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  1. Intrauterine growth restriction

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    ... need C-section delivery . When to Contact a Medical Professional Contact your health care provider right away if you are pregnant and notice ... regular prenatal care. If you have a chronic medical condition or you ... see your health care provider before you get pregnant. This can help reduce ...

  2. Folic acid protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm delivery and intrauterine growth restriction through its anti-inflammatory effect in mice.

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    Mei Zhao

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence demonstrates that maternal folic acid (FA supplementation during pregnancy reduces the risk of neural tube defects, but whether FA prevents preterm delivery and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR remains obscure. Previous studies showed that maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS exposure induces preterm delivery, fetal death and IUGR in rodent animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of FA on LPS-induced preterm delivery, fetal death and IUGR in mice. Some pregnant mice were orally administered with FA (0.6, 3 or 15 mg/kg 1 h before LPS injection. As expected, a high dose of LPS (300 μg/kg, i.p. on gestational day 15 (GD15 caused 100% of dams to deliver before GD18 and 89.3% of fetuses dead. A low dose of LPS (75 μg/kg, i.p. daily from GD15 to GD17 resulted in IUGR. Interestingly, pretreatment with FA prevented LPS-induced preterm delivery and fetal death. In addition, FA significantly attenuated LPS-induced IUGR. Further experiments showed that FA inhibited LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB in mouse placentas. Moreover, FA suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation in human trophoblast cell line JEG-3. Correspondingly, FA significantly attenuated LPS-induced upregulation of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in mouse placentas. In addition, FA significantly reduced the levels of interleukin (IL-6 and keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC in amniotic fluid of LPS-treated mice. Collectively, maternal FA supplementation during pregnancy protects against LPS-induced preterm delivery, fetal death and IUGR through its anti-inflammatory effects.

  3. Intrauterine growth retardation - small events, big consequences

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    Ali Syed R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intrauterine growth retardation refers to a rate of growth of a fetus that is less than normal for the growth potential of a fetus (for that particular gestational age. As one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity, intrauterine growth retardation has immense implications for the short term and long term growth of children. It is an important public health concern in the developing countries. Health statistics encompassing parameters for maternal and child health in the Indian subcontinent have shown improvement in the past few years but they are still far from perfect. Maternal health, education and empowerment bears a strong influence on perinatal outcomes including intrauterine growth retardation and should be the primary focus of any stratagem targeted at reducing the incidence of intrauterine growth retardation. A concerted liaison of various medical and social disciplines is imperative in this regard.

  4. Antenatal taurine reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Xiaofeng Wang; Ying Liu; Na Yang; Jing Xu; Xiaotun Ren

    2013-01-01

    From pregnancy to parturition, Sprague-Dawley rats were daily administered a low protein diet to establish a model of intrauterine growth restriction. From the 12th day of pregnancy, 300 mg/kg rine was daily added to food until spontaneous delivery occurred. Brain tissues from normal neo-natal rats at 6 hours after delivery, neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction undergoing taurine supplement were obtained for further experiments. The terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay revealed that the number of apoptotic cel s in the brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction significantly increased. Taurine supplement in pregnant rats reduced cel apoptosis in brain tissue from neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction. nohistochemical staining revealed that taurine supplement increased glial cel line-derived neuro-trophic factor expression and decreased caspase-3 expression in the cerebral cortex of intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rats. These results indicate that taurine supplement reduces cel apoptosis through the glial cel line-derived neurotrophic factor-caspase-3 signaling pathway, resulting in a protective effect on the intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rat brain.

  5. Consequences in Infants That Were Intrauterine Growth Restricted

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    Erich Cosmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is a condition fetus does not reach its growth potential and associated with perinatal mobility and mortality. Intrauterine growth restriction is caused by placental insufficiency, which determines cardiovascular abnormalities in the fetus. This condition, moreover, should prompt intensive antenatal surveillance of the fetus as well as follow-up of infants that had intrauterine growth restriction as short and long-term sequele should be considered.

  6. Human placental lactogen and intrauterine growth retardation.

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    Spellacy, W N; Buhi, W C; Birk, S A

    1976-04-01

    Serum human placental lactogen levels were measured after 36 weeks' gestation in 264 serum samples from 109 women with normal pregnancies and in 137 serum samples from 70 women with pregnancies complicated by fetal intrauterine growth retardation (IGR). The fetal and placental weights were significantly lower in the IGR groups while the maternal ages were not different. There was a significantly lower hPL value at each week from 36 to 41 (except for the 39th) in the IGR group. Sixty percent of the women with IGR had hPL values less than 6 mug/ml, and 18.6% were less than 4 mug/ml. It is suggested that a low serum hPL value obtained during the last month of pregnancy should alert the physician to the possibility of intrauterine problems, including IGR.

  7. Can extrauterine growth approximate intrauterine growth? Should it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    Most studies evaluating the growth of preterm infants use the so-called intrauterine growth curve and reference fetus as standards. These curves might not be the optimal standards, however, for several reasons. The curves were constructed from small numbers of infants with uncertainty about

  8. Consequences of intrauterine growth restriction for the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Schreuder; A. van Wijk (Ans); H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractLow birth weight due to intrauterine growth restriction is associated with various diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this review is to describe the effects of intrauterine growth restriction

  9. Intrauterine Growth and Infant Temperamental Difficulties: The Generation R Study

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    Roza, Sabine J.; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Moll, Henriette A.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2008-01-01

    The Generation R Study a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life to young adulthood is conducted to explore the possibility of an association between infant temperament and intrauterine growth trajectories. Results concluded little indication of any association between infant temperament and intrauterine growth trajectories.

  10. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

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    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  11. Parental factors associated with intrauterine growth restriction

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    Hăşmăşanu Monica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Linear growth failure is caused by multiple factors including parental factors. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR on a population of Romanian newborn infants in a tertiary level maternity facility for a period of 2.5 years. Methods. A retrospective matched case-control study was conducted in the Emergency County Hospital of Cluj-Napoca, a university hospital in North-Western Romania. The sample was selected from 4,790 infants admitted to the Neonatal Ward at 1st Gynecology Clinic between January 2012 and June 2014. Results. The age of mothers was significantly lower in the IUGR group compared to controls (p=0.041. A significantly higher percentage of mothers had hypertension in the IUGR group compared to those in the control group (p0.13. The age of fathers of infants with IUGR proved significantly lower compared to controls (p=0.0278. The analysis of infants’ comorbidities revealed no significant difference between groups for respiratory distress, hyperbilirubinemia, hypocalcaemia, and heart failure (p>0.27. Intracranial hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and hypoglycemia were significantly higher in the IUGR group compared to controls. The logistic regression identified hypertension as a significant risk factor for IUGR (OR=2.4, 95% CI [1.3-4.5]. Conclusion. Although the age of the mothers and fathers proved significantly lower in the IUGR group compared to controls, only hypertension in the mothers proved significant risk factors for IUGR.

  12. Alteration of placental haemostatic mechanisms in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction

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    Jaime Eduardo Bernal Villegas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is a complication of pregnancy with a high probability of perinatal morbidity and mortality. It appears tobe caused by abnormal development of placental vasculature. Haemostatic processes are important for the development of the placenta,and an imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors has been associated with risk of intrauterine growth restriction.Objective. To evaluate coagulation abnormalities in placenta of pregnancies complicated with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction.Materials and methods. Five placentas from pregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction were compared to 19 controls.We performed gross and histological examination of the placenta. Analysis was made of both mRNA expression by real-time PCRand protein by ELISA of tissue factor and thrombomodulin in placental tissue. Results. Results based on histological evaluation wereconsistent with an increased prothrombotic state in placentas from pregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction, andthrombosis of chorionic vessels was the most important finding. The study showed an increased expression of tissue factor protein(p=0.0411 and an increase in the ratio of tissue factor/thrombomodulin mRNA (p=0.0411 and protein (p=0.0215 in placentas frompregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction. There were no statistically significant differences neither between cases andcontrols in the mRNA levels of tissue factor or thrombomodulin nor at the protein level of thrombomodulin. Conclusion. Evidence ofalteration of local haemostatic mechanisms at the level of the placenta, including abnormal expression of tissue factor and tissue factor/thrombomodulin ratio, in pregnancies that occur with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction is presented.

  13. Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term: DIGITAT

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    Huisjes Anjoke JM

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 80% of intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR infants are born at term. They have an increase in perinatal mortality and morbidity including behavioral problems, minor developmental delay and spastic cerebral palsy. Management is controversial, in particular the decision whether to induce labour or await spontaneous delivery with strict fetal and maternal surveillance. We propose a randomised trial to compare effectiveness, costs and maternal quality of life for induction of labour versus expectant management in women with a suspected IUGR fetus at term. Methods/design The proposed trial is a multi-centre randomised study in pregnant women who are suspected on clinical grounds of having an IUGR child at a gestational age between 36+0 and 41+0 weeks. After informed consent women will be randomly allocated to either induction of labour or expectant management with maternal and fetal monitoring. Randomisation will be web-based. The primary outcome measure will be a composite neonatal morbidity and mortality. Secondary outcomes will be severe maternal morbidity, maternal quality of life and costs. Moreover, we aim to assess neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral outcome at two years as assessed by a postal enquiry (Child Behavioral Check List-CBCL and Ages and Stages Questionnaire-ASQ. Analysis will be by intention to treat. Quality of life analysis and a preference study will also be performed in the same study population. Health technology assessment with an economic analysis is part of this so called Digitat trial (Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term. The study aims to include 325 patients per arm. Discussion This trial will provide evidence for which strategy is superior in terms of neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality, costs and maternal quality of life aspects. This will be the first randomised trial for IUGR at term. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register and ISRCTN

  14. Expectant management of intrauterine growth restriction pregnancy: perinatal outcome

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    Diana Andzane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is the reason for increased morbidity and mortality in all periods of human life. The development of this pathology defines a variety of factors many of which are preventable. There is still no developed effective tactics for pregnancy and delivery, which would protect both mother and child from undesirable consequences. Methods: The research was made in Riga Maternity hospital in Latvia. In the research were included 96 neonates with the weight below 10th percentile (IUGR group as well there was compiled the control group. We evaluated the condition of neonate by 13 criteria and studied its frequency depending on the gestational period. The weight of neonates was estimated using the percentile scales - intrauterine growth curves based on U.S. data. Results: In the subgroup of 37-39th week in the IUGR group in comparison with 40-42nd week subgroup, statistically more often was noticed hypoglycaemia, polycythaemia, acidosis, poor feeding, neurological abnormalities, transportation to an intensive care unit, transportation to another hospital for the further treatment and there was a higher number of days spent in the hospital. In the subgroup of 37-39th week in the control group were just 2 criteria that were statistically more frequent. Conclusions: Recognizing the IUGR to the fetus, there is justified the temporizing tactics with regard to resolution of pregnancy if only the health status of mother allows that and preeclampsia is excluded. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 312-315

  15. Retardo del crecimiento intrauterino Intrauterine growth retardation

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    Adriana Cuartas Calle

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available

    El crecimiento fetal anormal es un aspecto de gran interés en la obstetricia actual y un dilema clínico relativamente frecuente. La falla del crecimiento sigue siendo un enigma a pesar de los adelantos que ha habido en su conocimiento: el diagnóstico temprano y preciso del retardo del crecimiento puede aminorar la incidencia de complicaciones y muerte en fetos con este problema. Por ello es necesario mejorar las técnicas para identificar esta entidad y asegurar una atención apropiada durante el embarazo y el parto. En este artículo se resumen datos acerca de la definición del retardo del crecimiento fetal, su fisiopatología, clasificación, etiología, diagnóstico y manejo.

    Abnormal fetal growth is a very important aspect In present-day obstetrics and a frequent clinical dilemma. Fetal failure to grow continues to be puzzling, despite advances in its knowledge; early and precise diagnosis of growth retardation can diminish the incidence of complications and death of fetuses with this problem. It becomes therefore necessary, in the presence of growth retardation, to improve diagnostic techniques and assure proper attention during pregnancy and delivery. Information is summarized in this review on the definition, pathophysiology, classification, etiology, diagnosis and handling of fetal growth retardation.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and ...

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    ... IMAGe syndrome intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genital anomalies Enable Javascript to view ... combination of intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genital anomalies is commonly known by ...

  17. Maternal HCV infection is associated with intrauterine fetal growth disturbance

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    Huang, Qi-tao; Hang, Li-lin; Zhong, Mei; Gao, Yun-fei; Luo, Man-ling; Yu, Yan-hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Since the evidence regarding the association between maternal hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and impaired intrauterine fetal growth had not been conclusive, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of maternal HCV infection in association with intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and/or low birth weight infants (LBW). We performed an extensive literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE through December 1, 2015. The odds ratios (ORs) of HCV infection and IUGR/LBW were calculated and reported with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Statistical analysis was performed using RevMen 5.3 and Stata 10.0. Seven studies involving 4,185,414 participants and 5094 HCV infection cases were included. Significant associations between HCV infection and IUGR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.40–1.68, fixed effect model) as well as LBW were observed (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.43–2.71, random effect model). The results still indicated consistencies after adjusting for multiple risk factors which could affect fetal growth, including maternal age, parity, maternal smoking, alcohol abuse, drugs abuse, coinfected with HBV/HIV and preeclampsia. Our findings suggested that maternal HCV infection was significantly associated with an increased risk of impaired intrauterine fetal growth. In clinical practice, a closer monitoring of intrauterine fetal growth by a series of ultrasound might be necessary for HCV-infected pregnant population. PMID:27583932

  18. Reduced placental telomere length during pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction.

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    Jérôme Toutain

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown that telomere length was significantly reduced in placentas collected at delivery from pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction secondary to placental insufficiency. Placental telomere length measurement during ongoing pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction has never been reported. This was the main objective of our study. METHODS: In our center, late chorionic villus samplings were performed between 18 and 37 weeks of amenorrhea in 24 subjects with severe intrauterine growth restriction (cases and in 28 subjects with other indications for prenatal diagnosis (controls. Placental insufficiency was assessed by histo-pathological examination. Relative measurement of telomere length was carried out prospectively by quantitative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization using fluorescent Peptide Nucleic Acid probes on interphase nuclei obtained from long-term cultured villi and with an automated epifluorescent microscope. A quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction technique was performed to confirm the quantitative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization results. The number of copies of gene loci encoding the RNA template (hTERC and the catalytic subunit (hTERT of the enzyme complex telomerase were also estimated in these placentas by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization. RESULTS: Mean fluorescence intensity of telomere probes estimated by quantitative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization was significantly less for cases compared to controls (p<0.001. This result indicated that mean telomere length was significantly reduced in placentas during pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. Reduced telomere length was confirmed by the quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction technique. No copy number variation of the hTERC and hTERT loci was noticed for cases, or for controls. CONCLUSION: This study clearly demonstrates a reduction of placental telomere length in ongoing pregnancies

  19. Some medico-socio-demographic factors and intra-uterine growth retardation.

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    Chhabra, S; Bhandari, V

    1996-04-01

    In the present prospective pilot study an attempt has been made to find out the correlation between some maternopaternal factors (demographic, socio-economic and medical) that suggest a high risk for intra-uterine growth retardation. The mean height and booking weight of women in study group were significantly less than the height and weight of women in control group (p instrumental vaginal delivery, emergency caesarean section for foetal distress, incidence of intrapartum foetal distress, and number of babies with low Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes were significantly more in the study group (p < .05 and p < 0.001 respectively for operative delivery and Apgar scores).

  20. New Approaches to Treatment of Severe Intrauterine Growth Restriction

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    Zhanar Kurmangali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality due to placental insufficiency. Currently, one of the new approaches to treating this disease is the injection of nutrients to the fetus through intravascular port-systems (catheters.Objective. To assess the impact of nutrient injections as treatment to fetuses with severe growth retardation.Materials and methods. Pregnant women with IUGR (abdominal circumference (AC < 5th percentile with the absence of diastolic flow in the umbilical artery and a fetal gestational age of less than 30 weeks were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group included six pregnant women who had an intravascular port-system for the infusion of nutrients (amino acids and glucose in the umbilical vein of the fetus for 14 ± 3 days. The control group consisted of eight patients who received only traditional dynamic monitoring and delivery at the optimum time of pregnancy. Fetal status was assessed using ultrasound equipment Accuvix V20 (Medison, South Korea by examining indicators of biometry and Doppler study of blood flow in utero, umbilical arteries, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus with fetal vascular resistance index calculation - pulsatility index (PI. Criteria for blood flow disturbances in the vessels were considered PI values above normal values for their gestational age, which were defined as absence or reverse blood flow in a diastole in the umbilical artery.Results. In a comparative analysis of the two groups, the treatment led to a 44.7% increase in AC of the fetus (121.0 ± 11.5 mm and 219.3 ± 18.3 mm, respectively, p ˂ 0.001. In all cases, the profile of blood flow in the umbilical artery had a positive diastolic component. As a result, there was a 45.3% decrease in PI in the umbilical artery (2.14 ± 0.54 and 1.17 ± 0.15, respectively, p < 0.05. Average fetal weight in the study group was not significantly higher than the

  1. Intrauterine levonorgestrel delivery with frameless fibrous delivery system: review of clinical experience.

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    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Andrade, Amaury; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas; Jackers, Geert

    2017-01-01

    The concept of using a frameless intrauterine device (IUD) instead of the conventional plastic framed IUD is not new. Frameless copper IUDs have been available since the late 1990s. They rely on an anchoring system to retain in the uterine cavity. The clinical experience with these IUDs suggests that frameless IUDs fit better as they are thin and, therefore, do not disturb or irritate the uterus. High tolerance and continuation rates have been achieved as complaints of pain are virtually nonexistent and the impact on menstrual blood loss is minimal. Conventional levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems (LNG-IUSs) are very popular as they significantly reduce menstrual bleeding and provide highly effective contraception. However, continuation of use remains problematic, particularly in young users. Total or partial expulsion and displacement of the LNG-IUS also occur too often due to spatial incompatibility within a small uterine cavity, as strong uterine contractions originate, attempting to get rid of the bothersome IUD/IUS. If not expelled, embedment ensues, often leading to chronic pain and early removal of the IUD/IUS. Several studies conducted recently have requested attention to the relationship between the LNG-IUS and the endometrial cavity. Some authors have proposed to measure the cavity width prior to inserting an IUD, as many uterine cavities are much smaller than the currently existing LNG-IUSs. A frameless fibrous drug delivery system fits, in principle, in all uterine cavities and may therefore be preferable to framed drug delivery systems. This review examines the clinical performance, acceptability, and potential of the frameless LNG-IUS (FibroPlant(®)) when used for contraception, treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhea, and endometrial suppression in women using estrogen replacement therapy, endometrial hyperplasia, and other gynecological conditions. The review concludes that FibroPlant LNG-IUS offers unique advantages in

  2. Intrauterine levonorgestrel delivery with frameless fibrous delivery system: review of clinical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Andrade, Amaury; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas; Jackers, Geert

    2017-01-01

    The concept of using a frameless intrauterine device (IUD) instead of the conventional plastic framed IUD is not new. Frameless copper IUDs have been available since the late 1990s. They rely on an anchoring system to retain in the uterine cavity. The clinical experience with these IUDs suggests that frameless IUDs fit better as they are thin and, therefore, do not disturb or irritate the uterus. High tolerance and continuation rates have been achieved as complaints of pain are virtually nonexistent and the impact on menstrual blood loss is minimal. Conventional levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems (LNG-IUSs) are very popular as they significantly reduce menstrual bleeding and provide highly effective contraception. However, continuation of use remains problematic, particularly in young users. Total or partial expulsion and displacement of the LNG-IUS also occur too often due to spatial incompatibility within a small uterine cavity, as strong uterine contractions originate, attempting to get rid of the bothersome IUD/IUS. If not expelled, embedment ensues, often leading to chronic pain and early removal of the IUD/IUS. Several studies conducted recently have requested attention to the relationship between the LNG-IUS and the endometrial cavity. Some authors have proposed to measure the cavity width prior to inserting an IUD, as many uterine cavities are much smaller than the currently existing LNG-IUSs. A frameless fibrous drug delivery system fits, in principle, in all uterine cavities and may therefore be preferable to framed drug delivery systems. This review examines the clinical performance, acceptability, and potential of the frameless LNG-IUS (FibroPlant®) when used for contraception, treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhea, and endometrial suppression in women using estrogen replacement therapy, endometrial hyperplasia, and other gynecological conditions. The review concludes that FibroPlant LNG-IUS offers unique advantages in reducing

  3. Serum human placental lactogen levels in intra-uterine fetal growth retardation.

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    Zail, S S; Safro, I L

    1975-11-12

    Serum human placental lactogen (HPL) levels were measured in the last trimester of pregnancy in 16 mothers who delivered small-for-gestational-age babies. Only 3 patients had levels which were below the normal range, while 4 others had levels close to the lower limit of the normal range. The finding of a normal serum HPL level therefore does not exclude the possibility of intra-uterine fetal growth retardation. No correlation was found between serum HPL levels at 37-39 weeks and infant or placental weights in full-term normal deliveries.

  4. Relationship between in utero sonographic evaluation and subcutaneous plicometry after birth in infants with intrauterine growth restriction: an exploratory study

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    Giannì Maria L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is associated with several medical complications before and after delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concordance between the fetal ultrasonographic measurement of subcutaneous tissue thicknesses and the skinfold thicknesses assessment in intrauterine growth restricted newborns. Methods We designed an exploratory study. Fetal ultrasonographic measurement of subcutaneous tissue thicknesses, according to Bernstein's and Galan's method, and neonatal skinfold thicknesses were evaluated in 13 intrauterine growth restricted newborns within 4 hours before delivery and on the first day of life, respectively. Concordance between fetal and neonatal measurements was assessed using the Lin's correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman method. Results The data obtained by the measurements of neonatal skinfold thicknesses was significantly correlated with the prenatal measurements (Lin's coefficients, arm: 0.60; subscapular: 0.72; abdomen: 0.51. Bland-Altman analysis showed moderate agreement between the fetal ultrasonographic measurement of subcutaneous tissue thicknesses and the neonatal skinfold thicknesses assessment. Conclusions The present study provides preliminary evidence that fetal sonographic measurements may represent additional indices of intrauterine growth restriction.

  5. Intrauterine growth restriction: screening, diagnosis, and management.

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    Lausman, Andrea; Kingdom, John; Gagnon, Robert; Basso, Melanie; Bos, Hayley; Crane, Joan; Davies, Gregory; Delisle, Marie-France; Hudon, Lynda; Menticoglou, Savas; Mundle, William; Ouellet, Annie; Pressey, Tracy; Pylypjuk, Christy; Roggensack, Anne; Sanderson, Frank

    2013-08-01

    Contexte : Le retard de croissance intra-utérin (RCIU) est une complication obstétricale qui, par définition, serait constatée par dépistage chez 10 % des fœtus au sein de la population générale. Le défi consiste à identifier le sous-ensemble des grossesses qui sont affectées par un retard de croissance pathologique, de façon à permettre la mise en œuvre d’une intervention qui atténuerait les taux de morbidité et de mortalité. Objectif : La présente directive clinique a pour objectif de fournir des déclarations sommaires et des recommandations, ainsi que d’établir un cadre pour le dépistage, le diagnostic et la prise en charge des grossesses affectées par un RCIU. Méthodes : Des grossesses affectées sont comparées à des grossesses dans le cadre desquelles le fœtus présente un poids convenant à son âge gestationnel. Les antécédents, l’examen physique et les analyses de laboratoire (y compris les marqueurs biochimiques et les caractéristiques échographiques du RCIU) sont analysées, et une stratégie de prise en charge est suggérée. Résultats : La littérature publiée en anglais a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en janvier 2013, au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé faisant appel à des termes MeSH (« fetal growth restriction » et « small for gestational age ») et à des mots clés (« fetal growth », « restriction », « growth retardation », « IUGR », « low birth weight », « small for gestational age ») appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d

  6. Serum cholesterol acceptor capacity in intrauterine growth restricted fetuses.

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    Pecks, Ulrich; Rath, Werner; Bauerschlag, Dirk O; Maass, Nicolai; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Mohaupt, Markus G; Escher, Geneviève

    2017-02-14

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms whereby slowed intrauterine growth confers vascular risk are not clearly established. In general, a disturbed cholesterol efflux has been linked to atherosclerosis. The capacity of serum to accept cholesterol has been repeatedly evaluated in clinical studies by the use of macrophage-based cholesterol efflux assays and, if disturbed, precedes atherosclerotic diseases years before the clinical diagnosis. We now hypothesized that circulating cholesterol acceptors in IUGR sera specifically interfere with cholesterol transport mechanisms leading to diminished cholesterol efflux. RAW264.7 cells were used to determine efflux of [3H]-cholesterol in response to [umbilical cord serum (IUGR), n=20; controls (CTRL), n=20]. Cholesterol efflux was lower in IUGR as compared to controls [controls: mean 7.7% fractional [3H]-cholesterol efflux, standard deviation (SD)=0.98; IUGR: mean 6.3%, SD=0.79; P<0.0001]. Values strongly correlated to HDL (ρ=0.655, P<0.0001) and apoE (ρ=0.510, P=0.0008), and mildly to apoA1 (ρ=0.3926, P=0.0122) concentrations. Reduced cholesterol efflux in IUGR could account for the enhanced risk of developing cardiovascular diseases later in life.

  7. Cytosine methylation dysregulation in neonates following intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Einstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perturbations of the intrauterine environment can affect fetal development during critical periods of plasticity, and can increase susceptibility to a number of age-related diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus; T2DM, manifesting as late as decades later. We hypothesized that this biological memory is mediated by permanent alterations of the epigenome in stem cell populations, and focused our studies specifically on DNA methylation in CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from cord blood from neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and control subjects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our epigenomic assays utilized a two-stage design involving genome-wide discovery followed by quantitative, single-locus validation. We found that changes in cytosine methylation occur in response to IUGR of moderate degree and involving a restricted number of loci. We also identify specific loci that are targeted for dysregulation of DNA methylation, in particular the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4A gene, a well-known diabetes candidate gene not previously associated with growth restriction in utero, and other loci encoding HNF4A-interacting proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Our results give insights into the potential contribution of epigenomic dysregulation in mediating the long-term consequences of IUGR, and demonstrate the value of this approach to studies of the fetal origin of adult disease.

  8. Heart Morphometry in Rats with Intrauterine Growth Restriction

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    Claudia Joffre Fríaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that cardiovascular disease in adulthood is influenced by prenatal or early postnatal events, regardless of lifestyle-related risk factors. Objective: to characterize the heart morphometry in Wistar rats with intrauterine growth restriction and to determine the differences between adolescents and adults of both sexes as well as the association with some morphometric variables at birth. Methods: a total of 80 rats in the control group and 80 in the experimental group were studied. The following morphometric variables were analyzed in the newborns: weight, height in addition to size, weight and volume of the heart, all in millimeters. Results: low birth weight resulting from intrauterine growth restriction caused changes in heart morphometry, especially in heart weight and thickness of the left ventricle. These changes were observed in both sexes during adolescence and showed a slight predominance in adult males. Conclusions: these results led to an increased knowledge of the events involved in heart development in response to nutrient restriction in utero, which could contribute to the design of health strategies to reduce morbidity and perinatal mortality from heart diseases.

  9. Intrauterine levonorgestrel delivery with frameless fibrous delivery system: review of clinical experience

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    Wildemeersch D

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirk Wildemeersch,1 Amaury Andrade,2 Norman D Goldstuck,3 Thomas Hasskamp,4 Geert Jackers5 1Gynecological Outpatient Clinic and IUD Training Center, Ghent, Belgium; 2Centro de Biologia da Reprodução, Universidade Federal Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Brazil; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, Western Cape, South Africa; 4Klinik für Operativen Gynäkologie, GynMünster, Münster, Germany; 5Applied Controlled Release, Technology Park, Ghent (Zwijnaarde, Belgium Abstract: The concept of using a frameless intrauterine device (IUD instead of the conventional plastic framed IUD is not new. Frameless copper IUDs have been available since the late 1990s. They rely on an anchoring system to retain in the uterine cavity. The clinical experience with these IUDs suggests that frameless IUDs fit better as they are thin and, therefore, do not disturb or irritate the uterus. High tolerance and continuation rates have been achieved as complaints of pain are virtually nonexistent and the impact on menstrual blood loss is minimal. Conventional levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems (LNG-IUSs are very popular as they significantly reduce menstrual bleeding and provide highly effective contraception. However, continuation of use remains problematic, particularly in young users. Total or partial expulsion and displacement of the LNG-IUS also occur too often due to spatial incompatibility within a small uterine cavity, as strong uterine contractions originate, attempting to get rid of the bothersome IUD/IUS. If not expelled, embedment ensues, often leading to chronic pain and early removal of the IUD/IUS. Several studies conducted recently have requested attention to the relationship between the LNG-IUS and the endometrial cavity. Some authors have proposed to measure the cavity width prior to inserting an IUD, as many uterine cavities are much smaller than the

  10. Induction versus expectant monitoring for intrauterine growth restriction at term : randomised equivalence trial (DIGITAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, K. E.; Vijgen, S. M. C.; Bijlenga, D.; van der Post, J. A. M.; Bekedam, D. J.; Kwee, A.; van der Salm, P. C. M.; van Pampus, M. G.; Spaanderman, M. E. A.; de Boer, K.; Duvekot, J. J.; Bremer, H. A.; Hasaart, T. H. M.; Delemarre, F. M. C.; Bloemenkamp, K. W. M.; van Meir, C. A.; Willekes, C.; Wijnen, E. J.; Rijken, M.; le Cessie, S.; Roumen, F. J. M. E.; Thornton, J. G.; van Lith, J. M. M.; Mol, B. W. J.; Scherjon, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of induction of labour with a policy of expectant monitoring for intrauterine growth restriction near term. Design Multicentre randomised equivalence trial (the Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term (DIGITAT)). Setting Eight academic and 44 n

  11. Non-placental causes of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Nancy; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2008-06-01

    Placental insufficiency, in some form or fashion, is associated with the majority of cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). There are numerous causes of IUGR which are not caused primarily by placental insufficiency, but indirectly lead to it. The causes of IUGR can be subdivided into fetal and maternal etiologies. The fetal etiologies consist of genetic diseases, congenital malformations, infections, multiple gestations, and placental/cord abnormalities. The maternal etiologies are categorized as follows: (1) decreased uteroplacental blood flow, (2) reduced blood volume, (3) decreased oxygen carrying capacity, (4) nutrition status, (5) teratogens, and (6) miscellaneous causes such as short interpregnancy intervals, race, maternal age, and low socioeconomic status. Knowledge of the etiologies of fetal growth restriction is essential, so that future care can be targeted at prevention. There are several primary and secondary prevention strategies that can be adopted.

  12. The association between intrauterine inflammation and spontaneous vaginal delivery at term: a cross-sectional study.

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    Michiel L Houben

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different factors contribute to the onset of labor at term. In animal models onset of labor is characterized by an inflammatory response. The role of intrauterine inflammation, although implicated in preterm birth, is not yet established in human term labor. We hypothesized that intrauterine inflammation at term is associated with spontaneous onset of labor. METHODS/RESULTS: In two large urban hospitals in the Netherlands, a cross-sectional study of spontaneous onset term vaginal deliveries and elective caesarean sections (CS, without signs of labor, was carried out. Placentas and amniotic fluid samples were collected during labor and/or at delivery. Histological signs of placenta inflammation were determined. Amniotic fluid proinflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured using ELISA. A total of 375 women were included. In term vaginal deliveries, more signs of intrauterine inflammation were found than in elective CS: the prevalence of chorioamnionitis was higher (18 vs 4%, p = 0.02 and amniotic fluid concentration of IL-6 was higher (3.1 vs 0.37 ng/mL, p<0.001. Similar results were obtained for IL-8 (10.93 vs 0.96 ng/mL, p<0.001 and percentage of detectable TNF-alpha (50 vs 4%, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: This large cross-sectional study shows that spontaneous term delivery is characterized by histopathological signs of placenta inflammation and increased amniotic fluid proinflammatory cytokines.

  13. Premature delivery due to intrauterine Candida infection that caused neonatal congenital cutaneous candidiasis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fumitake; Okubo, Tomoharu; Yasuo, Tadahiro; Mori, Taisuke; Iwasa, Koichi; Iwasaku, Kazuhiro; Kitawaki, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Congenital cutaneous candidiasis is a very rare disease with less than 100 cases published in the medical literature. Neonates having this disease present with systemic skin lesions caused by intrauterine Candida infections. We present a case of threatened premature delivery due to Candida chorioamnionitis, which caused both maternal postpartum endometritis and neonatal congenital cutaneous candidiasis. A 34-year-old woman who was admitted for fetal membrane bulging at 20 weeks of gestation underwent McDonald cervical cerclage. We diagnosed threatened premature delivery due to intrauterine infection; therefore, we terminated the gestation by cesarean section at 24 weeks of gestation. Fungi-like yeast was detected in infantile gastric juice. Histopathological findings of the placenta revealed that Candida albicans mycelium invaded the placenta, chorioamniotic membrane and umbilical cord.

  14. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  15. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  16. Thrombocytopenia in Preterm Infants with Intrauterine Growth Restriction

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    Matsuda,Miwa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Sick preterm infants often have thrombocytopenia at birth, and this is often associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, or birth weights less than the 10th percentile. The pathogenesis of the thrombocytopenia and its importance in IUGR are still unclear. We studied the characteristics of preterm IUGR infants with thrombocytopenia. Twenty-seven singleton Japanese preterm IUGR infants were born between January 2002 and June 2007 at Okayama University Hospital. Infants with malformation, chromosomal abnormalities, alloimmune thrombocytopenia, sepsis, and maternal aspirin ingestion were excluded. The infants were divided into group A (n=8, which had thrombocytopenia within 72h after birth, and group B (n=19, which did not. There were significant differences in birth weight, head circumference, umbilical artery (UA-pulsatility index (PI, middle cerebral artery-PI, UA-pH, UA-pO2, and UA-pCO2. The infants in group A were smaller, had abnormal blood flow patterns, and were hypoxic at birth. We speculate that the infants with thrombocytopenia were more severely growth-restricted by chronic hypoxia. Thrombocytopenia is an important parameter for chronic hypoxia in the uterine.

  17. Volumetric MRI study of the intrauterine growth restriction fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, A.; Barlow, S.; Ber, R.; Achiron, R.; Katorza, E. [Tel Aviv University, Sackler School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel)

    2017-05-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathologic fetal condition known to affect the fetal brain regionally and associated with future neurodevelopmental abnormalities. This study employed MRI to assess in utero regional brain volume changes in IUGR fetuses compared to controls. Retrospectively, using MRI images of fetuses at 30-34 weeks gestational age, a total of 8 brain regions - supratentorial brain and cavity, cerebral hemispheres, temporal lobes and cerebellum - were measured for volume in 13 fetuses with IUGR due to placental insufficiency and in 21 controls. Volumes and their ratios were assessed for difference using regression models. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between two observers. In both groups, all structures increase in absolute volume during that gestation period, and the rate of cerebellar growth is higher compared to that of supratentorial structures. All structures' absolute volumes were significantly smaller for the IUGR group. Cerebellar to supratentorial ratios were found to be significantly smaller (P < 0.05) for IUGR compared to controls. No other significant ratio differences were found. ICC showed excellent agreement. The cerebellar to supratentorial volume ratio is affected in IUGR fetuses. Additional research is needed to assess this as a radiologic marker in relation to long-term outcome. (orig.)

  18. Perinatal Changes of Cardiac Troponin-I in Normal and Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Pregnancies

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    Nicoletta Iacovidou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR implies fetal hypoxia, resulting in blood flow redistribution and sparing of vital organs (brain, heart. Serum cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI, a well-established marker of myocardial ischaemia, was measured in 40 mothers prior to delivery, the doubly clamped umbilical cords (representing fetal state, and their 20 IUGR and 20 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA neonates on day 1 and 4 postpartum. At all time points, no differences in cTnI levels were observed between the AGA and IUGR groups. Strong positive correlations were documented between maternal and fetal/neonatal values (r≥.498, P≤.025 in all cases in the AGA and r≥.615, P≤.009 in all cases in the IUGR group. These results may indicate (a normal heart function, due to heart sparing, in the IUGR group (b potential crossing of the placental barrier by cTnI in both groups

  19. Abnormal endothelium-dependent microvascular dilator reactivity in pregnancies complicated by normotensive intrauterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.M.; Blaauw, Judith; van Pampus, Maria; Rakhorst, G.; Aarnoudse, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Normotensive intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia share a similar placenta pathophysiology, whereas maternal clinical manifestations differ. Clinical symptoms of preeclampsia are partly attributed to vascular endothelial dysfunction, but it is unclear whether this phenomenon p

  20. Chromosomal aberrations as etiological factors of intrauterine growth retardation

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    Petrović Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR is a pathological condition of pregnancy characterised by birth weight below the 10th centile. A number of fetal, placental and maternal causes can lead to IUGR; although, in most cases no specific causes can be identified. The aim of this study was to determine the part of chromosomal abnormalities in IUGR etiology. Methods. Fetal blood karyotype taken by cordocentesis from 168 fetuses with diagnosed IUGR was analyzed. Results. Chromosomal rearrangements both numerical and structural were detected in 14 cases (12.2%. Two cases were triploid. Patau syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Down syndrome were found in two cases each. There was one case of trisomy 7 (47, XY, +7 and one case of trisomy 16 (47, XX, +16; one translocation, 46, XY, t (2; 14(q23; q32 and a deletion 46, XYdel (12 (p12 as well as two cases of sex chromosomes abnormalities, 45, X (Turner syndrome and 47, XYY. Conclusion. These findings suggest that a consistent number of symmetrical IUGR cases (about 12% can be associated with chromosomal rearrangements. Chromosomal aberrations that cause IUGR are heterogeneous, aberration of autosomes, mostly autosomal trisomies, being the most common.

  1. INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION AT FULL TERM PREGNANCIES WITH ENDOCRINE FACTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and en docrine parameters so as to assess the effects of the main endocrine factors on IUGR. The concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin, T3, T4 and TSH were measured in umbilical cord blood, amniotic fluid and maternal serum. Methods The samples were collected from 23 pregnant women who were diagnosed as the full term IUGR, 42 normal full term pregnant women with normal infants' weight were taken as control. Growth hormone and insulin were mea sured by radioimmunoassay. T3, T4 and TSH were investigated by micro-radioimmunoassay. Results The concentra tions of growth hormone, insulin and T4 in umbilical cord blood were lower in IUGR than that in control group(GH 4. 63μg/L vs 7.01μg/L, insulin 10. 68μIU/ml vs 31.44μIU/ml, T4 87. 39nmol/L vs 138. 10nmol/L. P <0. 05, 0. 05 and 0. 05, respectively). The TSH concentration in umbilical cord blood was higher in IUGR than in control group (10. 84μmIU/L vs 5. 75μmIU/L, P <0. 01). The concentration of growth hormone in maternal serum and the concen tration of insulin in amniotic fluid were also lower in IUGR group than in control group(GH 1.77μg/L vs 2.74μg/L, P <0. 01, insulin 5. 84μIU/mi vs 15. 64μIU/ml, P <0. 01). Conclusion This study confirms that full term neonates with IUGR are abnormal in endocrine factors. The inadequacy of growth hormone may be one of the causes of IUGR. The relative scarcity of growth hormone and insulin seems to be a factor to compromise the fetus' metabolism. Be sides, the early hypothyrosis of infants with IUGR might protect them from unfavorable environment in the uterine.

  2. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Associated with Hematologic Abnormalities: Probable Manifestations of Placental Mesenchymal Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Payo, Cristina; Bernabeu, Rocio Alvarez; Villar, Isabel Salas; Goy, Enrique Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is a rare vascular disease associated with intrauterine growth restriction, fetal demise as well as Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. Some neonates present hematologic abnormalities possibly related to consumptive coagulopathy and hemolytic anemia in the placental circulation. Case report We present a case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in a fetus with intrauterine growth restriction and cerebellar hemorrhagic injury diagnosed in the 20th week of pregnancy. During 26th week, our patient had an intrauterine fetal demise in the context of gestational hypertension. We have detailed the ultrasound findings that made us suspect the presence of hematologic disorders during 20th week. Discussion We believe that the cerebellar hematoma could be the consequence of thrombocytopenia accompanied by anemia. If hemorrhagic damage during fetal life is found, above all associates with an anomalous placental appearance and with intrauterine growth restriction, PMD should be suspected along other etiologies. PMID:26495159

  3. Intrauterine growth restriction: distribution, risk factors, management of labour and outcome

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    Diana Andzane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR determines maternal, fetal and placental factors. Many of these factors are preventable. There is still no enough developed effective pregnancy and labour management tactics that could protect both mother and child from the unintended consequences. Methods: The research was made in Riga Maternity Hospital. In the research there were included pregnant women who gave birth neonates with weight under 10th percentile (IUGR group as well there was compiled the control group. The weight of neonates was evaluated using the percentile scales - Intrauterine Growth Curves based on US data. Results: According to the criteria, in the IUGR group were included 209 pregnant women and in the control group was the same number of patients. In the IUGR group mothers discharged from the hospital one day later than it was in the control group both after vaginal delivery (4.0 +/- 1.5 vs. 3.3 +/- 1.0, p and #706;0.0001 and after caesarean (5.6 +/- 1.5 vs. 4.5 +/- 1.0, p=0.0001. Comparing the evaluations after Apgar scale after spontaneous birth, induced labour and caesarean it was discovered that there is no statistically significant difference. Conclusions: IUGR negatively affect not just the fetus but also the mother and this is the reason why she should stay in the hospital for a longer period due to the child or experience the caesarean. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1117-1121

  4. Small Size at Birth or Abnormal Intrauterine Growth Trajectory: Which Matters More for Child Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Jacobsen, Geir W; Kramer, Michael S; Martinussen, Marit; Platt, Robert W

    2016-06-15

    Small size at birth is linked with lifelong adverse health implications. However, small size is only a proxy for the pathological process of interest, intrauterine growth restriction. We examined the extent to which information on intrauterine growth patterns improved prediction of childhood anthropometry, above and beyond birth weight alone. We obtained fetal weights estimated via serial ultrasound for 478 children in the Scandinavian Successive Small-for-Gestational-Age Births Study (1986-1988). Size at birth was classified using birth weight-for-gestational-age z scores and conditional fetal growth z scores (reflecting growth between 25 weeks' gestation and birth) using internal references. Conditional z scores were also expressed as residuals of birth weight z scores. Growth measures were linked with age-5-years anthropometric characteristics using linear regression. In univariable analyses, conditional fetal growth z scores were positively associated with z scores for child height, body mass index, total skinfold thickness, and head circumference (β = 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.31), β = 0.16 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.23), β = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.16), and β = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.52), respectively). However, conditional z scores were highly correlated with birth weight z scores (r = 0.9), and residuals explained minimal additional variation in anthropometric factors (null coefficients; adjusted R(2) increases child growth beyond that obtained from absolute size at birth.

  5. Prognosis and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    focusing on risk factors, catch up and neonatal outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study of IUGR neonates with a birth weight below 70% of the expected whose mothers were admitted to the Neonatal Ward at Hvidovre Hospital during 2007-2009. Obstetrical and maternal risk...... factors and neonatal growth and outcome at six weeks, five months and 12 months of age were collected. RESULTS: A total of 73 neonates and their mothers were included. Caesarean delivery was given in 78% of the cases. Maternal risk factors included gestational hypertension (33%), smoking (24...

  6. Human placental lactogen and unconjugated estriol concentrations in twin pregnancy: monitoring of fetal development in intrauterine growth retardation and single intrauterine fetal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, M; Kato, K; Bohnet, H G; Gerhard, I; Weise, H C; Leidenberger, F

    1986-11-01

    Human placental lactogen and unconjugated estriol concentrations in maternal serum were evaluated in 100 uneventful twin pregnancies, and these values were compared with those observed in 16 twin pregnancies associated with intrauterine growth retardation or single intrauterine fetal death. In pregnancies associated with intrauterine growth retardation (n = 8), human placental lactogen levels were at the lower limit of normal range for singleton pregnancies, whereas estriol levels were normal in most cases. When one of the fetuses had died before week 33 of pregnancy (n = 5), both human placental lactogen and estriol levels were low and they were almost at the levels in singleton pregnancy. When intrauterine fetal death occurred after week 36 of pregnancy (n = 3), both hormone levels remained normal until term. Thus human placental lactogen rather than estriol is a good indicator of intrauterine growth retardation in twin pregnancy. Both human placental lactogen and estriol are useful for the monitoring of the surviving fetus in the case of single intrauterine fetal death.

  7. Optimizing the definition of intrauterine growth restriction: the multicenter prospective PORTO Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, Julia

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) (PORTO Study), a national prospective observational multicenter study, was to evaluate which sonographic findings were associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies affected by growth restriction, originally defined as estimated fetal weight (EFW) <10th centile.

  8. Intrauterine growth standards: a cross-sectional study in a population of Nigerian newborns

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    Olugbenga A. Mokuolu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to define an intrauterine growth curve for a population of Nigerian newborn babies. A cross-sectional observational study design was adopted. Weight, length and head circumference were all measured in consecutive singleton deliveries at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 3-year period. Gestational age (GA of the babies was estimated from the last menstrual period or first trimester ultrasound. The estimates obtained were clinically validated using the Ballard score. Mean birth weights and percentiles of the weight, length and head circumferences for the respective GA were estimated using the SPSS 15 software package. A total of 5273 babies were recruited for the study with GA ranging from 25-44 weeks. Comparison of the mean birth weights of the various GA with the data from Denver, Colorado, showed that Nigerian babes tended to weigh less at the early GA, although these differences were not statistically significant. Between 26-36 weeks, the average weights of both sexes were similar; however, beyond this time point there was a consistent increase in the average weight of the males over the female babies. Growth curves for Nigerian newborn babies were generated and showed that the mean birth weight of Nigerian preterm babies was lighter than that of babies in Colorado. The impact of these differences on the classification of newborns will require further evaluation.

  9. Maternal health-related quality of life after induction of labor or expectant monitoring in pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth retardation beyond 36 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlenga, D.; Boers, K.E.; Birnie, E.; Mol, B.W.J.; Vijgen, S.C.M.; van der Post, J.A.M.; de Groot, C.J.; Rijnders, R.J.P.; Pernet, P.J.; Roumen, F.J.; Stigter, R.H.; Delemarre, F.M.C.; Bremer, H.A.; Porath, M.; Scherjon, S.A.; Bonsel, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) beyond 36 weeks of gestation are at increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal treatment in IUGR at term is highly debated. Results from the multicenter DIGITAT (Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial

  10. Maternal health-related quality of life after induction of labor or expectant monitoring in pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth retardation beyond 36 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlenga, D.; Boers, K.E.; Birnie, E.; Mol, B.W.J.; Vijgen, S.C.M.; van der Post, J.A.M.; de Groot, C.J.; Rijnders, R.J.P.; Pernet, P.J.; Roumen, F.J.; Stigter, R.H.; Delemarre, F.M.C.; Bremer, H.A.; Porath, M.; Scherjon, S.A.; Bonsel, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) beyond 36 weeks of gestation are at increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal treatment in IUGR at term is highly debated. Results from the multicenter DIGITAT (Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial

  11. Neonatal Outcomes of Late-Preterm Birth Associated or Not with Intrauterine Growth Restriction

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    Cristiane Ortigosa Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare neonatal morbidity and mortality between late-preterm intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA infants of the comparable gestational ages (GAs. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed neonatal morbidity and mortality of 50 singleton pregnancies involving fetuses with IUGR delivered between 34 and 36 6/7 weeks of GA due to maternal and/or fetal indication. The control group consisted of 36 singleton pregnancies with spontaneous preterm delivery at the same GA, in which the infant was AGA. Categorical data were compared between IUGR and AGA pregnancies by 2 analysis and Fisher's exact test. Ordinal measures were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results. The length of stay of newborns in the nursery, as well as the need for and duration of hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit, was longer in the group with IUGR. Transient tachypnea of the newborn or apnea rates did not differ significantly between the IUGR and AGA groups. IUGR infants were found to be at a higher risk of intraventricular hemorrhage. No respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary hemorrhage or bronchopulmonary dysplasia was observed in either group. The frequency of sepsis, thrombocytopenia and hyperbilirubinemia was similar in the two groups. Hypoglycemia was more frequent in the IUGR group. No neonatal death was observed. Conclusion. Our study showed that late-preterm IUGR infants present a significantly higher risk of neonatal complications when compared to late-preterm AGA infants.

  12. Antenatal taurine supplementation for improving brain ultrastructure in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Liu, L; Chen, H

    2011-05-05

    Changes in brain ultrastructure of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were explored and the effects of antenatal taurine supplementation on their brain ultrastructure were determined. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, IUGR model group and IUGR group given antenatal taurine supplements. Taurine was added to the diet of the taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/kg/d from 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes in the brains of the newborn rats. At the same time, brain cellular apoptosis was detected using TUNEL, and the changes in protein expression of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that: 1) The average body weight and cerebral weight were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the control group (ptaurine was supplemented (ptaurine supplementation. 3) The results of TUNEL showed that the counts of apoptotic brain cells in IUGR groups were significantly increased from those in control groups and that taurine could significantly decrease brain cell apoptosis (ptaurine-supplementation could significantly increase the counts of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive cells in fetal rats with IUGR (ptaurine can significantly improve the IUGR fetal brain development.

  13. Intrauterine Device Placement During Cesarean Delivery and Continued Use 6 Months Postpartum: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Erika E; Stuart, Gretchen S; Zerden, Matthew L; Garrett, Joanne M; Bryant, Amy G

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare intrauterine device (IUD) use at 6 months postpartum among women who underwent intracesarean delivery (during cesarean delivery) IUD placement versus women who planned for interval IUD placement 6 or more weeks postpartum. Methods In this non-blinded randomized trial women who were undergoing a cesarean and desired an IUD were randomized to intracesarean cesarean delivery or interval IUD placement. The primary outcome was IUD use at 6 months postpartum. A sample size of 112 (56 in each group) was planned to detect a 15% difference in IUD use at 6 months postpartum between groups. Results From March 2012 to June 2014, 172 women were screened and 112 women were randomized into the trial. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Data regarding IUD use at 6 months postpartum was available for 98 women, 48 and 50 women in the intracesarean and interval groups, respectively. A larger proportion of the women in the intracesarean group were using an IUD at 6 months postpartum ((40/48), 83%) compared to those in the interval group ((32/50) 64%, relative risk [RR]=1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02, 1.66). Among the 56 women randomized to interval IUD insertion, 22 (39%) of them never received an IUD; 14 (25%) never returned for IUD placement, five (9%) women declined an IUD, and three (5%) had a failed IUD placement. Conclusion IUD placement at the time of cesarean delivery leads to a higher proportion of IUD use at 6 months postpartum when compared to interval IUD placement. PMID:26241250

  14. The tissue and plasma concentration of polyols and sugars in sheep intrauterine growth retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R.H. Regnault (Timothy); C. Teng (Cecilia); B. de Vrijer (Barbra); H.L. Galan (Henry); R.B. Wilkening (Randall); F.C. Battaglia (Frederick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn an ovine model of placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth retardation (PI-IUGR), characterized by hypoxia, hypoglycemia and a significant reduction in fetal weight, we assessed alterations in fetal and placental polyols. Arterial maternal-fetal concentration differences of

  15. Influence of intrauterine growth restriction on renal function in the adult rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M. F.; Van Wijk, J. A. E.; Fodor, M.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H. A.

    2007-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been shown to influence renal development and lead to fewer nephrons. Data on long term renal function after IUGR are limited. We studied the effect on renal function of IUGR in aging rats. IUGR was induced using a model of bilateral uterine artery ligation

  16. The tissue and plasma concentration of polyols and sugars in sheep intrauterine growth retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R.H. Regnault (Timothy); C. Teng (Cecilia); B. de Vrijer (Barbra); H.L. Galan (Henry); R.B. Wilkening (Randall); F.C. Battaglia (Frederick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn an ovine model of placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth retardation (PI-IUGR), characterized by hypoxia, hypoglycemia and a significant reduction in fetal weight, we assessed alterations in fetal and placental polyols. Arterial maternal-fetal concentration differences of

  17. Delayed interval delivery after intrauterine infection and immature birth of twin 1--a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, M W; Pinas, I M; van Eijck, J

    1995-11-01

    We report a case of delayed interval delivery in a twin pregnancy complicated by rupture of membranes, intrauterine infection and birth of one twin at 21 weeks gestation. Tocolysis combined with antibiotics and corticosteroids successfully prolonged pregnancy for 73 days, allowing the second twin to mature and reach viability. At 31.5 weeks gestation, a 1890 g healthy male neonate was born with good Apgar scores. His postnatal course was uneventful. A literature review of several other cases of delayed interval delivery is presented. When multifetal pregnancies are complicated by immature birth of one fetus, delayed interval delivery may offer survival chances and favourable outcome for the remaining fetus(es).

  18. Placental mitochondrial content and function in intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandò, C; De Palma, C; Stampalija, T; Anelli, G M; Figus, M; Novielli, C; Parisi, F; Clementi, E; Ferrazzi, E; Cetin, I

    2014-02-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and pregnancy hypertensive disorders such as preeclampsia (PE) associated with IUGR share a common placental phenotype called "placental insufficiency", originating in early gestation when high availability of energy is required. Here, we assess mitochondrial content and the expression and activity of respiratory chain complexes (RCC) in placental cells of these pathologies. We measured mitochondrial (mt)DNA and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) expression in placental tissue and cytotrophoblast cells, gene and protein expressions of RCC (real-time PCR and Western blotting) and their oxygen consumption, using the innovative technique of high-resolution respirometry. We analyzed eight IUGR, six PE, and eight uncomplicated human pregnancies delivered by elective cesarean section. We found lower mRNA levels of complex II, III, and IV in IUGR cytotrophoblast cells but no differences at the protein level, suggesting a posttranscriptional compensatory regulation. mtDNA was increased in IUGR placentas. Both mtDNA and NRF1 expression were instead significantly lower in their isolated cytotrophoblast cells. Finally, cytotrophoblast RCC activity was significantly increased in placentas of IUGR fetuses. No significant differences were found in PE placentas. This study provides genuine new data into the complex physiology of placental oxygenation in IUGR fetuses. The higher mitochondrial content in IUGR placental tissue is reversed in cytotrophoblast cells, which instead present higher mitochondrial functionality. This suggests different mitochondrial content and activity depending on the placental cell lineage. Increased placental oxygen consumption might represent a limiting step in fetal growth restriction, preventing adequate oxygen delivery to the fetus.

  19. Influence of intrauterine and extrauterine growth on neurodevelopmental outcome of monozygotic twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Reolon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There have been indications that intrauterine and early extrauterine growth can influence childhood mental and motor function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of intrauterine growth restriction and early extrauterine head growth on the neurodevelopmental outcome of monozygotic twins. Thirty-six monozygous twin pairs were evaluated at the corrected age of 12 to 42 months. Intrauterine growth restriction was quantified using the fetal growth ratio. The effects of birth weight ratio, head circumference at birth and current head circumference on mental and motor outcomes were estimated using mixed-effect linear regression models. Separate estimates of the between (interpair and within (intrapair effects of each measure on development were thus obtained. Neurodevelopment was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition, by a psychologist blind to the exposure. A standardized neurological examination was performed by a neuropediatrician who was unaware of the exposures under investigation. After adjustment, birth weight ratio and head circumference at birth were not associated with motor or mental outcomes. Current head circumference was associated with mental but not with motor outcomes. Only the intrapair twin effect was significant. An increase of 1 cm in current head circumference of one twin compared with the other was associated with 3.2 points higher in Mental Developmental Index (95%CI = 1.06-5.32; P < 0.03. Thus, no effect of intrauterine growth was found on cognition and only postnatal head growth was associated with cognition. This effect was not shared by the co-twin.

  20. Rh System and Intrauterine Growth. Interaction with Season of Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gloria-Bottini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the hypothesis that maternal-fetal genetic differences in membrane transport and signal transduction may influence intrauterine development, the recent acquisition on transport function of Rh protein prompted us to study the relationship between joint maternal-fetal Rh phenotype and birth weight. Considering that metabolic effect of maternal-fetal competition could be amplified by environmental conditions, we have investigated possible seasonal effects on such relationship. We have studied 5291 infants born in Sardinia in the period January 1993–December 1996 and 984 infants born in Rome during 1996. In Rh(– mothers there is a significant association between season of birth and birth weight that shows the highest mean value in infants born in autumn (i.e. conceived in winter. The association is much more evident in male than in female infants. In male infants from Rh(– mothers, the association between birth weight and season is significant in Rh(+ male newborns only. Recent observations by our group in NIDDM suggest that glucose transport in RBC may be related to D protein, thus we propose an interpretation of the present observation in terms of transport function. When the density of D protein in the infant is greater than in the mother, the balance is in favour of the infant who may attain a significant developmental advantage when conceived in the cold season.

  1. Language development in preschool children born after asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simić Klarić, Andrea; Kolundžić, Zdravko; Galić, Slavka; Mejaški Bošnjak, Vlatka

    2012-03-01

    After intrauterine growth retardation, many minor neurodevelopmental disorders may occur, especially in the motor skills domain, language and speech development, and cognitive functions. The assessment of language development and impact of postnatal head growth in preschool children born with asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation. Examinees were born at term with birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age, parity and gender. Mean age at the time of study was six years and four months. The control group was matched according to chronological and gestational age, gender and maternal education with mean age six years and five months. There were 50 children with intrauterine growth retardation and 50 controls, 28 girls and 22 boys in each group. For the assessment of language development Reynell Developmental Language Scale, the Naming test and Mottier test were performed. There were statistically significant differences (p Children with neonatal complications had lower results (p development which is evident in preschool years. Slow postnatal head growth is correlated with poorer language outcome. Neonatal complications were negatively correlated with language comprehension and total expressive language. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Intrauterine growth retardation in Peru: stressors and perinatal outcomes Hospital Ministry of Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticona-Rendón, Manuel; Pacora-Portella, Percy; Huanco-Apaza, Diana; Ticona-Vildoso, Maricarmen

    2014-11-01

    To determine the incidence, stressors and perinatal outcomes of intrauterine growth retardation in the hospitals of the Ministry of Health of Peru. Cross-sectional, analytical, case-control study of 9777 infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in 29 hospitals of the Ministry of Health of Peru in 2010. The Peruvian intrauterine growth curve was used for the diagnosis of IUGR. IUGR newborns (cases) and newborns appropriate for gestational age (controls) were compared using the odds ratio (OR) with a confidence interval of 95%. The incidence of IUGR was 10.1%. The incidence by region was: 8.1% Coast, 11.8% Selva and Sierra 14.6%. The frequency of stress factors of IUGR were: nutrition (92%), psychological (84.8%), social (53%), anatomical (63.6%), toxic/environmental (52.9%), vascular (29,8%), infection (14.1%) and metabolic (0.3%). The newborn with IUGR had higher perinatal morbidity (OR=2,1) and mortality (OR=3.5). The healthy fetus is the result of a balance between stress factors and the adaptive response of the mother and fetus. When the response of physiological adaptation is overcome by stress factors, IUGR occurs.The political, psychological, nutritional and medical intervention before 12 weeks of gestation has the potential to change the harmful effects of all human stress factors that affect fetal growth.

  3. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Garcia-Canadilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral

  4. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Canadilla, Patricia; Rudenick, Paula A; Crispi, Fatima; Cruz-Lemini, Monica; Palau, Georgina; Camara, Oscar; Gratacos, Eduard; Bijnens, Bart H; Bijens, Bart H

    2014-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI) is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral-placental remodeling

  5. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR.

  6. Inflammatory Markers in the Second Trimester Prior to Clinical Onset of Preeclampsia, Intrauterine Growth Restriction, and Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Sofie; Salvig, Jannie Dalby; Aabye, Martine;

    2013-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation has been associated with pregnancy complications including preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and spontaneous preterm birth (SPB). In an unmatched, nested case-control study, we assessed the possible predictive association of maternal C-reactive prot......Low-grade inflammation has been associated with pregnancy complications including preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and spontaneous preterm birth (SPB). In an unmatched, nested case-control study, we assessed the possible predictive association of maternal C...

  7. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised before and during Pregnancy: Maternal and Perinatal Repercussions

    OpenAIRE

    S. B. Corvino; Volpato,G.T.; M.V.C. Rudge; Damasceno, D. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swimming before and during pregnancy on rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring. For this, nondiabetic and streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic (SD) pregnant rats were mated and generated offspring with appropriate (control, C) and small (IUGR) for pregnancy age, respectively. Following that, C and IUGR groups were further distributed into nonexercised control (C), exercised control (Cex), nonexercised IUGR (IU...

  8. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression in the human placenta : the effects of severe intrauterine growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, S-Y; Franklyn, J.A.; Pemberton, H. N.; Bulmer, J N; Visser, T.J.; McCabe, C. J.; Kilby, M. D.

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal fetal development, with even mild perturbation in maternal thyroid status in early pregnancy being associated with neurodevelopmental delay in children. Transplacental transfer of maternal THs is critical, with increasing evidence suggesting a role for T3 in development and function of the placenta itself, as well as in development of the central nervous and other organ systems. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with fetal hyp...

  9. MCT8 expression in human fetal cerebral cortex is reduced in severe intrauterine growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Shiao Y Chan; Hancox, Laura A; Martín-Santos, Azucena; Loubière, Laurence S; Walter, Merlin N.M.; González, Ana-Maria; Cox, Phillip M; Logan, Ann; Christopher J. McCabe; Franklyn, Jayne A; Kilby, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the thyroid hormone (TH) transporter, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), to human neurodevelopment is highlighted by findings of severe global neurological impairment in subjects with MCT8 (SLC16A2) mutations. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), usually due to uteroplacental failure, is associated with milder neurodevelopmental deficits, which have been partly attributed to dysregulated TH action in utero secondary to reduced circulating fetal TH concentrations and de...

  10. PREMATURE BIRTH, MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA AND INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Vasilenko

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectively studied following and outcome of pregnancy, women with non carrying of pregnancy, women that give birth to children with development delay (1 group and women that give birth in proper time (2 group. Premature birth arranged 4,4% of 2962 delivery. Fetus development delay was established by 38,1% of premature babies and by 10,5% of borne in proper time. Non carrying of pregnancy stipulated by motherґs urogenital infection, high expressed gestosis and others obsterical and extra genital complications. Each third of women that give birth to premature babies with development delay, have inflammatory overpatching in placenta, each fifth have morphological proved FPI. Realized researches allowed to conclude, that for decreasing frequencies of premature births and fetus development delay is necessary doing opportunely urogenital tract sonation, pre-clinical diagnostics of gestosis Noncarryng of pregnancy and treat this disease preventive.

  11. Evaluation of Feeding Torerance in Intrauterine Growth Restricted Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozzetti, V.

    2016-01-01

    Intra Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) is an important and common problem in obstetrics. The purpose of the present thesis was to investigate: 1. Feeding issues in IUGR preterm infants; 2. Clinical and strumental parameters as predictors of feeding tolerance in IUGR preterm infants; 3. Splanchnic a

  12. Elective Delivery at Term after a Previous Unexplained Intra-Uterine Fetal Death: Audit of Delivery Outcome at Tygerberg Hospital, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gebhardt

    Full Text Available To assess the delivery outcome in a pregnancy with a previous unexplained intra-uterine death by elective induction of labour at term.An audit of the pregnancy outcome of all women within the catchment area with a current singleton pregnancy; and a previous unexplained or unexplored singleton fetal demise ≥24 weeks (or 500 grams birth weight if gestation unknown after planned routine induction of labour at full term (39-40 weeks.During the audit period, 306 patients with a previous intra-uterine fetal death were referred for further management. Of these, 161 had a clear indication for earlier intervention and were excluded from the protocol. Of the remaining 145 patients, 9 met further exclusion criteria and there were 2 patients who defaulted. Forty-two of the remaining study patients (with no known previous medical problems developed complications during their antenatal course that necessitated a change in clinical management and earlier (<39 weeks delivery. Of the remaining 92 patients in the audit, 47 (51% went into spontaneous labour before their induction date; all 92 women delivered without major complications. There were no intra-uterine deaths prior to induction.Careful follow up at a high risk clinic identifies new or concealed maternal or fetal complications in 29% of patients with a previous intra-uterine death and no obvious maternal or fetal disease in the index pregnancy. When all risks are excluded and the pregnancy allowed to progress to full term (39-40 weeks before an induction is offered, 50% will go into spontaneous labour.

  13. [Maternal cannabis use and intra-uterine growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitian, C; Uzan, M; Tigaizin, A; Ducarme, G; Dauphin, H; Poncelet, C

    2006-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug, especially among young women in Western societies. The effects of cannabis use during pregnancy have been studied for many years. The vast majority of studies have shown a link between maternal consumption of cannabis and foetal development. Foetal growth restriction seems to be the major complication of cannabis exposure. Nevertheless, all these studies have suffered from several methodological biases. The maternal marijuana use should be first and foremost detected in pregnant women for a specific addiction management and pregnancy follow-up.

  14. 11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in human pregnancy and reduced expression in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, M; Kilby, M D; Somerset, D A; Howie, A J; Gupta, A; Wood, P J; Afnan, M; Stewart, P M

    1998-04-01

    The type 2 isoform of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD2), which inactivates cortisol (F) to cortisone (E), has been suggested to play a role in the ontogeny of the fetal pituitary-adrenal axis and also protect the developing fetus from the deleterious effects of circulating maternal glucocorticoids. The abundance of 11beta-HSD2 in the placenta and other fetal tissues was inferred from the F/E ratio in 17 term deliveries in both umbilical arterial (1.73 +/- 0.24, mean +/- SE) and umbilical venous blood (1.16 +/- 0.14) compared with adult peripheral venous blood (7.76 +/- 0.57, n = 70). Using sensitive assays for 11beta-HSD2 and an in-house human 11beta-HSD2 antibody, the expression and activity of this enzyme in fresh frozen human placenta increased progressively from first (8-12 weeks, n = 16) and second (13-20 weeks, n = 9) to third trimester (term) pregnancies (39-40 weeks, n = 50). Placental 11beta-HSD2 activity was significantly reduced in deliveries complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) [25-36 weeks, n = 12, activity 380 pmol/mg/h median (225-671; 95% confidence interval)], compared with the term deliveries [888 (725-1362)] and with appropriately grown pre-term deliveries [27-36 weeks, n = 14, activity 810 (585-1269)], P < 0.05. In human pregnancy placental 11beta-HSD2 activity increases markedly in the third trimester of pregnancy at a time when maternal circulating levels of glucocorticoid are rising. The finding of attenuated placental 11beta-HSD2 activity in IUGR suggests that glucocorticoids may, in part, contribute to impaired fetal growth and that this is closely controlled in normal gestation through placental 11beta-HSD2 expression.

  15. Postnatal growth after intrauterine growth restriction alters central leptin signal and energy homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérengère Coupé

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is closely linked with metabolic diseases, appetite disorders and obesity at adulthood. Leptin, a major adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, circulates in direct proportion to body fat stores, enters the brain and regulates food intake and energy expenditure. Deficient leptin neuronal signalling favours weight gain by affecting central homeostatic circuitry. The aim of this study was to determine if leptin resistance was programmed by perinatal nutritional environment and to decipher potential cellular mechanisms underneath.We clearly demonstrated that 5 months old IUGR rats develop a decrease of leptin sentivity, characterized by no significant reduction of food intake following an intraperitoneal injection of leptin. Apart from the resistance to leptin injection, results obtained from IUGR rats submitted to rapid catch-up growth differed from those of IUGR rats with no catch-up since we observed, for the first group only, fat accumulation, increased appetite for food rich in fat and increased leptin synthesis. Centrally, the leptin resistant state of both groups was associated with a complex and not always similar changes in leptin receptor signalling steps. Leptin resistance in IUGR rats submitted to rapid catch-up was associated with alteration in AKT and mTOR pathways. Alternatively, in IUGR rats with no catch-up, leptin resistance was associated with low hypothalamic expression of LepRa and LepRb. This study reveals leptin resistance as an early marker of metabolic disorders that appears before any evidence of body weight increase in IUGR rats but whose mechanisms could depend of nutritional environment of the perinatal period.

  16. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and the Fetal Programming of the Hedonic Response to Sweet Taste in Newborn Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Caroline; Agranonik, Marilyn; Portella, André Krumel; Filion, Françoise; Johnston, Celeste C.; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk for adult metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, which seems to be related to altered food preferences in these individuals later in life. In this study, we sought to understand whether intrauterine growth leads to fetal programming of the hedonic responses to sweet. Sixteen 1-day-old preterm infants received 24% sucrose solution or water and the taste reactivity was filmed and analyzed. Spearman correlation demonstrated a positive correlation between fetal growth and the hedonic response to the sweet solution in the first 15 seconds after the offer (r = 0.864, P = 0.001), without correlation when the solution given is water (r = 0.314, P = 0.455). In fact, the more intense the intrauterine growth restriction, the lower the frequency of the hedonic response observed. IUGR is strongly correlated with the hedonic response to a sweet solution in the first day of life in preterm infants. This is the first evidence in humans to demonstrate that the hedonic response to sweet taste is programmed very early during the fetal life by the degree of intrauterine growth. The altered hedonic response at birth and subsequent differential food preference may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in intrauterine growth-restricted individuals. PMID:22851979

  17. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and the Fetal Programming of the Hedonic Response to Sweet Taste in Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ayres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk for adult metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, which seems to be related to altered food preferences in these individuals later in life. In this study, we sought to understand whether intrauterine growth leads to fetal programming of the hedonic responses to sweet. Sixteen 1-day-old preterm infants received 24% sucrose solution or water and the taste reactivity was filmed and analyzed. Spearman correlation demonstrated a positive correlation between fetal growth and the hedonic response to the sweet solution in the first 15 seconds after the offer (r=0.864, P=0.001, without correlation when the solution given is water (r=0.314, P=0.455. In fact, the more intense the intrauterine growth restriction, the lower the frequency of the hedonic response observed. IUGR is strongly correlated with the hedonic response to a sweet solution in the first day of life in preterm infants. This is the first evidence in humans to demonstrate that the hedonic response to sweet taste is programmed very early during the fetal life by the degree of intrauterine growth. The altered hedonic response at birth and subsequent differential food preference may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in intrauterine growth-restricted individuals.

  18. Neuropsychological development in preschool children born with asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction and impact of postnatal head growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaric, Andrea Simić; Galić, Slavka; Kolundzić, Zdravko; Bosnjak, Vlatka Mejaski

    2013-07-01

    Neuropsychological development and the impact of postnatal head growth were studied in preschool children with asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction. Examinees born at term with a birth weight below the 10th percentile were matched to the control group according to chronological and gestational age, gender, and maternal education. Fifty children were in each group, with a mean age of 6 years, 4 months. The Touwen neurological examination, the Čuturić developmental test, an imitative hand positions test, and a visual attention test were performed. There were significant differences (Pdevelopment. Slow postnatal head growth is correlated with a poorer neuropsychological outcome.

  19. Genetic, metabolic and endocrine aspect of intrauterine growth restriction: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Sharma, Pradeep; Shastri, Sweta

    2017-10-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is defined as growth of fetus below its in-utero growth potential. Small for gestational age (SGA) is defined as newborn with birth weight less than 10th centile as per the gestational age, sex and race. There exists major difference between IUGR and SGA. IUGR infants have multiple short-term and long-term complications and IUGR is a silent cause of various morbidities and mortalities in these infants. IUGR/SGA is usually end results of maternal, placental, fetal and genetic causes. With the advance of molecular biology, the list genetic cause of IUGR is increasing and these genetic causes include maternal, placental and fetal genes. Several metabolic and endocrinal causes are also responsible to cause IUGR. In this review, we will try to cover genetic, metabolic and endocrinal factors that are responsible for IUGR.

  20. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation. Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals.

  1. [Ultrasonic and biochemical detection and prenatal treatments of intra-uterine fetal growth retardation (author's transl)].

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    Kaneoka, T; Aso, M; Nobori, M; Aonuma, M; Shimizu, H; Shirakawa, K

    1980-01-01

    Efficacy of three ultrasonographic and six biochemical methods for the detection of intrauterine growth retardation were assessed in prospective studies of 40 cases associated with short uterine fundal height less than -1.5 SD and/or small ultrasonographically determined total intrauterine volume (TIUV) less than -1 SD of normal populations. Prenatal treatments, consisting of bed rest, high protein diet, intravenous drip infusion of 10% maltose, 500 ml per day, for more than 12 days, etc., were administered on them. Fifteen cases (37.5%) delivered small-for-date infants, 9 of which complicated by toxemia of pregnancy. At the final determinations, small TIUV were found in all small-for-date cases (100%), short biparietal diameter 80.0%, and short longitudinal intracavital uterine length 53.3% of 15 small-for-date cases. In biochemical parameters, low maternal plasma estriol levels were found in 73.3%, low plasma human placental lactogen levels 66.7%, low urinary estriol excretion 53.3%, abnormal plasma alpha-fetoprotein levels 33.3%, and low plasma progesterone levels 20.0% of 15 small-for-date cases. Nineteen cases (47.5%) demonstrated remarkable increases in TIUV following prenatal treatments, and delivered appropriate-for-date infants. Despite of marked growth in biophysical parameters, abnormal biochemical values were mostly not improved by these treatments.

  2. An intrauterine catch-up growth regimen increases food intake and post-natal growth in rats.

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    Baik, M; Rajasekar, P; Lee, M S; Kim, J; Kwon, D-H; Kang, W; Nguyen, T H; Vu, T-T T

    2014-12-01

    Nutritional conditions during the intrauterine stage are an important developmental programming factor that can affect the growth and metabolic status during foetal development and permanently alter the phenotypes of newborn offspring and adults. This study was performed to examine the effects of intrauterine catch-up growth (IUCG) on food intake, post-natal body growth and the metabolic status of offspring and growing rats. Control pregnant rats were fed ad libitum during the entire gestation period. For the IUCG regimen, pregnant rats were fed 50% of the food of the controls from pregnancy days 4 through 11 (8 days), followed by ad libitum feeding from pregnancy days 12 through parturition. The birth weight of offspring was not affected by the IUCG regimen. At weaning, offspring from each treatment group were assigned to two groups and given either a normal diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks until 103 days of age. In the normal diet group, the IUCG offspring showed a 9.0% increase (P food intake, were 11.2% heavier (p food intake and post-natal body growth of offspring without inducing metabolic disorders such as obesity and insulin resistance. The IUCG nutritional regimen might be used to improve the food intake and post-natal body growth of domestic animals. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Modeling intrauterine growth retardation in rodents: Impact on pancreas development and glucose homeostasis.

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    Schwitzgebel, V M; Somm, E; Klee, P

    2009-05-25

    Fetal adverse environment, such as insufficient maternal nutrition, placental insufficiency and stress, alters organ development and leads to poor fetal growth, also called intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). IUGR is associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity as well as late-onset metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension in adulthood. In the rodent model, IUGR can be induced by fetal caloric restriction, fetal protein restriction, by exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids or by restricted placental blood supply. Such experimental IUGR models show a decreased beta cell mass and lower pancreatic insulin content. Recent research has provided an insight into the mechanisms responsible for the loss of beta cells. Here we review models that give further details about the molecular determinants of fetal and postnatal pancreatic islet development that are required to understand the consequences of fetal insults.

  4. Ultrasound predictors of mortality in monochorionic twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction.

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    Ishii, K; Murakoshi, T; Hayashi, S; Saito, M; Sago, H; Takahashi, Y; Sumie, M; Nakata, M; Matsushita, M; Shinno, T; Naruse, H; Torii, Y

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of ultrasound assessment to predict risk of mortality in expectantly managed monochorionic twin fetuses with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR). This was a retrospective study of 101 monochorionic twin pregnancies diagnosed with sIUGR before 26 weeks of gestation. All patients were under expectant management during the observation period. At the initial evaluation, the presence or absence of each of the following abnormalities was documented: oligohydramnios; stuck twin phenomenon; severe IUGR fetuses were evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of 101 sIUGR twins, 22 (21.8%) fetuses suffered intrauterine demise and nine (8.9%) suffered neonatal death; 70 (69.3%) survived the neonatal period. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the stuck twin phenomenon (odds ratio (OR): 14.5; 95% CI: 2.2-93.2; P = 0.006) and constantly absent diastolic flow in the umbilical artery (OR: 29.4; 95% CI: 3.3-264.0; P = 0.003) were significant risk factors for mortality. Not only abnormal Doppler flow in the umbilical artery but also severe oligohydramnios should be recognized as important indicators for mortality in monochorionic twins with sIUGR.

  5. Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

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    Andrea Ladinig

    Full Text Available The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1 were necropsied along with their fetuses 21 days later. Ovulation rates and litter size did not differ between groups, but fetuses from low birth weight gilts were shorter, lighter and demonstrated evidence of asymmetric growth with large brain:organ weight ratios (i.e. brain sparing. The number of intrauterine growth retarded fetuses, defined by brain:organ weight ratios greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean, was significantly greater in low, compared to high, birth weight gilts. Although γδ T cells significantly decreased over time in high compared to low birth weight gilts, viral load in serum and tissues, gilt serum cytokine levels, and litter outcome, including the percent dead fetuses per litter, did not differ by birth weight group. Thus, this study provided no substantive evidence that the severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is affected by dam birth weight. However, intrauterine growth retarded fetuses had lower viral loads in both fetal thymus and in endometrium adjacent to the umbilical stump. Crown rump length did not significantly differ between fetuses that survived and those that died at least one week prior to termination. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that birth weight is a transgenerational trait in pigs, and provides evidence that larger fetuses are more susceptible to transplacental PRRSv infection.

  6. Offspring metabolomic response to maternal protein restriction in a rat model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).

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    Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Courant, Frédérique; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Moyon, Thomas; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia; Coupé, Bérengère; Antignac, Jean-Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), along with postnatal growth trajectory, is closely linked with metabolic diseases and obesity at adulthood. The present study reports the time-dependent metabolomic response of male offspring of rat dams exposed to maternal adequate protein diet during pregnancy and lactation (CC) or protein deprivation during pregnancy only (IUGR with rapid catch-up growth, RC) or through pregnancy and lactation (IUGR with slow postnatal growth, RR). Plasma LC-HRMS metabolomic fingerprints for 8 male rats per group, combined with multivariate statistical analysis (PLS-DA and HCA), were used to study the impact of IUGR and postnatal growth velocity on the offspring metabolism in early life (until weaning) and once they reached adulthood (8 months). Compared with CC rats, RR pups had clear-cut alterations in plasma metabolome during suckling, but none at adulthood; in contrast, in RC pups, alterations in metabolome were minimal in early life but more pronounced in the long run. In particular, our results pinpoint transient alterations in proline, arginine, and histidine in RR rats, compared to CC rats, and persistent differences in tyrosine and carnitine, compared to RC rats at adulthood. These findings suggest that the long-term deregulation in feeding behavior and fatty acid metabolism in IUGR rats depends on postnatal growth velocity.

  7. Placental Expression Patterns of Galectin-1, Galectin-2, Galectin-3 and Galectin-13 in Cases of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hutter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Galectins (gal are members of the mammalian β-galactoside-binding proteins and recognize Galβ1-4GlcNAc and Galβ1-4GalNac (Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF sequences of several cell surface oligosaccharides. In this study, gal-1, -2, -3 and -13 were investigated systematically in the trophoblast and decidua compartment of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR placentas and normal third trimester control placentas and stratified by fetal gender and gestational age. Within this study, 29 third trimester placentas after delivery were analyzed. Fetal gender was equally divided within both groups, and immunohistochemical staining was analyzed according to fetal gender and gestational age. Double immune-fluorescence with trophoblast-specific markers was used to identify galectin-expressing cells at the feto-maternal interface in the decidua. Gal-3 was significantly downregulated only in the extravillous trophoblast of IUGR placentas. In contrast, expressions of gal-2 and gal-13 were downregulated in both villous and extravillous trophoblast cells of IUGR placentas. In addition, gal-2 and gal-13 showed a highly correlated expression scheme in the placenta. There are significant gender-specific expression patterns for single prototype galectins with downregulation of gal-2 and gal-13 of male gender placentas in cases of IUGR. Gal-3 as the chimera type galectin shows only little gender-specific differences in expression, which disappear in IUGR cases.

  8. Immediate Postpartum Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Insertions in Caesarean and Vaginal Deliveries: A Comparative Study of Follow-Up Outcomes

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    Nanda, Smiti; Gupta, Anjali; More, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Background. Immediate postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device (IPPIUCD) is a lucrative postpartum family planning method which provides effective reversible contraception to women in the delivery setting. Our aim was to study the clinical outcomes of IPPIUCD insertions and compare them as a factor of route of insertion (vaginal versus caesarean). Methods. This is a retrospective analytical study done in a tertiary care teaching institute. A Cohort of 593 vaginal and caesarean deliveries with IPPIUCD insertions, over a two-year period, was studied and compared for follow-up results. Outcome measures were safety (perforation, irregular bleeding, unusual vaginal discharge, and infection), efficacy (pregnancy, expulsions, and discontinuations), and incidence of undescended IUCD strings. Descriptives were calculated for various outcomes and chi square tests were used for comparison in between categorical variables. Results. Overall complication rates were low. No case of perforation or pregnancy was reported. Spontaneous expulsions were present in 5.3% cases and were significantly higher in vaginal insertions (p = 0.042). The incidence of undescended strings was high (38%), with highly significant difference between both groups (p = 0.000). Conclusion. IPPIUCD is a strong weapon in the family planning armoury and should be encouraged in both vaginal and caesarean deliveries. Early follow-up should be encouraged to detect expulsions and tackle common problems. PMID:27631023

  9. THE EFFECTS OF 3G EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID DAILY ON RECURRENCE OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH-RETARDATION AND PREGNANCY-INDUCED HYPERTENSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BULSTRARAMAKERS, MTEW; HUISJES, HJ; VISSER, GHA

    1995-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of addition of 3 g eicosapentaenoic acid daily to the diet, on recurrence rate of intrauterine growth retardation and pregnancy induced hypertension in a high risk population. Design Prospective, double blind, randomised multicentre study, Eicosapentaenoic acid or plac

  10. Differential Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction on the Regional Neurochemical Profile of the Developing Rat Brain.

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    Maliszewski-Hall, Anne M; Alexander, Michelle; Tkáč, Ivan; Öz, Gülin; Rao, Raghavendra

    2017-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) infants are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental deficits that suggest the hippocampus and cerebral cortex may be particularly vulnerable. Evaluate regional neurochemical profiles in IUGR and normally grown (NG) 7-day old rat pups using in vivo (1)H magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at 9.4 T. IUGR was induced via bilateral uterine artery ligation at gestational day 19 in pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams. MR spectra were obtained from the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum at P7 in IUGR (N = 12) and NG (N = 13) rats. In the cortex, IUGR resulted in lower concentrations of phosphocreatine, glutathione, taurine, total choline, total creatine (P regions. Persistent neurochemical changes may lead to cortex-based long-term neurodevelopmental deficits in human IUGR infants.

  11. Transferrin Sialylation in Smoking and Non-Smoking Pregnant Women with Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

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    Wrześniak, Marta; Kepinska, Marta; Bizoń, Anna; Milnerowicz-Nabzdyk, Ewa; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a glycosylated protein responsible for transporting iron. Various sialylation levels of Tf are observed during physiological and pathological processes. We studied if the changes in iron stores as well as tobacco smoke may have an impact on foetal development and in consequence lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the third trimester of pregnancy, lower levels of 4-sialoTf isoform and higher levels of 5-sialoTf were observed in the serum of non-smoking women with IUGR in comparison to the control group. On the day of labour, level of 2-sialoTf was significantly lower and level of 3-sialo was Tf higher in the serum of non-smoking women. Level of 4-sialo was found lower in the serum of smoking women with IUGR than in the control group. The observed changes may suggest a connection between iron stores, transport of iron to the foetus and foetal development.

  12. Is abnormal vaginal microflora a risk factor for intrauterine fetal growth restriction?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NatalijaVedmedovska; Dace Rezeberga; GilbertG G Donders

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To conduct a literature review in search of possible preventable causes for fetal growth restriction.Methods:We performed a systematic literature search regarding abnormal vaginal microflora and fetal growth encompassing the last 27-year (starting from 1986) in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central to study the evidence that abnormal vaginal microflora is may be related to diminished fetal growth or small for date birth.Results:Most of the 14 studies suggested a significant role of vaginal organisms in impaired fetal growth, unrelated to preterm birth. The neonatal outcome has shown to be largely linked to the preventable or foreseeable fetal factors, such as genetic abnormalities, but also ascending intrauterine infections. Our previous work suggested a role of vaginal organisms in adverse pregnancy outcome, not only preterm birth, but also impaired fetal growth.Conclusions:There is a need for cohort studies designed to unravel this link between abnormal microflora and FGR, in order to enable preventive actions to protect these small babies from severe damage and death by early screening and treatment.

  13. [Intrauterine growth and biochemical levels in cord blood samples in infants less than 31 weeks gestation].

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    Mena Nannig, Patricia; Cubillos Celis, M Paz; Toro Jara, Claudia; Zuñiga Vergara, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The use of greater amounts of protein and energy during the first week of life is associated with hypophosphataemia in extreme preterm babies. The lowest phosphorus levels are described in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) babies. To describe biochemistry levels in cord blood plasma in extreme premature, adequate and small for gestational age babies (AGA/SGA) and their relationship with plasma calcium and phosphorus levels during the first week of life. A descriptive clinical study was performed in the Neonatology Service at Hospital Dr. Sótero del Río during 2013 and 2014. A biochemical analysis of cord blood was performed on 43 premature babies, as well as plasma calcium and phosphorus levels during the first week. The adequacy for gestational age was obtained using Alarcón- Pittaluga growth curves. Statistical significance was P<.05. Cholesterol, transaminases, albumin and creatinine levels were similar for both AGA and SGA babies. Levels of pH, phosphorus, calcium and alkaline phosphatase were significantly lower in SGA babies. Urea nitrogen, uric acid and triglycerides levels were higher in SGA. The analysis during the first week showed a strong reduction in phosphorus levels, as well as an increase in calcium levels in proportion to the decrease in phosphorus in the SGA sub- group. Intrauterine malnutrition in preterm babies is expressed in the modulation of plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urea nitrogen, uric acid and triglycerides. During post-natal life, when nutritional intake begins, a decrease in phosphorus and an increase in calcium levels appear, consistent with insufficient phosphorus intake during this period. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Myocardial macronutrient transporter adaptations in the adult pregestational female intrauterine and postnatal growth-restricted offspring.

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    Abbasi, Afshan; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Shin, Bo-Chul; Jordan, Maria C; Roos, Kenneth P; Stahl, Andreas; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-06-01

    Associations between exponential childhood growth superimposed on low birth weight and adult onset cardiovascular disease with glucose intolerance/type 2 diabetes mellitus exist in epidemiological investigations. To determine the metabolic adaptations that guard against myocardial failure on subsequent exposure to hypoxia, we compared with controls (CON), the effect of intrauterine (IUGR), postnatal (PNGR), and intrauterine and postnatal (IPGR) calorie and growth restriction (n = 6/group) on myocardial macronutrient transporter (fatty acid and glucose) -mediated uptake in pregestational young female adult rat offspring. A higher myocardial FAT/CD36 protein expression in IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR, with higher FATP1 in IUGR, FATP6 in PNGR, FABP-c in PNGR and IPGR, and no change in GLUT4 of all groups was observed. These adaptive macronutrient transporter protein changes were associated with no change in myocardial [(3)H]bromopalmitate accumulation but a diminution in 2-deoxy-[(14)C]glucose uptake. Examination of the sarcolemmal subfraction revealed higher basal concentrations of FAT/CD36 in PNGR and FATP1 and GLUT4 in IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR vs. CON. Exogenous insulin uniformly further enhanced sarcolemmal association of these macronutrient transporter proteins above that of basal, with the exception of insulin resistance of FATP1 and GLUT4 in IUGR and FAT/CD36 in PNGR. The basal sarcolemmal macronutrient transporter adaptations proved protective against subsequent chronic hypoxic exposure (7 days) only in IUGR and PNGR, with notable deterioration in IPGR and CON of the echocardiographic ejection fraction. We conclude that the IUGR and PNGR pregestational adult female offspring displayed a resistance to insulin-induced translocation of FATP1, GLUT4, or FAT/CD36 to the myocardial sarcolemma due to preexistent higher basal concentrations. This basal adaptation of myocardial macronutrient transporters ensured adequate fatty acid uptake, thereby proving protective against

  15. Variables that affect the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in fetuses with anemia and intrauterine growth restriction.

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    Hanif, Farhan; Drennan, Kathrin; Mari, Giancarlo

    2007-09-01

    We have previously reported that the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) peak systolic velocity (PSV) increases in anemic fetuses and in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We hypothesized that the pathophysiology for the increased MCA PSV is different in anemic and IUGR fetuses. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the factor(s) among fetal umbilical vein blood pH, Po2, Pco2, and hemoglobin that might affect the MCA PSV in fetuses with anemia and IUGR. This study included two groups of fetuses. The first group included fetuses at risk for anemia because of red cell alloimmunization, whereas the second group included IUGR fetuses. For both groups of fetuses, we determined hemoglobin, umbilical vein blood gases -- at cordocentesis in anemic fetuses and immediately after cesarean delivery in IUGR fetuses -- and MCA PSV before cordocentesis, or before delivery. The relationship between MCA PSV and the hemoglobin, Po2, Pco2, and pH values for the anemic and the IUGR fetuses were assessed by regression analysis using multiples of the mean. There were 14 fetuses in the first group and 22 fetuses in the second group. In the first group, the only parameter that was related to MCA PSV was the fetal hemoglobin (R2 = 0.34; p < 0.05); in fetuses with IUGR, the Pco2 (R2 = 0.36; p < 0.01) and the PO2 (R2 = 0.30; p < 0.01) correlated well with the MCA PSV, whereas no relationship was found between the MCA PSV and the hemoglobin. The data indicate that the mechanism of high MCA PSV is different in anemic and nonanemic IUGR fetuses, and suggest that the process of cerebral autoregulation is present in the preterm IUGR fetus.

  16. Preliminary report of altered insulin secretion pattern in monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated with selective intrauterine growth restriction.

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    Chang, Yao-Lung; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Abufraijeh, Seham M; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Chao, An-Shine; Hsieh, Peter C C

    2017-02-01

    Fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have adaptive hormonal changes including changes in insulin, which may increase their future risks for developing diabetes mellitus. This study compared cord blood insulin concentrations in IUGR and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) fetuses in a monochorionic (MC) twin model. Ten pairs were classified as selective IUGR (sIUGR) based on having one twin weight below the 10th percentile and with an intertwin birth weight discordance>20%. Fourteen pairs without IUGR were included as a comparison group. Pregnancies with twin-twin transfusion syndrome, congenital structural malformations, and genetic abnormalities were excluded. Insulin and glucose concentrations were measured in cord venous blood at the time of delivery. Cord blood insulin concentrations of sIUGR fetuses were significantly lower than those of AGA counterpart fetuses in MC twins affected by sIUGR (5.1±4.1 mU/L, range: 0.7-9.9 mU/L for sIUGR fetuses and 12.2±7.6 mU/L, range: 3.5-23.7 mU/L for AGA fetuses, p=0.019). No significant difference in insulin concentrations between larger and smaller fetuses in MC twins without IUGR was observed. Insulin concentration was inversely correlated with gestational age of delivery in all fetuses except in those with sIUGR. We did not find any difference in cord blood glucose concentrations between the two fetuses in both groups. Our data show reduced insulin secretion and loss of the physiological decline in concentration over time as gestational age increases in fetuses with sIUGR compared to AGA counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Taiwan Association of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal health-related quality of life after induction of labor or expectant monitoring in pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth retardation beyond 36 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bijlenga (Denise); K.E. Boers (Kim); E. Birnie (Erwin); B.W.J. Mol (Ben); S.C.M. Vijgen (Sylvia); J.A.M. van der Post (Joris); C.J.M. de Groot (Christianne); R.J.P. Rijnders (Robbert); P.J. Pernet (Paula); F.J.M.E. Roumen (Frans); R.H. Stigter (Rob); F.M.C. Delemarre (Friso); H.A. Bremer (Henk); M. Porath (Martina); S.A. Scherjon (Sico); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) beyond 36 weeks of gestation are at increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal treatment in IUGR at term is highly debated. Results from the multicenter DIGITAT (Disproportionate Intrauterine Gr

  18. Maternal health-related quality of life after induction of labor or expectant monitoring in pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth retardation beyond 36 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bijlenga (Denise); K.E. Boers (Kim); E. Birnie (Erwin); B.W.J. Mol (Ben); S.C.M. Vijgen (Sylvia); J.A.M. van der Post (Joris); C.J.M. de Groot (Christianne); R.J.P. Rijnders (Robbert); P.J. Pernet (Paula); F.J.M.E. Roumen (Frans); R.H. Stigter (Rob); F.M.C. Delemarre (Friso); H.A. Bremer (Henk); M. Porath (Martina); S.A. Scherjon (Sico); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) beyond 36 weeks of gestation are at increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal treatment in IUGR at term is highly debated. Results from the multicenter DIGITAT (Disproportionate Intrauterine Gr

  19. Maternal health-related quality of life after induction of labor or expectant monitoring in pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth retardation beyond 36 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bijlenga (Denise); K.E. Boers (Kim); E. Birnie (Erwin); B.W.J. Mol (Ben); S.C.M. Vijgen (Sylvia); J.A.M. van der Post (Joris); C.J.M. de Groot (Christianne); R.J.P. Rijnders (Robbert); P.J. Pernet (Paula); F.J.M.E. Roumen (Frans); R.H. Stigter (Rob); F.M.C. Delemarre (Friso); H.A. Bremer (Henk); M. Porath (Martina); S.A. Scherjon (Sico); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) beyond 36 weeks of gestation are at increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal treatment in IUGR at term is highly debated. Results from the multicenter DIGITAT (Disproportionate Intrauterine

  20. Early Onset Intrauterine Growth Restriction in a Mouse Model of Gestational Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Dolores; Mascareño, Lilian; Salas, Francisca; Berkowitz, Loni; Santander, Nicolás; Quiroz, Alonso; Amigo, Ludwig; Valdés, Gloria; Rigotti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility to develop atherosclerosis is increased by intrauterine growth restriction and prenatal exposure to maternal hypercholesterolemia. Here, we studied whether mouse gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis affected fetal development and growth at different stages of gestation. Female LDLR KO mice fed a proatherogenic, high cholesterol (HC) diet for 3 weeks before conception and during pregnancy exhibited a significant increase in non-HDL cholesterol and developed atherosclerosis. At embryonic days 12.5 (E12.5), E15.5, and E18.5, maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were associated to a 22–24% reduction in male and female fetal weight without alterations in fetal number/litter or morphology nor placental weight or structure. Feeding the HC diet exclusively at the periconceptional period did not alter fetal growth, suggesting that maternal hypercholesterolemia affected fetal weight only after implantation. Vitamin E supplementation (1,000 UI of α-tocopherol/kg) of HC-fed females did not change the mean weight of E18.5 fetuses but reduced the percentage of fetuses exhibiting body weights below the 10th percentile of weight (HC: 90% vs. HC/VitE: 68%). In conclusion, our results showed that maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice were associated to early onset fetal growth restriction and that dietary vitamin E supplementation had a beneficial impact on this condition. PMID:25295255

  1. Early metabolic defects in dexamethasone-exposed and undernourished intrauterine growth restricted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Somm

    Full Text Available Poor fetal growth, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, is a worldwide health concern. IUGR is commonly associated with both an increased risk in perinatal mortality and a higher prevalence of developing chronic metabolic diseases later in life. Obesity, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome could result from noxious "metabolic programming." In order to better understand early alterations involved in metabolic programming, we modeled IUGR rat pups through either prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoid (dams infused with dexamethasone 100 µg/kg/day, DEX or prenatal undernutrition (dams feeding restricted to 30% of ad libitum intake, UN. Physiological (glucose and insulin tolerance, morphometric (automated tissue image analysis and transcriptomic (quantitative PCR approaches were combined during early life of these IUGR pups with a special focus on their endocrine pancreas and adipose tissue development. In the absence of catch-up growth before weaning, DEX and UN IUGR pups both presented basal hyperglycaemia, decreased glucose tolerance, and pancreatic islet atrophy. Other early metabolic defects were model-specific: DEX pups presented decreased insulin sensitivity whereas UN pups exhibited lowered glucose-induced insulin secretion and more marked alterations in gene expression of pancreatic islet and adipose tissue development regulators. In conclusion, these results show that before any catch-up growth, IUGR rats present early physiologic, morphologic and transcriptomic defects, which can be considered as initial mechanistic basis of metabolic programming.

  2. Intrauterine growth curve in a low-income population in the outskirts of the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Schlesinger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To design an intrauterine growth curve of an Institutionthat serves the needy population of the city of Sao Paulo andcompare it to the intrauterine growth curves of the city of Denverand of the State of California which are considered classic in theliterature, and to verify whether the small-for-gestational-ageinfants classified by the different intrauterine growth curves presenta higher prevalence of birth asphyxia. Methods: Retrospectivestudy including data relative to weight, gestational age calculatedby the Capurro method, and 1 and 5-minute Apgar score, fromJune 2003 to December 2003, in a total of 1012 newborn infantsbetween 35 and 42 weeks of gestational age. The intrauterinegrowth curves were designed with data imported from the EPI-Info6.0™ software. The 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of birth weight foreach gestational age as from the 35th week were calculated, andthe asphyxiated newborns among the small for gestational agewere compared with the group formed by the appropriate and thelarge for gestational age classified by the different curves. The chisquare test was used and p values < 0.05 were consideredsignificant. Results: The intrauterine growth curve of the Institutionwas narrower than that of Denver. When compared to the Californiacurve, we verified that the infants were classified as small-forgestational-age and large-for-gestational-age with lower values.Using Denver, the Institution, and California curves 2.9%, 9.5%, and19.9% of the infants were classified as small-for-gestational-age,respectively. Conclusions: The values obtained for the Institutioncurves were different from those of Denver and California curves. Alarger number of asphyxiated infants was found among the smallfor gestational age classified by the Denver intrauterine growthcurve than among those classified by the other two curves.

  3. What can we do to reduce the associated costs in induction of labour of intrauterine growth restriction foetuses at term? A cost-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro-Gómez, Jorge; Garrido-Oyarzún, María Fernanda; Rodríguez-Marín, Ana Belén; de la Torre González, Antonio Jesús; Arjona-Berral, José Eduardo; Castelo-Branco, Camil

    2017-07-11

    To evaluate the costs associated with induction of labour in intrauterine growth restriction fetuses comparing different procedures. 150 pregnancies at term diagnosed with intrauterine growth restriction and indication for induction of labour were included. 24 were ripened with misoprostol 25 μg tablets, 24 with dinoprostone 10 mg vaginal insert, and 77 with Cook(®) cervical ripening balloon. To determine the costs of induction of labour, method of induction, intrapartum medication, epidural analgesia, type of delivery, and maternal and neonatal admissions were considered. Statistical analysis was performed using the G-Stat 2.0 free statistical software. ANOVA test was used for comparisons between quantitative parametric variables. Chi-squared test or Fisher test was used for qualitative variables. A value of p Costs related to maternal admissions were higher in CG (475.13 ± 146.95$) than dinoprostone group (475.13 ± 146.95$) or MG (427.97 ± 112.65$) (p = 0.03). Total costs in misoprostol group (2765.18 ± 495.38$) were lower than in the dinoprostone group (3075.774 ± 896.14$) or Cook(®) balloon group (3228.02 ± 902.06$) groups. Misoprostol for induction of labour had lower related costs than dinoprostone or Cook(®) balloon, with similar obstetrical and perinatal outcomes.

  4. Fibrocyte-like cells from intrauterine growth restriction placentas have a reduced ability to stimulate angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Meghan R; Winkler-Lowen, Bonnie; Jiang, Yanyan; Guilbert, Larry J; Davidge, Sandra T

    2013-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common complication of pregnancy whereby the fetus fails to achieve its genetic growth potential. Malformation of the placental vasculature is observed in IUGR and may be due to the development of the placenta in a chronically hypoxic environment. Recently, we identified that the predominant stromal cells in the angiogenic zones of the placenta are fibrocyte-like cells. The conditioned medium from fibrocyte-like cells (FcCM) has been shown to stimulate angiogenesis in vitro. Thus, we hypothesized that FcCM from IUGR cells would have a reduced ability to stimulate angiogenesis and that chronic hypoxia would decrease the ability of both normal and IUGR fibrocyte-like cells to stimulate angiogenesis. IUGR FcCM had a reduced ability to stimulate endothelial tubule-like structure formation and an increased ability to stimulate endothelial migration compared with normal FcCM. However, normal and IUGR FcCM produced in chronic hypoxia did not alter endothelial proliferation, migration, or tubule-like structure formation. IUGR FcCM was found to have reduced levels of the pro-angiogenic cytokine IL-8 and increased levels of the anti-angiogenic factors activin-A and pigment epithelium-derived growth factor. Thus, alterations in the ability of IUGR fibrocyte-like cells to stimulate angiogenesis may contribute to the development of vascular malformation in IUGR, but in vitro these changes cannot be attributed to a chronically hypoxic environment.

  5. An intrauterine ultrasound applicator for targeted delivery of thermal therapy in conjunction with HDR brachytherapy to the cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Jeffery H.; Juang, Titania; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.-Chow Joe; Diederich, Chris J.

    2009-02-01

    An intracavitary hyperthermia applicator for targeted heat delivery to the cervix was developed based on a linear array of sectored tubular ultrasound transducers that provides truly 3-D heating control (angular and along the length). A central conduit can incorporate an HDR source for sequential or simultaneous delivery of heat and radiation. Hyperthermia treatment volumes were determined from brachytherapy treatment planning data and used as a basis for biothermal simulations analyzing the effects of device parameters, tissue properties, and catheter materials on heating patterns. Devices were then developed with 1-3 elements at 6.5-8 MHz with 90-180° sectors and a 15-35 mm heating length, housed within a 6-mm diameter water-cooled PET catheter. Directional heating from sectored transducers could extend lateral penetration of therapeutic heating (41°C) >2 cm while maintaining rectum and bladder temperatures within 12 mm below thermal damage thresholds. Imaging artifacts were evaluated with standard CT, cone beam CT, and MR images. MR thermal imaging was used to demonstrate shaping of heating profiles in axial and coronal slices with artifact <2 mm from the device. The impact of the high-Z applicator materials on the HDR dose distribution was assessed using a well-type ionization chamber and was found to be less than 6% attenuation, which can readily be accounted for with treatment planning software. The intrauterine ultrasound device has demonstrated potential for 3-D conformal heating of clinical tumors in the delivery of targeted hyperthermia in conjunction with brachytherapy to the cervix.

  6. Predictiveness of sonographic fetal weight estimation as a function of prior probability of intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, N V; Levisky, J S; Shearer, D M; Morris, K C; Hansberry, P A

    1988-06-01

    We evaluated the predictiveness of sonographically estimated fetal weight as a function of the estimation of probability of having intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) before obtaining an ultrasound scan (prior probability). The value of the estimated fetal weight resided more in its high specificity than in its sensitivity, hence in its ability to confirm that the fetus is normal. The predictiveness of the method was further enhanced when the fetal weight estimation was placed in the context of the prior probability of IUGR. In particular, the positive predictive value of the test as well as the likelihood of having a growth-retarded infant in spite of an estimated fetal weight within the normal range were considerably higher as the prior probability of IUGR increased. Since the obstetrician using all available evidence is likely to form a rather good estimate of the possibility of IUGR before ordering a scan, this improvement in the predictiveness of estimated fetal weight through a Bayesian approach can be advantageously applied to ultrasound analysis and can effectively support clinical decision making.

  7. New computerized fetal heart rate analysis for surveillance of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, E A; Lobmaier, S; Fischer, T; Schneider, R; Bauer, A; Schneider, K T; Schmidt, G

    2011-05-01

    Decreased fetal heart rate variability is associated with higher perinatal morbidity and mortality in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). This study used a new method [phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA)] to calculate acceleration- and deceleration-related fluctuations of the fetal heart rate. Cardiotocograms from 74 growth-restricted and 161 normal fetuses were included. Both groups were matched for gestational age. The transformed PRSA signal was quantified by the acceleration-related parameter-averaged acceleration capacity (AAC) and compared to the standard short-term variation (STV). Mann-Whitney test and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used for statistical analysis. For AAC, the median values of the IUGR group and control group were 1.97 bpm [interquartile range (IQR): 1.66-2.23] and 2.49 bpm (IQR: 2.24-2.72), respectively. For STV, these values were 5.44 ms (IQR: 4.49-7.38) and 7.79 ms (IQR: 6.35-9.66), respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 81.4% for AAC and 70.5% for STV. The results of AAC are in both groups comparable to STV. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the association of AAC with the clinical outcome of the newborn. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Intra-uterine Growth Restriction Downregulates the Hepatic Toll Like Receptor-4 Expression and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Equils

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal starvation is a significant cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR in the world and increases the risk of infection in the neonate. We examined the effect of maternal starvation on Toll like receptor (TLR4 expression in hepatic, splenic and intestinal tissues obtained from the adult IUGR offspring of prenatal calorie restricted rats. The hepatic TLR4 protein concentration was undetectable in the IUGR rats that had restricted milk intake during the suckling period (SM/SP; n = 4, p < 0.05 as compared to the normal growth controls (CM/CP; n=4, and access to ad lib milk intake during the sucking period partially corrected the hepatic TLR4 expression (SM/CP; n = 4. IUGR had no effect on the splenic (n = 4 or intestinal (n = 4 TLR4 mRNA levels. In the liver, IUGR led to a 20% increase in baseline tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α mRNA expression ( p < 0.03 and a 70% increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β mRNA expression ( p < 0.008 as compared to the control rats (CM/CP; n = 7. LPS-induced hepatic TNF-α release was significantly higher in SM/SP as compared to CM/CP. We propose that IUGR dysregulates TLR4 expression and function in the offspring, which may help explain the increased risk of Gram-negative sepsis and inflammatory diseases in this population.

  9. Temporal proteomic analysis reveals continuous impairment of intestinal development in neonatal piglets with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Weizong; Lin, Gang; Li, Defa; Wu, Guoyao; Wang, Junjun

    2010-02-01

    Efficiency of nutrient utilization is reduced in neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) compared with those with a normal birth weight (NBW). However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we applied temporal proteomic approach, coupled with histological and biochemical analyses, to study dynamic changes of the proteome in the small intestinal mucosa of IUGR piglets during the nursing period (Days 1, 7 and 21). We identified 56 differentially expressed protein spots between IUGR and NBW piglets. These proteins participate in key biological processes, including (1) absorption, digestion and transport of nutrients; (2) cell structure and motility; (3) glucose and energy metabolism; (4) lipid metabolism; (5) amino acid metabolism; (6) mineral and vitamin metabolism; (7) cellular redox homeostasis; (8) stress response; and (9) apoptosis. The results of our temporal proteomics analysis reveal continuous impairment of intestinal development in neonatal piglets with IUGR. The findings have important implications for understanding metabolic defects in the small intestine of IUGR neonates and are expected to provide new strategies to improve their survival and growth.

  10. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised at Pregnancy: Maternal-Fetal Repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, S B; Netto, A O; Sinzato, Y K; Campos, K E; Calderon, I M P; Rudge, M V C; Volpato, G T; Zambrano, E; Damasceno, D C

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of swimming in pregnant rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring, IUGR rats were obtained using the streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic (SD) rats. In this study, the nondiabetic parental generation presented 10 rats and diabetic parental generation presented 116 rats. Of these, the mated nondiabetic female rats were 10 and the number of diabetic rats was 45. In relation to term pregnancy, there were 10 animals in the nondiabetic group and 15 rats in the diabetic group. In the offspring of SD rats (IUGR group), 43 females were classified as small for pregnancy age, 19 rats were classified as appropriate for pregnancy age, and 0 female was classified as large for pregnancy age. The nondiabetic and SD pregnant rats generated offspring with appropriate (control [C]) and small (IUGR) weight for pregnancy age, respectively. At adult life, the C group was maintained as nonexercised C group and IUGR rats were distributed into 2 subgroups, namely, nonexercised (IUGR) and exercised (IUGRex). The rate of mated rats in the IUGR group was reduced compared to the C group. During pregnancy, the IUGR rats presented hyperinsulinemia, impaired reproductive outcomes, decreased body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperlactacidemia. The IUGRex presented reduced insulin and triglyceride levels. Thus, swimming improved lipid metabolism and increased insulin sensitivity. However, the offspring showed retarded growth, reinforcing the need to stimulate the exercise practice in women under supervision with different professional expertise to promote appropriate gestational conditions and improve perinatal outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Developmental programming in response to intrauterine growth restriction impairs myoblast function and skeletal muscle metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, D T; Macko, A R; Nearing, M; Chen, X; Rhoads, R P; Limesand, S W

    2012-01-01

    Fetal adaptations to placental insufficiency alter postnatal metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle by reducing glucose oxidation rates, impairing insulin action, and lowering the proportion of oxidative fibers. In animal models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), skeletal muscle fibers have less myonuclei at birth. This means that myoblasts, the sole source for myonuclei accumulation in fibers, are compromised. Fetal hypoglycemia and hypoxemia are complications that result from placental insufficiency. Hypoxemia elevates circulating catecholamines, and chronic hypercatecholaminemia has been shown to reduce fetal muscle development and growth. We have found evidence for adaptations in adrenergic receptor expression profiles in myoblasts and skeletal muscle of IUGR sheep fetuses with placental insufficiency. The relationship of β-adrenergic receptors shifts in IUGR fetuses because Adrβ2 expression levels decline and Adrβ1 expression levels are unaffected in myofibers and increased in myoblasts. This adaptive response would suppress insulin signaling, myoblast incorporation, fiber hypertrophy, and glucose oxidation. Furthermore, this β-adrenergic receptor expression profile persists for at least the first month in IUGR lambs and lowers their fatty acid mobilization. Developmental programming of skeletal muscle adrenergic receptors partially explains metabolic and endocrine differences in IUGR offspring, and the impact on metabolism may result in differential nutrient utilization.

  12. Developmental Programming in Response to Intrauterine Growth Restriction Impairs Myoblast Function and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Yates

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal adaptations to placental insufficiency alter postnatal metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle by reducing glucose oxidation rates, impairing insulin action, and lowering the proportion of oxidative fibers. In animal models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, skeletal muscle fibers have less myonuclei at birth. This means that myoblasts, the sole source for myonuclei accumulation in fibers, are compromised. Fetal hypoglycemia and hypoxemia are complications that result from placental insufficiency. Hypoxemia elevates circulating catecholamines, and chronic hypercatecholaminemia has been shown to reduce fetal muscle development and growth. We have found evidence for adaptations in adrenergic receptor expression profiles in myoblasts and skeletal muscle of IUGR sheep fetuses with placental insufficiency. The relationship of β-adrenergic receptors shifts in IUGR fetuses because Adrβ2 expression levels decline and Adrβ1 expression levels are unaffected in myofibers and increased in myoblasts. This adaptive response would suppress insulin signaling, myoblast incorporation, fiber hypertrophy, and glucose oxidation. Furthermore, this β-adrenergic receptor expression profile persists for at least the first month in IUGR lambs and lowers their fatty acid mobilization. Developmental programming of skeletal muscle adrenergic receptors partially explains metabolic and endocrine differences in IUGR offspring, and the impact on metabolism may result in differential nutrient utilization.

  13. An evaluation of fetal glucogenesis in intrauterine growth-retarded pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, A M; Cetin, I; Davoli, E; Baggiani, A M; Fanelli, R; Fennessey, P V; Battaglia, F C; Pardi, G

    1993-07-01

    The presence of fetal glucogenesis was evaluated in nine patients with pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) at the time of fetal blood sampling (FBS) between 29 and 35 weeks of pregnancy. Eight were singleton pregnancies and one was a twin pregnancy in which blood samples were obtained from both twins. A maternal primed-constant infusion of D(U-13C]glucose was performed, and the presence of fetal glucogenesis was assessed by a comparison of steady-state maternal and fetal glucose enrichments. No significant difference was present between maternal and fetal molar percent excess ([MPE] P = .97), and the mean fetal to maternal (F/M) MPE ratio (0.99 +/- 0.01) was not significantly different from 1 (P = .76). F/M MPE ratio was independent of the time of FBS and umbilical venous glucose and lactate concentrations. Thus fetal glucogenesis is not demonstrable in a group of fairly severe growth-retarded fetuses after an overnight fast with this relatively noninvasive approach.

  14. Synergistic effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and lipopolysaccharide on preterm delivery and intrauterine fetal death in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Ma, Zhenguo; Kou, Hao; Sun, Rongze; Yang, Hanxiao; Smith, Charles Vincent; Zheng, Jiang; Wang, Hui

    2013-08-29

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of death for newborn infants, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is commonly used to induce preterm delivery in experimental animals. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread and occur in foods, herbs, and other plants. This study was to investigate the synergistic effects of LPS and two representative PAs, retrorsine (RTS) and monocrotaline (MCT), on preterm delivery and fetal death. Pregnant Kunming mice were divided into seven groups: control, RTS, MCT, LPS, RTS+LPS and two MCT+LPS groups. Animals in PAs and PAs+LPS groups were dosed intragastrically with RTS (10mg/kg) or MCT (20 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 9 to GD16; mice given LPS were injected intraperitoneally with 150 μg/kg on GD15.5. Latencies to delivery, numbers of pups live and dead at birth were recorded, and livers of live neonates were collected. The incidence of LPS-induced preterm birth was enhanced in dams pretreated with MCT, and combination of PAs and LPS increased fetal mortality from PAs. The enhancement of LPS-induced preterm delivery and fetal demise in animals exposed chronically to PAs and other substances found in foods and beverages consumed widely by humans merits further focused investigation.

  15. INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION AND ITS IMPACT ON CHILDREN'S HEALTH IN LATER LIFE. THE POSSIBILITY OF NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Belousova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sources of development, homeostasis and metabolism habits, long-term effects on the health of infants delivered with intrauterine growth retardation are considered. Principals and aspects of nutrition choice for these particular infants as well as some controversial aspects on this topic are discussed. Research data represents nutrition of newborns and up to 3 months infants, including those with the IGR and moderate postnatal inanition, fed with goat milk based formula, containing pre- and probiotics. 

  16. Intestinal proteomics in pig models of necrotising enterocolitis, short bowel syndrome and intra-uterine growth restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Pingping; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), short bowel syndrome (SBS) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are three conditions associated with intestinal dysfunction in newborn infants, particularly those born preterm. Piglet (Sus scrofa) models have recently been developed for NEC, SBS and IUGR, a......, but only supplement, classical hypothesis-driven research that investigate disease mechanisms using a single or few endpoints. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Assessment of Fetal Autonomic Nervous System Activity by Fetal Magnetocardiography: Comparison of Normal Pregnancy and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To clarify the developmental activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) of the normal fetus and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) cases using fetal magnetocardiography (FMCG). Subjects and Methods. Normal pregnancy (n = 35) and IUGR (n = 12) cases at 28–39 and 32–37 weeks of gestation, respectively, were included in this study. The R-R interval variability was used to calculate the coefficient of variance (CVRR) and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio. Results. The ...

  18. Features of newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (according to the data of perinatal center of the Saratov region

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    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify risk factors that adversely affect the development of fetus and child small for gestational age; to assess the incidence of the intrauterine development of fetus and newborn; to analyze the health indicators of these children. Material and Methods. Cases of 226 children (6.6% with diagnosed intrauterine growth restriction of the fetus were examined, including 134 of prematurity (59%. Results. The most common risk factors for the intrauterine development of the fetus were: violation of the utero-placental circulation — 196 cases, the uterine scar — 78 women, urinary tract infection — 94. Extragenital pathology was found in all women, the threat of termination of pregnancy in 109 cases, medical history of abortions in 106 women and 83 anaemia in women. Birth asphyxia was observed in 102 children (45%, prematurity in 71 cases (31.4%. Asphyxia of severe degree accounted 1 (0.5% premature and 1 (0.45% full-term baby. Asphyxia of moderate severity (4-6 points accounted 70 (30.9% preterm and 31 (13.7% full-term infants. The most common form of the intrauterine development of the fetus asymmetrical revealed 178 cases (79.1%. Conclusion: Perinatal factors such as medical abortion, urinary tract infection, extragenital pathology are preventable. The predominant form of the intrauterine development of the fetus is asymmetric form, symmetric and dysplastic revealed to a greater degree in premature infants. Children with low weight for gestational age should be adequately provided with the necessary nutrients, fortifiers, vitamins and in the process of rehabilitation — cerebropro-tective therapy.

  19. Epigenetic Characterization of CDKN1C in Placenta Samples from Non-syndromic Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Abad, Miriam; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Monk, David

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C) gene is expressed from the maternal allele and is located within the centromeric imprinted domain at chromosome 11p15. It is a negative regulator of proliferation, with loss-of-function mutations associated with the overgrowth disorder Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. Recently, gain-of-function mutations within the PCNA domain have been described in two disorders characterized by growth failure, namely IMAGe (intra-uterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita and genital abnormalities) syndrome and Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS). Over-expression of CDKN1C by maternally inherited microduplications also results in SRS, suggesting that in addition to activating mutations this gene may regulate growth by changes in dosage. To determine if CDKN1C is involved in non-syndromic IUGR we compared the expression and DNA methylation levels in a large cohort of placental biopsies from IUGR and uneventful pregnancies. We observe higher levels of expression of CDKN1C in IUGR placentas compared to those of controls. All placenta biopsies heterozygous for the PAPA repeat sequence in exon 2 showed appropriate monoallelic expression and no mutations in the PCNA domain were observed. The expression profile was independent of both genetic or methylation variation in the minimal CDKN1C promoter interval and of methylation of the cis-acting maternally methylated region associated with the neighboring KCNQ1OT1 non-coding RNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed binding sites for CTCF within the unmethylated CDKN1C gene body CpG island and putative enhancer regions, associated with the canonical enhancer histone signature, H3K4me1 and H3K27ac, located ∼58 and 360 kb away. Using 3C-PCR we identify constitutive higher-order chromatin loops that occur between one of these putative enhancer regions and CDKN1C in human placenta tissues, which we propose facilitates expression. PMID:27200075

  20. Epigenetic characterization of CDKN1C in placenta samples from non-syndromic intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eMonk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK-inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C gene is expressed from the maternal allele and is located within the centromeric imprinted domain at chromosome 11p15. It is a negative regulator of proliferation, with loss-of-function mutations associated with the overgrowth disorder Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Recently, gain-of-function mutations within the PCNA domain have been described in two disorders characterized by growth failure, namely IMAGe (intra-uterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita and genital abnormalities syndrome and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS. Over-expression of CDKN1C by maternally inherited microduplications also results in SRS, suggesting that in addition to activating mutations this gene may regulate growth by changes in dosage. To determine if CDKN1C is involved in non-syndromic IUGR we compared the expression and DNA methylation levels in a large cohort of placental biopsies from IUGR and uneventful pregnancies. We observe higher levels of expression of CDKN1C in IUGR placentas compared to those of controls. All placenta biopsies heterozygous for the PAPA repeat sequence in exon 2 showed appropriate monoallelic expression and no mutations in the PCNA domain were observed. The expression profile was independent of both genetic or methylation variation in the minimal CDKN1C promoter interval and of methylation of the cis-acting maternally methylated region associated with the neighboring KCNQ1OT1 non-coding RNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed binding sites for CTCF within the unmethylated CDKN1C gene body CpG island and putative enhancer regions, associated with the canonical enhancer histone signature, H3K4me1 and H3K27ac, located ~58 and 360 kb away. Using 3C-PCR we identify constitutive higher-order chromatin loops that occur between one of these putative enhancer regions and CDKN1C in human placenta tissues, which we propose facilitates expression.

  1. Sotos syndrome: An unusual presentation with intrauterine growth restriction, generalized lymphedema, and intention tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Jessie; Burgess, Bronwyn; Crock, Patricia; Goel, Himanshu

    2016-04-01

    Sotos syndrome is a childhood overgrowth syndrome characterized clinically by a distinctive facial gestalt, advanced bone age, childhood overgrowth, and non-progressive developmental delay; and genetically by haploinsufficiency of the Nuclear receptor binding SET Domain 1 (NSD1) gene. Generalized lymphedema has not previously been associated with Sotos syndrome. Generalized lymphedema has been associated with mutations in several genes including FLT4. This gene is involved in the regulation of VEGFR3, a key governor of lymphatic-endothelial cell development and function. We report on a 28-year-old Caucasian female with a de novo NSD1 intragenic mutation, c.5841_5848dup: p.Leu1950Serfs*22, who presented with characteristic clinical features of Sotos syndrome. Unusually this case includes atypical features of intrauterine growth retardation and post-pubertal onset of primary lymphedema. To our knowledge, no link between Sotos syndrome and generalized lymphedema has previously been described in the literature. We propose a mechanism by which disruptions in NSD1 gene may lead to generalized lymphedema. Aberrations of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-signaling pathway has been identified in both Sotos syndrome and lymphedema. This finding extends the known phenotype of Sotos syndrome through the inclusion of lymphedema. This case also indicates that presence of low birth weight does not exclude the possibility of Sotos syndrome.

  2. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Impairs Small Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Neonatal Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Zhong, Xiang; Ahmad, Hussain; Li, Wei; Wang, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2014-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a very common problem in both piglet and human neonate populations. We hypothesized that IUGR neonates have impaired intestinal mucosal immunity from birth. Using neonatal piglets as IUGR models, immune organ weights, the weight and length of the small intestine (SI), intestinal morphology, intraepithelial immune cell numbers, levels of cytokines and immunoglobulins, and the relative gene expression of cytokines in the SI were investigated. IUGR neonatal piglets were observed to have lower absolute immune organ weight and SI length, decreased relative weights of the thymus, spleen, mesenteric lymph node, and thinner but longer SIs. Damaged and jagged villi, shorter microvilli, presence of autophagosomes, swelled mitochondria, and decreased villus surface areas were also found in the SIs of IUGR neonatal piglets. We also found a smaller number of epithelial goblet cells and lymphocytes in the SIs of IUGR neonates. In addition, we detected reduced levels of the cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ and decreased gene expression of cytokines in IUGR neonates. In conclusion, IUGR was shown to impair the mucosal immunity of the SI in neonatal piglets, and the ileum was the major site of impairment.

  3. Structure and Function of Enterocyte in Intrauterine Growth Retarded Pig Neonates

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    Karolina Ferenc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestine of intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR neonates showed different morphology compared to neonates born with normal body weight (NBW. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ultrastructure and proteomic profile of the gut epithelium in IUGR pig neonates with special attention to the digestive and absorptive function. Intestine tissue samples were investigated in 7-day-old IUGR and NBW littermate piglets using histometry, immunofluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and mass spectrometry analysis. IUGR piglets have shown reduced mucosa and muscularis thickness and an enhanced number of foetal type enterocytes (FTE. SEM studies have shown the lack of the characteristic large-size vacuole in IUGR’s enterocytes. Delayed removal of FTE in IUGR neonates was probably due to the inhibited apoptosis in the apical part of villi and increased apoptosis and reduced mitosis in the crypt region. In the expression of proteins in the intestinal mucosa such as hexokinase I, histones, and prelamin A/C, carbamoyl phosphate was reduced in IUGR neonates. Finally, IUGR intestines showed higher expression of HSPA9 and HSPA5 as apoptosis markers. The data indicate modifications of gut mucosa in IUGRs that may result in slower gut mucosa maturation and reduced utilisation of nutrient as compared to NBW pig neonates.

  4. Intrauterine growth restriction is a direct consequence of localized maternal uropathogenic Escherichia coli cystitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bolton

    Full Text Available Despite the continually increasing rates of adverse perinatal outcomes across the globe, the molecular mechanisms that underlie adverse perinatal outcomes are not completely understood. Clinical studies report that 10% of pregnant women will experience a urinary tract infection (UTI and there is an association of UTIs with adverse perinatal outcomes. We introduced bacterial cystitis into successfully outbred female mice at gestational day 14 to follow pregnancy outcomes and immunological responses to determine the mechanisms that underlie UTI-mediated adverse outcomes. Outbred fetuses from mothers experiencing localized cystitis displayed intrauterine growth restriction (20-80% as early as 48 hours post-infection and throughout the remainder of normal gestation. Robust infiltration of cellular innate immune effectors was observed in the uteroplacental tissue following introduction of UTI despite absence of viable bacteria. The magnitude of serum proinflammatory cytokines is elevated in the maternal serum during UTI. This study demonstrates that a localized infection can dramatically impact the immunological status as well as the function of non-infected distal organs and tissues. This model can be used as a platform to determine the mechanism(s by which proinflammatory changes occur between non-contiguous genitourinary organs.

  5. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised before and during Pregnancy: Maternal and Perinatal Repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Corvino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swimming before and during pregnancy on rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and their offspring. For this, nondiabetic and streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic (SD pregnant rats were mated and generated offspring with appropriate (control, C and small (IUGR for pregnancy age, respectively. Following that, C and IUGR groups were further distributed into nonexercised control (C, exercised control (Cex, nonexercised IUGR (IUGR, and exercised IUGR (IUGRex. IUGR rats presented lower mating rate than control rats. Regardless of physical exercise IUGR rats presented decreased body weight from birth to lactation. At 90 days of life, IUGR rats presented glucose intolerance. Maternal organ weights were increased and relative adiposity of IUGRex rats was lower than Cex. IUGR and IUGRex offspring presented reduced body weight than C and Cex, respectively. IUGRex dams presented an increased rate of appropriate for pregnancy age newborns. IUGEex male and female offspring relative brain weight was increased compared with Cex. Therefore, swimming before and during pregnancy prevented glucose intolerance, reduced general adiposity, and increased maternal and offspring organ weight in rats, showing the benefit of physical exercise for IUGR rats.

  6. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised before and during Pregnancy: Maternal and Perinatal Repercussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, S. B.; Volpato, G. T.; Rudge, M. V. C.; Damasceno, D. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swimming before and during pregnancy on rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring. For this, nondiabetic and streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic (SD) pregnant rats were mated and generated offspring with appropriate (control, C) and small (IUGR) for pregnancy age, respectively. Following that, C and IUGR groups were further distributed into nonexercised control (C), exercised control (Cex), nonexercised IUGR (IUGR), and exercised IUGR (IUGRex). IUGR rats presented lower mating rate than control rats. Regardless of physical exercise IUGR rats presented decreased body weight from birth to lactation. At 90 days of life, IUGR rats presented glucose intolerance. Maternal organ weights were increased and relative adiposity of IUGRex rats was lower than Cex. IUGR and IUGRex offspring presented reduced body weight than C and Cex, respectively. IUGRex dams presented an increased rate of appropriate for pregnancy age newborns. IUGEex male and female offspring relative brain weight was increased compared with Cex. Therefore, swimming before and during pregnancy prevented glucose intolerance, reduced general adiposity, and increased maternal and offspring organ weight in rats, showing the benefit of physical exercise for IUGR rats. PMID:26345406

  7. Intestinal proteomics in pig models of necrotising enterocolitis, short bowel syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pingping; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-10-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), short bowel syndrome (SBS) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are three conditions associated with intestinal dysfunction in newborn infants, particularly those born preterm. Piglet (Sus scrofa) models have recently been developed for NEC, SBS and IUGR, and tissue proteomic analyses have identified unknown pathways and new prognostic disease markers. Intestinal HSPs, iron metabolism proteins and proteins related to amino acid (e.g. arginine) and glucose metabolism are consistently affected by NEC progression and some of these proteins are also affected by SBS and IUGR. Parallel changes in some plasma and urinary proteins (e.g. haptoglobin, globulins, complement proteins, fatty acid binding proteins) may mirror the intestinal responses and pave the way to biomarker discovery. Explorative non-targeted proteomics provides ideas about the cellular pathways involved in intestinal adaptation during the critical neonatal period. Proteomics, combined with other -omic techniques, helps to get a more holistic picture of intestinal adaptation during NEC, SBS and IUGR. Explorative -omic research methods also have limitations and cannot replace, but only supplement, classical hypothesis-driven research that investigate disease mechanisms using a single or few endpoints.

  8. Effects of glutamine supplementation on the immune status in weaning piglets with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiang; Li, Wei; Huang, Xuexin; Wang, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Lili; Zhou, Yanmin; Hussain, Ahmad; Wang, Tian

    2012-10-01

    Neonates with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) often suffer from impaired cellular immunity, and weaning may further aggravate adverse effects of IUGR on development and function of the immune system. In this study, we investigated effects of glutamine supplementation on immune status in the intestines of weaning pigs with IUGR, focusing on molecular mechanisms underlying altered immune response. Piglets with IUGR were weaned at 21 days of age and received orally 1.22 g alanine or 1 g glutamine per kg body weight every 12 h. Weight gain and intestinal weight of weaning piglets were increased by glutamine supplementation. Levels of serum IgG in piglets supplemented with glutamine were increased compared with Control piglets. The production of IL-1 and IL-8 in the serum and jejunum was decreased by glutamine supplementation, whereas the levels of IL-4 in the serum and the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-10 in the jejunum were increased. The expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the jejunum was increased by glutamine supplementation, but the degradation of inhibitor κB and the activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were decreased. In conclusion, glutamine supplementation enhanced immune response in weaning piglets with IUGR. The effects of glutamine in IUGR are associated with increased Hsp70 expression and suppression of NF-κB activation.

  9. Maternal and fetal metabonomic alterations in prenatal nicotine exposure-induced rat intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiang-hua; Yan, You-e; Liang, Gai; Liu, Yan-song; Li, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Ben-jian; Chen, Liao-bin; Yu, Hong; He, Xiao-hua; Wang, Hui

    2014-08-25

    Prenatal nicotine exposure causes adverse birth outcome. However, the corresponding metabonomic alterations and underlying mechanisms of nicotine-induced developmental toxicity remain unclear. The aims of this study were to characterize the metabolic alterations in biofluids in nicotine-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rat model. In the present study, pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered with different doses of nicotine (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg d) from gestational day (GD) 11-20. The metabolic profiles of the biofluids, including maternal plasma, fetal plasma and amniotic fluid, were analyzed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic techniques. Prenatal nicotine exposure caused noticeably lower body weights, higher IUGR rates of fetal rats, and elevated maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels compared to the controls. The correlation analysis among maternal, fetal serum CORT levels and fetal bodyweight suggested that the levels of maternal and fetal serum CORT presented a positive correlation (r=0.356, n=32, Pfetal (r=-0.639, n=32, Pfetal bodyweight. The fetal metabonome alterations included the stimulation of lipogenesis and the decreased levels of glucose and amino acids. The maternal metabonome alterations involved the enhanced blood glucose levels, fatty acid oxygenolysis, proteolysis and amino acid accumulation. These results suggested that prenatal nicotine exposure is associated with an altered maternal and fetal metabonome, which may be related to maternal increased glucocorticoid level induced by nicotine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Limited capacity for glucose oxidation in fetal sheep with intrauterine growth restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D.; Rozance, Paul J.; Bruce, Jennifer L.; Friedman, Jacob E.; Hay, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetal sheep, produced by placental insufficiency, have lower oxygen concentrations, higher lactate concentrations, and increased hepatic glucose production that is resistant to suppression by insulin. We hypothesized that increased lactate production in the IUGR fetus results from reduced glucose oxidation, during basal and maximal insulin-stimulated conditions, and is used to support glucose production. To test this, studies were performed in late-gestation control (CON) and IUGR fetal sheep under basal and hyperinsulinemic-clamp conditions. The basal glucose oxidation rate was similar and increased by 30–40% during insulin clamp in CON and IUGR fetuses (P fetal muscle and liver, mRNA expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK4), an inhibitor of glucose oxidation, was increased over fourfold. In IUGR fetal liver, but not skeletal muscle, mRNA expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) was increased nearly fivefold. Hepatic expression of the gluconeogenic genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK)1, and PCK2, was correlated with expression of PDK4 and LDHA. Collectively, these in vivo and tissue data support limited capacity for glucose oxidation in the IUGR fetus via increased PDK4 in skeletal muscle and liver. We speculate that lactate production also is increased, which may supply carbon for glucose production in the IUGR fetal liver. PMID:26224688

  11. Effects of Choline on Meat Quality and Intramuscular Fat in Intrauterine Growth Retardation Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Li, Wei; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Chao; Wang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of choline supplementation on intramuscular fat (IMF) and lipid oxidation in IUGR pigs. Twelve normal body weight (NBW) and twelve intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) newborn piglets were collected and distributed into 4 treatments (Normal: N, Normal+Choline: N+C, IUGR: I, and IUGR+Choline: I+C) with 6 piglets in each treatment. At 23 d of age, NBW and IUGR pigs were fed basal or choline supplemented diets. The results showed that the IUGR pigs had significantly lower (Pdecreased (P>0.05) in BW of IUGR pigs than the NBW pigs at 200 d. Compared with the NBW pigs, pH of meat longissimus dorsi muscle was significantly lower (Pdecreased (Pincreased (Pdecreased (Pincreased (Pmuscle-carnitine palmityl transferase (M-CPT) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptorγ (PPARγ) mRNA (Pdecreased in the muscles of the IUGR pigs by choline supplementation. Furthermore, choline supplementation significantly increased (Pincreased fat deposition and oxidative stress in muscles. However, dietary supplementation of choline improved the fat deposition via enhancing the lipogenesis and reducing the lipolysis.

  12. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESRICTION ON THE REGIONAL NEUROCHEMICAL PROFILE OF THE DEVELOPING RAT BRAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewski-Hall, Anne M.; Alexander, Michelle; Tkáč, Ivan; Öz, Gülin; Rao, Raghavendra

    2016-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) infants are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental deficits that suggest the hippocampus and cerebral cortex may be particularly vulnerable. Objective Evaluate regional neurochemical profiles in IUGR and normally grown (NG) 7-day old rat pups using in vivo 1H magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at 9.4T. Methods IUGR was induced via bilateral uterine artery ligation at gestational day 19 in pregnant Sprague Dawley dams. MR spectra were obtained from the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum at P7 in IUGR (N=12) and NG (N=13) rats. Results In the cortex, IUGR resulted in lower concentrations of phosphocreatine, glutathione, taurine, total choline, total creatine (P<0.01) and [glutamate]/[glutamine] ratio (P <0.05). Lower taurine concentrations were observed in the hippocampus (P<0.01) and striatum (P <0.05). Conclusion IUGR differentially affects the neurochemical profile of the P7 rat brain regions. Persistent neurochemical changes may lead to cortex-based long-term neurodevelopmental deficits in human IUGR infants. PMID:25972040

  13. Data Mining of Determinants of Intrauterine Growth Retardation Revisited Using Novel Algorithms Generating Semantic Maps and Prototypical Discriminating Variable Profiles.

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    Massimo Buscema

    Full Text Available Intra-uterine growth retardation is often of unknown origin, and is of great interest as a "Fetal Origin of Adult Disease" has been now well recognized. We built a benchmark based upon a previously analysed data set related to Intrauterine Growth Retardation with 46 subjects described by 14 variables, related with the insulin-like growth factor system and pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α.We used new algorithms for optimal information sorting based on the combination of two neural network algorithms: Auto-contractive Map and Activation and Competition System. Auto-Contractive Map spatializes the relationships among variables or records by constructing a suitable embedding space where 'closeness' among variables or records reflects accurately their associations. The Activation and Competition System algorithm instead works as a dynamic non linear associative memory on the weight matrices of other algorithms, and is able to produce a prototypical variable profile of a given target.Classical statistical analysis, proved to be unable to distinguish intrauterine growth retardation from appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA subjects due to the high non-linearity of underlying functions. Auto-contractive map succeeded in clustering and differentiating completely the conditions under study, while Activation and Competition System allowed to develop the profile of variables which discriminated the two conditions under study better than any other previous form of attempt. In particular, Activation and Competition System showed that ppropriateness for gestational age was explained by IGF-2 relative gene expression, and by IGFBP-2 and TNF-α placental contents. IUGR instead was explained by IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IL-6 gene expression in placenta.This further analysis provided further insight into the placental key-players of fetal growth within the insulin-like growth factor and cytokine systems. Our previous

  14. Puerarin affects bone biomarkers in the serum of rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juncao; Chen, Pingyang; Qi, Huaxue; Huang, Danhong

    2016-04-01

    To investigate serum bone biomarkers in rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in order to determine the effects of puerarin on bone metabolism. A rat model of IUGR was induced using a low protein diet during pregnancy. The offspring were given puerarin or an identical volume of saline via subcutaneous abdominal injection. All rats were studied at 1, 3, and 8 weeks of age. Serum biomarkers of bone formation, including insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB Iigand (RANKL), as well as blood levels of calcium and phosphorus were measured. Serum BALP, OPG, IGF-1, and OC levels, as well as the OPG/RANKL ratio, were lower in the IUGR group compared with the control group at 1 week of age (P = 0.024, 0.011, 0.014, 0.004, and 0.002, respectively). At 3 weeks of age, the serum BALP and OC levels were higher in the protein-restricted group compared with the control group (P = 0.003 and 0.001, respectively). A comparison between the IUGR plus puerarin intervention group and the IUGR group revealed differences in the levels of BALP and IGF-1 at 3 weeks of age (P = 0.008 and 0.003, respectively). In addition, serum OPG and OC levels and the OPG/RANKL ratio were higher at 8 weeks of age (P = 0.044, 0.007, and 0.016, respectively). No differences in serum calcium and phosphorus levels were observed among the three groups. Our study demonstrates that the bone microenvironment of the fetus can be altered by a low protein maternal diet and that puerarin can reverse these effects. These results indicate that the nutritional environment plays an important role in early skeletal development and that the bone turnover of IUGR rats can be altered by puerarin treatment.

  15. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Effects of Physiological Fetal Growth Determinants on Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Haram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the fetus, which is strongly associated with the outcome of pregnancy, reflects interplay of several physiological and pathological factors. The assessment of fetal growth is based on comparison of birthweight (BW or estimated fetal weight (EFW to standards which define reference ranges at a spectrum of gestational ages. Most birthweight standards do not take into account effects of physiological determinants of fetal growth. Additionally, gestational age in many standards is based on the menstrual history and is often inaccurate. Fetal growth norms should be based on an early ultrasound estimate of gestational age. Customized standards, which have included only ultrasound-dated pregnancies, seem to be superior to population-based birthweight norms in predicting perinatal mortality and morbidity. Adjustment for individual variation in customized growth curves reduces false-positive diagnosis of IUGR and may lead to a very significant reduction in intervention for suspected IUGR. Customized growth potential identifies better the risk for adverse outcome than the currently used national standards, but customized charts may fail in detecting growth-restricted stillbirth. An individual’s birthweight is the sum of physiological and pathological influences operating during pregnancy. Growth potential norms are a better discriminator of aberrations of fetal growth than population, ultrasound, and customized norms.

  16. Intrauterine growth restriction: effects of physiological fetal growth determinants on diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haram, Kjell; Søfteland, Eirik; Bukowski, Radek

    2013-01-01

    The growth of the fetus, which is strongly associated with the outcome of pregnancy, reflects interplay of several physiological and pathological factors. The assessment of fetal growth is based on comparison of birthweight (BW) or estimated fetal weight (EFW) to standards which define reference ranges at a spectrum of gestational ages. Most birthweight standards do not take into account effects of physiological determinants of fetal growth. Additionally, gestational age in many standards is based on the menstrual history and is often inaccurate. Fetal growth norms should be based on an early ultrasound estimate of gestational age. Customized standards, which have included only ultrasound-dated pregnancies, seem to be superior to population-based birthweight norms in predicting perinatal mortality and morbidity. Adjustment for individual variation in customized growth curves reduces false-positive diagnosis of IUGR and may lead to a very significant reduction in intervention for suspected IUGR. Customized growth potential identifies better the risk for adverse outcome than the currently used national standards, but customized charts may fail in detecting growth-restricted stillbirth. An individual's birthweight is the sum of physiological and pathological influences operating during pregnancy. Growth potential norms are a better discriminator of aberrations of fetal growth than population, ultrasound, and customized norms.

  17. The timing of "catch-up growth" affects metabolism and appetite regulation in male rats born with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupé, Bérengère; Grit, Isabelle; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated a relationship between low birth weight mainly caused by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and adult metabolic disorders. The concept of metabolic programming centers on the idea that nutritional and hormonal status during the key period of development determines the long-term control of energy balance by programming future feeding behavior and energy expenditure. The present study examined the consequence of early or late "catch-up growth" after IUGR on feeding behavior and metabolic cues of male offspring of rat dams exposed to protein restriction during gestation and/or lactation. Our results suggest that early catch-up growth may be favorable for fasting metabolic parameters at weaning, as no differences were observed on plasma leptin, triglyceride, glucose, and insulin levels compared with controls. In contrast, if pups remained malnourished until weaning, low insulin concentration was detected and was accompanied by hyperphagia associated with a large increase in hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. At adult age, on a regular chow diet, only the meal structure was modified by fetal programming. The two IUGR groups demonstrated a reduced meal duration that enhanced the speed of food ingestion and consequently increased the rest period associated to the satiety state without changes in the hypothalamic expression of appetite neuropeptides. Our findings demonstrate that in IUGR, regardless of postnatal growth magnitude, metabolic programming occurred in utero and was responsible for both feeding behavior alteration and postprandial higher insulin level in adults. Additionally, catch-up growth immediately after early malnutrition could be a key point for the programming of postprandial hyperleptinemia.

  18. Metabolomics Reveals Metabolic Alterations by Intrauterine Growth Restriction in the Fetal Rabbit Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Erwin; Eixarch, Elisenda; Illa, Miriam; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; González-Tendero, Anna; Hogberg, Helena T.; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas; Gratacos, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Background Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency occurs in 5–10% of pregnancies and is a major risk factor for abnormal neurodevelopment. The perinatal diagnosis of IUGR related abnormal neurodevelopment represents a major challenge in fetal medicine. The development of clinical biomarkers is considered a promising approach, but requires the identification of biochemical/molecular alterations by IUGR in the fetal brain. This targeted metabolomics study in a rabbit IUGR model aimed to obtain mechanistic insight into the effects of IUGR on the fetal brain and identify metabolite candidates for biomarker development. Methodology/Principal Findings At gestation day 25, IUGR was induced in two New Zealand rabbits by 40–50% uteroplacental vessel ligation in one horn and the contralateral horn was used as control. At day 30, fetuses were delivered by Cesarian section, weighed and brains collected for metabolomics analysis. Results showed that IUGR fetuses had a significantly lower birth and brain weight compared to controls. Metabolomics analysis using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) and database matching identified 78 metabolites. Comparison of metabolite intensities using a t-test demonstrated that 18 metabolites were significantly different between control and IUGR brain tissue, including neurotransmitters/peptides, amino acids, fatty acids, energy metabolism intermediates and oxidative stress metabolites. Principle component and hierarchical cluster analysis showed cluster formations that clearly separated control from IUGR brain tissue samples, revealing the potential to develop predictive biomarkers. Moreover birth weight and metabolite intensity correlations indicated that the extent of alterations was dependent on the severity of IUGR. Conclusions IUGR leads to metabolic alterations in the fetal rabbit brain, involving neuronal viability, energy metabolism, amino acid levels, fatty

  19. Detection of expressional changes induced by intrauterine growth restriction in the developing rat pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Chen, Wei; Dai, Yuee; Zhu, Ziyang; Liu, Qianqi

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a disorder that can result in permanent changes in the physiology and metabolism of the newborn, which increased the risk of disease in adulthood. Evidence supports IUGR as a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus, which could reflect changes in pancreas developmental pathways. We sought to characterize the IUGR-induced alterations of the complex pathways of pancreas development in a rat model of IUGR. We analyzed the pancreases of Sprague Dawley rats after inducing IUGR by feeding a maternal low calorie diet from gestational day 1 until term. IUGR altered the pancreatic structure, islet areas, and islet quantities and resulted in abnormal morphological changes during pancreatic development, as determined by HE staining and light microscopy. We identified multiple differentially expressed genes in the pancreas by RT-PCR. The genes of the insulin/FoxO1/Pdx1/MafA signaling pathway were first expressed at embryonic day 14 (E14). The expressions of insulin and MafA increased as the fetus grew while the expressions of FoxO1 and Pdx1 decreased. Compared with the control rats, the expressions of FoxO1, Pdx1, and MafA were lower in the IUGR rats, whereas insulin levels showed no change. Microarray profiling, in combination with quantitative real-time PCR, uncovered a subset of microRNAs that changed in their degree of expression throughout pancreatic development. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that IUGR influences the development of the rat pancreas. We also identified new pathways that appear to be programmed by IUGR. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  20. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG suspected infection in a newborn with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska-Krawczenko, I; Paprzycka, M; Korbal, P; Wiatrzyk, A; Krysztopa-Grzybowska, K; Polak, M; Czajka, U; Lutyńska, A

    2014-12-01

    A disseminated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 infection was suspected in a 6 day-old newborn with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) symptoms, treated empirically with antibiotics and given L. rhamnosus GG with the aim of preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complications. The level of C-reactive protein on day 5 compared with day 2 was increased in spite of negative urine and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. The blood sampled on day 6 was found to be positive for lactobacilli, and the isolate was pre-identified as L. rhamnosus or Lactobacillus casei on day 11. The strain identity was then verified as L. rhamnosus GG through PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. Genotyping with the rep-PCR and AFLP methods confirmed the 100% genetic similarity for both the strain isolated from patient blood and the probiotic product. The newborn became touch-sensitive, cried a lot, had worsening laboratory test results, and increased inflammation parameters, but no fever was observed. After a further 9 days of antibiotic therapy, blood cultures became negative, and laboratory tests improved on day 25. The patient was discharged from the hospital after 27 days. IUGR with a possible link to L. rhamnosus GG bacteraemia might be a new potential risk group, beside patients with organ failure, immunocompromised status and dysfunctional gut barrier mechanisms, for which safe use of probiotics needs careful attention. Universally accepted or improved guidelines for the safer administration of probiotics in risk groups are urgently needed. This report should not discourage the use of probiotics, but should highlight the need for their careful use in IUGR patients.

  1. Metabolomics reveals metabolic alterations by intrauterine growth restriction in the fetal rabbit brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin van Vliet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency occurs in 5-10% of pregnancies and is a major risk factor for abnormal neurodevelopment. The perinatal diagnosis of IUGR related abnormal neurodevelopment represents a major challenge in fetal medicine. The development of clinical biomarkers is considered a promising approach, but requires the identification of biochemical/molecular alterations by IUGR in the fetal brain. This targeted metabolomics study in a rabbit IUGR model aimed to obtain mechanistic insight into the effects of IUGR on the fetal brain and identify metabolite candidates for biomarker development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At gestation day 25, IUGR was induced in two New Zealand rabbits by 40-50% uteroplacental vessel ligation in one horn and the contralateral horn was used as control. At day 30, fetuses were delivered by Cesarian section, weighed and brains collected for metabolomics analysis. Results showed that IUGR fetuses had a significantly lower birth and brain weight compared to controls. Metabolomics analysis using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS and database matching identified 78 metabolites. Comparison of metabolite intensities using a t-test demonstrated that 18 metabolites were significantly different between control and IUGR brain tissue, including neurotransmitters/peptides, amino acids, fatty acids, energy metabolism intermediates and oxidative stress metabolites. Principle component and hierarchical cluster analysis showed cluster formations that clearly separated control from IUGR brain tissue samples, revealing the potential to develop predictive biomarkers. Moreover birth weight and metabolite intensity correlations indicated that the extent of alterations was dependent on the severity of IUGR. CONCLUSIONS: IUGR leads to metabolic alterations in the fetal rabbit brain, involving neuronal viability, energy metabolism, amino

  2. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression in the human placenta: the effects of severe intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S-Y; Franklyn, J A; Pemberton, H N; Bulmer, J N; Visser, T J; McCabe, C J; Kilby, M D

    2006-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal fetal development, with even mild perturbation in maternal thyroid status in early pregnancy being associated with neurodevelopmental delay in children. Transplacental transfer of maternal THs is critical, with increasing evidence suggesting a role for 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine (T3) in development and function of the placenta itself, as well as in development of the central nervous and other organ systems. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with fetal hypothyroxinaemia, a factor that may contribute to neurodevelopmental delay. The recent description of monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) as a powerful and specific TH membrane transporter, and the association of MCT8 mutations with profound neurodevelopmental delay, led us to explore MCT8 expression in placenta. We describe the expression of MCT8 in normal human placenta throughout gestation, and in normal third-trimester placenta compared with that associated with IUGR using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. MCT8 mRNA was detected in placenta from early first trimester, with a significant increase with advancing gestation (P=0.007). In the early third trimester, MCT8 mRNA was increased in IUGR placenta compared with normal samples matched for gestational age (PMCT8 immunostaining was demonstrated in villous cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast as well as extravillous trophoblast cells from the first trimester onwards with increasingly widespread immunoreactivity seen with advancing gestation. In conclusion, expression of MCT8 in placenta from early gestation is compatible with an important role in TH transport during fetal development and a specific role in placental development. Altered expression in placenta associated with IUGR may reflect a compensatory mechanism attempting to increase T3 uptake by trophoblast cells.

  3. Expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the human placenta and changes associated with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubière, L S; Vasilopoulou, E; Bulmer, J N; Taylor, P M; Stieger, B; Verrey, F; McCabe, C J; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M D; Chan, S-Y

    2010-04-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are important for the development of the human fetus and placenta from very early gestation. The transplacental passage of TH from mother to fetus and the supply of TH into trophoblasts require the expression of placental TH plasma membrane transporters. We describe the ontogeny of the TH transporters MCT8, MCT10, LAT1, LAT2, OATP1A2 and OATP4A1 in a large series (n = 110) of normal human placentae across gestation and describe their expression changes with intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR n = 22). Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that all the mRNAs encoding TH transporters are expressed in human placenta from 6 weeks gestation and throughout pregnancy. MCT8, MCT10, OATP1A2 and LAT1 mRNA expression increased with gestation. OATP4A1 and CD98 (LATs obligatory associated protein) mRNA expression reached a nadir in mid-gestation before increasing towards term. LAT2 mRNA expression did not alter throughout gestation. Immunohistochemistry localised MCT10 and OATP1A2 to villous cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts, and extravillous trophoblasts while OATP4A1 was preferentially expressed in the villous syncytiotrophoblasts. Whilst MCT8 protein expression was increased, MCT10 mRNA expression was decreased in placentae from IUGR pregnancies delivered in the early 3rd trimester compared to age matched appropriately grown for gestational age controls. No significant change was found in the mRNA expression of the other transporters with IUGR. In conclusion, several TH transporters are present in the human placenta from early 1st trimester with varying patterns of expression throughout gestation. Their coordinated effects may regulate both transplacental TH passage and TH supply to trophoblasts, which are critical for the normal development of the fetus and placenta. Increased MCT8 and decreased MCT10 expression within placentae of pregnancies complicated by IUGR may contribute to aberrant development of the fetoplacental unit.

  4. MCT8 expression in human fetal cerebral cortex is reduced in severe intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shiao Y; Hancox, Laura A; Martín-Santos, Azucena; Loubière, Laurence S; Walter, Merlin N M; González, Ana-Maria; Cox, Phillip M; Logan, Ann; McCabe, Christopher J; Franklyn, Jayne A; Kilby, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    The importance of the thyroid hormone (TH) transporter, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), to human neurodevelopment is highlighted by findings of severe global neurological impairment in subjects with MCT8 (SLC16A2) mutations. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), usually due to uteroplacental failure, is associated with milder neurodevelopmental deficits, which have been partly attributed to dysregulated TH action in utero secondary to reduced circulating fetal TH concentrations and decreased cerebral thyroid hormone receptor expression. We postulate that altered MCT8 expression is implicated in this pathophysiology; therefore, in this study, we sought to quantify changes in cortical MCT8 expression with IUGR. First, MCT8 immunohistochemistry was performed on occipital and parietal cerebral cortex sections obtained from appropriately grown for gestational age (AGA) human fetuses between 19 weeks of gestation and term. Secondly, MCT8 immunostaining in the occipital cortex of stillborn IUGR human fetuses at 24-28 weeks of gestation was objectively compared with that in the occipital cortex of gestationally matched AGA fetuses. Fetuses demonstrated widespread MCT8 expression in neurons within the cortical plate and subplate, in the ventricular and subventricular zones, in the epithelium of the choroid plexus and ependyma, and in microvessel wall. When complicated by IUGR, fetuses showed a significant fivefold reduction in the percentage area of cortical plate immunostained for MCT8 compared with AGA fetuses (PMCT8 expression was negatively correlated with the severity of IUGR indicated by the brain:liver weight ratios (r(2)=0.28; PMCT8 expression in the IUGR fetal brain could further compromise TH-dependent brain development.

  5. Intrauterine growth restriction perturbs nucleosome depletion at a growth hormone-responsive element in the mouse IGF-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Robert A; Yost, Christian C; Yu, Xing; Wiedmeier, Julia E; Callaway, Christopher W; Brown, Ashley S; Lane, Robert H; Fung, Camille M

    2015-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common human pregnancy complication. IUGR offspring carry significant postnatal risk for early-onset metabolic syndrome, which is associated with persistent reduction in IGF-1 protein expression. We have previously shown that preadolescent IUGR male mice have decreased hepatic IGF-1 mRNA and circulating IGF-1 protein at postnatal day 21, the age when growth hormone (GH) normally upregulates hepatic IGF-1 expression. Here we studied nucleosome occupancy and CpG methylation at a putative growth hormone-responsive element in intron 2 (in2GHRE) of the hepatic IGF-1 gene in normal, sham-operated, and IUGR mice. Nucleosome occupancy and CpG methylation were determined in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in liver at postnatal days 14, 21, and 42. For CpG methylation, additional time points out to 2 yr were analyzed. We confirmed the putative mouse in2GHRE was GH-responsive, and in normal mice, a single nucleosome was displaced from the hepatic in2GHRE by postnatal day 21, which exposed two STAT5b DNA binding sites. Nucleosome displacement correlated with developmentally programmed CpG demethylation. Finally, IUGR significantly altered the nucleosome-depleted region (NDR) at the in2GHRE of IGF-1 on postnatal day 21, with either complete absence of the NDR or with a shifted NDR exposing only one of two STAT5b DNA binding sites. An NDR shift was also seen in offspring of sham-operated mothers. We conclude that prenatal insult such as IUGR or anesthesia/surgery could perturb the proper formation of a well-positioned NDR at the mouse hepatic IGF-1 in2GHRE necessary for transitioning to an open chromatin state.

  6. ROLE OF DOPPLER STUDY IN THE EVALUATION OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR is a fetal growth disorder defined on the basis of a fetal weight below 10 th percentile for the corresponding gestational age. Our study was an effort at establishing the role of Umbilical artery (UA and Middle cere bral artery (MCA Doppler indices in predicting the adverse perinatal out come in clinically suspected IUGR pregnancies, and to determine the role of Doppler velocimetry in clinical management of such pregnancies. Elevation of the umbilical artery systolic /diastolic ratio or of the pulsatility index (PI; absent or reversed end - diastolic flow in the umbilical artery and decreased systolic/diastolic ratio or pulsatility index in the fetal internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries are the predictors of ab normal perinatal outcome. Our study was to evaluate the role of ratio of pulsatility index (PI which is called as Cerebroplacental Ratio i.e. MCAPI/UAPI Doppler ratio as the most accurate predictor of adverse perinatal outcome among women with clinical sus picion of IUGR attending our (SVRR Govt. hospital. METHODOLOGY : 50 Antenatal women attending the antenatal O.P.D who were clinically suspected as having growth retardation based on clinical history of previous child with growth retardation , signs of pallor ( anaemia and high documented Blood pressures – s/o PIH, reduced abdominal height for gestational age , were evaluated using screening ultrasound. Doppler velocity wave forms were obtained from umbilical artery and fetal middle cerebral artery fro m all the 50 cases. 16 cases were followed up with repeat Doppler. Pulsatility index ratio of middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery, also called as Cerebroplacental ratio was evaluated in each case. Abnormal ratio is defined as Cerebroplacental ratio < 1.08 was considered as a cut off value. Ratio was calculated and correlated clinically with the perinatal outcomes – in the form of IUD’s, low APGAR

  7. Up-regulation of the fetal baboon hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in intrauterine growth restriction: coincidence with hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptor insensitivity and leptin receptor down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cun; Ramahi, Emma; Nijland, Mark J; Choi, Jaeyhek; Myers, Dean A; Nathanielsz, Peter W; McDonald, Thomas J

    2013-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an important fetal developmental problem resulting from 2 broad causes: maternal undernutrition and/or decreased fetal nutrient delivery to the fetus via placental insufficiency. IUGR is often accompanied by up-regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). Sheep studies show fetal HPAA autonomy in late gestation. We hypothesized that IUGR, resulting from poor fetal nutrient delivery, up-regulates the fetal baboon HPAA in late gestation, driven by hypothalamo-pituitary glucocorticoid receptor (GR) insensitivity and decreased fetal leptin in peripheral plasma. Maternal baboons were fed as ad libitum controls or nutrient restricted to produce IUGR (fed 70% of the control diet) from 0.16 to 0.9 gestation. Peripheral ACTH, cortisol, and leptin were measured by immunoassays. CRH, arginine vasopressin (AVP), GR, leptin receptor (ObRb), and pro-opiomelanocortin peptide expression were determined immunohistochemically. IUGR fetal peripheral cortisol and ACTH, but not leptin, were increased (P HPAA activation was aided by GR insensitivity and decreased ObRb expression in the PVN, and (3) the anterior pituitary is not a site for ObRb effects on the HPAA.

  8. The Causes of Intrauterine Growth Retardation%胎儿宫内发育迟缓的原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璐; 李纯锦; 孙艳玲; 周虚

    2008-01-01

    胎儿宫内发育迟缓(intrauterine growth retardation,IUGR)在畜牧生产中发生率较高,导致新生儿死亡率增加,影响日后生长发育及健康.了解IUCR发生原因对降低其发生,提高畜牧业生产水平具有重要意义.作者综述了引起IUGR的主要因素.

  9. The effect of antenatal administration of solcoseryl on hepatic glycogen synthesis in rat fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Cheng, K M; Araki, T

    1993-06-01

    The effect of antenatal solcoseryl administration on hepatic glycogen synthesis and storage was studied in normal developing and intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) rat fetuses using biochemical analyses. The maximal effect of solcoseryl occurred 2 hours after administration. The glycogen content of the liver showed a significant increase in normal and IUGR fetuses with antenatal solcoseryl administration compared to their non-solcoseryl counterparts (p solcoseryl administration. Active synthase also increased in normal fetuses with antenatal solcoseryl administration (p solcoseryl administration stimulates hepatic glycogen synthesis and storage in IUGR rat fetuses, and thus might favorably influence the development of neonatal hypoglycemia.

  10. Doppler changes as the earliest parameter in fetal surveillance to detect fetal compromise in intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Saloni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is estimated that 3-10% of infants are growth restricted. Growth disturbances may have long-term issues. Doppler allows insight into the fetal response to intrauterine stress. Objective. The aim of this study was to detect fetal compromise in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR fetuses by means of biophysical profile (BPP vis-а-vis Doppler velocimetry studies of the fetal umbilical artery, and to find out which of the two is a better and earlier predictor of fetal compromise. Methods. A prospective study was conducted on a total of 50 singleton pregnancies with IUGR between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation. Study patients were managed expectantly with nonstress testing and amniotic fluid assessment, BPP and Doppler velocimetry studies of the fetal umbilical artery. Results. Fetal outcome was poor in 5/50 (10% of the fetuses, defined as presence of all of the following: poor Apgar test score, neonatal intensive care unit stay, necrotizing enterocolitis, and low birth weight. Of the four with abnormal BPP, 50% had poor fetal outcomes. Out of 46 with normal BPP, 6.5% had poor fetal outcomes. Conclusion. Inference drawn from the study is that the Doppler technology provides us the opportunity for repetitive noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring in IUGR pregnancies.

  11. Transgenerational inheritance of the insulin-resistant phenotype in embryo-transferred intrauterine growth-restricted adult female rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Garg, Meena; Oak, Shilpa; Rogers, Lisa M; Pan, Gerald; Sangiorgi, Frank; Lee, Paul W N; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2007-05-01

    To determine mechanisms underlying the transgenerational presence of metabolic perturbations in the intrauterine growth-restricted second-generation adult females (F2 IUGR) despite normalizing the in utero metabolic environment, we examined in vivo glucose kinetics and in vitro skeletal muscle postinsulin receptor signaling after embryo transfer of first generation (F1 IUGR) to control maternal environment. Female F2 rats, procreated by F1 pre- and postnatally nutrient- and growth-restricted (IUGR) mothers but embryo transferred to gestate in control mothers, were compared with similarly gestating age- and sex-matched control (CON) F2 progeny. Although there were no differences in birth weight or postnatal growth patterns, the F2 IUGR had increased hepatic weight, fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and unsuppressed hepatic glucose production, with no change in glucose futile cycling or clearance, compared with F2 CON. These hormonal and metabolic aberrations were associated with increased skeletal muscle total GLUT4 and pAkt concentrations but decreased plasma membrane-associated GLUT4, total pPKCzeta, and PKCzeta enzyme activity, with no change in total SHP2 and PTP1B concentrations in IUGR F2 compared with F2 CON. We conclude that transgenerational presence of aberrant glucose/insulin metabolism and skeletal muscle insulin signaling of the adult F2 IUGR female offspring is independent of the immediate intrauterine environment, supporting nutritionally induced heritable mechanisms contributing to the epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Fetal Parotid Gland Structural Remodeling In Case Of Intrauterine Growth Retardation

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    Sergiy Morozov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The important biological role of saliva in maintaining of the homeostasis of the oral cavity environment, preventing infection and tooth decay is widely accepted. Salivary glands insufficiency may violate the balance between health and disease. Clinical data indicated that the destruction, agenesis and aplasia of salivary gland commonly followed with hypo salivation, low salivary flow, which resulted in severe caries and periodontal disease. Salivary gland dysfunction also frequently found in preterm and low birth weight newborns. But the information about structural background of abnormal salivation in early childhood is still limited. A presence of any correlation between salivary glands’ structural development and intrauterine restrictions of fetal growth (IUGR is unclear. The aim of present study was to determine morphological and morphometric peculiarities of human parotid gland in case of IUGR at late gestation.  Material and methods Parotid glands of twenty human fetuses 20-22 weeks of gestation with diagnosed IUGR from late abortions material were compared with ten fetal glands in cases of induced abortions due to psychological reasons (control group. Tissue samples were immersion-fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution, embedded in paraffin wax.  Histological slides were stained routinely with hematoxylin & eosin, with Van Gieson's Stain.  Microscopical examination was performed on magnification x 40 and x 100. Stereometric study by point count method at magnification x 40 allowed finding out volume fractions (VF of gland’s parenchyma and stroma. VF of lobule’s components (gland’s wall, gland’s lumen, duct’s wall, duct’s lumen, vessels, intralobular connective tissue were registered at magnification x100. Morphometry of the secretory portion of the parotid gland was conducted on the Zeiss microscope with the help of the AxioVision Rel.4.8 program. The mature (differentiated end pieces were measured, including their area

  13. Expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the human placenta and changes associated with intrauterine growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Loubière, L S; Vasilopoulou, E.; Bulmer, J N; Taylor, P. M.; Stieger, B.; Verrey, F.; McCabe, C. J.; Franklyn, J.A.; Kilby, M. D.; Chan, S-Y

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are important for the development of the human fetus and placenta from very early gestation. The transplacental passage of TH from mother to fetus and the supply of TH into trophoblasts require the expression of placental TH plasma membrane transporters. We describe the ontogeny of the TH transporters MCT8, MCT10, LAT1, LAT2, OATP1A2 and OATP4A1 in a large series (n = 110) of normal human placentae across gestation and describe their expression changes with intrauterine ...

  14. N-Acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor, reverts vascular dysfunction and endothelial epigenetic programming in intrauterine growth restricted guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Emilio A; Cifuentes-Zúñiga, Francisca; Figueroa, Esteban; Villanueva, Cristian; Hernández, Cherie; Alegría, René; Arroyo-Jousse, Viviana; Peñaloza, Estefania; Farías, Marcelo; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola; Krause, Bernardo J

    2017-02-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress and signs of endothelial epigenetic programming of the umbilical vessels. There is no evidence that this epigenetic programming is occurring on systemic fetal arteries. In IUGR guinea pigs we studied the functional and epigenetic programming of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) (Nos3 gene) in umbilical and systemic fetal arteries, addressing the role of oxidative stress in this process by maternal treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) during the second half of gestation. The present study suggests that IUGR endothelial cells have common molecular markers of programming in umbilical and systemic arteries. Notably, maternal treatment with NAC restores fetal growth by increasing placental efficiency and reverting the functional and epigenetic programming of eNOS in arterial endothelium in IUGR guinea pigs. In humans, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress and signs of endothelial programming in umbilical vessels. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on fetal endothelial function and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) programming in IUGR guinea pigs. IUGR was induced by implanting ameroid constrictors on uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs at mid gestation, half of the sows receiving NAC in the drinking water (from day 34 until term). Fetal biometry and placental vascular resistance were followed by ultrasound throughout gestation. At term, umbilical arteries and fetal aortae were isolated to assess endothelial function by wire-myography. Primary cultures of endothelial cells (ECs) from fetal aorta, femoral and umbilical arteries were used to determine eNOS mRNA levels by quantitative PCR and analyse DNA methylation in the Nos3 promoter by pyrosequencing. Doppler ultrasound measurements showed that NAC reduced placental vascular resistance

  15. Glucocorticoid programming of intrauterine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Valenzuela, O A; Vaughan, O R; Jellyman, J K; Forhead, A J

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important environmental and maturational signals during intrauterine development. Toward term, the maturational rise in fetal glucocorticoid receptor concentrations decreases fetal growth and induces differentiation of key tissues essential for neonatal survival. When cortisol levels rise earlier in gestation as a result of suboptimal conditions for fetal growth, the switch from tissue accretion to differentiation is initiated prematurely, which alters the phenotype that develops from the genotype inherited at conception. Although this improves the chances of survival should delivery occur, it also has functional consequences for the offspring long after birth. Glucocorticoids are, therefore, also programming signals that permanently alter tissue structure and function during intrauterine development to optimize offspring fitness. However, if the postnatal environmental conditions differ from those signaled in utero, the phenotypical outcome of early-life glucocorticoid receptor overexposure may become maladaptive and lead to physiological dysfunction in the adult. This review focuses on the role of GCs in developmental programming, primarily in farm species. It examines the factors influencing GC bioavailability in utero and the effects that GCs have on the development of fetal tissues and organ systems, both at term and earlier in gestation. It also discusses the windows of susceptibility to GC overexposure in early life together with the molecular mechanisms and long-term consequences of GC programming with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine phenotype of the offspring.

  16. Is blood pressure increased 19 years after intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth? A prospective follow-up study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer-Veen, M.G.; Finken, M.J.J.; Nauta, J.; Dekker, F.W.; Hille, E.T.M.; Frölich, M.; Wit, J.M.; Heijden, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a predisposing factor for high blood pressure (BP) in 19-year-olds who were born (very) preterm. Methods. A prospective follow-up study was conducted at age 19 in individuals who born preterm in the Netherlands in 1983. Systol

  17. The effect of embryo and maternal genotypes on prolificacy, intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal development of Nos3-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallares, Pilar; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    Mice deficient for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3(-/-)) may represent a good model for studying embryo loss and intrauterine growth retardation caused by vascular deficiencies. We determined the effects of embryo genotype (homozygous vs. heterozygous descendants with paternal or maternal source of the non-functional NOS3 allele) and maternal environment (NOS3(-/-) vs. wild-type NOS3(+/+) females) on the appearance of estrus, fertility and prolificacy rates and live weight in the first week of life as well as phenotypic characteristics of offspring during the postnatal period. The results indicated that pregnancy outcomes and postnatal development of NOS3(-/-) mice seem to be related to deficiencies in fetal programming mainly determined by maternal genotype.

  18. Intrauterine infection and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luís F; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is a major cause of premature labor with and without intact membranes. Intrauterine infection is present in approximately 25% of all preterm births and the earlier the gestational age at delivery, the higher the frequency of intra-amniotic infection. Microorganisms may also gain access to the fetus before delivery. A fetal inflammatory response syndrome elicited in response to microbial products is associated with the impending onset of preterm labor and also with multi-systemic organ involvement in the human fetus and a higher rate of perinatal morbidity. The most common microorganisms involved in intrauterine infections are Ureaplasma urealyticum, Fusobacterium species and Mycoplasma hominis. The role of Chlamydia trachomatis and viruses in preterm labor remain to be determined. Use of molecular microbiology techniques to diagnose intrauterine infection may uncover the role of fastidious microorganisms that have not yet been discovered. Antibiotic administration to patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of preterm birth. However, such benefit has not been demonstrated for patients with bacterial vaginosis, or women who carry Streptococcus agalactia, Ureaplasma urealyticum or Trichomonas vaginalis. Antibiotic administration to patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes is associated with prolongation of pregnancy and a reduction in the rate of clinical chorioamnionitis and neonatal sepsis. The benefit has not been demonstrated in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes. Major efforts are required to determine why some women develop an ascending intrauterine infection and others do not and also what interventions may reduce the deleterious effect of systemic fetal inflammation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH FETAL OUTCOME

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    Sudha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : IUGR is one of the most serious challenges in both developed and developing contraries . I t is the single most important factor that determines in chances of child survival. In our country PGRF remain one of the commonest cause of neonates morbidity and mortality 30% of neonatal death are done to IUGR . D espite of all efforts by government 10 0% antenatal care is poor but women are seeking health facility for delivery at time ever more important to identify such high risk pregnancy and manage for better met and fetal examination (one step in 3 rd trimester can be used as a screening procedure f or detection of IUGR babies. MATERIAL AND METHODS : all pregnant women coming to the facility diagnosed to have IUGR by clinical method ( SFH, AG , clinical assessment of liquor were included in the study for duration of one year. M aternal and fetal outcome was noted in terms of mode of delivery and neonatal death, still birth, SGA, AGA. Apgar score of all the babies was noted to assess morbidity. OBSERVATION : O f the total antenatal women 200 were identify as IUGR by clinical method out of which most of were from age group 21 - 25 years comprising 72.4% of total cases. Maternal weight and height influence weight of the babies 75% IUGR babies were noted in height less than 145 cm. 78.5% were unbooked and 64 belong to rural population. various risk maternal factor s like hypertensive disorder 26%, anemia 16.5%, previous history of IUGR 9%, antepartum haemorrhage 6%, diabetes 1%, rh negative 4.5%, heart disease 1%, recurrent abortion 5% in 17% no identified risk factors were found, 80% were delivered vaginal, 67.5% b abies were SGA after birth as asses sed by clinical method, 68%, had A pgar score less than 7. Perinatal mortality constituted 27.3% of the babies. DISCUSSION : I ntrauterine growth restriction is one of the common abnormality encountered by the obstetrician, when present it increases perinatal morbidity and mortality. it is a

  20. Phenotypic characterization by high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging evidences differential effects of embryo genotype on intrauterine growth retardation in NOS3-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallares, Pilar; Perez-Solana, Maria L; Torres-Rovira, Laura; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    The Nos3-knockout mouse, deficient for endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), is affected by a reduction in the number and weight of the embryos and constitutes a good model for some features of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Deficiencies in conceptus growth and survival may result from factors inherent in the embryo itself or from deficiencies in uterine function. In the current study, we aimed to determine the effects of embryonic genotype independently of maternal genotype, which can affect uterine environment. Therefore, by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we characterized the phenotypes of NOS3-defective (Nos3(-/-); n = 6), normal wild-type (Nos3(+/+); n = 5), and heterozygous (Nos3(+/-); n = 16) mouse fetuses. All of them were littermates obtained by breeding heterozygous mice (Nos3(+/-)); therefore, the maternal genotype was the same for all the fetuses. At Day 13.5 (i.e., Theiler stage TS 21-22), females were anesthetized and scanned with three-dimensional MRI. Analysis of the different measurements of the embryos and the gestational annexes showed no significant differences between Nos3(+/+) and Nos3(+/-); however, there was a trend toward larger sizes in Nos3(+/+), and values in Nos3(-/-) were significantly smaller than in Nos3(+/+) and Nos3(+/-). The reduction in the crown-rump length of Nos3(-/-) reached 12% when compared to Nos3(+/+) (P Nos3(-/-) to wild-type Nos3(+/+). Finally, Nos3(-/-) showed a reduction of 29% in the maximum thickness of the placenta, which may be related to the appearance of IUGR due to compromised nutritional delivery to the fetus.

  1. The effects of sildenafil citrate on feto?placental development and haemodynamics in a rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Tello, Jorge; Arias-Álvarez, María; Jiménez-Martínez, Maria-Ángeles; Barbero-Fernández, Alicia; García-García, Rosa María; Rodríguez, María; Lorenzo, Pedro L; Torres-Rovira, Laura; Astiz, Susana; González-Bulnes, Antonio; Rebollar, Pilar G

    2016-05-23

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of sildenafil citrate (SC) to improve placental and fetal growth in a diet-induced rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Pregnant rabbits were fed either ad libitum (Group C) or restricted to 50% of dietary requirements (Group R) or restricted and treated with SC (Group SC). The treatment with SC improved placental development by increasing vascularity and vessel hypertrophy in the decidua. The assessment of feto-placental haemodynamics showed higher resistance and pulsatility indices at the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in fetuses treated with SC when compared with Group R, which had increased systolic peak and time-averaged mean velocities at the MCA. Furthermore, fetuses in the SC group had significantly higher biparietal and thoracic diameters and longer crown-rump lengths than fetuses in Group R. Hence, the SC group had a reduced IUGR rate and a higher kit size at birth compared with Group R. In conclusion, SC may provide potential benefits in pregnancies with placental insufficiency and IUGR, partially counteracting the negative effects of food restriction on placental development and fetal growth. However, the present study also found evidence of a possible blood overflow in the brain that warrants further investigation.

  2. Role of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Smads Signaling Pathway in Intrauterine Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umme Salma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of Smad3, Smad7, and TGF-β1 in intrauterine adhesion (IUA patients and experimental rabbit models. 60 IUA patients, 30 control participants, and 18 female rabbits were enrolled in this study. We found that the plasma concentrations and protein expressions of TGF-β1 were significantly increased in patients and experimental rabbits compared to those in controls (P<0.05. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Smad3 were significantly elevated, while Smad7 level was markedly decreased in the patients and experimental rabbits compared with controls (P<0.05. This altered ratio recommended that IUA was positively correlated to the mRNA and protein expression levels of Smad3, Smad7, and TGF-β1 in blood and uterine tissue. Moreover, we used the specific inhibitor of Smad3 (SIS3 in experimental rabbit. SIS3 obviously reduced the mRNA and protein expression of smad3 and TGF-β1, while it increased Smad7 expression in the treatment groups as compared with IUA rabbits (P<0.05. Our study suggested that TGF-β1/Smad3/smad7 is a major pathway which plays an important role in the regulation of the IUA and specific inhibitor of Smad3 (SIS3 may provide a new therapeutic strategy for IUA.

  3. Intrauterine growth retardation and consequences for endocrine and cardiovascular diseases in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Chellakooty, Marla; Vielwerth, Signe;

    2003-01-01

    Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12th...... postnatal growth, insulin resistance and consequently the risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus IGF-I may serve as a link between fetal growth and adult-onset disease....

  4. [Intrauterine insemination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merviel, Philippe; Cabry, Rosalie; Lourdel, Emmanuelle; Barbier, Frédéric; Scheffler, Florence; Mansouri, Naïma; Devaux, Aviva; Benkhalifa, Moncef; Copin, Henri

    2014-01-01

    The intrauterine insemination with husband's sperm is an assisted reproductive technologie, as proposed in the case of cervical infertility, moderate male infertility, dysovulation, mild or moderate endometriosis or unexplained infertility. In the last three indications the ovarian stimulation is necessary. The couple demographic criteria (age of both partners, lifestyle, duration of infertility) and the results of the infertility evaluation (ovarian reserve, uterus, spermogram-spermocytogram) increase the chances of pregnancy by intrauterine insemination with husband's sperm and reduce the risk of multiple pregnancies. Pregnancy rates observed ranged from 8 to 20% per cycle according to indications.

  5. The Nexus of Prematurity, Birth Defects, and Intrauterine Growth Restriction: A Role for Plac1-Regulated Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fant, Michael E.; Fuentes, Juan; Kong, Xiaoyuan; Jackman, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased prevalence of birth defects and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) among infants born prematurely suggesting they share common biological determinants. The identification of key regulatory pathways contributing to this nexus is essential to ongoing efforts to develop effective intervention strategies. Plac1 is a paternally imprinted and X-linked gene that conforms to this paradigm. Examination of a mutant mouse model has confirmed that Plac1 is essential for normal placental development and function. Moreover, it is expressed throughout the developing embryo indicating that it also has broad relevance to embryogenesis. Most notably, its absence in the developing embryo is associated with abnormal brain development and an increased risk of lethal, postnatal hydrocephalus identifying it as a novel, X-linked determinant of brain development. The essential and non-redundant roles of Plac1 in placental and neurological development represent a novel regulatory paradigm for embryonic growth and pregnancy maintenance. Regulatory pathways influenced, in part, by Plac1 are likely to contribute to the observed nexus of IUGR, prematurity, and birth defects. PMID:24600606

  6. Quantitative 3D micro-CT imaging of the human feto-placental vasculature in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langheinrich, A C; Vorman, S; Seidenstücker, J; Kampschulte, M; Bohle, R M; Wienhard, J; Zygmunt, M

    2008-11-01

    Placental vascular development matches fetal growth and development. Quantification of the feto-placental vasculature in placentas from pregnancies is complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) revealed confounding results. Therefore, the feto-placental vascular volume in IUGR placentas was assessed by 3D micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Placental probes from IUGR (n=24) and healthy control placentas (n=40) were perfused in situ with Microfil or BaSO(4) and randomly chosen samples were scanned by micro-CT. Using 3D images, we quantitated the feto-placental vascular volume fraction (VVF). A subanalysis was performed at three different levels, reaching from the chorionic plate artery (level A), to intermediate arteries (level B) and capillary system (level C). Results were complemented by histology. The significance of differences in vascular volume measurements was tested with analysis of variance [ANOVA]. Microfil perfused placentas showed a total vascular volume fraction of 20.5+/-0.9% in healthy controls. In contrast, the VVF decreased to 7.9+/-0.9% (pfeto-placental vascular tree in healthy controls and pregnancies complicated by IUGR.

  7. Verbal short-term memory span in children: long-term modality dependent effects of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, R; Eshel, R; Leitner, Y; Fattal-Valevski, A; Harel, S

    2008-12-01

    Recent reports showed that children born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at greater risk of experiencing verbal short-term memory span (STM) deficits that may impede their learning capacities at school. It is still unknown whether these deficits are modality dependent. This long-term, prospective design study examined modality-dependent verbal STM functions in children who were diagnosed at birth with IUGR (n = 138) and a control group (n = 64). Their STM skills were evaluated individually at 9 years of age with four conditions of the Visual-Aural Digit Span Test (VADS; Koppitz, 1981): auditory-oral, auditory-written, visuospatial-oral and visuospatial-written. Cognitive competence was evaluated with the short form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children--revised (WISC-R95; Wechsler, 1998). We found IUGR-related specific auditory-oral STM deficits (p long-term relationship between prenatal aberrant head growth and auditory verbal STM deficits by the end of the first decade of life. Empirical, clinical and educational implications are presented.

  8. Intrauterine growth retardation increases the susceptibility of pigs to high-fat diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Liu

    Full Text Available It has been recognized that there is a relationship between prenatal growth restriction and the development of metabolic-related diseases in later life, a process involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR increases the susceptibility of offspring to high-fat (HF diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggested that HF feeding decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the long-term consequences of IUGR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal birth weight (NBW, and IUGR pigs were allotted to control or HF diet in a completely randomized design, individually. After 4 weeks of feeding, growth performance and molecular pathways related to mitochondrial function were determined. The results showed that IUGR decreased growth performance and plasma insulin concentrations. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with enhanced plasma leptin levels, increased concentrations of triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced glycogen and ATP contents in skeletal muscle. High fat diet-fed IUGR offspring exhibited decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD. These alterations in metabolic traits of IUGR pigs were accompanied by impaired mitochondrial respiration function, reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA contents, and down-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that IUGR make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  9. Intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboulghar, M.; Baird, D. T.; Collins, J.; Evers, J. L. H.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Lambalk, C. B.; Somigliana, E.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diczfalusy, E.; Diedrich, K.; Fraser, L.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Van Steirteghem, A.

    2009-01-01

    Intrauterine insemination (IUI) with or without ovarian stimulation is a common treatment for infertility. Despite its popularity, the effectiveness of IUI treatment is not consistent, and the role of IUI and in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment in practice protocols has not been clarified. Medlin

  10. Metabolomic profile of umbilical cord blood plasma from early and late intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR neonates with and without signs of brain vasodilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Sanz-Cortés

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To characterize via NMR spectroscopy the full spectrum of metabolic changes in umbilical vein blood plasma of newborns diagnosed with different clinical forms of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. METHODS: 23 early IUGR cases and matched 23 adequate-for-gestational-age (AGA controls and 56 late IUGR cases with 56 matched AGAs were included in this study. Early IUGR was defined as a birth weight 35 weeks. This group was subdivided in 18 vasodilated (VD and 38 non-VD late IUGR fetuses. All AGA patients had a birth weight >10(th centile. (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR metabolomics of the blood samples collected from the umbilical vein at delivery was obtained. Multivariate statistical analysis identified several metabolites that allowed the discrimination between the different IUGR subgroups, and their comparative levels were quantified from the NMR data. RESULTS: The NMR-based analysis showed increased unsaturated lipids and VLDL levels in both early and late IUGR samples, decreased glucose and increased acetone levels in early IUGR. Non-significant trends for decreased glucose and increased acetone levels were present in late IUGR, which followed a severity gradient when the VD and non-VD subgroups were considered. Regarding amino acids and derivatives, early IUGR showed significantly increased glutamine and creatine levels, whereas the amounts of phenylalanine and tyrosine were decreased in early and late-VD IUGR samples. Valine and leucine were decreased in late IUGR samples. Choline levels were decreased in all clinical subforms of IUGR. CONCLUSIONS: IUGR is not associated with a unique metabolic profile, but important changes are present in different clinical subsets used in research and clinical practice. These results may help in characterizing comprehensively specific alterations underlying different IUGR subsets.

  11. Serum insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the human fetus. Relationships with growth in normal subjects and in subjects with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassarre, C; Hardouin, S; Daffos, F; Forestier, F; Frankenne, F; Binoux, M

    1991-03-01

    IGF-I, IGF-II, and their binding proteins (BP) were studied in sera obtained by direct puncture of umbilical cords in utero between 20 and 37 wk of gestation in 103 normal fetuses and in 16 fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation, as well as in the cord blood of 37 normal newborns of 38- to 42-wk pregnancies. In normal fetuses, IGF-I levels were approximately 50 ng/mL and IGF-II levels approximately 350 ng/mL up to the 33rd wk of pregnancy. Thereafter, both increased to reach values two to three times higher at term. Correlations were found between fetal placental lactogen levels and those of IGF-I and IGF-II, which is consistent with the hypothesis that placental lactogen is involved in the regulation of IGF synthesis in the fetus. With weight (either measured at birth or deduced from echographical data) as index of fetal size, IGF-I levels were significantly (p less than 0.001) higher in fetuses with weights above the mean for gestational age than in fetuses with weights below the mean, whereas IGF-II levels were similar in the two groups. Similarly, IGF-I (but not IGF-II) levels in fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation were significantly lower than those in normal fetuses of the same age (p less than 0.01). These findings suggest that, during the latter months of intrauterine life, IGF-I (but not IGF-II) is involved in the control of fetal size. Total fetal BP concentrations were approximately 1/3 those of adults. The fetal electrophoretic profile obtained by Western-ligand blotting bore a strong resemblance to that of subjects with growth hormone deficiency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Expanding Access to a New, More Affordable Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System in Kenya: Service Delivery Costs Compared With Other Contraceptive Methods and Perspectives of Key Opinion Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Kate H; Solomon, Marsden; Brett, Tracey; Bratt, John H; Pascual, Claire; Njunguru, Jesse; Steiner, Markus J

    2016-08-11

    The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG IUS) is one of the most effective forms of contraception and offers important non-contraceptive health benefits. However, it is not widely available in developing countries, largely due to the high price of existing products. Medicines360 plans to introduce its new, more affordable LNG IUS in Kenya. The public-sector transfer price will vary by volume between US$12 to US$16 per unit; for an order of 100,000 units, the public-sector transfer price will be approximately US$15 per unit. We calculated the direct service delivery cost per couple-years of protection (CYP) of various family planning methods. The model includes the costs of contraceptive commodities, consumable supplies, instruments per client visit, and direct labor for counseling, insertion, removal, and resupply, if required. The model does not include costs of demand creation or training. We conducted interviews with key opinion leaders in Kenya to identify considerations for scale-up of a new LNG IUS, including strategies to overcome barriers that have contributed to low uptake of the copper intrauterine device. The direct service delivery cost of Medicines360's LNG IUS per CYP compares favorably with other contraceptive methods commonly procured for public-sector distribution in Kenya. The cost is slightly lower than that of the 3-month contraceptive injectable, which is currently the most popular method in Kenya. Almost all key opinion leaders agreed that introducing a more affordable LNG IUS could increase demand and uptake of the method. They thought that women seeking the product's non-contraceptive health benefits would be a key market segment, and most agreed that the reduced menstrual bleeding associated with the method would likely be viewed as an advantage. The key opinion leaders indicated that myths and misconceptions among providers and clients about IUDs must be addressed, and that demand creation and provider training should be prioritized

  13. Expanding Access to a New, More Affordable Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System in Kenya: Service Delivery Costs Compared With Other Contraceptive Methods and Perspectives of Key Opinion Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Kate H; Solomon, Marsden; Brett, Tracey; Bratt, John H; Pascual, Claire; Njunguru, Jesse; Steiner, Markus J

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG IUS) is one of the most effective forms of contraception and offers important non-contraceptive health benefits. However, it is not widely available in developing countries, largely due to the high price of existing products. Medicines360 plans to introduce its new, more affordable LNG IUS in Kenya. The public‐sector transfer price will vary by volume between US$12 to US$16 per unit; for an order of 100,000 units, the public-sector transfer price will be approximately US$15 per unit. Methods: We calculated the direct service delivery cost per couple-years of protection (CYP) of various family planning methods. The model includes the costs of contraceptive commodities, consumable supplies, instruments per client visit, and direct labor for counseling, insertion, removal, and resupply, if required. The model does not include costs of demand creation or training. We conducted interviews with key opinion leaders in Kenya to identify considerations for scale-up of a new LNG IUS, including strategies to overcome barriers that have contributed to low uptake of the copper intrauterine device. Results: The direct service delivery cost of Medicines360’s LNG IUS per CYP compares favorably with other contraceptive methods commonly procured for public-sector distribution in Kenya. The cost is slightly lower than that of the 3-month contraceptive injectable, which is currently the most popular method in Kenya. Almost all key opinion leaders agreed that introducing a more affordable LNG IUS could increase demand and uptake of the method. They thought that women seeking the product’s non-contraceptive health benefits would be a key market segment, and most agreed that the reduced menstrual bleeding associated with the method would likely be viewed as an advantage. The key opinion leaders indicated that myths and misconceptions among providers and clients about IUDs must be addressed, and that demand creation

  14. Ouabain rescues rat nephrogenesis during intrauterine growth restriction by regulating the complement and coagulation cascades and calcium signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Yue, J; Han, X; Li, J; Hu, Y

    2016-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with a reduction in the numbers of nephrons in neonates, which increases the risk of hypertension. Our previous study showed that ouabain protects the development of the embryonic kidney during IUGR. To explore this molecular mechanism, IUGR rats were induced by protein and calorie restriction throughout pregnancy, and ouabain was delivered using a mini osmotic pump. RNA sequencing technology was used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of the embryonic kidneys. DEGs were submitted to the Database for Annotation and Visualization and Integrated Discovery, and gene ontology enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were conducted. Maternal malnutrition significantly reduced fetal weight, but ouabain treatment had no significant effect on body weight. A total of 322 (177 upregulated and 145 downregulated) DEGs were detected between control and the IUGR group. Meanwhile, 318 DEGs were found to be differentially expressed (180 increased and 138 decreased) between the IUGR group and the ouabain-treated group. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that maternal undernutrition mainly disrupts the complement and coagulation cascades and the calcium signaling pathway, which could be protected by ouabain treatment. Taken together, these two biological pathways may play an important role in nephrogenesis, indicating potential novel therapeutic targets against the unfavorable effects of IUGR.

  15. Intrauterine growth restriction leads to changes in sulfur amino acid metabolism, but not global DNA methylation, in Yucatan miniature piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Dylan S; Brophy, Julie D; McBreairty, Laura E; McGowan, Ross A; Bertolo, Robert F

    2012-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), in both animals and humans, has been linked to metabolic syndrome later in life. There has been recent evidence that perturbations in sulfur amino acid metabolism may be involved in this early programming phenomenon. Methionine is the precursor for cellular methylation reactions and for the synthesis of cysteine. It has been suggested that the mechanism behind the "fetal origins" of adult diseases may be epigenetic, involving DNA methylation. Because we have recently demonstrated the fetal origins phenomenon in Yucatan miniature swine, we hypothesized that sulfur amino acid metabolism is altered in IUGR piglets. In this study, metabolites and the activities of sulfur amino acid cycle enzymes were analyzed in liver samples of 3- to 5-day-old runt (IUGR: 0.85±0.13 kg) and large (1.36±0.21 kg) Yucatan miniature pig littermates (n=6 pairs). The IUGR piglets had significantly lower specific and total activities of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL) than larger littermates (PYucatan miniature piglets impairs their remethylation capacity as well as their ability to remove cystathionine and synthesize cysteine and taurine, which could have important implications on long-term health outcomes of IUGR neonates.

  16. Postnatal changes of leptin levels in full-term and preterm neonates: their relation to intrauterine growth, gender and testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, T; Funke, S; Sárkány, I; Szabó, I; Rascher, W; Blum, W F; Sulyok, E

    1999-03-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate leptin levels in arterial and venous cord serum and in amniotic fluid in full-term infants at birth and on the 5th postnatal day to define the relationship of leptin to intrauterine growth rate, gender and early postnatal life. The relation of weight gain to serum leptin levels in male preterm infants was determined measuring leptin concentration weekly in the first 5 postnatal weeks. Testosterone levels were determined simultaneously to explore a possible relationship between leptin and testosterone concentrations. Fifty-three term newborn infants with mean birth weight and gestational age of 3,419 g (range 2,150-4,480) and 38.9 weeks (range 36-41) and 19 preterm male infants (mean birth weight and gestational age were 1,416 g (770-1,800) and 30.2 weeks (26-35) were enrolled into the study. Leptin and testosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. It was demonstrated that serum leptin levels were markedly elevated in the cord blood without discernible arteriovenous differences. Cord blood leptin was found to correlate with birth weight (r = 0.40, p fall by the 5th postnatal day (p preterm infants at 1 week of age was significantly lower compared with term infants (p preterm male infants serum leptin concentration increases with postnatal weight and testosterone may suppress leptin synthesis.

  17. Identifying placental epigenetic alterations in an intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) rat model induced by gestational protein deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamon-Buettner, Stella Marie; Buschmann, Jochen; Lewin, Geertje

    2014-06-01

    Poor maternal nutrition during gestation can lead to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), a main cause of low birth weight associated with high neonatal morbidity and mortality. Such early uterine environmental exposures can impact the neonatal epigenome to render later-in-life disease susceptibility. We established in Wistar Han rats a mild IUGR model induced by gestational protein deficiency (i.e. 9% crude protein in low protein diet vs. 21% in control, from GD 0 to 21) to identify alterations in gene expression and methylation patterns in certain genes implicated in human IUGR or in placental development. We found differential gene expression of Wnt2 and Dlk1 between IUGR and control. Notably, Wnt2 exhibited significant decrease while Dlk1 increase in IUGR placentas, correlating to decrease in fetal and placental weight. Methylation patterns encompassing 30 CpGs in the Wnt2 promoter region revealed variability in both IUGR and control placentas, but a site-specific hypomethylation was evident in IUGR placentas. Our present findings further support a key role of maternal gestational nutrition in defining the neonatal epigenome. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation on Renal Phenotype and Epigenotype in Early Weanling Intrauterine Growth Retarded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaori He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the responses of p53 promoter methylation involved in kidney structure and function of early weaning intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR rats to dietary folic acid supplementation. Method: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 21% protein diet (normal feed or 10% protein diet throughout pregnancy and normal feed during lactation. After weaning, Offspring were then fed onto normal feed and normal feed supplemented with 5 mg folic acid/kg feed for a month, this produced 4 dietary groups (maternal diet/ weanling diet: Con, Folic, IUGR and IUGR+Folic. Renal function, renal structure, p53 promoter methylation and protein expression of offspring rats were measured at postnatal 2 months and 3 months. Results: Glomerular volume, blood urea nitrogen, 24 hours urine protein were significantly elevated in IUGR rats compared with Con rats but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. p53 protein expression in IUGR rats were significantly higher than that in Con rats, and p53 promoter methylation status in IUGR rats was reduced significantly compared with Con rats. However, the changes in p53 gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR rats were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Conclusions: Our study showed for the first time that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could reverse the abnormality in renal p53 methylation status and protein expression, glomerular volume and renal function of IUGR rats offspring.

  19. Color Doppler monitoring of changes of utero-placental-fetal circulation in normal pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Wen, L; Ma, T; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Q; Gao, S; Zhao, M; Wu, H; Hu, J

    1997-01-01

    The utero-placental-fetal circulation (UPFC) of 150 subjects during second and third trimester was examined by using color Doppler. Of them 89 were normal woman and 58 were patients with intrauterine growth retardation IUGR). Our results showed that UPFC was increased gradually during normal pregnant period. In IUGR patients it was revealed that TAV and Q of UmA, UmV and UtA decreased at 20th week of gestation, especially after 30th week. PI, RI and S/D ratio of UmA were increased, but TAV, Q of UmA and UmV were markly reduced, so was UtA. PI were increased, but the changes of RI, S/D ratio in UtA were not significant. Hemodynamical findings of UmA, UmV and UtA were abnormal in 92.53% of IUGR patients. Only 81.03% present abnormal S/D ratio of UmA (P UPFC function directly. It is one of the best methods for monitoring IUGR and might be used for early diagnosis of IUGR. The main pathophysiological changes of IUGR were UPFC obstruction and placental disfunction.

  20. Does the measure of economic disadvantage matter? Exploring the effect of individual and relative deprivation on intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Patricia B; Salsberry, Pamela J; Olsen, Randall J

    2007-05-01

    This paper examines the relation between health, individual income, and relative deprivation. Three alternative measures of relative deprivation are described, Yitzhaik relative deprivation, Deaton relative deprivation, and log income difference relative deprivation, with attention to problems in measuring permanent disadvantage when the underlying income distribution is changing over time. We used data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, a US-based longitudinal survey, to examine the associations between disadvantage, measured cross-sectionally and aggregated over the life course, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We reject the hypotheses that any of the economic measures, whether permanent/contemporaneous or individual/relative, have different associations with IUGR in terms of sign and significance. There was some evidence that permanent economic disadvantage was associated with greater risk of IUGR than those on the corresponding contemporaneous measures. The fitted values from logistic regressions on each measure of disadvantage were compared with the two-way plots of the observed IUGR-income pattern. Deaton relative deprivation and log income difference tracked the observed probability of IUGR as a function of income more closely than the other two measures of relative deprivation. Finally, we examined the determinants of each measure of disadvantage. Observed characteristics in childhood and adulthood explained more of the variance in log income difference and Deaton relative deprivation than in the other two measures of disadvantage. They also explained more of the variance in permanent disadvantage than in the contemporaneous counterpart.

  1. Effects of intrauterine growth restriction on sleep and the cardiovascular system: The use of melatonin as a potential therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wallace, Euan M; Miller, Suzanne L; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2016-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) complicates 5-10% of pregnancies and is associated with increased risk of preterm birth, mortality and neurodevelopmental delay. The development of sleep and cardiovascular control are closely coupled and IUGR is known to alter this development. In the long-term, IUGR is associated with altered sleep and an increased risk of hypertension in adulthood. Melatonin plays an important role in the sleep-wake cycle. Experimental animal studies have shown that melatonin therapy has neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects in the IUGR fetus. Consequently, clinical trials are currently underway to assess the short and long term effects of antenatal melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies. Given melatonin's role in sleep regulation, this hormone could affect the developing infants' sleep-wake cycle and cardiovascular function after birth. In this review, we will 1) examine the role of melatonin as a therapy for IUGR pregnancies and the potential implications on sleep and the cardiovascular system; 2) examine the development of sleep-wake cycle in fetal and neonatal life; 3) discuss the development of cardiovascular control during sleep; 4) discuss the effect of IUGR on sleep and the cardiovascular system and 5) discuss the future implications of melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies.

  2. The role of thromboxane A(2) in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Caoimhe M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of maternal smoking in pregnancy on the production of two eicosanoids, thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin I2, and their role in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction. METHODS: Prospective case control study enrolled smoking and non-smoking women at <\\/=14 weeks gestation. Maternal urine samples were obtained at <\\/=14, 28 and 36 weeks. High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to quantify 11-dehydrothromboxane B(2) (TX-M) and 2,3 dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1alpha (PG-M), stable urinary metabolites of thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin I2. Confirmation of the smoking status was performed by quantitation of urinary nicotine metabolites. Data was analysed using SPSS and Stata((R)). RESULTS: Thirty five were enrolled in the smoking group and 32 in the non-smoking group. Smoking resulted higher levels of TX-M at <\\/=14, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. There was no difference in PG-M at any gestational time point between the two groups. The median customised birthweight centile in the smoking group was 17.0 (0-78) compared to 55.5 (4-100) in the non-smoking group (P<0.001). A causal relationship between elevated TX-M and IUGR could not be established. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking in pregnancy is associated with altered eicosanoid production in favour of the vasoconstrictor thromboxane A(2) which occurs early in the first trimester.

  3. Adipose tissue proteomes of intrauterine growth-restricted piglets artificially reared on a high-protein neonatal formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Ousseynou; Louveau, Isabelle; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Gondret, Florence

    2012-11-01

    The eventuality that adipose tissues adapt to neonatal nutrition in a way that may program later adiposity or obesity in adulthood is receiving increasing attention in neonatology. This study assessed the immediate effects of a high-protein neonatal formula on proteome profiles of adipose tissues in newborn piglets with intrauterine growth restriction. Piglets (10th percentile) were fed milk replacers formulated to provide an adequate (AP) or a high (HP) protein supply from day 2 to the day prior weaning (day 28, n=5 per group). Adipocytes with small diameters were present in greater proportions in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues from HP piglets compared with AP ones at this age. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of adipose tissue depots revealed a total of 32 protein spots being up- or down-regulated (P<.10) for HP piglets compared with AP piglets; 18 of them were unambiguously identified by mass spectrometry. These proteins were notably related to signal transduction (annexin 2), redox status (peroxiredoxin 6, glutathione S-transferase omega 1, cyclophilin-A), carbohydrate metabolism (ribose-5-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase), amino acid metabolism (glutamate dehydrogenase 1) and cell cytoskeleton dynamics (dynactin and cofilin-1). Proteomic changes occurred mainly in dorsal subcutaneous adipose tissue, with the notable exception of annexin 1 involved in lipid metabolic process having a lower abundance in HP piglets for perirenal adipose tissue only. Together, modulation in those proteins could represent a novel starting point for elucidating catch-up fat growth observed in later life in growing animals having been fed HP formula.

  4. Placental Underperfusion in a Rat Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction Induced by a Reduced Plasma Volume Expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Bibeau

    Full Text Available Lower maternal plasma volume expansion was found in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR but the link remains to be elucidated. An animal model of IUGR was developed by giving a low-sodium diet to rats over the last week of gestation. This treatment prevents full expansion of maternal circulating volume and the increase in uterine artery diameter, leading to reduced placental weight compared to normal gestation. We aimed to verify whether this is associated with reduced remodeling of uteroplacental circulation and placental hypoxia. Dams were divided into two groups: IUGR group and normal-fed controls. Blood velocity waveforms in the main uterine artery were obtained by Doppler sonography on days 14, 18 and 21 of pregnancy. On day 22 (term = 23 days, rats were sacrificed and placentas and uterine radial arteries were collected. Diameter and myogenic response of uterine arteries supplying placentas were determined while expression of hypoxia-modulated genes (HIF-1α, VEGFA and VEGFR2, apoptotic enzyme (Caspase -3 and -9 and glycogen cells clusters were measured in control and IUGR term-placentas. In the IUGR group, impaired blood velocity in the main uterine artery along with increased resistance index was observed without alteration in umbilical artery blood velocity. Radial uterine artery diameter was reduced while myogenic response was increased. IUGR placentas displayed increased expression of hypoxia markers without change in the caspases and increased glycogen cells in the junctional zone. The present data suggest that reduced placental and fetal growth in our IUGR model may be mediated, in part, through reduced maternal uteroplacental blood flow and increased placental hypoxia.

  5. Effect of two models of intrauterine growth restriction on alveolarization in rat lungs: morphometric and gene expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Zana-Taieb

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR in preterm infants increases the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, characterized by arrested alveolarization. We evaluated the impact of two different rat models (nitric oxide synthase inhibition or protein deprivation of IUGR on alveolarization, before, during, and at the end of this postnatal process. We studied IUGR rat pups of dams fed either a low protein (LPD or a normal diet throughout gestation and pups of dams treated by continuous infusion of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME or its diluent on the last four days of gestation. Morphometric parameters, alveolar surface (Svap, mean linear intercept (MLI and radial alveolar count (RAC and transcriptomic analysis were determined with special focus on genes involved in alveolarization. IUGR pups regained normal weight at day 21 in the two treated groups. In the LPD group, Svap, MLI and RAC were not different from those of controls at day 4, but were significantly decreased at day 21, indicating alveolarization arrest. In the L-NAME group, Svap and RAC were significantly decreased and MLI was increased at day 4 with complete correction at day 21. In the L-NAME model, several factors involved in alveolarization, VEGF, VEGF-R1 and -R2, MMP14, MMP16, FGFR3 and 4, FGF18 and 7, were significantly decreased at day 4 and/or day 10, while the various factors studied were not modified in the LPD group. These results demonstrate that only maternal protein deprivation leads to sustained impairment of alveolarization in rat pups, whereas L-NAME impairs lung development before alveolarization. Known growth factors involved in lung development do not seem to be involved in LPD-induced alveolarization disorders, raising the question of a possible programming of altered alveolarization.

  6. Intrauterine Growth Retarded Progeny of Pregnant Sows Fed High Protein:Low Carbohydrate Diet Is Related to Metabolic Energy Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metges, Cornelia C.; Lang, Iris S.; Hennig, Ulf; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Kanitz, Ellen; Tuchscherer, Margret; Schneider, Falk; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Steinhoff-Ooster, Anika; Sauerwein, Helga; Bellmann, Olaf; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW) at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP), adequate (12.1%, AP), and high (30%, HP) protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At −5, 24, 66, and 108 days post coitum (dpc) fasted blood was collected. At 92 dpc, diurnal metabolic profiles were determined. Fasted serum urea and plasma glucagon were higher due to the HP diet. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), %HDLC and cortisol were reduced in HP compared with AP sows. Lowest concentrations were observed for serum urea and protein, plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and progesterone in LP compared with AP and HP sows. Fasted plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Diurnal metabolic profiles showed lower glucose in HP sows whereas non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were higher in HP compared with AP and LP sows. In HP and LP sows, urea concentrations were 300% and 60% of AP sows, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol was higher in LP than in AP and HP sows. In AP sows, LW correlated positively with insulin and insulin/glucose and negatively with glucagon/insulin at 66 dpc, whereas in HP sows LW associated positively with NEFA. In conclusion, IUGR in sows fed high protein∶low carbohydrate diet was probably due to glucose and energy deficit whereas in sows with low protein∶high carbohydrate diet it was possibly a response to a deficit of indispensable amino acids which impaired lipoprotein metabolism and favored maternal lipid disposal. PMID:22328932

  7. Correlation between human placental lactogen levels and glucose metabolism in pregnant women with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagga, R; Vasishta, K; Majumdar, S; Garg, S K

    1990-11-01

    Twenty pregnant women with fetal growth retardation and 20 pregnant women with appropriate for gestational age fetuses (controls) were recruited after the 28th week of gestation. Samples were collected for estimation of serum insulin and human placental lactogen (HPL) levels in the fasting state and a glucose tolerance test was carried out on all the subjects. The results showed the glucose and HPL levels to be significantly lower in the fetal growth retardation group compared to controls. There were no differences in the fasting serum insulin levels in the 2 groups. Fetal growth retardation appears to be linked with the absence of development of the physiological 'diabetogenic' state in the second half of pregnancy. This maternal hypoglycaemic state is associated with low HPL levels and not with raised maternal insulin levels as measured in the fasting state.

  8. Psychomotor and intellectual development of children born with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, B; Ferrández Longás, A; García Romero, R; Mayayo, E; Labarta, J I

    2004-03-01

    The possible impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of children born with IUGR gives special relevance to this condition. In order to determine the psychomotor and intellectual development of such children, we analyzed the evolution of 60 children through appropriate tests, along the years, and the possible influence of two factors, the socio-economic status of the family, and whether or not there was catch-up growth. Our results show a negative impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of these children, independent of catch-up growth, although those with catch-up growth showed better evolution. The socio-economic status plays a limited role only at older age. Those children followed longitudinally for 1 year did not show any amelioration of their IQ.

  9. Volumetric analysis of the normal infant brain and in intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P B; Leth, H; Ring, P B

    1995-01-01

    and the volumes were determined by encircling each structure of interest on every slice. Segmentation into grey matter, white matter and CSF was done by semi-automatic discriminant analysis. Growth charts for the cerebrum, cerebellum, corpora striata, thalami, ventricles, and grey and white matter are provided...

  10. Predictors of outcome at 2 years of age after early intrauterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, H. L.; Bloemen, M. C. T.; Mulder, E. J. H.; Nikkels, P. G. J.; Derks, J. B.; De Vries, L. S.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relative importance of antenatal and perinatal variables on short- and long-term outcome of preterm growth restricted fetuses with umbilical artery (UA) Doppler abnormalities. Methods This was a cohort study of 180 neonates with birth weight <10(th) percentile, gestational a

  11. Predictors of outcome at 2 years of age after early intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, H L; Bloemen, M C T; Mulder, E J H; Nikkels, P G J; Derks, J B; de Vries, L S; Visser, G H A

    2010-08-01

    To examine the relative importance of antenatal and perinatal variables on short- and long-term outcome of preterm growth restricted fetuses with umbilical artery (UA) Doppler abnormalities. This was a cohort study of 180 neonates with birth weight neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years was predicted by low birth weight (malnutrition and fetal acidosis affect long-term outcome.

  12. Predictors of outcome at 2 years of age after early intrauterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, H. L.; Bloemen, M. C. T.; Mulder, E. J. H.; Nikkels, P. G. J.; Derks, J. B.; De Vries, L. S.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relative importance of antenatal and perinatal variables on short- and long-term outcome of preterm growth restricted fetuses with umbilical artery (UA) Doppler abnormalities. Methods This was a cohort study of 180 neonates with birth weight <10(th) percentile, gestational a

  13. EFFECTS OF EARLY NUTRITION INTERVENTION ON IGF1, IGFBP3, INTESTINAL DEVELOPMENT, AND CATCH-UP GROWTH OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-shan Qiu; Ting-ting Huang; Hui-ying Deng; Zhen-yu Shen; Zhi-yong Ke; Kai-yong Mei; Feng Lai

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of early nutritional intervention on the serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1),insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), intestinal development, and catch-up growth of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats by giving the IUGR new born rats different protein level diet.Methods IUGR rat model was built by starvation of pregnant female rats. Twenty-four IUGR pups and 8 normal pups were divided randomly into 4 groups: normal control group (C group); IUGR control group(S group), IUGR low-protein diet group (SL group), and IUGR high-protein diet group (SH group). Detected the serum IGF1, IGFBP3, body weight,body length, intestinal weight length, intestinal villi height (VH), crypt depth (CD), villi absorbing area (VSA), mucous thickness (MT), and disaccharidase at the 4th week.Results (1) The SH group showed the fastest catch-up growth, serum IGF1, IGFBP3, VH, and VSA were significantly higher than those of normal control group and IUGR control group. The intestinal weight and length, and the activities of lactase and saccharase of the SH group also reached the normal control group level. (2) The SL group kept on small size, the serum IGF1, IGFBP3, and most of intestinal histological indexes were all significantly lower than other groups. (3) IGF-1, IGFBP3 were positively correlated to intestinal VH, VSA, saccharase, body weight and length.Conclusions The serum IGF1 was a sensitive index to the catch-up growth. The early nutritional intervention of highprotein diet after birth is helpful for the catch-up growth of IUGR through promoting the intestinal development and the absorption of nutrition.

  14. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levonorgestrel intrauterine system (Mirena, Skyla) is used to prevent pregnancy. The manufacturer states that Mirena brand intrauterine ... to use an intrauterine system to prevent pregnancy. Levonorgestrel is in a class of medications called hormonal ...

  15. A Maternal High-Energy Diet Promotes Intestinal Development and Intrauterine Growth of Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilin Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in an offspring’s intestinal development. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of maternal energy on the growth and small intestine development of offspring. After mating, twenty gilts (Large White (LW breeding, body weight (BW at 135.54 ± 0.66 kg were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments: a control diet (CON group and a high-energy diet (HED group, respectively. The nutrient levels of the CON were referred to meet the nutrient recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC, 2012, while the HED was designed by adding an amount of soybean oil that was 4.6% of the total diet weight to the CON. The dietary treatments were introduced from day 1 of gestation to farrowing. At day 90 of gestation, day 1 post-birth, and day 28 post-birth, the weights of fetuses and piglets, intestinal morphology, enzyme activities, and gene and protein expressions of intestinal growth factors were determined. The results indicated that the maternal HED markedly increased the BW, small intestinal weight, and villus height of fetuses and piglets. Moreover, the activities of lactase in fetal intestine, sucrase in piglet intestine were markedly increased by the maternal HED. In addition, the maternal HED tended to increase the protein expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R in fetal intestine, associated with significantly increased the gene expression of IGF-1R. In conclusion, increasing energy intake could promote fetal growth and birth weight, with greater intestinal morphology and enzyme activities.

  16. A Maternal High-Energy Diet Promotes Intestinal Development and Intrauterine Growth of Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peilin; Che, Long; Yang, Zhenguo; Feng, Bin; Che, Lianqiang; Xu, Shengyu; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Li, Jian; Wu, De

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in an offspring’s intestinal development. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of maternal energy on the growth and small intestine development of offspring. After mating, twenty gilts (Large White (LW) breeding, body weight (BW) at 135.54 ± 0.66 kg) were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments: a control diet (CON) group and a high-energy diet (HED) group, respectively. The nutrient levels of the CON were referred to meet the nutrient recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC, 2012), while the HED was designed by adding an amount of soybean oil that was 4.6% of the total diet weight to the CON. The dietary treatments were introduced from day 1 of gestation to farrowing. At day 90 of gestation, day 1 post-birth, and day 28 post-birth, the weights of fetuses and piglets, intestinal morphology, enzyme activities, and gene and protein expressions of intestinal growth factors were determined. The results indicated that the maternal HED markedly increased the BW, small intestinal weight, and villus height of fetuses and piglets. Moreover, the activities of lactase in fetal intestine, sucrase in piglet intestine were markedly increased by the maternal HED. In addition, the maternal HED tended to increase the protein expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in fetal intestine, associated with significantly increased the gene expression of IGF-1R. In conclusion, increasing energy intake could promote fetal growth and birth weight, with greater intestinal morphology and enzyme activities. PMID:27164130

  17. In Vivo Detection of Perinatal Brain Metabolite Changes in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui V Simões

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is a risk factor for abnormal neurodevelopment. We studied a rabbit model of IUGR by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and spectroscopy (MRS, to assess in vivo brain structural and metabolic consequences, and identify potential metabolic biomarkers for clinical translation.IUGR was induced in 3 pregnant rabbits at gestational day 25, by 40-50% uteroplacental vessel ligation in one horn; the contralateral horn was used as control. Fetuses were delivered at day 30 and weighted. A total of 6 controls and 5 IUGR pups underwent T2-w MRI and localized proton MRS within the first 8 hours of life, at 7T. Changes in brain tissue volumes and respective contributions to each MRS voxel were estimated by semi-automated registration of MRI images with a digital atlas of the rabbit brain. MRS data were used for: (i absolute metabolite quantifications, using linear fitting; (ii local temperature estimations, based on the water chemical shift; and (iii classification, using spectral pattern analysis.Lower birth weight was associated with (i smaller brain sizes, (ii slightly lower brain temperatures, and (iii differential metabolite profile changes in specific regions of the brain parenchyma. Specifically, we found estimated lower levels of aspartate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus (suggesting neuronal impairment, and higher glycine levels in the striatum (possible marker of brain injury. Our results also suggest that the metabolic changes in cortical regions are more prevalent than those detected in hippocampus and striatum.IUGR was associated with brain metabolic changes in vivo, which correlate well with the neurostructural changes and neurodevelopment problems described in IUGR. Metabolic parameters could constitute non invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis and abnormal neurodevelopment of perinatal origin.

  18. Neonatal Neurobehavior and Diffusion MRI Changes in Brain Reorganization Due to Intrauterine Growth Restriction in a Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eixarch, Elisenda; Batalle, Dafnis; Illa, Miriam; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Figueras, Francesc; Gratacos, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects 5–10% of all newborns and is associated with a high risk of abnormal neurodevelopment. The timing and patterns of brain reorganization underlying IUGR are poorly documented. We developed a rabbit model of IUGR allowing neonatal neurobehavioral assessment and high resolution brain diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of the study was to describe the pattern and functional correlates of fetal brain reorganization induced by IUGR. Methodology/Principal Findings IUGR was induced in 10 New Zealand fetal rabbits by ligation of 40–50% of uteroplacental vessels in one horn at 25 days of gestation. Ten contralateral horn fetuses were used as controls. Cesarean section was performed at 30 days (term 31 days). At postnatal day +1, neonates were assessed by validated neurobehavioral tests including evaluation of tone, spontaneous locomotion, reflex motor activity, motor responses to olfactory stimuli, and coordination of suck and swallow. Subsequently, brains were collected and fixed and MRI was performed using a high resolution acquisition scheme. Global and regional (manual delineation and voxel based analysis) diffusion tensor imaging parameters were analyzed. IUGR was associated with significantly poorer neurobehavioral performance in most domains. Voxel based analysis revealed fractional anisotropy (FA) differences in multiple brain regions of gray and white matter, including frontal, insular, occipital and temporal cortex, hippocampus, putamen, thalamus, claustrum, medial septal nucleus, anterior commissure, internal capsule, fimbria of hippocampus, medial lemniscus and olfactory tract. Regional FA changes were correlated with poorer outcome in neurobehavioral tests. Conclusions IUGR is associated with a complex pattern of brain reorganization already at birth, which may open opportunities for early intervention. Diffusion MRI can offer suitable imaging biomarkers to characterize and monitor

  19. [Color Doppler monitoring the utero-placental-fetal circulation variety of normal pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Wen, L; Ma, T

    1998-04-01

    To study the utero-placental-fetal circulation (UPFC) in normal pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) cases. Color doppler ultrasound was used to detect UPFC in 150 second and third trimester pregnant women, of which 89 cases were normal pregnancy and 58 cases were IUGR. 3 cases were IUGR with chronic renal failure. Hemodynamical value of the umbilical artery (UmA), umbilical vein (UmV) and uterine artery (UtA) were examined directly. The indices included time average velocity (TAV), pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI), systolic/diastolic (S/D) ratio, blood flow volume (Q). The maternal serum estriol (E3), human placental lactogen (HPL) and plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2)/6-keto-PGF1 alpha (6-KP) were measured simultaneously. The result shows that in normal pregnancy group UPFC is abundant gradually with increasing gestational age. In IUGR group 92.53% of cases showed that TAV and Q of UmA, UmV markedly decreased and PI, RI and S/D ratio of UmA elevated at 20 weeks of gestation. There were significant difference between the two groups, maternal serum E3, HPL level in IUGR group were significantly lower than that of the normal pregnancy group, 6-KP level reduced, and TXB2/6-KP ratio significantly increased. Using color doppler ultrasound examining hemodynamical changes of UmA, UmV and UtA could observe UPFC function directly. It is one of the best method to early diagnose and predict the prognosis of IUGR.

  20. Glucose replacement to euglycemia causes hypoxia, acidosis, and decreased insulin secretion in fetal sheep with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozance, Paul J; Limesand, Sean W; Barry, James S; Brown, Laura D; Hay, William W

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional interventions for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have raised concerns for fetal toxicity, the mechanisms of which are unknown. Most of these attempts did not aim to normalize fetal metabolic conditions. Therefore, we used a model of IUGR to determine whether normalization of fetal hypoglycemia for 2 wks would be tolerated and increase insulin concentrations and pancreatic beta-cell mass. IUGR fetuses received either a direct saline infusion (Sal, the control group) or a 30% dextrose infusion (Glu) to normalize glucose concentrations. Neither insulin concentrations (0.11 +/- 0.01 Glu vs. 0.10 +/- 0.01 ng/mL Sal) nor beta-cell mass (65.2 +/- 10.3 Glu vs. 74.7 +/- 18.4 mg Sal) changed. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was lower in the Glu group. Glu fetuses became progressively more hypoxic: O2 content 1.4 +/- 0.5 Glu vs. 2.7 +/- 0.4 mM Sal, p < 0.05. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Paco2) (53.6 +/- 0.8 Glu vs. 51.6 +/- 0.8 Sal, p < 0.05) and lactate (7.74 +/- 3.82 Glu vs. 2.47 +/- 0.55 mM Sal, p < 0.0001) were greater and pH lower (7.275 +/- 0.071 Glu vs. 7.354 +/- 0.003 Sal, p < 0.01) in the Glu group. We conclude that correction of fetal hypoglycemia is not well tolerated and fails to increase insulin concentrations or beta-cell mass in IUGR fetuses.

  1. Hypoxia-activated genes from early placenta are elevated in Preeclampsia, but not in Intra-Uterine Growth Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Jean-Louis

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a first step to explore the possible relationships existing between the effects of low oxygen pressure in the first trimester placenta and placental pathologies developing from mid-gestation, two subtracted libraries totaling 2304 cDNA clones were constructed. For achieving this, two reciprocal suppressive/subtractive hybridization procedures (SSH were applied to early (11 weeks human placental villi after incubation either in normoxic or in hypoxic conditions. The clones from both libraries (1440 hypoxia-specific and 864 normoxia-specific were spotted on nylon macroarrays. Complex cDNAs probes prepared from placental villi (either from early pregnancy, after hypoxic or normoxic culture conditions, or near term for controls or pathological placentas were hybridized to the membranes. Results Three hundred and fifty nine clones presenting a hybridization signal above the background were sequenced and shown to correspond to 276 different genes. Nine of these genes are mitochondrial, while 267 are nuclear. Specific expression profiles characteristic of preeclampsia (PE could be identified, as well as profiles specific of intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR. Focusing on the chromosomal distribution of the fraction of genes that responded in at least one hybridization experiment, we could observe a highly significant chromosomal clustering of 54 genes into 8 chromosomal regions, four of which containing imprinted genes. Comparative mapping data indicate that these imprinted clusters are maintained in synteny in mice, and apparently in cattle and pigs, suggesting that the maintenance of such syntenies is requested for achieving a normal placental physiology in eutherian mammals. Conclusion We could demonstrate that genes induced in PE were also genes highly expressed under hypoxic conditions (P = 5.10-5, which was not the case for isolated IUGR. Highly expressed placental genes may be in syntenies conserved interspecifically

  2. Enhanced insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in young lambs with placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Leticia E; Chen, Xiaochuan; Hay, William W; Limesand, Sean W

    2017-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with persistent metabolic complications, but information is limited for IUGR infants. We determined glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin sensitivity in young lambs with placental insufficiency-induced IUGR. Lambs with hyperthermia-induced IUGR (n = 7) were compared with control lambs (n = 8). GSIS was measured at 8 ± 1 days of age, and at 15 ± 1 days, body weight-specific glucose utilization rates were measured with radiolabeled d-glucose during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC). IUGR lambs weighed 23% less (P insulin concentrations were not different between IUGR and controls for either study. First-phase insulin secretion was enhanced 2.3-fold in IUGR lambs compared with controls. However, second-phase insulin concentrations, glucose-potentiated arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, and β-cell mass were not different, indicating that IUGR β-cells have an intrinsic enhancement in acute GSIS. Compared with controls, IUGR lambs had higher body weight-specific glucose utilization rates and greater insulin sensitivity at fasting (1.6-fold) and hyperinsulinemic periods (2.4-fold). Improved insulin sensitivity for glucose utilization was not due to differences in skeletal muscle insulin receptor and glucose transporters 1 and 4 concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations during HEC were elevated in IUGR lambs compared with controls, but no differences were found for glycogen content or citrate synthase activity in liver and muscle. Greater insulin sensitivity for glucose utilization and enhanced acute GSIS in young lambs are predicted from fetal studies but may promote conditions that exaggerate glucose disposal and lead to episodes of hypoglycemia in IUGR infants. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Paternal body mass index (BMI is associated with offspring intrauterine growth in a gender dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Peng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental alternations leading to fetal programming of cardiovascular diseases in later life have been attributed to maternal factors. However, animal studies showed that paternal obesity may program cardio-metabolic diseases in the offspring. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that paternal BMI may be associated with fetal growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the relationship between paternal body mass index (BMI and birth weight, ultrasound parameters describing the newborn's body shape as well as parameters describing the newborns endocrine system such as cortisol, aldosterone, renin activity and fetal glycated serum protein in a birth cohort of 899 father/mother/child triplets. Since fetal programming is an offspring sex specific process, male and female offspring were analyzed separately. Multivariable regression analyses considering maternal BMI, paternal and maternal age, hypertension during pregnancy, maternal total glycated serum protein, parity and either gestational age (for birth weight or time of ultrasound investigation (for ultrasound parameters as confounding showed that paternal BMI is associated with growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI correlated with birth parameters of male offspring only: birth weight; biparietal diameter, head circumference; abdominal diameter, abdominal circumference; and pectoral diameter. Cortisol was likewise significantly correlated with paternal BMI in male newborns only. CONCLUSIONS: Paternal BMI affects growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI may thus represent a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases of male offspring in later life. It remains to be demonstrated whether this is linked to an offspring sex specific paternal programming of cortisol secretion.

  4. Enamel defect of primary dentition in SGA children in relation to onset time of intrauterine growth disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willyanti Soewondo Sjarif

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal disturbances disturb the development of organs resulting in small for gestational age (SGA babies and also causes enamel defects in primary teeth. There are disturbances occur in the beginning of pregnancy causing symmetrical SGA, and asymmetrical type of SGA, where the disturbances occur late in pregnancy. Purpose: This research was to determined differences in severity of enamel defect of primary dentition in small for gestational age children based on the time of intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: This was a clinical epidemiological cohort study. The Ponderal index was used to determine SGA type. The subjects were 129 SGA children aged 9-42 months, 82 with asymmetrical SGA and 47 with symmetrical SGA. Two hundred normal birth weight children were the control group. Intra-oral examinations to determine enamel defect used the FDI modification of the Developmental Defect of Enamel score at 3 months intervals. Statistical t-tests were used to test the difference in severity of enamel defect, and chisquare to find out the difference of Relative Risk Ratio (RRR. Results: The results showed that the enamel defect scores of symmetrical SGA were significantly higher than those with asymmetrical SGA. RRR for severe defect was also significantly higher in symmetrical type for anterior and canines. Conclusion: The study suggested that the severity of enamel defect for infants with symmetrical SGA was higher than those with asymmetrical SGA, indicating that the severity of the defect occurs in the beginning of pregnancy is more severe than in the late pregnancy.Latar belakang: Adanya gangguan prenatal mengganggu perkembangan organ, mengakibatkan terjadinya bayi lahir dengan kecil masa kehamilan (KMK dan defek email pada gigi sulung. Terdapat 2 tipe KMK yaitu tipe simetri; gangguan terjadi pada awal kehamilan; dimana lingkar kepala, berat dan panjang lahir lebih rendah dari normal. Tipe asimetri dimana gangguan terjadi saat

  5. Intrauterine growth restriction, visceral blood flow velocity and exocrine pancreatic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deenmamode Jean M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal models and observations in human neonates suggest fetal exocrine pancreas vulnerability to reduced maternofetal blood flow. We investigated the relationship between superior mesenteric artery blood flow velocity (sma bfv and exocrine pancreatic function, in a cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW babies. Group 1: 9 babies Group2: 18 babies > 10th percentile for birth weight. Findings All had Doppler ultrasound scan of the superior mesenteric artery (sma, by same operator (RMN, on day 1 of life before commencement of enteral feeding. Stool samples assayed for faecal chymotrypsin and weekly serum samples assayed for amylase and lipase (kinetic colorimetric assay from days 1 to 14 of life. Growth restricted babies had significantly lower sma bfv values compared with appropriately grown preterm babies. Faecal chymotrypsin levels were also lower but this difference did not achieve statistical significance. Both groups had serum lipase levels detectable in adult concentrations. Serum amylase was undetectable in either group. Conclusion Babies with previous in-utero blood flow redistribution may exhibit altered gut ontogeny with re-setting of mesenteric blood flow velocities and altered exocrine pancreatic function.

  6. Inhibition of PPARγ during Rat Pregnancy Causes Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Attenuation of Uterine Vasodilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I Gokina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ activity is thought to have a major role in preeclampsia through abnormal placental development. However, the role of PPARγ in adaptation of the uteroplacental vasculature that may lead to placental hypoperfusion and fetal growth restriction during pregnancy is not known. Here, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=11/group were treated during the second half of pregnancy with the PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day in food or vehicle. Pregnancy outcome and PPARγ mRNA, vasodilation and structural remodeling were determined in maternal uterine and mesenteric arteries. PPARγ was expressed in uterine vascular tissue of both non-pregnant and pregnant rats with ~2-fold greater expression in radial vs. main uterine arteries. PPARγ mRNA levels were significantly higher in uterine compared to mesenteric arteries. GW9662 treatment during pregnancy did not affect maternal physiology (body weight, glucose, blood pressure, mesenteric artery vasodilation or structural remodeling of uterine and mesenteric vessels. Inhibition of PPARγ for the last 10 days of gestation caused decreased fetal weights on both day 20 and 21 of gestation that was associated with impaired vasodilation of radial uterine arteries in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. These results define an essential role of PPARγ in the control of uteroplacental vasodilatory function during pregnancy, an important determinant of blood flow to the placenta and fetus. Strategies that target PPARγ activation in the uterine circulation could have important therapeutic potential in treatment of pregnancies complicated by hypertension, diabetes or preeclampsia.

  7. Non-contraceptive applications of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Rodriguez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Maria Isabel Rodriguez, Philip D DarneyDepartment of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, San Francisco General Hospital and Bixby Center for Global Reproductive Health, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: Intrauterine progestins have many important current and potential gynecologic applications. This article describes the evidence for use of intrauterine progestin for common gynecologic conditions beyond its important role in contraception. The pharmacology of and selection criteria for use of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device is discussed, and the evidence for use of intrauterine progestin delivery for menorrhagia, endometriosis management, uterine fibroids, adenomyosis and endometrial hyperplasia is reviewed.Keywords: intrauterine progestin, levonorgestrel, contraceptive

  8. Effect of early nutrition on intestine development of intrauterine growth retardation in rats and its correlation to leptin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Shan Qiu; Ting-Ting Huang; Zhen-Yu Shen; Hui-Ying Deng; Zhi-Yong Ke

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the intestine and body development of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats under early different protein diet and to analyze the correlation between leptin and intestine and body development.METHODS: An IUGR rat model was established by food restriction of pregnant female rats. Fifty-six neonatal IUGR rats and 24 neonatal normal rats were randomly divided into normal control group (C group), IUGR model group (SC group), low protein diet IUGR group (SL group), and high protein diet IUGR group (SH group). Eight rats were killed per group at wk 0, 4, and 12. Serum leptin, body weight (BW), body length (BL), intestinal weight (IW),intestinal length (IL), and intestinal disaccharidase (including lactase, maltase, and saccharase) were detected.RESULTS: BW (4.50±0.41 g), BL (5.96±0.40 cm), IW (0.05±0.01 g), and IL (15.9±2.8 cm) in neonatal IUGR rats were much lower than those in C group (6.01±0.55 g,6.26±0.44 cm, 0.10±0.02 g, 21.8±2.7 cm, P<0.05), while intestinal lactase and maltase activities were higher than those in C group. SH group showed the fastest catch up growth and their BW, BL, IW, and IL reached the C group level at wk 4. SC group showed relatively slower catch up growth than SH group, and their BW, BL, IW did not reach the C group level at wk 4. SL group did not show intestine and body catch up growth. Intestinal maltase [344±33 μmol/(min.g)] and saccharase activities [138±32μmol/(min.g)] in SL group were both markedly lower than those in C group [751±102, 258±27 μmol/(min.g), P<0.05].There were no significant differences in lactase activities at wk 4 and disaccharidase activities at wk 12 among all groups (P>0.05). The leptin level in SL group (0.58±0.12ng/mL) was the highest in all groups, and much lower in SH group (0.21±0.03 ng/mL) than that in any other IUGR groups at wk 4 (P<0.05). Leptin was negatively related to BW (r= -0.556, P = 0.001), IW (r= -0.692, P= 0.001)and IL (r = -0.738, P = 0.000) at wk

  9. Reduced telomere length is not associated with early signs of vascular aging in young men born after intrauterine growth restriction: a paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laganovic, M.; Bendix, L.; Rubelj, I.;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The mechanisms that increase cardiovascular risk in individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are not well understood. Telomere shortening has been suggested to be a predictor of disease onset. Our aim was to determine whether impaired intrauterine growth is associated with early...... signs of vascular aging and whether telomere length could be a biomarker of this pathway. Methods: One hundred and fourteen healthy young men born SGA or after normal pregnancy [appropriate for gestational age (AGA)] were enrolled. Patient data were gathered from questionnaires and clinical exams...

  10. Intra-uterine growth retardation affects birthweight and postnatal development in pigs, impairing muscle accretion, duodenal mucosa morphology and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, A L N; Chiarini-Garcia, H; Cardeal, P C; Moreira, L P; Foxcroft, G R; Fontes, D O; Almeida, F R C L

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the occurrence of intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) in newborn (n=40) and 150-day-old (n=240) pigs of different birthweight ranges (high, HW: 1.8-2.2kg; low, LW: 0.8-1.2kg) from higher-parity commercial sows and its impact on their subsequent development and carcass traits in a Brazilian commercial production system. HW newborn pigs had heavier organs than LW pigs (Pmuscle fibres and a higher percentage of connective tissue in the semitendinosus muscle, greater fibre number per mm(2) and a lower height of the duodenal mucosa (Pgrowth performance, muscle accretion, duodenal mucosa morphology and carcass traits.

  11. Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nav nav, .header-9#header-section #main-nav, #overlay-menu nav, #mobile-menu, #one-page-nav li . ... How to Care for Your Child’s TeethRead Article >>Dental Hygiene: How to Care for Your Child’s TeethSeptember ...

  12. Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a technician coats the woman's belly with a gel and then moves a probe (wand-like instrument) ... a healthy diet ; getting enough sleep ; and avoiding alcohol, drugs, and tobacco./p> Reviewed by: Larissa Hirsch, ...

  13. Impact of perinatal different intrauterine environments on child growth and development in the first six months of life - IVAPSA birth cohort: rationale, design, and methods

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    Bernardi Juliana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last twenty years, retrospective studies have shown that perinatal events may impact the individual health in the medium and long term. However, only a few prospective studies were designed to address this phenomenon. This study aims to describe the design and methods of the Impact of Perinatal Environmental Variations in the First Six Months of Life - the IVAPSA Birth Cohort. Method/Design This is a clinical study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mothers from different clinical backgrounds (hypertensive, diabetics, smokers, having an intrauterine growth restricted child for idiopathic reasons, and controls will be invited to join the study twenty-four hours after the birth of their child. Data on economic, social, and maternal health care, feeding practices, anthropometric measures, physical activity, and neuropsychological evaluation will be obtained in interviews at postpartum, 7 and 15 days, 1, 3 and 6 months of life. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first thematic cohort focused on the effects of intrauterine growth restriction to prospectively enroll mothers from different clinical backgrounds. The IVAPSA Birth Cohort is a promising research platform that can contribute to the knowledge on the relationship between perinatal events and their consequences on the children's early life.

  14. Impact of Perinatal Different Intrauterine Environments on Child Growth and Development in the First Six Months of Life--IVAPSA Birth Cohort: rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Juliana Rombaldi; Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Nunes, Marina; da Silva, Clécio Homrich; Bosa, Vera Lúcia; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran

    2012-04-02

    In the last twenty years, retrospective studies have shown that perinatal events may impact the individual health in the medium and long term. However, only a few prospective studies were designed to address this phenomenon. This study aims to describe the design and methods of the Impact of Perinatal Environmental Variations in the First Six Months of Life - the IVAPSA Birth Cohort. This is a clinical study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mothers from different clinical backgrounds (hypertensive, diabetics, smokers, having an intrauterine growth restricted child for idiopathic reasons, and controls) will be invited to join the study twenty-four hours after the birth of their child. Data on economic, social, and maternal health care, feeding practices, anthropometric measures, physical activity, and neuropsychological evaluation will be obtained in interviews at postpartum, 7 and 15 days, 1, 3 and 6 months of life. To our knowledge, this is the first thematic cohort focused on the effects of intrauterine growth restriction to prospectively enroll mothers from different clinical backgrounds. The IVAPSA Birth Cohort is a promising research platform that can contribute to the knowledge on the relationship between perinatal events and their consequences on the children's early life.

  15. Neonatal Exendin-4 Reduces Growth, Fat Deposition and Glucose Tolerance during Treatment in the Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Saidatul N. B.; De Blasio, Miles J.; Harland, M. Lyn; Simmons, Rebecca A.; Owens, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background IUGR increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in later life, due to reduced insulin sensitivity and impaired adaptation of insulin secretion. In IUGR rats, development of T2DM can be prevented by neonatal administration of the GLP-1 analogue exendin-4. We therefore investigated effects of neonatal exendin-4 administration on insulin action and β-cell mass and function in the IUGR neonate in the sheep, a species with a more developed pancreas at birth. Methods Twin IUGR lambs were injected s.c. daily with vehicle (IUGR+Veh, n = 8) or exendin-4 (1 nmol.kg-1, IUGR+Ex-4, n = 8), and singleton control lambs were injected with vehicle (CON, n = 7), from d 1 to 16 of age. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were measured in vivo during treatment (d 12–14). Body composition, β-cell mass and in vitro insulin secretion of isolated pancreatic islets were measured at d 16. Principal Findings IUGR+Veh did not alter in vivo insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity or β-cell mass, but increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Exendin-4 treatment of the IUGR lamb impaired glucose tolerance in vivo, reflecting reduced insulin sensitivity, and normalised glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Exendin-4 also reduced neonatal growth and visceral fat accumulation in IUGR lambs, known risk factors for later T2DM. Conclusions Neonatal exendin-4 induces changes in IUGR lambs that might improve later insulin action. Whether these effects of exendin-4 lead to improved insulin action in adult life after IUGR in the sheep, as in the PR rat, requires further investigation. PMID:23424667

  16. Dual delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor coacervate displays strong angiogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, Hassan K; Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Yadong

    2014-05-01

    Controlled delivery of multiple growth factors (GFs) holds great potential for the clinical treatment of ischemic diseases and might be more therapeutically effective to reestablish vasculature than the provision of a single GF. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are two potent angiogenic factors. However, due to rapid degradation and dilution in the body, their clinical potential will rely on an effective mode of delivery. A coacervate, composed of heparin and a biodegradable polycation, which protects GFs from proteolysis and potentiates their bioactivities, is developed. Here, the coacervate incorporates VEGF and HGF and sustains their release for at least three weeks. Their strong angiogenic effects on endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation in vitro are confirmed. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that coacervate-based delivery of these factors has stronger effects than free application of both factors and to coacervate delivery of each GF separately.

  17. Placental Isoferritin Action in Pathogenesis of Pre-eclampsia and/or Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Its Earlier Predictive Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱颖; 王泽华; 熊桂荣

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of placental isoferritin (PLF) in pathogenesis of preeclampsia and/or intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and its earlier predictive value, a prospective double-blinded study was performed. In 120 initial normal pregnant women at earlier third trimester (from 24 to 34 weeks), plasma placental isoferritin and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (nitrite/nitrate) (NO2-/NO3-) were examined by using ELISA and Criess assay respectively. The outcome of pregnancies and birth weight of their infants were followed up. The receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) and predictive values of PLF predicting the outcome of pregnancy with IUGR, pre-eclampsia were analyzed. Results showed that in 120 initial normal pregnant women, IUGR occurred in 15 pregnant women (IUGR group) and pre-eclampsia in 19 (pre-eclampsia group), and the remaining 86 had normal pregnancy (normal group). The levels of plasma placental isoferritin were significantly decreased in IUGR group (260. 01± 58. 95) μg/ml and pre-eclampsia group (285.31± 53.73) μg/ml as compared with those in normal group (775.62± 89.32) μg/ml at earlier third trimester (both P<0. 01). The levels of plasma NO were significantly increased in IUGR group (61.57±46.22) μmol/L and pre-eclampsia group (58. 37± 30. 52) μmol/L as compared with those in the normal group (35. 29±24.46) μmol/L (both P<0. 01). There was no significant difference in plasma placental isoferritin and NO levels between IUGR group and pre-eclampsic group (both P> 0. 05). The plasma placental isoferritin was negatively correlated with NO levels (r= 0. 329,P<0. 01). The areas under ROC of PLF predicting IUGR and pre-eclampsia were 0. 977 and 0. 905 respectively. At the cut point of 400 μg/ml PLF level, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Kappa index of PLF levels predicting the outcome of pregnancy with pre-eclampsia were 100 %, 85.15 %, 55.88 %, 100 % and 0

  18. Effect of nebivolol treatment during pregnancy on the intrauterine fetal growth, mortality and pup postnatal development in the l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoama, Kassem; Mallem, Mohamed Yassine; Thorin, Chantal; Betti, Eric; Desfontis, Jean-Claude

    2016-11-15

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of nebivolol vs. bisoprolol treatment on the intrauterine fetal growth, mortality and postnatal development in N(ω)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in normotensive pregnant Wistar rats by daily administration of l-NAME (100mg/kg/day, in the drinking water) for the period of pregnancy. After 9 days of l-NAME treatment, rats with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) more than 140/90mmHg were considered hypertensive. Then, some of them were treated from day 11 to day 18 of pregnancy with nebivolol (8mg/kg/day) or bisoprolol (10mg/kg/day) via oral gavage. SBP, DBP and heart rate (HR) were re-evaluated by tail cuff method on day 19 of pregnancy and morphometrical or histological studies were performed on day 20. In addition, the mortality and postnatal development of newborn pups were assessed in all groups. The l-NAME administration during pregnancy induced an increase in SBP and DBP while HR did not change. Nebivolol or bisoprolol treatment completely prevented the elevation of SBP and DBP induced by l-NAME with a reduction in HR in pregnant and non-pregnant rats. The intra-uterine fetal growth and the postnatal development of newborn rats in nebivolol-treated hypertensive group were significantly lower vs. control and higher vs. bisoprolol-treated group with a higher mortality in the both types of treatments vs. control rats. The nebivolol and bisoprolol administration produce adverse effects on fetal growth and postnatal development, that limits their therapeutic use in females during pregnancy.

  19. Endocrine mechanisms of intrauterine programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Forhead, A J

    2004-05-01

    Epidemiological findings and experimental studies in animals have shown that individual tissues and whole organ systems can be programmed in utero during critical periods of development with adverse consequences for their function in later life. Detailed morphometric analyses of the data have shown that certain patterns of intrauterine growth, particularly growth retardation, can be related to specific postnatal outcomes. Since hormones regulate fetal growth and the development of individual fetal tissues, they have a central role in intrauterine programming. Hormones such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, thyroxine and the glucocorticoids act as nutritional and maturational signals and adapt fetal development to prevailing intrauterine conditions, thereby maximizing the chances of survival both in utero and at birth. However, these adaptations may have long-term sequelae. Of the hormones known to control fetal development, it is the glucocorticoids that are most likely to cause tissue programming in utero. They are growth inhibitory and affect the development of all the tissues and organ systems most at risk of postnatal pathophysiology when fetal growth is impaired. Their concentrations in utero are also elevated by all the nutritional and other challenges known to have programming effects. Glucocorticoids act at cellular and molecular levels to alter cell function by changing the expression of receptors, enzymes, ion channels and transporters. They also alter various growth factors, cytoarchitectural proteins, binding proteins and components of the intracellular signalling pathways. Glucocorticoids act, directly, on genes and, indirectly, through changes in the bioavailability of other hormones. These glucocorticoid-induced endocrine changes may be transient or persist into postnatal life with consequences for tissue growth and development both before and after birth. In the long term, prenatal glucocorticoid exposure can permanently reset endocrine

  20. Increased palatable food intake and response to food cues in intrauterine growth-restricted rats are related to tyrosine hydroxylase content in the orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Márcio Bonesso; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Desai, Mina; Ross, Michael G; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with altered food preferences, which may contribute to increased risk of obesity. We evaluated the effects of IUGR on attention to a palatable food cue, as well as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) content in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in response to sweet food intake. From day 10 of gestation and through lactation, Sprague-Dawley rats received either an ad libitum (Adlib) or a 50% food-restricted (FR) diet. At birth, pups were cross-fostered, generating four groups (gestation/lactation): Adlib/Adlib (control), FR/Adlib (intrauterine growth-restricted), Adlib/FR, and FR/FR. Adult attention to palatable food cues was measured using the Attentional Set-Shifting Task (ASST), which uses a sweet pellet as reward. TH content in the OFC and NAcc was measured at baseline and in response to palatable food intake. At 90 days of age, FR/Adlib males ate more sweet food than controls, without differences in females. However, when compared to Controls, FR/Adlib females needed fewer trials to reach criterion in the ASST (p=0.04) and exhibited increased TH content in the OFC in response to sweet food (p=0.03). In the NAcc, there was a differential response of TH content after sweet food intake in both FR/Adlib males and females (pfood preferences involves the central response to palatable food cues and intake, affecting dopamine release in select structures of the brain reward system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of the evolution of the placenta and fetal pancreas in the pathophysiology of growth retardation intrauterine due to restricted maternal diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Intrauterine growth retard (IUGR continues to be a significant perinatology problem at the end of this century. The nature of the etiologic agent, the time when the attack occurred during pregnancy and its duration affect the type of IUGR. OBJECTIVE: To study the evolution of fetal pancreas and placenta between the 18th and 21st day of pregnancy in rats submitted to maternal protein-calorie restriction. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial on laboratory animal. SAMPLE: Forty-one normoglycemic pregnant Wistar rats. INTERVENTION: Rats were divided into six experimental groups according to their access to food and date of cesarean section (18th or 21st day: control with free access to food; diet restricted to 25% introduced on 1st day of pregnancy; and diet restricted to 25% after the 3rd day of pregnancy. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Newborn weight, placenta weight, histopathological study (morphological histochemistry RESULTS: Maternal protein-calorie malnutrition caused intrauterine growth retard (IUGR after the 18th day of pregnancy. Dietary restriction did not interfere with the morphology of the fetal pancreas and the immunohistochemical study of the placenta showed that glycogen stores were decreased between the 18th and 21st day in the control group and in a diet restricted to 25% from the first day of pregnancy. Dietary restriction after the 3rd day of pregnancy led to low placental glycogen concentrations on the 18th day and disappearance on the 21st day. CONCLUSION: The pathophysiology of IUGR due to maternal protein-calorie restriction in rats is related to lower placental weight and low placental glycogen stores.

  2. A randomized trial of levonorgestrel intrauterine system insertion 6 to 48 h compared to 6 weeks after vaginal delivery; lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gretchen S; Lesko, Catherine R; Stuebe, Alison M; Bryant, Amy G; Levi, Erika E; Danvers, Antoinette I

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this randomized trial was to compare breastfeeding among women who received a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system within 6-48 h (early) or 4-6 weeks (standard) after an uncomplicated vaginal birth. Analysis groups of 86 women in each arm were needed to demonstrate a 20% difference in any breastfeeding. Thirty-five women were randomized to the early (N=17) and standard (N=18) arms. The combination of unsuccessful placement (2/17; 12%), expulsions (7/17; 41%) and removals (3/17; 18%) reached 71% (12/17) in the early arm, so the study was stopped. In our small study cohort, levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system insertion between 6 and 48 h after vaginal birth was associated with a high rate of expulsion or removal soon after insertion.

  3. The intrauterine device and the intrauterine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Searle, E

    2014-08-01

    Intrauterine contraception is used by about 100 million women worldwide, making it the most popular form of fertility regulation. In UK community contraception clinics, however, long-acting reversible contraception has increased to 28% of users, and intrauterine contraception accounts for only 8% of methods used by women accessing these services. Potential exists to increase uptake of these more effective methods. In this chapter, we review the clinical advantages, disadvantages and cost-effectiveness of intrauterine contraception. We discuss the management of complications along with advice for trainers, and briefly consider issues in developing countries.

  4. Folic acid supplementation prevents the changes in hepatic promoter methylation status and gene expression in intrauterine growth-retarded piglets during early weaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing-Bo, L; Ying, Y; Bing, Y; Xiang-Bing, M; Zhi-Qing, H; Guo-Quan, H; Hong, C; Dai-Wen, C

    2013-10-01

    During intrauterine life, genome interacts with maternal signals to influence the mRNA expression levels of specific genes persistently by regulating DNA methylation status. The objective of this study was to examine the responses of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma (PPARα and PPARγ) promoter methylation, mRNA expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and metabolite concentrations of intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) piglets to dietary folic acid supplementation. According to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 16 IUGR and 16 normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were fed a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 5 mg/kg of folic acid from weaning (day 14) to day 35 of age. Triglycerides in hepatic tissue and plasma were significantly elevated in control diets-fed IUGR piglets compared with NBW piglets but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. Hepatic mRNA expression levels of GR, PPARα, PPARγ, fatty acid synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in IUGR piglets fed a control diet were significantly higher than that in NBW piglets, and promoter methylation status of GR, PPARα and PPARγ in IUGR piglets was reduced significantly compared with NBW piglets. However, the changes in gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR piglets were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Hepatic DNA methyltransferase activity was greater with dietary folic acid supplementation regardless of birth weight. Taken together, these results demonstrated that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could prevent the changes of promoter methylation status and gene expressions in the liver of IUGR piglets.

  5. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Yuanzhen [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center for Reproductive Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal

  6. Intra-uterine hematoma in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, K; Nøhr, S; Nielsen, P H

    1991-01-01

    In 60 patients with a live fetus and an intra-uterine hematoma (IUH) proven by ultrasonic scanning the outcome of pregnancy was spontaneous abortion in 12% and premature delivery in 10%. No correlation between the outcome of the pregnancy and the maximum size of the hematoma or the week...

  7. Intra-uterine hematoma in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, K; Nøhr, S; Nielsen, P H

    1991-01-01

    In 60 patients with a live fetus and an intra-uterine hematoma (IUH) proven by ultrasonic scanning the outcome of pregnancy was spontaneous abortion in 12% and premature delivery in 10%. No correlation between the outcome of the pregnancy and the maximum size of the hematoma or the week of detect...

  8. Structural and functional development of small intestine in intrauterine growth retarded porcine offspring born to gilts fed diets with differing protein ratios throughout pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickiewicz, M; Zabielski, R; Grenier, B

    2012-01-01

    Protein level in the maternal diet plays a crucial role in fetal programming during pregnancy. Low or high protein level increases the risk of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The aim of this study was to investigate the structural and functional development of the small intestine in piglets...... from sows fed a control (C, 12.1% protein), a high protein (HP, 30% protein), or a low protein (LP, 6.5% protein) diet during pregnancy. Newborns were classified as IUGR (birth weight =1.18 kg) and non-IUGR (birth weight >1.18 kg). The piglets were euthanized on postnatal day (PD)1, PD28 and PD188....... The LP diet in non-IUGR neonates resulted in decreased body weight on PD1. The LP and HP diets resulted in both decreased body weight and delayed catch-up growth in the IUGR piglets. The HP and LP-diets increased the length of villi on PD1 in non-IUGRs but not in IUGRs. At birth, the expressions of Ki67...

  9. Early versus Late Enteral Feeding in Preterm Intrauterine Growth Restricted Neonates with Antenatal Doppler Abnormalities: An Open-Label Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Vishal Vishnu; Dubey, Sachin Kumar; Kumar, Reema; Vardhan, Shakti; Sreedhar, C M; Gupta, Girish

    2017-03-24

    Enteral feeding in preterm neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AREDF) on umbilical artery (UA) Doppler is delayed owing to an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Delaying enteral feeding with longer duration of parenteral nutrition (PN) carries an increased risk of sepsis. To study early versus late feeding in preterm IUGR neonates for time required to attain sufficient feed volume to discontinue PN and increased risk of NEC or feed intolerance (FI). Open-label randomized controlled trial. Tertiary care neonatal unit and fetal-maternal medicine unit in India. Preterm intrauterine growth restricted neonates' ≤32 weeks with AREDF on UA Doppler enrolled from 1 January 2014 to 31 July 2015. Randomized to receive early or late feeding using mothers own or donor breast milk as per a feed initiation and advancement protocol. Time in days required to attain sufficient feed volume allowing discontinuation of PN and incidence of NEC in neonates fed early versus late. There were 77 eligible neonates. Sixty-two neonates were included and stratified as extreme preterm (27-29 weeks) ( n  = 20) and very preterm (30-32 weeks) ( n  = 42). Ten extreme preterm and 21 very preterm neonates were randomized to each early feeding and late feeding arm. There was a significantly faster attainment of sufficient feeds in the early feeding arm of both the stratified groups [extreme preterm: median 14 days (Interquartile range IQR: 12-15) compared with 18 days (IQR: 18-20), hazard ratio (HR): 1.59, 95% CI: 0.626-4.078; very preterm: 12 days (IQR: 10-14) as compared with 16 days (IQR 15-17), HR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.011-3.555]. There was no difference in the incidence of NEC, FI and combined outcome of NEC and FI. Early feeding in preterm IUGR neonates with AREDF on antenatal UA Doppler allowed earlier discontinuation of PN, allowing birth weight to be regained earlier and did not increase the incidence of NEC and

  10. Intrauterine Growth of Infants Exposed to Prenatal Methamphetamine: Results from the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Diana; Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies suggest prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure inhibits fetal growth. We examined neonatal growth effects of prenatal MA exposure in a prospective cohort study. After adjusting for covariates, exposed neonates had a higher incidence of being small for gestational age (SGA) than unexposed neonates. PMID:20570284

  11. The Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle Study: Effects of Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure, Polydrug Exposure, and Poverty on Intrauterine Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Methamphetamine use among pregnant women is an increasing problem in the United States. Effects of methamphetamine use during pregnancy on fetal growth have not been reported in large, prospective studies. We examined the neonatal growth effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure in the multicenter, longitudinal Infant Development,…

  12. Extracellular matrix-inspired growth factor delivery systems for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, Mikaël M. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Immunology Frontier Research Center; Briquez, Priscilla S. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. of Bioengineering; Maruyama, Kenta [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Immunology Frontier Research Center; Hubbell, Jeffrey A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. of Bioengineering; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Inst. for Molecular Engineering; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-04-17

    Growth factors are very promising molecules to enhance bone regeneration. However, their translation to clinical use has been seriously limited, facing issues related to safety and cost-effectiveness. These problems derive from the vastly supra-physiological doses of growth factor used without optimized delivery systems. Therefore, these issues have motivated the development of new delivery systems allowing better control of the spatio-temporal release and signaling of growth factors. Because the extracellular matrix (ECM) naturally plays a fundamental role in coordinating growth factor activity in vivo, a number of novel delivery systems have been inspired by the growth factor regulatory function of the ECM. After introducing the role of growth factors during the bone regeneration process, this review exposes different issues that growth factor-based therapies have encountered in the clinic and highlights recent delivery approaches based on the natural interaction between growth factor and the ECM.

  13. A novel lineage transcription factor based analysis reveals differences in T helper cell subpopulation development in infected and intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, F; Rausch, S; Scharek-Tedin, L; Pieper, R; Burwinkel, M; Zentek, J; Hartmann, S

    2014-10-01

    Research in mouse and human clearly identified subsets of T helper (Th) cells based on nuclear expression of specific lineage transcription factors. In swine, however, transcription factor based detection of functional subpopulations of porcine Th cells by flow cytometry is so far limited to regulatory T cells via Foxp3. T-bet and GATA-3 are the transcription factors that regulate commitment to Th1 or Th2 cells, respectively. In this study we prove GATA-3 and T-bet expression in porcine CD4(+) cells polarized in vitro. Importantly, GATA-3 and T-bet expressing cells were detectable in pigs infected with pathogens associated with Th2 and Th1 immune responses. Increased frequencies of GATA-3 positive CD4(+) cells are found in vivo in pigs experimentally infected with the nematode Trichuris suis, whereas porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection elicited T-bet positive CD4(+) T cells. Analysing the immune status of pre-weaning piglets with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) we found an increased expression of Foxp3, T-bet and GATA-3 in CD4(+) and CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive T cells in systemic and intestinal compartments of IUGR piglets. Hence, we established the detection of porcine Th1 and Th2 cells via T-bet and GATA-3 and show that the porcine lineage transcription factors are differentially regulated very early in life depending on the developmental status.

  14. Impaired intestinal mucosal immunity is associated with the imbalance of T lymphocyte sub-populations in intrauterine growth-restricted neonatal piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Zhong, Xiang; Zhang, Lili; Kong, Lingrui; Kong, Yili; Kou, Tao; Wang, Tian

    2015-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs the immunity of both piglets and humans. We hypothesized that the poor cytokine secreting ability of the small intestines of IUGR neonatal piglets might be associated with lower CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Therefore, we used neonatal piglets as IUGR models to investigate the effects of IUGR on the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte cell populations. Six normal-birth-weight (NBW) and six IUGR neonatal piglets were chosen and divided into NBW and IUGR groups, respectively. The cytokine and immunoglobulin levels in the blood; the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte contents in the thymus, blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, jejunum and ileum; and the distribution of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the ileum were measured. We further compared the gene expression and protein distribution of MHC-II in the jejunum and ileum of the NBW and IUGR neonatal piglets. The results showed that the IUGR piglets exhibited lower (Pmucosal immunity is associated with an imbalance in the T lymphocyte sub-populations in IUGR neonatal piglets.

  15. The genome-defence gene Tex19.1 suppresses LINE-1 retrotransposons in the placenta and prevents intra-uterine growth retardation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Judith; Reddington, James P; Best, Diana; Read, David; Ollinger, Rupert; Meehan, Richard R; Adams, Ian R

    2013-05-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in suppressing retrotransposon activity in mammalian genomes, yet there are stages of mammalian development where global hypomethylation puts the genome at risk of retrotransposition-mediated genetic instability. Hypomethylated primordial germ cells appear to limit this risk by expressing a cohort of retrotransposon-suppressing genome-defence genes whose silencing depends on promoter DNA methylation. Here, we investigate whether similar mechanisms operate in hypomethylated trophectoderm-derived components of the mammalian placenta to couple expression of genome-defence genes to the potential for retrotransposon activity. We show that the hypomethylated state of the mouse placenta results in activation of only one of the hypomethylation-sensitive germline genome-defence genes: Tex19.1. Tex19.1 appears to play an important role in placenta function as Tex19.1(-/-) mouse embryos exhibit intra-uterine growth retardation and have small placentas due to a reduction in the number of spongiotrophoblast, glycogen trophoblast and sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells. Furthermore, we show that retrotransposon mRNAs are derepressed in Tex19.1(-/-) placentas and that protein encoded by the LINE-1 retrotransposon is upregulated in hypomethylated trophectoderm-derived cells that normally express Tex19.1. This study suggests that post-transcriptional genome-defence mechanisms are operating in the placenta to protect the hypomethylated cells in this tissue from retrotransposons and suggests that imbalances between retrotransposon activity and genome-defence mechanisms could contribute to placenta dysfunction and disease.

  16. Low Birth Weight due to Intrauterine Growth Restriction and/or Preterm Birth: Effects on Nephron Number and Long-Term Renal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislava Zohdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated a strong association between low birth weight and long-term renal disease. A potential mediator of this long-term risk is a reduction in nephron endowment in the low birth weight infant at the beginning of life. Importantly, nephrons are only formed early in life; during normal gestation, nephrogenesis is complete by about 32–36 weeks, with no new nephrons formed after this time during the lifetime of the individual. Hence, given that a loss of a critical number of nephrons is the hallmark of renal disease, an increased severity and acceleration of renal disease is likely when the number of nephrons is already reduced prior to disease onset. Low birth weight can result from intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR or preterm birth; a high proportion of babies born prematurely also exhibit IUGR. In this paper, we describe how IUGR and preterm birth adversely impact on nephrogenesis and how a subsequent reduced nephron endowment at the beginning of life may lead to long-term risk of renal disease, but not necessarily hypertension.

  17. Effects of nutrient intake in the gestation on fetus intrauterine growth retardance%孕期营养素摄入量对胎儿宫内发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷卫兵

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究不同孕期营养素摄入量对宫内胎儿发育的影响.方法 239例妊娠妇女分为10~20周、21~30周及31周以上三组,根据营养素摄人量,用常规方法确定不同孕期胎儿宫内发育迟缓.比较不同孕期及不同营养素供给量(RDA)间胎儿宫内发育迟缓的发生率.结果 第一、二、三组:与110%RDA者比较,90%~110%RDA者的胎儿宫内发育迟缓发生率较低,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);第二组:与110%RDA者比较,90%~110%RDA者的胎儿宫内发育迟缓发生率较低,差异有统计学意义(P110%RDA者比较,90%~110%RDA者的胎儿宫内发育迟缓发生率较低,差异亦无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 合理的营养素摄入量对于降低胎儿宫内发育迟缓的发生率具有重要意义.%Objective To study the effect of nutrient intake in different periods of gestation on fetus in-trauterine growth. Methods 239 cases of pregnant women were divided into three groups:(1)10~2 weeks; (2)21~30 weeks; (3)over 31 weeks. Nutrient intake was calculated by computer nutrition system. Fetus intrauterine growth retardance in different periods of gestation was estimated by routine methods. The incidence rate of fetus in-trauterine growth retardance between different periods of gestation and different nutrient intake was compared. Re-suits Group 1, group 2 and group 3 : comparison to cases with 110 % RDA, the incidence rate of fetus intrauterine growth retardance was higher than that in pregnant women with 110 % - 90 % RDA(P < 0.05).Conclusion Optimal nutrient intake was important to reduce the incidence rate of fetus intrauterine growth retar-dance.

  18. Intrauterine growth restriction increases the preference for palatable foods and affects sensitivity to food rewards in male and female adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Molle, Roberta; Laureano, Daniela Pereira; Alves, Márcio Bonesso; Reis, Tatiane Madeira; Desai, Mina; Ross, Michael G; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2015-08-27

    Clinical evidence suggests that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can cause persistent changes in the preference for palatable foods. In this study, we compared food preferences, the response to food rewards, and the role of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in feeding behavior, between IUGR and control rats. Time-mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to a control group (standard chow ad libitum) or a 50% food restriction (FR) group, which received 50% of the control dams׳ habitual intake. These diets were provided from gestation day 10 to the 21st day of lactation. Within 24h of birth, pups were cross-fostered and divided into four groups: Adlib/Adlib, FR/Adlib, FR/FR, Adlib/FR. Standard chow consumption was compared between all groups. Food preferences, conditioned place preference to a palatable diet, and the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens were analyzed and compared between the two groups of interest: Adlib/Adlib (control) and FR/Adlib (exposed to growth restriction during the fetal period only). IUGR adult rats had a stronger preference for palatable foods, but showed less conditioned place preference to a palatable diet than controls. D2 receptors levels were lower in IUGR rats. At baseline, TH and pTH levels were higher in FR/Adlib than control males. Measurements taken after exposure to sweet foods revealed higher levels of TH and pTH in FR/Adlib than control females. These data showed that IUGR rats exhibited a preference for palatable foods, potentially due to alterations in their mesolimbic reward pathway. Additionally, the changes observed in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system of IUGR rats proved to be sex-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 1618. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Amino acid-based formula as a rescue strategy in feeding very-low-birth-weight infants with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Francesco; Spera, Anna Maria; Sellitto, Maria; Landolfo, Francesca; Capasso, Letizia

    2012-05-01

    Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates may develop severe intolerance to standard preterm formula especially if they are associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We tested the hypothesis that these infants may tolerate an elemental, amino acid-based formula as a rescue feeding strategy. In a prospective, case-control pilot study, we enrolled VLBW IUGR infants enterally fed with standard preterm formula (SPF) at daily increments of 16 mL/kg. If gastric residuals accounted for >70% of milk feed in the previous 24 hours, then feedings were temporarily withheld and then resumed with amino acid formula (AAF) increased at the same speed. Cases on AAF were compared to controls on SPF and with cases themselves while on SPF. Primary outcome was the time to reach full enteral feedings. Secondary outcomes were time on parenteral nutrition, time on central venous catheter, and formula tolerability based on the amount of gastric residual volume. Sixty-four infants (22 cases) were enrolled. Although during the total duration of nutrition, cases had worse primary and secondary outcomes, when on AAF, cases were comparable to controls in time to full enteral feeding (14.4 vs 14 days), time on parenteral nutrition, and time on central venous catheter. Cases on AAF and controls had similar gastric residual volumes. At day 3 after AAF introduction, cases had a significantly reduced number (%) of gastric residual volume >5 mL/kg over total number of feedings (5.6 vs 1.5%; P Growth at 12 months of corrected age was also comparable. In our population of VLBW IUGR newborns with severe feeding intolerance, a short course on AAF was a safe and effective means of nutritional rescue.

  20. Intrauterine growth retardation and disorder of glucolipid metabolism%宫内发育迟缓与糖脂代谢异常

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙如琼; 林少达

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies show intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)is a risk factor of metabolic diseases including impaired glucose tolerance,obesity and type 2 diabetes.Up-regulation of hypothalamic neturopetide Y (NPY),changed distribution of leptin receptor,abnormal effect of ghrelin,dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis,improperly level of peripheric hormones such as leptin,adiponectin and insulin-like growth factor-1,changed insulin signal pathway,abnormal levels of metabolism related genes and enzymes are important factors.Clarificating the mechanisms of disorder of glucolipid metabolism will supply a new direction for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases in individuals with IUGR.%流行病学研究显示,宫内发育迟缓(IUGR)是糖耐量异常、肥胖、2型糖尿病等代谢性疾病的危险因素.下丘脑神经肽Y表达上调、瘦素中枢受体分布异常、ghrelin作用异常及下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴功能紊乱;外周内分泌激素如瘦素、脂联素、胰岛素样生长因子-1的水平异常,胰岛素信号通路的改变以及代谢相关基因、酶的改变均为重要的影响因素.对糖、脂代谢异常机制的探讨可为防治IUGR个体出现代谢性疾病提供新的方向.

  1. Fatty Acid de Novo Synthesis in Adult Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Offspring, and Adult Male Response to a High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Jennifer K; Han, Guang; Vega, Juan; Lee, Wai-Nang P; Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina

    2016-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with rapid catch-up growth leads to adult obesity and insulin resistance. We have previously shown that IUGR male rats demonstrated increased de novo fatty acid synthesis in the subcutaneous (SC) fat, but not the visceral fat, during the nursing period prior to the onset of obesity. Young IUGR females do not exhibit the same increase. We further hypothesized that in male IUGR offspring, de novo synthesis is a programmed intrinsic effect that persists to adulthood and does not suppress in response to a high fat diet. We measured fatty acid de novo synthesis in IUGR adult males (6 months) using deuterium-enriched drinking water as a stable isotope tracer, then further studied the response after consumption of an isocaloric high fat diet. Baseline de novo synthesis in adult females was also studied at age 9 months. Males demonstrated increased baseline de novo synthesis in both SC fat and visceral fat. Correspondingly, SC and visceral fat protein expression of lipogenic enzymes acetyl-coA carboxylase-α (ACCα) and fatty acid synthase were upregulated. After the isocaloric high fat diet, de novo synthesis was suppressed such that no differences remained between the two groups, although, IUGR SC fat demonstrated persistently increased lipogenic protein expression. In contrast, de novo synthesis among adult females is not impacted in IUGR. In conclusion, enhancement of male IUGR SC fat de novo synthesis appears to be an early consequence of metabolic programming, whereas enhancement in visceral fat appears to be a later consequence.

  2. Herpesvirus-mediated systemic delivery of nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, D; Goins, W F; Kaplan, T J; Capuano, S V; Fradette, J; Murphey-Corb, M; Robbins, P D; Cohen, J B; Glorioso, J C

    2001-01-01

    Sustained systemic dissemination of therapeutic proteins from peripheral sites is an attractive prospect for gene therapy applications. Replication-defective genomic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) vectors were evaluated for their ability to express nerve growth factor (NGF) as a model gene product both locally and systemically. Intra-articular inoculation of NGF expression vectors in rabbits resulted in significant increases in joint lavage and blood plasma NGF that persisted for 1 year. A rhesus macaque injected intra-articularly displayed a comparable increase in plasma NGF for at least 6 months, at which time the serum NGF levels of this animal were sufficient to cause differentiation of PC12 cells in culture, but not to increase footpad epidermis innervation. Long-term reporter transgene expression was observed primarily in ligaments, a finding confirmed by direct inoculation of patellar ligament. Patellar ligament inoculation with a NGF vector resulted in elevated levels of circulating NGF similar to those observed following intra-articular vector delivery. These results represent the first demonstration of sustained systemic release of a transgene product using HSV vectors, raising the prospect of new applications for HSV-1 vectors in the treatment of systemic disease.

  3. Intrauterin graviditet efter Cavatermbehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shokouh-Amiri, Ali; Kjaergaard, Niels

    2009-01-01

    A case of intrauterine pregnancy occurring after successful balloon thermal endometrial ablation is described. Although rare, pregnancy after endometrial ablation is possible, and use of a supplemental contraceptive method should be planned. In case of pregnancy after endometrial ablation...

  4. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (Pgrowth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (Pmuscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.

  5. Altered small-world topology of structural brain networks in infants with intrauterine growth restriction and its association with later neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalle, Dafnis; Eixarch, Elisenda; Figueras, Francesc; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Bargallo, Nuria; Illa, Miriam; Acosta-Rojas, Ruthy; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Gratacos, Eduard

    2012-04-02

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency affects 5-10% of all pregnancies and it is associated with a wide range of short- and long-term neurodevelopmental disorders. Prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes in IUGR is among the clinical challenges of modern fetal medicine and pediatrics. In recent years several studies have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate differences in brain structure in IUGR subjects, but the ability to use MRI for individual predictive purposes in IUGR is limited. Recent research suggests that MRI in vivo access to brain connectivity might have the potential to help understanding cognitive and neurodevelopment processes. Specifically, MRI based connectomics is an emerging approach to extract information from MRI data that exhaustively maps inter-regional connectivity within the brain to build a graph model of its neural circuitry known as brain network. In the present study we used diffusion MRI based connectomics to obtain structural brain networks of a prospective cohort of one year old infants (32 controls and 24 IUGR) and analyze the existence of quantifiable brain reorganization of white matter circuitry in IUGR group by means of global and regional graph theory features of brain networks. Based on global and regional analyses of the brain network topology we demonstrated brain reorganization in IUGR infants at one year of age. Specifically, IUGR infants presented decreased global and local weighted efficiency, and a pattern of altered regional graph theory features. By means of binomial logistic regression, we also demonstrated that connectivity measures were associated with abnormal performance in later neurodevelopmental outcome as measured by Bayley Scale for Infant and Toddler Development, Third edition (BSID-III) at two years of age. These findings show the potential of diffusion MRI based connectomics and graph theory based network characteristics for estimating differences in the

  6. Alterations of placental cytochrome P450 1A1 and P-glycoprotein in tobacco-induced intrauterine growth retardation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-e YAN; Hui WANG; Ying-hong FENG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the alterations of placental P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) at different gestational days (GD), and to explore the possible significance of placental P-gp and CYP1A1 in tobacco smoke-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in rats. Methods: An IUGR model was produced by passive tobacco smoking from GD 7 to parturition (GD 21) and predicted using fetal development parameters. Placental structure and function were monitored by observing pathological alteration and antioxidative function, including the content of malondialdehyde and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT). The expressions of CYP1A1 and P-gp (mdr 1a and mdr 1b)were detected using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Results: Placental pathological changes occurred and the malondialdehyde content increased, whereas the activities ofsuperoxide dismutase and CAT lowered, when compared to their controls. In the rat placenta of the tobacco group, the level of CYP1A1 mRNA increased significantly; the level of mdr1a mRNA increased significantly at GD 21 but not at GD 14, whereas the level of mdr1b mRNA in different term remained stable; the expression of P-gp increased significantly only in full-term placenta. Conclusion: The expression of placental CYP1A1 and P-gp increased in tobacco-induced IUGR. Overexpression of placental CYP1A1 can attribute to the metabolism of tobacco and the generation of reactive metabolites, which can trigger IUGR. As a compulsory mechanism,upregulation of P-gp might decrease tobacco exposure to a developing fetus with IUGR.

  7. Long-Term Functional Outcomes and Correlation with Regional Brain Connectivity by MRI Diffusion Tractography Metrics in a Near-Term Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Miriam; Eixarch, Elisenda; Batalle, Dafnis; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Figueras, Francesc; Gratacos, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects 5–10% of all newborns and is associated with increased risk of memory, attention and anxiety problems in late childhood and adolescence. The neurostructural correlates of long-term abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR are unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the long-term functional and neurostructural correlates of abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR in a near-term rabbit model (delivered at 30 days of gestation) and evaluate the development of quantitative imaging biomarkers of abnormal neurodevelopment based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters and connectivity. Methodology At +70 postnatal days, 10 cases and 11 controls were functionally evaluated with the Open Field Behavioral Test which evaluates anxiety and attention and the Object Recognition Task that evaluates short-term memory and attention. Subsequently, brains were collected, fixed and a high resolution MRI was performed. Differences in diffusion parameters were analyzed by means of voxel-based and connectivity analysis measuring the number of fibers reconstructed within anxiety, attention and short-term memory networks over the total fibers. Principal Findings The results of the neurobehavioral and cognitive assessment showed a significant higher degree of anxiety, attention and memory problems in cases compared to controls in most of the variables explored. Voxel-based analysis (VBA) revealed significant differences between groups in multiple brain regions mainly in grey matter structures, whereas connectivity analysis demonstrated lower ratios of fibers within the networks in cases, reaching the statistical significance only in the left hemisphere for both networks. Finally, VBA and connectivity results were also correlated with functional outcome. Conclusions The rabbit model used reproduced long-term functional impairments and their neurostructural

  8. Long-term functional outcomes and correlation with regional brain connectivity by MRI diffusion tractography metrics in a near-term rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Illa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR affects 5-10% of all newborns and is associated with increased risk of memory, attention and anxiety problems in late childhood and adolescence. The neurostructural correlates of long-term abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR are unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the long-term functional and neurostructural correlates of abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR in a near-term rabbit model (delivered at 30 days of gestation and evaluate the development of quantitative imaging biomarkers of abnormal neurodevelopment based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI parameters and connectivity. METHODOLOGY: At +70 postnatal days, 10 cases and 11 controls were functionally evaluated with the Open Field Behavioral Test which evaluates anxiety and attention and the Object Recognition Task that evaluates short-term memory and attention. Subsequently, brains were collected, fixed and a high resolution MRI was performed. Differences in diffusion parameters were analyzed by means of voxel-based and connectivity analysis measuring the number of fibers reconstructed within anxiety, attention and short-term memory networks over the total fibers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results of the neurobehavioral and cognitive assessment showed a significant higher degree of anxiety, attention and memory problems in cases compared to controls in most of the variables explored. Voxel-based analysis (VBA revealed significant differences between groups in multiple brain regions mainly in grey matter structures, whereas connectivity analysis demonstrated lower ratios of fibers within the networks in cases, reaching the statistical significance only in the left hemisphere for both networks. Finally, VBA and connectivity results were also correlated with functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The rabbit model used reproduced long-term functional impairments and their

  9. Maternal History and Uterine Artery Doppler in the Assessment of Risk for Development of Early- and Late-Onset Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Llurba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the value of one-step uterine artery Doppler at 20 weeks of gestation in the prediction pre-eclampsia (PE and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. Methods. A prospective multicentre study that included all women with singleton pregnancies at 19–22 weeks of gestation (w. The mean pulsatility index (mPI of both uterine arteries was calculated. Receiver-operating characteristics curves (ROC were drawn to compare uterine artery Doppler and maternal risk factors for the prediction of early-onset PE and/or IUGR (before 32 w and late-onset PE and/or IUGR. Results. 6,586 women were included in the study. Complete outcome data was recorded for 6,035 of these women (91.6%. PE developed in 75 (1.2% and IUGR in 69 (1.1% cases. Uterine Doppler mPI was 0.99 and the 90th centile was 1.40. For 10% false-positive rate, uterine Doppler mPI identified 70.6% of pregnancies that subsequently developed early-onset PE and 73.3% of pregnancies that developed early-onset IUGR. The test had a lower detection rate for the late-onset forms of the disease (23.5% for PE and 30% for IUGR. Maternal history has a low sensitivity in the detection of early-onset cases, although it is better at detecting late-onset PE. Conclusion. Uterine artery Doppler and maternal risk factors seem to select two different populations - early and late-onset PE which might suggest a different pathogenesis.

  10. Spontaneous intra-uterine growth restriction modulates the endocrine status and the developmental expression of genes in porcine fetal and neonatal adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, Florence; Père, Marie-Christine; Tacher, Sandrine; Daré, Sophie; Trefeu, Christine; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Louveau, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    Low birth weight is correlated with low adiposity at birth, a phenotype that influences neonatal survival and later adiposity. A better understanding of events affecting the fetal adipose tissue development and its functionality around birth is thus needed. This study was undertaken to examine the impact of spontaneous intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) on circulating concentrations of hormones and nutrients together with the developmental expression patterns of various genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue of pig fetus during the last third of pregnancy and just after birth. At 71 and 112 days post-conception and 2 days postnatal, pairs of same-sex piglets were chosen within litters to have either a medium (MBW) or a low (LBW) weight (n=6 pairs at each stage). The results indicate that IUGR counteracts the temporal fall of DLK1 gene expression in developing adipose tissue across gestation. It also attenuates the time-dependent increase in expression levels of many genes promoting adipocyte differentiation (PPARG, CEBPA) and lipogenesis (LPL, SREBF1, FASN, FABP4). Opposite responses to IUGR were observed for the IGF system, so that IGF1 mRNA levels were lower (Padipose tissue of LBW piglets compared with MBW piglets. The plasma insulin concentration and the mRNA levels of insulin receptor (INSR) and insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) in adipose tissue were also greater in LBW piglets at day 2 postnatal. The data indicate that IUGR delays the normal ontogeny of adipose tissue across gestation and affects the insulin and IGF axes around birth.

  11. Dietary Nucleotides Supplementation Improves the Intestinal Development and Immune Function of Neonates with Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction in a Pig Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianqiang Che

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to determine whether dietary nucleotides supplementation could improve growth performance, intestinal development and immune function of intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR neonate using pig as animal model. A total of 14 pairs of normal birth weight (NBW and IUGR piglets (7 days old were randomly assigned to receive a milk-based control diet (CON diet or diet supplemented with nucleotides (NT diet for a period of 21 days. Blood samples, intestinal tissues and digesta were collected at necropsy and analyzed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, microbial populations, peripheral immune cells, expression of intestinal innate immunity and barrier-related genes and proteins. Compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had significantly lower average daily dry matter intake and body weight gain (P<0.05. Moreover, IUGR markedly decreased the villous height and villi: crypt ratio in duodenum (P<0.05, as well as the maltase activity in jejunum (P<0.05. In addition, IUGR significantly decreased the serum concentrations of IgA, IL-1βand IL-10 (P<0.05, as well as the percentage of peripheral lymphocytes (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the down-regulation of innate immunity-related genes such as TOLLIP (P<0.05, TLR-9 (P = 0.08 and TLR-2 (P = 0.07 was observed in the ileum of IUGR relative to NBW piglets. Regardless of birth weight, however, feeding NT diet markedly decreased (P<0.05 feed conversion ratio, increased the villous height in duodenum (P<0.05, activities of lactase and maltase in jejunum (P<0.05, count of peripheral leukocytes (P<0.05, serum concentrations of IgA and IL-1β as well as gene expressions of TLR-9, TLR-4 and TOLLIP in ileum (P<0.05. In addition, expressions of tight junction proteins (Claudin-1 and ZO-1 in ileum were markedly increased by feeding NT diet relative to CON diet (P<0.05. These results indicated that IUGR impaired growth performance, intestinal and immune function, but dietary nucleotides supplementation

  12. Doppler ultrasound in the assessment of suspected intra-uterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramakantb

    outlines the diagnosis of intra-uterine growth restriction and describes how to differentiate this group ... prevalence of syndrome X, a condition associating ... low fetal hemoglobin concentration (anemic ..... such an approach remain, however.

  13. Management of intrauterine adhesions: a novel intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chun-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Li; Qin, Xiao-Yun; Cai, Li-Ping; Zhang, Ping

    2013-09-01

    Intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) are a rare but significant cause of menstrual disturbance and infertility. Most cases are caused by uterine instrumentation. Several methods have been used to prevent IUAs in the past, which can be divided into two groups: pharmacological treatment and physical barrier. However, even with the liberal use of ancillary treatments to minimize reformation of adhesions, IUAs have a high rate of recurrence. Furthermore, medical literature of the last decades has only dedicated great attention to the restoration of normal anatomy in the uterine cavity, but not on the function of the endometrium. When the lesion of the endometrium is severe, especially intrauterine fibrosis, few basal layer is left which contains plenty stem cells to regenerate functional endometrium. Loss of endometrial stem cells directly causes the proliferation of fibrous tissue and subsequent synechiae. None of current treatments can compensate the defect of loss of stem cells. On the basis of existing researches, a novel intrauterine device (IUD) is recommended in this article. The new IUD consists of a light frame which contains two isolated drug-releasing system, one for estrogen and the other for cytokines to promote regeneration of endometrium such as growth factors, and a membrane in the middle of the frame which is also the carrier of endometrium stem cell. This device not only helps to preserve the original anatomy of the uterine cavity, but also to recover the function of endometrium. Experimental and clinical studies are now needed to testify the efficiency of the novel IUD in the prevention of IUAs. If there is a marked reduction in the IUAs and/or improvement of pregnancy success in the case group compared with the control group, our hypothesis will be confirmed.

  14. Growing Pains: Psychological evaluation of children with short stature after intrauterine growth retardation, before and after two years of growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van der Reijden-Lakeman (Ilse)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractSince the availability of biosynthetic human growth hormone (hGH) in 1985, many studies on the effects of hGH administration on various groups of children with short stature have been performed. The present study reports on the psychological evaluation of children with short stature afte

  15. Curvas de crescimento intra-uterino de uma população de alto nível socioeconômico Intrauterine growth curves in a high-income population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição A. M. Segre

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: as curvas de percentil constituem uma das formas de avaliação do crescimento intra-uterino e podem predizer doenças do recém-nascido como também caracterizar uma população. Este trabalho teve por objetivo construir as curvas de crescimento intra-uterino dos recém-nascidos da Maternidade do Hospital Albert Einstein (MAE, hospital que atende a uma população de alto nível socioeconômico, e comparar com as curvas de crescimento intra-uterino de uma população norte-americana da Califórnia. MÉTODOS: foram construídas curvas de crescimento intra-uterino a partir do peso do recém-nascido de parto único, tomado logo após o nascimento, e da idade gestacional segundo informações maternas, a partir da 32ª. semana de idade gestacional, abrangendo os nascimentos ocorridos na MAE no período de fevereiro de 1995 a fevereiro de 1999. Foram calculados os percentis 10, 50 e 90 do peso ao nascer para cada idade gestacional e comparados com os das curvas da Califórnia. RESULTADOS: as curvas dos percentis 10 e 50 na população da MAE não diferiram das curvas da Califórnia. Para o percentil 90, a curva da MAE ficou abaixo das curvas da Califórnia. Houve número menor de pequenos e grandes para a idade gestacional (PIG e GIG quando classificados pelas curvas da Califórnia. A classificação em PIG, AIG, GIG mostrou-se relacionada significantemente com o ganho de peso materno nos dois sexos. CONCLUSÕES: as duas populações analisadas segundo as curvas de crescimento intra-uterino são diferentes entre si; deverão ser identificados fatores específicos que atuem na população da MAE.OBJECTIVE: growth curves can be used to assess intrauterine growth, to predict diseases in newborns, and to characterize different populations. The objective of this study was to obtain intrauterine growth curves of newborns from the maternity ward of the Hospital Albert Einstein (MAE and compare them with intrauterine growth curves of a population

  16. Human Growth Hormone Delivery with a Microneedle Transdermal System: Preclinical Formulation, Stability, Delivery and PK of Therapeutically Relevant Doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ameri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the feasibility of coating formulated recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH on a titanium microneedle transdermal delivery system, Zosano Pharma (ZP-hGH, and assessed preclinical patch delivery performance. Formulation rheology and surface activity were assessed by viscometry and contact angle measurement. rhGH liquid formulation was coated onto titanium microneedles by dip-coating and drying. The stability of coated rhGH was determined by size exclusion chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC. Preclinical delivery and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in female hairless guinea pigs (HGP using rhGH coated microneedle patches at 0.5 and 1 mg doses and compared to Norditropin® a commercially approved rhGH subcutaneous injection. Studies demonstrated successful rhGH formulation development and coating on microneedle arrays. The ZP-hGH patches remained stable at 40 °C for six months with no significant change in % aggregates. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that the rhGH-coated microneedle patches, delivered with high efficiency and the doses delivered indicated linearity with average Tmax of 30 min. The absolute bioavailability of the microneedle rhGH patches was similar to subcutaneous Norditropin® injections. These results suggest that ZP-transdermal microneedle patch delivery of rhGH is feasible and may offer an effective and patient-friendly alternative to currently marketed rhGH injectables.

  17. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health

    OpenAIRE

    Szostak-Wegierek D

    2014-01-01

    Dorota Szostak-WegierekDepartment of Human Nutrition, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. E...

  18. Consumo calórico, estado nutricional materno, y retraso del crecimiento intrauterino Energy intake, maternal nutritional status and intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Bender Martins

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Para conocer la asociación entre el consumo de energía en el embarazo y el retraso del crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU, se llevó a cabo un estudio de caso-cohorte en tres hospitales de maternidad de la ciudad de México, entre enero y agosto de 1995. De un total de 4.000 partos que ocurrieron en este período, nos referimos en este estudio a los resultados de un análisis de 264 casos de RCIU y 892 controles. Se procedió a un análisis de regresión logística no condicionada, en el que también se ajustaron los factores maternos potencialmente proclives a la confusión. Para el total de los casos no se observó un efecto directo del consumo de energía en el RCIU (RM: 0,99; IC 95%: 0,99-1,00. Sin embargo, entre las mujeres que comenzaron el embarazo con un peso de 50 kilos o menos, el consumo de energía en relación a RCIU mostró una razón de momios de 2,31 (RM: 2,31; IC 95%: 1,59-3,36; para las mujeres primigestas de 1,72 (RM: 1,72; IC 95%: 1,18-2,51; en aquellas con antecedente de bajo peso al nacer de 3,54 (RM: 3,54; IC 95%: 1,93-6,46 y para aquellas que presentaron tensión arterial alta en el embarazo de 1,61 (RM: 1,61; IC 95%: 1,00-2,59.To explore the association between low caloric intake during pregnancy and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR, a case-control study with 264 cases and 892 controls was conducted in three maternity hospitals in Mexico City from January to August 1995. Nutritional information on pregnancy was recorded using a previously validated food frequency questionnaire. After adjusting for other known maternal risk factors in the non-conditional logistic regression analysis, for the total sample, caloric intake did not present a direct effect on IUGR (OR: 0.99; CI 95%: 0.99-1.00. However the odds ratios were as follows for women: with low pre-gestational weight (OR: 2.31; CI 95%: 1.59-3.36, in first gestation (OR: 1.72; CI 95%: 1.18-2.51, with low birth weight infants (OR: 3.54; CI 95%: 1.93-6.46, and

  19. Effects of nutrientin take in the gestation on fetus intrauterine growth retardance%孕期营养素摄入量对胎儿宫内发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁向军

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究不同孕期营养素摄入量对宫内胎儿发育的影响.方法 239例妊娠妇女分为10~20周、21~30周及31周以上三组,根据营养素摄入量,用常规方法确定不同孕期胎儿宫内发育迟缓,比较不同孕期及不同营养素供给量(RDA)间胎儿宫内发育迟缓的发生率.结果 第1、2、3组:与<90%RDA及>110%RDA者比较,90%~110%RDA者的胎儿宫内发育迟缓发生率较低,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);第2组:与<90%RDA及>110%RDA者比较,90%~110%RDA者的胎儿宫内发育迟缓发生率较低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);第3组:与<90%RDA及>110%RDA者比较,90%~110%RDA者的胎儿宫内发育迟缓发生率较低,差异亦无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 合理的营养素摄入量对于降低胎儿宫内发育迟缓的发生率具有重要意义.%Objective To study the effect of nutrientin take in different periods of gestation on fetus intrau-growth retardance in different periods of gestation was estimated by routine methods, Comparing the incidence rate of fetus intrauterine growth retardance between different periods of gestation and different nutrient intake.Results Group 1, group2 and group3:Comparison to cases with < 90% RDA or > 110% RDA, the incidence rate of fetus intrauterine growth retardance was higher than in pregnant women with 90% - 110% RDA ( P <0.05 ). Conclusion It is important of optimal nutrient intake to reduce the incidence rate of fetus intrauterine growth retardance.

  20. Mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for efficient delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengtie; Fan, Wei; Chang, Jiang; Xiao, Yin

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we, for the first time, investigated mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for the delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor. We have found that mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds have significantly higher loading efficiency and more sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor than non-mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds. In addition, vascular endothelial growth factor delivery from mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds has improved the viability of endothelial cells. The study has suggested that mesopore structures in mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds play an important role in improving the loading efficiency, decreasing the burst release, and maintaining the bioactivity of vascular endothelial growth factor, indicating that mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds are an excellent carrier of vascular endothelial growth factor for potential bone tissue engineering applications.

  1. The missing intrauterine device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Devassy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUD is an acceptable and common form of contraception worldwide. The objective of this study was to report the case of an asymptomatic missing intrauterine contraceptive (IUD inserted to prevent intrauterine adhesions after synechiolysis. A patient presented with missing IUD threads. Ultrasound of the pelvis showed an empty uterine cavity with the missing IUD probably anterior to the uterus. We present a stepwise approach in the management of the and ldquo;lost IUD and rdquo;, where the strings of the device are not visible at the time of speculum examination. We suggest first determining sonographically whether the IUD is within the cavity. If it is in situ, options for retrieval are including hysteroscopic retrieval. If the IUD is not within the cavity, X-rays are recommended. The device will not be present on X-ray if expulsion has occurred. If the device is present on the X-ray, cystoscopic or laparoscopic retrieval is required. IUD-providers should not only screen potential users and insert IUD correctly, but also ensure adequate follow-up with localization. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3587-3589

  2. Chemical strategies for the presentation and delivery of growth factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabanas Danés, Jordi; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Since the first demonstration of employing growth factors (GFs) to control cell behaviour in vitro, the spatiotemporal availability of GFs in vivo has received continuous attention. In particular, the ability to physically confine the mobility of GFs has been used in various tissue engineering

  3. Epidermal growth factor receptor: Target for delivery and silencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Oliveira, S.

    2008-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor in cancer therapy Recently, cancer research has been able to identify molecular targets that are specific for (or highly expressed by) cancer cells. These molecular targets serve as models for the development of rationally designed anticancer drugs that target import

  4. Growth factor delivery-based tissue engineering: general approaches and a review of recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kangwon; Silva, Eduardo A; Mooney, David J

    2011-02-06

    The identification and production of recombinant morphogens and growth factors that play key roles in tissue regeneration have generated much enthusiasm and numerous clinical trials, but the results of many of these trials have been largely disappointing. Interestingly, the trials that have shown benefit all contain a common denominator, the presence of a material carrier, suggesting strongly that spatio-temporal control over the location and bioactivity of factors after introduction into the body is crucial to achieve tangible therapeutic effect. Sophisticated materials systems that regulate the biological presentation of growth factors represent an attractive new generation of therapeutic agents for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. This review provides an overview of growth factor delivery in tissue engineering. Certain fundamental issues and design strategies relevant to the material carriers that are being actively pursued to address specific technical objectives are discussed. Recent progress highlights the importance of materials science and engineering in growth factor delivery approaches to regenerative medicine.

  5. 超声对宫内胚胎停止发育诊断的应用观察%Application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of intrauterine embryo growth arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯树新

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the characteristics of intrauterine embryo growth arrest, stop the application effect observa-tion of ultrasound in the diagnosis of intrauterine embryo development.Methods:From 2013 to 2014 in our hospital for treat-ment of 30 cases of diagnosed intrauterine embryos stop development of ultrasonic testing images were analyzed retrospectively. Results: 30 cases of embryonic images with different characteristics, in the ultrasonic observation, air sac type 11 cases, accounting for 24.4%, in the ultrasonic observation, no echo area inside the uterus appears irregular oval sacs, and the pregnancy pregnant sac is larger, the size of gestational sac size is 3~4cm. With favorable pregnancy pregnancy, the inner wall of uterus of pregnant women was clear, and the wall of the uterus pregnancy pregnant sac some separation. Pregnancy pregnant sac deformation type is 5 cases, accounting for 11%, patients with intrauterine pregnancies were more irregular shape, with a flat, C, and presents the bleak rough pregnancy pregnant sac state, no embryo. Light spot, wide type in 12 cases, accounting for 26.6%, in the acoustic observation, showed a light or facula echo obvious.Conclusion:Ultrasonic observation on development has a direct, accurate, rapid for intra-uterine embryo stops, miscarriage prevention and treatment of pregnant women without meaning, providing the reliable basis for the clinical treatment of.%目的:分析宫内胚胎停止发育的特点,观察超声在宫内胚胎停止发育诊断中的应用效果。方法选取2013到2014年在本院治疗的30例被诊断为宫内胚胎停止发育的患者的超声检测图片进行回顾分析。结果30例胚胎停止发育的图片各有特点,在超声观察下,空囊型的为11例,占36.6%,在超声观测下,子宫内部呈现出来的椭圆形的不规则囊状物无回声区,而且它的孕娠囊较大,妊娠囊大小为3~4cm,妊娠大小基本与怀孕周期一致,孕妇的

  6. Intrauterine infection and preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Varkha; Hirsch, Emmet

    2011-01-01

    Summary Preterm labor is defined as labor that begins before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. More than 12% of infants born in the USA are preterm. At least 40% of preterm births are associated with intrauterine infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are members of a family of cell-surface proteins responsible for recognition of a diverse spectrum of bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens. TLRs initiate the host innate (i.e. non-adaptive) immune response, inducing a proinflammatory cascade involving cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, and other effector molecules that result in the characteristic phenomena of labor, such as uterine contractions and rupture of fetal membranes. These cascades may also be activated by mechanisms that are not primarily infectious but are accompanied by inflammatory responses. Now that the molecular mechanisms linking infection and labor have been, to a large extent, elucidated, the challenge is to identify points of overlap with non-infectious causes of labor and to find intervention strategies that can minimize the negative impact of preterm delivery. PMID:21944863

  7. Complications Associated with Insertion of Intrauterine Pressure Catheters: An Unusual Case of Uterine Hypertonicity and Uterine Perforation Resulting in Fetal Distress after Insertion of an Intrauterine Pressure Catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara M. Rood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insertion of intrauterine pressure catheters is a routine procedure performed in labor and delivery departments, with few associated complications. There are several reports of maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with the use of intrauterine pressure catheters and their rare adverse outcomes. We report an unusual case of uterine hypertonicity resulting in fetal distress, immediately after the placement of an intrauterine pressure catheter. An emergent Cesarean section was performed for fetal distress and revealed a 5 cm vertical rent in the posterior lower uterine segment. The uterine perforation was repaired intraoperatively. Mother and infant did well and were discharged home on postoperative day four.

  8. Complications associated with insertion of intrauterine pressure catheters: an unusual case of uterine hypertonicity and uterine perforation resulting in fetal distress after insertion of an intrauterine pressure catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Kara M

    2012-01-01

    Insertion of intrauterine pressure catheters is a routine procedure performed in labor and delivery departments, with few associated complications. There are several reports of maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with the use of intrauterine pressure catheters and their rare adverse outcomes. We report an unusual case of uterine hypertonicity resulting in fetal distress, immediately after the placement of an intrauterine pressure catheter. An emergent Cesarean section was performed for fetal distress and revealed a 5 cm vertical rent in the posterior lower uterine segment. The uterine perforation was repaired intraoperatively. Mother and infant did well and were discharged home on postoperative day four.

  9. Bioengineered sequential growth factor delivery stimulates brain tissue regeneration after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanfei; Cooke, Michael J; Sachewsky, Nadia; Morshead, Cindi M; Shoichet, Molly S

    2013-11-28

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability with no effective regenerative treatment. One promising strategy for achieving tissue repair involves the stimulation of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells through sequential delivery of epidermal growth factor (EGF) followed by erythropoietin (EPO). Yet currently available delivery strategies such as intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion cause significant tissue damage. We designed a novel delivery system that circumvents the blood brain barrier and directly releases growth factors to the brain. Sequential release of the two growth factors is a key in eliciting tissue repair. To control release, we encapsulate pegylated EGF (EGF-PEG) in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles and EPO in biphasic microparticles comprised of a PLGA core and a poly(sebacic acid) coating. EGF-PEG and EPO polymeric particles are dispersed in a hyaluronan methylcellulose (HAMC) hydrogel which spatially confines the particles and attenuates the inflammatory response of brain tissue. Our composite-mediated, sequential delivery of EGF-PEG and EPO leads to tissue repair in a mouse stroke model and minimizes damage compared to ICV infusion.

  10. Intrauterin insemination med donorsaed. Behandling af ufrivillig barnløshed på grund af mandlig infertilitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Helmsøe-Zinck, Lise; Andersen, A N

    1994-01-01

    of conception and expected delivery was respectively 96% and 86%. The results show that intrauterine insemination with donor semen is a good treatment for couples with male infertility. Ultrasonic measurement of the follicles and timing of hCG injection were used for optimal timing of intrauterine donor...

  11. Targeted Delivery of Nanoparticles Bearing Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 by Ultrasonic Microbubble Destruction for Therapeutic Arteriogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, John C.; Song, Ji; Burke, Caitlin W.

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies in which recombinant growth factors are injected to stimulate arteriogenesis in patients suffering from occlusive vascular disease stand to benefit from improved targeting, less invasiveness, better growth-factor stability, and more sustained growth-factor release. A microbubble contrast-agent-based system facilitates nanoparticle deposition in tissues that are targeted by 1-MHz ultrasound. This system can then be used to deliver poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles containing fibroblast growth factor-2 to mouse adductor muscles in a model of hind-limb arterial insufficiency. Two weeks after treatment, significant increases in both the caliber and total number of collateral arterioles are observed, indicating that the delivery of nanoparticles bearing fibroblast growth factor-2 by ultrasonic microbubble destruction may represent an effective and minimally invasive strategy for the targeted stimulation of therapeutic arteriogenesis. PMID:18720443

  12. 生长激素和胰岛素与新生儿宫内生长发育的关系%Relationship of Serum Growth Hormone and Insulin at Birth with Neonatal Intrauterine Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常艳美; 齐婧; 关育红; 童笑梅; 朴梅花; 王新利

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨生长激素(GH)和胰岛素(INS)与新生儿宫内生长发育的关系.方法 研究对象为2010年1月-2011年1月在北京大学第三医院住院的73例健康足月新生儿和97例早产儿,研究对象均在出生24 h内取静脉血,采用酶联免疫吸附法检测血清GH和INS水平,同时核对胎龄及测量新生儿的出生体质量、头围和身长,比较新生儿出生24 h内血清GH和INS水平与胎龄、出生体质量、身长、头围的关系.结果 1.新生儿的胎龄与出生时血清GH水平呈负相关(r=-0.403,P=0.000),而与血清INS水平呈正相关(r=0.247,P=0.001);早产组出生时血清GH水平[(40.54±19.58) μg·L-1]显著高于足月组[(26.23±18.30) μg·L-1],而血清INS水平[(2.58±2.78) IU·L-1]则显著低于足月组[(4.02±3.60) IU·L-1](P=0.000,0.029).2.足月儿的出生体质量、身长、头围与出生时血清GH水平均呈负相关,而与血清INS水平均呈正相关;早产儿仅出生体质量与血清GH水平呈负相关,与血清INS水平呈正相关.3.足月新生儿出生时血清GH与INS水平无相关性(r=0.291,P= 0.090),而早产儿出生时血清GH与INS水平呈负相关(r=-0.353,P=0.004).结论 新生儿出生时GH和INS水平与其宫内发育密切相关,GH和INS可能参与调节新生儿宫内的生长发育.%Objective To study the relationship among the levels of serum growth hormone(GH) ,insulin (INS) at birth and the intrauterine growth of neonates. Methods During Jan. 2010 to Jan. 2011,73 healthy full - term and 97 premature neonates, hospitalized in Peking University Third Hospital were studied. Blood samples were collected, and gestational age, birth weight, head circumference and length of neonates were checked within 24 hours after birth. The levels of serum GH and INS were measured by enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay. The correlation was analyzed between serum GH, INS and gestational age, birth weight, length,head circumference of neonates. Results 1. Gestational age

  13. Effects of Aspirin and Intrauterine Balloon on Endometrial Repair and Reproductive Prognosis in Patients with Severe Intrauterine Adhesion: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixiang; Luo, Yuanna; Chen, Minghui; Fang, Ruili

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of estrogen in combination with aspirin and intrauterine balloon on the uterine endometrial repair and reproductive prognosis in patients after surgery for severe intrauterine adhesion (sIUA). We prospectively recruited 114 patients with sIUA. Intrauterine device (IUD) was placed and oral estrogen was administered after surgery. Patients were divided into control group and aspirin group. In addition, patients in aspirin group were subdivided into nonballoon group and balloon group. Results showed that, after therapy, the increase in endometrial thickness of aspirin groups was superior to control group (P 0.05). Thus, aspirin may promote the uterine endometrial growth and repair after surgery for sIUA, and IUD in combination with intrauterine balloon may reduce the recurrence of intrauterine adhesion, but their effect on the reproductive prognosis is required to be further studied.

  14. A longitudinal study of intrauterine growth and the placental growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I axis in maternal circulation: association between placental GH and fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Vangsgaard, K; Larsen, T

    2004-01-01

    above -2 SD. Placental GH levels were detectable in all samples from as early as 5 wk gestation and increased significantly throughout pregnancy to approximately 37 wk when peak levels of 22 ng/ml (range, 4.64-69.22 ng/ml) were reached. Subsequently, placental GH levels decreased until birth. The change...... in placental GH during 24.5-37.5 wk gestation was positively associated with fetal growth rate (P = 0.027) and birth weight (P = 0.027). Gestational age at peak placental GH values (P = 0.007) was associated with pregnancy length. A positive association between the change in placental GH and the change in IGF......The aim of the study was 1) to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of placental GH and IGF-I with fetal growth, and 2) to establish reference data for placental GH, IGF-I, and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in normal pregnancies based on longitudinal measurements. A prospective...

  15. A longitudinal study of intrauterine growth and the placental growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I axis in maternal circulation: association between placental GH and fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Vangsgaard, K; Larsen, T;

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was 1) to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of placental GH and IGF-I with fetal growth, and 2) to establish reference data for placental GH, IGF-I, and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in normal pregnancies based on longitudinal measurements. A prospective...... above -2 SD. Placental GH levels were detectable in all samples from as early as 5 wk gestation and increased significantly throughout pregnancy to approximately 37 wk when peak levels of 22 ng/ml (range, 4.64-69.22 ng/ml) were reached. Subsequently, placental GH levels decreased until birth. The change...... in placental GH during 24.5-37.5 wk gestation was positively associated with fetal growth rate (P = 0.027) and birth weight (P = 0.027). Gestational age at peak placental GH values (P = 0.007) was associated with pregnancy length. A positive association between the change in placental GH and the change in IGF...

  16. Growth Factor Tethering to Protein Nanoparticles via Coiled-Coil Formation for Targeted Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Yasmine; Mizuguchi, Yoshinori; Mie, Masayasu; Kobatake, Eiry

    2015-08-19

    Protein-based nanoparticles are attractive carriers for drug delivery because they are biodegradable and can be genetically designed. Moreover, modification of protein-based nanoparticles with cell-specific ligands allows for active targeting abilities. Previously, we developed protein nanoparticles comprising genetically engineered elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) with fused polyaspartic acid tails (ELP-D). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was displayed on the surface of the ELP-D nanoparticles via genetic design to allow for active cell-targeting abilities. Herein, we focused on the coiled-coil structural motif as a means for noncovalent tethering of growth factor to ELP-D. Specifically, two peptides known to form a heterodimer via a coiled-coil structural motif were fused to ELP-D and single-chain vascular endothelial growth factor (scVEGF121), to facilitate noncovalent tethering upon formation of the heterodimer coiled-coil structure. Drug-loaded growth factor-tethered ELP-Ds were found to be effective against cancer cells by provoking cell apoptosis. These results demonstrate that tethering growth factor to protein nanoparticles through coiled-coil formation yields a promising biomaterial candidate for targeted drug delivery.

  17. 血清视黄醇结合蛋白-4水平与胎儿宫内生长发育的关系%Relationship between serum retinol binding protein 4 level and fetal intrauterine growth and development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 张小莉

    2011-01-01

    目的:检测新生儿血清视黄醇结合蛋白-4(RBP-4)的水平,探讨其与胰岛素水平及胎儿宫内生长发育的关系,并对相关因素进行分析.方法:用酶联免疫法检测89例新生儿血清中RBP-4和胰岛素水平,其中小于胎龄组(SGA)30例、适于胎龄组(AGA)30例、大于胎龄组(LGA)29例,并按出生体重评估新生儿宫内的营养状态.结果:①3组间RBP-4及胰岛素水平的差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05).②血清RBP-4水平与新生儿出生体重呈明显正相关(r=0.943,P<0.01);③胰岛素水平与新生儿出生体重呈明显正相关(r=0.975,P<0.01);④RBP-4水平与胰岛素水平呈明显正相关(r=0.979,P<0.01).结论:新生儿体内RBP-4水平在一定程度上反映宫内牛长发育状态,可能和胰岛素共同参与调节新生儿的生长发育.%Objective: To detect the serum retinol binding protein 4 ( RBP -4) level in neonates, explore its relationship with insulin level and fetal intrauterine growth and development, and analyze the related factors.Methods: ELISA was used to detect the serum levels of RBP-4 and insulin in 89 neonates, 89 neonates included 30 neonates in small for gestational age (SGA) group, 30 neonates in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group and 29 neonates in large for gestational age (LGA) group, then the intrauterine nutritional conditions of the neonates were assessed according to birth weight.Results: There was significant difference in serum levels of RBP -4 and insulin among the three groups ( P < 0.05 ).There was a significant positive correlation between serum RBP - 4 level and neonatal birth weight ( γ = 0.943, P < 0.05 ); there was a significant positive correlation between serum insulin level and neonatal birth weight ( γ = 0.975, P <0.05); there was a significant positive correlation between serum RBP - 4 level and serum insulin level ( γ = 0.979, P < 0.0l ).Conclusion: Neonatal RBP-4 level reflect the state of intrauterine growth and

  18. The role of insulin-like growth factor in prediction and prevention of preterm delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogavac Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Prediction and prevention of preterm delivery remain great challenge. It is important to include in everyday medical practice determination of certain markers that could help identifying pregnant women with preterm delivery. Insulin like growth factor (IGF is involved in the control mechanism of fetal and placental growth and development. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1 in cervicovaginal secretion of pregnant women with symptoms of preterm labor, but with apparently intact fetal membranes and to point out a possible application of the strip test for detection of phIGFBP-1 in diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of total membranes (PPROM in everyday medical practice. Methods. The study was performed at the Department for Obstetrics and Gynecology, Clinical Center of Vojvodina between October 2008 and May 2009. The study included 54 pregnant women between 20-35 weeks of gestation (WG, divided into two groups: the study group (16 pregnant women with symptoms of preterm delivery that gave birth before 37 WG and the control group (38 pregnant women with the normal course of pregnancy that gave birth on term. In cervicovaginal secretion of the examined pregnant women the level of IGFBP-1 was determined by the immunochromatographic assay with monoclonal antibodies 6303 as a detecting antibody (Actim PROM test, Medix Biochemica, Kauniainen, Finland. Results. Gestational age (GA at delivery in the study group was 32.6 WG and in the control group it was 38.4 WG. Weight of newborns in the study group was 2,021 g and in the control group 3,430 g. IGFBP test was positive in 15 women (93.75% of the study group, while in the control group it was positive only in 1 woman (2.63%. Conclusion. Test on phIGFBP-1 in cervicovaginal mucus was positive in 93.75% women with preterm delivery, suggesting that this test could be used in diagnosis of silent rupture of fetal

  19. [Intrauterine programming of reproductive function--a valid concept?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleussner, Ekkehard

    2009-01-01

    Early intrauterine fetal (mis)programming determines not only cardiovascular and metabolic regulation in later life, but also reproductive function. Intrauterine growth restriction may be associated with precocious maturation of gonadal function and an earlier onset of puberty and menarche. Especially prenatal androgen excess has negative effects on the development of the ovaries and female genital phenotype itself as well as on the neuroendocrine feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis followed by a polycystic ovary syndrome with hyperandrogenism and anovulation in later life. These associations, which can be clearly demonstrated in animal experiments, need further confirmation by epidemiological and clinical trials in humans.

  20. Metabonomic study of newborn infants with intrauterine growth restriction%宫内生长受限新生儿代谢组学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翔文; 李芳; 刘敬; 张万巧; 王燕; 付薇

    2016-01-01

    谷氨酸(t=2.469,P=0.018)、组氨酸(t=2.718,P=0.009)、亮氨酸异亮氨酸(t=3.938,P=0.000)、鸟氨酸(t=4.264,P=0.000)、丝氨酸(t=2.647,P=0.011)、苏氨酸(=2.311,P=0.026)、色氨酸(=4.040,P=0.000)、缬氨酸(=2.700,P=0.01)、庚酰肉碱(k-2.441,P=0.019)、十八碳二烯肉碱(t =2.449,P=0.018)水平明显低于IUGR足月儿.3.不同性别AGA新生儿之间未发现差异性代谢物(P>0.05),但不同性别IUGR患儿间存在差异性代谢产物,其中男性IUGR患儿天冬氨酸(=2.521,P=0.016)、谷氨酸(t=-2.175,P=0.035)水平均低于女性IUGR患儿;而男性IUGR患儿二十六碳烯酸水平高于女性IUGR患儿(t=2.231,P=0.031).4.出生体质量对新生儿体内游离肉碱的水平以及游离肉碱和酰基肉碱与总肉碱的比值无明显影响(P均>0.05).结论 IUGR对胎儿-新生儿血浆氨基酸和酰基肉碱代谢有明显影响,对出生体质量<第3百分位者影响最明显;随着出生体质量增加,氨基酸和酰基肉碱呈代偿性增加或减低,至体质量达第10百分位时,上述变化可达到或接近AGA新生水平.%Objective To compare the differences in metabolites between newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) in order to understand the changes in metabolites of newborns with IUGR and explore the possible metabolic mechanism of tissue and organ damages in patients with IUGR,with the ultimate goal of providing the basis for clinical intervention.Methods A total of 45 newborns with IUGR and 56 AGA newborns who were hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Bayi Children's Hospital,the General Hospital of the Chinese People's Liberation Army between July 2009 and June 2015 and who underwent metabolic disease screening were enrolled in this study.The differences in of 21 amino acids and 55 carnitines in peripheral blood,as well as the changes in the ratios of free carnitine and acylcarnitine to total carnitine,were compared.Results (1)According to

  1. Resistance exercise order does not determine postexercise delivery of testosterone, growth hormone, and IGF-1 to skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Cotie, Lisa M; Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; MacDonald, Maureen J; Phillips, Stuart M

    2013-02-01

    Does resistance exercise order affect hormone availability? Participants performed arm exercise before and after leg exercise. Hormone delivery was estimated by multiplying brachial artery blood flow and hormone concentrations. Blood flow increased after arm (276%) and leg (193%; both p Testosterone, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 showed with distinct delivery patterns between conditions; however (interactions all p < 0.001), net exposure was similar. The anabolic potential of postexercise hormones was not affected by exercise order.

  2. Intramyocardial sustained delivery of placental growth factor using nanoparticles as a vehicle for delivery in the rat infarct model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shum-Tim D

    2011-10-01

    sustained release of PlGF from the particles over a 120-hour period.Conclusion: The use of nanoparticles as a vehicle for PlGF delivery, as opposed to the direct injection of the growth factor after acute myocardial infarction, can provide sustained slow-release PlGF therapy, enhancing the positive effects of the growth factor in the setting of acute myocardial ischemia.Keywords: nanotechnology, serum cytokines, myocardial therapy, angiogenesis, regenerative medicine

  3. Intrauterine hypoxia: clinical consequences and therapeutic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson LP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Loren P Thompson,1 Sarah Crimmins,1 Bhanu P Telugu,2 Shifa Turan1 1Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Animal Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA Abstract: Intrauterine hypoxia is a significant clinical challenge in obstetrics that affects both the pregnant mother and fetus. Intrauterine hypoxia can occur in pregnant women living at high altitude and/or with cardiovascular disease. In addition, placental hypoxia can be generated by altered placental development and spiral artery remodeling leading to placental insufficiency and dysfunction. Both conditions can impact normal maternal cardiovascular homeostasis leading to preeclampsia and/or impair transfer of O2/nutrient supply resulting in fetal growth restriction. This review discusses the mechanisms underlying altered placental vessel remodeling, maternal and fetal consequences, patient management, and potential future therapies for improving these conditions. Keywords: fetal growth restriction, oxidative stress, extravillous trophoblast invasion, Doppler ultrasound, pulsatility index, preeclampsia 

  4. A clinical and ultrasound study on the use of postplacental intrauterine device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Henrique Araújo Fernandes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relation of postplacental intrauterinedevice insertion immediately after vaginal delivery and cesareansection and its effects on the following: continuation, expulsionrate and eventual removals. To verify if ultrasound is an adequatemethod to follow-up postplacental IUD insertions. To assess if theimmediate insertion of postplacental IUD leads to an increasedrisk of uterine infections and perforations, or greater likelihood ofpregnancy during the observation period. Methods: A group of 50patients who had an intrauterine device introduced within tenminutes after delivery of the placenta were studied. Twenty-fivewomen had vaginal delivery and 25 had cesarean sections. Theintrauterine device used in this study was the Multiload CU 375,standard model, manufactured by Organon Ltd., in Ireland. Theintrauterine device was inserted in those who had vaginal deliveryeither manually and under anesthesia, or with an inserter, whichdid not require anesthesia. In patients who had cesarean sections,the insertion was manual. Clinical and ultrasound follow up wasperformed four times: 48 hours postpartum, and at 6, 12 and 24weeks. The distance from the top of the intrauterine device to theuterine fundus was measured by ultrasound. Results: This studyshowed a significant difference in postplacental intrauterinedevices inserted after vaginal deliveries and cesarean sections.The expulsion/removal rate was 32% among the subjects who hadan intrauterine device inserted after vaginal delivery. There wereno expulsions or removals in those submitted to cesarean sections.In the control ultrasound of intrauterine devices inserted aftervaginal delivery, at 6 weeks, the distance of 10 mm from the top ofthe device to the fundus was an average standard measurementto determine continuation (distance 10 mm,the IUD would be expelled or be removed. There were no cases ofuterine infections or perforations, and no pregnancies during thecourse of this study

  5. Measurement of Second-trimester Placental Volume by Ultrasound: Prediction of Fetal Intrauterine Growth%超声测量中孕期胎盘容积预测胎儿发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧芳; 李慰玑; 黄幼珍; 王新房

    1993-01-01

    本文对中孕期胎盘容积的增长和胎盘循环进行了纵向性监测,发现中孕期胎盘容积增长较快,且有二个加速期,即15~17孕周,19~21孕周.胎盘容积发育不良或胎盘循环功能受损,均能影响胎儿宫内生长发育.中孕期胎盘发育的超声监测对预测胎儿宫内生长发育迟缓有价值,而中孕期胎儿生物学测量对胎儿宫内生长发育迟缓预测价值不大.%Placental volume includes the placental cellular mass and placental circulating blood volume.The development of placental volume was not even during pregnancy.A longitudinal ultrasonic study of placental volume and placental circulation were performed.The results were that placental vol-nme developed rapidly during second-trimester and has two quickened phases at 15~17 weeks and 19 ~21 weeks of gestation respectively.Both abnormal placental volume and placental circulation could in-fluence the fetal growth.The developmentof second-trimester placental volome monitored by ultra-sound Was proved to be valuable in predicting fetal intrauterine growth retardation(IUGR).Fetal biom-etry during second-trimester has little value in predicting IUGR.

  6. Impact on offspring methylation patterns of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and intrauterine growth restraint suggest common genes and pathways linked to subsequent type 2 diabetes risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilter, Claire R; Cooper, Wendy N; Cliffe, Kerry M; Skinner, Benjamin M; Prentice, Philippa M; Nelson, LaTasha; Bauer, Julien; Ong, Ken K; Constância, Miguel; Lowe, William L; Affara, Nabeel A; Dunger, David B

    2014-11-01

    Size at birth, postnatal weight gain, and adult risk for type 2 diabetes may reflect environmental exposures during developmental plasticity and may be mediated by epigenetics. Both low birth weight (BW), as a marker of fetal growth restraint, and high birth weight (BW), especially after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), have been linked to increased risk of adult type 2 diabetes. We assessed DNA methylation patterns using a bead chip in cord blood samples from infants of mothers with GDM (group 1) and infants with prenatal growth restraint indicated by rapid postnatal catch-up growth (group 2), compared with infants with normal postnatal growth (group 3). Seventy-five CpG loci were differentially methylated in groups 1 and 2 compared with the controls (group 3), representing 72 genes, many relevant to growth and diabetes. In replication studies using similar methodology, many of these differentially methylated regions were associated with levels of maternal glucose exposure below that defined by GDM [the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study] or were identified as changes observed after randomized periconceptional nutritional supplementation in a Gambian cohort characterized by maternal deprivation. These studies provide support for the concept that similar epigenetic modifications may underpin different prenatal exposures and potentially increase long-term risk for diseases such as type 2 diabetes.

  7. Cluster analysis to estimate the risk of preeclampsia in the high-risk Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttinen, Pekka; Gillberg, Jussi; Lokki, A. Inkeri; Majander, Kerttu; Ordén, Maija-Riitta; Taipale, Pekka; Pesonen, Anukatriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Preeclampsia is divided into early-onset (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation) and late-onset (delivery at or after 34 weeks) subtypes, which may rise from different etiopathogenic backgrounds. Early-onset disease is associated with placental dysfunction. Late-onset disease develops predominantly due to metabolic disturbances, obesity, diabetes, lipid dysfunction, and inflammation, which affect endothelial function. Our aim was to use cluster analysis to investigate clinical factors predicting the onset and severity of preeclampsia in a cohort of women with known clinical risk factors. Methods We recruited 903 pregnant women with risk factors for preeclampsia at gestational weeks 12+0–13+6. Each individual outcome diagnosis was independently verified from medical records. We applied a Bayesian clustering algorithm to classify the study participants to clusters based on their particular risk factor combination. For each cluster, we computed the risk ratio of each disease outcome, relative to the risk in the general population. Results The risk of preeclampsia increased exponentially with respect to the number of risk factors. Our analysis revealed 25 number of clusters. Preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 138) increased the risk of preeclampsia 8.1 fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.7–11.2) compared to a general population of pregnant women. Having a small for gestational age infant (n = 57) in a previous pregnancy increased the risk of early-onset preeclampsia 17.5 fold (95%CI 2.1–60.5). Cluster of those two risk factors together (n = 21) increased the risk of severe preeclampsia to 23.8-fold (95%CI 5.1–60.6), intermediate onset (delivery between 34+0–36+6 weeks of gestation) to 25.1-fold (95%CI 3.1–79.9) and preterm preeclampsia (delivery before 37+0 weeks of gestation) to 16.4-fold (95%CI 2.0–52.4). Body mass index over 30 kg/m2 (n = 228) as a sole risk factor increased the risk of preeclampsia to 2.1-fold (95%CI 1.1–3

  8. Cluster analysis to estimate the risk of preeclampsia in the high-risk Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Pia M; Marttinen, Pekka; Gillberg, Jussi; Lokki, A Inkeri; Majander, Kerttu; Ordén, Maija-Riitta; Taipale, Pekka; Pesonen, Anukatriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is divided into early-onset (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation) and late-onset (delivery at or after 34 weeks) subtypes, which may rise from different etiopathogenic backgrounds. Early-onset disease is associated with placental dysfunction. Late-onset disease develops predominantly due to metabolic disturbances, obesity, diabetes, lipid dysfunction, and inflammation, which affect endothelial function. Our aim was to use cluster analysis to investigate clinical factors predicting the onset and severity of preeclampsia in a cohort of women with known clinical risk factors. We recruited 903 pregnant women with risk factors for preeclampsia at gestational weeks 12+0-13+6. Each individual outcome diagnosis was independently verified from medical records. We applied a Bayesian clustering algorithm to classify the study participants to clusters based on their particular risk factor combination. For each cluster, we computed the risk ratio of each disease outcome, relative to the risk in the general population. The risk of preeclampsia increased exponentially with respect to the number of risk factors. Our analysis revealed 25 number of clusters. Preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 138) increased the risk of preeclampsia 8.1 fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.7-11.2) compared to a general population of pregnant women. Having a small for gestational age infant (n = 57) in a previous pregnancy increased the risk of early-onset preeclampsia 17.5 fold (95%CI 2.1-60.5). Cluster of those two risk factors together (n = 21) increased the risk of severe preeclampsia to 23.8-fold (95%CI 5.1-60.6), intermediate onset (delivery between 34+0-36+6 weeks of gestation) to 25.1-fold (95%CI 3.1-79.9) and preterm preeclampsia (delivery before 37+0 weeks of gestation) to 16.4-fold (95%CI 2.0-52.4). Body mass index over 30 kg/m2 (n = 228) as a sole risk factor increased the risk of preeclampsia to 2.1-fold (95%CI 1.1-3.6). Together with preeclampsia in an earlier

  9. Intrauterine nutrition: long-term consequences for vascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szostak-Wegierek D

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dorota Szostak-WegierekDepartment of Human Nutrition, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that improper intrauterine nutrition may negatively influence vascular health in later life. Maternal malnutrition may result in intrauterine growth retardation and, in turn, metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and also enhanced risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death in the offspring. Energy and/or protein restriction is the most critical determinant for fetal programming. However, it has also been proposed that intrauterine n-3 fatty acid deficiency may be linked to later higher blood pressure levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, it has been shown that inadequate supply of micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium may contribute to impaired vascular health in the progeny. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that are linked to impaired placental blood flow and suboptimal fetal nutrition may also contribute to intrauterine growth retardation and aggravated cardiovascular risk in the offspring. On the other hand, maternal overnutrition, which often contributes to obesity and/or diabetes, may result in macrosomia and enhanced cardiometabolic risk in the offspring. Progeny of obese and/or diabetic mothers are relatively more prone to develop obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. It was demonstrated that they may have permanently enhanced appetites. Their atheromatous lesions are usually more pronounced. It seems that, particularly, a maternal high-fat/junk food diet may be detrimental for vascular health in the offspring. Fetal exposure to excessive levels of saturated fatty and/or n-6 fatty acids, sucrose, fructose and salt, as well as a maternal high glycemic index diet, may also contribute to later enhanced cardiometabolic risk. Keywords: maternal

  10. Extracellular matrix-inspired growth factor delivery system for skin wound healing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, Mikael M.; Brkic, Sime; Bovo, Emmanuela; Burger, Maximilian; Schaefer, Dirk J.; Wolff, Thomas; Gurke, Lorenz; Briquez, Priscilla S.; Larsson, Hans M.; Gianni-Barrera, Roberto; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Banfi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Blood vessel growth plays a key role in regenerative medicine, both to restore blood supply to ischemic tissues and to ensure rapid vascularization of clinical-size tissue-engineered grafts. For example, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the master regulator of physiological blood vessel growth and is one of the main molecular targets of therapeutic angiogenesis approaches. However, angiogenesis is a complex process and there is a need to develop rational therapeutic strategies based on a firm understanding of basic vascular biology principles, as evidenced by the disappointing results of initial clinical trials of angiogenic factor delivery. In particular, the spatial localization of angiogenic signals in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial to ensure the proper assembly and maturation of new vascular structures. Here, we discuss the therapeutic implications of matrix interactions of angiogenic factors, with a special emphasis on VEGF, as well as provide an overview of current approaches, based on protein and biomaterial engineering that mimic the regulatory functions of ECM to optimize the signaling microenvironment of vascular growth factors.

  11. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis – A potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid, E-mail: saeid.haghighi@oulu.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Alhonen, Leena [Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, Kuopio (Finland); School of Pharmacy, Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. • Alcohol administration perturbs polyamine levels in the tissues with various patterns. • Total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc is critical for development. • The deficiency is associated with reduction in endothelial cell sprouting in the head. • Retarded migration of neural crest cells may cause development of neural tube defect. - Abstract: Introduction: Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. Methods: CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. Results: No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Discussion: Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this

  12. Impairments in brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced glutamate release in cultured cortical neurons derived from rats with intrauterine growth retardation: possible involvement of suppression of TrkB/phospholipase C-γ activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numakawa, Tadahiro; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Chiba, Shuichi; Furuta, Miyako; Izumi, Aiko; Ninomiya-Baba, Midori; Odaka, Haruki; Hashido, Kazuo; Adachi, Naoki; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Low birth weight due to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is suggested to be a risk factor for various psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. It has been reported that developmental cortical dysfunction and neurocognitive deficits are observed in individuals with IUGR, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB are associated with schizophrenia and play a role in cortical development. We previously demonstrated that BDNF induced glutamate release through activation of the TrkB/phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) pathway in developing cultured cortical neurons, and that, using a rat model for IUGR caused by maternal administration of thromboxane A2, cortical levels of TrkB were significantly reduced in IUGR rats at birth. These studies prompted us to hypothesize that TrkB reduction in IUGR cortex led to impairment of BDNF-dependent glutamatergic neurotransmission. In the present study, we found that BDNF-induced glutamate release was strongly impaired in cultured IUGR cortical neurons where TrkB reduction was maintained. Impairment of BDNF-induced glutamate release in IUGR neurons was ameliorated by transfection of human TrkB (hTrkB). Although BDNF-stimulated phosphorylation of TrkB and of PLC-γ was decreased in IUGR neurons, the hTrkB transfection recovered the deficits in their phosphorylation. These results suggest that TrkB reduction causes impairment of BDNF-stimulated glutamatergic function via suppression of TrkB/PLC-γ activation in IUGR cortical neurons. Our findings provide molecular insights into how IUGR links to downregulation of BDNF function in the cortex, which might be involved in the development of IUGR-related diseases such as schizophrenia.

  13. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraguez, Victor H; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De Los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage.

  14. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H Parraguez

    Full Text Available Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage.

  15. Care-Related and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with the Antenatal Nondetection of Intrauterine Growth Restriction: A Case-Control Study from Bremen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinja Alexandra Ernst

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify care-related and maternal risk factors for the antenatal nondetection of IUGR. Methods. In this hospital-based case-control study we compared antenatally undetected IUGR neonates (cases to detected IUGR neonates (controls. Data were collected using newborn documentation sheets and standardized personal interviews with the mothers. We calculated antenatal detection rates and used uni- and multivariable logistic regression models to assess the association of antenatal nondetection of IUGR and maternal and care-related factors. Results. A total of 161 neonates from three hospitals were included in the study. Suboptimal fetal growth was identified antenatally in n=77 pregnancies while in n=84 it was not detected antenatally (antenatal detection rate: 47.8%. Severity of IUGR, maternal complications, and a Doppler examination during the course of pregnancy were associated with IUGR detection. We did not find statistically significant differences regarding parental socioeconomic status and maternal migration background. Conclusions. In our study, about half of all pregnancies affected by suboptimal growth remained undetected. Future in-depth studies with larger study populations should further examine factors that could increase antenatal detection rates for IUGR.

  16. 宫内生长受限新生儿多系统器官损害与临床管理%Multiple organ system damage in infants with intrauterine growth restriction and its management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付薇; 刘敬

    2016-01-01

    胎儿时期是各系统器官发育形成的关键时期,宫内生长环境的改变可导致胎儿-新生儿多系统器官损害,并与成人期疾病密切相关,包括神经系统损害(如脑发育障碍、功能异常及脑瘫等)、心血管系统损害(如冠心病、高血压等)、生长障碍与代谢性疾病(如胰岛素抵抗、2型糖尿病、肥胖症、生长发育障碍等)、泌尿系统损害(如肾间质性疾病、肾性高血压等)、呼吸系统损害(如呼吸窘迫综合征、支气管肺发育不良等)等,本文对此予以介绍,以助于临床医师对胎儿生长受限的认识及加强相关干预措施,提高其生存质量.%The fetal period is the critical time in the development of various organs.The changes in the intrauterine growth environment can cause fetal and neonatal multiple organ system underdevelopment and damage,which is also closely related to the adult diseases,including nervous system damage (such as brain development disorders,functional abnormalities and cerebral palsy,etc.),cardiovascular system damage(such as coronary heart disease,high blood pressure,etc.),growth disorders and metabolic disorders(such as insulin resistance,type Ⅱ diabetes,obesity,growth and development disorders),urinary system damage (such as interstitial renal disease,renal hypertension,etc.),respiratory system damage(such as respiratory distress syndrome,bronchial dysplasia,etc.),etc.In this paper,we introduced this to help clinicians to understand and strengthen the intervention measures to improve the quality of life.

  17. Phthalate levels in cord blood are associated with preterm delivery and fetal growth parameters in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Huang

    Full Text Available Data concerning the effects of phthalate exposure on preterm delivery and fetal growth are limited in humans. In this paper, we assessed the relationship between 15 phthalate levels in cord blood and preterm delivery and fetal growth parameters in 207 Chinese women going into labor. Exposure to phthalates except DCHP was associated with gestational age reduction and preterm delivery (p<0.05. There were associations between phthalates and fetal growth parameters, many of which disappeared when analyses were adjusted for gestational age, especially in male infants (Only DEEP was associated with birth weight; DEP, DNHP, BBP, DNP with abdominal circumference; DEP, DBP, DCHP, DEHP with femur length in female infants. And DPP, DBEP was associated with birth length in male infants. p<0.05. This study indicates that prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with younger gestational age and preterm delivery. Also, phthalate exposure may adversely affect fetal growth parameters via gestational age reduction and preterm delivery with a significant gender effect.

  18. Protein or energy restriction during late gestation alters fetal growth and visceral organ mass: an evidence of intrauterine programming in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Wu, D Q; Sun, Z H; Tan, Z L; Qiao, J Y; Ran, T; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Kang, J H; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on postnatal fetal growth and visceral organ mass of goats. Eighty pregnant goats with similar age (2.0 ± 0.3 yr) and body weight (BW, 20.0 ± 1.0 kg before pregnancy) were assigned to 3 dietary treatments during late gestation: control (CON), 40% protein restricted (PR) and 40% energy restricted (ER) diets until parturition, after which offspring received normal diets for nutritional recovery. Kids were killed and visceral tissues were harvested at birth and week 6. Maternal protein or energy restriction decreased (P nutritional recovery, there was no difference (P = 0.91) in BW among groups; the kids from nutritional restriction groups showed a greater (P goats, particularly the proportional responses of fetal organs relative to BW, including thymus, small intestine, kidney and liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Intrauterine growth characteristics of twins and those twins discordant birthweight%双胎及出生体质量不同一性双胎胎儿宫内生长发育的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩振艳; 方群; 罗艳敏; 侯红瑛; 陈敏玲; 何志明; 宋花蕾

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the intrauterine growth characteristics of twins and birthweight discordant twins (discordant twins ).Methods Total of 1010 twin pregnancies (2020 fetuses) with complete delivery records from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,the First and Third Affiliated Hospital of SUN Yat-sen University between January 1,2000 and July 31,2010 were studied retrospectively.One handred and ninteen cases (238 fetuses) with intrapair birthweight difference ≥25% were determined as the discordant twins group,and the other 891 cases (1782 fetuses) with intrapair birthweight difference < 25% were identified as the concordant twins group.The singleton control group included 4042 singleton pregnancies in the same period.Results ( 1 ) Comparison of clinical data between the twins groups:the birthweight of larger-twin,smaller-twin and intrapair birthweight difference in the discordant twins group and the concordant twins group were ( 2090± 827 ) g,( 1392 ± 592 ) g,( 33.9 ±9.3 ) %,and ( 2408 ± 543 ) g,( 2191 ± 505 ) g,( 8.9 ± 6.5 ) %,respectively,with significant differences (P<0.01).The incidence of discordant twins was 11.78% (119/1010).Compared with the concordant twins group,the discordant twins group bad higher proportion of monochorionic twins,and higher prevalence of pregnancy complications such as late miscarriage,abnormal umbilical insertion,twin-twin transfusion syndrome and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy ( P < 0.05 ).( 2 ) The characteristics of twin birthweight distribution:① In all the 2020 twins,80.05% (1617/2020) fetuses had birthweight below the 50th percentile of the singleton control group,while 23.71% (479/2020) feeuses got birthweight below the 10th percentile of the singleton control group.② After 19th gestational week,the 50th and 90th percentile of all twins' birthweight were lower than those of singletons.After 38th gestational week,the birthweight of singletons kept increasing and reached its

  20. A Rare Case of Jejunal Atresia Due to Intrauterine Intussusception

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Sanjeev B; Kinhal, Vidyadhar; Desai, Mahesh; Tilak,; Choudhari, Fazal UR Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal atresia is generally caused by intrauterine vascular obstructions involving mesenteric vessels. Intrauterine intussusceptions (IUI) are one of these disruptive events. Intestinal intussusceptions affects children commonly between 3 months and 3 years of age, but it rarely affects in intrauterine life. The relationship between intrauterine intussusception and intestinal atresia has been demonstrated by few cases in literature, suggesting intrauterine intussusception as a rare cause ...

  1. Fetal growth sustained by parenteral nutrition in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Alsina, M E; Saldana, L R; Stringer, C A

    1984-07-01

    Severe maternal nutritional deprivation has been associated with intrauterine growth retardation, premature labor, and increased perinatal mortality and morbidity. The authors present four cases in which total parenteral nutrition was used successfully to support fetal growth in such diverse complications as twin pregnancy with maternal jejunoileal bypass, regional enteritis, and acute pancreatitis. Maintenance of fetal growth as evidenced by serial sonographic examination allows achievement of fetal lung maturation before delivery. In all the cases presented there was no perinatal mortality or morbidity. The main clinical implication of the report is the possible application of total parenteral nutrition to maintain adequate growth in fetuses small for gestational age because of maternal nutritional deprivation.

  2. Infection risk and intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Francisca; López-Arregui, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    For most women, intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) are a safe option. Upper genital tract infections (pelvic inflammatory disease, PID) occur when pathogenic microorganisms ascend from the cervix and invade the endometrium and the fallopian tubes, causing an inflammatory reaction. Evidence-based recommendations regarding intrauterine contraception and risk of infection were presented at the Congress of the European Society of Contraception, in Prague, 2008: A clinical history (including sexual history) should be taken as part of the routine assessment for intrauterine contraception to identify women at high risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI); if appropriate a test should be offered; if symptoms or signs are present, appropriate diagnostic tests should be done, results awaited, necessary treatment completed, and IUCD insertion postponed until resolution. Prophylactic antibiotics are not recommended (evidence level II-3). STI screening is not routinely recommended. PID among IUCD users is most strongly related to the insertion process and to the background risk of STI (evidence level II-2). Conditions which represent an unacceptable health risk if an IUCD is inserted (WHO Medical Eligibility Criteria, MEC, Categories 3-4) are current PID, current purulent cervicitis, chlamydial or gonorrheal infection. For continuation as well as initiation, WHO MEC categories 3-4 are allotted to women with known pelvic tuberculosis, puerperal sepsis and septic abortion.

  3. Screening and triage of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR in general population and high risk pregnancies: a systematic review with a focus on reduction of IUGR related stillbirths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Saad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a strong association between stillbirth and fetal growth restriction. Early detection and management of IUGR can lead to reduce related morbidity and mortality. In this paper we have reviewed effectiveness of fetal movement monitoring and Doppler velocimetry for the detection and surveillance of high risk pregnancies and the effect of this on prevention of stillbirths. We have also reviewed effect of maternal body mass index (BMI screening, symphysial-fundal height measurement and targeted ultrasound in detection and triage of IUGR in the community. Methods We systematically reviewed all published literature to identify studies related to our interventions. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and all World Health Organization Regional Databases and included publications in any language. Quality of available evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria. Recommendations were made for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST based on rules developed by the Child Health Epidemiology Group. Given the paucity of evidence related to the effect of detection and management of IUGR on stillbirths, we undertook Delphi based evaluation from experts in the field. Results There was insufficient evidence to recommend against or in favor of routine use of fetal movement monitoring for fetal well being. (1 Detection and triage of IUGR with the help of (1a maternal BMI screening, (1b symphysial-fundal height measurement and (1c targeted ultrasound can be an effective method of reducing IUGR related perinatal morbidity and mortality. Pooled results from sixteen studies shows that Doppler velocimetry of umbilical and fetal arteries in ‘high risk’ pregnancies, coupled with the appropriate intervention, can reduce perinatal mortality by 29 % [RR 0.71, 95 % CI 0.52-0.98]. Pooled results for impact on stillbirth showed a reduction of 35 % [RR 0.65, 95 % CI 0.41-1.04]; however, the results did not reach the conventional limits of statistical

  4. Intrauterine device developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Results of recent IUD research are presented. The largest study of postpartum IUD insertion to date, a multicenter comparative trail involving 3791 women at 15 sites in 13 countries, has shown that the practice is safe and effective if the IUD is correctly placed. Modifications in design of the device are unnecessary to reduce expulsions. In 1977, Family Health International (FHI) began developing IUDs that would have clinically acceptable expulsion rates following postpartum insertion. By adding chromic catgut suture material to the upper arms of the TCu andLippes Loop, FHI developed the Delta T and Delta Loop. Many of the centers involved in studies of postpartum IUD insertion were large urban maternity hospitals in developing countries with heavy caseloads of 10,000-30,000 deliveries/year. Results of the trials and of a 19-center evaluation of the timing of postpartum insertion support several conclusions: 1) insertion should take place within 10 minutes of placental expulsion; 2) if insertion is done within 10 minutes of delivery, there is no increased risk of infection or uterine perforation; 3) the type of device inserted is less important than the method of insertion; expulsion rates at different clinics ranged from 6-37/1000 women at 6 monts, and the fundal placement of the device is crucial; and 4) expulsions are higher for postpartum than interval insertions but not so high as to make the offer of an IUD immediately postpartum unacceptable. Since the incidence of pain or bleeding associated with IUD use is related to their size, attempts to decrease the side effects have centered on development of smaller copper devices. 1 such device, the copper i, consists of a straight stem with small crossarms in an 'x' configuration disigned to anchor the IUD in place. A copper wire around the stem of the device exposes 200 sq millimeters of cooper. A study of 98 women who used the Copper i showed an accidental pregnancy rate of 3.2 at 6 months and 9.0 at 12 months

  5. The relationship between maternal insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2) and IGFBP-3 to gestational age and preterm delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, Sharon M

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in antenatal maternal serum and gestational age at delivery.

  6. Long-term delivery of nerve growth factor by encapsulated cell biodelivery in the Göttingen minipig basal forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjord-Larsen, L; Kusk, P; Tornøe, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) prevents cholinergic degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and improves memory in AD animal models. In humans, the safe delivery of therapeutic doses of NGF is challenging. For clinical use, we have therefore developed an encapsulated cell (EC) biodelivery device...

  7. Importance of Maternal Diabetes on the Chronological Deregulation of the Intrauterine Development: An Experimental Study in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Salazar García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether maternal diabetes induced in rats using streptozotocin (STZ on Day 5 of pregnancy affects the intrauterine developmental timeline. A total of 30 pregnant Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats (DRs and 20 control rats (CRs were used to obtain 21-day fetuses (F21 and newborn (NB pups. Gestational age, weight, and body size were recorded as were the maxillofacial morphometry and morphohistological characteristics of the limbs. In DRs, pregnancy continued for ∼1.7 days, and delivery occurred 23 days postcoitus (DPC. In this group, the number of pups was lower, and 13% had maxillofacial defects. F21 in the DR group had lower weights and were smaller; moreover, the morphological characteristics of the maxillofacial structures, derived from the neural crest, were discordant with their chronological gestational age, resembling 18- to 19-day-old fetuses. These deficiencies were counterbalanced in NB pups. We conclude that hyperglycemia, which results from maternal diabetes and precedes embryo implantation, deregulates the intrauterine developmental timeline, restricts embryo-fetal growth, and primarily delays the remodeling and maturation of the structures derived from neural crest cells.

  8. Importance of Maternal Diabetes on the Chronological Deregulation of the Intrauterine Development: An Experimental Study in Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar García, Marcela; Reyes Maldonado, Elba; Revilla Monsalve, María Cristina; Villavicencio Guzmán, Laura; Reyes López, Alfonso; Sánchez-Gómez, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether maternal diabetes induced in rats using streptozotocin (STZ) on Day 5 of pregnancy affects the intrauterine developmental timeline. A total of 30 pregnant Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats (DRs) and 20 control rats (CRs) were used to obtain 21-day fetuses (F21) and newborn (NB) pups. Gestational age, weight, and body size were recorded as were the maxillofacial morphometry and morphohistological characteristics of the limbs. In DRs, pregnancy continued for ∼1.7 days, and delivery occurred 23 days postcoitus (DPC). In this group, the number of pups was lower, and 13% had maxillofacial defects. F21 in the DR group had lower weights and were smaller; moreover, the morphological characteristics of the maxillofacial structures, derived from the neural crest, were discordant with their chronological gestational age, resembling 18- to 19-day-old fetuses. These deficiencies were counterbalanced in NB pups. We conclude that hyperglycemia, which results from maternal diabetes and precedes embryo implantation, deregulates the intrauterine developmental timeline, restricts embryo-fetal growth, and primarily delays the remodeling and maturation of the structures derived from neural crest cells. PMID:25756053

  9. Influence of aerobic training on the reduced vasoconstriction to angiotensin II in rats exposed to intrauterine growth restriction: possible role of oxidative stress and AT2 receptor of angiotensin II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is associated with impaired vascular function, which contributes to the increased incidence of chronic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether aerobic training improves AngII-induced vasoconstriction in IUGR rats. Moreover, we assess the role of superoxide dismutase (SOD isoforms and NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anions in this improvement. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups on day 1 of pregnancy. A control group was fed standard chow ad libitum, and a restricted group was fed 50% of the ad libitum intake throughout gestation. At 8 weeks of age, male offspring from both groups were randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups: sedentary control (SC, trained control (TC, sedentary restricted (SRT, and trained restricted (TRT. The training protocol was performed on a treadmill and consisted of a continuous 60-min session 5 days/week for 10 weeks. Following aerobic training, concentration-response curves to AngII were obtained in endothelium-intact aortic rings. Protein expression of SOD isoforms, AngII receptors and the NADPH oxidase component p47phox was assessed by Western blot analysis. The dihydroethidium was used to evaluate the in situ superoxide levels under basal conditions or in the presence of apocynin, losartan or PD 123,319. Our results indicate that aerobic training can prevent IUGR-associated increases in AngII-dependent vasoconstriction and can restore basal superoxide levels in the aortic rings of TRT rats. Moreover, we observed that aerobic training normalized the increased p47phox protein expression and increased MnSOD and AT2 receptor protein expression in thoracic aortas of SRT rats. In summary, aerobic training can result in an upregulation of antioxidant defense by improved of MnSOD expression and attenuation of NADPH oxidase component p47phox. These effects are accompanied by increased expression of AT2 receptor, which provide positive effects

  10. Use of translational medicine in the early diagnosis of xenobiotic-induced intrauterine growth retardation%转化医学用于外源物所致宫内发育迟缓的临床早期诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岩松; 汪晖

    2011-01-01

    转化医学是一种医学研究理念,它强调打破以往研究组单一学科或有限合作的模式.加强基础研究人员与临床医生的密切合作,进而填平基础研究与临床医学之间的鸿沟.要达到转化医学的目标,需借助系统生物学的理论与方法.本文着重探讨如何运用转化医学的研究理念和系统生物学的研究方法,开展外源物所致富内发育迟缓(IUGR)的临床早期诊断研究,包括提出IUGR发牛的共性机制假说,利用系列组学(如基因组学、蛋白质组学、细胞组学、代谢组学)和分子生物学技术开展验证性研究,代谢组学方法探寻IUGR生物标志物,生物信息学及计算生物学方法构建IUGR预测模型等,以建立一种新的、无创性的、高敏感性的IUGR早期评价标准.%Translational medicine is an emerging idea in current medical research area. Typically, for the purpose of bridging the gap between basic and clinical research, it not only emphasizes the urgency and necessity to break the traditional working formats, including single subject centered research team and limited cooperation among different scientific groups, but also highlights a more close and frequent interaction between basic scientist and clinician. In order to reach this goal, the theory and method of systems biology should be employed. This paper mainly focused on a central issue that how to carry out an investigation on early clinical diagnosis of xenobiotic-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) by using research concept of translational medicine and method of systems biology. Briefly, a hypothesis of common mechanism of IUGR was first proposed and subsequent validation was performed via integrating - omics (e.g. genomics, proteomics, cytomics, metabonomics/metabolomics) and molecular biology techniques. Metabonomics was further utilized to explore IUGR biomarker and establish preliminary forecasting model by bioinformatics and computational biology

  11. ACCEPTANCE OF POST PARTUM INTRA-UTERINE CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICE (PPIUCD AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING GAUHATI MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL (GMCH FOR DELIVERY BETWEEN JANUARY 2011 TO DECEMBER 2014 AND THEIR FOLLOW UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhasmita

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : To study the acceptance level of PPIUCD among women attending GMCH for delivery between January 2011 to December 2014 in relation to age, parity and mode of delivery and their complaints during follow up visit. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHOD: In this study data of women admitted for delivery between January 2011 to December 2014 in labour room and data of women attending the postpartum OPD for PPIUCD follow up during the same period were analyzed. RESULTS: Acceptance of PPIUCD showed an increasing trend, acceptance was more among multipara and acceptance was more among clients undergoing caesarean section. 32% of the acceptors were in the age group of 26-30 years. The follow up of clients was less than 50% of the total acceptors in the four years study period. The main complaints at follow up were pain and bleeding which were dealt mainly by reassurance. The main causes of removal were for want of next child and secondly for dissatisfaction with PPIUCD. CONCLUSION: The acceptance of PPIUCD was high in this study. The PPIUCD was demonstrably safe having no serious complication reported after insertion or during follow up and low rates of expulsion. The method may be particularly beneficial in our setting where women do not come for post natal contraception counseling and usage

  12. 宫内生长受限对胎猪肝脏microRNA表达谱的影响%Intrauterine Growth Restriction Alters the Hepatic MicroRNA Expression in Fetal Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘闯; 曹中明; 林刚; 朱玉华; 王军军

    2012-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to reveal the affect of IUGR on hepatic microRNA (miRNA) expression in 110-days-pregnant-fetal pig by using miRNA microarray analysis, in order to advance our knowledge about metabolic programming of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) piglet. In this study, six primiparous Dalland sows fed corn and soybean meal-based diet were used. At 110 days of gestation, sows were killed and the whole uterus was removed. For each sow, one IUGR fetus (with a body weight that is two standard deviations less than the average litter body weight) and one normal-weight fetus were obtained and the left lobe of liver was rapidly sampled and stored at -80℃. Two color miRNA array technology was used to detect the differentially expressed miRNA in the liver between I-UGR and normal fetal pig. Our results indicated that, IUGR has significant affect on hepatic miRNA expression in fetal pig. There are totally 41 differentially expressed miRNA (27 up regulated and 14 down regulated). These miRNAs' targeted genes are involved in the absorption and metabolism of nutrient, hepatic detoxification, hepatic cell growth and proliferation. The disturbed effects of the absorption and metabolism of glucose, the metabolism of lipid, protein synthesis; the decreased ability of hepatic detoxification; and the inhibition of hepatocyte's proliferation may be an important reason responsible for postnatal inefficient nutrient utilization, higher morbidity and mortality, as well as retarded growth in IUGR piglet.%本试验旨在分析宫内生长受限(IUGR)和正常胎猪肝脏microRNA (miRNA)表达的差异,以揭示IUGR对胎猪肝脏miRNA表达谱的影响.试验选用6头达兰(Dalland)母猪,在孕110 d左右致死,剖腹并取出整个子宫.在每窝中选取1头IUGR胎猪和1头正常胎猪,分别取出肝脏备用.利用双荧光标记miRNA芯片技术对IUGR和正常胎猪肝脏进行分析.结果表明:IUGR对胎猪肝脏miRNA的表达产生显著

  13. Neuroblastoma-targeted nanocarriers improve drug delivery and penetration, delay tumor growth and abrogate metastatic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Irene; Bottoni, Gianluca; Loi, Monica; Emionite, Laura; Bartolini, Alice; Di Paolo, Daniela; Brignole, Chiara; Piaggio, Francesca; Perri, Patrizia; Sacchi, Angelina; Curnis, Flavio; Gagliani, Maria Cristina; Bruno, Silvia; Marini, Cecilia; Gori, Alessandro; Longhi, Renato; Murgia, Daniele; Sementa, Angela Rita; Cilli, Michele; Tacchetti, Carlo; Corti, Angelo; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Marchiò, Serena; Ponzoni, Mirco; Pastorino, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Selective tumor targeting is expected to enhance drug delivery and to decrease toxicity, resulting in an improved therapeutic index. We have recently identified the HSYWLRS peptide sequence as a specific ligand for aggressive neuroblastoma, a childhood tumor mostly refractory to current therapies. Here we validated the specific binding of HSYWLRS to neuroblastoma cell suspensions obtained either from cell lines, animal models, or Schwannian-stroma poor, stage IV neuroblastoma patients. Binding of the biotinylated peptide and of HSYWLRS-functionalized fluorescent quantum dots or liposomal nanoparticles was dose-dependent and inhibited by an excess of free peptide. In animal models obtained by the orthotopic implant of either MYCN-amplified or MYCN single copy human neuroblastoma cell lines, treatment with HSYWLRS-targeted, doxorubicin-loaded Stealth Liposomes increased tumor vascular permeability and perfusion, enhancing tumor penetration of the drug. This formulation proved to exert a potent antitumor efficacy, as evaluated by bioluminescence imaging and micro-PET, leading to (i) delay of tumor growth paralleled by decreased tumor glucose consumption, and (ii) abrogation of metastatic spreading, accompanied by absence of systemic toxicity and significant increase in the animal life span. Our findings are functional to the design of targeted nanocarriers with potentiated therapeutic efficacy towards the clinical translation.

  14. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a potential targeting agent for delivery of boron to malignant gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J.; Barth, R.F.; Adams, D.M.; Bailey, M.Q.; Soloway, A.H. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Carlsson, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Sciences

    1994-12-31

    The majority of high grade gliomas express an amplified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and this often is associated with an increase in cell surface receptor expression. The rapid internalization and degradation of EGF-EGFR complexes, as well as their high affinity make EGF a potential targeting agent for delivery of {sup 10}B to tumor cells with an amplified number of EGFR. Human glioma cells can expresses as many as 10{sup 5} {minus}10{sup 6} EGF receptors per cell, and if these could be saturated with boronated EGF, then > 10{sup 8} boron atoms would be delivered per cell. Since EGF has a comparatively low molecular weight ({approximately} 6 kD), this has allowed us to construct relatively small bioconjugates containing {approximately} 900 boron atoms per EGF molecule{sup 3}, which also had high affinity for EGFR on tumor cells. In the present study, the feasibility of using EGF receptors as a potential target for therapy of gliomas was investigated by in vivo scintigraphic studies using {sup 131}I{minus} or {sup 99m}{Tc}-labeled EGF in a rat brain tumor model. Our results indicate that intratumorally delivered boron- EGF conjugates might be useful for targeting EGFR on glioma cells if the boron containing moiety of the conjugates persisted intracellularly. Further studies are required, however, to determine if this approach can be used for BNCT of the rat glioma.

  15. Delivery of basic fibroblast growth factors from heparinized decellularized adipose tissue stimulates potent de novo adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiqi; Li, Mingming; Zou, Yu; Cao, Tong

    2014-01-28

    Scaffolds based on decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) are gaining popularity in adipose tissue engineering due to their high biocompatibility and adipogenic inductive property. However, previous studies involving DAT-derived scaffolds have not fully revealed their potentials for in vivo adipose tissue construction. With the aim of developing a more efficient adipose tissue engineering technique based on DAT, in this study, we investigated the in vivo adipogenic potential of a basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) delivery system based on heparinized DAT (Hep-DAT). To generate this system, heparins were cross-linked to mouse DATs by using 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide and N-Hydroxysuccinimide. The bFGF-binding Hep-DATs were first tested for controlled release ability in vitro and then transplanted subcutaneously. Highly vascularized adipose tissues were formed 6weeks after transplantation. Histology and gene expression analysis revealed that majority of the Hep-DAT scaffolds were infiltrated with host-derived adipose tissues that possessed similar adipogenic and inflammatory gene expression as endogenous adipose tissues. Additionally, strong de novo adipogenesis could also be induced when bFGF-binding Hep-DATs were thoroughly minced and injected subcutaneously. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that bFGF-binding Hep-DAT could be an efficient, biocompatible and injectable adipogenic system for in vivo adipose tissue engineering.

  16. Efficacy of intrauterine device in the treatment of intrauterine adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Umme; Xue, Min; Md Sayed, Ali Sheikh; Xu, Dabao

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to assess the efficacy of the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) as an adjunctive treatment modality, for intrauterine adhesions (IUAs). All eligible literatures were identified by electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Additional relevant articles were identified from citations in these publications. There were 28 studies included for a systematic review. Of these, 5 studies were eligible for meta-analysis and 23 for qualitative assessment only. Twenty-eight studies related to the use of IUDs as ancillary treatment following adhesiolysis were identified. Of these studies, 25 studies at least one of the following methods were carried out as ancillary treatment: Foley catheter, hyaluronic acid gel, hormonal therapy, or amnion graft in addition to the IUD. There was one study that used IUD therapy as a single ancillary treatment. In 2 studies, no adjunctive therapy was used after adhesiolysis. There was a wide range of reported menstrual and fertility outcomes which were associated with the use of IUD combined with other ancillary treatments. At present, the IUD is beneficial in patients with IUA, regardless of stage of adhesions. However, IUD needs to be combined with other ancillary treatments to obtain maximal outcomes, in particular in patients with moderate to severe IUA.

  17. INTERFERON TREATMENT OF INFANTS WITH INTRAUTERINE INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Shamsheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of clinical diagnostic methods for risk assessment childbirth with intrauterine infection, data from clinical trials with a high level of evidence efficacy VIFERON® in adjuvant therapy in preterm infants with severe intrauterine viral infections. 

  18. Intrauterine closure of myelomeningocele: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, Noel

    2004-02-15

    Preliminary evidence suggests that intrauterine myelomeningocele repair may benefit patients by reducing the both incidence of hydrocephalus and the severity of the Chiari malformation; however, this benefit remains unproved. Furthermore, the procedure entails substantial risks not associated with conventional therapy. A randomized controlled trial of intrauterine and conventional therapies is underway. This study should definitively establish the procedure related risks and benefits. Regardless of the outcome, it is clear that the risks of intrauterine intervention need to be reduced before myelomeningocele, or other congenital malformations, can be effectively treated prior to birth. To that end, studies are being conducted to assess the potential advantages of applying state-of-the-art endoscopic techniques to intrauterine therapy. If benefit can be proven and risks reduced, intrauterine myelomeningocele repair has the potential to become the preferred therapy for patients suffering from this debilitating disease.

  19. IGF-2和CDKN1C基因在单合子双胎选择性宫内生长受限胎盘中的表达%The expression of IGF-2 and CDKN1C in placenta of monozygotic twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴涵婧; 方群; 石晓梅; 黄轩; 勾晨雨; 罗艳敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the imprinted gene IGF-2 and CDKN1 C expression in placenta of monozygotic twins with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR),and investigate the correlation between this disease and IGF -2 or CDKN1C.Methods Placental tissues and clinical data were collected from 20 pairs of monochorionic diamniotic twins,in which 10 cases of sIUGR as the study group,10 cases of normal twins as the control group.The zygotic characteristics were identified by STR assay.Real-time quantitative PCR method was used to measure the IGF-2 and CDKN1C mRNA expression in placental tissues.Results The 20 pairs of twins were all monozygotic twins.Significantly earlier delivery was observed in study group than that in control group (P < 0.05).Significantly larger birth weigbt was revealed in large twins than that in small twins in the both groups,which was significantly more prominent in study group (P <0.01).In the group of sIUGR,significantly lower IGF-2 mRNA expression was observed in small twins than that in large twins (P < 0.05).There was no significant difference in CDKNIC transcription level between the large and small twins in either study group or control group (P > O.05).Conclusion IGF-2 mRNA is down-regulated in the placenta of small twins in sIUGR,thus may interfere with normal fetal growth by affecting placental growth and reduced placental nutrient transport function,leading to the selective intrauterine growth restriction.There is no correlation between the CDKN1C gene and MCDA monozygotic twins with sIUGR.%目的 探讨印迹基因IGF-2、CDKN1C在单绒毛膜双羊膜囊(MCDA)单合子双胎选择性宫内生长受限两胎胎盘中的表达,进而探讨IGF-2、CDKN1C基因与该疾病间的关系.方法 收集20对MCDA双胎的临床资料及胎盘组织,其中双胎选择性宫内生长受限10例(sIUGR组),正常双胎10例作为对照组,用实时荧光定量PCR方法检测胎盘组织中的IGF-2、CDKN1C mRNA表达情况,且

  20. A nanoparticulate injectable hydrogel as a tissue engineering scaffold for multiple growth factor delivery for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyondi D

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Deepti Dyondi,1 Thomas J Webster,2 Rinti Banerjee11Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; 2Nanomedicine Laboratories, Division of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Gellan xanthan gels have been shown to be excellent carriers for growth factors and as matrices for several tissue engineering applications. Gellan xanthan gels along with chitosan nanoparticles of 297 ± 61 nm diameter, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7 were employed in a dual growth factor delivery system to promote the differentiation of human fetal osteoblasts. An injectable system with ionic and temperature gelation was optimized and characterized. The nanoparticle loaded gels showed significantly improved cell proliferation and differentiation due to the sustained release of growth factors. A differentiation marker study was conducted, analyzed, and compared to understand the effect of single vs dual growth factors and free vs encapsulated growth factors. Dual growth factor loaded gels showed a higher alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition compared to single growth factor loaded gels. The results suggest that encapsulation and stabilization of growth factors within nanoparticles and gels are promising for bone regeneration. Gellan xanthan gels also showed antibacterial effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the common pathogens in implant failure.Keywords: bone tissue engineering, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, hydrogel, nanoparticles, osteoblasts

  1. Resolution of superimposed pre-eclampsia, and improvement in umbilical artery flow in a surviving twin after intrauterine demise of its co-twin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhulu, Deepa M; Karakash, Scarlett; Rankin, Linda; Minkoff, Howard

    2015-09-01

    Pre-eclampsia has a progressive clinical course, and is only cured by delivery of the placenta. We report a 30-year-old G1P0 with dichorionic twins, discordant growth and chronic hypertension who developed superimposed pre-eclampsia in her 21st week of gestation. After intrauterine demise of the severely growth-restricted twin, the superimposed pre-eclampsia resolved. The surviving twin initially had absent end diastolic flow, which resolved after the demise. A healthy 1935-g neonate with Apgar 9/9 was delivered at 34 weeks. Antenatal resolution of pre-eclampsia is extremely rare and resolution of superimposed pre-eclampsia has not, to our knowledge, been reported.

  2. Successful Vaginal Delivery despite a Huge Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenoma Complicating Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Mandi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old patient with 9 months of amenorrhea and a huge abdominal swelling was admitted to our institution with an ultrasonography report of a multiloculated cystic space-occupying lesion, almost taking up the whole abdomen (probably of ovarian origin, along with a single live intrauterine fetus. She delivered vaginally a boy baby within 4 hours of admission without any maternal complication, but the baby had features of intrauterine growth restriction along with low birth weight. On the 8th postpartum day, the multiloculated cystic mass, which arose from the right ovary and weighed about 11 kg, was removed via laparotomy. A mucinous cystadenoma with no malignant cells in peritoneal washing was detected in histopathology examination. This report describes a rare case of a successful vaginal delivery despite a huge cystadenoma of the right ovary complicating the pregnancy.

  3. The effect of intrauterine growth on mental and psychomoter development in one-year-old discordant twins infants%宫内发育不一致性双胎出生后1年婴儿生长发育的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项慧秋; 黄贤苹; 金佳希; 邵浩然; 池美珠; 林峰; 许张晔

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究宫内发育不一致性双胎出生后1年左右婴儿的生长发育,评估发育不一致性双胎远期婴儿的生长发育情况。方法:2012年1月至2013年12月在温州医科大学附属第一医院和附属第二医院出生的宫内发育不一致性双胎34对,出生后1年左右进行体格检查和精神运动发育测定,以出生时的体质量差异分为低出生体质量组和高出生体质量组。结果:低出生体质量组1岁婴儿身高、体质量及头围均低于高出生体质量组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。低出生体质量组的1岁婴儿精神发育指数(MDI)和运动发育指数(PDI)均低于高出生体质量组,2组比较,PDI差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而MDI差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。低出生体质量组6名(占17.6%)1岁婴儿运动发育迟缓(PDI<70),明显高于高出生体质量组(1名,占2.9%)运动发育迟缓的发生率(P<0.05)。多元线性回归分析显示身高、体质量对PDI的影响有显著的统计学意义(F=11.40,P=0.0012;F=6.21,P=0.0153)。结论:发育不一致性双胎出生后的体质量差异将持续性影响至出生后1年婴儿的身高、体质量和头围的体格发育以及运动发育。%Objective: To assess the effect of intrauterine growth on mental and psychomoter development in one-year-old discordant twins infants.Methods: Total of 34 discordant twin pregnancies (68 one-year-old dis-cordant twins infants) with complete delivery records in Obstetrics department of the First and Second Afifliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January 2012 to December 2013 were followed-up. According to the discordant birthweight, each pair infant was divided into small weight group and large weight group. Weight, length, head circumferences, the mental developmental index (MDI) and psychomotor developmental index (PDI) were measured.Results: Small weight group was lower

  4. Associations of blood pressure change in pregnancy with fetal growth and gestational age at delivery: findings from a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2014-07-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are associated with intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. However, the associations of patterns of blood pressure change during pregnancy with these outcomes have not been studied in detail. We studied repeat antenatal blood pressure measurements of 9697 women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (median [interquartile range], 10 [9-11] measurements per woman). Bivariate linear spline models were used to relate blood pressure changes to perinatal outcomes. Higher systolic, but not diastolic, blood pressure at baseline (8 weeks of gestation) and a greater increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure between 18 and 36 weeks of gestation were associated with lower offspring birth weight and being smaller for gestational age in confounder-adjusted models. For example, the mean difference (95% confidence interval) in birth weight per 1 mm Hg/wk greater increase in systolic blood pressure between 18 and 30 weeks was -71 g (-134 to -14) and between 30 and 36 weeks was -175 g (-208 to -145). A smaller decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure before 18 weeks and a greater increase between 18 and 36 weeks were associated with a shorter gestation (percentage difference in gestational duration per 1 mm Hg/wk greater increase in systolic blood pressure between 18 and 30 weeks was -0.60% [-1.01 to -0.18] and between 30 and 36 weeks was -1.01% [-1.36 to -0.74]). Associations remained strong when restricting to normotensive women. We conclude that greater increases in blood pressure, from the 18-week nadir, are related to reduced fetal growth and shorter gestation even in women whose blood pressure does not cross the threshold for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. First in human nanotechnology doxorubicin delivery system to target epidermal growth factor receptors in recurrent glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, James R; Lickliter, Jason D; Gan, Hui K; Scott, Andrew M; Simes, John; Solomon, Benjamin J; MacDiarmid, Jennifer A; Brahmbhatt, Himanshu; Rosenthal, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    There are limited treatment options for patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). The EnGeneIC delivery vehicle (EDV) is a novel nanocellular (minicell) compound which packages theoretically effective concentrations of chemotherapeutic drugs that are designed to target tumors via minicell-surface attached bispecific proteins (EnGeneIC, Lane Cove West, NSW, Australia). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in 40-50% of patients with GBM and is a promising target for new therapeutics. (V)EDVDox contains doxorubicin (Dox) within the minicells and targets EGFR through Vectibix (V; Amgen Biologicals, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA). We conducted a first in human Phase I study of (V)EDVDox in adults with recurrent GBM expressing EGFR on immunohistochemistry, following standard therapy including radiation and temozolomide, to establish a safe maximum tolerated dose and determine a recommended Phase II dose (RPTD). (V)EDVDox was administered weekly in an 8week cycle, with dose escalation in successive cohorts of patients using a standard 3+3 design. In total, 14 patients were treated at three dose levels, and the RPTD was identified as 5×10(9)(V)EDVDox. Overall (V)EDVDox was well tolerated, with no dose limiting toxicity and no withdrawals from the study due to adverse events. The most common adverse events were nausea, fever, and chills or rigors, experienced in seven, five and five patients, respectively. Transient uncomplicated hypophosphatemia was seen in seven patients and was not dose-related. Our results demonstrate that (V)EDVDox, up to a dose of 5×10(9)(V)EDVDox weekly, is well tolerated in patients with recurrent GBM.

  6. Sustained Growth Factor Delivery Promotes Axonal Regeneration in Long Gap Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokai, Lauren E.; Bourbeau, Dennis; Weber, Douglas; McAtee, Jedidiah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of localized growth factor delivery on sciatic nerve regeneration in a critical-size (>1 cm) peripheral nerve defect. Previous work has demonstrated that bioactive proteins can be encapsulated within double-walled, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(lactide) microspheres and embedded within walls of biodegradable polymer nerve guides composed of poly(caprolactone). Within this study, nerve guides containing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were used to bridge a 1.5-cm defect in the male Lewis rat for a 16-week period. Nerve repair was evaluated through functional assessment of joint angle range of motion using video gait kinematics, gastrocnemius twitch force, and gastrocnemius wet weight. Histological evaluation of nerve repair included assessment of Schwann cell and neurofilament location with immunohistochemistry, evaluation of tissue integration and organization throughout the lumen of the regenerated nerve with Masson's trichrome stain, and quantification of axon fiber density and g-ratio. Results from this study showed that the measured gastrocnemius twitch force in animals treated with GDNF was significantly higher than negative controls and was not significantly different from the isograft-positive control group. Histological assessment of explanted conduits after 16 weeks showed improved tissue integration within GDNF releasing nerve guides compared to negative controls. Nerve fibers were present across the entire length of GDNF releasing guides, whereas nerve fibers were not detectable beyond the middle region of negative control guides. Therefore, our results support the use of GDNF for improved functional recovery above negative controls following large axonal defects in the peripheral nervous system. PMID:21189072

  7. INTRANASAL DELIVERY OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR TO PROTECT THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AGAINST ACUTE CEREBRAL INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-mei Zhao; Xin-feng Liu; Xiao-wei Mao; Chun-fu Chen

    2004-01-01

    Objective To confirmed reliability and feasibility of intranasal nerve growth factor (NGF) bypassing the blood-brain barrier and its potential neuroprotective effects on acute cerebral ischemia.Methods (1) To assay NGF concentrations in different brain regions after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).Rats were randomly divided into intranasal (IN) NGF, intravenous (Ⅳ) NGF, and untreated group (n =4). The concentrations of NGF of different brain regions in the three groups after MCAO were measured by ELISA. (2) To observe neuroprotective action of NGF on focal cerebral ischemic damage. Rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: IN vehicle, IN NGF,Ⅳ vehicle, Ⅳ NGF (n = 8). Treatment was initiated 30 minutes after onset of MCAO and given again 24 hours later. Three neurologic behavioral tests were performed 24 and 48 hours following onset of MCAO. Corrected infarct volumes were determined 48 hours after onset of MCAO.Results The olfactory bulb in IN NGF group obtained the highest concentration (3252 pg/g) of NGF among all regions, followed by the hippocumpus. The NGF concentrations in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus in IN NGF group were markedly higher than that in Ⅳ NGF and control groups. The infarct volume in IN NGF group was markedly reduced by 38.8% compared with IN vehicle group. IN NGF group vestibulum function markedly improved compared with IN vehicle group at 24 and 48 hours after onset of MCAO (P24h = 0.02 and P48h = 0.04, respectively).Conclusion Intranasal NGF could pass through the blood-brain barrier, reach the central nervous system, reduce infarct volume, and improve neurologic function in rats following MCAO. Intranasal delivery of NGF may be a promising treatment for stroke.

  8. Diagnóstico precoce da restrição do crescimento fetal pela estimativa ultra-sonográfica do peso fetal Early diagnosis of intra-uterine growth restriction by ultrasonographic estimation of fetal weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marta Martins

    2005-02-01

    disease, no history of addictions, gemellarity or malformed fetuses. All mothers performed ultrasonographic exams at the 25th and 27th weeks for estimation of the fetal weight. Results: The exams were able to detect the inadequate development of those fetuses small-for-gestational-age group. The cut-off values for echographic fetal weight were established as 775 grams and 1015 grams for the 25th and 27th weeks, respectively A mathematical model was developed, capable of quantifying the probability of newborns exhibiting insufficient intra-uterine growth, being small-for-gestational-age.

  9. Immediate postpartum levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion and breast-feeding outcomes: a noninferiority randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turok, David K; Leeman, Lawrence; Sanders, Jessica N; Thaxton, Lauren; Eggebroten, Jennifer L; Yonke, Nicole; Bullock, Holly; Singh, Rameet; Gawron, Lori M; Espey, Eve

    2017-08-23

    Immediate postpartum levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion is increasing in frequency in the United States, but few studies have investigated the effect of early placement on breast-feeding outcomes. This study examined the effect of immediate vs delayed postpartum levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion on breast-feeding outcomes. We conducted this noninferiority randomized controlled trial at the University of Utah and the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Centers from February 2014 through March 2016. Eligible women were pregnant and planned to breast-feed, spoke English or Spanish, were aged 18-40 years, and desired a levonorgestrel intrauterine device. Enrolled women were randomized 1:1 to immediate postpartum insertion or delayed insertion at 4-12 weeks' postpartum. Prespecified exclusion criteria included delivery <37.0 weeks' gestational age, chorioamnionitis, postpartum hemorrhage, contraindications to levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion, and medical complications of pregnancy that could affect breast-feeding. We conducted per-protocol analysis as the primary approach, as it is considered the standard for noninferiority studies; we also report the alternative intent-to-treat analysis. We powered the study for the primary outcome, breast-feeding continuation at 8 weeks, to detect a 15% noninferiority margin between groups, requiring 132 participants in each arm. The secondary study outcome, time to lactogenesis, used a validated measure, and was analyzed by survival analysis and log rank test. We followed up participants for ongoing data collection for 6 months. Only the data analysis team was blinded to the intervention. We met the enrollment target with 319 participants, but lost 34 prior to randomization and excluded an additional 26 for medical complications prior to delivery. The final analytic sample included 132 in the immediate group and 127 in the delayed group. Report of any breast-feeding at 8 weeks in the immediate

  10. Acute and Impaired Wound Healing: Pathophysiology and Current Methods for Drug Delivery, Part 2: Role of Growth Factors in Normal and Pathological Wound Healing: Therapeutic Potential and Methods of Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Herman, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    This is the second of 2 articles that discuss the biology and pathophysiology of wound healing, reviewing the role that growth factors play in this process and describing the current methods for growth factor delivery into the wound bed. PMID:22820962

  11. Semen preparation techniques for intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, Carolien M.; Heineman, M. J.; Cohlen, B. J.; Farquhar, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Semen preparation techniques for assisted reproduction, including intrauterine insemination (IUI), were developed to separate the motile morphological normal spermatozoa. Leucocytes, bacteria and dead spermatozoa produce oxygen radicals that negatively influence the ability to fertilize

  12. Polyorchidism with presumed contralateral intrauterine testicular torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Leodoro

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: We describe a unique case of a 2-year-old boy with right-sided polyorchidism and an absent left testis associated with a blind ending vas deferens and testicular vessels, presumed secondary to intrauterine testicular torsion.

  13. Semen preparation techniques for intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, C. M.; Heineman, M. J.; Cohlen, B. J.; Farquhar, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Semen preparation techniques for assisted reproduction, including intrauterine insemination (IUI), were developed to separate the motile morphological normal spermatozoa. Leucocytes, bacteria and dead spermatozoa produce oxygen radicals that negatively influence the ability to fertilize t

  14. Management Of Misplaced Intrauterine Device And Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun TOY, Mehmet VURAL, Hakan CAMUZCUOĞLU, Halef AYDIN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Uterin perforation is the one of the most important complication of intra-uterine deviceapplication. We aimed to discuss management and complications of lost intrauterine device inthe case series of 10 patients who are operationally treated with this diagnosis, betweenSeptember 2007 and June 2009 in our clinic. In the algoritm we described ultrasonography keepit’s importance and there is usually no need for other radiologic techniques.

  15. Management of Intrauterine Device-Associated Actinomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Objective: To assess various methods of management of actinomyces-like organisms associated with intrauterine devices. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 173 patients with intrauterine device-associated actinomyces- like organisms detected on Pap smear was performed. The patients were managed by IUD removal with or without antibiotic therapy, antibiotic therapy alone, or no treatment at all. Results: The success rate as reflected in negative follow-up smear was 100% for IUD removal comb...

  16. Abdominal and endometrial actinomycosis associated with an intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, P. K.

    1975-01-01

    Actinomycotic endometrial infection associated with an intrauterine device (IUD) complicated chronic abdominal inflammatory disease in a 28-year-old woman. Colonies of organisms with morphologic resemblance to and staining reactions of Actinomyces israelii were observed in tissue adherent to the IUD and in inflamed omental and pericolic tissues. However, the organism could not be cultured. Because intact tissues are resistant to actinomyces it is likely that the IUD created an environment favouring the establishment and growth of the organism. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:1116090

  17. Ex Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of Late Gestation Ewes Following Intra-uterine Inoculation With Lux-modified Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objectives were to develop an ovine model for Escherichia coli-induced preterm delivery, and monitor E. coli (lux modified for photonic detection) invasion of the fetal environment—ewes (124 ± 18 d of gestation) received intrauterine inoculations using E. coli-lux as follows: control (n = 5), 1....

  18. A Rare Case of Jejunal Atresia Due to Intrauterine Intussusception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanjeev B; Kinhal, Vidyadhar; Desai, Mahesh; Tilak; Choudhari, Fazal Ur Rehman

    2015-09-01

    Intestinal atresia is generally caused by intrauterine vascular obstructions involving mesenteric vessels. Intrauterine intussusceptions (IUI) are one of these disruptive events. Intestinal intussusceptions affects children commonly between 3 months and 3 years of age, but it rarely affects in intrauterine life. The relationship between intrauterine intussusception and intestinal atresia has been demonstrated by few cases in literature, suggesting intrauterine intussusception as a rare cause of intestinal atresia. We report a 7-day-old full term neonate presenting with intrauterine intussusceptions (jejuno-jejunal) resulting in jejunal atresia.

  19. Intrauterine Infections and Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-YING ZHENG; XIN-MING SONG; LI-HUA PANG; YING JI; HONG-MEI SUN; LEI ZHANG; JU-FEN LIU; YAN-LING GUO; YAN ZHANG; TING ZHANG; YI-FEI WANG; CHEN XU; GONG CHEN; RUOLEI XIN; JIA-PENG CHEN; XU-MEI HU; QING YANG

    2004-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is an important cause of some birth defects worldwide. The most common pathogens include rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. General information about these pathogens in epidemiology, consequence of birth defects, and the possible mechanisms in the progress of birth defects, and the interventions to prevent or treat these pathogens' infections are described. The infections caused by rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. are common, yet they are proved to be fatal during the pregnant period, especially during the first trimester. These infections may cause sterility, abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, and affect multiple organs that may induce loss of hearing and vision, even fetal deformity and the long-term effects. These pathogens' infections may influence the microenvironment of placenta, including levels of enzymes and cytokines, and affect chondriosome that may induce the progress of birth defect. Early diagnosis of infections during pregnancy should be strengthened. There are still many things to be settled, such as the molecular mechanisms of birth defects, the effective vaccines to certain pathogens. Birth defect researches in terms of etiology and the development of applicable and sensitive pathogen detection technology and methods are imperative.

  20. Intra-uterine contraceptive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, J

    1985-05-01

    Among the advantages of IUDs are the device's high continuation rate, the lack of systemic side effects, and the absence of a need for continual motivation to practice contraception. The effectiveness of plastic IUDs is directly proportional to their surface area, but the degree of excessive bleeding experienced is inversely related to device size. Thus, devices represent a compromise between large size for effectiveness and small size for acceptability. The optimum time to fit an IUD is during the 1st hald of the menstrual cycle. Absolute contraindications to IUD use include the presence of active pelvic inflammatory disease, undiagnosed irregular bleeding, a history of ectopic pregnancy or tubal surgery, and a distorted uteine cavity. Failure rates associated with IUD use range from 2-3% in the 1st year and then decrease. Since the main mechanism of action appears to be production of a sterile inflammatory reaction in the uterine cavity, the IUD prevents intrauterine pregnancy more effectively than ectopic pregnancy. Nonetheless, there is little evidence to suggest that IUD use actually increases the incidence of ectopic pregnancy. Resumption of fertility after IUD removal is not delayed. There is not need to change inert plastic IUDs in women who remain symptom free. The copper devices should be changed every 3-4 years. A search is under way for antifertility agents that can be incorporated into the device to reduce side effects. In general, the IUD is most suitable for older, parous women.

  1. Pulmonary hypoplasia on preterm infant associated with diffuse chorioamniotic hemosiderosis caused by intrauterine hemorrhage due to massive subchorial hematoma: report of a neonatal autopsy case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Marutani, Takamitsu; Hisaoka, Masanori; Tasaki, Takashi; Nabeshima, Atsunori; Shiraishi, Mika; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki

    2012-08-01

    A male infant born prematurely at 31 weeks of gestation weighed 789 g and had mildly brown-colored oral/tracheal aspirates at delivery. The amniotic fluid was also discolored, and its index was below 5. The patient died of hypoxemic respiratory and cardiac failure 2 hours after birth. The maternal profiles showed placenta previa and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at 22 weeks of gestation, and revealed recurrent episodes of antenatal and substantial vaginal bleeding and oligohydramnios, indicating chronic abruption-oligohydramnios sequence. The thickened placenta, weighing 275 g, grossly displayed unevenness and diffuse opacity with green to brown discoloration in the chorioamniotic surface, and revealed chronic massive subchorial hematomas (Breus' mole) with old peripheral blood clot, circumvallation, and infarction. Microscopically, diffuse Berlin-blue staining-positive hemosiderin deposits were readily encountered in the chorioamniotic layers of the chorionic plate, consistent with diffuse chorioamniotic hemosiderosis (DCH) due to Breus' mole, accompanied by diffuse amniotic necrosis. At autopsy, an external examination showed several surface anomalies and marked pulmonary hypoplasia, 0.006 (less 0.012) of lung:body weight ratio. Since Breus' mole has a close relationship with intrauterine hemorrhage, resulting in DCH, IUGR, and/or pulmonary hypoplasia of the newborn, the present features might be typical.

  2. Perinatal survival and procedure-related complications after intrauterine transfusion for red cell alloimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Dipika; Dadhwal, Vatsla; Sharma, Aparna K; Shende, Unnati; Agarwal, Sumita; Agarwal, Ramesh; Vanamail, Perumal

    2016-05-01

    To study the perinatal survival and procedure-related (PR)complications after intrauterine transfusions in red cell alloimmunization. Prospective data of 102 women with Rh-alloimmunized pregnancy undergoing intrauterine intravascular transfusion for fetal anemia, from January 2011 to October 2014 were analyzed. Main outcome measures were perinatal survival and procedure-related (PR) complications. A total of 303 intrauterine transfusions were performed in 102 women. Of 102 fetuses, 22 were hydropic at first transfusion. The mean period of gestation and hematocrit at first transfusion was 26.9 ± 3.3 weeks (range 19.7-33.8 weeks) and 17 ± 7.82 % (range 5.7-30 %), respectively. Average number of transfusions was 2.97 (range 1-7) per patient. Overall survival was 93 % and mean period of gestation at delivery was 34.5 ± 1.94 (range 28.3-37.4) weeks. Mean hematocrit at delivery was 36.9 ± 8.77 % (range 10-66 %). Fetal death occurred in four cases (3PR), neonatal death occurred in three cases (2PR). Emergency cesarean delivery after transfusion was performed in four pregnancies. The total PR complication rate was 2.97 %, resulting in overall PR loss in 1.65 % per procedure. Our results compare favorably with other studies published in the literature. Intravascular transfusion is a safe procedure improving perinatal survival in fetuses with anemia due to Rh-alloimmunization.

  3. Facile modification of gelatin-based microcarriers with multiporous surface and proliferative growth factors delivery to enhance cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Sha [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang Yijuan [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Deng, Tianzheng [Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Jin Fang [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Liu Shouxin [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang Yongjie [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Feng Feng [Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Department of Dermatology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Jin Yan [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)], E-mail: yanjin@fmmu.edu.cn

    2008-07-28

    The design of microcarriers plays an important role in the success of cell expansion. The present article provides a facile approach to modify the gelatin-based particles and investigates the feasibility of their acting as microcarriers for cell attachment and growth. Gelatin particles (150-320 {mu}m) were modified by cryogenic treatment and lyophilization to develop the surface with the features of multiporous morphology and were incorporated with proliferative growth factors (bFGF) by adsorption during the post-preparation, which enables them to serve as microcarriers for cells amplification, together with the advantages of larger cell-surface contact area and capability of promoting cell propagation. The microstructure and release assay of the modified microcarriers demonstrated that the pores on surface were uniform and bFGF was released in a controlled manner. Through in vitro fibroblast culture, these features resulted in a prominent increase in the cell attachment rate and cell growth rate relative to the conditions without modification. Although the scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy analysis results indicated that cells attached, spread, and proliferated on all the microcarriers, cell growth clearly showed a significant correlation with the multiporous structure of microcarriers, in particular on bFGF combined ones. These results validate our previous assumption that the facile modification could improve cell growth on the gelatin-based microcarriers obviously and the novel microcarriers may be a promising candidate in tissue engineering.

  4. Controlled multiple growth factor delivery from bone tissue engineering scaffolds via designed affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-González, Darilis; Lee, Jae Sung; Diggs, Alisha; Lu, Yan; Nemke, Brett; Markel, Mark; Hollister, Scott J; Murphy, William L

    2014-08-01

    It is known that angiogenesis plays an important role in bone regeneration and that release of angiogenic and osteogenic growth factors can enhance bone formation. Multiple growth factors play key roles in processes that lead to tissue formation/regeneration during natural tissue development and repair. Therefore, treatments aiming to mimic tissue regeneration can benefit from multiple growth factor release, and there remains a need for simple clinically relevant approaches for dual growth factor release. We hypothesized that mineral coatings could be used as a platform for controlled incorporation and release of multiple growth factors. Specifically, mineral-coated scaffolds were "dip coated" in multiple growth factor solutions, and growth factor binding and release were dictated by the growth factor-mineral binding affinity. Beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds were fabricated using indirect solid-free form fabrication techniques and coated with a thin conformal mineral layer. Mineral-coated β-TCP scaffolds were sequentially dipped in recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and a modular bone morphogenetic peptide, a mineral-binding version of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), solutions to allow for the incorporation of each growth factor. The dual release profile showed sustained release of both growth factors for over more than 60 days. Scaffolds releasing either rhVEGF alone or the combination of growth factors showed an increase in blood vessel ingrowth in a dose-dependent manner in a sheep intramuscular implantation model. This approach demonstrates a "modular design" approach, in which a controllable biologics carrier is integrated into a structural scaffold as a thin surface coating.

  5. Local delivery of cannabinoid-loaded microparticles inhibits tumor growth in a murine xenograft model of glioblastoma multiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Hernán Pérez de la Ossa

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana and their derivatives, are currently investigated due to their potential therapeutic application for the management of many different diseases, including cancer. Specifically, Δ(9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and Cannabidiol (CBD - the two major ingredients of marijuana - have been shown to inhibit tumor growth in a number of animal models of cancer, including glioma. Although there are several pharmaceutical preparations that permit the oral administration of THC or its analogue nabilone or the oromucosal delivery of a THC- and CBD-enriched cannabis extract, the systemic administration of cannabinoids has several limitations in part derived from the high lipophilicity exhibited by these compounds. In this work we analyzed CBD- and THC-loaded poly-ε-caprolactone microparticles as an alternative delivery system for long-term cannabinoid administration in a murine xenograft model of glioma. In vitro characterization of THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles showed that this method of microencapsulation facilitates a sustained release of the two cannabinoids for several days. Local administration of THC-, CBD- or a mixture (1:1 w:w of THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles every 5 days to mice bearing glioma xenografts reduced tumour growth with the same efficacy than a daily local administration of the equivalent amount of those cannabinoids in solution. Moreover, treatment with cannabinoid-loaded microparticles enhanced apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and angiogenesis in these tumours. Our findings support that THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles could be used as an alternative method of cannabinoid delivery in anticancer therapies.

  6. Localized Delivery of Mechano-Growth Factor E-domain Peptide via Polymeric Microstructures Improves Cardiac Function following Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, James R.; Pinney, James; Ayala, Perla; Desai, Tejal; Goldspink, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    The Insulin like growth factor-I isoform mechano-growth factor (MGF), is expressed in the heart following myocardial infarction and encodes a unique E-domain region. To examine E-domain function, we delivered a synthetic peptide corresponding to the unique E-domain region of the human MGF (IGF-1Ec) via peptide eluting polymeric microstructures to the heart. The microstructures were made of poly (ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate hydrogel and bioengineered to be the same size as an adult cardiac myocyte (100×15×15 μm) and with a stiffness of 20 kPa. Peptide eluting microrods and empty microrods were delivered via intramuscular injection following coronary artery ligation in mice. To examine the physiologic consequences, we assessed the impact of peptide delivery on cardiac function and cardiovascular hemodynamics using pressure-volume loops and gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR. A significant decline in both systolic and diastolic function accompanied by pathologic hypertrophy occurred by 2 weeks which decompensated further by 10 weeks post-infarct in the untreated groups. Delivery of the E-domain peptide eluting microrods decreased mortality, ameliorated the decline in hemodynamics, and delayed decompensation. This was associated with the inhibition of pathologic hypertrophy despite increasing vascular impedance. Delivery of the empty microrods had limited effects on hemodynamics and while pathologic hypertrophy persisted there was a decrease in ventricular stiffness. Our data show that cardiac restricted administration of the MGF E-domain peptide using polymeric microstructures may be used to prevent adverse remodeling of the heart and improve function following myocardial infarction. PMID:25678113

  7. Complications of the intrauterine device in nulliparous and parous women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, H.M.; Vos, A.G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The intrauterine device (IUD) is still related to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), pregnancy, expulsion, perforation and menstrual problems, particularly in nulliparous women. We aimed to study the complications and symptoms of the intrauterine device in general practice, particularly

  8. Complications of the intrauterine device in nulliparous and parous women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, H.M.; Vos, A.G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The intrauterine device (IUD) is still related to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), pregnancy, expulsion, perforation and menstrual problems, particularly in nulliparous women. We aimed to study the complications and symptoms of the intrauterine device in general practice, particularly

  9. The Probable Effects of Cytokines in Intrauterine Infections and Perinatal Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Oflaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal brain injuries and the subsequent development of cerebral palsy are closely associated with intrauterine infections and inflammatory response. Premature prenatal rupture of membranes and premature births are also closely linked to infections and inflammation, and the presence of both infection / inflammation and premature birth together greatly increase the risk for cerebral palsy. Periventricular leukolamacia, a common neonatal brain white matter lesion, is a major risk factor for cerebral palsy. Inflammatory cytokines released during the course of intrauterine infection play an important role in the genesis of brain white matter lesion. Maternal intrauterine infection appears to increase the risk of preterm delivery, which in turn is associated with an increased risk of intraventricular hemorrhage, neonatal white matter damage, and subsequent cerebral palsy. Proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and Tumor necrosis factor-%u03B1 might be the link between prenatal intrauterine infection and neonatal brain damage, and interrupting the proinflammatory cytokine cascade might prevent later disability in those born near the end of the second trimester.

  10. Forgotten intrauterine device contributing to infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igberase, Gabriel O

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the study is to show that long standing forgotten intrauterine device contributes to infertility, reporting three cases presented at Central Hospital Warri, Nigeria, a government tertiary health center. Three cases of forgotten intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) contributing to infertility were seen. Two were inserted for contraceptive reasons while one was inserted while being managed for uterine synechae. Health care providers should ensure proper documentation of all procedures carried out, adequate counseling which should include taking an informed consent and also ensuring both short and long term follow up of their clients. Also all patients being evaluated for infertility and clients with past history of intrauterine device must have a speculum examination and ultrasound scan carried out.

  11. Forgotten intrauterine device contributing to infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel O. Igberase

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to show that long standing forgotten intrauterine device contributes to infertility, reporting three cases presented at Central Hospital Warri, Nigeria, a government tertiary health center. Three cases of forgotten intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD contributing to infertility were seen. Two were inserted for contraceptive reasons while one was inserted while being managed for uterine synechae. Health care providers should ensure proper documentation of all procedures carried out, adequate counseling which should include taking an informed consent and also ensuring both short and long term follow up of their clients. Also all patients being evaluated for infertility and clients with past history of intrauterine device must have a speculum examination and ultrasound scan carried out.

  12. Management of Intrauterine Device-Associated Actinomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Hanjani, Soheil

    1993-01-01

    Objective: To assess various methods of management of actinomyces-like organisms associated with intrauterine devices. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 173 patients with intrauterine device-associated actinomyces- like organisms detected on Pap smear was performed. The patients were managed by IUD removal with or without antibiotic therapy, antibiotic therapy alone, or no treatment at all. Results: The success rate as reflected in negative follow-up smear was 100% for IUD removal combined with antibiotics, 97.4% for IUD removal alone, and 36.8% for antibiotics therapy alone. Conclusions: The best way to manage intrauterine device-associated actinomyces-like organisms is removal of the device with or without antibiotics. PMID:18475332

  13. The relationship between maternal insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2) and IGFBP-3 to gestational age and preterm delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, Sharon M

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: To investigate the relationship between levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in antenatal maternal serum and gestational age at delivery. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 1650 low-risk Caucasian women in a London University teaching hospital. Maternal IGF-1, IGF-2 and IGFBP-3 were measured in maternal blood at booking and analyzed with respect to gestational age at delivery. RESULTS: There was no significant association between maternal IGF-1 or IGF-2 and preterm birth (PTB). A significant reduction in mean IGFBP-3 levels was noted with delivery <32 completed weeks (P=0.02). CONCLUSION: Maternal mean IGFBP-3 levels are significantly reduced in cases complicated by delivery <32 completed weeks.

  14. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1 in cervical secretions in women with symptoms of preterm delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amra Habibović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to investigate a value ofinsulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1 in cervicalsecretion in women with symptoms of preterm delivery and correlatethis test to the Bishop Score in prediction of a preterm delivery.The study group included 30 pregnant women with singletonpregnancy between 24 – 34 gestational weeks who were hospitalizedbecause of a threatening preterm delivery with intact fetalmembranes. A positive Actim Partus test (concentration higherthan 10 µg/l and Bishop Score higher than 4 signify a risk of thepreterm delivery. The Bishop Score is a better predictor of the pretermdelivery in patients with symptoms of the preterm delivery.

  15. FETAL FIBRONECTIN AND PHOSPHORILATED INSULIN- LIKE GROWTH FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN-1 AS PREDICTORS OF SPONTANEUS PRETERM DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Hadži-Lega

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the combined use of cervical length, fetal fibronectin and cervical phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (phIGFBP-1 in the prediction of preterm delivery in symptomatic women in the following 14 days. Cervical length was prospectively measured in 58 consecutive singleton pregnancies with intact membranes and regular contractions at 24–36 weeks; fetal fibronectin and phIGFBP-1 were also assessed. Demographic data was evaluated (history of previous preterm delivery, history of spontaneous abortion, parity, BMI, maternal age, Islamic or Orthodox religion. Values of all variables were evaluated (demographic data, cervical length and values of phIGFBP1 and fetal fibronectin alone and in combination with cervical length of ≤ 15mm and more than 15 mm. PhIGFPB was positive in 30 patients (22 of them gave birth in 14 days. In women with cervical length less than 15 mm phIGFBP-1, it was positive in 9 pregnant women who were delivered in 14 days. In women with cervical length less than 25 mm phIGFBP-1 was positive in 26 patients (2 of them gave birth in 14 days. In patients with cervical length more than 25 mm phIGFBP-1 was positive in 4 patients (2 of them gave birth in 14 days. Using logistic regression we confirmed that with OR 0.117 and CI 95% (0.046-0.295 and p<0.01 odds for preterm birth among patients with negative test results, phIGFBP-1 was by 0.117 lower than the odds for preterm birth among patients with positive test results. Using the same test, we confirmed that with OR=14,722 (CI 95% 5.27-41.1, (p<0.01 cervical length less than 25 mm was a good predictor of preterm delivery in symptomatic patients. Probability for delivery in the following 14 days in patients with positive phIGFBP-1 and cervical length≤15 mm is 0.88 or probability for not delivering in those patients is 0.12. Eighty-eight percents of patients with positive phIGFBP-1 and cervical length ≤15 mm will give birth

  16. Self-assembling peptide amphiphiles and related methods for growth factor delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Donners, Jack J. J. M.; Silva, Gabriel A.; Behanna, Heather A.; Anthony, Shawn G.

    2009-06-09

    Amphiphilic peptide compounds comprising one or more epitope sequences for binding interaction with one or more corresponding growth factors, micellar assemblies of such compounds and related methods of use.

  17. Methylation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 gene in neonates with intrauterine growth restriction%胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白3在宫内生长受限儿中的甲基化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏爱玲; 蒋犁; 葛芹玉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the role of promoter methylation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (ICFBP3) in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Methods Fifty neonates with IUCR and 30 healthy neonates were enrolled. The promoter methylation status of 1GFBP3 in peripheral blood was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and high resolution melting (HRM) techniques. Results The complete methylation rate, partial methylation rate and non-methylation rate of IGFBP3 promoter in the IUGR group was 4% (2/50) , 40% (20/50) and 56% (28/50) , respectively. The partial methylation rate and non-methylation rate of IGFBP3 promoter in the control group were 13% (4/30) and 87% (26/30) , respectively. There were significant differences in the promoter methylation rate of IGFBP3 between the two groups ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusions The promoter methylation of IGFBP3 gene is associated with the pathogenesis of IUGR.%目的 探讨胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白3(IGFBP3)启动子区甲基化状态在胎儿宫内生长受限(IUGR)中的作用.方法 选取IUGR新生儿50例及正常新生儿30例,应用甲基化特异性PCR(MSP)及高分辨率溶解(HRM)技术检测外周血中IGFBP3基因的甲基化状态.结果 IUGR组中IGFBP3启动子区完全甲基化比例为4%(2/50),部分甲基化比例为40%(20/50),未甲基化比例为56%(28/50);对照组中部分甲基化比例为13%(4/30),未甲基化比例为87%(26/30),两组甲基化率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 IGFBP3基因启动子区的甲基化程度与IUGR的发生有关.

  18. Influência do crescimento intrauterino restrito sobre a evolução nutricional e crescimento de recém-nascidos pré-termo até a alta hospitalar Intrauterine growth restriction influence on the nutritional evolution and growth of preterm newborns from birth until discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tadeu da Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o crescimento de recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT com crescimento intrauterino restrito (CIUR do nascimento até a alta hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Coorte de RNPT provenientes de gestação única, com idade gestacional (IG de 30 a 34 semanas, Apgar de cinco minutos >6, sem risco infeccioso perinatal e sem malformações. Grupos de estudo: I: CIUR (índice de Kramer=peso ao nascer/peso P50OBJECTIVE: Analyze the growth of intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR preterm newborns infants (PTNB from birth until hospital discharge. METHODS: Cohort study of PTNB from single gestations with gestational age of 30 to 34 weeks, Apgar score at five minutes >6, without perinatal infectious risk and/or malformations. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I: PTNB with IUGR (Kramer index: birth weight/weight at 50th percentile <0,85; Group II: PTNB without IUGR. Weight (W, length (L, head circumference (HC and body mass index (BMI were evaluated at birth and at 40 weeks corrected GA or discharge. Statistical analysis included Student t test paired t test, chi-square test, Pearson's correlation and linear regression, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: At birth, anthropometric significant differences (p<0.0001 were seen between the 24 Group I PTNB (W=1192g, L=37.7cm, HC=26.9cm and the 27 Group II infants (W=2081g, L=43.2cm, HC=30.9cm. At discharge, Group II PTNB were heavier (p=0.03, but L, HC and BMI were similar between groups. From birth until discharge, the W, L and HC increased in both groups. BMI increased from birth to discharge only in Group I (p<0.0001, with a negative correlation between BMI at birth and the BMI difference between birth and discharge (r=-0.79; p<0.0001. CONCLUSION: IUGR at birth was associated to significant BMI increase until discharge, which was inversely correlated to birth BMI, suggesting a higher risk of future obesity in these infants if this trend persists throughout infancy and childhood.

  19. Milestones in intrauterine device development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, H J

    1983-02-01

    Levonorgestrel T, both of which effect a reduction in menstrual blood loss. While major advances have been made in the field of intrauterine contraception, more innovations and improvements can be expected in the future.

  20. Intrauterine contraception after cesarean section and during lactation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstuck, Norman D; Steyn, Petrus S

    2013-12-04

    All postpartum women, including those who are breastfeeding or have had a cesarean section, appear potentially suited to intrauterine contraception, a long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC). Like any other method used after delivery, it should not interfere with lactation or be affected by cesarean section. We searched the MEDLINE, PubMed, Popline, Google Scholar, and Clinicaltrials.gov databases from January 1968 through to December 2012. Studies were included if they reported event rates in women who had a cesarean section and event rates and clinical outcomes in lactating women or their infants in the breastfeeding group. Summary odds ratios were not calculated because of the diverse methods of reporting event rates in the cesarean section group and the heterogeneity of the results in the breastfeeding group. We found 26 articles on event rates in interval and post-placental intrauterine device (IUD) use, and 18 on event rates and clinical outcomes in breastfeeding IUD users. Four prospective studies and one retrospective study showed an increased expulsion rate in interval insertion. There were 19 studies, of which five were controlled in post-placental IUD insertion after cesarean section. Four studies had expulsion rates of 10 or more per 100 woman-years of use and 15 expulsion rates below 10 per 100 woman-years of use. Three studies showed that event rates for lactating IUD users are the same as those for non-lactating users. Fifteen controlled studies showed that the IUD had no effect on milk production and seven of these showed no effect on infant growth. Pharmacovigilance databases report an increased rate of IUD perforations in lactating women, while the event rate studies report that insertion is generally easier and less painful than expected. These were uncontrolled reports. The IUD is a long-acting reversible method of contraception with expulsion rates of 5-15 per 100 woman-years of use when used as a post-placental method immediately after

  1. Local immunotherapy via delivery of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor β antagonist for treatment of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Christopher B; Rai, Reena; Faubel, Sarah; Burdick, Jason A; Soranno, Danielle E

    2015-05-28

    Obstructive nephropathy is the leading cause of kidney disease in children. The tissue injury resulting from initial dilation precipitates a deleterious cascade of macrophage infiltration, apoptosis, and fibrosis to produce a resultant dysfunctional tissue. We propose to abate this tissue remodeling process through immunotherapy administered via the local and sustained delivery of interleukin-10 (IL-10; anti-inflammatory) and anti-transforming growth factor β (anti-TGFβ; anti-fibrotic). Shear-thinning, injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels were formed through supramolecular guest-host interactions and used to contain IL-10, anti-TGFβ, or both molecules together. Degradation assays demonstrated that diffusive molecule release was associated with concurrent hydrogel erosion and was sustained for up to 3weeks in vitro. Erosion was likewise monitored in vivo by non-invasive optical imaging, where gel localization to the affected tissue was observed with near complete clearance by day 18. Hydrogels were applied to a murine model of chronic kidney disease, with subcapsular hydrogel injections acting as a delivery depot. Quantitative histological analysis (days 7, 21, and 35) was used to evaluate treatment efficacy. Notably, results demonstrated reduced macrophage infiltration beyond day 7 in treatment groups and reduced apoptosis at day 21, relative to untreated unilateral ureteral obstruction disease model. Fibrosis was reduced at the 35day timepoint in groups treated with IL-10 or anti-TGFβ alone, but not with the combination therapy. Rather, dual delivery of IL-10 and anti-TGFβ resulted in a paradoxical hastening of fibrosis, warranting further investigation. Localized immunotherapy is a novel approach to treat kidney disease and shows promise as a translatable therapy.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of a novel microparticle with gyrus-patterned surface and growth factor delivery for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Sha [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang Yijuan [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Liang Tang [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Jin Fang [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Liu Shouxin [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Jin Yan, E-mail: yanjin@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2009-05-05

    Microparticles can serve as substrates for cell amplification and deliver the expanded cells to the site of the defect. It was hypothesized that a novel microparticle combined of sustained and localized delivery of proliferative growth factors and gyrus-patterned surface would influence the cell behaviours of adherence and expansion on the microparticle in the present study. To test the hypothesis, gelatin particles with diameter ranging from 280 to 350 {mu}m were fabricated and were modified by cryogenic freeze-drying treatment and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) incorporation. The results of in vitro chondrocyte culture illustrated that cells could proliferate more obviously on the microparticles with bFGF addition, but no correlation between attachment rate and bFGF was observed. On the other hand, microparticles with gyrus-patterned surface demonstrated the highest cell attachment rate and higher rate of cell growth, in particular on bFGF combined ones. It seems to be a promising candidate as a chondrocyte microparticle and could be the potential application in cartilage tissue engineering.

  3. Adaptive growth factor delivery from a polyelectrolyte coating promotes synergistic bone tissue repair and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nisarg J; Hyder, Md Nasim; Quadir, Mohiuddin A; Dorval Courchesne, Noémie-Manuelle; Seeherman, Howard J; Nevins, Myron; Spector, Myron; Hammond, Paula T

    2014-09-01

    Traumatic wounds and congenital defects that require large-scale bone tissue repair have few successful clinical therapies, particularly for craniomaxillofacial defects. Although bioactive materials have demonstrated alternative approaches to tissue repair, an optimized materials system for reproducible, safe, and targeted repair remains elusive. We hypothesized that controlled, rapid bone formation in large, critical-size defects could be induced by simultaneously delivering multiple biological growth factors to the site of the wound. Here, we report an approach for bone repair using a polyelectrolye multilayer coating carrying as little as 200 ng of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and platelet-derived growth factor-BB that were eluted over readily adapted time scales to induce rapid bone repair. Based on electrostatic interactions between the polymer multilayers and growth factors alone, we sustained mitogenic and osteogenic signals with these growth factors in an easily tunable and controlled manner to direct endogenous cell function. To prove the role of this adaptive release system, we applied the polyelectrolyte coating on a well-studied biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) support membrane. The released growth factors directed cellular processes to induce bone repair in a critical-size rat calvaria model. The released growth factors promoted local bone formation that bridged a critical-size defect in the calvaria as early as 2 wk after implantation. Mature, mechanically competent bone regenerated the native calvaria form. Such an approach could be clinically useful and has significant benefits as a synthetic, off-the-shelf, cell-free option for bone tissue repair and restoration.

  4. Effects of postnatal growth retardation on early neurodevelopment in premature infants with intrauterine growth retardation%宫内发育迟缓早产儿生后生长迟缓对早期神经发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡岳鞠; 宋燕燕; 黄志坚; 李坚; 齐俊冶; 肖旭文; 王兰秀

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨宫内发育迟缓(IUGR)早产儿生后生长迟缓对早期神经发育的影响。方法回顾性分析2008年5月至2012年5月出生并定期随访至校正胎龄6个月的171例早产儿的临床资料,其中IUGR早产儿40例,早产适于胎龄儿(AGA)131例。比较两组校正胎龄40周、3个月、6个月的生长迟缓率及校正胎龄3个月、6个月时的神经发育情况。神经发育采用Gesell发育量表评估。结果 IUGR组校正胎龄40周、3个月、6个月的生长迟缓率均明显高于AGA组;校正胎龄3个月时Gesell各项发育商(大运动、精细动作、语言、适应性及个人社交)均低于AGA组;校正胎龄6个月时,IUGR组精细动作及语言发育商低于AGA组,但两组大运动、适应性及个人社交发育商比较差异已无统计学意义。IUGR组6月龄时体重追赶落后的患儿各项发育商均明显低于追赶理想的IUGR和AGA患儿。结论 IUGR早产儿生后早期的生长迟缓可对早期神经发育产生不良影响。%Objective To study the effects of postnatal growth retardation on early neurodevelopment in premature infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 171 premature infants who were born between May 2008 and May 2012 and were followed up until a corrected gestational age of 6 months. These infants were classified into two groups: IUGR group (n=40) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (n=131). The growth retardation rates at the corrected gestational ages of 40 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months, as well as the neurodevelopmental outcome (evaluated by Gesell Developmental Scale) at corrected gestational ages of 3 and 6 months, were compared between the two groups. Results The growth retardation rate in the IUGR group was signiifcantly higher than in the AGA group at the corrected gestational ages of 40 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. All ifve

  5. Production of recombinant human growth hormone conjugated with a transcytotic peptide in Pichia pastoris for effective oral protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Yeong; Kang, Sang-Kee; Li, Hui-Shan; Choi, Chang-Yun; Park, Tae-Eun; Bok, Jin-Duck; Lee, Seung-Ho; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2015-05-01

    Among the possible delivery routes, the oral administration of a protein is simple and achieves high patient compliance without pain. However, the low bioavailability of a protein drug in the intestine due to the physical barriers of the intestinal epithelia is the most critical problem that needs to be solved. To overcome the low bioavailability of a protein drug in the intestine, we aimed to construct a recombinant Pichia pastoris expressing a human growth hormone (hGH) fusion protein conjugated with a transcytotic peptide (TP) that was screened through peroral phage display to target goblet cells in the intestinal epithelia. The TP-conjugated hGH was successfully produced in P. pastoris in a secreted form at concentrations of up to 0.79 g/l. The function of the TP-conjugated hGH was validated by in vitro and in vivo assays. The transcytotic function of the TP through the intestinal epithelia was verified only in the C terminus conjugated hGH, which demonstrated the induction of IGF-1 in a HepG2 cell culture assay, a higher translocation of recombinant hGH into the ileal villi after oral administration in rats and both IGF-1 induction and higher body weight gain in rats after oral administration. The present study introduces the possibility for the development of an effective oral protein delivery system in the pharmaceutical and animal industries through the introduction of an effective TP into hGH.

  6. Paracervical block with 1% lidocaine for pain control during intrauterine device insertion: a prospective, single-blinded, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Akdag Cirik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this prospective controlled study we aimed to investigate efficacy of paracervical block with 1% Lidocaine for pain control and demographic variables which may affect pain perception during intrauterine device insertion in Turkish women. Data from 95 women assigned to paracervical block (n=34, placebo (n=30 and no treatment (n=31 arms and asked to grade the pain level they felt during tenaculum placement, intrauterine device insertion and 5 minutes after the procedure using a visual pain scale. Demographic variables were also recorded. Pain scores were found to be lower in paracervical block group when compared to other 2 groups during tenaculum placement (p=0.00, intrauterine device insertion (p=0.00 and 5 minutes after the procedure (p=0.00. Level of pain was unrelated to mode of previous deliveries and current breastfeeding. Paracervical block is an easy, safe and effective way of pain control during intrauterine device insertion. Lack of vaginal birth history is not a reason to draw back from intrauterine device use. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000: 263-267

  7. Intra-uterine insemination for unexplained subfertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, S. M.; Cohlen, B. J.; Hughes, E.; Te Velde, E.; Heineman, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Intra-uterine insemination (IUI) is a widely used fertility treatment for couples with unexplained subfertility. Although IUI is less invasive and less expensive than in vitro fertilisation (IVF), the safety of IUI in combination with ovarian hyperstimulation (OH) is debated. The main con

  8. Intrauterine nutritional programming of adult disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma AH; Siemelink M; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2001-01-01

    The intrauterine programming hypothesis states that the risk of acquiring diseases in adult life is determined in part by environmental factors during embryofetal development. Especially maternal nutrition has been related to the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and infectious diseas

  9. Fetal stress hormone changes during intrauterine transfusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, P.N.; Pasman, S.A.; Wolterbeek, R..; Deprest, J.A.; Oepkes, D.; Buck, F. De; Velde, M van de; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document fetal stress hormone and Doppler changes after intrauterine transfusions (IUTs) in either the intrahepatic portion of the umbilical vein (IHV) or the placental cord insertion (PCI). METHOD: Pregnant women scheduled for IUT for fetal anemia (N = 25) were included prospectively.

  10. Fetal stress hormone changes during intrauterine transfusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, P.N.; Pasman, S.A.; Wolterbeek, R..; Deprest, J.A.; Oepkes, D.; Buck, F. De; Velde, M van de; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document fetal stress hormone and Doppler changes after intrauterine transfusions (IUTs) in either the intrahepatic portion of the umbilical vein (IHV) or the placental cord insertion (PCI). METHOD: Pregnant women scheduled for IUT for fetal anemia (N = 25) were included prospectively.

  11. Intrauterine contraceptive device appendicitis: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-Ming Chang; Teng-Wei Chen; Chung-Bao Hsieh; Chung-Jueng Chen; Jyh-Cherng Yu; Yao-Chi Liu; Kuo-Liang Shen; De-Chuan Chan

    2005-01-01

    Uterine perforation is one of the serious complications associated with use of the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD). Uterine perforation by IUD can involve several neighboring organs. A case of acute appendicitis was caused by a Multiload Cu 375 IUD inserted previously.This is a rare complication and only fourteen previous cases were recorded in the literature.

  12. Intrauterine perineal tear: a rare birth injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, B V; Jagdish, S; Srinivasan, S; Pandey, K K; Chatterjee, H

    1992-12-01

    A rare case of birth injury having intrauterine complete perineal tear is presented. Defunctioning sigmoid colostomy was undertaken because of bad perineal condition. The baby died of Pseudomonas septicemia on the 15th day before definitive surgical procedure could be undertaken.

  13. Bacterial Growth Kinetics under a Novel Flexible Methacrylate Dressing Serving as a Drug Delivery Vehicle for Antiseptics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojan Assadian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal® transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591 and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control, methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB, 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine, and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing.

  14. Bacterial Growth Kinetics under a Novel Flexible Methacrylate Dressing Serving as a Drug Delivery Vehicle for Antiseptics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstner, Christina; Leitgeb, Johannes; Schuster, Rupert; Dosch, Verena; Kramer, Axel; Cutting, Keith F.; Leaper, David J.; Assadian, Ojan

    2013-01-01

    A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control), methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine), and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing. PMID:23698780

  15. Dual Delivery of Growth Factors and or Antibiotics from Chitosan-Composites for Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    bone healing. The composite scaffold material is composed of chitosan, a natural polysaccharide , and calcium sulfate , a bone like mineral. Both...microsphere-based chitosan-calcium sulfate composites to locally deliver growth factor and antibiotics to heal bone and prevent infection in traumatic...musculoskeletal injuries. Antibiotic, vancomycin (vanc) was loaded into calcium sulfate (CaS) and microspheres loaded with either vanc or bone

  16. Scaffolds for Growth Factor Delivery as Applied to Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Blackwood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There remains a substantial shortfall in the treatment of severe skeletal injuries. The current gold standard of autologous bone grafting from the same patient has many undesirable side effects associated such as donor site morbidity. Tissue engineering seeks to offer a solution to this problem. The primary requirements for tissue-engineered scaffolds have already been well established, and many materials, such as polyesters, present themselves as potential candidates for bone defects; they have comparable structural features, but they often lack the required osteoconductivity to promote adequate bone regeneration. By combining these materials with biological growth factors, which promote the infiltration of cells into the scaffold as well as the differentiation into the specific cell and tissue type, it is possible to increase the formation of new bone. However due to the cost and potential complications associated with growth factors, controlling the rate of release is an important design consideration when developing new bone tissue engineering strategies. This paper will cover recent research in the area of encapsulation and release of growth factors within a variety of different polymeric scaffolds.

  17. Silk-Hydroxyapatite Nanoscale Scaffolds with Programmable Growth Factor Delivery for Bone Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhaozhao; Fan, Zhihai; Huang, Xiaowei; Lu, Qiang; Xu, Weian; Kaplan, David L

    2016-09-21

    Osteoinductive biomaterials are attractive for repairing a variety of bone defects, and biomimetic strategies are useful toward developing bone scaffolds with such capacity. Here, a multiple biomimetic design was developed to improve the osteogenesis capacity of composite scaffolds consisting of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HA) and silk fibroin (SF). SF nanofibers and water-dispersible HA nanoparticles were blended to prepare the nanoscaled composite scaffolds with a uniform distribution of HA with a high HA content (40%), imitating the extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) was loaded in the SF scaffolds and HA to tune BMP-2 release. In vitro studies showed the preservation of BMP-2 bioactivity in the composite scaffolds, and programmable sustained release was achieved through adjusting the ratio of BMP-2 loaded on SF and HA. In vitro and in vivo osteogenesis studies demonstrated that the composite scaffolds showed improved osteogenesis capacity under suitable BMP-2 release conditions, significantly better than that of BMP-2 loaded SF-HA composite scaffolds reported previously. Therefore, these biomimetic SF-HA nanoscaled scaffolds with tunable BMP-2 delivery provide preferable microenvironments for bone regeneration.

  18. 17例双胎之一宫内死亡的母儿监测及护理分析%Analysis on monitoring and nursing for twin pregnancy with intrauterine single fetal death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符白玲; 蒋凤菊; 肖志群; 罗燕琴; 孟会

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨双胎妊娠孕早、中期1胎死亡后期待治疗过程中的母儿监测及护理方法 .方法 回顾性分析2003年7月至2008年7月,本院收治的17例孕早、中期经B超确诊双胎妊娠1胎宫内死亡病例的期待治疗结果 及新生儿的转归.结果 期待治疗时间为3~147天,平均80天,平均分娩孕周为35周,无一例出现明显凝血功能障碍.羊水过少和胎膜早破是常见并发症,胎盘因素是胎死宫内的重要原因.结论 孕早、中期双胎之一胎死宫内后采取期待疗法,严密监测母儿的各项相关指标和并发症的条件下,配合积极的护理措施,可以尽可能延长存活胎儿在宫内生长的时间,提高存活胎儿的生存质量.%Objective To investigate the monitoring and nursing for twin pregnancy with intrauterine single fetal death. Methods The expectant management and neonatal outcome of 17 cases of intrauterine death of twin which were diagnosed by ultrasonography from July 2003 to July 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. Results The period of expectant management was 3-147days. The average period was 80 days. The average delivery pregnancy week was 35 weeks. No one case developed blood coagulation dysfunction. The common complications were oligohydramnios and premature ruptures of membrane, the important reasons of intrauterine death was placental factor Conclusions Taking expectant management, comprehensive monitoring the related indexes and complication of pregnant and fetal of intrauterine death of twin and nursing measures can prolong the time of intrauterine growth of survival fetal and improve the quality of life of neonatal.

  19. A prospective observational study of early fetal growth velocity and its association with birth weight, gestational age at delivery, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudeva, Akhila, E-mail: akhilavasudeva@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka State (India); Abraham, Anu Annie, E-mail: anuannieabraham@yahoo.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka State (India); Kamath, Asha, E-mail: aashakamat@gmail.com [Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, A Constituent College of Manipal University (India)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: We aimed to measure early fetal growth velocity and to correlate this with the birth weight, gestational age at delivery, and with the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes specifically preeclampsia and perinatal mortality. Methods: A data based prospective observational study, wherein sonographic biometry data and specific pregnancy outcome related data were collected from pregnant women's records, starting soon after their first antenatal visit. Early fetal growth velocity was measured using BPD growth between 11 and 14 weeks scan and anomaly scan and standardizing this by Z scoring. Results: Out of 607 fetuses, 41 (6.7%) were slow growing, 531 (87.4%) normally growing, and 35 (5.7%) fast growing (Z scoring <10th{sup ,} 10–90th, and >90th percentiles respectively). As fetal growth velocity increased, the mean birth weight decreased from 2958.7 ± 388.9 (<10th centile), 2742.1 ± 576.6 (10–90th centile), to 2339.3 ± 729.4 (>90th centile); and gestational age at delivery decreased from 38.5 ± 1.3 (<10th centile), 37.5 ± 2.1 (10–90th centile), to 36.4 ± 2.2 (>90th centile), and both these trends were statistically significant (p < 0.001).Faster growing fetuses had a higher risk of preterm delivery(spontaneous + indicated) compared to other 2 groups [OR 4.42 (2.18,8.98)], and slower growing fetuses had a higher risk of postdated deliveries compared to other 2 groups [OR 3.042 (1.44, 6.45)].We found no significant association between early fetal growth velocity and incidence of small for gestational age at birth/low birth weight at term, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality. Conclusions: Early fetal growth velocity between first and second trimesters, may be one of the important factors influencing ultimate birthweight and gestational age at delivery.

  20. CFD simulations of enhanced condensational growth (ECG) applied to respiratory drug delivery with comparisons to in vitro data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, P. Worth; Hindle, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced condensational growth (ECG) is a newly proposed concept for respiratory drug delivery in which a submicrometer aerosol is inhaled in combination with saturated or supersaturated water vapor. The initially small aerosol size provides for very low extrathoracic deposition, whereas condensation onto droplets in vivo results in size increase and improved lung retention. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a CFD model of ECG in a simple tubular geometry with direct comparisons to in vitro results. The length (29 cm) and diameter (2 cm) of the tubular geometry were representative of respiratory airways of an adult from the mouth to the first tracheobronchial bifurcation. At the model inlet, separate streams of humidified air (25, 30, and 39 °C) and submicrometer aerosol droplets with mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) of 150, 560, and 900 nm were combined. The effects of condensation and droplet growth on water vapor concentrations and temperatures in the continuous phase (i.e., two-way coupling) were also considered. For an inlet saturated air temperature of 39 °C, the two-way coupled numerical (and in vitro) final aerosol MMADs for initial sizes of 150, 560, and 900 nm were 1.75 μm (vs. 1.23 μm), 2.58 μm (vs. 2.66 μm), and 2.65 μm (vs. 2.63 μm), respectively. By including the effects of two-way coupling in the model, agreements with the in vitro results were significantly improved compared with a one-way coupled assumption. Results indicated that both mass and thermal two-way coupling effects were important in the ECG process. Considering the initial aerosol sizes of 560 and 900 nm, the final sizes were most influenced by inlet saturated air temperature and aerosol number concentration and were not largely influenced by initial size. Considering the growth of submicrometer aerosols to above 2 μm at realistic number concentrations, ECG may be an effective respiratory drug delivery approach for minimizing mouth

  1. Biodegradable chitosan scaffolds containing microspheres as carriers for controlled transforming growth factor-β1 delivery for cartilage tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Dao-zhang; ZENG Chun; QUAN Da-ping; BU Li-si; WANG Kun; LU Hua-ding; LI Xiao-feng

    2007-01-01

    Background Natural articular cartilage has a limited capacity for spontaneous regeneration. Controlled release of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) to cartilage defects can enhance chondrogenesis. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using biodegradable chitosan microspheres as carriers for controlled TGF-β1 delivery and the effect of released TGF-β1 on the chondrogenic potential of chondrocytes.Methods Chitosan scaffolds and chitosan microspheres loaded with TGF-β1 were prepared by the freeze-drying and the emulsion-crosslinking method respectively. In vitro drug release kinetics, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was monitored for 7 days. Lysozyme degradation was performed for 4 weeks to detect in vitro degradability of the scaffolds and the microspheres. Rabbit chondrocytes were seeded on the scaffolds containing TGF-β1 microspheres and incubated in vitro for 3 weeks. Histological examination and type Ⅱ collagen immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate the effects of released TGF-β1 on cell adhesivity, proliferation and synthesis of the extracellular matrix.Results TGF-β1 was encapsulated into chitosan microspheres and the encapsulation efficiency of TGF-β1 was high (90.1%). During 4 weeks of incubation in lysozyme solution for in vitro degradation, the mass of both the scaffolds and the microspheres decreased continuously and significant morphological changes was noticed. From the release experiments, it was found that TGF-β1 could be released from the microspheres in a multiphasic fashion including an initial burst phase, a slow linear release phase and a plateau phase. The release amount of TGF-β1 was 37.4%, 50.7%,61.3%, and 63.5% for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days respectively. At 21 days after cultivation, type Ⅱ collagen immunohistochemical staining was performed. The mean percentage of positive cells for collagen type Ⅱ in control group (32.7%± 10.4%) was significantly lower than that in the controlled

  2. Immunohistochemical structural pecularities of uterine tube of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лариса Сергеевна Куприянова

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim - immunohistochemical detection of structural features of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection.Methods: anthropometric, macroscopic, organometric, histological, immunohistochemical, statistical.Object of research - the uterine tubes of antenatal dead fetuses. The control group consisted of 25 fetuses of healthy mothers; the comparison group is 15 fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Fetal infection confirmed by laboratory methods; the presence of TORCH infections, cytomegalovirus, herpes infection and chlamydial infection is determined.Results: indicators of weight and body length of the fetus of the comparison group were significantly reduced. Unidirectional changes are established in the definition of the mass and the length of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Massive growth of connective tissue in the mucosa, the mucous membrane and muscle membrane of wall of the uterine tube of fetus in the comparison group is shown by histological methods. Violation of collagen formation in the connective tissue in the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection is found by immunohistochemistry method.Conclusions: The reduction of anthropometric and organometric indicators in fetuses of comparison group is shown. Sclerosis and atrophy, as well as violations of collagen-synthesizing function are predominated in the main structural components of the wall of the uterine tube of fetuses in the comparison group. The revealed changes in the future ontogenesis may lead to the development of primary infertility

  3. Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Epidermal Growth Factor: Revisiting the Local Delivery Route for a Successful Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Berlanga-Acosta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soon after epidermal growth factor (EGF discovery, some in vivo models appeared demonstrating its property to enhance cutaneous wound healing. EGF was the first growth factor (GF introduced in the clinical arena as a healing enhancer, exerting its mitogenic effects on epithelial, fibroblastoid, and endothelial cells via a tyrosine kinase membrane receptor. Compelling evidences from the 90s documented that, for EGF, locally prolonged bioavailability and hourly interaction with the receptor were necessary for a successful tissue response. Eventually, the enthusiasm on the clinical use of EGF to steer the healing process was wiped out as the topical route to deliver proteins started to be questioned. The simultaneous in vivo experiments, emphasizing the impact of the parenterally administered EGF on epithelial and nonepithelial organs in terms of mitogenesis and cytoprotection, rendered the theoretical fundamentals for the injectable use of EGF and shaped the hypothesis that locally infiltrating the diabetic ulcers would lead to an effective healing. Although the diabetic chronic wounds microenvironment is hostile for local GFs bioavailability, EGF local infiltration circumvented the limitations of its topical application, thus expanding its therapeutic prospect. Our clinical pharmacovigilance and basic studies attest the significance of the GF local infiltration for chronic wounds healing.

  4. How to monitor pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction and delivery before 32 weeks : Post-hoc analysis of TRUFFLE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevoort, W.; Van Charante, N. Mensing; Thilaganathan, B.; Prefumo, F.; Arabin, B.; Bilardo, C. M.; Brezinka, C.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, J. J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T. M.; Todros, T.; Valcamonico, A.; Visser, G. H. A.; Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Lees, C. C.; Wolf, H.

    Objectives In the recent TRUFFLE study, it appeared that, in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR) between 26 and 32 weeks' gestation, monitoring of the fetal ductus venosus (DV) waveform combined with computed cardiotocography (CTG) to determine timing of delivery increased the

  5. Effective Delivery of Doxycycline and Epidermal Growth Factor for Expedited Healing of Chronic Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Abhilash

    The problems and high medical costs associated with chronic wounds necessitate an economical bioactive wound dressing. A new strategy was investigated to inhibit MMP-9 proteases and to release epidermal growth factor (EGF) to enhance healing. Doxycycline (DOX) and EGF were encapsulated on polyacrylic acid modified polyurethane film (PAA-PU) using Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly. The number of bilayers tuned the concentration of DOX and EGF released over time with over 94% bioactivity of EGF retained over 4 days. A simple wound model in which MMP-9 proteases were added to cell culture containing fibroblast cells demonstrated that DOX inhibited the proteases providing a protective environment for the released EGF to stimulate cell migration and proliferation at a faster healing rate. In the presence of DOX, only small amounts of the highly bioactive EGF are sufficient to close the wound. Results show that this is new and promising bioactive dressing for effective wound management.

  6. Therapeutic silence of pleiotrophin by targeted delivery of siRNA and its effect on the inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Lisha; He, Lichun; Xie, Weidong; Cheng, Jin; Li, Tong; Mohsen, Mona O; Lei, Fan; Storni, Federico; Bachmann, Martin; Chen, Hongquan; Zhang, Yaou

    2017-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted cytokine that is expressed in various cancer cell lines and human tumor such as colon cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer and melanoma. It plays significant roles in angiogenesis, metastasis, differentiation and cell growth. The expression of PTN in the adult is limited to the hippocampus in an activity-dependent manner, making it a very attractive target for cancer therapy. RNA interference (RNAi) offers great potential as a new powerful therapeutic strategy based on its highly specific and efficient silencing of a target gene. However, efficient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vivo remains a significant hurdle for its successful therapeutic application. In this study, we first identified, on a cell-based experiment, applying a 1:1 mixture of two PTN specific siRNA engenders a higher silencing efficiency on both mRNA and protein level than using any of them discretely at the same dose. As a consequence, slower melanoma cells growth was also observed for using two specific siRNA combinatorially. To establish a robust way for siRNA delivery in vivo and further investigate how silence of PTN affects tumor growth, we tested three different methods to deliver siRNA in vivo: first non-targeted in-vivo delivery of siRNA via jetPEI; second lung targeted delivery of siRNA via microbubble coated jetPEI; third tumor cell targeted delivery of siRNA via transferrin-polyethylenimine (Tf-PEI). As a result, we found that all three in-vivo siRNAs delivery methods led to an evident inhibition of melanoma growth in non-immune deficiency C57BL/6 mice without a measureable change of ALT and AST activities. Both targeted delivery methods showed more significant curative effect than jetPEI. The lung targeted delivery by microbubble coated jetPEI revealed a comparable therapeutic effect with Tf-PEI, indicating its potential application for target delivery of siRNA in vivo.

  7. Therapeutic silence of pleiotrophin by targeted delivery of siRNA and its effect on the inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weidong; Cheng, Jin; Li, Tong; Mohsen, Mona O.; Lei, Fan; Storni, Federico; Bachmann, Martin; Chen, Hongquan; Zhang, Yaou

    2017-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted cytokine that is expressed in various cancer cell lines and human tumor such as colon cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer and melanoma. It plays significant roles in angiogenesis, metastasis, differentiation and cell growth. The expression of PTN in the adult is limited to the hippocampus in an activity-dependent manner, making it a very attractive target for cancer therapy. RNA interference (RNAi) offers great potential as a new powerful therapeutic strategy based on its highly specific and efficient silencing of a target gene. However, efficient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vivo remains a significant hurdle for its successful therapeutic application. In this study, we first identified, on a cell-based experiment, applying a 1:1 mixture of two PTN specific siRNA engenders a higher silencing efficiency on both mRNA and protein level than using any of them discretely at the same dose. As a consequence, slower melanoma cells growth was also observed for using two specific siRNA combinatorially. To establish a robust way for siRNA delivery in vivo and further investigate how silence of PTN affects tumor growth, we tested three different methods to deliver siRNA in vivo: first non-targeted in-vivo delivery of siRNA via jetPEI; second lung targeted delivery of siRNA via microbubble coated jetPEI; third tumor cell targeted delivery of siRNA via transferrin-polyethylenimine (Tf-PEI). As a result, we found that all three in-vivo siRNAs delivery methods led to an evident inhibition of melanoma growth in non-immune deficiency C57BL/6 mice without a measureable change of ALT and AST activities. Both targeted delivery methods showed more significant curative effect than jetPEI. The lung targeted delivery by microbubble coated jetPEI revealed a comparable therapeutic effect with Tf-PEI, indicating its potential application for target delivery of siRNA in vivo. PMID:28562667

  8. Chronic myeloid leukemia with pregnancy: Successful management of pregnancy and delivery with hydroxyurea and imatinib continued till delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concomitant occurrence of pregnancy and chronic myeloid leukemia is uncommon. We describe the successful management of a 30-year-old G3 P0, A2 woman who was diagnosed to have chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML in the third trimester of her pregnancy with intra-uterine growth retardation and oligohydroamnios. She was started on hydroxyurea and imatinib, and was continued till delivery and beyond. The use of imatinib did not have any adverse effects on the fetus, except for low birth weight and low APGAR at birth, but the later progress of the child was normal. We conclude that imatinib and hydroxyurea can be continued even at the third trimester in a pregnant lady with CML, if necessary.

  9. Chronic myeloid leukemia with pregnancy: Successful management of pregnancy and delivery with hydroxyurea and imatinib continued till delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Usha; Solanki, Sohan Lal; Yadav, Rupesh

    2013-01-01

    The concomitant occurrence of pregnancy and chronic myeloid leukemia is uncommon. We describe the successful management of a 30-year-old G3 P0, A2 woman who was diagnosed to have chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in the third trimester of her pregnancy with intra-uterine growth retardation and oligohydroamnios. She was started on hydroxyurea and imatinib, and was continued till delivery and beyond. The use of imatinib did not have any adverse effects on the fetus, except for low birth weight and low APGAR at birth, but the later progress of the child was normal. We conclude that imatinib and hydroxyurea can be continued even at the third trimester in a pregnant lady with CML, if necessary.

  10. Delivery of a transforming growth factor β-1 plasmid to mesenchymal stem cells via cationized Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng WW

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wen Wen Deng*, Xia Cao*, Miao Wang*, Rui Qu, Wei Yan Su, Yan Yang, Ya Wei Wei, Xi Ming Xu, Jiang Nan YuDepartment of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy and Center for Nano Drug/Gene Delivery and Tissue Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of cationized Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharide (CPEPS as a nonviral gene delivery vehicle to transfer plasmid DNA encoding transforming growth factor beta-1 (pTGF-β1 into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in vitro. Crude P. eryngii polysaccharide was purified, and then cationized by grafting spermine onto the backbone of the polysaccharide. Agarose gel electrophoresis, transmission electron microscopy, and a Nano Sense Zetasizer (Malvern Instruments, Malvern, UK were used to characterize the CPEPS-pTGF-β1 nanoparticles. The findings of cytotoxicity analysis showed that when the nanoparticles were formulated with a CPEPS/pTGF-β1 weight ratio ≥ 10:1, a greater gel retardation effect was observed during agarose gel electrophoresis. The CPEPS-pTGF-β1 nanoparticles with a weight ratio of 20:1, respectively, possessed an average particle size of 80.8 nm in diameter and a zeta potential of +17.4 ± 0.1 mV. Significantly, these CPEPS-pTGF-β1 nanoparticles showed lower cytotoxicity and higher transfection efficiency than both polyethylenimine (25 kDa (P = 0.006, Student’s t-test and LipofectamineTM 2000 (P = 0.002, Student’st-test. Additionally, the messenger RNA expression level of TGF-β1 in MSCs transfected with CPEPS-pTGF-β1 nanoparticles was significantly higher than that of free plasmid DNA-transfected MSCs and slightly elevated compared with that of Lipofectamine 2000-transfected MSCs. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that 92.38% of MSCs were arrested in the G1 phase after being transfected with CPEPS-pTGF-β1 nanoparticles, indicating a tendency toward

  11. A Case Control Study to Elucidate Maternal Determinants of Intra Uterine Growth Retardation in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Sagar City of Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Shikha , Pandey Ramesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the maternal determinants of intrauterine growth retardation among cases admitted for delivery in Bundelkhand Medical College, Sagar. Methods: A Case-control study was conducted in the year January 2010 to December 2010 in Bundelkhand Medical College (BMC Sagar M.P. The participants included mothers who underwent normal delivery in BMC Sagar. Mother's age, parity, maternal height, maternal weight, body mass index, hemoglobin level during pregnancy, birth weight of the baby were considered as study variables. Intrauterine growth retardation was taken as outcome variable. Chi square test. OR's with 95% CI was used as the method of statistical analysis. Results: Significant risk factors identified in univariate analysis included maternal height (<145 cm s., maternal weight (<45 kg s., body mass index (<18.5 and anemia in pregnancy. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that maternal age (>30 years, primiparity, maternal height (<145cms. maternal weight (<45 kg s., anemia in pregnancy (Hb <11gm % is the significant risk factors of intrauterine growth retardation.

  12. Growth inhibition in a brain metastasis model by antibody delivery using focused ultrasound-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Thiele; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K; Zhang, Yongzhi; McDannold, Nathan J

    2016-09-28

    HER2-targeting antibodies (i.e. trastuzumab and pertuzumab) prolong survival in HER2-positive breast cancer patients with extracranial metastases. However, the response of brain metastases to these drugs is poor, and it is hypothesized that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits drug delivery to the brain. We investigated whether we could improve the response by temporary disruption of the BBB using focused ultrasound in combination with microbubbles. To study this, we inoculated 30 nude rats with HER2-positive cells derived from a brain metastasis of a breast cancer patient (MDA-MB-361). The animals were divided into three groups: a control-group that received no treatment; an antibody-only group that received six weekly treatments of trastuzumab and pertuzumab; and an ultrasound+antibody group that received trastuzumab and pertuzumab in combination with six weekly sessions of BBB disruption using focused ultrasound. In two animals, the leakiness of the tumors before disruption was evaluated using contrast-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and found that the tumors were not leaky. The same technique was used to evaluate the effectiveness of BBB disruption, which was successful in all sessions. The tumor in the control animals grew exponentially with a growth constant of 0.042±0.011mm(3)/day. None of the antibody-only animals responded to the treatment and the growth constant was 0.033±0.009mm(3)/day during the treatment period. Four of the ten animals in the ultrasound+antibody-group showed a response to the treatment with an average growth constant of 0.010±0.007mm(3)/day, compared to a growth constant 0.043±0.013mm(3)/day for the six non-responders. After the treatment period, the tumors in all groups grew at similar rates. As the tumors were not leaky before BBB disruption and there were no responders in the antibody-only group, these results show that at least in some cases disruption of the BBB is necessary for a response to the antibodies in

  13. Sigmoid Colon Migration of an Intrauterine Device

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    Funda Akpinar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intrauterine devices (IUD are commonly used birth control methods. Colonic perforation is an infrequent but serious complication of IUD. Case. A 34-year-old woman with 2-years history of IUD, inserted at early puerperal period, presented to gynecologist with chronic pelvic pain and dyspareunia. Radiological assessment revealed that there were two copper-T devices: one in uterine cavity and another in the colonic lumen. Attempts of retrieval with colonoscopy and laparoscopy were unsuccessful. Intrauterine device embedded in sigmoid colon wall was removed with resection of the involved segment and primary anastomosis was performed. Conclusion. Although there are cases in literature that are successfully managed with colonoscopy, in chronic cases, formation of granulation tissue complicates retrieval of an IUD by this intervention.

  14. Modern Intrauterine Contraception: a Better Option

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Users of oral contraceptives have an increased risk of developing venous throm boembolism as well as mammary cancer. This raises the question as to whether locally applied (intrauterine) contraceptives can offer a valuable alternative with respect to efficiency and safety. During the past decade the use of modern intrauterine devices (IUDs) has made substantial progress in comparison with the IUDs during the 1970s and 1980s. Modern IUDs have become more efficient than oral contraception. Argu ments against the use of IUDs (problems and complications in IUD insertion, the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and infertility as well as side effects such as menorrhagia, pelvic cramps and IUD expulsion) generally appear to be based on a lack of awareness with respect to recent developments and on misunder standings derived from bad experiences during the 1980s and earlier.

  15. Hemodynamic study of fetal artery and vein in intrauterine growth retardation by color Doppler ultrasound%彩色多普勒超声对宫内发育迟缓胎儿动静脉的血流动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳红; 陈怡

    2011-01-01

    Objective To detect the hemodynamic parameters of fetal artery and vein in intrauterine growth retardation ( IUGR ) by color Doppler ultrasound. Methods The blood flow volume of fetal ductus venosus and umbilical vein were measured, the blood flow volume ratio of ductus venosus was calculated. The PI, RI and S/D of fetal umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery( MCA ) and renal artery were measured, the results were analyzed. Results Compared with control group, the PI, RI and S/D of umbilical artery and RI of renal artery in IUGR group were increased significantly, while the PI, RI and S/D of MCA were decreased significantly, ratio of ductus venosus was increased significantly( P<0. 05 ). Conclusion Color Doppler ultrasound can comprehensively detect fetal hemodynamic changes, which can overall and objectively evaluate the fetal blood supplement and predict the conditions of intrauterine anoxia and IUGR.%目的 应用彩色多普勒超声检测宫内发育迟缓(IUGR)胎儿动静脉的血流动力学参数.方法 测量胎儿静脉导管和脐静脉的血流量,计算静脉导管(DV)分流率;测量胎儿脐动脉、大脑中动脉(MCA)、肾动脉的搏动指数(PI)、阻力指数(RI)及脐动脉收缩期最大流速与舒张末期流速的比值(S/D),结果进行对比分析.结果 与对照组比较,IUGR组胎儿脐动脉的PI、RI、S/D及肾动脉的RI显著增高,MCA的PI、RI及S/D显著减低,DV分流率显著增加,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 彩色多普勒超声通过综合监测胎儿血流动力学变化,可以全面、客观地评价胎儿的供血情况,预测胎儿宫内缺氧和IUCR情况.

  16. Characterization of biofilm formed on intrauterine devices

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intrauterine device (IUD) is one of the most convenient contraceptive procedures used by women of Asian and African countries. Previous surveys have revealed that 75% of the IUDs recovered from patients suffering from reproductive tract infections (RTIs) were covered with a consortium of microbes. This study was designed to characterize these microbes and recommend remedial measures. METHODS: Quantitative measurement of biofilm formation was assessed by a microtitre plate assa...

  17. Intrauterine Device Removal after 22 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Boryri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IUD T380A is one of the most effective, reversible, long term methods of contraception all over the world based on the experience of World Health Organization and our own observation of women who continued to use the IUD beyond 10 years or even longer years. In this article one case of Intrauterine device removal after 22 years is reported without complications and pregnancy.

  18. Intrauterine contraception: the pendulum swings back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIsaac, Laura; Espey, Eve

    2007-03-01

    Intrauterine contraception is the most widely used method of reversible fertility regulation in the world. Finally, IUC is undergoing a renaissance in the US and it's role will expand as new devices and systems are developed and as old biases among clinicians and women are erased. Successful fertility regulation is a defining factor of the overall health of a population; the expanded use of IUC can help achieve that public health success.

  19. Intrauterine devices & infection: Review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between use of an intrauterine device (IUD) and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has been studied extensively over the past 50 years. Previous research has led to considerable controversy and debate. Numerous limitations in the studies make it difficult to draw any firm conclusions from the past research or to design new approaches to study the topic. The main research barriers include uncertainty of infection/diagnoses, and inappropriate comparison groups for IUD users. Nat...

  20. Female pelvic actinomycosis and intrauterine contraceptive devices

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Faustino R Pérez-López1,2, José J Tobajas1,3, Peter Chedraui41Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza; 2Hospital Clínico Lozano Blesa; 3Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain; 4Enrique C. Sotomayor Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Guayaquil, EcuadorAbstract: Female genital Actinomyces infection is relatively rare, although strongly related to long-lasting intrauterine contraceptive dev...

  1. Effects of levonorgestrel intrauterine system on the expressions of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1%左炔诺孕酮宫内释放系统对雌激素受体、孕激素受体及胰岛素样生长因子-1的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓杰; 刘霞; 金小英; 徐兴云

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of levonorgestrel intrauterine system on estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR),insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) of endometrial polyps and surrounding endometrial tissue.Methods A total of 250 cases of hysteroscopic resection for endometrial polyps were divided into study group (n =125) with placement of levonorgestrel intrauterine system after hysteroscopic electroresection and control group (n =125) without placement.The intraoperative and postoperative expressions of ER,PR and IGF-1 in endometrial biopsy specimens were measured by immunohistochemistry.They were followed up for 2 years to analyze the recurrence of endometrial polyp.Results All patients had successful surgery.When intraoperative and postoperative specimens were compared with regards to the expressions of ER,PR and IGF-1,significant differences existed between two groups.During a 2-year follow-up,the recurrence of endometrial polyp was 10.89% in control group versus 0 in study group.Conclusion Levonorgestrel intrauterine system may inhibit the recurrence and formation of endometrial polyp through lowering the expressions of ER,PR and IGF-1.%目的 研究左炔诺孕酮宫内释放系统对子宫内膜息肉局部及周围内膜组织雌激素受体(ER)、孕激素受体(PR)、胰岛素样生长因子(IGF)的影响.方法 选取2010至2011年在浙江省嘉兴市妇幼保健院行宫腔镜下子宫内膜息肉切除术患者,共250例.随机分组为研究组(106例)和对照组(125例).研究组术后子宫内即时放置左炔诺孕酮宫内释放系统,而对照组不予放置.分别对术中内膜组织及术后6个月子宫内膜活体组织检查,通过免疫组化方法对ER、PR、IGF-1的表达情况进行对比,且追踪随访2年,了解患者子宫内膜息肉复发情况.结果 所有患者均手术成功,研究组内膜组织对比发现ER、PR、IGF-1表达术后明显低于术中,差异有统计学意义.对照组术中及术

  2. The study of effect of levonorgestrel intrauterine system on the expres-sions of insulin-like growth factor-1 with endometrial polyps%子宫内膜息肉术后放置左炔诺孕酮宫内释放系统对IGF-1的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶跃平; 吴晓杰

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究左炔诺孕酮宫内释放系统对子宫内膜息肉患者子宫内膜组织胰岛素样生长因子-1(IGF-1)表达的影响。方法选取2010年1月~2011年12月期间行宫腔镜下子宫内膜息肉切除术182例患者为研究对象,将其随机分为对照组(常规治疗组)94例和研究组(宫内放置左炔诺孕酮宫内释放系统)88例。后通过免疫组化法将术中内膜组织及术后6个月子宫内膜活检IGF-1的表达情况进行对比,且追踪随访2年,观察患者子宫内膜息肉复发情况。结果研究组内膜组织IGF-1表达研究组术后明显低于术中,差异有统计学意义,对照组IGF-1的表达变化无差异性。随访2年对照组87例患者中7例子宫内膜息肉复发,复发率为8.05%,而研究组无一例复发,差异有统计学意义。结论左炔诺孕酮宫内释放系统可能通过抑制子宫内膜的IGF-1来降低子宫内膜息肉复发。%Objective To study levonorgestrel intrauterine system on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in endometri-um tissue for patients with endometrial polyps. Methods All 182 patients with endometrial polyps in our hospital from January 2010 to December 2011 were selected as research object, and randomly divided into control group(routine treatment group)94 cases and observation group(levonorgestrel intrauterine system in uterus group)88 cases. The IGF-1 expression of endometrial biopsy specimens during intraoperative and rechected after 6 months were measurd by im-munohistochemistry. Patients were followed up for 2 years to analyse endometrial polyp recurrence. Results The ex-pressions of IGF-1 decreased significant in endometrium tissue of observation group with operation. But there were no significant differences in control group. Followed up for 2 years, the endometrial polyp recurrence was 8.05% in control group and without recurrence in study group. Conclusion Levonorgestrel intrauterine system may be involved in

  3. Controlled delivery of platelet-derived growth factor-BB from injectable microsphere/hydrogel composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua; Liu, Jiaoyan; Wu, Jingjing; Wan, Ying; Chen, Yun

    2016-12-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PGDF-BB) loaded gelatin microspheres with an average size of about 2μm was incorporated into chitosan/silk fibroin/glycerophosphate (GP) solutions to prepare composites. The formulated composite solutions were able to form into hydrogels in a temperature range between 32 and 37°C at a pH of ca.7. They had good fluidity at 25°C and showed shear-thinning features at both 25 and 37°C, revealing that they are injectable at room temperature. Elastic modulus of some composites at 37°C was about 10-fold higher than that of chitosan/GP gel, confirming that these composites behave like mechanically strong gels. Optimal composites showed abilities to administrate PDGF-BB release in an approximately linear manner up to 5 weeks. The PDGF-BB release could be regulated by the PDGF-BB load and the silk fibroin content in the composites in an individual or cooperative way. In vivo degradation of composites demonstrated that some of them had markedly enhanced degradation endurance as compared to the chitosan/GP gel. PDGF-BB-stimulated DNA synthesis in Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts and PDGF-BB-induced cell migration suggested that the bioactivity of released PDGF-BB was well retained.

  4. Recombinant modular transporters on the basis of epidermal growth factor for targeted intracellular delivery of photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilyazova, Dinara G.; Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Gulak, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir G.; Sergienko, Olga V.; Grin, Mikhail A.; Mironov, Andrey F.; Rubin, Andrey B.; Sobolev, Alexander S.

    2005-08-01

    The search for new pharmaceuticals has raised interest in locally-acting drugs which act over short distances within the cell, and for which different cell compartments have different sensitivities. Thus, photosensitizers used in anti-cancer therapy should be transported to the most sensitive subcellular compartments where their action is most pronounced. Earlier, we described the effects of bacterially expressed modular recombinant transporters for photosensitizers comprising a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone as an internalizable, cell-specific ligand, an optimized nuclear localization sequence, an Escherichia coli hemoglobin-like protein as a carrier, and an endosomolytic amphipathic polypeptide. These transporters delivered photosensitizers into the murine melanoma cells nuclei to result in cytotoxic effects 2 orders of magnitude greater than those of nonmodified photosensitizers. Here we describe new transporters possessing the same modules except for a ligand that is replaced with epidermal growth factor specific for other cancer cell types. The new transporter modules retained their functional activities within the chimera, this transporter delivered photosensitizers into the human carcinoma cells nuclei to result in photocytotoxic effects almost 3 orders of magnitude greater than those of nonmodified photosensitizers. The obtained results show that ligand modules of such transporters are interchangeable, meaning that they can be tailored for particular applications.

  5. 孕鼠补充牛磺酸促进生长受限胎鼠神经元与神经干细胞增殖的最佳时机%Optimal timing of antenatal taurine supplementation for improvement of neuron and neural stem cell proliferation in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽芳; 李芳; 刘敬; 王华伟

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the optimal timing of antenatal taurine supplementation to improve neuron and neural stem cell proliferation in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.Methods Twenty-five pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into five groups (five rats in each group): group A was the control group, group B to E were the fetal growth restriction (FGR) model groups with low-protein diet during the experiment, group C, D, and E were supplemented with taurine [300 mg/(kg·d)] at day 9, 11 and 15, respectively. The birth weight of newborn rats was measured after natural delivery. The rats with body weight two standard deviations lower than the average weight in group A were diagnosed as FGR. There were five litters of newborn rats in each group, and two were randomly selected from each litter, resulting in ten newborn rats in each group. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7) positive cell expression in newborn rat brain tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Single factor analysis of variance, LSD tests were used for statistical analysis.ResultsThe average birth weight of newborn rats in group A, B, C, D and E were (6.61±0.45), (4.65±0.23), (5.37±0.17), (5.74±0.21), and (5.00±0.24) g, respectively. Average birth weight was lower in group B than in group A (t=2.447), higher in group D and E than in group B (t=2.306 and 2.306), higher in group D than in group C and E (t=2.306 and 2.306), and the differences were statistically significant (allP0.05). The IOD in group D was higher than that in group E, and the difference was statistically significant (t=4.182,P<0.05).ConclusionsAntenatal taurine supplementation can promote neuron and neural stem cell proliferation in rats with FGR. The effect is most obvious on the 11th day of pregnancy, and may lead to the promotion of brain development.%目的:探讨孕鼠补充牛磺酸促进胎儿生长受限(fetal growth restriction,FGR)胎鼠神经元

  6. PREGNANCY AND DELIVERY OF ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Palancsai Šiftar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood. In adolescence a higher incidence of complications in pregnancy and during labour is noted, especially a higher number of preeclampsia, anemia, preterm labours, very low birth-weight infants and/or too small for gestational age infants. However, where antenatal care has been given more attention, the number of the above mentioned complications in the course of pregnancy and labour has in adolescents not been so high.In the region of Pomurje there is a lot of primiparous adolescents under twenty years of age in comparison to other regions of Slovenia. In the present work I have investigated the complications in pregnancy, during labour, with newborns and the characterictics of antenatal care for adolescents.Methods. The analysis is based on the data taken from the Perinatal Informational System of Slovenia for the six years (1987–1992. The register is uniform for the total teritory of Slovenia since 1986. The data collected are the data about the pregnancy and delivery, about post-delivery period and about the newborn. In the study group the primiparous adolescents, aged up to 19 years were included. The control group consisted of primiparas in the age group 20–34 years.Results. The study included 3553 primiparas. There were 786 (22.1% primiparus adolescents in the study group; and 2767 (77.9% women aged 20–34 years in the control group. The results show that the number of labours decreased in both the study and the control group. Adolescents care less for antenatal examinations, a higher percentage of them is single and have accomplished fewer years of education. In pregnancy the incidence of anemia is higher, and the percent of intrauterine growth retardation is significantly higher in the control group. In the studygroup the onset of labour is more often spontaneous with contractions, and the number of preterm labours is higher too. Birth weight of newborns of

  7. Ectopic Intrauterine Device in the Bladder of a Pregnant Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Kurdoglu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Uterine perforation and transvesical migration of an intrauterine device are rare complications. Case. A 28-year-old woman who had an intrauterine device was admitted to our outpatient clinic with complaints of amenorrhea lasting 5 weeks and pelvic pain lasting a year. Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed embedding of the intrauterine device in the bladder. The misplaced device was removed by laparotomy. Conclusion. The followup of intrauterine device localization with transvaginal ultrasonography is essential for early detection of possible serious complications.

  8. A suspicious reason for Raynaud's phenomenon: Intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Adem I; Yalçınkaya, Adnan; Aksoy, Eray; Yılmaz, Seyhan; Çağlı, Kerim

    2015-06-01

    Primary Raynaud's phenomenon may be insistent in patients under medical therapy, and intrauterine devices may be an unnoticed reason in these patients. Fluctuations in female sex hormone status were reported to be associated with the emergence of primary Raynaud's phenomenon symptoms. The use of intrauterine devices was not reported to be associated with Raynaud's phenomenon previously. Intrauterine device may stimulate vascular hyperactivity regarding hormonal or unknown mechanisms that result in Raynaud's phenomenon. We present a postmenopausal patient who complained of primary Raynaud's phenomenon symptoms and had recovery after the removal of her copper intrauterine device.

  9. Effect of Supplement of Soya Lecithine on Mucosal Anti-Oxidation and Heat Shock Protein 70 Content in Intrauterine Growth Retardation Piglets%大豆卵磷脂对子宫内发育迟缓仔猪肠道抗氧化和热休克蛋白70表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远孝; 张莉莉; 周根来; 王恬

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究大豆卵磷脂(soya lecithine,SL)对子宫内发育迟缓(intrauterine growth retardation,IUGR)猪肠道生长、黏膜氧化应激(oxidative stress,OS)和热休克蛋白70(heat shock protein,HSP70)表达的影响.[方法]试验共选用12头7d IUGR仔猪和6头正常体重(NBW)仔猪,所有IUGR仔猪随机分成两组(n=6),分别饲喂基础人工乳(IUGR组)和添加1.5%SL的人工乳(IUGR+SL组),所有NBW仔猪饲喂基础人工乳(NBW组,n=6),试验期7d.[结果]IUGR显著降低14d仔猪空肠及其非黏膜绝对重量(P<0.05),降低空肠黏膜总抗氧化能力(T-AOC),谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GPx)活性(P<0.05),升高MDA水平(P<0.05),黏膜HSP70的ELISA和免疫印迹法检测结果均显著升高(P<0.05).IUGR猪补充SL后,空肠肠段、黏膜和非黏膜绝对和相对重量均显著升高(P<0.05);空肠黏膜T-AOC、GPx和SOD显著升高(P<0.05),而MDA显著下降(P<0.05);ELISA检测结果显示HSP70蛋白水平显著降低(P<0.05),且与SL添加水平呈显著负相关(P<0.05).[结论]补充SL对恢复IUGR导致的仔猪肠道组织生长缓慢、HSP70表达升高和OS损伤有很好的效果.%[Objective] The effects of supplement of soya lecithine (SL) on intestinal growth, mucosal heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and oxidation stress (OS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) piglets were studied. [Method] Twelve IUGR piglets and six piglets with normal birth weight were selected. All piglets were weaned on 7th d of age, and assigned equally to three groups: six NBW and six IUGR piglets were fed with control diet (IUGR), and six IUGR piglets were fed with diet supplemented with 1.5% SL (IUGR+SL) for 7 days. [ Result ] IUGR decreased (P<0.05) the absolute weigh of jejunal segment and non-mucosa. reduced (P<0.05) the mucosal capacity of total anti-oxidation (T-AOC), as well as the activity of GR and GPx, and elevated (P<0.05) the content of MDA. The mucosal HSP70 contents

  10. Tumor growth suppression by gadolinium-neutron capture therapy using gadolinium-entrapped liposome as gadolinium delivery agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Novriana; Yanagie, Hironobu; Zhu, Haito; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Sekino, Masaki; Sakurai, Yuriko; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Iyomoto, Naoko; Nagasaki, Takeshi; Horiguchi, Yukichi; Nagasaki, Yukio; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2013-07-01

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is a promising non-invasive cancer therapy approach and some recent NCT research has focused on using compounds containing gadolinium as an alternative to currently used boron-10 considering several advantages that gadolinium offers compared to those of boron. In this study, we evaluated gadolinium-entrapped liposome compound as neutron capture therapy agent by in vivo experiment on colon-26 tumor-bearing mice. Gadolinium compound were injected intravenously via tail vein and allowed to accumulate into tumor site. Tumor samples were taken for quantitative analysis by ICP-MS at 2, 12, and 24 h after gadolinium compound injection. Highest gadolinium concentration was observed at about 2 h after gadolinium compound injection with an average of 40.3 μg/g of wet tumor tissue. We performed neutron irradiation at JRR-4 reactor facility of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in Tokaimura with average neutron fluence of 2×10¹² n/cm². The experimental results showed that the tumor growth suppression of gadolinium-injected irradiated group was revealed until about four times higher compared to the control group, and no significant weight loss were observed after treatment suggesting low systemic toxicity of this compound. The gadolinium-entrapped liposome will become one of the candidates for Gd delivery system on NCT.

  11. Effects of nerve growth factor delivery via a gel to inferior alveolar nerve in mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Cao, Jian; Lei, De-lin; Cheng, Xiao-bing; Yang, Yao-wu; Hou, Rui; Zhao, Ying-hua; Cui, Fu-zhai

    2009-11-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury is a concern in mandible distraction osteogenesis (DO). We have previously demonstrated that repeated local injections of human nerve growth factor beta (NGF-beta) have significantly enhanced the histologic recovery of the IAN in a rabbit model of DO. This study was to further test the effect of a single injection of human NGF-beta delivered via a collagen/nanohydroxyapatite/kappa-carrageenan gel to the recovery of the IAN in DO. Rabbits underwent mandibular DO at a rate of 0.75 mm/12 h for 6 days. At the end of the distraction period, injections were performed near the IAN percutaneously as follows: group 1, human NGF-beta in the gel; group 2, human NGF-beta in saline; group 3, the gel alone; and group 4, saline alone. At 14 days after the end of distraction, IAN histologic findings and histomorphometric parameters were evaluated. Histologically, there were less myelin debris and more abundant regenerating nerve fibers in group 1 than the other groups. Both the myelinated fiber density and the myelinated axon area in group 1 were significantly higher than groups 3 and 4 (P NGF-beta in the gel leads to a better acceleration of the IAN injury recovery over the saline delivery. It provides a possible way to enhance the recovery of nerve injuries in craniofacial DO clinically.

  12. Therapeutic effect of photodynamic therapy combined with targeted delivery of silencing vascular endothelial growth factor (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a novel therapeutic modality to treat cancer by using a photosensitizer which is activated by a light source to produce reactive oxygen species and mediates tumours oxygen-independent hypoxic conditions. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the primary factors that affect tumor angiogenesis. Another emerging treatment to cure cancer is the use of interference RNA to silence a specific mRNA sequence. Such treatment requires a delivery system such as liposomes. The nanoparticle size measured was about 30 nm. Cellular uptake study was performed to verify that the nanoparticles have a sigma receptor mediated pathway. Non-targeted LCP NPs did not show significant difference with or without haloperidol but has a lower intensity as than targeted LCP NPs. These results confirm that LCP NPs have a receptor mediated pathway. Cell viability was found to decrease at 25 nM of transfected VEGF siRNA. Combined therapy of PDT and VEGF siRNA showed significant response as compared with PDT and gene therapy alone. In vivo toxicity assay with mice treated with targeted LCP NPs containing control siRNA or VEGF siRNA and non-targeted LCP NPs containing VEGF siRNA did not show any significant difference with the PBS injected group which suggests that there is no toxicity with the dose. It suggests that PDT combined with targeted gene therapy has a potential mean to achieve better therapeutic outcome.

  13. Inhibition of neuroblastoma tumor growth by targeted delivery of microRNA-34a using anti-disialoganglioside GD2 coated nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Tivnan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is one of the most challenging malignancies of childhood, being associated with the highest death rate in paediatric oncology, underlining the need for novel therapeutic approaches. Typically, patients with high risk disease undergo an initial remission in response to treatment, followed by disease recurrence that has become refractory to further treatment. Here, we demonstrate the first silica nanoparticle-based targeted delivery of a tumor suppressive, pro-apoptotic microRNA, miR-34a, to neuroblastoma tumors in a murine orthotopic xenograft model. These tumors express high levels of the cell surface antigen disialoganglioside GD2 (GD(2, providing a target for tumor-specific delivery. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nanoparticles encapsulating miR-34a and conjugated to a GD(2 antibody facilitated tumor-specific delivery following systemic administration into tumor bearing mice, resulted in significantly decreased tumor growth, increased apoptosis and a reduction in vascularisation. We further demonstrate a novel, multi-step molecular mechanism by which miR-34a leads to increased levels of the tissue inhibitor metallopeptidase 2 precursor (TIMP2 protein, accounting for the highly reduced vascularisation noted in miR-34a-treated tumors. SIGNIFICANCE: These novel findings highlight the potential of anti-GD(2-nanoparticle-mediated targeted delivery of miR-34a for both the treatment of GD(2-expressing tumors, and as a basic discovery tool for elucidating biological effects of novel miRNAs on tumor growth.

  14. A survey of four years intrauterine insemination at Shariati Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghahosseini M

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine insemination (IUI has been practiced since the late 1800's primarily for idiopathic infertility, and in men with deficient semen parameters. The procedure is done by placing washed sperm in uterus a few hours before ovulation. The records of 427 couples receiving IUI for treatment of infertility at Shariati hospital in 1370-74 were reviewed retrospectively. These patients had IUI in 574 cycles. Eighty patients became pregnant and delivery rate was 14% per cycle. Pregnancy rate is impressive when ovulation induction is combined with insemination timed just before ovulation. The success rate in Shariati hospital is comparable to other infertility centers in the world and cost of a cycle of IUI with HMG superovulation is approximately one third the cost of IVF-ET or GIFT cycle and avoids invasive oocyte retrieval and extracorporeal fertilization. So we suggest that women with refractory infertility without anatomic distortion of pelvis can have at least 3-6 cycles of IUI before IVF or GIFT.

  15. Regression of latent endometrial precancers by progestin infiltrated intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørbo, Anne; Rise, Cecil E; Mutter, George L

    2006-06-01

    PTEN tumor suppressor inactivation is the earliest step in endometrial carcinogenesis, occurring in morphologically unremarkable endometrial glands in half of normal women. We test the hypothesis that sex hormones positively or negatively select for these "latent precancers" by examining their emergence, persistence, and regression rates under differing hormonal conditions. Perimenopausal and postmenopausal women had an intake endometrial biopsy and underwent hormonal therapy with progestin-impregnated intrauterine device (IUD; n = 21), cyclic oral progestins (n = 28), or surveillance only (n = 22) with follow-up biopsies. For comparison, premenopausal naturally cycling endometrial biopsies were studied as single time points in 87 patients and multiple surveillance time points in 34 patients. Biopsies in which any PTEN protein-null glands were found by immunohistochemistry were scored as containing a latent endometrial precancer. All groups had a similar proportion of latent precancers at intake but differed after therapy. Emergence rates were highest (21%) for the naturally cycling premenopausal group compared with just 9% for untreated perimenopausal women. The IUD group had the highest rate of regression, with a 62% pretherapy and 5% post-therapy rate of latent precancers. This contrasted to nonsignificant changes for the oral progestin and untreated control groups. Delivery of high doses of progestins locally to the endometrium by IUD leads to ablation of preexisting PTEN-inactivated endometrial latent precancers and is a possible mechanism for reduction of long-term endometrial cancer risk known to occur in response to this hormone.

  16. Cellular localization of AT1 receptor mRNA and protein in normal placenta and its reduced expression in intrauterine growth restriction. Angiotensin II stimulates the release of vasorelaxants.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, X.; M Shams; Zhu, J; Khalig, A; Wilkes, M; Whittle, M; Barnes, N; Ahmed, A.

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) is a potent vasoconstrictor and growth promoter. Quantitative receptor autoradiography using the nonselective radioligand [125I]ANG II and subtype-selective competing compounds demonstrated the presence of both ANG II receptor (AT)1 and AT2 receptor recognition sites. In addition, a relatively small population of apparently non-AT1/non-AT2 sites was identified that may represent a novel high affinity ANG II recognition site in human placenta. Using placental membrane p...

  17. Nanostructure controlled sustained delivery of human growth hormone using injectable, biodegradable, pH/temperature responsive nanobiohybrid hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra K.; Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Kim, Bong Sup; Lee, Doo Sung

    2015-02-01

    The clinical efficacy of a therapeutic protein, the human growth hormone (hGH), is limited by its short plasma half-life and premature degradation. To overcome this limitation, we proposed a new protein delivery system by the self-assembly and intercalation of a negatively charged hGH onto a positively charged 2D-layered double hydroxide nanoparticle (LDH). The LDH-hGH ionic complex, with an average particle size of approximately 100 nm, retards hGH diffusion. Nanobiohybrid hydrogels (PAEU/LDH-hGH) were prepared by dispersing the LDH-hGH complex into a cationic pH- and temperature-sensitive injectable PAEU copolymer hydrogel to enhance sustained hGH release by dual ionic interactions. Biodegradable copolymer hydrogels comprising poly(β-amino ester urethane) and triblock poly(ε-caprolactone-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly-(ε-caprolactone-lactide) (PCLA-PEG-PCLA) were synthesized and characterized. hGH was self-assembled and intercalated onto layered LDH nanoparticles through an anion exchange technique. X-ray diffraction and zeta potential results showed that the LDH-hGH complex was prepared successfully and that the PAEU/LDH-hGH nanobiohybrid hydrogel had a disordered intercalated nanostructure. The biocompatibility of the nanobiohybrid hydrogel was confirmed by an in vitro cytotoxicity test. The in vivo degradation of pure PAEU and its nanobiohybrid hydrogels was investigated and it showed a controlled degradation of the PAEU/LDH nanobiohybrids compared with the pristine PAEU copolymer hydrogel. The LDH-hGH loaded injectable hydrogels suppressed the initial burst release of hGH and extended the release period for 13 days in vitro and 5 days in vivo. The developed nanohybrid hydrogel has the potential for application as a protein carrier to improve patient compliance.The clinical efficacy of a therapeutic protein, the human growth hormone (hGH), is limited by its short plasma half-life and premature degradation. To overcome this limitation, we proposed a new

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTRAUTERING PRESSURE,PROSTAGLANDIN CONCENTRATION AND INTRAUTERINE DEVICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGJing; TIANXiao-Kun; CAOXiu-Juan

    1989-01-01

    Seventy-three bealthy multiparous non-pregnant women's intrauterine pressure (IUP) and levels of 6-keto-PGFla and TXB2 in uterine fluid were examined before and duringin sertion of intrauterine device (IUD) as well as a month after IUD insertion. The aim

  19. Primary ovarian pregnancy with intrauterine contraceptive device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabita Saichandran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian pregnancy is a rare variant of extra-uterine pregnancies. However the cause for primary ovarian pregnancy is still obscure. Some studies have reported a strong correlation of this condition with intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD. The diagnosis of ovarian ectopic pregnancy is seldom made before surgery though ultrasound proves to be an invaluable tool for its diagnosis. We describe here about a case of primary ovarian pregnancy which was diagnosed only at the time of operation and was managed with wedge resection of the ovary. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1191-1193

  20. Immediate Intrauterine Device Insertion Following Surgical Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Eva; Bednarek, Paula H

    2015-12-01

    Placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) immediately after a first or second trimester surgical abortion is safe and convenient and decreases the risk of repeat unintended pregnancy. Immediate postabortion IUD placement is not recommended in the setting of postprocedure hemorrhage, uterine perforation, infection, or hematometra. Otherwise, there are few contraindications to IUD placement following surgical abortion. Sexually transmitted infection screening should follow US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. No additional antibiotics are needed beyond those used for the abortion. Placing immediate postabortion IUDs makes highly-effective long-acting reversible contraception more accessible to women.

  1. Incidence of actinomycosis associated with intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwani, A; Amin-Hanjani, S

    1994-08-01

    The incidence of intrauterine device (IUD)-associated cervicovaginal actinomycosis was evaluated. Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smears from 1,520 women with IUDs were reviewed for the presence of Actinomyces-like organisms. The overall colonization rate was 11.4%. The colonization rates for the Progestasert, plastic IUDs and copper IUDs were 14.3%, 10.8% and 6.69%, respectively. The colonization rate appeared to increase with the duration of IUD use. The relatively high cervicovaginal Actinomyces colonization rate suggests that all patients with IUDs should undergo annual cytologic smears, with specific attention given to the presence of Actinomyces-like organisms.

  2. Observation on the curative effect of mouse nerve growth factor in intervention of intrauterine growth retardation infants with positive neuron-specific enolase%鼠神经生长因子干预神经元特异性烯醇化酶测定阳性的宫内发育迟缓儿的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡冰; 黄先红; 张招文; 黄雪松; 易志刚

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of mouse nerve growth factor (NGF) injection on improvement of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) infants with positive neuron-specific enolase (NSE).Methods:IUGR infants born in the hospital from January 2009 to December 2013 were selected,umbilical blood specimens were obtained at the time of deliver,ELISA was used to detect NSE levels,86 IUGR infants with high NSE levels significantly were selected as study objects,then they were divided into treatment group (46 infants) and control group (40 infants) according to their parents'desire for NGF or not.Early intervention and rehabilitation therapy were conducted in the two groups; the infants in treatment group were treated with intramuscular injection of NGF for three courses of treatment,once a day,18 μg per time,a course of treatment included 28 days; the infants in control group didnt receive NGF therapy.Neonatal behavioral neurological assessment (NBNA) was performed on the 28th day among these infants; mental development index (MDI) and psychomotive development index (PDI) after intervention in the two groups were compared at one and two years.Results:MDI and PDI scores in treatment group at one and two years were statistically significantly higher than those in control group (P < 0.05) ; the incidence rates of sequelae in intervention group and control group were 4.3% and 17.5%,respectively,there was statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05).Conclusion:High NSE level is a sensitive marker for nerve injury,NGF combined with early intervention can promote intelligence development of IUGR infants with cerebral injury,prevent and reduce sequelae of nervous system.%目的:评价注射用鼠神经生长因子(Mouse Nerve Growth Factor for Injection,NGF)在改善神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)测定阳性的宫内发育迟缓(IUGR)患儿预后中的作用.方法:选取2009年1月~2013年12月在该院出生的IUGR患儿,在新生儿

  3. Predictors of vaginal delivery in medically indicated early preterm induction of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Rachel A; Kuper, Spencer G; Jauk, Victoria C; Parrish, Melissa; Biggio, Joseph R; Harper, Lorie M

    2017-09-01

    When delivery is indicated prior to 34 weeks, many providers perform a cesarean delivery rather than induce labor based on perceptions of a high failure rate. Given the morbidity of cesarean delivery, an accurate estimate of the success rate and factors associated with success in preterm induction of labor is important in management decisions. We sought to develop a prediction model for successful induction of labor in preterm patients using factors known at the time the decision is made to deliver. A retrospective cohort study of all live singletons undergoing an indicated induction of labor between 23 and 34 0/7 weeks from 2011 through 2015. Pregnancies with major fetal anomalies or no intrapartum fetal monitoring were excluded. Successful induction of labor was defined as vaginal delivery. The cohort was randomly split into a training cohort to develop a prediction model for vaginal delivery and a validation cohort to test the model. Factors significantly associated with vaginal delivery were identified using univariate analyses, and candidate factors were used in the multivariate logistic regression model. Only factors known at the start of the induction of labor were used in the model. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were created to estimate the predictive value of the model. Sensitivity and specificity of the model were assessed. Of 331 patients who underwent induction of labor, 208 (62.8%) delivered vaginally and 123 (37.1%) by cesarean delivery. Of the factors significantly associated with cesarean delivery, the final model included gestational age, simplified Bishop score, suspected intrauterine growth retardation, chronic hypertension, and body mass index. In the training cohort, the model correctly classified 72.3% of subjects with a sensitivity (cesarean delivery predicted/cesarean delivery performed) of 56.7% and a specificity (vaginal delivery predicted/vaginal delivery performed) of 84.1%. When applied to the validation cohort, 73.9% of

  4. Production and characterization of hyaluronic acid microparticles for the controlled delivery of growth factors using a spray/dehydration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo, Pedro S; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E

    2016-11-01

    Hyaluronic acid is the main polysaccharide present in the connective tissue. Besides its structural function as backbone of the extracellular matrix, hyaluronic acid plays staple roles in several biological processes including the modulation of inflammation and wound healing processes. The application of hyaluronic acid in regenerative medicine, either as cells and/or drug/growth factors delivery vehicles, relies on its ability to be cross-linked using a plethora of reactions, producing stable hydrogels. In this work, we propose a novel method for the production of hyaluronic acid microparticles that presents several advantages over others that have been used. Basically, droplets of hyaluronic acid solution produced with a nozzle are collected in an isopropanol dehydration bath, and stabilized after crosslinking with adipic acid dihydrazide, using a cabodiimide-based chemistry. The size and morphology of the hyaluronic acid microparticles produced by this method varied with the molecular weight and concentration of the hyaluronic acid solution, the nozzle chamber pressure, the distance between the nozzle and the crosslinking solution, and the number of crosslinking steps. The degree of crosslinking of the hyaluronic acid microparticles produced was tunable and allowed to control the rate of the degradation promoted by hyaluronidase. Moreover, the particles were loaded with platelet lysate, a hemoderivative rich in cytokines with interest for regenerative medicine applications. The hyaluronic acid microparticles showed potential to bind selectively to positively charged molecules, as the factors present in the platelet lysate. It is envisioned that these can be further released in a sustained manner by ion exchange or by the degradation of the hyaluronic acid microparticles matrix promoted by extracellular matrix remodeling.

  5. The intrauterine device and its dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, W A

    1999-01-01

    In the past decade, attention has shifted from family planning (often made available through population programs) to reproductive health--a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters related to the reproductive system and its function and processes. Reproductive health has three components: the ability to procreate, regulate fertility and enjoy sex; the successful outcome of pregnancy through infant and child survival and growth; and the safety of the reproductive process. According to Mitchell et al., the following are key elements in a reproductive health program: (a) Family planning services that offer complete and accurate information about all contraceptive methods and that make contraceptive services, supplies and counseling accessible. (b) Antenatal care, which research suggests lowers rates of maternal mortality. (c) Safe delivery services, so that all women deliver under some type of supervised care and so that referral systems are established to provide emergency treatment of life-threatening complications of delivery. (d) Postnatal care that contributes to a woman's ability to have a speedy and complete recovery from the stress of pregnancy and childbirth, to enjoy sexual relations without pain and to have safe pregnancies and deliveries in the future. (e) Management of the complications of abortion where safe abortions are not available. (f) Infertility services that enable women to achieve their reproductive goals; and effective screening for or control of reproductive tract infections (RTIs), because RTIs are the most common preventable cause of involuntary infertility and ectopic pregnancy, as well as of chronic pelvic pain and recurrent infection. (g) Management and treatment of systemic sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), such as HIV and hepatitis B. (h) Symptomatic treatment of urinary tract infections. (i) Detection and treatment of breast and reproductive tract

  6. An Effective Technique for Enhancing an Intrauterine Catheter Fetal Electrocardiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holls III William M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Physician can obtain fetal heart rate, electrophysiological information, and uterine contraction activity for determining fetal status from an intrauterine catheters electrocardiogram with the maternal electrocardiogram canceled. In addition, the intrauterine catheter would allow physicians to acquire fetal status with one non-invasive to the fetus biosensor as compared to invasive to the fetus scalp electrode and intrauterine pressure catheter used currently. A real-time maternal electrocardiogram cancellation technique of the intrauterine catheters electrocardiogram will be discussed along with an analysis for the methods effectiveness with synthesized and clinical data. The positive results from an original detailed subjective and objective analysis of synthesized and clinical data clearly indicate that the maternal electrocardiogram cancellation method was found to be effective. The resulting intrauterine catheters electrocardiogram from effectively canceling the maternal electrocardiogram could be used for determining fetal heart rate, fetal electrocardiogram electrophysiological information, and uterine contraction activity.

  7. Effects of intrauterine growth retardation with catch-up growth on sugar-lipid metabolism and adipocyte function in young rats%生长追赶宫内发育迟缓大鼠早期糖脂代谢及脂肪细胞功能的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑锐丹; 汪无尽; 应艳琴; 罗小平

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨生长追赶宫内发育迟缓(IUGR)大鼠早期糖脂代谢及脂肪细胞功能的改变.方法 母孕期饥饿法建立IUGR大鼠模型.禁食组仔鼠作为生长追赶IUGR模型组(IUGR组),正常喂养仔鼠作为对照组(AGA组).12周龄时检测血浆甘油三酯(TG)、胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白- C(LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白-C(HDL-C)以及脂联素、促酰化刺激蛋白(ASP)的水平.隔日行糖耐量试验(OGTT),检测血浆葡萄糖和胰岛素水平,计算胰岛素抵抗指数(IRI).随后仔鼠断头处死,共聚焦显微镜下观察免疫荧光染色的成熟脂肪细胞中葡萄糖转运体-4(GLUT-4)的表达.结果 12周末时IUGR组大鼠体重、BMI显著高于AGA组(均P<0.01),血TG、TC、LDL-C水平显著高于AGA组,HDL-C水平明显低于AGA组(P<0.05).OGTT中IUGR组注射葡萄糖后各时间点血糖水平均高于AGA组(P<0.05),IRI值亦显著增高(P<0.05).与AGA组比较,IUGR组ASP水平明显升高(P<0.05),而脂联素水平显著降低(P<0.05).IUGR大鼠成熟脂肪组织中GLUT-4在基础状态和不同浓度胰岛素刺激下的表达水平与AGA组相比均明显降低(P<0.05).结论 IUGR大鼠生后发生明显的生长追赶,12周时即存在高血脂、高血糖及胰岛素抵抗.脂肪细胞分泌功能的异常和脂肪组织GLUT-4表达水平的降低可能参与了生长追赶IUGR大鼠胰岛素抵抗的形成.%intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rat model. Methods IUGR rat model was established by maternal nutrition restriction during pregnancy. Newborn IUGR pups were used as IUGR group, and normal newborn pups were used as control group (appropriate for gestauonal age, AGA group). At age of 12 weeks, plasma samples were collected for the test of triglyceride (TG) , total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL-C) , high density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDL-C) , adiponectin and acylation stimulating protein ( ASP). Oral glucose tolerance test ( OGTT) was performed

  8. Excretion of biliary compounds during intrauterine life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Rocio IR; Marin, Jose JG; Serrano, Maria A

    2009-01-01

    In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with the kidney, constitute the main routes for the elimination of several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds into bile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterine life the biliary route of excretion for cholephilic compounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, is very poor. Although very early in pregnancy the fetal liver produces bile acids, bilirubin and biliverdin, these compounds cannot be efficiently eliminated by the fetal hepatobiliary system, owing to the immaturity of the excretory machinery in the fetal liver. Therefore, the potentially harmful accumulation of cholephilic compounds in the fetus is prevented by their elimination across the placenta. Owing to the presence of detoxifying enzymes and specific transport systems at different locations of the placental barrier, such as the endothelial cells of chorionic vessels and trophoblast cells, this organ plays an important role in the hepatobiliary-like function during intrauterine life. The relevance of this excretory function in normal fetal physiology is evident in situations where high concentrations of biliary compounds are accumulated in the mother. This may result in oxidative stress and apoptosis, mainly in the placenta and fetal liver, which might affect normal fetal development and challenge the fate of the pregnancy. The present article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the hepatobiliary function of the fetal-placental unit and the repercussions of several pathological conditions on this tandem. PMID:19230042

  9. Female pelvic actinomycosis and intrauterine contraceptive devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino R Pérez-López

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Faustino R Pérez-López1,2, José J Tobajas1,3, Peter Chedraui41Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza; 2Hospital Clínico Lozano Blesa; 3Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain; 4Enrique C. Sotomayor Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Guayaquil, EcuadorAbstract: Female genital Actinomyces infection is relatively rare, although strongly related to long-lasting intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD application. An infective pathway has been postulated extending upward from the female perineum to the vagina and cervix. The traumatic effect of the device and a prior infection may contribute to the Actinomyces infection in the female genitalia. This disease is characterized by local swelling, suppuration, abscess formation, tissue fibrosis, tubal-ovarian mass and fistula formation. The infection spreads by contiguity often mimicking the characteristics of a malignant neoplastic process. Currently there is no consensus regarding diagnosis and screening tests, although there seems to be agreement in relation to IUD type, duration, and sexual behavior as major risk factors.Keywords: contraception, intrauterine contraceptive device, pelvic actinomycosis, sexuality

  10. Soluble fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase-1-to-Placental Growth Factor Ratio and Time to Delivery in Women With Suspected Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisler, Harald; Llurba, Elisa; Chantraine, Frédéric; Vatish, Manu; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Sennström, Maria; Olovsson, Matts; Brennecke, Shaun P; Stepan, Holger; Allegranza, Deirdre; Dinkel, Carina; Schoedl, Maria; Dilba, Peter; Hund, Martin; Verlohren, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    To assess the association of a serum soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1-to-placental growth factor (sFlt-1-to-PlGF) ratio of greater than 38 with time to delivery and preterm birth. Secondary analysis of an observational cohort study that included women 18 years of age or older from 24 to 36 6/7 weeks of gestation at their first study visit with suspected (not confirmed) preeclampsia. Participants were recruited from December 2010 to January 2014 at 30 sites in 14 countries. A total of 1,041 women were included in time-to-delivery analysis and 848 in preterm birth analysis. Women with an sFlt-1-to-PlGF ratio greater than 38 (n=250) had a 2.9-fold greater likelihood of imminent delivery (ie, delivery on the day of the test) (Cox regression hazard ratio 2.9; Ptime to delivery (median 17 [interquartile range 10-26] compared with 51 [interquartile range 30-75] days, respectively; Weibull regression factor 0.62; Pdelivery had higher median sFlt-1-to-PlGF ratios at their first visit (35.3, interquartile range 6.8-104.0) than those who did not (8.4, interquartile range 3.4-30.6) or who delivered at term (4.3, interquartile range 2.4-10.9). In women undergoing evaluation for suspected preeclampsia, a serum sFlt-1-to-PlGF ratio greater than 38 is associated with a shorter remaining pregnancy duration and a higher risk of preterm delivery.

  11. Continuation of copper and levonorgestrel intrauterine devices: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Sharon J; Hofler, Lisa G; Modest, Anna M; Harvey, Lara F B; Wu, Lily H; Hacker, Michele R

    2017-07-01

    Studies conflict on whether the duration of use of the copper intrauterine device is longer than that of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, and whether women who continue using intrauterine devices differ from those who discontinue. We sought to assess continuation rates and performance of levonorgestrel intrauterine devices compared with copper intrauterine devices over a 5-year period. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 1164 individuals who underwent intrauterine device placement at an urban academic medical center. The analysis focused on a comparison of continuation rates between those using levonorgestrel intrauterine device and copper intrauterine device, factors associated with discontinuation, and intrauterine device performance. We assessed the differences in continuation at discrete time points, pregnancy, and expulsion rates using χ(2) tests and calculated hazard ratios using a multivariable Cox model. Of 1164 women who underwent contraceptive intrauterine device insertion, 956 had follow-up data available. At 2 years, 64.9% of levonorgestrel intrauterine device users continued their device, compared with 57.7% of copper intrauterine device users (P = .11). At 4 years, continuation rates were 45.1% for levonorgestrel intrauterine device and 32.6% for copper intrauterine device (P 4 years was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.93) and >5 years was 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.05) after adjusting for race, age, parity, and education. Copper intrauterine device users were more likely to experience expulsion (10.2% copper intrauterine device vs 4.9% levonorgestrel intrauterine device, P < .01) over the study period and to become pregnant in the first year of use (1.6% copper intrauterine device vs 0.1% levonorgestrel intrauterine device, P < .01). We found a difference in continuation rates between levonorgestrel and copper intrauterine device users at 4 years but not at 5 years. Copper intrauterine device users were more likely

  12. Intrauterine balloon tamponade for management of severe postpartum haemorrhage in a perinatal network: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revert, M; Cottenet, J; Raynal, P; Cibot, E; Quantin, C; Rozenberg, P

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of intrauterine balloon tamponade (IUBT) for management of severe postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). To identify the factors predicting IUBT failure. Prospective cohort study. Ten maternity units in a perinatal network. Women treated by IUBT from July 2010 to March 2013. The global IUBT success rate was expressed as the number of women with severe PPH who were successfully treated by IUBT divided by the total number treated by IUBT. IUBT failure was defined as the need for arterial embolisation or surgery. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate factors predicting IUBT failure. Global IUBT success rate. Factors associated with IUBT failure. Intrauterine balloon tamponade was attempted in 226 women: 171 after vaginal delivery (VD) (75.7%) and 55 during or after caesarean delivery (CD) (24.3%). The global success rate was 83.2% (188/226) and was significantly higher after VD (152/171, 88.9%) than CD (36/55, 65.5%, P tamponade is an effective method for treating severe PPH. Early balloon deployment before the development of coagulopathy increases its success rate. Intrauterine balloon tamponade is effective for achieving haemostasis in intractable postpartum haemorrhages. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Assessment of reproductive results of infertile patients who had undergone operative hysteroscopy for intrauterine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röyale Seferli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the reproductive outcomes of infertile patients who had undergone operative hysteroscopy (HS with the diagnoses of uterine septum, endometrial polyp, submucous myoma, and intrauterine adhesion. Methods: This retrospective study included 334 patients who had been diagnosed with primary and secondary infertility, aged between 18–35 years and diagnosed with uterine septum (group 1, endometrial polyp (group 2, submucous myoma (group 3, and intrauterine adhesion (group 4 by hysterosalpingography or office HS and who were treated via hysteroscopic operation between January 2009 and January 2013. Pregnancy results were obtained from the patients’ files and hospital database; when this was not possible, the patients were queried by phone calls. Groups were then compared in terms of characteristics, prognoses, and pregnancy outcomes. Results: The cumulative pregnancy rate was 58.7% in infertile patients who underwent operative HS due to intrauterine pathology. The mean length of time from operation to conception was 10.8±9.6 months in all groups. Mean age, infertility duration, infertility type, and smoking status were statistically different among the groups (p<0.05. Following surgery, 95 (66.4% of 143 patients in group 1 conceived and 57 (60% of these pregnancies resulted in term birth. There were 64 (54.2% pregnancies in group 2 and 34 (53.1% resulted in term birth. Sixteen (47.1% patients conceived in group 3, and 6 (37.5% of them had term birth. Twenty-one (53.8% patients conceived in group 4. Twelve out of 21 patients (57.1% had term birth. The most common mode of delivery was cesarean section in all groups. Conclusion: Thus, operative HS increases pregnancy rates in patients with intrauterine pathology. In future, large-scale prospective studies should be carried out to reveal the effects of the hysteroscopic method and compare this approach with other methods in order to achieve better pregnancy outcomes in

  14. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells through alginate-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) microsphere-mediated intracellular growth factor delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Tianxin; Rao, Krithika S; Spees, Jeffrey L; Oldinski, Rachael A

    2014-10-28

    The intracellular delivery of growth factors increases opportunities for controlling cell behavior and maintaining tissue homeostasis. Recently, VEGFA was reported to enhance osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) through an intracrine mechanism, suggesting a new strategy to promote bone tissue formation in osteoporotic patients. The goal of this study was to design and fabricate ligand-conjugated alginate-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) microspheres for intracellular delivery and release of VEGFA in primary human MSCs to enhance osteogenic differentiation as a potential therapeutic. Three types of microspheres were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, in vitro drug release kinetics, MSC uptake and internalization: alginate alone (Alg), alginate-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (Alg-g-PEG) and alginate-graft-poly(ethylene glycol)-S-S-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (Alg-g-RGD). Each of the different microsphere formulations successfully transported bioactive VEGFA into primary human MSCs within 48h of culture, and significantly enhanced osteogenic differentiation compared to control treatments with empty microspheres (intracellular control) or non-encapsulated VEGFA (extracellular control). Adipogenic differentiation was not affected by the presence of VEGFA intracellularly or extracellularly. These results demonstrating the internalization of alginate-based microspheres and intracellular delivery of VEGFA support the efficacy of using this drug delivery and intracrine mechanism to control the fate of human MSCs and enhance osteogenic differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 单绒毛膜双胎胎儿生长受限合并脐带帆状附着一例%Intrauterine growth restriction in monochorionic twin pregnancy complicated with velamentous placen-ta:report of one case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫦娥

    2016-01-01

    单绒毛膜双胎妊娠合并脐带帆状附着在临床较为少见。该文报道了一例单绒毛膜双胎胎儿生长受限合并脐带帆状附着的病例。该例孕妇停经35周、下腹疼痛5 h,在外院及入院 B 超均显示为双胎妊娠、胎儿生长受限,未报告脐带异常;经积极保胎、营养治疗2周后,B 超检查仍显示胎儿生长受限,胎儿2羊水过少、脐动脉舒张期血流消失,不排除双胎脐带受压及胎盘血流异常,即予急诊剖宫产术,先后娩出2活女婴及胎盘,胎盘为一脐带帆状附着,2条脐带并列一处,呈 V 型附着胎膜。2女婴分别为低体重儿及极低体重儿,其中极低体重儿经无创呼吸机辅助通气无效,于住院第3日因 MODS 死亡,低体重儿及产妇分别于住院10 d、20 d 好转出院。该例提示,产前超声应密切监测双胎的生长发育及羊水量差异,仔细观察脐带插入点、脐动脉血流等指标,为产前咨询和临床决策提供更多依据,以改善单绒毛膜双胎妊娠的围生期结局。%Monochorionic twin pregnancy complicated with velamentous insertion of umbilical cord is rarely reported in clinical practice.In this article,we reported one case of fetal growth restriction in monochori-onic twin pregnancy complicated with velamentous insertion of umbilical cord.The pregnant woman experienced menolipsis for 35 weeks and inferior abdominal pain for 5 h.She was diagnosed with fetal growth restriction in twin pregnancy by repeated B-ultrasound in another hospital and upon admission to our hospital.No abnormality of umbilical cord was reported.After active fetal protection therapy and nutrition enrichment for 2 weeks,B-ul-trasound revealed the signs of fetal growth restriction,oligohydramnios of the second fetus and absent end-dias-tolic flow of umbilical artery.The possibility of umbilical cord compression of the twins and placental flow ab-normality was not excluded.She delivered

  16. Clinically silent polymicrobial amnionitis and intrauterine fetal death associated with a Cu-7 intrauterine contraceptive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, K B; Bobo, R A; Davis, R O; Brookings, E S; Cassell, G H

    1984-12-15

    This article presents a case of silent polymicrobial amnionitis with subsequent intrauterine fetal death in a 34-year old woman who conceived with a Cu-7 IUD in place. There were no apparent pregnancy complications or symptoms of uterine infection during early pregnancy. At 16 weeks gestation, the patient underwent amniocentesis for cytogenetic studies. 5 different microorganisms--Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum--were isolated from the amniotic fluid. 2 week later, intrauterine fetal death was detected. U. urealyticum was at this point isolated from the cervix and placental and fetal tissues. This organism, which has been associated with chorioamnionitis, spontaneous abortion, and neonatal death, is suspected to have contributed to the fetal death in this case. U. urealyticum can invade the amniotic sac with fetal membranes intact and persist for 8 weeks without overt effects. This case illustrates the risks associated with nonremoval of an IUD after contraceptive failure.

  17. Genomic biomarkers of prenatal intrauterine inflammation in umbilical cord tissue predict later life neurological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Sloane K; Joseph, Robert M; Kuban, Karl C K; Dammann, Olaf U; O'Shea, T Michael; Fry, Rebecca C

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth is a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays and disorders. This study aimed to identify genomic biomarkers of intrauterine inflammation in umbilical cord tissue in preterm neonates that predict cognitive impairment at 10 years of age. Genome-wide messenger RNA (mRNA) levels from umbilical cord tissue were obtained from 43 neonates born before 28 weeks of gestation. Genes that were differentially expressed across four indicators of intrauterine inflammation were identified and their functions examined. Exact logistic regression was used to test whether expression levels in umbilical cord tissue predicted neurocognitive function at 10 years of age. Placental indicators of inflammation were associated with changes in the mRNA expression of 445 genes in umbilical cord tissue. Transcripts with decreased expression showed significant enrichment for biological signaling processes related to neuronal development and growth. The altered expression of six genes was found to predict neurocognitive impairment when children were 10 years old These genes include two that encode for proteins involved in neuronal development. Prenatal intrauterine inflammation is associated with altered gene expression in umbilical cord tissue. A set of six of the differentially expressed genes predict cognitive impairment later in life, suggesting that the fetal environment is associated with significant adverse effects on neurodevelopment that persist into later childhood.

  18. Freeze-dried allograft-mediated gene or protein delivery of growth and differentiation factor 5 reduces reconstructed murine flexor tendon adhesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Sys Hasslund; Dadali, Tulin; Ulrich-Vinther, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Advances in allograft processing have opened new horizons for clinical adaptation of flexor tendon allografts as delivery scaffolds for antifibrotic therapeutics. Recombinant adeno-associated-virus (rAAV) gene delivery of the growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF-5) has been previously...... associated with antifibrotic effects in a mouse model of flexor tendoplasty. In this study, we compared the effects of loading freeze-dried allografts with different doses of GDF-5 protein or rAAV-Gdf5 on flexor tendon healing and adhesions. We first optimized the protein and viral loading parameters using...... reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and in vivo bioluminescent imaging. We then reconstructed flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendons of the mouse hindlimb with allografts loaded with low and high doses of recombinant GDF-5 protein and r...

  19. Study on the Cellular Molecular Mechanism of Intrauterine Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 孙琳

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study intrauterine transmission of HBV and its celbular molecular mechanism and influence on the fetus. Methods: A total of 46 cases of Fegnant uxnnen who suffered from HBV were divided into HBeAg (+) and HBeAg (-) groups. HBV-DNA in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells ( PBMC ) of 46 cases of pregnant women before delivery urns detected by polymerase chain reaction ( PCR). After placenta being delivery, HBV-DNA in serum and cord blood mononuclear cells ( CBMC) was also detected by PCR. Results: The total of positive rates of HBV-DNA in serum and PBMC of pregnant women with hepatitis B were 69.57% (32/46) and 41.30% (19/46). The positive rates of HBV-DNA in serum of cord blood and CBMC were 56.52%(26/46) and 21.74% (10/46) respectively. Among them, the positive rates of HBV-DNA inserum and PBMC of pregnant women with HBeAg (+) were 100. 00% (25/25) and 60.00% (15/25) respectively. The positive rates of HBV-DNA in serum of cord blood and CBMC were 88.00% (22/25) and 32. 00% (8/25) respectively. The positive rates of HBV-DNA in serum and PBMC of pregnant women with HBeAg (-) were 33.33%(7/21) and 19.05%(4/21) respectively. The positive rates of HBV-DNA in serum of card blood and CBMC were 19.05%(4/21) and 9.52%(2/21) resspectively. The positive rates of HBV-DNA in serum of card blood and CBMC of newborns were higher in the group of pregnant women with HBeAg (+) than those in the group of pregnant women with HBeAg (--) (P<0. O1 and P<0. 05). There was no HBV-DNA in serum, PBMC and CBMC of normal pregnant women and normal neorwles. Conclusion : The intrauterine transmission of HBV can be existent and its transmission way not only can be induced by serum but also can be induced by PBMC. The way of intrauterine transmission of HBV in-duced by PBMC was concealed. The dangerous possibility of intrauterine transmission is higher in thepregnant women with HBeAg (+) than that in the group of pregnant women with HBeAg (-).

  20. Intrauterine devices & infection: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacher, David

    2014-11-01

    The relationship between use of an intrauterine device (IUD) and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has been studied extensively over the past 50 years. Previous research has led to considerable controversy and debate. Numerous limitations in the studies make it difficult to draw any firm conclusions from the past research or to design new approaches to study the topic. The main research barriers include uncertainty of infection/diagnoses, and inappropriate comparison groups for IUD users. Natural history studies of the aetiology of disease and observational research among IUD users suggest that the risk of PID is very low. Research linking previous IUD use to the more distant endpoint of tubal infertility reveals that the risks may be even lower than the risks of PID.

  1. Intrauterine devices & infection: Review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hubacher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between use of an intrauterine device (IUD and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID has been studied extensively over the past 50 years. Previous research has led to considerable controversy and debate. Numerous limitations in the studies make it difficult to draw any firm conclusions from the past research or to design new approaches to study the topic. The main research barriers include uncertainty of infection/diagnoses, and inappropriate comparison groups for IUD users. Natural history studies of the aetiology of disease and observational research among IUD users suggest that the risk of PID is very low. Research linking previous IUD use to the more distant endpoint of tubal infertility reveals that the risks may be even lower than the risks of PID.

  2. In vivo measurement of intrauterine pressure by telemetry: a new approach for studying parturition in mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Stephanie L.; Kutschke, William; Cabeza, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic and knockout mouse models have proven useful in the study of genes necessary for parturition—including genes that affect the timing and/or progression of labor contractions. However, taking full advantage of these models will require a detailed characterization of the contractile patterns in the mouse uterus. Currently the best methodology for this has been measurement of isometric tension in isolated muscle strips in vitro. However, this methodology does not provide a real-time measure of changes in uterine pressure over the course of pregnancy. Recent advances have opened the possibility of using radiotelemetric devices to more accurately and comprehensively study intrauterine pressure in vivo. We tested the effectiveness of this technology in the mouse, in both wild-type (WT) mice and a mouse model of defective parturition (SK3 channel-overexpressing mice), after surgical implant of telemetry transmitters into the uterine horn. Continuous recordings from day 18 of pregnancy through delivery revealed that WT mice typically deliver during the 12-h dark cycle after 19.5 days postcoitum. In these mice, intrauterine pressure gradually increases during this cycle, to threefold greater than that measured during the 12-h cycle before delivery. SK3-overexpressing mice, by contrast, exhibited lower intrauterine pressure over the same period. These results are consistent with the outcome of previous in vitro studies, and they indicate that telemetry is an accurate method for measuring uterine contraction, and hence parturition, in mice. The use of this technology will lead to important novel insights into changes in intrauterine pressure during the course of pregnancy. PMID:20460604

  3. Investigation of knowledge level about intrauterine device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hediye Dagdeviren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate a level of knowledge about intrauterine device between females who were examined in our gynecology department. Metods: The study was conducted at Gynecology and Obstetric Department of Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Teaching and Research Hospital between August 2012-November 2012. The study were included 189 patients who accepted to participate. For collecting data; a form of questionnaire was used which has gived information about the intrauterine device (IUD and status of socio-demographic characteristics of the patients. The questionnaire were administered by the researchers in a separate room as a face-to-face interviews. SPSS 20.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA program was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of the women in the study was 31.1 ± 9.9. 44.7% of women were not using any modern contraceptive method. IUD utilization rate was 3.2%. 1.6% of women had never heard IUD, %76.1 women heard copper IUD. 42% of respondents gave the wrong answer to IUD inserted into ovaries. Conclusion: The IUD which is a cheap, does not require patient compliance, and has high efficacy. In this study, we were not found a statisfically significant difference for answers to questions in patients with different socio-demographic characteristics. The main result of the study was; among all parcipitians ,even health care workers there was an important disability about level of knowledge for IUD. It is great importance the whole society, including health professionals must train about family planning. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 440-445

  4. Maintaining persistence and adherence with subcutaneous growth-hormone therapy in children: comparing jet-delivery and needle-based devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spoudeas HA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Helen A Spoudeas,1 Priti Bajaj,2 Nathan Sommerford3 1London Centre for Paediatric Endocrinology, University College London, London, 2Ferring Pharmaceuticals, London, 3Health Informatics Research, Sciensus Ltd, Brighton, UK Purpose: Persistence and adherence with subcutaneous growth hormone (GH; somatropin therapy in children is widely acknowledged to be suboptimal. This study aimed to investigate how the use of a jet-delivery device, ZomaJet®, impacts on medication-taking behaviors compared to needle-based devices.Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study of children aged ≤18 years was conducted using a UK-based, nationwide database of GH home-delivery schedules. Data were evaluated for the period between January 2010 and December 2012 for 6,061 children receiving either Zomacton® (somatropin via the ZomaJet jet-delivery device or one of six brands of GH all administered via needle-based devices. Persistence was analyzed for patients with appropriate data, measured as the time interval between first and last home deliveries. An analysis of adherence was conducted only for patients using ZomaJet who had appropriate data, measured by proportion of days covered. Brand switches were identified for all patients.Results: Persistence with GH therapy was significantly longer in patients using ZomaJet compared to needle-based devices (599 days versus 535 days, respectively, n=4,093; P<0.001; this association was observed in both sexes and across age subgroups (≤10 and 11–16 years. The majority (58% of patients using ZomaJet were classed as adherent (n=728. Only 297 patients (5% switched GH brand (n=6,061, and patients tended to use ZomaJet for longer than other devices before switching.Conclusion: It appears important that the choice of a jet-delivery device is offered to children prescribed daily GH therapy. These devices may represent a much-needed effective strategy for maintaining persistence with subcutaneous GH administration in

  5. Maintaining exponential growth, solution conductivity, and solution pH in low-ionic-strength solution culture using a computer-controlled nutrient delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Laura M; Taylor, Gregory J

    2004-07-01

    Studies of plant nutrient requirements in solution culture have often used nutrient concentrations many-fold higher than levels found in fertile soils, creating an artificial rooting environment that can alter patterns of nutrient acquisition. The relative addition rate (RAR) technique addresses this problem by providing nutrients in exponentially increasing quantities to plant roots in solution culture. A computer-controlled RAR nutrient delivery system has been developed to reduce workload and to facilitate more frequent nutrient additions (4x daily) than is possible with manual additions. In initial experiments, a minimum background solution containing 500 microM nitrogen and all other essential nutrients in optimal proportions was required for the healthy growth of Triticum aestivum. This requirement was reduced to 50 microM nitrogen when calcium in the background solutions was increased to 400 microM. Varying the abundance of ammonium and nitrate in both background and delivery solutions provided a means of controlling plant-induced pH changes in growth solutions. In optimized solutions, plant relative growth rates (RGR) in the order of 0.2 g g(-1) plant d(-1) were maintained over a 22 d experimental period. Variation in RARs provided a means of growing plants with varying RGRs under relatively constant conditions of solution electrical conductivity and pH.

  6. Xylan-regulated delivery of human keratinocyte growth factor-2 to the inflamed colon by the human anaerobic commensal bacterium Bacteroides ovatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamady, Zaed Z R; Scott, Nigel; Farrar, Mark D; Lodge, J Peter A; Holland, Keith T; Whitehead, Terence; Carding, Simon R

    2010-04-01

    Human growth factors are potential therapeutic agents for various inflammatory disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract. However, they are unstable when administered orally and systemic administration requires high doses increasing the risk of unwanted side effects. Live microorganism-based delivery systems can overcome these problems although they suffer from the inability to control heterologous protein production and there are concerns regarding biosafety and environmental contamination. To overcome these limitations we have developed a new live bacteria drug-delivery system using the human commensal gut bacterium Bacteroides ovatus engineered to secrete human growth factors in response to dietary xylan. The anaerobic nature of B ovatus provides an inherent biosafety feature. B ovatus strains expressing human keratinocyte growth factor-2, which plays a central role in intestinal epithelial homeostasis and repair (BO-KGF), were generated by homologous recombination and evaluated using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced model of intestinal epithelial injury and colitis. In response to xylan BO-KGF produced biologically active KGF both in vitro and in vivo. In DSS treated mice administration of xylan and BO-KGF had a significant therapeutic effect in reducing weight loss, improving stool consistency, reducing rectal bleeding, accelerating healing of damaged epithelium, reducing inflammation and neutrophil infiltration, reducing expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and accelerating production of goblet cells. BO-KGF and xylan treatment also had a marked prophylactic effect limiting the development of inflammation and disruption of the epithelial barrier. This novel, diet-regulated, live bacterial drug delivery system may be applicable to treating various bowel disorders.

  7. Ultrasound and Microbubble Mediated Doxil Delivery in a Murine Breast Cancer Model: Therapeutic Efficacy Dependence on Tumor Growth Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seip, R.; Leyvi, E.; Raju, B.I.; Shi, W.T.; Bohmer, M.R.; Chlon, C.H.T.; Sio, C.F.; Reibling, K.; Swanson, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background, Motivation and Objective: Localized drug delivery couldimprove the therapeutic efficacy for treatment of pathological lesions and reduce toxic exposure to healthy organs and tissues. The objective is to develop image-guided, ultrasound-activated tumor chemotherapy with intravenously admi

  8. Poly(amino carbonate urethane)-based biodegradable, temperature and pH-sensitive injectable hydrogels for sustained human growth hormone delivery

    OpenAIRE

    V. H. Giang Phan; Thavasyappan Thambi; Huu Thuy Trang Duong; Doo Sung Lee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new pH-/temperature-sensitive, biocompatible, biodegradable, and injectable hydrogel based on poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(amino carbonate urethane) (PEG-PACU) copolymers has been developed for the sustained delivery of human growth hormone (hGH). In aqueous solutions, PEG-PACU-based copolymers existed as sols at low pH and temperature (pH 6.0, 23 °C), whereas they formed gels in the physiological condition (pH 7.4, 37 °C). The physicochemical characteristics, including gelatio...

  9. Intrauterine tamponade balloon use in the treatment of uterine inversion

    OpenAIRE

    Haeri, Sina; Rais, Sheliza; Monks, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Uterine inversion is a rare but life-threatening obstetrical emergency that occurs when the fundus of the uterus prolapses through the cervix, hence turning the uterus inside out. In this case report, we present our experience using an intrauterine tamponade balloon for management of uterine inversion, and a review of the literature. The utility of an intrauterine tamponade balloon in cases of uterine inversion, especially when maternal medical conditions preclude the use of uterotonics, or r...

  10. 宫内生长迟缓儿血清GH、IGF-1、IGFBP-3和瘦素水平及临床意义%Serum levels of GH, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and leptin in the intrauterine growth retarded newborns and their clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘革; 李惠玲; 林广; 马南花; 韦香妮; 王彩珊; 王淑萍

    2007-01-01

    [目的] 探讨宫内生长迟缓(intrauterine growth retarded,IUGR)新生儿血清生长激素(growth hormone,GH)、胰岛素样生长因子-1(insulin-like growth factor-1,IGF-1)、胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白-3(insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3,IGFBP-3)、瘦素的浓度水平及临床意义.[方法] 选择出生48~72 h的IUGR新生儿62例和足月适于胎龄儿(appropriate for gestional age,AGA)37例与早产AGA36例,其中IUGR分为重度IUGR组(29例),轻度IUGR组(33例)和足月小于胎龄儿(small for gestional age,SGA)32例与早产SGA30例;分别于上午9时抽取静脉血,分离血清.采用放射免疫法测定GH、IGF-1、IGFBP-3和瘦素. [结果] ①足月SGA和足月AGA组血清GH、IGF-1、IGFBP-3、瘦素浓度(μg/L)分别为6.58±1.42和24.32±3.59,11.89±3.01和37.12±6.4,82.3±19.66和256.55±33.62,2.75±0.66和7.58±1.26;早产SGA和早产AGA组血清GH、IGF-1、IGFBP-3、瘦素浓度(μg/L)分别为8.18±2.55和13.83±3.98,13.59±4.83和21.05±3.44,93.48±16.44和157.33±39.34,3.21±0.61和4.9±0.83,各组比较有显著差异(P<0.05或P<0.01).②轻度和重度IUGR组血清GH、IGF-1、IGFBP-3、瘦素浓度(μg/L)分别为5.82±1.02和8.67±2.07,9.96±2.19和14.56±3.87,77.48±20.51和99.13±7.16,2.61±0.63和3.31±0.51,两组比较差异均有显著性(P<0.01).[结论] 新生儿血清GH、IGF-1、IGFBP-3、瘦素浓度水平与胎儿生长发育有密切关系,是调节胎儿宫内生长发育的重要因素.

  11. The role of gut-liver axis in the restriction of intrauterine growth in a model of experimental gastroschisis O papel do eixo intestino-fígado na restrição de crescimento intra-uterino em um modelo de gastrosquise experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pereira Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR by the expression of IR-β, IRS-1, IRS-2, IGF-IRβ and Ikappaβ in experimental model of gastroschisis. METHODS: Pregnant rats at 18.5 days of gestation were submitted to surgery to create experimental fetal gastroschisis (term = 22 days were divided in three groups: gastroschisis (G, control (C and sham (S. Fetuses were evaluated for body weight (BW, intestinal (IW, liver (LW and their relations IW/BW and LW/BW. IR-β and IGF-IRβ receptors, IRS-1 and IRS-2 substrates and Ikappaβ protein were analyzed by western blotting. RESULTS: BW was lower in G, the IW and IW / BW were greater than C and S (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a restrição de crescimento intra-uterino (RCIU pela expressão de IR-β, IRS-1, IRS-2, IGF-IRβ e a via inflamatória do Ikappaβ no modelo de gastrosquise experimental. MÉTODOS: Ratas grávidas com 18,5 dias de gestação foram submetidas a cirurgia experimental para criar gastrosquise fetal (termo = 22 dias e os fetos foram divididos em três grupos: gastrosquise (G, controle (C e sham (S. Os fetos foram avaliados quanto ao peso corporal (BW, intestinal (IW, fígado (LW e suas relações IW/BW e LW/BW. Os receptores IR-β e IGF-IRβ, os substratos IRS-1 e IRS-2 e a proteína Ikappaβ foram analisados por western blotting. RESULTADOS: O BW de G foi menor, o IW e IW/BW foram superiores a C e S (p < 0.05. O fígado não apresentou diferenças entre os grupos. Nos fetos com gastrosquise, quando comparados com fetos controles, a expressão de IGF-IRβ (p<0.001 e Ikappaβ (p<0.001 aumentou no fígado e intestino, assim como IR-β (p<0.001 que diminuiu em ambos. Inversamente ao intestino, IRS-1 (p<0.001 aumentou no fígado e IRS-2 diminuiu (p<0.01. CONCLUSÃO: O eixo do intestino fígado tem um papel importante na inflamação, com consequentes alterações na via metabólica de glicose que pode contribuir para a RCIU em fetos com gastrosquise.

  12. 彩色多普勒超声监测生长迟缓胎儿脐动脉血液循环的变化%Color Doppler monitoring the blood flow velocity waveforms of the fetal umbilical artery of intrauterine growth retardation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄子健; 潘素慈; 戴常平; 李秋明

    2001-01-01

    目的 应用彩色多普勒超声监测生长迟缓(IUGR)胎儿的脐动脉血液循环。方法 测定130例妊娠20~42周妇女(其中正常49例、IUGR 81例)脐动脉时间平均血流速度(TAMX)、收缩期最大血流速度与舒张末期血流速度的比值(S/D)、搏动指数(PI)、阻力指数(RI)、收缩期最大血流速度(Vmax)与舒张末期血流速度(Vmin)。结果 正常孕妇随孕龄增长,胎盘功能增强,胎儿血液循环日渐丰富。IUGR者则明显障碍,在20周时脐动脉TAMX显著下降,在30周后S/D、 PI及RI显著升高,Vmin显著下降,在35周时Vmax显著下降。出现舒张期血流停止或倒流。结论 彩色多普勒超声可直接测定脐动脉血液循环,能在早期诊断IUGR、判断病情及估计预后。%Objective To study the changes of the fetal circulation in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) cases.Methods Color Doppler ultrasound was used to detect blood flow velocity waveforms of the umbilical artery (UmA)in 130 pregnant women at 20~42 weeks′ gestation,of which 49 cases were normal pregnancy and 81 cases were IUGR.The indices included time average maximum (TAMX) ,pulsatility index (PI) , resistance index (RI) ,systolic maximum velocity (Vmax) /diastolic minimum velocity (Vmin) ratio (S/D).Results The results showed that the fetal circulation became abundant gradually with increasing gestational age in normal pregnancy group,but that TAMX was markedly decreased at 20 weeks′ gestation,S/D ratio,PI and RI were markedly elevated,Vmin was markedly decreased at 30 weeks′ gestation,and Vmax was markedly decreased at 35 weeks′ gestation in IUGR group.Conclusions Examining blood flow velocity waveforms of UmA by Color Doppler ultrasound was one of the best method to early diagnose and predict the prognosis of IUGR.

  13. Cesarean Delivery for a Life-threatening Preterm Placental Abruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, II; Ugwu, EO

    2015-01-01

    Placental abruption is one of the major life-threatening obstetric conditions. The fetomaternal outcome of a severe placental abruption depends largely on prompt maternal resuscitation and delivery. A case of severe preterm placental abruption with intrauterine fetal death. Following a failed induction of labor with a deteriorating maternal condition despite resuscitation, emergency cesarean delivery was offered with good maternal outcome. Cesarean delivery could avert further disease progression and possible maternal death in cases of severe preterm placental abruption where vaginal delivery is not imminent. However, further studies are necessary before this could be recommended for routine clinical practice. PMID:27057388

  14. Fetal Growth Restriction at the Limits of Viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G. H. A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Lees, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The outcome of early small-for-gestational age and/or intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses is reviewed. In these fetuses the outcome appears to be considerably poorer than that of appropriately grown fetuses and this seems mainly to be caused by intrauterine malnutrition rather than by hypoxemia.

  15. Association of isolated short fetal femur with intrauterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, N.; Bekker, M.N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze the outcomes of fetuses referred because of short femur length. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all singleton pregnancies referred to a tertiary care referral hospital with a femur length below the 5(th) percentile. All ultrasound scan reports, including Doppler,

  16. Histomorphometry of umbilical vessels of intrauterine growth restricted neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta S. Kotrannavar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: IUGR is associated with significant structural changes in umbilical vessels of full term neonates. These changes are more obvious in HUV than human umbilical artery (HUA. It can be detected prenatally and used as an indicator of impending IUGR. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(1.000: 129-134

  17. INTRA-UTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haerani Rasyid

    2017-02-01

    There is an inverse association between LBW and later risk of hypertension. The pathomechanism that links LBW and hypertension is multifactorial including delayed nephrogenesis, genetic factors, sympathetic hyperactivity, endothel dysfunction, elastin deficiencies, insulin resistance and activation of renin-angiotension system.

  18. Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Alisi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we outline clinical and experimental evidences of the association between IUGR, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and NAFLD and discuss on a possible management to avoid the risk of MS in adulthood.

  19. Mannitol-enhanced delivery of stem cells and their growth factors across the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Portillo, Gabriel S; Sanberg, Paul R; Franzblau, Max; Gonzales-Portillo, Chiara; Diamandis, Theo; Staples, Meaghan; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic brain injury in adults and neonates is a significant clinical problem with limited therapeutic interventions. Currently, clinicians have only tPA available for stroke treatment and hypothermia for cerebral palsy. Owing to the lack of treatment options, there is a need for novel treatments such as stem cell therapy. Various stem cells including cells from embryo, fetus, perinatal, and adult tissues have proved effective in preclinical and small clinical trials. However, a limiting factor in the success of these treatments is the delivery of the cells and their by-products (neurotrophic factors) into the injured brain. We have demonstrated that mannitol, a drug with the potential to transiently open the blood-brain barrier and facilitate the entry of stem cells and trophic factors, as a solution to the delivery problem. The combination of stem cell therapy and mannitol may improve therapeutic outcomes in adult stroke and neonatal cerebral palsy.

  20. Skeletal myoblast based delivery of angiogenic growth factors:a comparison between angiopoietin-1 and VEGF gene delivery for therapeutic angiogenesis in the heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Ye; Husnain Kh Haider; Shujia Jiang; Rusan Tan; In-Chin Song; Ruowen Ge; Peter K Law; Eugene KW Sim

    2006-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the efficacy of human skeletal myoblasts (SkM) mediated either human vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (hVEGF165) or angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) on vascular development and myocardial regional perfusion. Methods A porcine heart model of chronic infarction was created in 28 female swine by coronary artery ligation. The animals were randomized into:(1) group-1, DMEM injected (n=6), (2) group-2, Ad-null transduced SkM transplanted (n=6), (3) group-3, Ad-hVEGF165 transduced SkM transplanted (n=8), and (4) group-4, Ad-Ang-1 transduced SkM (n=8). Three weeks later, 5 ml DMEM containing 3× 108 SkM carrying exogenous genes were intramyocardially injected into 20 sites in left ventricle in groups-2, -3 and -4. Animals in group-1 were injected 5 ml DMEM without cells. Animals were kept on 5 mg/kg cyclosporine per day for 6 weeks. Regional blood flow was measured using fluorescent microspheres. The heart was explanted at 2, 6 and 12 weeks after transplantation for histological studies. Results Histological examination showed survival of lac-z expressing myoblasts in host tissue. Capillary density based on Von Willebrand factor-Ⅷ (vWF-Ⅷ) at low power field (× 100) was 57.13+11.85 in group-3 at 6 weeks and declined to 32.1±5.21 at 12 weeks, while it was 39.9±10.26 at 6 weeks and increased to 45.14±6.54 at 12 weeks in group-4. The mature blood vessel index was highest in group4 at 6 and 12 weeks after transplantation. The regional blood flow in the center and peri-infarct area was significantly increased in animals of groups-3 and -4. Conclusions SkM carrying either hVEGF165 or Ang- 1 induced neovascularization with increased blood flow. Ang- 1 overexpression resulted in mature and stable blood vessel formation and may be a more potent arteriogenic inducer for neovascularization.(J Geriatr Cardiol 2006;3:152-60.)

  1. Hepatic stellate cell-targeted delivery of hepatocyte growth factor transgene via bile duct infusion enhances its expression at fibrotic foci to regress dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narmada, Balakrishnan Chakrapani; Kang, Yuzhan; Venkatraman, Lakshmi; Peng, Qiwen; Sakban, Rashidah Binte; Nugraha, Bramasta; Jiang, Xuan; Bunte, Ralph M; So, Peter T C; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa; Mao, Hai-Quan; Yu, Hanry

    2013-05-01

    Liver fibrosis generates fibrotic foci with abundant activated hepatic stellate cells and excessive collagen deposition juxtaposed with healthy regions. Targeted delivery of antifibrotic therapeutics to hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) might improve treatment outcomes and reduce adverse effects on healthy tissue. We delivered the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene specifically to activated hepatic stellate cells in fibrotic liver using vitamin A-coupled liposomes by retrograde intrabiliary infusion to bypass capillarized hepatic sinusoids. The antifibrotic effects of DsRed2-HGF vector encapsulated within vitamin A-coupled liposomes were validated by decreases in fibrotic markers in vitro. Fibrotic cultures transfected with the targeted transgene showed a significant decrease in fibrotic markers such as transforming growth factor-β1. In rats, dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis is manifested by an increase in collagen deposition and severe defenestration of sinusoidal endothelial cells. The HSC-targeted transgene, administered via retrograde intrabiliary infusion in fibrotic rats, successfully reduced liver fibrosis markers alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen, accompanied by an increase in the expression of DsRed2-HGF near the fibrotic foci. Thus, targeted delivery of HGF gene to hepatic stellate cells increased the transgene expression at the fibrotic foci and strongly enhanced its antifibrotic effects.

  2. The menace of endocrine disruptors on thyroid hormone physiology and their impact on intrauterine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastorakos, George; Karoutsou, Eftychia I; Mizamtsidi, Maria; Creatsas, George

    2007-06-01

    The delivery of the appropriate thyroid hormones quantity to target tissues in euthyroidism is the result of unopposed synthesis, transport, metabolism, and excretion of these hormones. Thyroid hormones homeostasis depends on the maintenance of the circulating 'free' thyroid hormone reserves and on the development of a dynamic balance between the 'free' hormones reserves and those of the 'bound' hormones with the transport proteins. Disturbance of this hormone system, which is in constant interaction with other hormone systems, leads to an adaptational counter-response targeting to re-establish a new homeostatic equilibrium. An excessive disturbance is likely to result, however, in hypo- or hyper- thyroid clinical states. Endocrine disruptors are chemical substances forming part of 'natural' contaminating agents found in most ecosystems. There is abundant evidence that several key components of the thyroid hormones homeostasis are susceptible to the action of endocrine disruptors. These chemicals include some chlorinated organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, herbicides, and pharmaceutical agents. Intrauterine exposure to endocrine disruptors that either mimic or antagonize thyroid hormones can produce permanent developmental disorders in the structure and functioning of the brain, leading to behavioral changes. Steroid receptors are important determinants of the consequences of endocrine disruptors. Their interaction with thyroid hormones complicates the effect of endocrine disruptors. The aim of this review is to present the effect of endocrine disruptors on thyroid hormones physiology and their potential impact on intrauterine development.

  3. An Intrauterine Device Detected in Ovary during Cesarean Section: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazil Avci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper T Intrauterine Device is a common method of contraception used throughout the world. Intrauterine or ectopic pregnancies may be caused by complications with an IUD. The aim of this study was to present an ongoing term pregnancy with a copper T extrauterine device localized in the ovary. Assessment of the clinical features of a term pregnancy complicated by an IUD. A 32-year-old female was fitted with a copper T IUD in October 2009. She was hospitalized due to a term pregnancy with recurrent cesarean history and had the IUD where was not known. Laboratory values and fetal biometry were normal. A viable normal 3750 g male infant with 8/9 Apgar score was delivered by cesarean section without any abnormalities. In pelvic exploration, the IUD was localized in the left ovary and removed. Mother and infant were discharged without any complications after 24 hours. Counselling should be provided about the potential risks of an ongoing pregnancy for all patients with the complication of copper T in place. It is rare to have a successful delivery of a term normal pregnancy complicated with an IUD.

  4. An alternative, non-intrauterine hypothesis, based on maternal mitochondrial oocyte inheritance, to explain inconsistent findings of birth weight on (breast) cancer risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van Noord, P A H

    2003-01-01

    ... reflected by maternal age at conception birth (). I developed this hypothesis in an attempt to unify de Waard's early-life hypothesis () with and intrauterine hypotheses. All three hypotheses rely heavily on an adequate energy production for human growth, essential for any maturation or development.The viability of oocytes seems to be code...

  5. Nrf2 regulates gene-environment interactions in an animal model of intrauterine inflammation: Implications for preterm birth and prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussan, Thomas E.; Sudini, Kuladeep; Talbot, C. Conover; Wang, Xiaobin; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Burd, Irina; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality, and surviving infants are at increased risk for lifelong disabilities. Intrauterine inflammation is an etiological factor that drives PTB, and oxidative stress is associated with PTB. Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that is the key regulator of the response to oxidative and inflammatory stress. Here, we used the established mouse model of intrauterine inflammation-induced PTB to determine whether Nrf2 is a modifier of susceptibility to PTB and prematurity-related morbidity and mortality in the offspring. We determined that Nr2-deficient (Nrf2−/−) mice exhibited a greater sensitivity to intrauterine inflammation, as indicated by decreased time to delivery, reduced birthweight, and 100% mortality. Placentas from preterm Nrf2−/− mice showed elevated levels of markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell death, and transcriptomic analysis identified numerous key signaling pathways that were differentially expressed between wild-type (WT) and Nrf2−/− mice in both preterm and control samples. Thus, Nrf2 could be a critical factor for gene-environment interactions that may determine susceptibility to PTB. Further studies are needed to determine if Nrf2 is a viable therapeutic target in women who are at risk for PTB and associated complications in the affected offspring. PMID:28071748

  6. Characterization of biofilm formed on intrauterine devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruthi V

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Intrauterine device (IUD is one of the most convenient contraceptive procedures used by women of Asian and African countries. Previous surveys have revealed that 75% of the IUDs recovered from patients suffering from reproductive tract infections (RTIs were covered with a consortium of microbes. This study was designed to characterize these microbes and recommend remedial measures. METHODS: Quantitative measurement of biofilm formation was assessed by a microtitre plate assay on 86 samples of microorganisms dislodged from IUDs of patients with RTIs. Susceptibility of biofilm to various antimicrobial agents was also quantified. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to scrutinize the microorganisms adherent to IUDs. RESULTS: The organisms associated with IUDs were predominantly composed of Staphylococcus aureus (16%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (18%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5%, Escherichia coli (27%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (2%, Candida albicans (20% and Candida dubliniesis (12%. SEM studies indicated that these organisms were organized into biofilms. Studies on the in vitro adherence pattern by crystal violet staining on 96 well microtitre plates revealed that the biofilms were stably established after 60 hours. These biofilms are resistant to an array of antibiotics tested. CONCLUSION: Biofilm formation may be one of the major causes for persistent infection and antibiotic resistance in IUD users.

  7. Excretion of biliary compounds during intrauterine life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rocio IR Macias; Jose JG Marin; Maria A Serrano

    2009-01-01

    In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with thekidney, constitute the main routes for the eliminationof several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds intobile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterinelife the biliary route of excretion for cholephiliccompounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, isvery poor. Although very early in pregnancy the fetal liver produces bile acids, bilirubin and biliverdin, these compounds cannot be efficiently eliminated by the fetal hepatobiliary system, owing to the immaturity of the excretory machinery in the fetal liver. Therefore, the potentially harmful accumulation of cholephilic compounds in the fetus is prevented by their elimination across the placenta. Owing to the presence of detoxifying enzymes and specific transport systems at different locations of the placental barrier, such as the endothelial cells of chorionic vessels and trophoblast cells, this organ plays an important role in the hepatobiliary-like function during intrauterine life. The relevance of this excretory function in normal fetal physiology is evident in situations where high concentrations of biliary compounds are accumulated in the mother. This may result in oxidative stress and apoptosis, mainly in the placenta and fetal liver, which might affect normal fetal development and challenge the fate of the pregnancy. The present article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the hepatobiliary function of the fetal-placental unit and the repercussions of several pathological conditions on this tandem.

  8. [Intra-uterine device and nulliparous women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trignol-Viguier, N; Blin, E; Marret, H

    2014-06-01

    Intra-uterine device (IUD) is one of the birth control methods, which is available for nulliparous women, even though misconceptions still remain in medical or popular opinion. Only 1.3 % of nulliparous have a IUD as contraception in France while it is the second methods used by all women, after pill. The best contraception is the one chosen by women; however, the choice for a nulliparous of an IUD may be really difficult, despite the increasing number of women wishing to use it. Long-acting reversible contraceptives utilization, including IUD, is probably one of the issues to decrease the unintended pregnancies. An exhaustive and clear information about IUD is necessary to allow an informed and real choice. This prescription must consider contraindications and medical conditions for safe insertion, especially to avoid infection by screening STD (Chlamydia trachomatis and Nesseria gonorrhoeae) in nulliparous womenIUD preferred. Even if side effects such as expulsion, pelvic pains or dysmenorrhea are more frequent by nulliparous, IUD is a first intention choice for contraception to be consider, that women could obtain easily, including in emergency contraception situation.

  9. Octa-arginine mediated delivery of wild-type Lnk protein inhibits TPO-induced M-MOK megakaryoblastic leukemic cell growth by promoting apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Yeng Looi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lnk plays a non-redundant role by negatively regulating cytokine signaling of TPO, SCF or EPO. Retroviral expression of Lnk has been shown to suppress hematopoietic leukemic cell proliferation indicating its therapeutic value in cancer therapy. However, retroviral gene delivery carries risks of insertional mutagenesis. To circumvent this undesired consequence, we fused a cell permeable peptide octa-arginine to Lnk and evaluated the efficacy of inhibition of leukemic cell proliferation in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, proliferation assays, flow cytometry, Western Blot analyses were performed on wild-type (WT, mutant Lnk R8 or BSA treated M-MOK cells. We found that delivered WT, but not mutant Lnk R8 blocked TPO-induced M-MOK megakaryoblastic leukemic cell proliferation. In contrast, WT Lnk R8 showed no growth inhibitive effect on non-hematopoietic HELA or COS-7 cell. Moreover, we demonstrated that TPO-induced M-MOK cell growth inhibition by WT Lnk R8 was dose-dependent. Penetrated WT Lnk R8 induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Immunoprecipitation and Western blots data indicated WT Lnk R8 interacted with endogeneous Jak2 and downregulated Jak-Stat and MAPK phosphorylation level in M-MOK cells after TPO stimulation. Treatment with specific inhibitors (TG101348 and PD98059 indicated Jak-Stat and MAPK pathways were crucial for TPO-induced proliferation of M-MOK cells. Further analyses using TF-1 and HEL leukemic cell-lines showed that WT Lnk R8 inhibited Jak2-dependent cell proliferation. Using cord blood-derived CD34+ stem cells, we found that delivered WT Lnk R8 blocked TPO-induced megakaryopoiesis in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Intracellular delivery of WT Lnk R8 fusion protein efficiently inhibited TPO-induced M-MOK leukemic cell growth by promoting apoptosis. WT Lnk R8 protein delivery may provide a safer and more practical approach to inhibit leukemic cell growth worthy of further development.

  10. Intrauterine devices: an effective alternative to oral hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    (1) Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are placed in the uterine cavity with the objective of providing long-term contraception, mainly by preventing fertilisation. The best-known IUDs contain copper, but there is also an IUD delivering levonorgestrel, a progestin; (2) How effective are these devices, and what are their adverse effects? To answer these questions, we analysed the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology; (3) T-shaped copper IUDs, with a copper surface area of 380 mm2 on 3 arms, and the levonorgestrel-releasing device, have similar contraceptive efficacy as combined oral contraceptives that are used correctly. In contrast, IUDs are more effective than oral contraception used incorrectly; (4) Among IUD users, there are on average about 6 pregnancies per 1000 woman-years. There is less experience with the levonorgestrel IUD which seems to be at least as effective as copper IUDs; (5) The rare intrauterine pregnancies that occur in women using an IUD generally end in miscarriage. About 25% of these pregnancies end in a live birth if the device is left in place, compared to about 90% if the device is removed; (6) Ectopic pregnancies are rarer in IUD users than in women who do not use contraception. However, about one in 20 pregnancies that occur in women using an IUD is ectopic; (7) The IUD is expelled in about 5% to 10% of cases within 5 years, and expulsion recurs in about 30% of these women; (8) Problems such as difficult insertion, pain, bleeding and syncope are reported in less than 1.5% of cases overall; (9) Uterine perforation during insertion is rare, occurring in 0.6 to 16 cases per 1000 insertions, regardless of the type of IUD. The risk of perforation is higher when the IUD is inserted less than 4 to 6 weeks after delivery or elective abortion; (10) During the first 3 months after insertion, the risk of pelvic infection is slightly higher than in the general population, especially in women with pre-existing asymptomatic Chlamydia

  11. PLASMA PROTEIN Z CONCENTRATIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH IDIOPATHIC INTRAUTERINE BLEEDING AND IN WOMEN WITH SPONTANEOUS PRETERM LABOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Espinoza, Jimmy; Romero, Roberto; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Nien, Jyh Kae; Kim, Chong Jai; Erez, Offer; Soto, Eleazar; Fareed, Jawed; Edwin, Sam; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Than, Nandor G.; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Gomez, Ricardo; Papp, Zoltan; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Preterm parturition has been associated with decidual vascular disorders and excessive thrombin generation. The objective of this study was to examine maternal plasma concentrations of protein Z in normal pregnancies, as well as in those presenting with spontaneous preterm labor (PTL) and intrauterine bleeding during pregnancy. Study design A cross-sectional study was designed to include patients with preterm labor and intact membranes and those with idiopathic intrauterine bleeding during pregnancy. Protein Z plasma concentrations were measured in the following groups: 1) normal pregnant women (n=71); 2) patients at term with (n=67) and without labor (n=88); 3) patients with spontaneous PTL before 34 weeks who were classified into: a) PTL with intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI; n=35), b) PTL without IAI (n=54), and c) patients with PTL who delivered at term (n=49); and 4) patients with idiopathic intrauterine bleeding in the second and third trimester who were divided into: a) subsequent spontaneous PTL and delivery, and b) term delivery. Maternal plasma protein Z concentration was measured by a specific and sensitive immunoassay. Moreover, the amniotic fluid concentration of protein Z was determined in a subset of patients with preterm labor (n=30). Results 1) There was no correlation between maternal plasma protein Z concentration and gestational age in normal pregnant women. 2) The mean maternal plasma concentration of protein Z was significantly lower in women during spontaneous labor at term than in those not in labor [mean: 2.15 μg/mL (95% CI: 2.01-2.29) vs. mean: 2.45 ± 0.52 μg/mL (95% CI: 2.34-2.56), respectively; p=0.001]; 3) Women with PTL without IAI who delivered preterm had a significantly lower mean protein Z concentration than normal pregnant women [mean: 2.12 μg/mL (95% CI: 1.98-2.26) vs. mean: 2.39 μg/mL (95% CI: 2.28-2.5); p=0.008); 4) Of interest, PTL with IAI was not associated with lower plasma concentrations of protein

  12. Cervical length and phosphorilated insulin like growth factor binding protein-1 as the predictors of spontaneus preterm delivery in symptomatic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadži-Lega Marija

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the combined use of cervical length and cervical phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (phIGFBP-1 in the prediction of preterm delivery in symptomatic women in next 14 days. Methods: Cervical length was prospectively measured in 58 consecutive singleton pregnancies with intact membranes and regular contractions at 24-36 weeks, and phIGFBP-1 was assessed. Demographic data was evaluated(history of previous preterm delivery, history of spontaneous abortion, parity, BMI, maternal age, Orthodox or Muslims. Results: Values of all variables were evaluated (demographic data, cervical length and values ofphIGFBP-1 alone and in combination with cervical length of ≤ 15 mm and more than 15 mm. In women with cervical length less than 15 mm/ /phIGFPB-1 was positive in 30 patients(22 of them delivered in 14 days. In women with cervical length less than 15 mm/phIGFBP-1was positive in 9 of delivered pregnant women in 14 days. In women with cervical length less than 25 mm/phIGFBP-1was positive in 26 patients (2 of them delivered in 14 days. In patients with cervical length more than 25 mm/ph IGFBP-1 was positive in 4 patients (2 of them delivered in 14 days. With logistic regression we confirmed that with OR 0.117 and CI 95% (0.046-0.295 and p < 0.01 odds for preterm birth among patients with negative phIGFBP-1 is 0.117 lower than the odds for preterm birth among patients with positive test results. With same test for p = 0.009 (p < 0.01 we confirmed with OR and CI 95% (0.06 to 0.671 that cervical length less than 25 mm is good predictor of preterm delivery with symptomatic patients. Probability for delivery in the following 14 days with patients with positive phIGFBP-1 and cervical length ≤ 15 mm is 0.88 or probability for not delivering in those patients is 0.12. In 88% patients with positive phIGFBP-1 and cervical length ≤ 15 mm will deliver in the following 14 days. Conclusions: In symptomatic women phIGFBP-1

  13. CERVICAL LENGTH AND PHOSPHORILATED INSULIN LIKE GROWTH FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN-1 AS THE PREDICTORS OF SPONTANEUS PRETERM DELIVERY IN SYMPTOMATIC WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadzi-Lega Marija

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the combined use of cervical length and cervical phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (phIGFBP-1 in the prediction of preterm delivery in symptomatic women in next 14 days. Methods: Cervical length was prospectively measured in 58 consecutive singleton pregnancies with intact membranes and regular contractions at 24–36 weeks, and phIGFBP-1 was assessed. Demographic data was evaluated (history of previous preterm delivery, history of spontaneous abortion, parity, BMI, maternal age, Orthodox or Muslims. Results: Values of all variables were evaluated (demographic data, cervical length and values of phIGFBP-1 alone and in combination with cervical length of ≤15 mm and more than 15 mm. In women with cervical length less than 15 mm/phIGFPB-1 was positive in 30 patients (22 of them delivered in 14 days. In women with cervical length less than 15 mm/phIGFBP-1 was positive in 9 of delivered pregnant women in 14 days. In women with cervical length less than 25 mm/phIGFBP-1was positive in 26 patients (2 of them delivered in 14 days. In patients with cervical length more than 25 mm/ph IGFBP-1 was positive in 4 patients (2 of them delivered in 14 days. With logistic regression we confirmed that with OR 0.117 and CI 95% (0.046–0.295 and p < 0.01 odds for preterm birth among patients with negative phIGFBP-1 is 0.117 lower than the odds for preterm birth among patients with positive test results. With same test for p = 0.009 (p < 0.01 we confirmed with OR and CI 95% (0.06 to 0.671 that cervical length less than 25 mm is good predictor of preterm delivery with symptomatic patients. Probability for delivery in the following 14 days with patients with positive phIGFBP-1and cervical length ≤ 15 mm is 0.88 or probability for not delivering in those patients is 0.12. In 88% patients with positive phIGFBP-1 and cervical length ≤ 15 mm will deliver in the following 14 days. Conclusions: In symptomatic women ph

  14. Misoprostol use under routine conditions for termination of pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel do Nascimento

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the misoprostol use in pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death (IUFD, considering mode of delivery and induction-delivery interval. METHODS: Descriptive study including 171 pregnant women with IUFD, in the second or third trimester, submitted to labor induction with vaginal misoprostol and/or induction/augmentation with intravenous oxytocin, from 2005 to 2008, at a teaching-hospital of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde -SUS. RESULTS: Misoprostol alone (