtained when the layers are analyzed independently or as an interconnected system. Finally, we study the impact of the level of assortativity and heterogeneity between layers on the spreading of diseases. Our results highlight the need of studying degree-degree correlations on multilayer systems, instead of on aggregated networks.

  6. On degree-degree correlations in multilayer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Cozzo, Emanuele; Moreno, Yamir; Rodrigues, Francisco A.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a generalization of the concept of assortativity based on the tensorial representation of multilayer networks, covering the definitions given in terms of Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Our approach can also be applied to weighted networks and provides information about correlations considering pairs of layers. By analyzing the multilayer representation of the airport transportation network, we show that contrasting results are obtained when the layers are analyzed independently or as an interconnected system. Finally, we study the impact of the level of assortativity and heterogeneity between layers on the spreading of diseases. Our results highlight the need of studying degree-degree correlations on multilayer systems, instead of on aggregated networks.

  7. Comparative assessment of the vulnerability and resilience of 10 deltas : work document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucx, T.; Marchand, M.; Makaske, B.; Guchte, van de C.

    2010-01-01

    Background information about: Nile delta (Egypt), Incomati delta (Mozambique), Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (Bangladesh), Yangtze (China), Ciliwung (Indonesia), Mekong (Vietnam), Rhine-Meuse (The Netherlands), Danube (Romania), California Bay-Delta, Mississippi River Delta (USA)

  8. Uncertainties in future-proof decision-making: the Dutch Delta Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJmker, Janneke; Snippen, Edwin; Ruijgh, Erik

    2013-04-01

    are reliable relative to each other. The Delta Model therefore is a reliable instrument for finding the optimal water management policy for the future. As the exact model outcomes show a high degree of uncertainty, the model analysis will be on a large numbers of model runs to gain insight in the sensitivity of the model for different setups and boundary conditions. The results allow fast investigation of (relative) effects of measures. Furthermore, it helps to identify bottlenecks in the system. To summarize, the Delta Model is a tool for policy makers to base their policy strategies on quantitative rather than qualitative information. It can be applied to the current and future situation, and feeds the political discussion. The uncertainty of the model has no determinative effect on the analysis that can be done by the Delta Model.

  9. Evidence for a parity doublet Delta(1920)P33 and Delta(1940)D33 from gammap-->ppi;{0}eta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, I; Anisovich, A V; Anton, G; Bantes, R; Bartholomy, O; Beck, R; Beloglazov, Yu; Bogendörfer, R; Castelijns, R; Crede, V; Ehmanns, A; Ernst, J; Fabry, I; Flemming, H; Fösel, A; Fuchs, M; Funke, Chr; Gothe, R; Gridnev, A; Gutz, E; Höffgen, St; Hössl, J; Junkersfeld, J; Kalinowsky, H; Klein, F; Klempt, E; Koch, H; Konrad, M; Kopf, B; Krusche, B; Langheinrich, J; Löhner, H; Lopatin, I; Lotz, J; Matthäy, H; Menze, D; Messchendorp, J; Metag, V; Nikonov, V A; Novinski, D; Ostrick, M; van Pee, H; Sarantsev, A V; Schmidt, C; Schmieden, H; Schoch, B; Suft, G; Sumachev, V; Szczepanek, T; Thoma, U; Walther, D; Weinheimer, Chr

    2008-11-14

    Evidence is reported for the existence of a parity doublet of Delta resonances with total angular momentum J=3/2 from photoproduction of the ppi;{0}eta final state. The two parity partners Delta(1920)P33 and Delta(1940)D33 make significant contributions to the reaction. Cascades of resonances into Delta(1232)eta, N(1535)pi, and Na0(980) are clearly observed.

  10. The asymptotic number of occurrences of a subtree in trees with bounded maximum degree and an application to the Estrada index

    CERN Document Server

    LI, Xueliang

    2010-01-01

    Let $\\mathcal {T}^{\\Delta}_n$ denote the set of trees of order $n$, in which the degree of each vertex is bounded by some integer $\\Delta$. Suppose that every tree in $\\mathcal {T}^{\\Delta}_n$ is equally likely. For any given subtree $H$, we show that the number of occurrences of $H$ in trees of $\\mathcal {T}^{\\Delta}_n$ is with mean $(\\mu_H+o(1))n$ and variance $(\\sigma_H+o(1))n$, where $\\mu_H$, $\\sigma_H$ are some constants. As an application, we estimate the value of the Estrada index $EE$ for almost all trees in $\\mathcal {T}^{\\Delta}_n$, and give an explanation in theory to the approximate linear correlation between $EE$ and the first Zagreb index obtained by quantitative analysis.

  11. 78 FR 22911 - Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call Center, Seatac, WA; Delta Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Employment and Training Administration Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call Center, Seatac, WA; Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call Center, Sioux City, IA... workers and former workers of Delta Air Lines, Inc., Reservation Sales and Customer Care Call...

  12. THE 2011 PERIASTRON PASSAGE OF THE Be BINARY {delta} Scorpii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miroshnichenko, A. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402-6170 (United States); Pasechnik, A. V. [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-21500 Puekkioe (Finland); Manset, N. [CFHT Corporation, 65-1238 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Carciofi, A. C. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rivinius, Th. [European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Stefl, S. [ESO/ALMA, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Gvaramadze, V. V. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Universitetskij Pr. 13, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Ribeiro, J. [Observatorio do Instituto Geografico do Exercito, Lisboa (Portugal); Fernando, A. [ATALAIA.org Group, Lisboa (Portugal); Garrel, T. [Observatoire de Juvignac, 19 avenue de Hameau du Golf F-34990, Juvignac (France); Knapen, J. H. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Buil, C. [Castanet Tolosan Observatory, 6 place Clemence Isaure F-31320 Castanet Tolosan (France); Heathcote, B. [Barfold Observatory, Glenhope, Victoria 3444 (Australia); Pollmann, E. [Emil-Nolde-Str. 12, D-51375, Leverkusen (Germany); Mauclaire, B. [Observatoire du Val d' Arc, route de Peynier F-13530, Trets (France); Thizy, O. [Shelyak Instruments, 1116 route de Chambery, F-38330, Saint-Ismier (France); Martin, J. [Barber Research Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Illinois-Springfield, IL 62703 (United States); Zharikov, S. V. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 877, Ensenada, 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Okazaki, A. T. [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8605 (Japan); and others

    2013-04-01

    We describe the results of the world-wide observing campaign of the highly eccentric Be binary system {delta} Scorpii 2011 periastron passage which involved professional and amateur astronomers. Our spectroscopic observations provided a precise measurement of the system orbital period at 10.8092 {+-} 0.0005 yr. Fitting of the He II 4686 A line radial velocity curve determined the periastron passage time on 2011 July 3, UT 9:20 with a 0.9-day uncertainty. Both these results are in a very good agreement with recent findings from interferometry. We also derived new evolutionary masses of the binary components (13 and 8.2 M{sub Sun }) and a new distance of 136 pc from the Sun, consistent with the HIPPARCOS parallax. The radial velocity and profile variations observed in the H{alpha} line near the 2011 periastron reflected the interaction of the secondary component and the circumstellar disk around the primary component. Using these data, we estimated a disk radius of 150 R{sub Sun }. Our analysis of the radial velocity variations measured during the periastron passage time in 2000 and 2011 along with those measured during the 20th century, the high eccentricity of the system, and the presence of a bow shock-like structure around it suggest that {delta} Sco might be a runaway triple system. The third component should be external to the known binary and move on an elliptical orbit that is tilted by at least 40 Degree-Sign with respect to the binary orbital plane for such a system to be stable and responsible for the observed long-term radial velocity variations.

  13. Spectral factorization using the delta operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Morten; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole

    1994-01-01

    In recent years many papers have been published abouth the gamma-operator, mostly caused by the better numerical properties and the rapprochement between continuous and discrete time. A major problem within the LQG-design of a delta-based input-output relation has been how to spectral-factorize i......In recent years many papers have been published abouth the gamma-operator, mostly caused by the better numerical properties and the rapprochement between continuous and discrete time. A major problem within the LQG-design of a delta-based input-output relation has been how to spectral......-factorize in an efficient way. The discrete-time method of Kuccera will not be applied since numerical word-length characteristics will be poor for fast sampling rates. In this paper a new approach is considered. A new gamma-operator (Tustin operator) is introduced, in order to make an iterative and numerical stable...

  14. Nucleon and Delta structure in continuum QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloet, Ian

    2014-03-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the only known example in nature of a fundamental quantum field theory that is innately non-perturbative. Solving QCD will have profound implications for our understanding of the natural world, for example, it will explain how light quarks and massless gluons bind together to form the observed mesons and baryons; hence explaining the origin of more than 98% of the mass in the visible universe. Given the challenges posed by QCD, it is insufficient to study hadron ground-states alone if one seeks a solution; in this regard the delta plays a special role as the lightest baryon resonance. I will discuss recent progress using continuum QCD approaches to the study of nucleon and delta properties, with a focus on insights gained by the calculation (and measurement) of their electromagnetic form factors.

  15. Pluviometric anomaly in the Llobregat Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mazón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The data from surface automatic weather stations show that in the area of the Llobregat delta (northeast of the Iberian Peninsula we can observe greater precipitation than in nearby inland areas (Ordal, Collserola, Garraf, than on the other side of a massif located on the coast (Garraf and than on the northern coast. This distribution of the precipitation could be explained by the formation of a nocturnal surface cold front in the Llobregat delta. In order to analyze in-depth the physical mechanisms that can influence the formation of this front (topography, sea and drainage winds, two rain episodes in the area were simulated with the MM5 mesoscale model, reproducing satisfactorily the physical mechanisms that favor the appearance of the front.

  16. On regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Bamdad; Nigam, Nilima; Stockie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we consider regularizations of the Dirac delta distribution with applications to prototypical elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). We study the convergence of a sequence of distributions SH to a singular term S as a parameter H (associated with the support size of SH) shrinks to zero. We characterize this convergence in both the weak-* topology of distributions and a weighted Sobolev norm. These notions motivate a framework for constructing regularizations of the delta distribution that includes a large class of existing methods in the literature. This framework allows different regularizations to be compared. The convergence of solutions of PDEs with these regularized source terms is then studied in various topologies such as pointwise convergence on a deleted neighborhood and weighted Sobolev norms. We also examine the lack of symmetry in tensor product regularizations and effects of dissipative error in hyperbolic problems.

  17. Matrix multiplication on the Intel Touchstone Delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huss-Lederman, S.; Jacobson, E.M.; Tsao, A. [Supercomputing Research Center, Bowie, MD (United States); Zhang, G. [CONVEX Computer Corp., Richardson, TX (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Matrix multiplication is a key primitive in block matrix algorithms such as those found in LAPACK. We present results from our study of matrix multiplication algorithms on the Intel Touchstone Delta, a distributed memory message-passing architecture with a two-dimensional mesh topology. We obtain an implementation that uses communication primitives highly suited to the Delta and exploits the single node assembly-coded matrix multiplication. Our algorithm is completely general, able to deal with arbitrary mesh aspect ratios and matrix dimensions, and has achieved parallel efficiency of 86% with overall peak performance in excess of 8 Gflops on 256 nodes for an 8800 {times} 8800 matrix. We describe our algorithm design and implementation, and present performance results that demonstrate scalability and robust behavior over varying mesh topologies.

  18. Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Induces Rapid Cell Necrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soshi Seike

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens delta-toxin is a β-pore-forming toxin and a putative pathogenic agent of C. perfringens types B and C. However, the mechanism of cytotoxicity of delta-toxin remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of cell death induced by delta-toxin in five cell lines (A549, A431, MDCK, Vero, and Caco-2. All cell lines were susceptible to delta-toxin. The toxin caused rapid ATP depletion and swelling of the cells. Delta-toxin bound and formed oligomers predominantly in plasma membrane lipid rafts. Destruction of the lipid rafts with methyl β-cyclodextrin inhibited delta-toxin-induced cytotoxicity and ATP depletion. Delta-toxin caused the release of carboxyfluorescein from sphingomyelin-cholesterol liposomes and formed oligomers; toxin binding to the liposomes declined with decreasing cholesterol content in the liposomes. Flow cytometric assays with annexin V and propidium iodide revealed that delta-toxin treatment induced an elevation in the population of annexin V-negative and propidium iodide-positive cells. Delta-toxin did not cause the fragmentation of DNA or caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, delta-toxin caused damage to mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release. In the present study, we demonstrate that delta-toxin produces cytotoxic activity through necrosis.

  19. Elastic and transition form factors of the \\Delta(1232)

    CERN Document Server

    Segovia, Jorge; Cloët, Ian C; Roberts, Craig D; Schmidt, Sebastian M; Wan, Shaolong

    2013-01-01

    Predictions obtained with a confining, symmetry-preserving treatment of a vector-vector contact interaction at leading-order in a widely used truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations are presented for \\Delta and \\Omega baryon elastic form factors and the \\gamma N -> \\Delta transition form factors. This simple framework produces results that are practically indistinguishable from the best otherwise available, an outcome which highlights that the key to describing many features of baryons and unifying them with the properties of mesons is a veracious expression of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in the hadron bound-state problem. The following specific results are of particular interest. The \\Delta elastic form factors are very sensitive to m_\\Delta. Hence, given that the parameters which define extant simulations of lattice-regularised QCD produce \\Delta-resonance masses that are very large, the form factors obtained therewith are a poor guide to properties of the \\Delta(1232). Considering the \\Delta-b...

  20. Performance evaluation of photonic Sigma Delta ADCS

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Yean Wee

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The integration of photonic and electronic components to realize a photonic sigma delta ADC is considered in this thesis. The integration process was broken up into steps. First, the performance of a pair of dual-port Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI) modulating a train of narrow high-speed laser pulses from a mode-locked laser was investigated. Various parameters like the half-wave voltage (V) and insertion loss were verified. Nex...

  1. Delta Greenbriar - Atlanta – (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heery, George

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available «Delta Greenbriar» is a corporate centre for the Delta air line company. The complex comprises four buildings containing: 1 the installations for flight simulation; 2 the air training base; 3 the control centre for flights and communications; 4 the department for tickets and reservations. They consist of one of two storeys. The lower ones can be extended both horizontally as well as vertically, whereas the other ones can only be enlarged in horizontal direction. The unit has been designed like a university campus, with patios, inner gardens and exterior corridors which apart from connecting the various buildings with each other also provide a close contact between the office premises and the park.El «Delta Greenbriar» es un centro corporativo para la compañía de líneas aéreas Delta. El complejo está constituido por cuatro edificios, que alojan: 1 las instalaciones para la simulación de vuelo; 2 la base de entrenamiento aéreo; 3 el centro de control de vuelo y comunicaciones; 4 el departamento de reservas y venta de billetes. Constan de una o dos plantas, pudiéndose ampliar los más bajos tanto horizontal como verticalmente, mientras que los otros sólo pueden aumentarse en sentido horizontal. El conjunto se ha diseñado como un campus universitario, con patios, ajardinamiento interior y corredores exteriores que, además de enlazar los distintos edificios entre sí, ponen en estrecha relación los espacios de oficinas con el parque.

  2. Life after a Humanities Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masola, Athambile

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  3. Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree)

    OpenAIRE

    Tiseira Izaguirre, Andrés Omar; Blanco Rodríguez, David; Carreres Talens, Marcos; Fajardo Peña, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Apuntes de la asignatura Tecnología Aeroespacial Tiseira Izaguirre, AO.; Blanco Rodríguez, D.; Carreres Talens, M.; Fajardo Peña, P. (2013). Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/35263.

  4. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first…

  5. Real Analytic Machines and Degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Gärtner, Tobias; 10.4204/EPTCS.24.12

    2010-01-01

    We study and compare in two degree-theoretic ways (iterated Halting oracles analogous to Kleene's arithmetical hierarchy and the Borel hierarchy of descriptive set theory) the capabilities and limitations of three models of analytic computation: BSS machines (aka real-RAM) and strongly/weakly analytic machines as introduced by Hotz et. al. (1995).

  6. Probing Delta structure with pion electromagnetic production

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, S N; Yang, Shin Nan

    2003-01-01

    The Dubna-Mainz-Taipei dynamical model for pion electromagnetic production, which can describe well the existing data from threshold up to 1 GeV photon lab energy, is presented and used to analyze the recent precision data in the $\\Delta$ region. We find that, within our model, the bare Delta is almost spherical while the physical Delta is oblate. The deformation is almost saturated by the pion cloud effects. We further find that up to Q^2 = 4.0 (GeV/c)^2, the extracted helicity amplitude A_{3/2} and A_{1/2} remain comparable with each other, implying that hadronic helicity is not conserved at this range of Q^2. The ratio E_{1+}/M_{1+} obtained show, starting from a small and negative value at the real photon point, a clear tendency to cross zero, and to become positive with increasing Q^2. This is a possible indication of a very slow approach toward the pQCD region. Finally, we find that the bare helicity amplitude A_{1/2} and S_{1/2}, but not A_{3/2}, starts exhibiting the scaling behavior at about Q^2 \\ge ...

  7. Evolution of Modern Yellow River Delta Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹延鸿; 周永青; 丁东

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the development and evolution of modem Yellow River delta and the erosion or deposition rates of its different sections. In June, 1996,Yellow Rivers terminal course was artificially turned eastwards to empty into the sea and then the 11th lobe of the modern Yellow River delta began to form. This course change may mark the beginning of the 3rd subdelta formation. As a result of that, the Yellow River delta advances towards east by north with the 1st, 2nd and 3rd subdeltas arranged in succession. Coast zone in the deltaic area is divided into 7 different sections according to their different erosion or deposition rates: the relatively stable section from Dakou River to Shunjiang Stream, the weakly retreating section from Shun jiang Stream to the Tiaohe River mouth, the strongly retreating section from the Tiaohe River mouth to the station 106, the artificially stable section due to stone dam protection from the station 106 to Gudong Oilfield, the strong deposition section from Gudong Oilfield to Dawenliu Haipu, the weakly deposition section from Dawenliu Haipu to the Zimai Stream mouth, and the stable section from the Zimai Stream mouth to the Jiaolai River mouth. It is predicted that the erosion and deposition situations of the sections will nearly remain the same in 10 years, but the retreating and silting-up rates will tend to become slower gradually. Human activities have an evident influence on the changes of the coastline.

  8. GLOBAL CHARM OF THE CHANGJIANG RIVER DELTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-peng; ZHOU Cheng-hu; CHEN Qiu-xiao

    2003-01-01

    Based on the theory of geo-economy, under the new situation of global economy, information network and China's entry into WTO, also with the holding of APEC (in 2001) and the International Exposition in the near future, the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Delta is striding toward the spectacular international multi-polar situation and becomes one of core regions with high-speed development. Facing the ocean and world all along, leading the progressive tides of the age and scintillating the splendor of the nation, she does advance with time. Through a long period of irrigation projects construction and intensive operation of lands in previous agricultural society, the artificial wetland ecosystem with a positive cycle had ever been formed in this region. At present, environmental pollution and urban expansion resulted from post-industrialization are being rectified. The delta will be the paradigm of industrial and agricultural modernization along the sustainable development road. With the rapid development of urbanization,she has been one of the regions with the highest density population and high urbanization level. Taking the Changjiang River estuary and the Hangzhou Bay as two parts, she is continuously strengthening and adjusting her interiorstructure, expanding mothball space and constructing the oriental modern "logistics center" to link the whole world. The butterfly-style urban system of the Changjiang River Delta is flying, probably engendering earthshaking "butterfly effect".

  9. Delta: Data Reduction for Integrated Application Workflows.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lofstead, Gerald Fredrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jean-Baptiste, Gregory [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Oldfield, Ron A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Integrated Application Workflows (IAWs) run multiple simulation workflow components con- currently on an HPC resource connecting these components using compute area resources and compensating for any performance or data processing rate mismatches. These IAWs require high frequency and high volume data transfers between compute nodes and staging area nodes during the lifetime of a large parallel computation. The available network band- width between the two areas may not be enough to efficiently support the data movement. As the processing power available to compute resources increases, the requirements for this data transfer will become more difficult to satisfy and perhaps will not be satisfiable at all since network capabilities are not expanding at a comparable rate. Furthermore, energy consumption in HPC environments is expected to grow by an order of magnitude as exas- cale systems become a reality. The energy cost of moving large amounts of data frequently will contribute to this issue. It is necessary to reduce the volume of data without reducing the quality of data when it is being processed and analyzed. Delta resolves the issue by addressing the lifetime data transfer operations. Delta removes subsequent identical copies of already transmitted data during transfers and restores those copies once the data has reached the destination. Delta is able to identify duplicated information and determine the most space efficient way to represent it. Initial tests show about 50% reduction in data movement while maintaining the same data quality and transmission frequency.

  10. Modelling repeatedly flaring delta-sunspots

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Active regions (AR) appearing on the surface of the Sun are classified into $\\alpha$, $\\beta$, $\\gamma$, and $\\delta$ by the rules of the Mount Wilson Observatory, California on the basis of their topological complexity. Amongst these, the $\\delta$-sunspots are known to be super-active and produce the most X-ray flares. Here, we present results from a simulation of the Sun by mimicking the upper layers and the corona, but starting at a more primitive stage than any earlier treatment. We find that this initial state consisting of only a thin sub-photospheric magnetic sheet breaks into multiple flux-tubes which evolve into a colliding-merging system of spots of opposite polarity upon surface emergence, similar to those often seen on the Sun. The simulation goes on to produce many exotic $\\delta$-sunspot associated phenomena: repeated flaring in the range of typical solar flare energy release and ejective helical flux ropes with embedded cool-dense plasma filaments resembling solar coronal mass ejections.

  11. Understanding delta-sigma data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Pavan, Shanti; Temes, Gabor C

    2017-01-01

    This new edition introduces novel analysis and design techniques for delta-sigma (ΔΣ) converters in physical and conceptual terms, and includes new chapters that explore developments in the field over the last decade. This book explains the principles and operation of delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in physical and conceptual terms in accordance with the most recent developments in the field. The interest of ΔΣ converter designers has shifted significantly over the past decade, due to many new applications for data converters at the far ends of the frequency spectrum. Continuous-time delta-sigma A/D converters with GHz clocks, of both lowpass and bandpass types, are required for wireless applications. At the other extreme, multiplexed ADCs with very narrow (sometimes 10 Hz wide) signal bandwidths, but very high accuracy are needed in the interfaces of biomedical and environmental sensors. To reflect the changing eeds of designers, the second edition includes significant new material on bo...

  12. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy, metropolization) and cultural (multi-ethnic) perspectives. This multi-faceted dynamic character of delta areas warrants the emergence of a branch of applied adaptation science, Adaptive Delta Management, which explicitly focuses on climate adaptation of such highly dynamic and deeply uncertain systems. The application of Adaptive Delta Management in the Dutch Delta Program and its active international dissemination by Dutch professionals results in the rapid dissemination of Adaptive Delta Management to deltas worldwide. This global dissemination raises concerns among professionals in delta management on its applicability in deltas with cultural conditions and historical developments quite different from those found in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom where the practices now labelled as Adaptive Delta Management first emerged. This research develops an approach and gives a first analysis of the interaction between the characteristics of different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management and their alignment with the cultural conditions encountered in various delta's globally. In this analysis, first different management theories underlying approaches to Adaptive Delta Management as encountered in both scientific and professional publications are identified and characterized on three dimensions: The characteristics dimensions used are: orientation on today, orientation on the future, and decision making (Timmermans, 2015). The different underlying management theories encountered are policy analysis, strategic management, transition management, and adaptive management. These four management theories underlying different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management are connected to

  13. Spectroscopic studies on the formation and thermal stability of DNA triplexes with a benzoannulated delta-carboline-oligonucleotide conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Andrea; Xiao, Zhou; Langer, Peter; Weisz, Klaus

    2008-10-15

    A benzoannulated delta-carboline with a phenyl substituent has been covalently tethered to the 3'-end of a triplex-forming oligonucleotide and its ability to bind and stabilize DNA triple helices has been examined by various spectroscopic methods. UV thermal melting experiments were conducted with different hairpin duplexes and with a complementary single-stranded oligonucleotide as targets for the conjugate. The delta-carboline ligand preferentially binds triplexes over duplexes and leads to a temperature increase of the triplex-to-duplex transition by up to 23 degrees C. The results obtained from UV, CD and fluorescence measurements suggest that the delta-carboline ligand exhibits specific interactions with a triplex and favors binding by intercalation at the triplex-duplex junction.

  14. On the determination of low-energy constants for {delta}S=1 transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusti, L.; Pena, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Hernandez, P. [Dpto. Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Edificio Institutos Investigacion, Valencia (Spain); Laine, M. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Wennekers, J.; Wittig, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    We present our preliminary results for three-point correlation functions involving the operators entering the {delta}S=1 effective Hamiltonian with an active charm quark, obtained using overlap fermions in the quenched approximation. This is the first computation carried out for valence quark masses small enough so as to permit a matching to Quenched Chiral Perturbation Theory in the {epsilon}-regime. The commonly observed large statistical fluctuations are tamed by means of low-mode averaging techniques, combined with restrictions to individual topological sectors. We also discuss the matching of the resulting hadronic matrix elements to the effective low-energy constants for {delta}S=1 transitions. This involves (a) finite-volume corrections which can be evaluated at NLO in Quenched Chiral Perturbation Theory, and (b) the short-distance renormalization of the relevant four-quark operators in discretizations based on the overlap operator. We discuss perturbative estimates for the renormalization factors and possible strategies for their non-perturbative evaluation. Our results can be used to isolate the long-distance contributions to the {delta}I=1/2 rule, coming from physics effects around the intrinsic QCD scale. (orig.)

  15. Remote Sensing of Bidecadal Urbanization and its impact on Ecosystem Service in the Yangtze River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jan; Ban, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    The degree of urbanization and resulting effects on Ecosystem Services is investigated in the Yangtze River Delta in China within a 20 year time frame from 1990 to 2010. A Random forest classifier is used to classify the Landsat mosaic from 1990 and the HJ-1A/B mosaic dating from 2010. Urban Land Index (UI) and Urban Expansion Index (UX) are used to represent the intensity and rapidity of urbanization. Post-Classification Change Detection is then performed and Ecosystem Service value losses for the land-cover classes water, wetland, forest and cropland that transitioned to urban areas are calculated according to a valuation scheme adapted to the Chinese market. The results showed that Yangtze River Delta experienced significant urbanization during 1990 to 2010. Urban areas increased alongside a major decrease in cropland resulting in a substantial loss of 4.2 billion CNY in Ecosystem Services.

  16. Seasonal Variation of Eutrophication in Some Lakes of Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Liliana; Török, Zsolt; Carstea, Elfrida M; Savastru, Dan

    2017-01-01

      To understand the trophic state of lakes, this study aims to determine the dynamics of phytoplankton assemblages and the main factors that influence their seasonal variation. Sampling campaigns were carried out in three lakes from the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. Spectral analysis of specific phytoplankton pigments was applied as a diagnostic marker to establish the distribution and composition of phytoplankton taxonomic groups. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to quantify changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The relative contribution of the main phytoplankton groups to the total phytoplankton biomass and the trend of development during succession of the seasons showed that cyanobacteria could raise potential ecological or human health problems. Moreover, fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that Cryptophyta and cyanobacteria were the main contributors to the protein-like components of DOM. It was concluded that fluorescence could be used to provide a qualitative evaluation of the eutrophication degree in Danube Delta lakes.

  17. Electroweak radiative corrections to parity-violating electroexcitation of the Delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.M. Maekawa; Michael Ramsey-Musolf; Barry Holstein; Shi-Lin Zhu; Gianfranco Sacco

    2001-12-01

    We analyze the degree to which parity-violating (PV) electroexcitation of the {Delta}(1232)$ resonance may be used to extract the weak neutral axial vector transition form factors. We find that the axial vector electroweak radiative corrections are large and theoretically uncertain, thereby modifying the nominal interpretation of the PV asymmetry in terms of the weak neutral form factors. We also show that, in contrast to the situation for elastic electron scattering, the axial N {yields} {Delta} PV asymmetry does not vanish at the photon point as a consequence of a new term entering the radiative corrections. We argue that an experimental determination of these radiative corrections would be of interest for hadron structure theory, possibly shedding light on the violation of Hara's theorem in weak, radiative hyperon decays.

  18. Potential for assessing long-term dynamics in soil nitrogen availability from variations in delta15N of tree rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S C; Classen, A T

    2003-03-01

    Numerous researchers have used the isotopic signatures of C, H, and O in tree rings to provide a long-term record of changes in the physiological status, climate, or water-source use of trees. The frequently limiting element N is also found in tree rings, and variation in its isotopic signature may provide insight into long-term changes in soil N availability of a site. However, research has suggested that N is readily translocated among tree ring of different years; such infidelity between the isotopic compositions of the N taken up from the soil and the N contained in the ring of that growth year would obscure the long-term N isotopic record. We used a 15-year 15N-tracer study to assess the degree of N translocation among tree rings in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees growing in a young, mixed-conifer plantation. We also measured delta13C and delta15N values in unlabeled trees to assess the degree of their covariance in wood tissue, and to explore the potential for a biological linkage between them. We found that the maximum delta15N values in rings from the labeled trees occurred in the ring formed one-year after the 15N was applied to the roots. The delta15N value of rings from labeled trees declined exponentially and bidirectionally from this maximum peak, toward younger and older rings. The unlabeled trees showed considerable interannual variation in the delta15N values of their rings (up to 3 and 5 per thousand), but these values correlated poorly between trees over time and differed by as much as 6 per thousand. Removal of extractives from the wood reduced their delta15N value, but the change was fairly small and consistent among unlabeled trees. The delta13C and delta15N values of tree rings were correlated over time in only one of the unlabeled trees. Across all trees, both delta13C values of tree rings and annual stem wood production were well correlated with annual precipitation, suggesting that soil water balance is an important environmental

  19. Oxidation of cuprous stellacyanin by aminopolycarboxylatocobaltate(III) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, G S; Mitchel, G L; Blackmer, G L; Holwerda, R A

    1978-01-01

    Rate parameters are reported for the oxidation of cuprous stellacyanin by Co(PDTA)-(k(25.0 degrees) = 17.9 M(-1)sec(-1), deltaH not equal to = 8.5 kcal/mol, deltaH not equal to = 8.5 kcal/mol, deltaS not equal to = -24 cal/mol-deg; pH 7.0, Mu 0.5 M) and Co(CyDTA)-(k(25.1 degrees) = 17.0 M(-1)sec(-1), deltaH not equal to = 8.7 kcal/mol, deltaS not equal to = -24 cal/mol-deg; pH 7.0 mu 0.5 M). The first order Co(PDTA)- and Co(CyDTA)- dependences observed over wide concentration ranges contrast with the saturation behavior reported previously for Co(EDTA)- as the oxidant. It is concluded that the- CH3 and -(CH2)4-substituents of PDTA and CyDTA, respectively, prevent the alkylated derivatives of Co(EDTA)- from hydrogen bonding with the reduced blue protein, causing precursor complex formation constants to fall far below that of 149M(-1) (25.1 degrees) observed for the EDTA complex. The similarity between deltaH not equal to and deltaS not equal to values for the oxidation of stellacyanin by Co(PDTA)- and Co(CyDTA)- indicates that the size of alkyl substituents linked to the carbon atoms of the EDTA ethylenediamine backbone has little influence on activation requirements for Cu(I) to Co(III) electron transfer. The electron transfer reactivity of aminopolycarboxylatocobalt(III) complexes with cuprous stellacyanin therefore appears to be linked to the accessibility of one or more of the ligated acetate groups to outer-sphere contact with the type 1 Cu(I) center. Saturation in kobsd vs. [oxidant] plots found for the reactions of Co(PDTA)- and Co(CyDTA)- with stellacyanin at pH 6 and at pH 7 in the presence of EDTA is attributed to the formation of "dead-end" oxidant-protein complexes.

  20. Six degree of freedom sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

  1. Degree 3 Networks Topological Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup;

    2009-01-01

    Topological routing is a table free alternative to traditional routing methods. It is specially well suited for organized network interconnection schemes. Topological routing algorithms correspond to the type O(1), constant complexity, being very attractive for large scale networks. It has been...... proposed for many topologies and this work compares the algorithms for three degree three topologies using a more analytical approach than previous studies....

  2. First Measurement of the Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry in $\\Delta$ Resonance Production by $Q_{\\rm weak}$

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The beam normal single spin asymmetry ($B_{\\rm n}$) is generated in the scattering of transversely polarized electrons from unpolarized nuclei. The asymmetry arises from the interference of the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange with the one-photon exchange amplitude. The $Q_{\\rm weak}$ experiment has made the first measurement of $B_{\\rm n}$ in the production of the $\\Delta$(1232) resonance, using the $Q_{\\rm weak}$ apparatus in Hall-C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The final transverse asymmetry, corrected for backgrounds and beam polarization, is $B_{\\rm n}$ = 43 $\\pm$ 16 ppm at beam energy 1.16 GeV at an average scattering angle of about 8.3 degrees, and invariant mass of 1.2 GeV. The measured preliminary $B_{\\rm n}$ agrees with a preliminary theoretical calculation. $B_{\\rm n}$ for the $\\Delta$ is the only known observable that is sensitive to the $\\Delta$ elastic form-factors ($\\gamma$*$\\Delta\\Delta$) in addition to the generally studied transition form-factors ($\\gamma$*N...

  3. Analysis, testing, and evaluation of faulted and unfaulted Wye, Delta, and open Delta connected electromechanical actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehl, T. W.; Demerdash, N. A.

    1983-07-01

    Mathematical models capable of simulating the transient, steady state, and faulted performance characteristics of various brushless dc machine-PSA (power switching assembly) configurations were developed. These systems are intended for possible future use as primemovers in EMAs (electromechanical actuators) for flight control applications. These machine-PSA configurations include wye, delta, and open-delta connected systems. The research performed under this contract was initially broken down into the following six tasks: development of mathematical models for various machine-PSA configurations; experimental validation of the model for failure modes; experimental validation of the mathematical model for shorted turn-failure modes; tradeoff study; and documentation of results and methodology.

  4. Effects of storage temperatures and annealing conditions on the structure and properties of potato (Solanum tuberosum) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, R F; Ansell, R; Snape, C E; Yusuph, M

    2005-07-01

    Starches were extracted from freshly harvested potatoes (12 cultivars, grown in Perthshire) and the properties of the starches of six cultivars were compared with starches extracted from the same samples but stored at 5, 25 or 55 degrees C for 7 days before extraction. The amylose (total) content of the freshly extracted starches from tubers stored at 5, 25 or 55 degrees C was on average 27.9+/-2.3, 28.3+/-1.7, 29.2+/-2.2 and 28.8+/-1.5%, respectively, with corresponding phosphorus representing 60+/-16, 64+/-9, 61+/-5 and 63+/-9 mg 100 g(-1). The unit chain distribution by chromatography of the amylopectin molecules from the starches extracted from the different conditions was very similar with an average degree of polymerisation (DP) of 26+/-2 where the two major fractions (F1 and F2) represented 54+/-2 and 19+/-1, respectively. Peak gelatinisation temperatures (Tp) and enthalpies (DeltaH) for the freshly extracted starches and from tubers stored at 5 or 25 degrees C were very similar (63.3+/-1.5 degrees C and 18.6+/-0.8 J g(-1); 63.1+/-1.0 degrees C and 17.7+/-1.5 J g(-1) and; 62.9+/-0.7 degrees C and 18.7+/-1.1 J g(-1), respectively) although starches stored at 55 degrees C were annealed, where Tp represented 71.1+/-1.1 degrees C and DeltaH 18.1+/-1.4 J g(-1). These in situ-annealed starches were comparable in terms of gelatinisation characteristics to annealed freshly extracted starches where on average, T(p) represented 72.7+/-1.0 degrees C and DeltaH 20.8+/-1.0 J g(-1). Annealing of tubers in situ prior to processing might be beneficial with respect to developing new potato-based products.

  5. Tidal river dynamics: Implications for deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Jay, D. A.

    2016-03-01

    Tidal rivers are a vital and little studied nexus between physical oceanography and hydrology. It is only in the last few decades that substantial research efforts have been focused on the interactions of river discharge with tidal waves and storm surges into regions beyond the limit of salinity intrusion, a realm that can extend inland hundreds of kilometers. One key phenomenon resulting from this interaction is the emergence of large fortnightly tides, which are forced long waves with amplitudes that may increase beyond the point where astronomical tides have become extinct. These can be larger than the linear tide itself at more landward locations, and they greatly influence tidal river water levels and wetland inundation. Exploration of the spectral redistribution and attenuation of tidal energy in rivers has led to new appreciation of a wide range of consequences for fluvial and coastal sedimentology, delta evolution, wetland conservation, and salinity intrusion under the influence of sea level rise and delta subsidence. Modern research aims at unifying traditional harmonic tidal analysis, nonparametric regression techniques, and the existing understanding of tidal hydrodynamics to better predict and model tidal river dynamics both in single-thread channels and in branching channel networks. In this context, this review summarizes results from field observations and modeling studies set in tidal river environments as diverse as the Amazon in Brazil, the Columbia, Fraser and Saint Lawrence in North America, the Yangtze and Pearl in China, and the Berau and Mahakam in Indonesia. A description of state-of-the-art methods for a comprehensive analysis of water levels, wave propagation, discharges, and inundation extent in tidal rivers is provided. Implications for lowland river deltas are also discussed in terms of sedimentary deposits, channel bifurcation, avulsion, and salinity intrusion, addressing contemporary research challenges.

  6. THE RURAL TOURISM IN DANUBE DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the rural areas has market size and forecast its development as an economic activity. The present paper aims at analyzing the rural areas has in Danube Delta. In an enviable BAs which have responsibility for their particular isolated, such as the Danube Delta and the Danube that used, fishing and rural areas has the main activities that provide jobs and income sources for local populations. Design/methodology/approach - A survey was administered to customers’ rural hostel accommodation in Danube Delta. Descriptive statistics method was mainly adopted to calculate the mean with standard deviation of entry assumes variable, and to examine the different levels of consumers' awareness. The index values of product familiarity, the ratio between entries assumes product's familiarity value and the average value. Findings - the research results show hash has rural consumers have different perception and accomplished through behaviour. The information channels of brand hash mainly from friends, relatives and neighbours, so word of mouth spreading is very important for a brand. Women show a higher sensitivity in health and are currently operating the propensity than referred to follow the recommendations for nutrition. Research limitations/implications - This item is intended to synthesize developments and challenges," on June 13th rural market growth has. The results of this paper should be considered tentatively until has also features replicated by larger has rural consumers. Originality/value - members of rural areas has consumer's behavior would improve marketing and the development of rural areas has products, in order to reduce consumer confusion.

  7. Delta Shell: Integrated Modeling by Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Jagers, B.; Baart, F.; Geer, P. V.

    2011-12-01

    We present the integrated modeling environment Delta Shell. It supports the full workflow of integrated environmental modeling: setup, configuration, simulation, analysis and reporting of results. Many components of the environment can be reused independently, allowing development of scientific, geospatial and other applications focused on data analysis, editing, visualization and storage. One of the unique features is that the Delta Shell environment integrates models from many different fields, such as hydrodynamics, hydrology, morphology, ecology, water quality, geospatial and decision support systems. This integration is possible due to flexible general data types, lightweight model coupling framework, the plugin system and the inclusion of a number of high quality open source components. Here we will use the open source morphological model XBeach as an example showing how to integrate models into the Delta Shell environment. Integration of XBeach adds a graphical interface which can be used to make testing coastal safety for complicated coastal areas easier. By using this example, we give an overview of the modeling framework and its possibilities. To increase the usability, the model is integrated with a coastal profile data set covering the whole coast of the Netherlands. This gives the end user a system to easily use the model for scanning the safety of the Dutch coast. The reuse of the components of the environment individually or combined is encouraged. They are available as separate components and have minimal or no dependencies on other components. This includes libraries to work with scientific multidimensional data, geospatial data (in particular geospatial coverages: values of some quantities defined on a spatial domain), editors, visualisation of time-dependent data and the modeling framework (projects, data linking, workflow management, model integration). Most components and the XBeach example are available as open source.

  8. Several Microstrip-Based Conductor/Thin Film Ferroelectric Phase Shifter Designs Using (YBa2Cu3O(7 - Delta), Au)/SrTiO3/LaAlO3 Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKeuls, F. W.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Miranda, F. A.

    1998-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested several novel microstrip-base YBa2Cu3O7-delta/SrTiO3/LaAlO3 (YBCO/STO/LAO) and Au/SrTiO3ALO3 (Au/STO/LAO) phase shifters. The first design consists of eight coupled microstrip phase shifters (CMPS) in series. This design using YBCO achieved a relative insertion phase shift (Delta f) of 484 degrees with a figure of merit of 80 degrees/dB at Vdc = 375 V, 16 GHz, and 40 K. A Delta f of 290 degrees was observed while maintaining the insertion loss below 4.5 dB. At 77 K, a Delta of 420 degrees was obtained for this phase shifter at the same bias and frequency. Both results correspond to an effective coupling length of 0.33 cm. A second compact design, consisting of an Au meander line and a CMPS section was also tested. Of the two samples tested, the best showed a figure of merit of 43 degrees/dB with Delta f = 290 degrees and 6.8 dB loss, at 40 K, 10 GHz and 400 V. Experimental and modeling results on these circuits will be discussed in the context of potential applications.

  9. Upper-division student difficulties with the Dirac delta function

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Bethany R

    2015-01-01

    The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To characterize student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined students' responses to traditional exam questions and a standardized conceptual assessment, and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in the context of problem solving in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Common challenges included: invoking the delta function spontaneously, translating a description of a c...

  10. Compositeness of the Delta(1232) resonance in pi N scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Sekihara, Takayasu; Yamagata-Sekihara, Junko; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the $\\pi N$ compositeness of the $\\Delta (1232)$ resonance so as to clarify the internal structure of $\\Delta (1232)$ in terms of the $\\pi N$ component. Here the compositeness is defined as contributions from two-body wave functions to the normalization of the total wave function and is extracted from the $\\pi N$ scattering amplitude. In this study we employ the chiral unitary approach with the interaction up to the next-to-leading order plus a bare $\\Delta$ term in chiral perturbation theory and describe $\\Delta (1232)$ in an elastic $\\pi N$ scattering. Fitting the $\\pi N$ scattering amplitude to the solution of the partial wave analysis, we obtain a large real part of the $\\pi N$ compositeness for $\\Delta (1232)$ comparable to unity and non-negligible imaginary part as well, with which we reconfirm the result in the previous study on the $\\pi N$ compositeness for $\\Delta (1232)$.

  11. Monitoring the Polarimetric Variability of \\delta\\ Scorpii

    CERN Document Server

    Bednarski, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The Be star \\delta\\ Scorpii is an interesting binary system, whose primary companion created a circumstellar disk after the periastron passage of the secondary in 2000, being since then classified as Be. This work presents the results of a long-term monitoring of this star in broad-band imaging polarimetry. The observational data collected since 2006 in the Pico dos Dias Observatory (Brazil) show a variable polarization that seems to correlate with the photometric light curve. From this data we see that the disk density varied since 2006; furthermore, the data suggests that there was some disturbance of the disk during the last periastron passage in July, 2011.

  12. Error Minimization of Polynomial Approximation of Delta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Islam Sana; Sadiq Muhammad; Qureshi Muhammad Shahid

    2008-09-01

    The difference between Universal time (UT) and Dynamical time (TD), known as Delta ( ) is tabulated for the first day of each year in the Astronomical Almanac. During the last four centuries it is found that there are large differences between its values for two consecutive years. Polynomial approximations have been developed to obtain the values of for any time of a year for the period AD 1620 to AD 2000 (Meeu 2000) as no dynamical theories describe the variations in . In this work, a new set of polynomials for is obtained for the period AD 1620 to AD 2007 that is found to produce better results compared to previous attempts.

  13. International Financial Centers Delta in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emily Yu

    2009-01-01

    @@ It has called a lot of attention tnat China should build a pattern of International Financial Centers Delta:Make Beijing the centre of International Finance Management and Cooperation,working as the management and cooperation base and headquarter for China's participation in the iriternational Financial competition;Make Shanghai the centre of International Finance Market.working as the main battlefield of China's participation in international financial competition;Make Hong Kong the centre of Intemational Finance Open and Innovation,working as the frontier of China's participation in international financial competition.

  14. Hepatitis Delta Virus: A Peculiar Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Alves; Cristina Branco; Celso Cunha

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is distributed worldwide and related to the most severe form of viral hepatitis. HDV is a satellite RNA virus dependent on hepatitis B surface antigens to assemble its envelope and thus form new virions and propagate infection. HDV has a small 1.7 Kb genome making it the smallest known human virus. This deceivingly simple virus has unique biological features and many aspects of its life cycle remain elusive. The present review endeavors to gather the available ...

  15. Honorary Degree Congregation in Cambridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One day in mid-June 2006 when I was on a visit to the Countryside Restoration Trust at Barton near Cambridge, Mr. Christopher Stevenson, the director of Program of Events for Newcomers & Academic Visitors, gave me a letter enclosing a notice and a ticket I booked nearly two months earlier. He told me that I was very lucky because a strictly limited number of tickets had been allocated to academic visitors. It was a ticket to admit me to the Honorary Degree Congregation and to the reception afterwards on Tuesday 27 June.

  16. Stratigraphy and Evolution of Delta Channel Deposits, Jezero Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, T. A.; Mohrig, D.; Cardenas, B. T.; Hughes, C. M.; Fassett, C. I.

    2017-01-01

    The Jezero impact crater hosted an open-basin lake that was active during the valley network forming era on early Mars. This basin contains a well exposed delta deposit at the mouth of the western inlet valley. The fluvial stratigraphy of this deposit provides a record of the channels that built the delta over time. Here we describe observations of the stratigraphy of the channel deposits of the Jezero western delta to help reconstruct its evolution.

  17. Delta Doping High Purity CCDs and CMOS for LSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Elliott, S. Tom; Bebek, Chris; Holland, Steve; Kolbe, Bill

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing delta doping high purity CCD's and CMOS for LSST is shown. The topics include: 1) Overview of JPL s versatile back-surface process for CCDs and CMOS; 2) Application to SNAP and ORION missions; 3) Delta doping as a back-surface electrode for fully depleted LBNL CCDs; 4) Delta doping high purity CCDs for SNAP and ORION; 5) JPL CMP thinning process development; and 6) Antireflection coating process development.

  18. Delta Plaza kohvik = The Delta Plaza Café / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Hoone arhitektid Jüri Okas ja Marika Lõoke (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke). Žürii liikme Mait Summataveti arvamus kohvikust

  19. Global Heat Kernel Estimates for $\\Delta+\\Delta^{\\alpha/2}$ in Half-space-like domains

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhen-Qing; Song, Renming

    2011-01-01

    Suppose that $d\\ge 1$ and $\\alpha\\in (0, 2)$. In this paper, by using probabilistic methods, we establish sharp two-sided pointwise estimates for the Dirichlet heat kernels of $\\{\\Delta+ a^\\alpha \\Delta^{\\alpha/2}; \\ a\\in (0, 1]\\}$ on half-space-like $C^{1, 1}$ domains in ${\\mathbb R}^d$ for all time $t>0$. The large time estimates for half-space-like domains are very different from those for bounded domains. Our estimates are uniform in $a \\in (0, 1]$ in the sense that the constants in the estimates are independent of $a\\in (0, 1]$. Thus it yields the Dirichlet heat kernel estimates for Brownian motion in half-space-like domains by taking $a\\to 0$. Integrating the heat kernel estimates in time $t$, we obtain uniform sharp two-sided estimates for the Green functions of $\\{\\Delta+ a^\\alpha \\Delta^{\\alpha/2}; \\ a\\in (0, 1]\\}$ in half-space-like $C^{1, 1}$ domains in ${\\mathbb R}^d$.

  20. Delta Plaza kohvik = The Delta Plaza Café / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Hoone arhitektid Jüri Okas ja Marika Lõoke (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke). Žürii liikme Mait Summataveti arvamus kohvikust

  1. Plant community succession in modern Yellow River Delta, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Data were collected in different successional stages using a simultaneous sampling method and analyzed through quantitative classification method. Three large groups and 12 classes were made to represent the community patterns of three succession stages and 12 succession communities. The succession series of plant community in the study area was as follows:saline bare land→community Suaeda salsa→community Tamarix chinensis→grassland. Succession degree and succession process of 12 succession communities were calculated. Most of these communities were in the lower succession stage, however,community Phragmites communis+Glycine soja and community Imperata cylindrica+G. soja were close to the succession stage of grassland climax. Five species diversity indices were used to study the changes in species richness, species evenness and diversity during succession of community. Heterogeneity index and richness index increased gradually during the community succession process, but species evenness tended to decrease with succession development. The relation between succession and environment was studied by ordination technique, and the results showed that the soil salt content was an important factor to halarch succession of the modern Yellow River Delta. It affected community structure, species composition and succession process.

  2. Study of inclusion complex formation between tropaeolin OO and beta-cyclodextrin by spectrophotometry and Infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huai You; Han, Juan; Feng, Xia Guang; Pang, Yan Ling

    2006-09-01

    The mechanism of the inclusion of tropaeolin OO (TPOO) and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) has been studied by spectrophotometry. The inclusion depth of the guest molecule in the host molecule was demonstrated by infrared spectrometry. Effect of the pH, concentrations of beta-CD, solvents and ionic strength on the inclusion of TPOO and beta-CD were examined. The result showed that TPOO reacts with beta-CD to form a 1:1 host-guest complex with an apparent formation constant of 1.50 x 10(3) l mol(-1). The thermodynamic parameters of inclusion reaction, DeltaG degrees , DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees were obtained.

  3. Hydraulic Geometry of a tidally influenced delta channel network: the Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, M.; Hoitink, A.; de Brye, B.; Deleersnijder, E.

    2011-12-01

    Hydraulic Geometry (HG) refers to relations between the characteristics of channels in a network, including mean depth, width, and bed slope, and the discharge conveyed by the channel during bank-full conditions. HG relations are of fundamental importance to water management in channel networks, and they bear an interesting relation with geomorphology. River delta channel networks typically scale according to HG relations such as log(A) ~ p*log(Q), where A is channel cross sectional area, Q water discharge, and the exponent p is in between 0.8 and 1.2. In tidal networks, the tidal prism or tidal discharge can be used, instead of a discharge with a constant frequency of occurrence. In the tidal case, the exponent often shows the same range of variation. Tidal rivers are intrinsically complex, as tidal propagation is influenced by river discharge and vice-versa. Consequently, channel geometry in tidally influenced river deltas may show a mixed scaling behavior of river and tidal channel networks, as the channel forming discharges may both be of river and tidal origin. In tidal regions, the tidal dynamics may lead to a cyclic variation in water discharge distribution at bifurcations, readily affecting HG relations. We present results from the Mahakam delta channel network in Indonesia, a tide-river dominated delta which has been prograding for 60 km over the last 5000 years. Bathymetric surveys were conducted over the distributary network and connected tidal channels. Based on a geomorphic analysis of the present distributary network, we show that channel geometry of the fluvial distributary network scales with bifurcation order. The bifurcation order does not feature a clear relation with bifurcate branch length or bifurcate width ratio, as in the case of river deltas. HG relations of the area of selected cross-sections are well represented by the tidal prism or by the river discharge, when scaled with the bifurcation order. Numerical simulations show that river

  4. QCD corrections to inclusive $\\Delta S=1,2$ transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Jamin, Matthias

    1994-01-01

    The talk summarises a calculation of the two-point functions for $\\Delta S=1$ current-current and QCD-penguin operators, as well as for the $\\Delta S=2$ operator, at the next-to-leading order. The size of the gluonic corrections to current-current operators is large, providing a qualitative understanding of the observed enhancement in $\\Delta I=1/2$ transitions. In the $\\Delta S=2$ sector the QCD corrections are quite moderate ($\\approx -20\\%$). This work has been done in collaboration with A...

  5. [A study of 158 cases of acute delta hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, A; Buti, M; Esteban, R; Jardí, R; Allende, H; Roget, M; Rodríguez-Frías, F; Guardia, J

    1990-09-22

    We have prospectively studied 158 cases of acute hepatitis delta observed during the last 7 years in a general hospital. Among them 136 were male and 22 female. The mean age was 22.7 years with a range between 16 and 61 years. The epidemiologic factors were drug addiction by parenteral route in 145 cases (92%), sexual transmission in 5 (3%), post transfusional in 2 (1%) and unknown in 6 (4%). With respect to the delta type infection, 105 cases (66%) were coinfections with type B and delta, and 53 patients had a type delta superinfection (34%). The clinical course was a fulminant hepatitis in three cases (two cases of coinfection B and delta an one case of delta superinfection), and an acute benign hepatitis in 155 patients. The follow-up of 118 patients revealed that 96% of coinfections by type B and delta evolved to the chronicity showing findings of active chronic hepatitis or hepatic cirrhosis. It should be noted that in 4 cases of superinfection delta type (11%) the HBsAg was negative after several months of positivity. In these patients the level of transaminases normalized and the hepatic histology evidenced alterations of chronic active hepatitis (2 cases) and hepatic cirrhosis (2 cases) without identification of tissular delta antigen.

  6. A global analysis of human habitation on river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Douglas; Caldwell, Rebecca; Baumgardner, Sarah; Paola, Chris; Roy, Samapriya; Nelson, Amelia; Nienhuis, Jaap

    2017-04-01

    River deltas are ideal sites for human habitation because of their fertile floodplains, easy access to the ocean, and abundant land. But anthropogenic and natural processes are causing deltas to sink, which increases the probability of coastal flooding and human exposure to risk. The full extent of the risk posed to humans is unclear because the number of people living on river deltas is unknown. Towards this end we mapped the locations and areas of all deltas in the world (n= 1813). Using Google Earth we identified all river mouths (≥ 50 m wide) on marine coastlines that are also connected to an upstream catchment. Rivers that split into two or more active or relict distributary channels, end in a depositional protrusion from the shoreline, or do both, are defined as deltas. The depositional protrusion and distributary channel network define the geomorphic area of each delta. We mark the position of the delta apex at the first bifurcation, or for a single channel delta at the intersection of the regional shoreline and the main channel. We mark three lateral extents, one on either side of the main channel at the maximum displacement of the depositional protrusion or the distributary network, and one on the most basinward position of the delta. We define delta area as the convex hull around these extent points and the delta apex. For each delta area polygon we extract elevation from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission dataset and population count in years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020 from Gridded Population of the World, version 4. In total, deltas cover 0.56% of the total area of the world yet contain 4.1% of the world's population. The population on deltas has grown from 237 million in 2000 to projected values of 322 million in 2020. Deltaic population is growing at 1.59% per year, which outpaces the world growth rate of 1.11%. Additionally, population density is increasing with time from 322 people per km2 in year 2000 to projected values of 422 people per

  7. Superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacchelli, J. F.; Lee, H.-S.; Misewich, J. A.; Ketchen, M. B.

    1999-11-01

    Bandpass delta-sigma modulators digitize narrowband signals with high dynamic range and linearity. The required sampling rate is only a few times higher than the centre frequency of the input. This paper presents a superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator for direct analogue-to-digital conversion of RF signals in the GHz range. The input signal is capacitively coupled to one end of a microstrip transmission line, and a single flux quantum balanced comparator quantizes the current flowing out of the other end. Quantization noise is suppressed at the quarter-wave resonance of the transmission line (about 2 GHz in our design). Circuit performance at a 20 GHz sampling rate has been studied with several long JSIM simulations. Full-scale (FS) input sensitivity is 20 mV (rms), and in-band noise is -53 dBFS and -57 dBFS over bandwidths of 39 MHz and 19.5 MHz, respectively. In-band intermodulation distortion is better than -69 dBFS.

  8. Superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulzacchelli, J.F.; Lee, H.-S. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Misewich, J.A.; Ketchen, M.B. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Bandpass delta-sigma modulators digitize narrowband signals with high dynamic range and linearity. The required sampling rate is only a few times higher than the centre frequency of the input. This paper presents a superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator for direct analogue-to-digital conversion of RF signals in the GHz range. The input signal is capacitively coupled to one end of a microstrip transmission line, and a single flux quantum balanced comparator quantizes the current flowing out of the other end. Quantization noise is suppressed at the quarter-wave resonance of the transmission line (about 2 GHz in our design). Circuit performance at a 20 GHz sampling rate has been studied with several long JSIM simulations. Full-scale (FS) input sensitivity is 20 mV (rms), and in-band noise is -53 dBFS and -57 dBFS over bandwidths of 39 MHz and 19.5 MHz, respectively. In-band intermodulation distortion is better than -69 dBFS. (author)

  9. Discovery of binarity, spectroscopic frequency analysis, and mode identification of the delta Sct star 4CVn

    CERN Document Server

    Schmid, V S; Breger, M; Degroote, P; Aerts, C; Beck, P G; Tkachenko, A; Van Reeth, T; Bloemen, S; Debosscher, J; Castanheira, B G; McArthur, B E; Pápics, P I; Fritz, V; Falcon, R E

    2014-01-01

    More than 40 years of ground-based photometric observations of the delta Sct star 4CVn revealed 18 independent oscillation frequencies, including radial as well as non-radial p-modes of low spherical degree l= 33%. This relatively high rotation rate hampers unique mode identification, since higher-order effects of rotation are not included in the current methodology. We conclude that, in order to achieve unambiguous mode identification for 4CVn, a complete description of rotation and the use of blended lines have to be included in mode-identification techniques.

  10. Catalyzing action towards the sustainability of deltas: deltas as integrated socio-ecological systems and sentinels of regional and global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Tessler, Z. D.; Brondizio, E.; Overeem, I.; Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nicholls, R. J.; Anthony, E.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas are highly dynamic and productive environments: they are food baskets of the world, home to biodiverse and rich ecosystems, and they play a central role in food and water security. However, they are becoming increasingly vulnerable to risks arising from human activities, land subsidence, regional water management, global sea-level rise, and climate extremes. Our Belmont Forum DELTAS project (BF-DELTAS: Catalyzing actions towards delta sustainability) encompasses an international network of interdisciplinary research collaborators with focal areas in the Mekong, Ganges Brahmaputra, and the Amazon deltas. The project is organized around five main modules: (1) developing an analytical framework for assessing delta vulnerability and scenarios of change (Delta-SRES), (2) developing an open-acess, science-based integrative modeling framework for risk assessment and decision support (Delta-RADS), (3) developing tools to support quantitative mapping of the bio-physical and socio-economic environments of deltas and consolidate bio-physical and social data within shared data repositories (Delta-DAT), (4) developing Global Delta Vulnerability Indices (Delta-GDVI) that capture current and projected scenarios for major deltas around the world , and (5) collaborating with regional stakeholders to put the science, modeling, and data into action (Delta-ACT). In this talk, a research summary will be presented on three research domains around which significant collaborative work was developed: advancing biophysical classification of deltas, understanding deltas as coupled socio-ecological systems, and analyzing and informing social and environmental vulnerabilities in delta regions.

  11. delta13C and delta18O trends across overstory environments in whole foliage and cellulose of three Pinus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Matthew D; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Palik, Brian J

    2008-09-01

    Stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta(13)C) and oxygen (delta(18)O) are increasingly used to investigate environmental influences on plant physiology. Cellulose is often isolated for isotopic studies, but some authors have questioned the value of this process. We studied trends in delta(13)C and delta(18)O of whole foliage and holocellulose from seedlings of three Pinus species across three overstory environments to evaluate the benefits of holocellulose extraction in the context of a traditional ecological experiment. Both tissue types showed increasing delta(13)C from closed-canopy controls to thinned plots to 0.3 ha canopy gaps, and no change in delta(18)O between overstory environments. delta(13)C of P. resinosa and P. strobus was greater than delta(13)C of P. banksiana in whole foliage and holocellulose samples, and there were no differences in delta(18)O associated with species in either tissue type. Our results suggest whole foliage and holocellulose provide similar information about isotopic trends across broad environmental gradients and between species, but holocellulose may be better suited for studying differences in stable isotope composition between multiple species across several treatments.

  12. DEVELOPMENT ELECTRONIC MAPS OF ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF WATER OBJECTS OF THE VOLGA RIVER DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Isenalieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. The aim of this work was the comprehensive study of the ecological state of water objects of the Volga River delta. Methods. The following methods were used: field (collection, observation, organoleptic, uniform chemical analysis techniques are based on colorimetric, settlement, photometric, spectrometric measurement methods. Results. On the basis of results of researches for 2010-2014 performed a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the content of hydro-chemical indicators of environmental quality in waters of the Volga River delta and the residential areas of the background. Applying an integrated approach to the study of biological indicators of water quality. Created digitized map of the quality of aquatic ecosystems of the Volga River delta. Displaying modern ecological condition of watercourses investigated, determined the degree of contamination, the overall trophic and saprobic. Main conclusions. The work has identified adverse environmental situation in water objects of the Astrakhan and the surrounding areas. Average annual concentrations of toxicological substances water objects in the background zone 10 times less than in the water objects of settlements. As a result of work on the basis of ArcGis 10.2.2 created information environment "Eco-monitor", which is a systematic set of information, and quantitatively characterizing the ecological status of water objects. Created on the basis of ArcGis 10.2.2 information environment monitoring system of waterways allows for a temporary and spatial analysis, to assess the quality of different streams in the control sections.

  13. Organosolv extraction of lignin from hydrolyzed almond shells and application of the delta-value theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Medina, Joaquín; López-Cremades, Francisco Javier; Olivares-Carrillo, Pilar

    2010-11-01

    The solubility of lignin from hydrolyzed almond (Prunus amygdalus) shells in different acetone, ethanol and dioxane-water mixtures and conditions (extraction time and temperature) was studied. The concept of the solubility parameter (delta-value) was applied to explain the effect of organic solvent concentration on lignin solubility. The organic solvent-water mixture that led to the highest lignin extraction was composed of a 75% vol. of organic solvent for all the solvent series investigated (acetone, ethanol and dioxane). Moreover, the best lignin extraction conditions were a temperature of 210 degrees C and an extraction time of 40 min for the acetone and ethanol series, and 25 min for the dioxane series. The delta-value of the hydrolyzed almond shell lignin [14.60 (cal/cm(3))(1/2)] and that of the organic solvent-water mixtures was calculated. The experimental delignification capacity of the aqueous organic solvents clearly reflected the proximity of their delta-value to that of lignin. The hydrogen-bonding capacity of the solvent-water mixtures was also taken into account. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multidecadal Fluvial Sediment Fluxes to Deltas under Environmental Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Frances; Darby, Stephen; Nicholls, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Sediment delivery is vital to sustain delta environments on which over half a billion people live worldwide. Due to factors such as subsidence and sea level rise, deltas sink relative to sea level if sediment is not delivered to and retained on their surfaces. Deltas which sink relative to sea level experience flooding, land degradation and loss, which endangers anthropogenic activities and populations. The future of fluvial sediment fluxes, a key mechanism for sediment delivery to deltas, is uncertain due to complex environmental changes which are predicted to occur over the coming decades. This research investigates fluvial sediment fluxes under environmental changes in order to assess the sustainability of delta environments under potential future scenarios up to 2100. Global datasets of climate change, reservoir construction, and population and GDP as proxies for anthropogenic influence through land use changes are used to drive the catchment numerical model WBMsed, which is being used to investigate the effects of these environmental changes on fluvial sediment delivery. This process produces fluvial sediment fluxes under multiple future scenarios which will be used to assess the future sustainability of a selection of 8 vulnerable deltas, although the approach can be applied to deltas worldwide. By modelling potential future scenarios of fluvial sediment flux, this research contributes to the prognosis for delta environments. The future scenarios will inform management at multiple temporal scales, and indicate the potential consequences for deltas of various anthropogenic activities. This research will both forewarn managers of potentially unsustainable deltas and indicate those anthropogenic activities which encourage or hinder the creation of sustainable delta environments.

  15. Delta-doping in diffusion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénière, François; Chaplain, René; Gauneau, Marcel; Reddy, Viswanatha; Régrény, André

    1993-12-01

    The δ-doping where the dopant is confined on the length-scale of the lattice constant provides perfectly ideal conditions to study the atomic transport processes. We have studied MBE-grown GaAs samples δ-doped with Si and Al layers. Long time diffusion anneals have been performed in the temperature range 550 800 °C. The distribution profiles are examined by SIMS-profiling. We obtain Si diffusion coefficients in good agreement with the other recent studies using different techniques (rapid thermal annealing, capacitance-voltage profiling, sandwiched diffusion source). This contrasts with the earlier measurements based on diffusion of implanted dopants which were much more widely spread. We conclude that the more accurate data allowed with the δ-doping show that the diffusion coefficient is an intrinsic parameter provided that the amount of dopant and the dislocation density are kept sufficiently small. Le dopage-delta, où le dopant est confiné à l'échelle du paramètre du réseau, fournit les conditions parfaitement idéales pour étudier les processus de transport atomique. Nous avons étudié des échantillons de GaAs obtenus par épitaxie par jet moléculaire dopés par des couches-delta de Si et Al. Des traitements de diffusion de longue durée ont été réalisés dans l'intervalle de température 550 à 800°C. Les profils de distribution sont examinés par spectrométrie d'émission d'ions secondaires. Nous obtenons des coefficients de diffusion de Si en bon accord avec les autres études récentes utilisant des techniques différentes (traitement thermique ultrarapide, profil de distribution par la méthode capacité-voltage, diffusion d'une couche “ sandwich ”). Ceci diffère des mesures antérieures qui, basées sur la diffusion de dopants implantés, étaient beaucoup plus dispersées. Nous concluons que les données plus précises rendues possibles par le dopage-delta montrent que le coefficient de diffusion est un paramètre intrinsèque

  16. Subsidence of River Delta Systems and Enclosed Basins Caused by Multi-decadal to Millennial Scale Sediment and Ocean Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Ronald G.; Ivins, Erik R.; Klemann, Volker; Dokka, Roy K.; Lohman, Rowena; Fielding, Eric J.

    2010-05-01

    The causes of multi-decadal coastal subsidence that exceed the rate of 20th-21st Century mean sea-level rise are numerous. A host of causal relationships between anthropogenic activity and coastal erosion and subsidence are both compelling and well understood. A short list of these processes should include: fluid extraction, reservoir compaction; fluid-induced motion of shallow growth-faults; decomposition of organic sediments (left in the wake of major water diversion projects) and sediment empoundment and/or diversion. Non-anthropogenic post-glacial sediment loading-induced subsidence has also been demonstrated to be a candidate mechanism that could dominate the GPS-mapped subsidence in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya Rive Delta system (Ivins, Dokka and Blum, GRL, 34, L16303, 2007). More recent changes in sediment load can also have a substantial impact on the active subsidence of the crust and mantle. These can be of both anthropogenic and natural origins. Here we examine, in varying degrees of detail, the world's major delta systems wherein the necessary and sufficient conditions are met that allow sediment plus water load to drive gravitationally-layered, hydrostatically pre-stressed viscoelastic Earth model simulations far enough away from gravitational equilibrium that a detectable geodetic signal in tide-gauges and GPS vertical position would be predicted. Sediment-load-induced subsidence occurs over horizontal length scales, λ, comparable to thickness of the lithosphere: λ ≥ 40-60 km and has amplitudes ranging from of 0.5 to 8 mm/yr (Ivins et al. GRL34, 2007; Syvitski Sustain. Sci., 3, 2008). The cases of the pan-Arctic deltas, the Atchafalya -Mississippi River Delta system, the Yangzte River and Yellow River Deltas of China, the Danube River Delta Plain, and the generally complex postglacial water-sediment loading of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea.

  17. A NOTE ON DELTA-PERTURBATION EXPANSION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何吉欢

    2002-01-01

    The Delta-perturbation expansion method, a kind of new perturbation technique depending upon an artificial parameter Delta was studied. The study reveals that the method exits some advantages, but also exits some limitations. To overcome the limitations, the socalled linearized perturbation method proposed by HE Ji-huan can be powerfully applied.

  18. Automatisierte VHDL-Code-Generierung eines Delta-Sigma Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilka, R.; Ostermann, T.

    2006-09-01

    Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird eine automatische Generierung des VHDL-Codes eines Delta-Sigma Modulators präsentiert. Die Koeffizientenmultiplikation wird hierbei durch Bit-Serielle-Addition durchgeführt. Mit Hilfe zweier neuer Matlab Funktionen wird der Systementwurf durch die bekannte Delta-Sigma Toolbox von R. Schreier erweitert und direkt synthesefähiger VHDL Code erzeugt.

  19. A BRITE view on delta Scuti and gamma Doradus stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zwintz, Konstanze

    2016-01-01

    BRITE-Constellation has obtained data for a few delta Scuti and gamma Doradus type stars. A short overview of the pulsational content found in five stars - beta Cassiopeiae, epsilon Cephei, M Velorum, beta Pictoris and QW Puppis - is given and the potential of BRITE-Constellation observations of delta Scuti and gamma Doradus pulsators is discussed.

  20. Terahertz radiation from delta-doped GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Hansen, Ole; Sørensen, Claus Birger;

    1994-01-01

    Terahertz pulse emission from four different delta-doped molecular beam epitaxially grown GaAs samples is studied. We observe a decrease of the emitted THz pulse amplitude as the distance of the delta-doped layer from the surface is increased, and a change in polarity of the THz pulses as compared...

  1. Women in Leadership Roles in Phi Delta Kappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Martha B.; And Others

    The professional and personal characteristics of the men and women in Phi Delta Kappa who hold the top elected positions in local chapters were compared, and the perceptions of these leaders of the impact of allowing women to be members of Phi Delta Kappa were assessed. A 43-item questionnaire was developed and mailed to 1,340 chapter presidents…

  2. Downstream hydraulic geometry of a tidally influenced river delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Brye, de B.; Deleersnijder, E.

    2012-01-01

    Channel geometry in tidally influenced river deltas can show a mixed scaling behavior between that of river and tidal channel networks, as the channel forming discharge is both of river and tidal origin. We present a method of analysis to quantify the tidal signature on delta morphology, by extendin

  3. Towards a Comprehensive Framework for Adaptive Delta Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchand, M.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Deltas are dynamic landforms at the boundary of land and sea, involving intricate mazes of rivers and small waterways, wetlands, estuaries and coastal barrier islands. They are home to over half a billion people. Deltas are also home to rich ecosystems, such as mangroves and marshes. They are

  4. Delta's paradise: a challenge for lan[d]scape architects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, te J.K.M.; Toorn, van den M.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    Paradise as a metaphor has always played an important role in art. This is definitely true for the art of garden design, but paradise is also a metaphor that can be used for the landscape. Some of the most interesting landscapes are found in deltas. Deltas are rich in natural and economic potential.

  5. Towards a Comprehensive Framework for Adaptive Delta Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchand, M.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Deltas are dynamic landforms at the boundary of land and sea, involving intricate mazes of rivers and small waterways, wetlands, estuaries and coastal barrier islands. They are home to over half a billion people. Deltas are also home to rich ecosystems, such as mangroves and marshes. They are econom

  6. An annotated list of Fishes from the Niger Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1963-01-01

    At the end of November 1960, the Leiden Museum received an interesting collection of animals, mostly fishes, from the Niger delta. All specimens were collected by Mr. H. J. G. Beets, at the time employed by Shell B.P. — Delta Investigations, during the period May to August 1960, and in the region

  7. Delta's paradise: a challenge for lan[d]scape architects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Boekhorst, J.K.M.; Toorn, van den M.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    Paradise as a metaphor has always played an important role in art. This is definitely true for the art of garden design, but paradise is also a metaphor that can be used for the landscape. Some of the most interesting landscapes are found in deltas. Deltas are rich in natural and economic potential.

  8. Emerging leadership from communities in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Delta NIRI (Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative) team has conducted several research studies in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region employing the community-based participatory research (CBPR) model. Our collaborative work in the LMD focuses on interventions conducted in each of our c...

  9. Spatio-temporal distributions of delta18O, delta D and salinity in the Arabian Sea: Identifying processes and controls

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshpande, R.D.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Singh, R.L.; Kumar, B.; Rao, M.S.; Dave, M.; Sivakumar, K.U.; Gupta, S.K.

    of these parameters. From the distributions of delta18O and salinity (S), and the relationships between delta18OdeltaD and delta18O–S, the following inferences have been drawn: (1) there is a broad correspondence between...

  10. 78 FR 21491 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P. and DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th...

  11. The Concentration Dependence of the (Delta)s Term in the Gibbs Free Energy Function: Application to Reversible Reactions in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Ronald K.

    2004-01-01

    The concentration dependence of (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy function is described in relation to its application to reversible reactions in biochemistry. An intuitive and non-mathematical argument for the concentration dependence of the (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy equation is derived and the applicability of the equation to…

  12. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Guang Yue

    2015-01-01

    The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD) algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC) algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC) algorithm.

  13. Extended degree functions and monomial modules

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The arithmetic degree, the smallest extended degree, and the homological degree are invariants that have been proposed as alternatives of the degree of a module if this module is not Cohen-Macaulay. We compare these degree functions and study their behavior when passing to the generic initial or the lexicographic submodule. This leads to various bounds and to counterexamples to a conjecture of Gunston and Vasconcelos, respectively. Particular attention is given to the class of sequentially Co...

  14. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Yue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC algorithm.

  15. Surface Delta Interaction and g factors

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    Using an attractive surface delta interaction we obtain wave functions for 2 neutrons (or neutron holes) in the model space of 2 orbits (l=4, j=7/2) and (l=2, j=5/2). If we take the single particle energies to be degenerate we find that the g factors for I=2, 4 and 6 are all the same -namely the orbital g factor of the single nucleon. For a free neutron this quantity zero all 2particle or 2 hole g factors are equal to zero as well.. Only the orbital part of the g -factors contribute - the spin part cancels out. We then consider the effects of introducing a single energy splititng between the 2 orbits.

  16. Historical floods in the Dutch Rhine Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Glaser

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical records provide direct information about the climatic impact on society. Especially great natural disasters such as river floods have been for long attracting the attention of humankind. Time series for flood development on the Rhine branches Waal, Nederrijn/Lek and IJssel in the Dutch Rhine Delta are presented in this paper. In the case of the Waal it is even possible to compare historical flood frequencies based on documentary data with the recent development reconstructed from standardized instrumental measurements. In brief, we will also discuss various parameters concerning the structure of the flood series and the "human dimension" of natural disaster, i.e. the vulnerability of society when facing natural disasters.

  17. Head orientation prediction: delta quaternions versus quaternions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himberg, Henry; Motai, Yuichi

    2009-12-01

    Display lag in simulation environments with helmet-mounted displays causes a loss of immersion that degrades the value of virtual/augmented reality training simulators. Simulators use predictive tracking to compensate for display lag, preparing display updates based on the anticipated head motion. This paper proposes a new method for predicting head orientation using a delta quaternion (DQ)-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) and compares the performance to a quaternion EKF. The proposed framework operates on the change in quaternion between consecutive data frames (the DQ), which avoids the heavy computational burden of the quaternion motion equation. Head velocity is estimated from the DQ by an EKF and then used to predict future head orientation. We have tested the new framework with captured head motion data and compared it with the computationally expensive quaternion filter. Experimental results indicate that the proposed DQ method provides the accuracy of the quaternion method without the heavy computational burden.

  18. Spectral factorization using the delta operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Morten; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole

    1994-01-01

    In recent years many papers have been published abouth the gamma-operator, mostly caused by the better numerical properties and the rapprochement between continuous and discrete time. A major problem within the LQG-design of a delta-based input-output relation has been how to spectral......-factorize in an efficient way. The discrete-time method of Kuccera will not be applied since numerical word-length characteristics will be poor for fast sampling rates. In this paper a new approach is considered. A new gamma-operator (Tustin operator) is introduced, in order to make an iterative and numerical stable...... solution to the spectral factorization problem. The key idea is to use the gamma-operator resembled by its behavior to the differential operator....

  19. Effects of isovector scalar $\\delta$-meson on hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Ikram, M; Biswal, S K; Patra, S K

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the effects of $\\delta-$ meson on hypernuclei within the frame-work of relativistic mean field theory. The $\\delta-$ meson is included into the Lagrangian for hypernuclei. The extra nucleon-meson coupling ($g_\\delta$) affects the every piece of physical observables, like binding energy, radii and single particle energy of hypernuclei. The lambda mean field potential is investigated which is consistent with other predictions. Flipping of single particle energy levels are observed with the strength of $g_\\delta$ in the considered hypernuclei as well as normal nuclei. The spin-orbit potentials are observed for considered hypernuclei and the effect of $g_\\delta$ on spin-orbit potentials is also analyzed. The calculated single-$\\Lambda$ binding energies ($B_\\Lambda$) are quite agreeable with the experimental data.

  20. Isolation of Delta9-THCA-A from hemp and analytical aspects concerning the determination of Delta9-THC in cannabis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussy, Franz E; Hamberg, Cornelia; Luginbühl, Marco; Schwerzmann, Thomas; Briellmann, Thomas A

    2005-04-20

    A simple procedure based on a common silica gel column chromatography for the isolation of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Delta9-THCA-A) from hemp in a multi-milligram scale is presented. Further, the decarboxylation reaction of Delta9-THCA-A to the toxicologically active Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) at different analytical and under-smoking conditions is investigated. Maximal conversion in an optimised analytical equipment yields about 70% Delta9-THC. In the simulation of the smoking process, only about 30 % of the spiked substance could be recovered as Delta9-THC.

  1. Multimode delta-E effect magnetic field sensors with adapted electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, Sebastian; Fichtner, Simon; Kirchhof, Christine; Quandt, Eckhard; Faupel, Franz, E-mail: ff@tf.uni-kiel.de [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Reermann, Jens; Schmidt, Gerhard [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Electrical Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Wagner, Bernhard [Fraunhofer Institute for Silicon Technology ISIT, Fraunhoferstraße 1, 25524 Itzehoe (Germany)

    2016-05-30

    We present an analytical and experimental study on low-noise piezoelectric thin film resonators that utilize the delta-E effect of a magnetostrictive layer to measure magnetic fields at low frequencies. Calculations from a physical model of the electromechanical resonator enable electrode designs to efficiently operate in the first and second transversal bending modes. As predicted by our calculations, the adapted electrode design improves the sensitivity by a factor of 6 and reduces the dynamic range of the sensor output by 16 dB, which significantly eases the requirements on readout electronics. Magnetic measurements show a bandwidth of 100 Hz at a noise level of about 100 pTHz{sup −0.5}.

  2. Multimode delta-E effect magnetic field sensors with adapted electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Sebastian; Reermann, Jens; Fichtner, Simon; Kirchhof, Christine; Quandt, Eckhard; Wagner, Bernhard; Schmidt, Gerhard; Faupel, Franz

    2016-05-01

    We present an analytical and experimental study on low-noise piezoelectric thin film resonators that utilize the delta-E effect of a magnetostrictive layer to measure magnetic fields at low frequencies. Calculations from a physical model of the electromechanical resonator enable electrode designs to efficiently operate in the first and second transversal bending modes. As predicted by our calculations, the adapted electrode design improves the sensitivity by a factor of 6 and reduces the dynamic range of the sensor output by 16 dB, which significantly eases the requirements on readout electronics. Magnetic measurements show a bandwidth of 100 Hz at a noise level of about 100 pTHz-0.5.

  3. Dependence of {delta}E effect on internal stresses in nickel: Experimental results by laser interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicharro, J.M. [Dept. de Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de Proyectos, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avd. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: josemanuel.chicharro@uclm.es; Bayon, A. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, E.T.S.I. Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Salazar, F. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, E.T.S.I. Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    The speckle heterodyne interferometry is applied to the study of the dependence of Young's modulus on both the magnetic field and the internal stresses in a soft ferromagnetic material. Young's modulus is determined from the first natural longitudinal frequency of a slender magnetic rod positioned within a solenoid. Vibration of the sample is detected by an optical heterodyne system with a wide bandwidth. The samples are heated to above the Curie point and then cooled at several rates in order to induce different internal stresses. The study refers to nickel rods 10mm in diameter and 110mm in length. The grain sizes of the samples are also determined and related to changes in {delta}E.

  4. Studies on the metabolism of the Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol precursor Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Delta9-THCA-A) in rat using LC-MS/MS, LC-QTOF MS and GC-MS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Julia; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H; Neusüss, Christian; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Auwärter, Volker

    2009-10-01

    In Cannabis sativa, Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (Delta9-THCA-A) is the non-psychoactive precursor of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC). In fresh plant material, about 90% of the total Delta9-THC is available as Delta9-THCA-A. When heated (smoked or baked), Delta9-THCA-A is only partially converted to Delta9-THC and therefore, Delta9-THCA-A can be detected in serum and urine of cannabis consumers. The aim of the presented study was to identify the metabolites of Delta9-THCA-A and to examine particularly whether oral intake of Delta9-THCA-A leads to in vivo formation of Delta9-THC in a rat model. After oral application of pure Delta9-THCA-A to rats (15 mg/kg body mass), urine samples were collected and metabolites were isolated and identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and high resolution LC-MS using time of flight-mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) for accurate mass measurement. For detection of Delta9-THC and its metabolites, urine extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified metabolites show that Delta9-THCA-A undergoes a hydroxylation in position 11 to 11-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (11-OH-Delta9-THCA-A), which is further oxidized via the intermediate aldehyde 11-oxo-Delta9-THCA-A to 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (Delta9-THCA-A-COOH). Glucuronides of the parent compound and both main metabolites were identified in the rat urine as well. Furthermore, Delta9-THCA-A undergoes hydroxylation in position 8 to 8-alpha- and 8-beta-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A, respectively, (8alpha-Hydroxy-Delta9-THCA-A and 8beta-Hydroxy-Delta9-THCA-A, respectively) followed by dehydration. Both monohydroxylated metabolites were further oxidized to their bishydroxylated forms. Several glucuronidation conjugates of these metabolites were identified. In vivo conversion of Delta9-THCA-A to Delta9-THC was

  5. Extensive junctional diversity of rearranged human T cell receptor delta genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, S; Satyanarayana, K; Devlin, P; Band, H; McLean, J; Strominger, J L; Brenner, M B; Krangel, M S

    1988-06-10

    The human T cell receptor delta (TCR delta) gene encodes one component of the TCR gamma delta-CD3 complex found on subsets of peripheral blood and thymic T cells. Human TCR delta diversity was estimated by characterizing rearrangements in TCR gamma delta cell lines and determining the structures of complementary DNA clones representing functional and nonfunctional transcripts in these cell lines. One V delta segment and one J delta segment were identified in all functional transcripts, although a distinct J delta segment was identified in a truncated transcript. Further, one D delta element was identified, and evidence for the use of an additional D delta element was obtained. Thus human TCR delta genes appear to use a limited number of germline elements. However, the apparent use of two D delta elements in tandem coupled with imprecise joining and extensive incorporation of N nucleotides generates unprecedented variability in the junctional region.

  6. Role of pairing degrees of freedom and higher multipolarity deformations in spontaneous fission process

    CERN Document Server

    Lojewski, Z

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous fission (T sub s sub f) and alpha-decay half-lives (T subalpha) of the heaviest nuclei with atomic number 100 <= Z <= 114 are calculated on the basis of the deformed Woods-Saxon potential. The calculations of (T sub s sub f) are performed by the WKB approximation, in the multi-dimensional dynamical-programing method (MDP). We have examined three different effects: the effect of higher even-multipolarity shape parameters (beta sub 6 and beta sub 8), the role of reflection-asymmetry (beta sub 3 and beta sub 5) and the influence of pairing degrees of freedom (DELTA sub p and DELTA sub n). Alpha-decay half-lives (T subalpha) have been calculated by the Viola-Seaborg (V-S) formula with the parameters modified to the latest experimental data.

  7. Relation between weight size and degree of over-fitting in neural network regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Katsuyuki; Fukumizu, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the relation between over-fitting and weight size in neural network regression. The over-fitting of a network to Gaussian noise is discussed. Using re-parametrization, a network function is represented as a bounded function g multiplied by a coefficient c. This is considered to bound the squared sum of the outputs of g at given inputs away from a positive constant delta(n), which restricts the weight size of a network and enables the probabilistic upper bound of the degree of over-fitting to be derived. This reveals that the order of the probabilistic upper bound can change depending on delta(n). By applying the bound to analyze the over-fitting behavior of one Gaussian unit, it is shown that the probability of obtaining an extremely small value for the width parameter in training is close to one when the sample size is large.

  8. Potency of Mahakam Delta in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zairin Zain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Mahakam Delta is not only utilized for fishery activities but also for several industrial purposes such as coal and oil mining, shipping and timber. The objective of this paper is to provide information in term of the potency of Mahakam Delta located in East Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The study was conducted in Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Participatory rural appraisal is a group of methods to collect information in a participatory fashion from rural communities. The method employed in this research was descriptive analysis describing the environmental potency found in Mahakam Delta. Massive conversion of mangrove forest particularly Nypa (Nypa fruticans area into pond has driven conflict among related stakeholders on the utilization of natural resource and land which subsequently impacts on the fish and shrimp source regeneration, loss of ecological functions of mangrove forest for feeding, nursery and spawning ground of fish and other organisms. Besides of fisheries, oil and gas activity also exists in Mahakam Delta. Mahakam Delta is regarded as important area due to the largest producer of oil and gas mining. Thus, oil and gas industry is the most reliable sector that contributes to the economic development of Kutai Kartanegara district. As a resource provider, Mahakam Delta ecosystem provides various resources for livelihoods. As a life-support service provider, Mahakam Delta ecosystem provides habitat and ideal environment to support variety of living kinds. As a convenience provider, Mahakam Delta ecosystem provides unique and interesting recreation site. As a protector from natural disaster, Mahakam Delta ecosystem is able to protect human kinds from natural disaster threatening coastal area.

  9. Sustainable Growth in Urbanised Delta Areas: the Opportunities of a Geographical Approach to the Pearl River Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.; Nillisen, A.L.; Schamhart, C.; Lugt, N.

    2006-01-01

    The attractions of delta areas have boomed economies and founded major cities, but the threats of the adjacent water have persisted and natural resources have declined. The objective to facilitate sustainable urban growth in delta areas can only be met by a simultaneous approach of all the stakehold

  10. Preservation potential of the Last Interglacial lower Rhine delta relative to the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, J.; Martinius, A.W.; Cohen, K.M.; Middelkoop, H.; Stouthamer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve our insights in the sequence stratigraphic and architectural development of lower deltaic hydrocarbon reservoirs we study the Last Interglacial Rhine delta (MIS-5), and compare it to its well investigated counterpart, the Holocene (MIS-1) Rhine- Meuse delta (Berendsen & Stouthame

  11. Multisite campaign on the open cluster M67. III. Delta Scuti pulsations in the blue stragglers

    CERN Document Server

    Bruntt, H; Suárez, J C; Arentoft, T; Bedding, T R; Bouzid, M Y; Csubry, Z; Dall, T H; Dind, Z E; Frandsen, S; Gilliland, R L; Jacob, A P; Jensen, H R; Kang, Y B; Kim, S -L; Kiss, L L; Kjeldsen, H; Koo, J -R; Lee, J -A; Lee, C -U; Nuspl, J; Sterken, C; Szabó, R

    2007-01-01

    We have made an asteroseismic analysis of the variable blue stragglers in the open cluster M67. The data set consists of photometric time series from eight sites using nine 0.6-2.1 meter telescopes with a time baseline of 43 days. In two stars, EW Cnc and EX Cnc, we detect the highest number of frequencies (41 and 26) detected in delta Scuti stars belonging to a stellar cluster, and EW Cnc has the second highest number of frequencies detected in any delta Scuti star. We have computed a grid of pulsation models that take the effects of rotation into account. The distribution of observed and theoretical frequencies show that in a wide frequency range a significant fraction of the radial and non-radial low-degree modes are excited to detectable amplitudes. Despite the large number of observed frequencies we cannot constrain the fundamental parameters of the stars. To make progress we need to identify the degrees of some of the modes either from multi-colour photometry or spectroscopy.

  12. General N-th Degree Stochastic Dominance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺明

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines N-th degree stochastic dominance which isused to compare the risk factor of risky assets after summarizing the definitions of first degree stochastic dominance and second degree stochastic dominance. The paper defines general N-th degree stochastic dominance, presents a sufficient and necessary condition which is the equivalent theorem of general N-th degree stochastic dominance. The feasible utility form is constructed to explain the economic meaning of N-th degree stochastic dominance in the field of financial economics. The equivalent condition is described by the probability distribution functions of risky assets, which are not related to utility functions (preference relations).

  13. High-resolution imaging of Galactic massive stars with AstraLux. I. 138 fields with delta > -25 degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Apellániz, J Maíz

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT. Massive stars have high-multiplicity fractions, and many of them have still undetected components, thus hampering the study of their properties. AIMS. I study a sample of massive stars with high angular resolution to better characterize their multiplicity. METHODS. I observed 138 fields that include at least one massive star with AstraLux, a lucky imaging camera at the 2.2 m Calar Alto telescope. I also used observations of 3 of those fields with ACS/HRC on HST to obtain complementary information and to calibrate the AstraLux data. The results were compared with existing information from the Washington Double Star Catalog, Tycho-2, 2MASS, and other literature results. RESULTS. I discover 16 new optical companions of massive stars, the majority of which are likely to be physically bound to their primaries. I also improve the accuracy for the separation and magnitude difference of many previously known systems. In a few cases the orbital motion is detected when comparing the new data with existing ones...

  14. The Complex Case of Positioning the Foundation Degree: Making Sense of a Degree That Is Not a Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadembo, Ernest

    2008-01-01

    The Foundation degree was launched in 2001 and has enjoyed growth but remains a controversial qualification. Foundation Degree Forward, the body charged by the UK government with providing a "national network or expertise to support the development and validation of high-quality Foundation degrees" is championing the marketing of the…

  15. Nuclear forces with Delta-excitations up to next-to-next-to-leading order I: peripheral nucleon-nucleon waves

    CERN Document Server

    Krebs, H; Meissner, U G; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Mei{\\ss}ner, Ulf-G.

    2007-01-01

    We study the two-nucleon force at next-to-next-to-leading order in a chiral effective field theory with explicit Delta degrees of freedom. Fixing the appearing low-energy constants from a next-to-leading order calculation of pion-nucleon threshold parameters, we find an improved convergence of most peripheral nucleon-nucleon phases compared to the theory with pions and nucleons only. In the delta-full theory, the next-to-leading order corrections are dominant in most partial waves considered.

  16. The fluvial evolution of the Holocene Nile Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, B. T.; Sturt, F.; Wilson, P.; Rowland, J.; Brown, A. G.

    2017-08-01

    The evolution of the Nile Delta, the largest delta system in the Mediterranean Sea, has both high palaeoenvironmental and archaeological significance. A dynamic model of the landscape evolution of this delta system is presented for the period c.8000-4500 cal BP. Analysis of sedimentary data and chronostratigraphic information contained within 1640 borehole records has allowed for a redefinition of the internal stratigraphy of the Holocene delta, and the construction of a four-dimensional landscape model for the delta's evolution through time. The mid-Holocene environmental evolution is characterised by a transition from an earlier set of spatially varied landscapes dominated by swampy marshland, to better-drained, more uniform floodplain environments. Archaeologically important Pleistocene inliers in the form of sandy hills protruding above the delta plain surface (known as ;turtlebacks;), also became smaller as the delta plain continued to aggrade, while the shoreline and coastal zone prograded north. These changes were forced by a decrease in the rate of relative sea-level rise under high rates of sediment-supply. This dynamic environmental evolution needs to be integrated within any discussion of the contemporary developments in the social sphere, which culminated in the emergence of the Ancient Egyptian State c.5050 cal BP.

  17. Influence of form IA RubisCO and environmental dissolved inorganic carbon on the delta13C of the clam-chemoautotroph symbiosis Solemya velum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kathleen M; Schwedock, Julie; Schrag, Daniel P; Cavanaugh, Colleen M

    2004-12-01

    Many nutritive symbioses between chemoautotrophic bacteria and invertebrates, such as Solemya velum, have delta(13)C values of approximately -30 to -35%, considerably more depleted than phytoplankton. Most of the chemoautotrophic symbionts fix carbon with a form IA ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO). We hypothesized that this form of RubisCO discriminates against (13)CO(2) to a greater extent than other forms. Solemya velum symbiont RubisCO was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. Enzyme from this recombinant system fixed carbon most rapidly at pH 7.5 and 20-25 degrees C. Surprisingly, this RubisCO had an epsilon-value (proportional to the degree to which the enzyme discriminates against (13)CO(2)) of 24.4 per thousand, similar to form IB RubisCOs, and higher than form II RubisCOs. Samples of interstitial water from S. velum's habitat were collected to determine whether the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) could contribute to the negative delta(13)C values. Solemya velum habitat DIC was present at high concentrations (up to approximately 5 mM) and isotopically depleted, with delta(13)C values as low as approximately -6%. Thus environmental DIC, coupled with a high degree of isotopic fractionation by symbiont RubisCO likely contribute to the isotopically depleted delta(13)C values of S. velum biomass, highlighting the necessity of considering factors at all levels (from environmental to enzymatic) in interpreting stable isotope ratios.

  18. Networks with superfat-tailed degree distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Timár, Gábor; Mendes, José Fernando F

    2016-01-01

    A majority of studied models for scale-free networks have degree distributions with exponents greater than $2$. Real networks, however, can demonstrate essentially more heavy-tailed degree distributions. We explore two models of scale-free equilibrium networks that have the degree distribution exponent $\\gamma = 1$, $P(q) \\sim q^{-\\gamma}$. Such "superfat-tailed" degree distributions can be identified in empirical data only if the mean degree of a network is sufficiently high. Our models exploit a rewiring mechanism. They are local in the sense that no knowledge of the network structure, apart from the immediate neighbourhood of the vertices, is required. These models generate uncorrelated networks in the infinite size limit, where they are solved explicitly. We investigate finite size effects by the use of simulations. We find that both models exhibit disassortative degree-degree correlations for finite network sizes. In addition, we observe a markedly degree-dependent clustering in the finite networks. We i...

  19. Hot deformation behavior of delta-processed superalloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y., E-mail: wangyanhit@yahoo.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Shao, W.Z.; Zhen, L.; Zhang, B.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} The peak stress for hot deformation can be described by the Z parameter. {yields} The grain size of DRX was inversely proportional to the Z parameter. {yields} The dissolution of {delta} phases was greatly accelerated under hot deformation. {yields}The {delta} phase stimulated nucleation can serve as the main DRX mechanism. - Abstract: Flow stress behavior and microstructures during hot compression of delta-processed superalloy 718 at temperatures from 950 to 1100 deg. C with strain rates of 10{sup -3} to 1 s{sup -1} were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The relationship between the peak stress and the deformation conditions can be expressed by a hyperbolic-sine type equation. The activation energy for the delta-processed superalloy 718 is determined to be 467 kJ/mol. The change of the dominant deformation mechanisms leads to the decrease of stress exponent and the increase of activation energy with increasing temperature. The dynamically recrystallized grain size is inversely proportional to the Zener-Hollomon (Z) parameter. It is found that the dissolution rate of {delta} phases under hot deformation conditions is much faster than that under static conditions. Dislocation, vacancy and curvature play important roles in the dissolution of {delta} phases. The main nucleation mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) for the delta-processed superalloy 718 include the bulging of original grain boundaries and the {delta} phase stimulated DRX nucleation, which is closely related to the dissolution behavior of {delta} phases under certain deformation conditions.

  20. Primary production in the Delta: Then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Robinson, April; Richey, Amy; Grenier, Letitia; Grossinger, Robin; Boyer, Katharyn E.; Burau, Jon; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; DeGeorge, John F.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Enright, Chris; Howe, Emily R.; Kneib, Ronald; Mueller-Solger, Anke; Naiman, Robert J.; Pinckney, James L.; Safran, Samuel M.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Simenstad, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the role of restoration in the recovery of the Delta ecosystem, we need to have clear targets and performance measures that directly assess ecosystem function. Primary production is a crucial ecosystem process, which directly limits the quality and quantity of food available for secondary consumers such as invertebrates and fish. The Delta has a low rate of primary production, but it is unclear whether this was always the case. Recent analyses from the Historical Ecology Team and Delta Landscapes Project provide quantitative comparisons of the areal extent of 14 habitat types in the modern Delta versus the historical Delta (pre-1850). Here we describe an approach for using these metrics of land use change to: (1) produce the first quantitative estimates of how Delta primary production and the relative contributions from five different producer groups have been altered by large-scale drainage and conversion to agriculture; (2) convert these production estimates into a common currency so the contributions of each producer group reflect their food quality and efficiency of transfer to consumers; and (3) use simple models to discover how tidal exchange between marshes and open water influences primary production and its consumption. Application of this approach could inform Delta management in two ways. First, it would provide a quantitative estimate of how large-scale conversion to agriculture has altered the Delta's capacity to produce food for native biota. Second, it would provide restoration practitioners with a new approach—based on ecosystem function—to evaluate the success of restoration projects and gauge the trajectory of ecological recovery in the Delta region.

  1. Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport

  2. Regional pole assignment for uncertain delta-operator systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man LIU; Yuanwei JING; Siying ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    The pole assignment in a specified disk by state feedback for uncertain delta-operator systems is studied.By making use of algebra Riccati equations,a sufficient and necessary condition of pole assignment for a kind of parameter uncertain delta-operator system in a specified disk by state feedback is presented.And the design method of state feedback controller is also developed.The proposed method can unify some previous related results of continuous and discrete time systems into the delta framework.The efficiency of the design method is illustrated by a numerical example.

  3. Electromagnetic form factors of the Delta with D-waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalho, G; Gross, Franz

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of the Delta baryon are evaluated within the framework of a covariant spectator quark model, where S and D-states are included in the $\\Delta$ wave function. We predict all the four Delta multipole form factors: the electric charge GE0, the magnetic dipole GM1, the electric quadrupole GE2 and the magnetic octupole GM3. We compare our predictions with other theoretical calculations. Our results are compatible with the available experimental data and recent lattice QCD data.

  4. Late quaternary evolution of the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.; Aslan, A.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Orinoco Delta is the latest of a series of stacked deltas that have infilled the Eastern Venezuelan Basin (EVB) since the Oligocene. During the late Pleistocene sea-level lowstand (20,000 to 16,000 yrs BP), bedrock control points at the position of the present delta apex prevented the river channel from incising as deeply as many other major river systems. Shallow seismic data indicate that the late Pleistocene Orinoco incised into the present continental shelf, where it formed a braided-river complex that transported sediment to a series of shelf-edge deltas. As sea level rose from 16,000 to 9,500 yrs BP, the Orinoco shoreline shifted rapidly landward, causing shallow-marine waves and currents to form a widespread transgressive sand unit. Decelerating sea-level rise and a warmer, wetter climate during the early Holocene (9,500 to 6,000 yrs BP) induced delta development within the relatively quiet-water environment of the EVB embayment. Sea level approached its present stand in the middle Holocene (6,000 to 3,000 yrs BP), and the Orinoco coast prograded, broadening the delta plain and infilling the EVB embayment. Significant quantities of Amazon sediment began to be transported to the Orinoco coast by littoral currents. Continued progradation in the late Holocene caused the constriction at Boca de Serpientes to alter nearshore and shelf hydrodynamics and subdivide the submarine delta into two distinct areas: the Atlantic shelf and the Gulf of Paria. The increased influence of littoral currents along the coast promoted mudcape development. Because most of the water and sediment were transported across the delta plain through the Rio Grande distributary in the southern delta, much of the central and northwestern delta plain became sediment starved, promoting widespread accumulation of peat deposits. Human impacts on the delta are mostly associated with the Volca??n Dam on Can??o Manamo. However, human activities have had relatively little effect on the

  5. On generalized {delta}-semiclosed sets in topological spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Han [Division of Mathematical Sciences, Pukyong National University, Pusan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jihpark@pknu.ac.kr; Song, Dae Seob [Division of Mathematical Sciences, Pukyong National University, Pusan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Saadati, Reza [Department of Mathematics, and Computer Science, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Avenue, Tehran 15914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Department of Mathematics, Amol Islamic Azad University, Amol 46176-54553 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: rsaadati@eml.cc

    2007-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the class of g{delta}s-closed sets and obtain the characterizations of T {sub 3/4} space due to Dontchev and Ganster [Dontchev J, Ganster M. On {delta}-generalized closed set and T {sub 3/4}-spaces. Mem Fac Sci Kochi Univ Ser A (Math) 1996;17:15-31]. We also introduce the notion of g{delta}s-continuity and investigate the relationships between it and other types of continuity.

  6. Monte Carlo simulations of the stability of delta-Pu

    CERN Document Server

    Landa, A; Ruban, A

    2003-01-01

    The transition temperature (T sub c) for delta-Pu has been calculated for the first time. A Monte Carlo method is employed for this purpose and the effective cluster interactions are obtained from first-principles calculations incorporated with the Connolly-Williams and generalized perturbation methods. It is found that at T sub c approx 548 K, delta-Pu undergoes transformation from a disordered magnetic state to a structure with an antiferromagnetic spin alignment that is mechanically unstable with respect to tetragonal distortion. The calculated transition temperature is in good agreement with the temperature measured at the gamma -> delta transition (593 K). (letter to the editor)

  7. Genomic organization of the human T-cell antigen-receptor alpha/delta locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, K; Hata, S; Devlin, P; Roncarolo, M G; De Vries, J E; Spits, H; Strominger, J L; Krangel, M S

    1988-11-01

    Two clusters of overlapping cosmid clones comprising about 100 kilobases (kb) at the human T-cell antigen-receptor alpha/delta locus were isolated from a genomic library. The structure of the germ-line V delta 1 variable gene segment was determined. V delta 1 is located 8.5 kb downstream of the V alpha 13.1 gene segment, and both V segments are arranged in the same transcriptional orientation. The V alpha 17.1 segment is located between V delta 1 and the D delta, J delta, C delta region (containing the diversity, joining, and constant gene segments). Thus, V delta and V alpha segments are interspersed along the chromosome. The germ-line organization of the D delta 2, J delta 1, and J delta 2 segments was determined. Linkage of C delta to the J alpha region was established by identification of J alpha segments within 20 kb downstream of C delta. The organization of the locus was also analyzed by field-inversion gel electrophoresis. The unrearranged V delta 1 and D delta, J delta, C delta regions are quite distant from each other, apparently separated by a minimum of 175-180 kb.

  8. Expression profiling of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta) in mouse tissues using tissue microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Hiroyuki; Billin, Andrew N; Okamoto, Yuji; Kinoshita, Mine; Asano, Satoshi

    2007-05-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta) is known as a transcription factor involved in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in several tissues, such as skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissues. In this study, to elucidate systemic physiological functions of PPAR-delta, we examined the tissue distribution and localization of PPAR-delta in adult mouse tissues using tissue microarray (TMA)-based immunohistochemistry. PPAR-delta positive signals were observed on variety of tissues/cells in multiple systems including cardiovascular, urinary, respiratory, digestive, endocrine, nervous, hematopoietic, immune, musculoskeletal, sensory and reproductive organ systems. In these organs, PPAR-delta immunoreactivity was generally localized on the nucleus, although cytoplasmic localization was observed on several cell types including neurons in the nervous system and cells of the islet of Langerhans. These expression profiling data implicate various physiological roles of PPAR-delta in multiple organ systems. TMA-based immunohistochemistry enables to profile comprehensive protein localization and distribution in a high-throughput manner.

  9. Redundancy of the off-shell parameters in chiral effective field theory with explicit spin-3/2 degrees of freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Krebs, H; Meißner, U -G

    2009-01-01

    In this note we prove to all orders in the small scale expansion that all off-shell parameters which appear in the chiral effective Lagrangian with explicit Delta(1232) isobar degrees of freedom can be absorbed into redefinitions of certain low-energy constants and are therefore redundant.

  10. Sharecropping Contract Experience in Delta State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Albert Ukaro Ofuoku

    2015-01-01

    Sharecropping has been an age long practice from ancient times. Some scholars saw the practice as being exploitative of the tenants, yet it is still being practiced. The reasons behind it continual practice need to be unveiled. This study was therefore conducted to examine the sharecropping contract experience in Delta State, Nigeria. The landlords decided to practice sharecropping as a result of emigration of their household members, farm size and cost of labours, some of them gave age and their primary occupation as factors for their decisions to opt for sharecropping arrangement. The yields were shared on the basis of 60% for the landlord to 40% for the tenant. The landlords provided all the equipment and inputs, while the tenant's carried out all the farm operations. They faced the constraints of stress, but were able to cope with them, because of hospitals and health centres nearby. The result of the test of hypothesis confirmed the reasons given for deciding on sharecropping arrangement. It was concluded that sharecropping was not exploitative. It was recommended that the practice of sharecropping should be encouraged and not diversified into other sources of livelihood should do so.

  11. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  12. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.

    2013-12-01

    The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions

  13. EAARL Coastal Topography--Pearl River Delta 2008: First Surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi was produced from remotely...

  14. EAARL Coastal Topography--Pearl River Delta 2008: Bare Earth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi was produced from remotely sensed,...

  15. GPC Using a Delta-Domain Emulator-Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Morten Bach; Jensen, Morten Rostgaard; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes new approaches to generalized predictive control formulated in the delta (delta) domain. A new delta-domain version of the continuous-time emulator-based predictor is presented. It is shown to contain the optimal discrete-time predictor based on incomplete information...... as a special case. Usually, a good estimate is obtained in a much longer range of samples than obtained by the optimal predictor of the same complexity. This is particularly advantageous at fast sampling rates where a `conventional' predictor is bound to become very computationally demanding. Two controllers...... are considered: one having a well-defined limit as the sampling period tends to zero, the other being a close approximation to the conventional discrete-time GPC. Both algorithms are discrete in nature and well-suited for adaptive control. The fact that delta-domain models are used does not introduce...

  16. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Delta- Sigma Modulator with Signal Dependant Feedback Gain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    K.Diwakar; V.Vinoth Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Higher order Delta-Sigma Modulator (DSM) is basically an unstable system. The approximate conditions for stability cannot be used for the design of a DSM for industrial applications where risk is involved...

  18. A High Performance Delta-Sigma Modulator for Neurosensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Jian; Zhao, Menglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Islam, Md Kafiul; Yang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    ... to achieve and would require excessive circuit area and power for implementation. In this paper, we present a high performance Delta-Sigma modulator along with several design techniques and enabling blocks to reduce circuit area and power...

  19. An integrated delta-sigma based IIR filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Dennis Kin-Wah

    Delta-sigma based infinite impulse response (IIR) filters are a recently developed circuit technique for efficiently realizing IIR filters operating directly on oversampled delta-sigma modulated signals. The design and single-chip implementation of a fifth-order delta-sigma based IIR filter are described. The filter coefficients are fully programmable and with the use of a structure that is inherently scaled for dynamic range, good filter performance is maintained over a wide variety of transfer functions. To eliminate multi-bit multiplications, five second-order digital delta-sigma modulators were used and dynamic range improvement was obtained through the use of multi-bit quantizers in these modulators. The filter was implemented as a very large scale integration chip using 1.2 micron complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology, occupying an area of 4,355 by 5,962 square microns. Simulations indicate that the clock range should operate up to 45 MHz.

  20. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge coastal survey, final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys were conducted along the coastline of the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge to determine the distribution and abundance of waterfowl and...

  1. Alternative Interpretation for the Eberswalde Delta, Holden NE Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedo, C. M.; Finkelstein, D. B.; Moersch, J. E.

    2008-03-01

    Examination of HiRISE images from the Eberswalde Delta reveal that it is hard to identify sedimentologic and stratigraphic components of a fluvio-deltaic system, leaving open alternative interpretations for the origin of the strata and geomorphpology.

  2. Linear delta expansion technique for the solution of anharmonic oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Bera; J Datta

    2007-01-01

    The linear delta expansion technique has been developed for solving the differential equation of motion for symmetric and asymmetric anharmonic oscillators. We have also demonstrated the sophistication and simplicity of this new perturbation technique.

  3. Lead analysis of waterfowl from Yukon Delta NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1995, WAES received funds from the Yukon Delta Ecosystem Team to analyze livers of waterfowl, other than spectacled eiders, for lead concentrations. Nineteen...

  4. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  5. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  6. Migratory Bird Avian Influenza Sampling; Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data set containing avian influenza sampling information for spring and summer waterbirds on the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, 2015. Data contains sample ID, species common...

  7. Delta and Breton National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Delta and Breton NWRs for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the refuges' vision and...

  8. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  9. EAARL Coastal Topography--Pearl River Delta 2008: Bare Earth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi was produced from remotely sensed,...

  10. Topography data from the Elwha River delta, Washington, September 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of the data release presents topography data from the Elwha River delta collected in September 2014. Topography data were collected on foot with global...

  11. Calculating Lake Morphology in the Colville River Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, M.; Walker, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    The morphology and surface area of a lake can be determined using simple mathematical formulas. These formulas can be plugged into a Geographic Information System (GIS) and used to calculate the circularity, smoothness, compactness and orientation of a lake or pond in remotely sensed imagery. The calculated output can then be used to differentiate circular lakes from elongated lakes, lakes with smooth shorelines from those with complex shorelines, and lake orientation; such information can then be used to classify and quantify different types of lakes in complex environments such as river deltas. The Colville River delta is located on the North Slope of Arctic Alaska. Previous studies have classified the delta's 230,000+ lakes into five types: 1. thermokarst (thaw) lakes, 2. oriented lakes, 3. perched lakes, 4 channel lakes and 5. ice-wedge polygon ponds. This study uses 2004 aerial photography and 2011 satellite imagery to quantify the different types of lake in the delta.

  12. Water Quality Assessment of River Areba, Niger Delta, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Quality Assessment of River Areba, Niger Delta, Nigeria Using Physical ... phosphate (0.78mg/l) were above World Health Organization limits for drinking water. Seasonally, water temperatures, total dissolved solids, biological oxygen ...

  13. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  14. Hypertension in a Rural Community in Rivers State, Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension in a Rural Community in Rivers State, Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: ... (SSA), is now a serious endemic threat and an important public health issue. ... Medical history such as prior knowledge of blood pressure status and family ...

  15. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  16. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2001 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  18. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  19. Birds and mammals of the Copper River Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this report are: (1) to describe the habitats available for birds and mammals on the Copper River Delta (2) to present an annotated list of birds...

  20. Inventory Management in Delta Allied Wire Industries Limited Asaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inventory Management in Delta Allied Wire Industries Limited Asaba. ... review and customers' handling processes equally studied for improvement. The data collated were collated were analyzed using the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) ...

  1. Profiling risk and sustainability in coastal deltas of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Z. D.; Vörösmarty, C. J.; Grossberg, M.; Gladkova, I.; Aizenman, H.; Syvitski, J. P. M.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2015-08-01

    Deltas are highly sensitive to increasing risks arising from local human activities, land subsidence, regional water management, global sea-level rise, and climate extremes. We quantified changing flood risk due to extreme events using an integrated set of global environmental, geophysical, and social indicators. Although risks are distributed across all levels of economic development, wealthy countries effectively limit their present-day threat by gross domestic product-enabled infrastructure and coastal defense investments. In an energy-constrained future, such protections will probably prove to be unsustainable, raising relative risks by four to eight times in the Mississippi and Rhine deltas and by one-and-a-half to four times in the Chao Phraya and Yangtze deltas. The current emphasis on short-term solutions for the world’s deltas will greatly constrain options for designing sustainable solutions in the long term.

  2. EAARL Coastal Topography--Pearl River Delta 2008: First Surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi was produced from remotely...

  3. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  4. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1998 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  5. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2002 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  6. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  7. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  8. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta, Nunivak National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with...

  9. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  10. The Byron Syring DELTA Center--Leadership in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    Byron Spring DELTA Center serves a small farming community in Colorado offers high school diploma programs, English-as-a-Second-Language courses, lifelong learning, and a variety of other programs for teens and adults. (JOW)

  11. Rarotonga Radiocarbon (delta 14C) for 1950 to 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rarotonga coral radiocarbon (14C) timeseries. Coral radiocarbon (Delta-14C) on untreated, low-speed drilled samples. Precision is +/- 4 per mil as documented by an...

  12. precise delta extraction scheme for reprogramming of wireless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords- reprogramming; operating system, wireless sensor network, Delta. 1. ... implemented via the use of embedded operating systems. Jun-Zhao in [6] as well as Dunkiels et al. in [7] ..... Pister, “System architecture directions for.

  13. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1999 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  14. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2000 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  15. Morphologic and stratigraphic evolution of muddy ebb-tidal deltas along a subsiding coast: Barataria Bay, Mississippi River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, D.M.; Kulp, M.; Penland, S.; Flocks, J.; Kindinger, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Barataria barrier coast formed between two major distributaries of the Mississippi River delta: the Plaquemines deltaic headland to the east and the Lafourche deltaic headland to the west. Rapid relative sea-level rise (1??03 cm year-1) and other erosional processes within Barataria Bay have led to substantial increases in the area of open water (> 775 km2 since 1956) and the attendant bay tidal prism. Historically, the increase in tidal discharge at inlets has produced larger channel cross-sections and prograding ebb-tidal deltas. For example, the ebb delta at Barataria Pass has built seaward > 2??2 km since the 1880s. Shoreline erosion and an increasing bay tidal prism also facilitated the formation of new inlets. Four major lithofacies characterize the Barataria coast ebb-tidal deltas and associated sedimentary environments. These include a proximal delta facies composed of massive to laminated, fine grey-brown to pale yellow sand and a distal delta facies consisting of thinly laminated, grey to pale yellow sand and silty sand with mud layers. The higher energy proximal delta deposits contain a greater percentage of sand (75-100%) compared with the distal delta sediments (60-80%). Associated sedimentary units include a nearshore facies consisting of horizontally laminated, fine to very fine grey sand with mud layers and an offshore facies that is composed of grey to dark grey, laminated sandy silt to silty clay. All facies coarsen upwards except the offshore facies, which fines upwards. An evolutionary model is presented for the stratigraphic development of the ebb-tidal deltas in a regime of increasing tidal energy resulting from coastal land loss and tidal prism growth. Ebb-tidal delta facies prograde over nearshore sediments, which interfinger with offshore facies. The seaward decrease in tidal current velocity of the ebb discharge produces a gradational contact between proximal and distal tidal delta facies. As the tidal discharge increases and the inlet

  16. The late-Holocene progradation of the Mahakam Delta, Indonesia - A case study of tidal, tropical deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalman, R.; Ranawijaya, D.; Missiaen, T.; Kroonenberg, S.; Storms, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Mahakam Delta is an oft-cited example of a mixed fluvial-tidally influenced delta. Yet the distinct separation of the tide-dominated delta plain and the fluvial distributaries make the delta unique amongst tidally influenced deltas. The delta prograded an average of 60 km over the last 5000 years. Most sediment transport is induced by tidal currents and fluvial discharge, which resulted in a distinct, dense network of distributary and tidal channels. In order to characterize the Holocene sedimentary architecture we describe a dataset of 10 new cores and a large survey of very high-resolution, shallow seismics. The seismics are recorded using an echosounder with a novel parametric source, allowing subsurface penetration in excess of 15 m while achieving a vertical resolution of 0.2 m. Distinct sedimentary facies are described in detail for delta plain, delta front, distributary and mouthbar deposits. A notable difference in stratal pattern has been observed between the inner and outer tide-dominated delta plain facies. The inner tidal channels cut deeply into the underlying deltafront deposits and form a distinct heterogenic laterally accreting and intercutting facies. Whereas the outer tide-dominated delta plain deposits accrete conformably on the marine deltafront facies and show a much more homogenous sedimentary architecture. The continual reworking of the inner tide-dominated delta plain results in a patchwork of deposits greatly varying in thickness and age albeit with a similar silty clay lithology. The area of the present-day delta was largely flooded after the early to mid-Holocene transgression, our data indicate that a small branch of fluvial distributaries was active on the current delta plain around 5 ka. Subsequently, the northernmost fluvial distributary built out rapidly over a period of 3 kyrs. The southern distributaries built out later, from 2 ka to the present. The mouthbar deposits in the south are significantly thicker than in the northern

  17. Longitudinal spin asymmetries and $\\Delta G$ at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Le Goff, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    The spin structure $g_{1}$ of the deuteron has been measured by COMPASS with unprecedented accuracy at low $x$, providing much more reliable values for the first moment $\\Gamma_{1}$ and for the quark spin contribution $\\Delta\\Sigma$. Difference-charge semi-inclusive asymmetries have been measured and seem to favor a flavor asymmetric polarized sea. The gluon polarization has been measured in the open-charm and high-$p_{t}$ channels. Large values of $\\Delta G$ are now unlikely.

  18. delta. t tuneup procedure for the LAMPF 805-MHz linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, K.R.

    1976-05-01

    An important part of tuning the LAMPF accelerator is the adjustment of the phases and amplitudes in the 805-MHz linac. The technique used is called the ..delta..t procedure because of the time-of-flight measurements that are required. The theory behind the ..delta..t procedure, a brief description of the hardware, and a description of the many computer programs that have been written to implement the procedure are presented.

  19. Properties of the $\\delta$ Scorpii Circumstellar Disk from Continuum Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Carciofi, A. C.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Marang, F.; Kuratov, K.S.; a-Lario, P. Garcí; Calderón, J. V. Perea; Fabregat, J.; Magalhães, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present optical $WBVR$ and infrared $JHKL$ photometric observations of the Be binary system $\\delta$ Sco, obtained in 2000--2005, mid-infrared (10 and $18 \\mu$m) photometry and optical ($\\lambda\\lambda$ 3200--10500 \\AA) spectropolarimetry obtained in 2001. Our optical photometry confirms the results of much more frequent visual monitoring of $\\delta$ Sco. In 2005, we detected a significant decrease in the object's brightness, both in optical and near-infrared brightness, which is associate...

  20. Multimegawatt DAE$\\delta$ALUS Cyclotrons for Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Abs, M; Alonso, J R; Barletta, W A; Barlow, R; Calabretta, L; Calanna, A; Campo, D; Celona, L; Conrad, J M; Gammino, S; Kleeven, W; Koeth, T; Maggiore, M; Okuno, H; Piazza, L A C; Seidel, M; Shaevitz, M H; Stingelin, L; Yang, J J; Yeck, J

    2012-01-01

    DAE$\\delta$ALUS (Decay-At-rest Experiment for $\\delta_{CP}$ studies At the Laboratory for Underground Science) provides a new approach to the search for CP violation in the neutrino sector. High-power continuous-wave proton cyclotrons efficiently provide the necessary proton beams with an energy of up to 800 MeV to create neutrinos from pion and muon decay-at-rest. The experiment searches for $\\bar{\

  1. Automatisierte VHDL-Code-Generierung eines Delta-Sigma Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Spilka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird eine automatische Generierung des VHDL-Codes eines Delta-Sigma Modulators präsentiert. Die Koeffizientenmultiplikation wird hierbei durch Bit-Serielle-Addition durchgeführt. Mit Hilfe zweier neuer Matlab Funktionen wird der Systementwurf durch die bekannte Delta-Sigma Toolbox von R. Schreier erweitert und direkt synthesefähiger VHDL Code erzeugt.

  2. Sedimentation patterns in floodplains of the Mekong Delta - Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Manh, Nguyen; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Apel, Heiko

    2013-04-01

    Quantification of floodplain sedimentation during the flood season in the Mekong Delta (MD) plays a very important role in the assessment of flood deposits for a sustainable agro-economic development. Recent studies on floodplain sedimentation in the region are restricted to small pilot sites because of the large extend of the Delta, and the complex channel. This research aims at a quantification of the sediment deposition in floodplains of the whole Mekong Delta, and to access the impacts of the upstream basin development on the sedimentation in the Delta quantitatively. To achieve this, a suspended sediment transport model is developed based on the quasi-2D hydrodynamic model of the whole Mekong Delta developed by Dung et al. (2011). The model is calibrated and validated using observed data derived from several sediment measurement campaigns in channel networks and floodplains. Measured sediment data and hydrodynamic model quantify the spatio-temporal variability of sediment depositions in different spatial units: individual dyke compartments, and the sub-regions Plain of Reeds, Long Xuyen Quadrangle and the area between Tien River and Hau River. It is shown that the distribution of sediment deposition over the delta is highly depended on the flood magnitude, that in turn drives the operation policy of flood control systems in floodplains of the Mekong Delta. Thus, the sedimentation distribution is influenced by the protection level of the dyke systems in place and the distance to the Tien River and Hau River, the main branches of the Mekong in the Delta. This corroborates the main findings derived from data analysis obtained from a small scale test site by Hung et al, (2011, 2012a). Moreover, the results obtained here underlines the importance of the main channels for the sediment transport into the floodplains, and the deposition rate in floodplains is strongly driven by the intake locations and the distance from these to the main channels as well.

  3. Estimation of nitrogen and phosphorus in effluent from the striped catfish farming sector in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Sena S; Ingram, Brett A; Nguyen, Phuong T; Bui, Tam M; Gooley, Geoff J; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2010-11-01

    In this study an attempt is made to estimate nitrogen and phosphorus discharged to the environment from the striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farming sector in the Mekong Delta (8 degrees 33'-10 degrees 55' N, 104 degrees 30'-106 degrees 50' E), South Vietnam. The sector accounted for 687,000 t production in 2007 and 1,094,879 t in 2008, with over 95% of the produce destined for export to over 100 countries. Commercial and farm-made feeds are used in catfish farming, currently the former being more predominant. Nitrogen discharge levels were similar for commercial feeds (median 46.0 kg/t fish) and farm-made feeds (median 46.8 kg/t fish); whilst, phosphorus discharge levels for commercial feeds (median 14.4 kg/t fish) were considerably lower than for farm-made feeds (median 18.4 kg/t fish). Based on the median nutrient discharge levels for commercial feeds, striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta discharged 31,602 t N and 9,893 t P, and 50,364 t N and 15,766 t P in 2007 and 2008, respectively. However, the amount of nutrients returned directly to the Mekong River may be substantially less than this as a significant proportion of the water used for catfish farming as well as the sludge is diverted to other agricultural farming systems. Striped catfish farming in the Mekong Delta compared favourably with other cultured species, irrespective of the type of feed used, when the total amounts of N and P discharged in the production of a tonne of production was estimated.

  4. An integrated assessment framework for land subsidence in delta cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. M. Bucx

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In many delta cities land subsidence exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten by excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without change, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other delta (and coastal cities will sink below sea level. Increased flooding and also other widespread impacts of land subsidence result already in damage of billions of dollars per year. In order to gain insight in the complex, multi-sectoral aspects of subsidence, to raise awareness and to support decision making on appropriate adaptation strategies and measures, an Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF for subsidence is introduced, illustrated by several (delta case studies. Based on that a list of 10 generic key issues and possible solutions is presented in order to further develop and support a (generic approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas. For exchange of experiences and knowledge development.on subsidence in deltas the Delta Alliance, a knowledge network of deltas worldwide, can be supportive.

  5. Near-infrared spectropolarimetry of a delta-spot

    CERN Document Server

    Balthasar, H; Louis, R E; Verma, M; Denker, C

    2014-01-01

    Sunspots harboring umbrae of both magnetic polarities within a common penumbra (delta-spots) are often but not always related to flares. We present first near-infrared (NIR) observations (Fe I 1078.3 nm and Si I 1078.6 nm spectra) obtained with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) at the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) in Tenerife on 2012 June 17, which afford accurate and sensitive diagnostics to scrutinize the complex fields along the magnetic neutral line of a delta-spot within active region NOAA 11504. We examine the vector magnetic field, line-of-sight (LOS) velocities, and horizontal proper motions of this rather inactive delta-spot. We find a smooth transition of the magnetic vector field from the main umbra to that of opposite polarity (delta-umbra), but a discontinuity of the horizontal magnetic field at some distance from the delta-umbra on the polarity inversion line. The magnetic field decreases faster with height by a factor of two above the delta-umbra. The latter is surrounded by its own Eversh...

  6. An integrated assessment framework for land subsidence in delta cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, T. H. M.; van Ruiten, C. J. M.; Erkens, G.; de Lange, G.

    2015-11-01

    In many delta cities land subsidence exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten by excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without change, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other delta (and coastal) cities will sink below sea level. Increased flooding and also other widespread impacts of land subsidence result already in damage of billions of dollars per year. In order to gain insight in the complex, multi-sectoral aspects of subsidence, to raise awareness and to support decision making on appropriate adaptation strategies and measures, an Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF) for subsidence is introduced, illustrated by several (delta) case studies. Based on that a list of 10 generic key issues and possible solutions is presented in order to further develop and support a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas. For exchange of experiences and knowledge development.on subsidence in deltas the Delta Alliance, a knowledge network of deltas worldwide, can be supportive.

  7. Governance of ‘long term delta planning’ in Bangladesh, Vietnam and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, van M.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Deltas in Times of Climate Change Conference II, taking place in September 2014, Rotterdam, presented a suitable occasion to discuss both delta challenges and interesting approaches to how ‘delta dynamics’ are being dealt with worldwide.1 Delta dynamics include here both environmental (including

  8. Identifying environmental controls on the shoreline of a natural river delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleynse, N.; Hiatt, M.; Sangireddy, H.; Passalacqua, P.

    River deltas form where sediment-laden water debouches into a basin. The spatial delineation of a delta is nontrivial and yet is fundamental to systematically evaluating fluxes across its surface. Here we study shoreline dynamics of the Wax Lake Delta (WLD), a naturally developing delta, downstream

  9. Identifying environmental controls on the shoreline of a natural river delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleynse, N.; Hiatt, M.; Sangireddy, H.; Passalacqua, P.

    2015-01-01

    River deltas form where sediment-laden water debouches into a basin. The spatial delineation of a delta is nontrivial and yet is fundamental to systematically evaluating fluxes across its surface. Here we study shoreline dynamics of the Wax Lake Delta (WLD), a naturally developing delta, downstream

  10. Simulating radiation damage in {delta}-plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, M. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.robinson@lboro.ac.uk; Kenny, S.D.; Smith, R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Storr, M.T.; McGee, E. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Radiation events in {delta}-Pu (fcc) have been simulated in an attempt to understand the fundamental mechanisms that contribute to the Pu ageing process. The Pu interactions are modelled using a potential based on the modified embedded atom method (MEAM). The energetics of point defects have been investigated using static calculations together with molecular dynamics (MD) to simulate radiation events. All MD simulations were carried out with Pu initially in the face-centred-cubic (fcc) structure, although this is not the lowest energy configuration for the pure metal. The point defect study suggests that the mono-vacancy has the lowest formation energy (0.46 eV), with interstitial defects favouring the <100> - split orientation over occupation of the native fcc octahedral site. Displacement threshold energy calculations at room temperature give a minimum value of between 5 and 6 eV, increasing to 8-14 eV along the major crystallographic directions. Low energy collision cascades, initiated with energies in the range of 0.4-1 keV, show that the cascades form in a similar manner to other fcc metals with a vacancy rich zone at the cascade core, surrounded by isolated interstitial defects. Higher energy cascades show similar features but with occasional channelling of energetic atoms and sub-cascade branching which significantly reduces defect production. A common trait observed across all the cascades was the relatively slow annealing period, compared to cascades in other fcc metals, with simulations at energies above 5 keV requiring many 10's of picoseconds before the ballistic phase was completed.

  11. 基于Delta-s的高速果奶装箱机器人工程示范%Demonstration project of high-speed robot packing fruit milk based on the Delta-s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤臣; 陈凯; 张良安; 尤晨; 周东; 刘黎明; 冯进友

    2011-01-01

    This paper focus on the practical application of the Delta-s robot on the fruit milk packing machine, including its system layout and functional requirements, gripper design based on Delta-S robot, software design and engineering practice. Based on the analysis of the basic design, this paper selects filling stations to make a specific analysis. The results showed that the application of the Delta-s robot on the fruit milk packing machine made a substantial increase in the level of automation and speed of packing! Which proved the application of the Delta-s robot on the industrial production line had very good prospects.%研究Delta-S机器人在果奶装箱机上的工程示范应用,包括其系统布局及功能要求及Delta-S机器人的抓取器设计、软件设计和工程实践等问题.在基本设计分析的基础上,选取装填工位做具体分析.分析结果表明,Delta-S机器人在高速果奶装箱机上的应用使得装箱自动化水平和速度都大幅提高,进一步说明Delta-S机器人在工业生产线上的应用具有很好的应用前景.

  12. Delta isobars in relativistic mean-field models with $\\sigma$-scaled hadron masses and couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Kolomeitsev, E E; Voskresensky, D N

    2016-01-01

    We extend the relativistic mean-field models with hadron masses and meson-baryon coupling constants dependent on the scalar $\\sigma$ field, studied previously to incorporate $\\Delta(1232)$ baryons. Available empirical information is analyzed to put constraints on the couplings of $\\Delta$s with meson fields. Conditions for the appearance of $\\Delta$s are studied. We demonstrate that with inclusion of the $\\Delta$s our equations of state continue to fulfill majority of known empirical constraints including the pressure-density constraint from heavy-ion collisions, the constraint on the maximum mass of the neutron stars, the direct Urca and the gravitational-baryon mass ratio constraints.

  13. A New Method to Calculate the Degree of Electromagnetic Impedance Matching in One-Layer Microwave Absorbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhi; CAO Chen-Tao; LIU Qing-Fang; WANG Jian-Bo

    2012-01-01

    A delta-function method is proposed to quantitatively evaluate the electromagnetic impedance matching degree.Measured electromagnetic parameters of α-Fe/Fe3B/V2O3 nanocomposites are applied to calculate the matching degree by the method.Compared with reflection loss and quarter-wave principle theory,the method accurately reveals the intrinsic mechanism of microwave transmission and reflection properties.A possible honeycomb structure with promising high-performance microwave absorption,devised according to the method,is also proposed.

  14. Architecture of a Coarse-Grained Upper Middle Cambrian Alluvial Delta Dominated by Braidplain and Gilbert-Style Delta Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    The ~500-m thick upper Middle Cambrian Lockett Conglomerate was deposited as part of an alluvial delta that includes Gilbert-type mega-crossbeds as well as braidplain conglomerates, and was constructed across an accretionary prism. Internal Lockett Conglomerate architecture indicates at least three phases of progradation are recorded by Gilbert-type, delta-front deposits that are separated by delta-top distributaries and/or braidplain deposits, all of which form discontinuous sheets and lenses, and record aggradation. Evaluation of sedimentary features (particle size and organization, bedding features) allows identification of eight facies within the Lockett Conglomerate; sedimentary features were used to infer transportational and depositional mechanisms. Conglomerate facies HL-1 - HL-8 were assigned to one or more of the following depositional associations: Beachface/shoreface, Deltafront, Alluvial fan, Braidplain (fluvial, unchannelized), Delta-top distributaries, and Mouth-bars. A series of Depositional Packages was identified, and mapped; integration with measured sections allowed development of a facies model for an alluvial delta in which the subaerial component is dominated by the braidplain association, and the subaqueous component by the (Gilbert-type) deltafront association as well as the delta-top distributary and mouthbar associations. Locally, the beachface association marks the transition between the subaqueous and subaerial components of the alluvial delta. Alluvial fan deposits are absent, but the rounded pebbles, cobbles and boulders with a new and distinctive provenance signature indicate derivation from a newly exposed igneous and metamorphic basement, and abrasion during transport through the fluvial (braidplain) system prior to deposition as part of the alluvial delta.

  15. Synthesis of a potent and selective (18)F-labeled delta-opioid receptor antagonist derived from the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore for positron emission tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Wu, Zhanhong; Chen, Kai; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Marczak, Ewa D; Sasaki, Yusuke; Ambo, Akihiro; Salvadori, Severo; Ren, Chuancheng; Zhao, Heng; Balboni, Gianfranco; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2008-03-27

    Identification and pharmacological characterization of two new selective delta-opioid receptor antagonists, derived from the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore, of potential utility in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging are described. On the basis of its high delta selectivity, H-Dmt-Tic--Lys(Z)-OH (reference compound 1) is a useful starting point for the synthesis of (18)F-labeled compounds prepared by the coupling of N-succinimidyl 4-[ (18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB) with Boc-Dmt-Tic--Lys(Z)-OH under slightly basic conditions at 37 degrees C for 15 min, deprotection with TFA, and HPLC purification. The total synthesis time was 120 min, and the decay-corrected radiochemical yield of [(18)F]- 1 was about 25-30% ( n = 5) starting from [(18)F]SFB ( n = 5) with an effective specific activity about 46 GBq/micromol. In vitro autoradiography studies showed prominent uptake of [ (18)F]- 1 in the striatum and cortex with significant blocking by 1 and UFP-501 (selective delta-opioid receptor antagonist), suggesting high specific binding of [(18)F]- 1 to delta-opioid receptors. Noninvasive microPET imaging studies revealed the absence of [(18)F]- 1 in rat brain, since it fails to cross the blood-brain barrier. This study demonstrates the suitability of [ (18)F]- 1 for imaging peripheral delta-opioid receptors.

  16. Determination of Even Degree of Animal Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongRen-xue; YangYun-qing

    1999-01-01

    The even degree of animal population is generlay measured by the coefficient of variation of major economic characters.Facing the coefficient of variation,a statistic with complex properties,we achieved indirectly the determination of confidence interval for even degree of an animal population by analysing the reciprocal of the statistic.The sample size which is suitable to the determination of the even degree of an animal population was probed into within the extent of permissive estimation error.

  17. Determination of Even Degree of Animal Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The even degree of animal population is generlay measured by the coefficient of variation of major eco- nomic characters. Facing the coefficient of variation,a statistic with complex properties,we achieved indirectly the determination of confidence interval for even degree of an animal population by analysing the reciprocal of the statistic. The sample size which is suitable to the determination of the even degree of an animal population was probed into within the extent of permissive estimation error.

  18. Degree of Competition of Consumer Loan Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Kubota; Yoshiro Tsutsui

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the degree of competition of consumer loan industry in Japan utilizing responses to a questionnaire survey conducted by Japan Consumer Finance Association. Estimating the cost function, we found that the industry is characterized by large scale economies. Estimation of Lerner index, H-statistics, degree of noncompetition, and degree of collusion reveals that consumer loan market is highly monopolistic. Consumer loan companies answered to a question tha...

  19. Land-ocean interaction in modern delta formation and development: A case study of the Pearl River delta, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春初; 雷亚平; 何为; 戴志军

    2001-01-01

    The distinctive characteristics of the modern Pearl River delta formation and development are divided phases, diversity and imbalance in spatial and temporal. The delta was moving seaward gradually in a long period after the last Holocene glacial stage and the ancient drowned Pearl River estuary was predominated by tide. The delta was expanding quickly since fluvial force was turned to be leading status about 2500 years ago. The sediment grain size was changing longitudinally from coarser to finer. As well as the finer sediment may be reworked and redistributed shoreward by tidal current nearby the river mouth. And the fluvial-dominated delta is developed by the mutual deposition reflected in the vertical direction. According to the spatial difference of land-ocean interaction, the main body of the Pearl River delta which is the fluvial-dominated and protruding seaward is coupled with or concomitant with the estuaries and tide-dominated deltas which are adjoined to both sides of the main part like two wi

  20. Epidemiological investigation of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in the Pearl River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daixiong; Chen, Jieyun; Huang, Ji; Chen, Xueying; Feng, Dana; Liang, Baofang; Che, Yuchuan; Liu, Xiaodan; Zhu, Cuihua; Li, Xiaomin; Shen, Haoxian

    2010-09-01

    Pearl River Delta region is a high clonorchiasis-endemic area in China. However, no complete epidemiological data exist regarding its infection in freshwater fishes, an important epidemic factor for Clonorchis sinensis. The present study collected freshwater fishes and shrimps from 32 sites of nine cities in the Pearl River Delta, and the encysted metacercariae of C. sinensis were detected by digesting these specimens with artificial gastric juice. The mean infection rate of freshwater fishes was 37.09% (2,160/5,824) with a mean number of 14.269 encysted metacercariae in every infected fish and 0.460 encysted metacercariae in every gram of fish meat. Of these freshwater fishes, 5,219 were domesticated, and the infection rate was 36.69% with a mean number of 10.743 encysted metacercariae in every infected fish and 0.312 encysted metacercariae in every gram of fish meat; the other 605 were wild, and the infection rate was 40.50% with a mean number of 41.829 encysted metacercariae in every infected fish and 8.812 encysted metacercariae in every gram of fish meat. A total of 228 shrimps were examined, and 3.07% of them were infected with a mean number of 1.00 encysted metacercariae in every infected shrimp. Pseudorasbora parva and Ctenopharyngodon idellus had the highest infection rate and degree of infection in the fishes studied. The results demonstrated a high incidence of C. sinensis infection in freshwater fishes and shrimps within Pearl River Delta region and a great difference in the infection rate among different collection sites and different fish species.

  1. Heavy Metals and Biogenic Elements in Aquatic Systems of the Don River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Anna; Tkachenko, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    River deltas are located in the lower parts of the cascade landscape-geochemical systems of the river basins, so their geochemical conditions often characterize the anthropogenic impact on whole river system. The Don River runs through the one of the most agriculturally developed and densely populated area of Russia, and flows into the Azov Sea - the smallest and shallowest sea in the world. These factors determine the geochemical features of aquatic systems of the Don River mouth area and the specificity of the "river-sea" geochemical barrier zone. The paper presents results of the field studies of the geochemical structure of the Don River mouth area, which were conducted in frames of the RFBR project in 2012-2013. Major types of the deltaic water streams and bodies were studied in different hydrological seasons: spring floods, summer, autumn and winter low water periods. About 50 samples of water, suspended matter and 60 samples of bottom sediments have been collected and analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cr, Cd etc.) and biogenic elements (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphates, silica, total nitrogen and phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll) content. To assess the toxicity degree and nutrient potential of water, bioassay test conducted by growing daphnia in water samples were held. The study shows that the Don River delta water is characterized by the relatively low values of dissolved heavy metal content. Significantly higher values of heavy metals were determined in the vicinity of settlements only. Metal accumulation in bottom sediments can be associated mainly with the rate of water flow. Higher values were found in sediments of small channels with weak flow velocity and prevailing processes of the suspended matter deposition. The data on the seasonal dynamics of nutrients and spatial variability of their forms have been obtained. The maximum concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and other biogenic elements are

  2. Enkephalins modulate inhibitory neuromuscular transmission in circular muscle of human colon via delta-opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, C H; Kamm, M A; Burnstock, G; Lennard-Jones, J E

    1990-01-01

    1. A sucrose-gap technique was used to investigate the neuromodulatory actions of enkephalins on non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) in the circular muscle of the human large intestine. 2. The native enkephalins, [Leu5]enkephalin (LENK) and [Met5]enkephalin (MENK) caused a concentration-dependent reduction in amplitude of IJPs without a significant effect on the smooth muscle membrane. 3. The actions of LENK and MENK were mimicked by the delta-selective opioid receptor agonists [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE) and [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin (DADLE). 4. The actions of LENK, MENK and DPDPE were antagonized to similar extents by the delta-selective opioid receptor antagonist ICI 174,864. 5. The mu-selective opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2, Me Phe, Gly-ol5]enkephalin was approximately 100-fold less potent than any of the native or synthetic enkephalins at reducing the amplitude of the IJP. Dynorphin A and beta-endorphin both had very weak activity. 6. Responses to all of the agonists were inhibited by naloxone. The degree of antagonism of DPDPE or DADLE by naloxone (1 microM) was the same as that of LENK or MENK. 7. Neither MENK nor LENK affected hyperpolarization of the smooth muscle membrane induced by ATP or 5-hydroxytryptamine. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (1 pM-1 microM) did not produce any observable responses and this lack of reactivity was not affected by the enkephalins. 8. It is concluded that in the circular muscle of the human colon, LENK and MENK can act on prejunctional delta-opioid receptors to produce inhibition of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic inhibitory neuromuscular transmission. Possible physiological significance of this prejunctional receptor is discussed. PMID:1966052

  3. Degree-layer theory of network topology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Bin; Zhe, He

    2014-01-01

    The network topology can be described by the number of nodes and the interconnections among them. The degree of a node in a network is the number of connections it has to other nodes and the degree distribution is the probability distribution of these degrees over the whole network. Therefore, the degree is very important structural parameter of network topology. However, given the number of nodes and the degree of each node in a network, the topology of the network cannot be determined. Therefore, we propose the degree-layer theory of network topology to describe deeply the network topology. First, we propose the concept of degree-tree with the breadth-first search tree. The degrees of all nodes are layered and have a hierarchical structure. Second,the degree-layer theory is described in detail. Two new concepts are defined in the theory. An index is proposed to quantitatively distinguish the two network topologies. It also can quantitatively measure the stability of network topology built by a model mechani...

  4. Mean proloculus size, delta super(13) C and delta super(18) O variations in recent benthic foraminifera from the west coast of India and their climatic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Sarkar, A.

    The interrelationship between mean proloculus size (MPS), delta super(18) O and delta super(13) C vatiations in benthic foraminiferal species Rotalidium annectens and their relation with temperature (T) and salinity (S) have been studied in samples...

  5. Structure and stability of Ba(4)CaCu(3)O(8+delta) and Ba(6)CaCu(3)O(10+delta)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xuan, H.Nguyen; Bertrand, Christiane; Beauquis, Sandrine; PISCH, Alexander; Soubeyroux, Jean-Louis; Galez, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structure and thermal stability of Ba(4)CaCu(3)O(8+delta) and Ba(6)CaCu(3)O(10+delta) has been investigated by neutron powder diffration, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry...

  6. Transcriptomic profiling of pancreatic alpha, beta and delta cell populations identifies delta cells as a principal target for ghrelin in mouse islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaenssens, Alice E; Svendsen, Berit; Lam, Brian Y H;

    2016-01-01

    and delta cells. METHODS: Sst-Cre mice crossed with fluorescent reporters were used to identify delta cells, while Glu-Venus (with Venus reported under the control of the Glu [also known as Gcg] promoter) mice were used to identify alpha and beta cells. Alpha, beta and delta cells were purified using flow...... cytometry and analysed by RNA sequencing. The role of the ghrelin receptor was validated by imaging delta cell calcium concentrations using islets with delta cell restricted expression of the calcium reporter GCaMP3, and in perfused mouse pancreases. RESULTS: A database was constructed of all genes...... expressed in alpha, beta and delta cells. The gene encoding the ghrelin receptor, Ghsr, was highlighted as being highly expressed and enriched in delta cells. Activation of the ghrelin receptor raised cytosolic calcium levels in primary pancreatic delta cells and enhanced somatostatin secretion in perfused...

  7. Cooperation in an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma on networks with degree-degree correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Stephen; Treloar, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    We study the effects of degree-degree correlations on the success of cooperation in an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma played on a random network. When degree-degree correlations are not present, the standardized variance of the network's degree distribution has been shown to be an accurate analytical measure of network heterogeneity that can be used to predict the success of cooperation. In this paper, we use a local-mechanism interpretation of standardized variance to give a generalization to graphs with degree-degree correlations. Two distinct mechanisms are shown to influence cooperation levels on these types of networks. The first is an intrinsic measurement of base-line heterogeneity coming from the network's degree distribution. The second is the increase in heterogeneity coming from the degree-degree correlations present in the network. A strong linear relationship is found between these two parameters and the average cooperation level in an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma on a network.

  8. Initial isotopic geochemistry ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) of fluids from wells of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Geoquimica isotopica ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) inicial de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    Isotopic data ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) from fluids from production wells at the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field were analyzed to investigate the possible origin of these fluids and the dominant processes of the reservoir at its initial state. According to pre-exploitation data, it is suggested the Los Humeros reservoir fluids are made of a mixture of meteoric water of very light isotopic composition (paleo-fluids) and andesitic water. The relationship {delta} D vs {delta} 18 O from pre-exploitation data indicates the produced fluids are composed of a mixture of (at least) two fluids with distinct isotopic compositions. At the more enriched end of the mixing relationship are the isotopic compositions of the wells H-23 and H-18 (located in the southern area of the field), while the lighter fluids were found in well H-16 (originally) and then in well H-16 (repaired). It was found that the liquid phases of deep wells are more enriched in {delta} 18 O while the shallow wells present lower values, suggesting a convection process at the initial state. Based on this isotopic profile, it is considered that even the production depths of the wells H-1, H-12 and H-16 (repaired) are just about the same, but their respective isotopic compositions are quite different. The {delta} 18 O value for well H-16 (repaired) seems to be that of condensate steam, while the corresponding values for wells H-1 and H-12 fall within the value interval of the deep wells (H-23). This suggests wells H-1 and H-12 are collecting very deep fluids enriched in {delta} 18 O. These results could be useful in creating a conceptual model of the reservoir. [Spanish] Se analizaron datos isotopicos ({delta}18 O, {delta}D) de los fluidos de pozos productores del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., para investigar el posible origen de los fluidos asi como los procesos dominantes del yacimiento en su estado inicial. De acuerdo con datos previos a la explotacion, se plantea que los fluidos del yacimiento

  9. Structural Insights into Clostridium perfringens Delta Toxin Pore Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyet, Jessica; Naylor, Claire E; Savva, Christos G; Gibert, Maryse; Popoff, Michel R; Basak, Ajit K

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens Delta toxin is one of the three hemolysin-like proteins produced by C. perfringens type C and possibly type B strains. One of the others, NetB, has been shown to be the major cause of Avian Nectrotic Enteritis, which following the reduction in use of antibiotics as growth promoters, has become an emerging disease of industrial poultry. Delta toxin itself is cytotoxic to the wide range of human and animal macrophages and platelets that present GM2 ganglioside on their membranes. It has sequence similarity with Staphylococcus aureus β-pore forming toxins and is expected to heptamerize and form pores in the lipid bilayer of host cell membranes. Nevertheless, its exact mode of action remains undetermined. Here we report the 2.4 Å crystal structure of monomeric Delta toxin. The superposition of this structure with the structure of the phospholipid-bound F component of S. aureus leucocidin (LukF) revealed that the glycerol molecules bound to Delta toxin and the phospholipids in LukF are accommodated in the same hydrophobic clefts, corresponding to where the toxin is expected to latch onto the membrane, though the binding sites show significant differences. From structure-based sequence alignment with the known structure of staphylococcal α-hemolysin, a model of the Delta toxin pore form has been built. Using electron microscopy, we have validated our model and characterized the Delta toxin pore on liposomes. These results highlight both similarities and differences in the mechanism of Delta toxin (and by extension NetB) cytotoxicity from that of the staphylococcal pore-forming toxins.

  10. Factors of soil diversity in the Batumi delta (Georgia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Bülent; Ateş, Merve

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine certain basic properties of soils in the Batumi delta (southwestern Georgia) to determine the relationships of studied properties and to identify differences with regards to these properties between different sampling sites in the delta that were selected based on the delta morphology. In this context, a total of 125 soil samples were collected from five different sampling sites, and the clay, silt and sand content of the samples were determined along with their mean weight diameter (MWD) values, aggregate stability (AS) values, amount of water retained under -33 (FC) and -1500 kPa (WP) pressure and organic matter (OM) content. Correlation analysis indicated that clay content and OM were positively correlated with MWD, and OM was positively correlated with AS. However, the sand content was found to be negatively correlated with MWD. In addition, clay, silt and OM content were positive correlated with FC and WP. Variance analysis results determined statistically significant differences between the sampling sites with respect to all of the evaluated properties. The active delta section of the study area was characterized by high sand content, while the lower delta plain was characterized by high OM and AS values, and the upper delta plain was characterized by high MWD values, high FC and WP moisture content levels and high clay and silt content. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the examined properties were significantly affected by the different morphological positions and usages of these different areas. These results may help with the management of agricultural lands in the Batumi delta, which has never been studied before.

  11. Anadromous salmonids in the Delta: New science 2006–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Brandes, Patricia L.; Burau, Jon R.; Israel, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    As juvenile salmon enter the Sacramento–SanJoaquin River Delta (“the Delta”) they disperse among its complex channel network where they are subject to channel-specific processes that affect their rate of migration, vulnerability to predation, feeding success, growth rates, and ultimately, survival. In the decades before 2006, tools available to quantify growth, dispersal, and survival of juvenile salmon in this complex channel network were limited.Fortunately, thanks to technological advances such as acoustic telemetry and chemical and structural otolith analysis, much has been learned over the past decade about the role of the Delta in the life cycle of juvenile salmon. Here, we review new science between 2006and 2016 that sheds light on how different life stages and runs of juvenile salmon grow, move, and survive in the complex channel network of the Delta. One of the most important advances during the past decade has been the widespread adoption of acoustic telemetry techniques. Use of telemetry has shed light on how survival varies among alternative migration routes and the proportion of fish that use each migration route. Chemical and structural analysis of otoliths has provided insights about when juveniles left their natal river and provided evidence of extended rearing in the brackish or saltwater regions of the Delta. New advancements in genetics now allow individuals captured by trawls to be assigned to specific runs. Detailed information about movement and survival in the Delta has spurred development of agent-based models of juvenile salmon that are coupled to hydrodynamic models. Although much has been learned, knowledge gaps remain about how very small juvenile salmon (fry and parr) use the Delta. Understanding how all life stages of juvenile salmon grow, rear, and survive in the Delta is critical for devising management strategies that support a diversity of life history strategies.

  12. Challenges and Approaches in Delta Planning and Management - Sharing experiences from SE Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta -Report on Regional Training Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.; Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.

    2014-01-01

    The training workshop consisted of a balanced mix of lectures on specific delta topics, work on group assignments, group and plenary discussions, and group presentations. Due to high professional level of the participants the discussions often reached the level of a policy dialogue among equals rath

  13. Ecological restoration of groundwater-dependent vegetation in the arid Ejina Delta: evidences from satellite evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Lu; Garcia, Monica; Yu, Jingjie; Zhang, Yichi; Wang, Ping; Wang, Sheng; Liu, Xiao

    2017-04-01

    The ecological water conveyance project (EWCP) in the Ejina delta, a typical hyper-arid area of China, aimed to restore degraded phreatophytic ecosystems. We assessed the degree of ecosystem recovery using as an ecohydrological indicator a ratio between actual and potential evapotranspiration derived from MODIS since the beginning of the project in 2001. The selected indicator was the Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) which was validated with Eddy covariance (EC) data confirming its applicability to monitor groundwater dependent vegetation. The spatial analyses of the evapotranspiration ratio show drying trends (2000-2015) which are stronger and also cover larger extensions than the wetting trends. Thus, the condition of key riparian areas relying mostly on surface water improved since the project began. However, groundwater dependent ecosystems located in lower river Xihe reaches present drying trends. It seems that despite of the runoff supplemented by the EWCP project, there is nowadays more inequality in the access to water by groundwater dependent ecosystems in the Ejina Delta. The study shows that energy-evaporation indices, relying on radiometric satellite temperature like the TVDI, can detect degradation signals that otherwise might go undetected by NDVI analyses especially in arid regions, where vegetation indices are greatly affected by the soil background signals. Additionally, they can provide timely information to water managers on how much water to allocate for a sustainable restoration program.

  14. Cloning, expression, and characterization of (+)-delta-cadinene synthase: a catalyst for cotton phytoalexin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X Y; Chen, Y; Heinstein, P; Davisson, V J

    1995-12-20

    In cotton, sesquiterpene phytoalexins are elicited in response to bacterial or fungal infection. A Gossypium arboreum cell suspension culture which produces the sesquiterpene phytoalexin gossypol showed a time-dependent 10-fold increase in a 1.9-kb mRNA in response to a challenge by a preparation from Verticillium dahliae. The mRNA prepared from these elicited cultures was used to isolated two cDNA clones that contain open frames coding for proteins of 554 amino acids with M(r) 64,096 and 64,118. The encoded protein shows a significant degree of sequence identity with the other known plant terpene cyclases. Western blot analyses with a cross-reactive monoclonal antibody from a related sesquiterpene synthase in Nicotiana tabacum showed a time-dependent increase of a 65-kDa protein which reached a maximal level 24 h post elicitor treatment. The encoded protein from the pXC1 cDNA was produced in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity column chromatography. The enzymatic properties of this protein were identified by a radiochemical assay for cyclization of farnesyldiphosphate and a product structure was assigned by GC-MS, chiral phase GC, and NMR analyses as (+)-delta-cadinene. The fungal-elicited production of a (+)-delta-cadinene synthase is consistent with a role for this enzyme as the first committed step in the pathways leading to the related phytoalexins gossypol and lacinilene C in cotton.

  15. Variance reduction techniques for a quantitative understanding of the \\Delta I = 1/2 rule

    CERN Document Server

    Endress, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The role of the charm quark in the dynamics underlying the \\Delta I = 1/2 rule for kaon decays can be understood by studying the dependence of kaon decay amplitudes on the charm quark mass using an effective \\Delta S = 1 weak Hamiltonian in which the charm is kept as an active degree of freedom. Overlap fermions are employed in order to avoid renormalization problems, as well as to allow access to the deep chiral regime. Quenched results in the GIM limit have shown that a significant part of the enhancement is purely due to low-energy QCD effects; variance reduction techniques based on low-mode averaging were instrumental in determining the relevant weak effective lowenergy couplings in this case. Moving away from the GIM limit requires the computation of diagrams containing closed quark loops. We report on our progress to employ a combination of low-mode averaging and stochastic volume sources in order to control these contributions. Results showing a significant improvement in the statistical signal are pre...

  16. Malindi, Kenya Stable Isotope Data (delta 18O, delta 13C) for 1801-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Malindi annual oxygen isotopic composition, 1801-1994. Notes on the data: File includes columns for Year AD, Coral d18O, and SST (degrees C). The SST data are sparse...

  17. New High in Engineering Degree Production. Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Several of the state's key industry sectors depend heavily on employees with advanced scientific, analytic and technical knowledge. Among the fields closely related to these sectors, engineering degrees have posted the largest gain. This paper presents details on the following facts: (1) 2009 represented a record high for engineering degrees; (2)…

  18. Competency-Based Business Degree. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In January 2015, thirteen Washington community colleges launched an online, competency-based business transfer degree--the first in the state's community and technical college system. This issue brief provides answers to commonly asked questions about the new competency-based degree.

  19. Master's Degree Studies: Expectations versus Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, higher education in South Africa has been affected drastically by transformation. An issue that has specifically been influenced is master's degrees. A significant increase in the demand for access to course work master's degrees has been experienced, while universities themselves have been confronted with a new…

  20. Experiencing Higher Degree Research Supervision as Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Christine; Stoodley, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This article describes higher degree research supervisors' experiences of supervision as teaching. While research education is considered central to the higher degree research experience, comparatively little is known to date of the teaching lenses adopted by supervisors as they go about their supervision. We worked with 35 supervisors engaged in…

  1. The Topological Degree in Ordered Banach Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adrian DUMA; Ileana DUMA

    2008-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the applications of classical topological degrees to nonlinear problems involving various classes of operators acting between ordered Banach spaces. In this frame-work, the Leray-Schauder, Browder-Petryshyn, and Amann-Weiss degree theories are considered, and several existence results are obtained. The non-Archimedean case is also discussed.

  2. Powers of the degree of coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zhangrong; Korotkova, Olga; Mao, Yonghua

    2015-04-01

    We establish conditions under which a legitimate degree of coherence of a statistically stationary beam-like field raised to a power results in a novel legitimate degree of coherence. The general results and examples relate to scalar beams having uniform and non-uniform correlations.

  3. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Deborah H.; And Others

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the number of bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded in academic year 1981-82 from 72 United States institutions offering degree programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear options within other engineering fields. Presented as well are historical data for the last decade…

  4. Hydrology and morphology of two river mouth regions (temperate Vistula Delta and subtropical Red River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative analysis of two different river mouths from two different geographical zones (subtropical and temperate climatic regions. One is the multi-branch and multi-spit mouth of the Red River on the Gulf of Tonkin (Vietnam, the other is the smaller delta of the river Vistula on a bay of the Baltic Sea (Poland. The analysis focuses on the similarities and differences in the hydrodynamics between these estuaries and the adjacent coastal zones, the features of sediment transport, and the long-term morphodynamics of the river outlets. Salinity and water level are also discussed, the latter also in the context of the anticipated global effect of accelerated sea level rise. The analysis shows that the climatic and environmental conditions associated with geographical zones give rise to fundamental differences in the generation and dynamic evolution of the river mouths.

  5. Vortex Breakdown over Slender Delta Wings (Eclatement tourbillonnaire sur les ailes delta effil es)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Velocity Component VB 21-33 A.4 Tangential Velocity Component WB 21-34 A.5 Axial Velocity Induced on the Centreline 21-34 A.6 Numerical...Three Dimensional Vortex Sheet Structure on Delta Wings,” AGARD-CP-438, October 1988. [59] Brandon, J.M. and Shah , G.H., “Effect of Large Amplitude...TR-AVT-080 5 - 25 403020100-10-20-30-40 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 dynamic Static ( σ=30°, ∆φ=33°, =0.14 )k φ° x VB 15c15c 403020100-10

  6. Preparing the Dutch delta for future droughts: model based support in the national Delta Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Maat, Judith; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; van der Vat, Marnix; Hunink, Joachim; Prinsen, Geert; Visser, Martijn

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: uncertainty, policymaking, adaptive policies, fresh water management, droughts, Netherlands, Dutch Deltaprogramme, physically-based complex model, theory-motivated meta-model To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, is established to assess impacts of climate scenarios and socio-economic developments and to explore policy options. The results should contribute to a national adaptive plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions, if necessary. For this purpose, we followed a model-based step-wise approach, wherein both physically-based complex models and theory-motivated meta-models were used. First step (2010-2011) was to make a quantitative problem description. This involved a sensitivity analysis of the water system for drought situations under current and future conditions. The comprehensive Dutch national hydrological instrument was used for this purpose and further developed. Secondly (2011-2012) our main focus was on making an inventory of potential actions together with stakeholders. We assessed efficacy, sell-by date of actions, and reassessed vulnerabilities and opportunities for the future water supply system if actions were (not) taken. A rapid assessment meta-model was made based on the complex model. The effects of all potential measures were included in the tool. Thirdly (2012-2013), with support of the rapid assessment model, we assessed the efficacy of policy actions over time for an ensemble of possible futures including sea level rise and climate and land use change. Last step (2013-2014) involves the selection of preferred actions from a set of promising actions that meet the defined objectives. These actions are all modeled and evaluated using the complex model. The outcome of the process will be an adaptive management plan. The adaptive plan describes a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of policy actions - to achieve targets under

  7. Infinite-degree-corrected stochastic block model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    In stochastic block models, which are among the most prominent statistical models for cluster analysis of complex networks, clusters are defined as groups of nodes with statistically similar link probabilities within and between groups. A recent extension by Karrer and Newman [Karrer and Newman......, Phys. Rev. E 83, 016107 (2011)] incorporates a node degree correction to model degree heterogeneity within each group. Although this demonstrably leads to better performance on several networks, it is not obvious whether modeling node degree is always appropriate or necessary. We formulate the degree...... corrected stochastic block model as a nonparametric Bayesian model, incorporating a parameter to control the amount of degree correction that can then be inferred from data. Additionally, our formulation yields principled ways of inferring the number of groups as well as predicting missing links...

  8. On Second Order Degree of Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriela ARAUJO-PARDO; Camino BALBUENA; Mika OLSEN; Pilar VALENCIA

    2012-01-01

    Given a vertex v of a graph G the second order degree of v denoted as d2 (v) is defined as the number of vertices at distance 2 from v.In this paper we address the following question:What are the sufficient conditions for a graph to have a vertex v such that d2(v) ≥ d(v),where d(v) denotes the degree of v? Among other results,every graph of minimum degree exactly 2,except four graphs,is shown to have a vertex of second order degree as large as its own degree.Moreover,every K-4-free graph or every maximal planar graph is shown to have a vertex v such that d2(v) ≥ d(v).Other sufficient conditions on graphs for guaranteeing this property are also proved.

  9. Hepatitis delta virus: protein composition of delta antigen and its hepatitis B virus-derived envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, F; Heermann, K H; Rizzetto, M; Gerlich, W H

    1986-01-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV)-associated particles were purified from the serum of an experimentally infected chimpanzee by size chromatography and by density centrifugation. Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) was detected after mild detergent treatment at a column elution volume corresponding to 36-nm particles and banded at a density of 1.25 g/ml. The serum had an estimated titer of 10(9) to 10(10) HDV-associated particles and had only a 10-fold excess of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) not associated with HDAg. Therefore, HDV appears to be much more efficiently packed and secreted than is its helper virus, hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is usually accompanied by a 1,000-fold excess of HBsAg. The protein compositions of the HDAg-containing particles were analyzed by immunoblotting with HDAg-, HBsAg-, and hepatitis B core antigen-specific antisera and monoclonal antibodies to HBV surface gene products. The HBsAg envelope of HDAg contained approximately 95% P24/GP27s, 5% GP33/36s, and 1% P39/GP42s proteins. This protein composition was more similar to that of the 22-nm particles of HBsAg than to that of complete HBV. The significant amount of GP33/36s suggests that the HBsAg component of the HDV-associated particle carries the albumin receptor. Two proteins of 27 and 29 kilodaltons which specifically bound antibody to HDAg but not HBV-specific antibodies were detected in the interior of the 36-nm particle. Since these proteins were structural components of HDAg and were most likely coded for by HDV, they were designated P27d and P29d. Images PMID:3701932

  10. DeltaA/DeltaD regulate multiple and temporally distinct phases of notch signaling during dopaminergic neurogenesis in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Julia; Filippi, Alida; Driever, Wolfgang

    2010-12-08

    Dopaminergic neurons develop at distinct anatomical sites to form some of the major neuromodulatory systems in the vertebrate brain. Despite their relevance in neurodegenerative diseases and the interests in reconstitutive therapies from stem cells, mechanisms of the neurogenic switch from precursor populations to dopaminergic neurons are not well understood. Here, we investigated neurogenesis of different dopaminergic and noradrenergic neuron populations in the zebrafish embryo. Birth-dating analysis by EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) incorporation revealed temporal dynamics of catecholaminergic neurogenesis. Analysis of Notch signaling mutants and stage-specific pharmacological inhibition of Notch processing revealed that dopaminergic neurons form by temporally distinct mechanisms: dopaminergic neurons of the posterior tuberculum derive directly from neural plate cells during primary neurogenesis, whereas other dopaminergic groups form in continuous or wavelike neurogenesis phases from proliferating precursor pools. Systematic analysis of Notch ligands revealed that the two zebrafish co-orthologs of mammalian Delta1, DeltaA and DeltaD, control the neurogenic switch of all early developing dopaminergic neurons in a partially redundant manner. DeltaA/D may also be involved in maintenance of dopaminergic precursor pools, as olig2 expression in ventral diencephalic dopaminergic precursors is affected in dla/dld mutants. DeltaA/D act upstream of sim1a and otpa during dopaminergic specification. However, despite the fact that both dopaminergic and corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons derive from sim1a- and otpa-expressing precursors, DeltaA/D does not act as a lineage switch between these two neuronal types. Rather, DeltaA/D limits the size of the sim1a- and otpa-expressing precursor pool from which dopaminergic neurons differentiate.

  11. Large infrequently operated river diversions for Mississippi delta restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John W.; Lane, Robert R.; D'Elia, Christopher F.; Wiegman, Adrian R. H.; Rutherford, Jeffrey S.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Brantley, Christopher G.; Kemp, G. Paul

    2016-12-01

    Currently the Mississippi delta stands as a highly degraded and threatened coastal ecosystem having lost about 25% of coastal wetlands during the 20th century. To address this problem, a 50 billion, 50-year restoration program is underway. A central component of this program is reintroduction of river water back into the deltaic plain to mimic natural functioning of the delta. However, opposition to diversions has developed based on a number of perceived threats. These include over-freshening of coastal estuaries, displacement of fisheries, perceived water quality problems, and assertions that nutrients in river water leads to wetland deterioration. In addition, growing climate impacts and increasing scarcity and cost of energy will make coastal restoration more challenging and limit restoration options. We address these issues in the context of an analysis of natural and artificial diversions, crevasse splays, and small sub-delta lobes. We suggest that episodic large diversions and crevasses (>5000 m3 s-1) can build land quickly while having transient impacts on the estuarine system. Small diversions (water level stress. We use land building rates for different sized diversions and impacts of large periodic inputs of river water to coastal systems in the Mississippi delta to conclude that high discharge diversions operated episodically will lead to rapid coastal restoration and alleviate concerns about diversions. Single diversion events have deposited sediments up to 40 cm in depth over areas up to 130-180 km2. This approach should have broad applicability to deltas globally.

  12. ThemeDelta: Dynamic Segmentations over Temporal Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Samah; Javed, Waqas; Ghani, Sohaib; Elmqvist, Niklas; Ewing, Tom; Hampton, Keith N; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2015-05-01

    We present ThemeDelta, a visual analytics system for extracting and visualizing temporal trends, clustering, and reorganization in time-indexed textual datasets. ThemeDelta is supported by a dynamic temporal segmentation algorithm that integrates with topic modeling algorithms to identify change points where significant shifts in topics occur. This algorithm detects not only the clustering and associations of keywords in a time period, but also their convergence into topics (groups of keywords) that may later diverge into new groups. The visual representation of ThemeDelta uses sinuous, variable-width lines to show this evolution on a timeline, utilizing color for categories, and line width for keyword strength. We demonstrate how interaction with ThemeDelta helps capture the rise and fall of topics by analyzing archives of historical newspapers, of U.S. presidential campaign speeches, and of social messages collected through iNeighbors, a web-based social website. ThemeDelta is evaluated using a qualitative expert user study involving three researchers from rhetoric and history using the historical newspapers corpus.

  13. On the precipitation of delta phase in ALLVAC® 718Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messé, O. M.; Barnard, J. S.; Pickering, E. J.; Midgley, P. A.; Rae, C. M. F.

    2014-04-01

    ALLVAC 718Plus is a new commercial superalloy derived from Inconel 718, but possessing a higher temperature capability whilst employing the same philosophy regarding the microstructure. Many articles have been published describing various heat treatments exploiting the precipitation of intermetallic phases at grain boundaries to optimize the mechanical properties over a range of testing conditions. The requirement to further improve the mechanical properties of this alloy drives our interest in the precipitation mechanism of the delta and eta phases found in this alloy. We report the presence of finely layered structures composed of two phases, delta and eta, with distinct structures and chemistries. Possible pathways to explain this precipitation in 718Plus are considered as follows: (i) the sequential formation of the delta from eta phase and (ii) the simultaneous precipitation of both eta and delta facilitated via solute rejection. Both can result in the formation of those small delta layers observed in HRSTEM. We discuss which is most likely by comparing the relative alignment of the phases by image processing and the analysis of the HRSTEM images, and propose formation mechanisms consistent with the distinctive dislocation structures observed at the interface.

  14. The case for selection at CCR5-Delta32.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis C Sabeti

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor 5, 32 base-pair deletion (CCR5-Delta32 allele confers strong resistance to infection by the AIDS virus HIV. Previous studies have suggested that CCR5-Delta32 arose within the past 1,000 y and rose to its present high frequency (5%-14% in Europe as a result of strong positive selection, perhaps by such selective agents as the bubonic plague or smallpox during the Middle Ages. This hypothesis was based on several lines of evidence, including the absence of the allele outside of Europe and long-range linkage disequilibrium at the locus. We reevaluated this evidence with the benefit of much denser genetic maps and extensive control data. We find that the pattern of genetic variation at CCR5-Delta32 does not stand out as exceptional relative to other loci across the genome. Moreover using newer genetic maps, we estimated that the CCR5-Delta32 allele is likely to have arisen more than 5,000 y ago. While such results can not rule out the possibility that some selection may have occurred at C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5, they imply that the pattern of genetic variation seen at CCR5-Delta32 is consistent with neutral evolution. More broadly, the results have general implications for the design of future studies to detect the signs of positive selection in the human genome.

  15. The case for selection at CCR5-Delta32.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor 5, 32 base-pair deletion (CCR5-Delta32 allele confers strong resistance to infection by the AIDS virus HIV. Previous studies have suggested that CCR5-Delta32 arose within the past 1,000 y and rose to its present high frequency (5%-14% in Europe as a result of strong positive selection, perhaps by such selective agents as the bubonic plague or smallpox during the Middle Ages. This hypothesis was based on several lines of evidence, including the absence of the allele outside of Europe and long-range linkage disequilibrium at the locus. We reevaluated this evidence with the benefit of much denser genetic maps and extensive control data. We find that the pattern of genetic variation at CCR5-Delta32 does not stand out as exceptional relative to other loci across the genome. Moreover using newer genetic maps, we estimated that the CCR5-Delta32 allele is likely to have arisen more than 5,000 y ago. While such results can not rule out the possibility that some selection may have occurred at C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5, they imply that the pattern of genetic variation seen atCCR5-Delta32 is consistent with neutral evolution. More broadly, the results have general implications for the design of future studies to detect the signs of positive selection in the human genome.

  16. Isokinetic and isometric strength-endurance after 6 hours of immersion and 6 degrees head-down tilt in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer-Bailey, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Hutchinson, T. M.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine weight (water) loss levels for onset of muscular strength and endurance changes during deconditioning. METHODS: Seven men (27-40 yr) performed maximal shoulder-, knee-, and ankle-joint isometric (0 degree.s(-1) load) and isokinetic (60 degrees, 120 degrees, 180 degrees.s(-1) velocity) exercise tests during ambulatory control (AC), after 6 h of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT; dry-bulb temp. = 23.2 +/- SD 0.6 degrees C, relative humidity = 31.1+/- 11.1%) and after 6 h of 80 degrees foot-down head-out water immersion (WI; water temp. = 35.0 +/- SD 0.1 degree C) treatments. RESULTS: Weight (water) loss after HDT (1.10 +/- SE 0.14 kg, 1.4 +/- 0.2% body wt) and WI (1.54+/- 0.19 kg, 2.0 +/- 0.2% body wt) were not different, but urinary excretion with WI (1,354 +/- 142 ml.6 h(-1)) was 28% greater (p knee at 180 degrees.s(-1) for 30 s) was not different between AC and the WI or HDT treatments. Shoulder-, knee-, and ankle-joint strength was unchanged except for three knee-joint peak torques: AC torque (120 degrees.s(-1), 285 +/- 20 Nm) decreased to 268 +/- 21 Nm (delta = -6%, p torques (180 degrees.s(-1), 260 +/- 19 Nm) decreased to 236 +/- 15 Nm (delta = -9%, p joint strength and endurance decrements is more than 2% body weight (water) loss, while significant reduction in knee-joint muscular strength-endurance occurred only at moderate (120 degrees.s(-1) and lighter (180 degrees.s(-1)) loads with body weight loss of 1.4-2.0% following WI or HDT, respectively. These weight (water) losses and knee-joint strength decrements are somewhat less than the mean weight loss of 2.6% and knee-joint strength decrements of 6-20% of American astronauts after Skylab flights to 84 d.

  17. Catalytic and thermodynamic characterization of endoglucanase (CMCase) from Aspergillus oryzae cmc-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Rizwan; Rashid, Muhammad Hamid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Riaz, Muhammad; Perveen, Raheela

    2009-06-01

    Monomeric extracellular endoglucanase (25 kDa) of transgenic koji (Aspergillus oryzae cmc-1) produced under submerged growth condition (7.5 U mg(-1) protein) was purified to homogeneity level by ammonium sulfate precipitation and various column chromatography on fast protein liquid chromatography system. Activation energy for carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) hydrolysis was 3.32 kJ mol(-1) at optimum temperature (55 degrees C), and its temperature quotient (Q (10)) was 1.0. The enzyme was stable over a pH range of 4.1-5.3 and gave maximum activity at pH 4.4. V (max) for CMC hydrolysis was 854 U mg(-1) protein and K (m) was 20 mg CMC ml(-1). The turnover (k (cat)) was 356 s(-1). The pK (a1) and pK (a2) of ionisable groups of active site controlling V (max) were 3.9 and 6.25, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters for CMC hydrolysis were as follows: DeltaH* = 0.59 kJ mol(-1), DeltaG* = 64.57 kJ mol(-1) and DeltaS* = -195.05 J mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. Activation energy for irreversible inactivation 'E (a(d))' of the endoglucanase was 378 kJ mol(-1), whereas enthalpy (DeltaH*), Gibbs free energy (DeltaG*) and entropy (DeltaS*) of activation at 44 degrees C were 375.36 kJ mol(-1), 111.36 kJ mol(-1) and 833.06 J mol(-1) K(-1), respectively.

  18. Rough similarity degree and rough close degree in rough fuzzy sets and the applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jian; Xu Xiaojing; Shi Kaiquan

    2008-01-01

    Based on rough similarity degree of rough sets and close degree of fuzzy sets,the definitions of rough similarity degree and rough close degree of rough fuzzy sets are given,which can be used to measure the similar degree between two rough fuzzy sets.The properties and theorems are listed.Using the two new measures,the method of clustering in the rough fuzzy system can be obtained.After clustering,the new fuzzy sample can be recognized by the principle of maximal similarity degree.

  19. Energy dependence of hard bremsstrahlung production in proton-proton collisions in the Delta(1232) region

    CERN Document Server

    Tsirkov, D; Azaryan, T; Chiladze, D; Dymov, S; Dzyuba, A; Hartmann, M; Kacharava, A; Khoukaz, A; Kulikov, A; Kurbatov, V; Macharashvili, G; Merzliakov, S; Mielke, M; Mikirtychiants, S; Nekipelov, M; Rathmann, F; Serdyuk, V; Stroeher, H; Uzikov, Yu; Valdau, Yu; Wilkin, C

    2010-01-01

    Hard bremsstrahlung production in proton-proton collisions has been studied with the ANKE spectrometer at COSY-Juelich in the energy range of 353-800 MeV by detecting the final proton pair {pp}_s from the pp -> {pp}_s reaction with very low excitation energy. Differential cross sections were measured at small diproton c.m. angles from 0 to 20 degrees and the average over this angular interval reveals a broad peak at a beam energy around 650 MeV with a FWHM of about 220 MeV, suggesting the influence of Delta(1232)N intermediate states. Comparison with deuteron photodisintegration shows that the cross section for diproton production is up to two orders of magnitude smaller, due largely to differences in the selection rules.

  20. Deterministic coupling of delta-doped nitrogen vacancy centers to a nanobeam photonic crystal cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jonathan C.; Cui, Shanying; Zhang, Xingyu; Russell, Kasey J.; Magyar, Andrew P.; Hu, Evelyn L., E-mail: ehu@seas.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Bracher, David O. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Ohno, Kenichi; McLellan, Claire A.; Alemán, Benjamin; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Andrich, Paolo; Awschalom, David [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Aharonovich, Igor [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); School of Physics and Advanced Materials, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, New South Wales 2007 (Australia)

    2014-12-29

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center (NV) in diamond has generated significant interest as a platform for quantum information processing and sensing in the solid state. For most applications, high quality optical cavities are required to enhance the NV zero-phonon line (ZPL) emission. An outstanding challenge in maximizing the degree of NV-cavity coupling is the deterministic placement of NVs within the cavity. Here, we report photonic crystal nanobeam cavities coupled to NVs incorporated by a delta-doping technique that allows nanometer-scale vertical positioning of the emitters. We demonstrate cavities with Q up to ∼24 000 and mode volume V ∼ 0.47(λ/n){sup 3} as well as resonant enhancement of the ZPL of an NV ensemble with Purcell factor of ∼20. Our fabrication technique provides a first step towards deterministic NV-cavity coupling using spatial control of the emitters.

  1. Business Cost Increases Promote Industrial Restructuring in the Yangtze River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江静; 刘志彪

    2007-01-01

    The traditional view holds that China’s comparative advantage lies in low costs,and it is therefore imperative to reduce business costs if China intends to maintain her industrial competitiveness.In the following article,Jiang Jing and Liu Zhibiao present a rather different point of view.They consider it endogenous to increase business costs.Although they may reduce urban competitiveness to a certain extent,increased business costs exert an important"push"effect upon structural adjustment and upgrade and the growth of the regional economy due to the varying degrees of sensitivity of manufacturing industries and producer service industries to business costs.These findings have been corroborated through their analysis of business costs and industrial distribution in Yangtze River Delta cities such as Shanghai,Nanjing, Suzhou,Wuxi and Nantong.

  2. Vegetation, substrate and hydrology in floating marshes in the Mississippi river delta plain wetlands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, C.E.; Gosselink, J.G.; Swenson, E.M.; Swarzenski, C.M.; Leibowitz, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    In the 1940s extensive floating marshes (locally called 'flotant') were reported and mapped in coastal wetlands of the Mississippi River Delta Plain. These floating marshes included large areas of Panicum hemitomon-dominated freshwater marshes, and Spartina patens/Scirpus olneyi brackish marshes. Today these marshes appear to be quite different in extent and type. We describe five floating habitats and one non-floating, quaking habitat based on differences in buoyancy dynamics (timing and degree of floating), substrate characteristics, and dominant vegetation. All floating marshes have low bulk density, organic substrates. Nearly all are fresh marshes. Panicum hemitomon floating marshes presently occur within the general regions that were reported in the 1940's by O'Neil, but are reduced in extent. Some of the former Panicum hemitomon marshes have been replaced by seasonally or variably floating marshes dominated, or co-dominated by Sagittaria lancifolia or Eleocharis baldwinii. ?? 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  3. Systematics of ground state multiplets of atomic nuclei in the delta-interaction approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imasheva, L. T.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Stepanov, M. E., E-mail: stepanov@depni.sinp.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Tretyakova, T. Yu. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Pairing forces between nucleons in an atomic nucleus strongly influence its structure. One of the manifestations of pair interaction is the ground state multiplet (GSM) formation in the spectrum of low-lying excited states of even–even nuclei. The value of GSM splitting is determined by the value of pair interaction of nucleons; for each isotope, it can be estimated on the basis of experimental nuclear masses. The quality of this estimate is characterized by the degree of reproduction of GSM levels in the nucleus. The GSM systematics in even–even nuclei with a pair of identical nucleons in addition to the filled nuclear core is considered on the basis of delta interaction.

  4. Solid-Liquid equilibrium of n-alkanes using the Chain Delta Lattice Parameter model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, João A.P.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1996-01-01

    The formation of a solid phase in liquid mixtures with large paraffinic molecules is a phenomenon of interest in the petroleum, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological industries among onters. Efforts to model the solid-liquid equilibrium in these systems have been mainly empirical and with different...... degrees of success.An attempt to describe the equilibrium between the high temperature form of a paraffinic solid solution, commonly known as rotator phase, and the liquid phase is performed. The Chain Delta Lattice Parameter model (CDLP) is developed allowing a successful description of the solid-liquid...... equilibrium of n-alkanes ranging from n-C_20 to n-C_40.The model is further modified to achieve a more correct temperature dependence because it severely underestimates the excess enthalpy. It is shown that the ratio of excess enthalpy and entropy for n-alkane solid solutions, as happens for other solid...

  5. Effect of leading edge roundness on a delta wing in wing-rock motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. Terry; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of wing leading-edge roundness on wing rock was investigated using flow visualization in a water tunnel. Eighty degree delta wing models were tested on free-to-roll and forced oscillation rigs. The onset of wing rock was delayed by increasing the roundness of the leading edges. The wing rock amplitude and frequency results suggested that damping was increased at lower angles of attack but reduced at higher angles of attack. Vortex lift-off and vortex breakdown, especially during dynamic situations, were strongly affected by the leading edge roundness. Different forms of wing rock motion could be sustained by combinations of vortex breakdown and vortex lift-off. Behaviors of the wing and vortex motions were explained by the influence of leading edge roundness on the separation location, vortex trajectory, and vortex breakdown.

  6. Behavior of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} in hydrothermal solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korytkova, E.N.; Nesterchuk, N.I.; Pivovarova, L.N. [I.V. Grebenshchikov Institute of Silicate Chemistry, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1994-04-20

    Superconducting oxide YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) was exposed to hydrothermal media (H{sub 2}0, NaOH, and KOH aqueous solutions) at temperatures of 100-200{degrees}C and pressures of 10-70 MPa for 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 h. The studies showed that the nature and intensity of the reaction of YBCO with hydrothermal solutions are determined by a number of factors: temperature, pressure, exposure time, and nature of solutions.

  7. Dynamic Conveyor Tracking for Delta Robot%基于 Delta 并联机器人的传送带动态跟踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓明星; 刘冠峰; 张国英

    2015-01-01

    Delta并联机器人是最典型的空间三自由度移动的并联机构,其在3C电子产品行业、食品包装行业、生物制药行业均得到了广泛的应用。主要以Delta并联机器人为研究对象,通过视觉系统定位物体的位姿,再结合传送带编码器的位置反馈信息,计算出物体在机器人坐标系下面的实时位姿。实验结果表明,机器人在位置模式下,通过改进后的PID算法,能预测传送带上物体的位姿,并实时调整自身移动速度和末端位姿来跟踪传送带上的物体,最终实现对目标的动态跟踪抓取。%The Delta parallel robot is the most typical space moving parallel mechanism which has three degree of freedom .It is widely used in 3C electronic products ,food packaging and pharmaceutical packaging .In this paper ,Delta parallel robot was taken as study objective ,the pose of the object was got by machine vision system ,which was coupled with the position feedback information of conveyor encoder ,then the object’s real-time pose in the robot coordinate was calculated .The experiment results show that the robot can predict the object’s pose on the conveyor belt ,adjust its speed and pose by the improved PID algorithm in the position mode ,realize the dynamic tracking fetch of the target finally .

  8. Interconvertions between delta-lactam and delta-lactone derivatives initiated by unique transannular interactions of the rigid cyclohexane boat structure in pentacycloundecane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Hendrik G; Martins, Frans J C; Viljoen, Agatha M

    2004-07-09

    The pentacycloundecane (PCU) cage structure resembles a perfect boat conformation, and for the first time unique lactam/lactone interconversions on the flagpole carbons of a cyclohexane boat structure are reported. The syntheses of a novel dihydroxy-PCU-delta-lactone and two novel N-substituted PCU-delta-lactams are reported. Hydrolysis of some of the PCU-delta-lactam compounds produced delta-lactones, and reaction of the lactones with ammonia or primary amines again produced delta-lactams. Reaction mechanisms to account for the unusual interconversion reactions induced by transannular interactions are proposed.

  9. Morphology of river deltas on Titan and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, Piotr; Czechowski, Leszek

    2016-07-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is entering its final phase. The landing of Huygens on Titan and flybys performed by the Cassini probe during the last ten years revolutionized our knowledge about that moon, revealing a complex fluvio-lacustrine environment. Despite significant differences in composition, temperature and gravity, the processes of sediment transport and deposition are similar on Earth and Titan. We performed numerical simulations of development of river deltas in Titanian and terrestrial conditions, under various discharges and with different dominant grain sizes. We found that evolution of deltaic deposits is more rapid on Titan due to higher efficiency of transport, but the flat, lobate river deltas may form in narrower range of parameters than on Earth. Our results help in understanding the evolution of sedimentary deposits and may partially explain the paucity of river deltas in Titan's lakes.

  10. Fluvial transport on Titan: formation and evolution of river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, Piotr Przemyslaw; Czechowski, Leszek

    2016-10-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission provided numerous observations indicating that processes of sediment transport are currently operating on the surface of Titan. We performed numerical simulations of flow and sediment transport on Titan with particular emphasis on formation of sedimentary landforms in Titan's lakes. We compared the morphology and evolution of landforms formed in Titanian and terrestrial conditions, under various discharges and with different dominant grain sizes. The processes are similar in both environments; in some cases we observed bifurcation of the flow and switching of the active distributaries. Such processes may lead to abandonment of some delta lobes, as hypothesized for the delta observed in Ontario Lacus on Titan. The lower gravity of Titan and higher buoyancy of the most plausible kinds of sediment result in higher efficiency of transport and generally faster evolution of the deltaic deposits. Our results suggest also that the flat, lobate river deltas may form in narrower range of parameters than on Earth.

  11. Sliding mode control the delta-sigma modulation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sira-Ramírez, Hebertt

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents a novel method of sliding mode control for switch-regulated nonlinear systems. The Delta Sigma modulation approach allows one to implement a continuous control scheme using one or multiple, independent switches, thus effectively merging the available linear and nonlinear controller design techniques with sliding mode control.   Sliding Mode Control: The Delta-Sigma Modulation Approach, combines rigorous mathematical derivation of the unique features of Sliding Mode Control and Delta-Sigma modulation with numerous illustrative examples from diverse areas of engineering. In addition, engineering case studies demonstrate the applicability of the technique and the ease with which one can implement the exposed results. This book will appeal to researchers in control engineering and can be used as graduate-level textbook for a first course on sliding mode control.

  12. An analysis of nonlinear behavior in delta-sigma modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, Sasan H.; Paulos, John J.

    1987-06-01

    The paper introduces a new method of analysis for delta-sigma modulators based on modeling the nonlinear quantizer with a linearized gain, obtained by minimizing a mean-square-error criterion, followed by an additive noise source representing distortion components. In the paper, input signal amplitude dependencies of delta-sigma modulator stability and signal-to-noise ratio are analyzed. It is shown that due to the nonlinearity of the quantizer, the signal-to-noise ratio of the modulator may decrease as the input amplitude increases prior to saturation. Also, a stable third-order delta-sigma modulator may become unstable by increasing the input amplitude beyond a certain threshold. Both of these phenomena are explained by the nonlinear analysis of this paper. The analysis is carried out for both dc and sinusoidal excitations.

  13. Cystic fibrosis Delta F508 heterozygotes, smoking, and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Wittrup, H H

    1998-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasian populations. It remains a puzzle how this disease is maintained at such a remarkably high incidence, however, it could be due to a reproductive advantage in cystic fibrosis heterozygotes. We tested this hypot......Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasian populations. It remains a puzzle how this disease is maintained at such a remarkably high incidence, however, it could be due to a reproductive advantage in cystic fibrosis heterozygotes. We tested.......001). In conclusion, overall these results do not support a reproductive advantage for cystic fibrosis DeltaF508 heterozygotes. However, the data cannot totally exclude the possibility that nonsmoking DeltaF508 heterozygotes experience a reproductive advantage while smoking DeltaF508 heterozygotes experience...... the opposite, a reproductive disadvantage. Accordingly, the data suggest a previously undocumented role of smoking on fecundity among cystic fibrosis heterozygotes....

  14. Hints on the quadrupole deformation of the $\\Delta$(1232)

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Ramirez, C; Udias, J M

    2006-01-01

    The E2/M1 ratio (EMR) of the $\\Delta$(1232) extracted from the world data in pion photoproduction by means of an Effective Lagrangian Approach (ELA). For the first time this quantity has been derived within a crossing symmetric, gauge invariant, and chiral symmetric Lagrangian model which also contains a consistent modern treatment of the $\\Delta$(1232) resonance. The \\textit{bare} s-channel $\\Delta$(1232) contribution is well isolated and Final State Interactions (FSI) are effectively taken into account fulfilling Watson's theorem. The obtained EMR value, EMR$=(-1.30\\pm0.52)$%, is in good agreement with the latest lattice QCD calculations [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 021601 (2005)] and disagrees with results of current quark model calculations.

  15. Water pollution remote sensing for Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ruru; Xiong, Shouping; Qin, Yan

    2008-10-01

    Water pollution on the Delta of Pearl River is increasingly serious and to command the fact of pollution is the key of the control. A remote sensing model for water pollution base on single scattering is deduced in this paper. To avoid the effect by turbidity of water, by analysis the characteristics of the energy composition of multiple scattering, a factor of second scattering is deduced to build a double scattering model, and the practical arithmetic for the calculation of the model is put forwarded and then used to the pollution remote sensing over the Pearl River Delta. The precision of the result is validated by the synchronous measured data on water surface. The result of remote sensing showed that all of the North River, East River and West River are polluted in Pearl River Delta, and the most serious pollution is take place around Guang Zhou City and Dong Guan City.

  16. Electroproduction of the {Delta}(1232) Resonance at High Momentum Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, V.V.; Adams, G.S.; Davidson, R.M.; Klusman, M.; Mukhopadhyay, N.C.; Napolitano, J.; Nozar, M.; Price, J.W.; Stoler, P.; Witkowski, M. [Physics Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Bosted, P. [Physics Department, American University, Washington, D.C. 20016 (United States); Armstrong, C.S.; Meekins, D. [Department of Physics, College of William Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States); Assamagan, K.; Avery, S.; Baker, O.K.; Eden, T.; Gaskell, D.; Gueye, P.; Hinton, W.; Keppel, C.; Madey, R.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Tang, L. [Physics Department, Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia 23668 (United States); Ahmidouch, A.; Madey, R. [Physics Department, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242 (United States); Kim, W. [Physics Department, Kyungpook National University, Taegu, South (Korea); Baker, O.K.; Burkert, V.; Carlini, R.; Dunne, J.; Ent, R.; Keppel, C.; Mack, D.; Mitchell, J.; Tang, L.; Wood, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Koltenuk, D. [Physics Department, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Minehart, R. [Physics Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903 (United States); Mkrtchyan, H.; Tadevosian, V. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia)

    1999-01-01

    We studied the electroproduction of the {Delta}(1232) resonance via the reaction p(e,thinspe{sup {prime}}p){pi}{sup 0} at four-momentum transfers Q{sup 2}=2.8 and 4.0 GeV{sup 2} . This is the highest Q{sup 2} for which exclusive resonance electroproduction has ever been observed. Decay angular distributions for {Delta}{r_arrow}p{pi}{sup 0} were measured over a wide range of barycentric energies covering the resonance. The N{endash}{Delta} transition form factor G{sup {asterisk}}{sub M} and ratios of resonant multipoles E{sub 1+}/M{sub 1+} and S{sub 1+}/M{sub 1+} were extracted from the decay angular distributions. These ratios remain small, indicating that perturbative QCD is not applicable for this reaction at these momentum transfers. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society }

  17. Monitoring the urbanization of the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultan, M.; Fiske, M.; Stein, T.; Gamal, M.; El Araby, H.; Madani, A.; Mehanee, S.; Becker, R.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Cairo Univ. Center for Environmental Hazard Mitigation

    1999-11-01

    Comparisons of satellite images of the Nile Delta, acquired in 1972, 1984 and 1990, indicate that urban growth is endangering Egypt's agricultural productivity. Urban areas occupied a minimum of 3.6%, 4.7% and 5.7% of the Delta in 1972, 1984 and 1990, respectively, an increase of 58% in 18 years. Approximately half of this increase occurred between 1984 and 1990. If this trend continues, Egypt could lose 12% of its total agricultural area to urbanization by 2010. Despite the fact that growth is pronounced around the cities, it is the growth around the thousands of small villages that poses the largest threat to the agricultural productivity of the Nile Delta. The cumulative growth rate for the cities and large villages between 1972 and 1990 is 37%, and that for the small villages is 77% for the same time period.

  18. Heat transfer investigation of two Langley Research Center delta wing configurations at a Mach number of 10.5, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, R. H.; Buchanan, T. D.; Warmbrod, J. D.; Johnson, C. B.

    1972-01-01

    Heat transfer tests for two delta wing configurations were conducted in the hypervelocity wind tunnel. The 24-inch long models were tested at a Mach number of approximately 10.5 and at angles of attack of 20, 40, and 60 degrees over a length Reynolds number range from 5 million to 23 million on 4 May to 4 June 1971. Heat transfer results were obtained from model surface heat gage measurements and thermographic phosphor paint.

  19. The Transcendence Degree over a Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Kemper, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    For a finitely generated algebra over a field, the transcendence degree is known to be equal to the Krull dimension. The aim of this paper is to generalize this result to algebras over rings. A new definition of the transcendence degree of an algebra A over a ring R is given by calling elements of A algebraically dependent if they satisfy an algebraic equation over R whose trailing coefficient, with respect to some monomial ordering, is 1. The main result is that for a finitely generated algebra over a Noetherian Jacobson ring, the transcendence degree is equal to the Krull dimension.

  20. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  1. Delta并联机器人的研究进展%Research Progress and Status of Delta Parallel Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英坤

    2016-01-01

    Delta parallel robot is a kind of the most classical space of three degree of freedom parallel mechanism, which mades up for the shortage of serial robots and is currently one of the most successful application of high speed parallel robot, and attracts the attention of many scholars at home and abroad. Research results of the Delta parallel robot in kinematics, dynamics, institutional per-formance, control strategy were summarized based on a large number of relevant literature, and the research trend and unsolved prob-lems of the Delta parallel robot were explored as well.%Delta并联机器人是一种最经典的空间三自由度并联机构,弥补了串联机器人存在的许多不足,是目前应用最为成功的高速并联机器人之一,吸引了国内外许多学者的关注。根据查阅的大量相关文献,对Delta并联机器人在运动学、动力学、机构性能、控制策略等方面的研究成果进行总结,进而探索Delta并联机器人的研究趋势和尚未解决的难题。

  2. Stable isotope deltas: Tiny, yet robust signatures in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2012-01-01

    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including 14C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. 13C, 2H, and 18O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as−25 per mil can be written as−25 mUr (or−2.5 cUr or−0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg ‘units’ are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  3. Structure of the [delta]-opioid receptor bound to naltrindole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granier, Sébastien; Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford-MED)

    2012-07-11

    The opioid receptor family comprises three members, the {mu}-, {delta}- and {kappa}-opioid receptors, which respond to classical opioid alkaloids such as morphine and heroin as well as to endogenous peptide ligands like endorphins. They belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, and are excellent therapeutic targets for pain control. The {delta}-opioid receptor ({delta}-OR) has a role in analgesia, as well as in other neurological functions that remain poorly understood. The structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR have recently been solved. Here we report the crystal structure of the mouse {delta}-OR, bound to the subtype-selective antagonist naltrindole. Together with the structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR, the {delta}-OR structure provides insights into conserved elements of opioid ligand recognition while also revealing structural features associated with ligand-subtype selectivity. The binding pocket of opioid receptors can be divided into two distinct regions. Whereas the lower part of this pocket is highly conserved among opioid receptors, the upper part contains divergent residues that confer subtype selectivity. This provides a structural explanation and validation for the 'message-address' model of opioid receptor pharmacology, in which distinct 'message' (efficacy) and 'address' (selectivity) determinants are contained within a single ligand. Comparison of the address region of the {delta}-OR with other GPCRs reveals that this structural organization may be a more general phenomenon, extending to other GPCR families as well.

  4. Stable isotope deltas: tiny, yet robust signatures in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A; Coplen, Tyler B

    2012-09-01

    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including (14)C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. (13)C, (2)H, and (18)O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as-25 per mil can be written as-25 mUr (or-2.5 cUr or-0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg 'units' are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  5. Salinity Impacts on Agriculture and Groundwater in Delta Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D.; Salehin, M.; Jairuddin, M.; Saleh, A. F. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Parks, K. E.; Haque, M. A.; Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Delta regions are attractive for high intensity agriculture due to the availability of rich sedimentary soils and of fresh water. Many of the world's tropical deltas support high population densities which are reliant on irrigated agriculture. However environmental changes such as sea level rise, tidal inundation and reduced river flows have reduced the quantity and quality of water available for successful agriculture. Additionally, anthropogenic influences such as the over abstraction of ground water and the increased use of low quality water from river inlets has resulted in the accumulation of salts in the soils which diminishes crop productivity. Communities based in these regions are usually reliant on the same water for drinking and cooking because surface water is frequently contaminated by commercial and urban pollution. The expansion of shallow tube well systems for drinking water and agricultural use over the last few decades has resulted in mobilisation of salinity in the coastal and estuarine fringes. Sustainable development in delta regions is becoming constrained by water salinity. However salinity is often studied as an independent issue by specialists working in the fields of agriculture, community water supply and groundwater. The lack of interaction between these disciplines often results in corrective actions being applied to one sector without fully assessing the effects of these actions on other sectors. This paper describes a framework for indentifying the causes and impacts of salinity in delta regions based on the source-pathway-receptor framework. It uses examples and scenarios from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta in Bangladesh together with field measurements and observations made in vulnerable coastal communities. The paper demonstrates the importance of creating an holistic understanding of the development and management of water resources to reduce the impact of salinity in fresh water in delta regions.

  6. Nigeria. Petroleum, pollution and poverty in the Niger Delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    The oil industry has operated in the Niger Delta in Nigeria for more than half a century - bringing almost no benefit to the people living there. Instead, widespread and unchecked human rights violations have pushed many people deeper into poverty and deprivation, fuelled conflict and led to a pervasive sense of powerlessness and frustration. This multidimensional crisis is driven by many factors - abuses committed by the security forces and militant groups, extensive pollution of land and water, corruption, serious corporate bad practice and government neglect. Nigeria: Petroleum, pollution and poverty in the Niger Delta focuses on one dimension of the crisis: the impact of pollution and environmental damage caused by the oil industry on the human rights of those living in the Niger Delta. Many people in the oil-producing areas of the delta rely on fisheries, subsistence agriculture and associated processing industries for their livelihood. Decades of pollution and environmental damage have resulted in violations of the right to an adequate standard of living - including food and water - violations of the right to gain a living through work, and violations of the right to health. The report examines who is responsible for this situation in a context where multinational oil companies have been operating for decades. It highlights how companies take advantage of the weak regulatory systems that characterize many poor countries, and how the poorest people are often the most vulnerable to exploitation. The people of the Niger Delta have seen their human rights undermined by oil companies that their government can not - or will not - hold to account. They have been systematically denied access to information about how oil exploration and production will affect them, and are repeatedly denied access to justice. The Niger Delta provides a stark case study of the lack of accountability of a government to the people, and of multinational companies' almost total lack

  7. Diversity of V delta-J delta gene rearrangement in peripheral blood lymphocytes and intrathecal IgG synthesis in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowska-Wender, G; Nowak, J; Losy, J; Januszkiewicz, D; Wender, M

    1999-01-01

    The object of the study is a comparison of intrathecal IgG synthesis and gamma/delta TCR genes rearrangement in multiple sclerosis. The subgroup of 13 cases with intrathecal IgG synthesis and positive oligoclonal bands was compared with 8 cases with IgG index below 0.75 and with undetectable oligoclonal bands. TCR gene rearrangement was studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes by PCR analysis. In majority of cases of the first group the V delta-J delta junctional repertoire was restricted as evidenced by oligoclonal rearrangement. Monoclonal pattern of rearrangement was also established in some cases concerning V delta 1-J delta 1 and V delta 5-J delta 1. In all cases with one exception, demonstrating IgG index < 0.75 and with negative oligoclonal bands in CSF the oligo- or polyclonal pattern of V delta-J delta gene rearrangement was noticed. It is therefore suggested that subset T and B lymphocytes may undergo clonal expansion in MS as evidenced by restricted pattern of V delta-J delta rearrangement and intrathecal oligoclonal IgG synthesis, respectively. Oligoclonal expansion at certain B and T cells may occur due to stimulation by an antigen related to MS pathogen.

  8. Transgenic expression of salmon delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase in zebrafish muscle inhibits the growth of Vibrio alginolyticus and affects fish immunomodulatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Da; Peng, Kuan-Chieh; Wu, Jen-Leih; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2014-08-01

    Marine fish are an important nutritional source for highly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). PUFA biosynthesis requires the following key enzymes: delta-4 (Δ-4) desaturase, delta-5 (Δ-5) desaturase, delta-6 (Δ-6) desaturase, delta-5 (Δ-5) elongase, and delta-6 (Δ-6) elongase. The effect of overexpressing delta-5 desaturase and/or delta-6 desaturase in zebrafish muscle has not previously been reported. Herein, we investigated the effects of these proteins on antibacterial and immunomodulatory activity in transgenic zebrafish infected with Vibrio alginolyticus. Overexpression of delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase enhanced antibacterial activity at 4 and 12 h after injection of bacteria into muscle, as compared to controls. Furthermore, expression of immune-related genes (IL-1β, IL-22, and TNF-α) was observed to be altered in transgenic fish after 4 h of bacterial infection, resulting in a significant decrease in the inflammatory response, as compared to control fish. These results demonstrate that muscle-specific expression of transgenic desaturases in zebrafish not only enhance PUFA production, but also enhance antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. Overall, these results identify delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase as novel candidate genes for use in aquaculture, to enhance both disease resistance and fish oil production.

  9. Flood risk analysis model in the village of St. George/Danube Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, I.; Dumitrascu, S.; Nistoran, D.

    2009-04-01

    the Danube Delta. The study area is situated at the mouth of the St. George river branch, which suffered a series of interventions resulting with the shortening with 31 km (period 1984-1988). As a direct result, the medium speed of the water grew along with the both liquid and solid flows. In fact, this is only an example of the human activity that took place in the Danube Delta starting with the second half of the last century that influenced the hydrological system for a better use of the natural resources offered by the delta. The study is structured in two stages: the analysis of the hydrological hazard together with the simulation of a series of scenarios concerning floods at various flows and the risk analysis, expressed in the shape of the calculus of the material damage. In the study of the hazard, the methodology was based on the analysis of water depth and velocity maps, done in various flow scenarios, to which were added correlations between flood risk maps with satellite pictures, cadastral plans and field data by using GIS functions. In addition, the field investigations conducted in September 2008 focused on collecting the data necessary in the assessment of the buildings. The observations that synthesize the features of each construction included in the analysis were also stored in ArcGis in the shape of a table of attributes. This information reveals the indicators used in the analysis of the vulnerability of the residences: number of floors, height, construction type, infrastructure and price per property. The analysis revealed an increased degree of the area visibility, pointing out not only certain sectors affected by floods, but also the problems that occurred at the more detailed level of the residences. In addition, the cartographic material plays also an important part in the development of a proper public awareness strategy.

  10. All optical asynchronous binary delta-sigma modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafazoli, M.; Davoudzadeh, N.; Sayeh, M. R.

    2013-03-01

    We present the first all optical delta-sigma modulator using a bistable device and a leaky integrator. In this paper, a novel tri-coupled ring geometry is utilized, resulting in resonance which is a building block for delta-sigma modulator. In each ring, the main active element is a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The experimental result of the implemented setup is in a good agreement with our presented theory. Applying optical discrete components leads to a sampling rate of 660 kS/s. The higher frequency can be reached easily by using faster bistable devices and shorter loops.

  11. On the meaning of {Delta}T/T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, A.

    1993-02-01

    One of the most interesting aspects of the discovery of Microwave Background Radiation (MBR) anisotropy by the COBE satellite is the ability to compare these anisotropies with the amplitude of density inhomogeneities we measure. Combining these two, we can get a ``unified`` view of the inhomogeneities present in our universe on a broad range of scales. To make this comparison we must be able to translate {Delta}T/T into {delta}p/{bar p}, the mass overdensity. This latter quantity we may try to determine from the distribution of galaxies and their velocities.

  12. On the meaning of [Delta]T/T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, A.

    1993-02-01

    One of the most interesting aspects of the discovery of Microwave Background Radiation (MBR) anisotropy by the COBE satellite is the ability to compare these anisotropies with the amplitude of density inhomogeneities we measure. Combining these two, we can get a unified'' view of the inhomogeneities present in our universe on a broad range of scales. To make this comparison we must be able to translate [Delta]T/T into [delta]p/[bar p], the mass overdensity. This latter quantity we may try to determine from the distribution of galaxies and their velocities.

  13. {ital {Delta}I}=4 Bifurcation in Identical Superdeformed Bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haslip, D.; Flibotte, S.; Gervais, G.; Nieminen, J.; Svensson, C.; Waddington, J.; Wilson, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (CANADA); de France, G. [Centre de Recherches Nucleaires et ULP, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Devlin, M.; LaFosse, D.; Lerma, F.; Sarantites, D. [Chemistry Department, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Galindo-Uribarri, A. [AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (CANADA); Hackman, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Lee, I.; Macchiavelli, A.; MacLeod, R. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Mullins, S. [Department of Nuclear Physics, RSPhysSE, ANU, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    1997-05-01

    {Delta}I=4 bifurcation has been observed in two superdeformed bands, the newly discovered yrast superdeformed band of {sup 148}Eu, and a previously known excited band in {sup 148}Gd. Both of these bands have moments of inertia that are identical to the yrast band of {sup 149}Gd, the first superdeformed band in which this bifurcation was observed. This first observation of {Delta}I=4 bifurcation in identical superdeformed bands provides a crucial test of recent models. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Strategic Thoughts on Economic Integration of Yangtze Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Cong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Importance of integration to China's economy Shanghai,Jiangsu and Zhejiang,the three provinces and cities around Yangtze Delta area,are not only related in geography,but also enjoy similar type of culture and economy.With 2.2%of the national land area.10.4%of national population.the Yangtze Delta has created 22.1%of the national GDP,24.5%of the national fiscal revenues and 28.5%of the total imports and exports in the country.which has already made it become one of the most advanced areas in science,technology and culture in China.

  15. CMOS sigma-delta converters practical design guide

    CERN Document Server

    De la Rosa, Jose M

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of Sigma-Delta Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) and a practical guide to their design in nano-scale CMOS for optimal performance. This book presents a systematic and comprehensive compilation of sigma-delta converter operating principles, the new advances in architectures and circuits, design methodologies and practical considerations - going from system-level specifications to silicon integration, packaging and measurements, with emphasis on nanometer CMOS implementation. The book emphasizes practical design issues - from high-level behavioural modelling i

  16. Feedback Linearization Controller Of The Delta WingRock Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alkandari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This project deals with the control of the wing rock phenomena of a delta wing aircraft. a control schemeis proposed to stabilize the system. The controlleris a feedback linearization controller. It is shown that the proposed control scheme guarantee the asymptotic convergence to zero of all the states of the system. To illustrate the performance of the proposed controller, simulation results are presented and discussed. It is found that the proposed control scheme work well for the wing rock phenomena of a delta wing aircraft.

  17. Monte Carlo simulations of the stability of delta-Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landa, A.; Soderlind, P.; Ruban, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    The transition temperature (T-c) for delta-Pu has been calculated for the first time. A Monte Carlo method is employed for this purpose and the effective cluster interactions are obtained from first-principles calculations incorporated with the Connolly-Williams and generalized perturbation methods....... It is found that at T-c similar to 548 K, delta-Pu undergoes transformation from a disordered magnetic state to a structure with an anti ferromagnetic spin alignment that is mechanically unstable with respect to tetragonal distortion. The calculated transition temperature is in good agreement...

  18. Degrees of Truthfulness in Accepted Scientific Claims

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmed Hassan Mabrouk

    2008-01-01

    ...";">: Sciences adopt different methodologies in deriving claims and establishing theories. As a result, two accepted claims or theories belonging to two different sciences may not necessarily carry the same degree of truthfulness...

  19. Degrees of Curves in Abelian Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Debarre, O

    1992-01-01

    The degree of a curve $C$ in a polarized abelian variety $(X,\\lambda)$ is the integer $d=C\\cdot\\lambda$. When $C$ generates $X$, we find a lower bound on $d$ which depends on $n$ and the degree of the polarization $\\lambda$. The smallest possible degree is $d=n$ and is obtained only for a smooth curve in its Jacobian with its principal polarization (Ran, Collino). The cases $d=n+1$ and $d=n+2$ are studied. Moreover, when $X$ is simple, it is shown, using results of Smyth on the trace of totally positive algebraic integers, that if $d\\le 1.7719\\, n$, then $C$ is smooth and $X$ is isomorphic to its Jacobian. We also get an upper bound on the geometric genus of $C$ in terms of its degree.

  20. The Doctor of Physical Therapy Degree: A New Curriculum for a New Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Mary Jane K.; Stelzner, Denise; Rodriguez, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    By 2020, all graduates of accredited physical therapy programs will receive the Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) degree. Bachelor degrees in physical therapy are no longer granted, and over 83% (N = 176 accredited programs) of the entry-level physical therapy education programs already grant the DPT degree. The purpose of this article is to…