WorldWideScience

Sample records for delineate management zones

  1. Transient flow conditions in probabilistic wellhead protection: importance and ways to manage spatial and temporal uncertainty in capture zone delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzenhoefer, R.; Rodriguez-Pretelin, A.; Nowak, W.

    2012-12-01

    "From an engineering standpoint, the quantification of uncertainty is extremely important not only because it allows estimating risk but mostly because it allows taking optimal decisions in an uncertain framework" (Renard, 2007). The most common way to account for uncertainty in the field of subsurface hydrology and wellhead protection is to randomize spatial parameters, e.g. the log-hydraulic conductivity or porosity. This enables water managers to take robust decisions in delineating wellhead protection zones with rationally chosen safety margins in the spirit of probabilistic risk management. Probabilistic wellhead protection zones are commonly based on steady-state flow fields. However, several past studies showed that transient flow conditions may substantially influence the shape and extent of catchments. Therefore, we believe they should be accounted for in the probabilistic assessment and in the delineation process. The aim of our work is to show the significance of flow transients and to investigate the interplay between spatial uncertainty and flow transients in wellhead protection zone delineation. To this end, we advance our concept of probabilistic capture zone delineation (Enzenhoefer et al., 2012) that works with capture probabilities and other probabilistic criteria for delineation. The extended framework is able to evaluate the time fraction that any point on a map falls within a capture zone. In short, we separate capture probabilities into spatial/statistical and time-related frequencies. This will provide water managers additional information on how to manage a well catchment in the light of possible hazard conditions close to the capture boundary under uncertain and time-variable flow conditions. In order to save computational costs, we take advantage of super-positioned flow components with time-variable coefficients. We assume an instantaneous development of steady-state flow conditions after each temporal change in driving forces, following

  2. Delineating risk zones and evaluation of shelter centres for flood disaster management along the Pahang River Basin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anizan Isahak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Shelter centres are important locations to safeguard people from helpless situations and are an integral part of disaster risk reduction (DRR, particularly for flood DRR. The establishment of shelter centres, and their design based on scientific assessment, is crucial. Yet, they are very much related to the geographic location, socio-economic conditions and the livelihoods of the affected communities. However, many parts of the developing world are still lagging behind in ensuring such scientific design. Considering the flood disaster in 2014 that affected the residents living along the Pahang River Basin, in this study we delineate the communities at risk and evaluate the existing shelter centres to determine how they reduce people’s vulnerability to the risks associated with rural and urban landscapes. We used spatial analysis tools to delineate risk zones and to evaluate existing evacuation systems. A flood disaster risk map was produced to determine which communities are living with risks. Subsequently, the distribution of shelter centres examined whether they are able to support people living at the flood risk zones. These centres were also evaluated using a set of international guidelines for effective disaster shelters. This reveals that the number of shelter centres is not adequate. The designation and designing of shelter centres are not being done scientifically. The maps produced here have a lot of potential to support disaster management decisions, in particular site selection and the prioritisation of centres. The study concludes with a set of guidelines and recommendations for structural and non-structural measures, such as alternative livelihoods and the potential of ecotourism, which may improve the resilience among flood-affected communities; and the decision-making process for the overall flood DRR initiatives.

  3. Improved business driveway delineation in urban work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report documents the efforts and results of a two-year research project aimed at improving driveway : delineation in work zones. The first year of the project included a closed-course study to identify the most : promising driveway delineation a...

  4. Delineation of seismic source zones based on seismicity parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to delineate seismic source zones in the study area (south India) based on the seismicity parameters. Seismicity parameters and the maximum probable earthquake for these source zones were evaluated and were used in the hazard evaluation. The probabilistic evaluation of ...

  5. Transit Traffic Analysis Zone Delineating Method Based on Thiessen Polygon

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    Shuwei Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A green transportation system composed of transit, busses and bicycles could be a significant in alleviating traffic congestion. However, the inaccuracy of current transit ridership forecasting methods is imposing a negative impact on the development of urban transit systems. Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ delineating is a fundamental and essential step in ridership forecasting, existing delineating method in four-step models have some problems in reflecting the travel characteristics of urban transit. This paper aims to come up with a Transit Traffic Analysis Zone delineation method as supplement of traditional TAZs in transit service analysis. The deficiencies of current TAZ delineating methods were analyzed, and the requirements of Transit Traffic Analysis Zone (TTAZ were summarized. Considering these requirements, Thiessen Polygon was introduced into TTAZ delineating. In order to validate its feasibility, Beijing was then taken as an example to delineate TTAZs, followed by a spatial analysis of office buildings within a TTAZ and transit station departure passengers. Analysis result shows that the TTAZs based on Thiessen polygon could reflect the transit travel characteristic and is of in-depth research value.

  6. Delineation of site-specific management zones by fuzzy clustering of soil and topographic attributes: A case study of East Nile Delta, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, A; Belal, A A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to define site-specific management zones of 67.2 ha of a wheat pivot field at East of Nile Delta, Egypt for use in precision agriculture based on spatial variability of soil and topographic attributes. The field salinity was analysed by reading the apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) with the EM38 sensor horizontally and vertically at 432 locations. The field was sampled for soil attributes systematically with a total of 80 sampling location points. All samples were located using GPS hand held unit. Soil sampling for management zones included soil reaction pH, soil saturation percentage, organic matter, calcium carbonates content, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium. The field topographic attributes were digital elevation model (DEM), slope, profile curvature, plane curvature, compound topographic index (CTI) and power stream index (PSI). The maps of spatial variability of soil and field topographic attributes were generated using ordinary kriging geostatistical method. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the most important soil and topographic attributes for representing within-field variability. Principal component analysis of input variables indicated that EM38 horizontal readings (EM38h), soil saturation percentage and digital elevation model were more important attributes for defining field management zones. The fuzzy c-means clustering method was used to divide the field into potential management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Measures of cluster performance indicated no advantage of dividing these fields into more than five management zones. The defined management zones not only provided a better description of the soil properties, but also can direct soil sampling design and provide valuable information for site-specific management in precision agriculture

  7. A methodology for delineating planning-level channel migration zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Washington State administrative codes that implement the Shoreline Management Act (SMA) require communities to identify the general location of channel migration zones (CMZs), and regulate development within these areas on shoreline streams. Shor...

  8. Near-census Delineation of Laterally Organized Geomorphic Zones and Associated Sub-width Fluvial Landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Hopkins, C.

    2017-12-01

    A river channel and its associated riparian corridor exhibit a pattern of nested, geomorphically imprinted, lateral inundation zones (IZs). Each zone plays a key role in fluvial geomorphic processes and ecological functions. Within each zone, distinct landforms (aka geomorphic or morphological units, MUs) reside at the 0.1-10 channel width scale. These features are basic units linking river corridor morphology with local ecosystem services. Objective, automated delineation of nested inundation zones and morphological units remains a significant scientific challenge. This study describes and demonstrates new, objective methods for solving this problem, using the 35-km alluvial lower Yuba River as a testbed. A detrended, high-resolution digital elevation model constructed from near-census topographic and bathymetric data was produced and used in a hypsograph analysis, a commonly used method in oceanographic studies capable of identifying slope breaks at IZ transitions. Geomorphic interpretation mindful of the river's setting was required to properly describe each IZ identified by the hypsograph analysis. Then, a 2D hydrodynamic model was used to determine what flow yields the wetted area that most closely matches each IZ domain. The model also provided meter-scale rasters of depth and velocity useful for MU mapping. Even though MUs are discharge-independent landforms, they can be revealed by analyzing their overlying hydraulics at low flows. Baseflow depth and velocity rasters are used along with a hydraulic landform classification system to quantitatively delineate in-channel bed MU types. In-channel bar and off-channel flood and valley MUs are delineated using a combination of hydraulic and geomorphic indicators, such as depth and velocity rasters for different discharges, topographic contours, NAIP imagery, and a raster of vegetation. The ability to objectively delineate inundation zones and morphological units in tandem allows for better informed river management

  9. Quantifying the performance of automated GIS-based geomorphological approaches for riparian zone delineation using digital elevation models

    OpenAIRE

    D. Fernández; J. Barquín; M. Álvarez-Cabria; F. J. Peñas

    2012-01-01

    Riparian zone delineation is a central issue for managing rivers and adjacent areas; however, criteria used to delineate them are still under debate. The area inundated by a 50-yr flood has been indicated as an optimal hydrological descriptor for riparian areas. This detailed hydrological information is usually only available for populated areas at risk of flooding. In this work we created several floodplain surfaces by means of two different GIS-based geomorphological appro...

  10. Delineation of seismic source zones based on seismicity parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    these source zones were evaluated and were used in the hazard evaluation. ... seismic sources, linear and areal, were considered in the present study to model the seismic sources in the ..... taken as an authentic reference manual for iden-.

  11. Free radical EPR in delineating oil bearing zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Kumar, V.; Das, T.K.; Gundu Rao, T.K.

    1993-01-01

    Presence of naturally occurring gamma ray activity has long been detected in oil/gas wells is invariably carried out for formation evaluation. Similarly, presence of free radicals in oil bearing formations has also been known for quite sometime. Present paper deals with a systematic study of detecting these free radicals in oil wells and correlations of these with x-ray and other logs for identification of hydrocarbon bearing zones. Present study attempts to establish EPR as as inexpensive and reliable tool in comparison with gamma ray and neutron density logs recorded in exploratory oil wells. EPR studies have been carried out in an exploratory well between depth intervals 1600 m-1400 m located in south of existing producing field in Bombay Offshore region. Based on these results, an EPR log has been prepared and compared with gamma ray and neutron density logs. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Quantifying the performance of automated GIS-based geomorphological approaches for riparian zone delineation using digital elevation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fernández

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Riparian zone delineation is a central issue for managing rivers and adjacent areas; however, criteria used to delineate them are still under debate. The area inundated by a 50-yr flood has been indicated as an optimal hydrological descriptor for riparian areas. This detailed hydrological information is usually only available for populated areas at risk of flooding. In this work we created several floodplain surfaces by means of two different GIS-based geomorphological approaches using digital elevation models (DEMs, in an attempt to find hydrologically meaningful potential riparian zones for river networks at the river basin scale. Objective quantification of the performance of the two geomorphologic models is provided by analysing coinciding and exceeding areas with respect to the 50-yr flood surface in different river geomorphological types.

  13. Description and application of capture zone delineation for a wellfield at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water capture zone boundaries for individual pumped wells in a confined aquffer were delineated by using groundwater models. Both analytical and numerical (semi-analytical) models that more accurately represent the $round-water-flow system were used. All models delineated 2-dimensional boundaries (capture zones) that represent the areal extent of groundwater contribution to a pumped well. The resultant capture zones were evaluated on the basis of the ability of each model to realistically rapresent the part of the ground-water-flow system that contributed water to the pumped wells. Analytical models used were based on a fixed radius approach, and induded; an arbitrary radius model, a calculated fixed radius model based on the volumetric-flow equation with a time-of-travel criterion, and a calculated fixed radius model derived from modification of the Theis model with a drawdown criterion. Numerical models used induded the 2-dimensional, finite-difference models RESSQC and MWCAP. The arbitrary radius and Theis analytical models delineated capture zone boundaries that compared least favorably with capture zones delineated using the volumetric-flow analytical model and both numerical models. The numerical models produced more hydrologically reasonable capture zones (that were oriented parallel to the regional flow direction) than the volumetric-flow equation. The RESSQC numerical model computed more hydrologically realistic capture zones than the MWCAP numerical model by accounting for changes in the shape of capture zones caused by multiple-well interference. The capture zone boundaries generated by using both analytical and numerical models indicated that the curnmtly used 100-foot radius of protection around a wellhead in South Carolina is an underestimate of the extent of ground-water capture for pumped wetis in this particular wellfield in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The arbitrary fixed radius of 100 feet was shown to underestimate the upgradient

  14. INVESTIGATION OF HYDROGEOLOGIC MAPPING TO DELINEATE PROTECTION ZONES AROUND SPRINGS: REPORT OF TWO CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods commonly used to delineate protection zones for water-supply wells are often not directly applicable for springs. This investigation focuses on the use of hydrogeologic mapping methods to identify physical and hydrologic features that control ground-water flow to springs...

  15. Delineation of groundwater potential zones in Theni district, Tamil Nadu, using remote sensing, GIS and MIF techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Magesh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Integration of remote sensing data and the geographical information system (GIS for the exploration of groundwater resources has become a breakthrough in the field of groundwater research, which assists in assessing, monitoring, and conserving groundwater resources. In the present paper, various groundwater potential zones for the assessment of groundwater availability in Theni district have been delineated using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Survey of India toposheets and IRS-1C satellite imageries are used to prepare various thematic layers viz. lithology, slope, land-use, lineament, drainage, soil, and rainfall were transformed to raster data using feature to raster converter tool in ArcGIS. The raster maps of these factors are allocated a fixed score and weight computed from multi influencing factor (MIF technique. Moreover, each weighted thematic layer is statistically computed to get the groundwater potential zones. The groundwater potential zones thus obtained were divided into four categories, viz., very poor, poor, good, and very good zones. The result depicts the groundwater potential zones in the study area and found to be helpful in better planning and management of groundwater resources.

  16. Applications of simulation technique on debris-flow hazard zone delineation: a case study in Hualien County, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Hsu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows pose severe hazards to communities in mountainous areas, often resulting in the loss of life and property. Helping debris-flow-prone communities delineate potential hazard zones provides local authorities with useful information for developing emergency plans and disaster management policies. In 2003, the Soil and Water Conservation Bureau of Taiwan proposed an empirical model to delineate hazard zones for all creeks (1420 in total with potential of debris flows and utilized the model to help establish a hazard prevention system. However, the model does not fully consider hydrologic and physiographical conditions for a given creek in simulation. The objective of this study is to propose new approaches that can improve hazard zone delineation accuracy and simulate hazard zones in response to different rainfall intensity. In this study, a two-dimensional commercial model FLO-2D, physically based and taking into account the momentum and energy conservation of flow, was used to simulate debris-flow inundated areas.

    Sensitivity analysis with the model was conducted to determine the main influence parameters which affect debris flow simulation. Results indicate that the roughness coefficient, yield stress and volumetric sediment concentration dominate the computed results. To improve accuracy of the model, the study examined the performance of the rainfall-runoff model of FLO-2D as compared with that of the HSPF (Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran model, and then the proper values of the significant parameters were evaluated through the calibration process. Results reveal that the HSPF model has a better performance than the FLO-2D model at peak flow and flow recession period, and the volumetric sediment concentration and yield stress can be estimated by the channel slope. The validation of the model for simulating debris-flow hazard zones has been confirmed by a comparison of field evidence from historical debris

  17. Delineation of marine ecosystem zones in the northern Arabian Sea during winter

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    S. Shalin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variability of marine autotrophic abundance, expressed as chlorophyll concentration, is monitored from space and used to delineate the surface signature of marine ecosystem zones with distinct optical characteristics. An objective zoning method is presented and applied to satellite-derived Chlorophyll a (Chl a data from the northern Arabian Sea (50–75° E and 15–30° N during the winter months (November–March. Principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA were used to statistically delineate the Chl a into zones with similar surface distribution patterns and temporal variability. The PCA identifies principal components of variability and the CA splits these into zones based on similar characteristics. Based on the temporal variability of the Chl a pattern within the study area, the statistical clustering revealed six distinct ecological zones. The obtained zones are related to the Longhurst provinces to evaluate how these compared to established ecological provinces. The Chl a variability within each zone was then compared with the variability of oceanic and atmospheric properties viz. mixed-layer depth (MLD, wind speed, sea-surface temperature (SST, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, nitrate and dust optical thickness (DOT as an indication of atmospheric input of iron to the ocean. The analysis showed that in all zones, peak values of Chl a coincided with low SST and deep MLD. The rate of decrease in SST and the deepening of MLD are observed to trigger the algae bloom events in the first four zones. Lagged cross-correlation analysis shows that peak Chl a follows peak MLD and SST minima. The MLD time lag is shorter than the SST lag by 8 days, indicating that the cool surface conditions might have enhanced mixing, leading to increased primary production in the study area. An analysis of monthly climatological nitrate values showed increased concentrations associated with the deepening

  18. Delineation of marine ecosystem zones in the northern Arabian Sea during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalin, Saleem; Samuelsen, Annette; Korosov, Anton; Menon, Nandini; Backeberg, Björn C.; Pettersson, Lasse H.

    2018-03-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of marine autotrophic abundance, expressed as chlorophyll concentration, is monitored from space and used to delineate the surface signature of marine ecosystem zones with distinct optical characteristics. An objective zoning method is presented and applied to satellite-derived Chlorophyll a (Chl a) data from the northern Arabian Sea (50-75° E and 15-30° N) during the winter months (November-March). Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to statistically delineate the Chl a into zones with similar surface distribution patterns and temporal variability. The PCA identifies principal components of variability and the CA splits these into zones based on similar characteristics. Based on the temporal variability of the Chl a pattern within the study area, the statistical clustering revealed six distinct ecological zones. The obtained zones are related to the Longhurst provinces to evaluate how these compared to established ecological provinces. The Chl a variability within each zone was then compared with the variability of oceanic and atmospheric properties viz. mixed-layer depth (MLD), wind speed, sea-surface temperature (SST), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), nitrate and dust optical thickness (DOT) as an indication of atmospheric input of iron to the ocean. The analysis showed that in all zones, peak values of Chl a coincided with low SST and deep MLD. The rate of decrease in SST and the deepening of MLD are observed to trigger the algae bloom events in the first four zones. Lagged cross-correlation analysis shows that peak Chl a follows peak MLD and SST minima. The MLD time lag is shorter than the SST lag by 8 days, indicating that the cool surface conditions might have enhanced mixing, leading to increased primary production in the study area. An analysis of monthly climatological nitrate values showed increased concentrations associated with the deepening of the mixed layer. The

  19. Analysis of viticultural potential and delineation of homogeneous viticultural zones in a temperate climate region of Romania

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    Liviu Mihai Irimia

    2014-09-01

    Significance and impact of the study: This study provides the necessary information for viticultural zoning in the Huşi wine growing region in Romania. The methodology allows to evaluate viticultural potential and to delineate homogeneous viticultural zones in wine growing regions with a temperate continental climate.

  20. Rectangular Schlumberger resistivity arrays for delineating vadose zone clay-lined fractures in shallow tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miele, M.; Laymon, D.; Gilkeson, R.; Michelotti, R.

    1996-01-01

    Rectangular Schlumberger arrays can be used for 2-dimensional lateral profiling of apparent resistivity at a unique current electrode separation, hence single depth of penetration. Numerous apparent resistivity measurements are collected moving the potential electrodes (fixed MN spacing) within a rectangle of defined dimensions. The method provides a fast, cost-effective means for the collection of dense resistivity data to provide high-resolution information on subsurface hydrogeologic conditions. Several rectangular Schlumberger resistivity arrays were employed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1989 through 1995 in an area adjacent to and downhill from an outfall pipe, septic tank, septic drainfield, and sump. Six rectangular arrays with 2 AB spacings were used to delineate lateral low resistivity anomalies that may be related to fractures that contain clay and/or vadose zone water. Duplicate arrays collected over a three year time period exhibited very good data repeatability. The properties of tritium make it an excellent groundwater tracer. Because tritium was present in discharged water from all of the anthropogenic sources in the vicinity it was used for this purpose. One major low resistivity anomaly correlates with relatively high tritium concentrations in the tuff. This was determined from borehole samples collected within and outside of the anomalous zone. The anomaly is interpreted to be due to fractures that contain clay from the soil profile. The clay was deposited in the fractures by aeolian processes and by surface water infiltration. The fractures likely served as a shallow vadose zone groundwater pathway

  1. Application of remote sensing, GIS and MCA techniques for delineating groundwater prospect zones in Kashipur block, Purulia district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S. K.; Kundu, Anindita

    2018-03-01

    Demand of groundwater resources has increased manifold with population expansion as well as with the advent of modern civilization. Assessment, planning and management of groundwater resource are becoming crucial and extremely urgent in recent time. The study area belongs to Kashipur block, Purulia district, West Bengal. The area is characterized with dry climate and hard rock terrain. The objective of this study is to delineate groundwater potential zone for the assessment of groundwater availability using remote sensing, GIS and MCA techniques. Different thematic layers such as hydrogeomorphology, slope and lineament density maps have been transformed to raster data in TNT mips pro2012. To assign weights and ranks to different input factor maps, multi-influencing factor (MIF) technique has been used. The weights assigned to each factor have been computed statistically. Weighted index overlay modeling technique was used to develop a groundwater potential zone map with three weighted and scored parameters. Finally, the study area has been categorized into four distinct groundwater potential zones—excellent 1.5% (6.45 sq. km), good 53% (227.9 sq. km), moderate 45% (193.5 sq. km.) and poor 0.5% (2.15 sq. km). The outcome of the present study will help local authorities, researchers, decision makers and planners in formulating proper planning and management of groundwater resources in different hydrogeological situations.

  2. Instrumentation for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  3. Management of coastal zone vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 14 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  4. A Combined Approach of Sensor Data Fusion and Multivariate Geostatistics for Delineation of Homogeneous Zones in an Agricultural Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Castrignanò

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess spatial variability at the very fine scale required by Precision Agriculture, different proximal and remote sensors have been used. They provide large amounts and different types of data which need to be combined. An integrated approach, using multivariate geostatistical data-fusion techniques and multi-source geophysical sensor data to determine simple summary scale-dependent indices, is described here. These indices can be used to delineate management zones to be submitted to differential management. Such a data fusion approach with geophysical sensors was applied in a soil of an agronomic field cropped with tomato. The synthetic regionalized factors determined, contributed to split the 3D edaphic environment into two main horizontal structures with different hydraulic properties and to disclose two main horizons in the 0–1.0-m depth with a discontinuity probably occurring between 0.40 m and 0.70 m. Comparing this partition with the soil properties measured with a shallow sampling, it was possible to verify the coherence in the topsoil between the dielectric properties and other properties more directly related to agronomic management. These results confirm the advantages of using proximal sensing as a preliminary step in the application of site-specific management. Combining disparate spatial data (data fusion is not at all a naive problem and novel and powerful methods need to be developed.

  5. A Combined Approach of Sensor Data Fusion and Multivariate Geostatistics for Delineation of Homogeneous Zones in an Agricultural Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrignanò, Annamaria; Buttafuoco, Gabriele; Quarto, Ruggiero; Vitti, Carolina; Langella, Giuliano; Terribile, Fabio; Venezia, Accursio

    2017-12-03

    To assess spatial variability at the very fine scale required by Precision Agriculture, different proximal and remote sensors have been used. They provide large amounts and different types of data which need to be combined. An integrated approach, using multivariate geostatistical data-fusion techniques and multi-source geophysical sensor data to determine simple summary scale-dependent indices, is described here. These indices can be used to delineate management zones to be submitted to differential management. Such a data fusion approach with geophysical sensors was applied in a soil of an agronomic field cropped with tomato. The synthetic regionalized factors determined, contributed to split the 3D edaphic environment into two main horizontal structures with different hydraulic properties and to disclose two main horizons in the 0-1.0-m depth with a discontinuity probably occurring between 0.40 m and 0.70 m. Comparing this partition with the soil properties measured with a shallow sampling, it was possible to verify the coherence in the topsoil between the dielectric properties and other properties more directly related to agronomic management. These results confirm the advantages of using proximal sensing as a preliminary step in the application of site-specific management. Combining disparate spatial data (data fusion) is not at all a naive problem and novel and powerful methods need to be developed.

  6. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  7. Delineating Groundwater Vulnerability and Protection Zone Mapping in Fractured Rock Masses: Focus on the DISCO Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Meerkhan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hard-rock catchments are considered to be source of valuable water resources for water supply to inhabitants and ecosystems. The present work aims to develop a groundwater vulnerability approach in the Caldas da Cavaca hydromineral system (Aguiar da Beira, Central Portugal in order to improve the hydrogeological conceptual site model. Different types of information were overlaid, generating several thematic maps to achieve an integrated framework of key sectors in the study site. Thus, a multi-technical approach was used, encompassing field and laboratory techniques, whereby different types of data were collected from fields such as geology, hydrogeology, applied geomorphology and geophysics and hydrogeomechanics, with the fundamental aim of applying the so-called DISCO index method. All of these techniques were successfully performed and an intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to contamination assessment, based on the multicriteria methodology of GOD-S, DRASTIC-Fm, SINTACS, SI and DISCO indexes, was delineated. Geographic Information Systems (GIS provided the basis on which to organize and integrate the databases and to produce all the thematic maps. This multi-technical approach highlights the importance of groundwater vulnerability to contamination mapping as a tool to support hydrogeological conceptualization, contributing to improving the decision-making process regarding water resources management and sustainability.

  8. Combining criteria for delineating lahar- and flash-flood-prone hazard and risk zones for the city of Arequipa, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Thouret

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru, is exposed to many natural hazards, most notably earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, lahars (volcanic debris flows, and flash floods. Of these, lahars and flash floods, triggered by occasional torrential rainfall, pose the most frequently occurring hazards that can affect the city and its environs, in particular the areas containing low-income neighbourhoods. This paper presents and discusses criteria for delineating areas prone to flash flood and lahar hazards, which are localized along the usually dry (except for the rainy season ravines and channels of the Río Chili and its tributaries that dissect the city. Our risk-evaluation study is based mostly on field surveys and mapping, but we also took into account quality and structural integrity of buildings, available socio-economic data, and information gained from interviews with risk-managers officials.

    In our evaluation of the vulnerability of various parts of the city, in addition to geological and physical parameters, we also took into account selected socio-economic parameters, such as the educational and poverty level of the population, unemployment figures, and population density. In addition, we utilized a criterion of the "isolation factor", based on distances to access emergency resources (hospitals, shelters or safety areas, and water in each city block. By combining the hazard, vulnerability and exposure criteria, we produced detailed risk-zone maps at the city-block scale, covering the whole city of Arequipa and adjacent suburbs. Not surprisingly, these maps show that the areas at high risk coincide with blocks or districts with populations at low socio-economic levels. Inhabitants at greatest risk are the poor recent immigrants from rural areas who live in unauthorized settlements in the outskirts of the city in the upper parts of the valleys. Such settlements are highly exposed to natural hazards and have little access

  9. Combining criteria for delineating lahar- and flash-flood-prone hazard and risk zones for the city of Arequipa, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, J.-C.; Enjolras, G.; Martelli, K.; Santoni, O.; Luque, J. A.; Nagata, M.; Arguedas, A.; Macedo, L.

    2013-02-01

    Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru, is exposed to many natural hazards, most notably earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, lahars (volcanic debris flows), and flash floods. Of these, lahars and flash floods, triggered by occasional torrential rainfall, pose the most frequently occurring hazards that can affect the city and its environs, in particular the areas containing low-income neighbourhoods. This paper presents and discusses criteria for delineating areas prone to flash flood and lahar hazards, which are localized along the usually dry (except for the rainy season) ravines and channels of the Río Chili and its tributaries that dissect the city. Our risk-evaluation study is based mostly on field surveys and mapping, but we also took into account quality and structural integrity of buildings, available socio-economic data, and information gained from interviews with risk-managers officials. In our evaluation of the vulnerability of various parts of the city, in addition to geological and physical parameters, we also took into account selected socio-economic parameters, such as the educational and poverty level of the population, unemployment figures, and population density. In addition, we utilized a criterion of the "isolation factor", based on distances to access emergency resources (hospitals, shelters or safety areas, and water) in each city block. By combining the hazard, vulnerability and exposure criteria, we produced detailed risk-zone maps at the city-block scale, covering the whole city of Arequipa and adjacent suburbs. Not surprisingly, these maps show that the areas at high risk coincide with blocks or districts with populations at low socio-economic levels. Inhabitants at greatest risk are the poor recent immigrants from rural areas who live in unauthorized settlements in the outskirts of the city in the upper parts of the valleys. Such settlements are highly exposed to natural hazards and have little access to vital resources. Our

  10. Combination of GIS and multicriteria analysis to delineate polluted zones in Baruwa Community of Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinolam, O.A.; Oladunjoye, M.A.; Okwugoli, U.G.

    2004-01-01

    Nineteen hand-dug wells were sampled from five different localities within Baruwa community of Lagos namely: Baruwa (BAR), Fatade (FATJ, Gowon Estate (GOW), Abesan (ABE), and Low Cost Housing Estate (LCH). Three control hand dug wells were also sampled from Ipaja (IPA), Asipa (ASI) and Agege (AGE). Chemical and statistical analyses were carried out on the water samples to determine their quality and usage while electrical resistively soundings were conducted to determine the aquiferous units. The study area was mapped by GIS using parameters such as distance from spillage point, total dissolved solid, conductivity, depth of water table, altitude etc. The present study focused on the use of GIS, hydrochemical and geophysical techniques to delineate polluted zones in the Baruwa community aquifers and to suggest possible remedial measures. Hydrochemical results show that samples collected from Baruwa community have been contaminated while samples collected from the control wells are potable. The results of the sounding data show a system of four to five geoelectric layers with variable thicknesses. The lithounits include top soil, saturated clay, sandy clay, sand and conglomeratic sand with average resistivity of the 64, 32, 167, 278 and 1299 m respectively. The relatively high resistivity of the first aquifer (20 m) suggests hydrocarbon contamination from wells within Baruwa community while, low resistivity values were observed from the first aquifers of the control wells. However, prolific uncontaminated aquifers constitute the last layer (>30 m) and could be recommended for borehole drilling in the study area. The outcome of this investigation could be used for groundwater exploration in the area. The outcome of this investigation could be used for groundwater exploration in the area and could also be applied to the broader domain of land-use management

  11. Implications of different digital elevation models and preprocessing techniques to delineate debris flow inundation hazard zones in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. R.; Griffin, R.; Irwin, D.

    2013-12-01

    Heavy rains and steep, volcanic slopes in El Salvador cause numerous landslides every year, posing a persistent threat to the population, economy and environment. Although potential debris inundation hazard zones have been delineated using digital elevation models (DEMs), some disparities exist between the simulated zones and actual affected areas. Moreover, these hazard zones have only been identified for volcanic lahars and not the shallow landslides that occur nearly every year. This is despite the availability of tools to delineate a variety of landslide types (e.g., the USGS-developed LAHARZ software). Limitations in DEM spatial resolution, age of the data, and hydrological preprocessing techniques can contribute to inaccurate hazard zone definitions. This study investigates the impacts of using different elevation models and pit filling techniques in the final debris hazard zone delineations, in an effort to determine which combination of methods most closely agrees with observed landslide events. In particular, a national DEM digitized from topographic sheets from the 1970s and 1980s provide an elevation product at a 10 meter resolution. Both natural and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain limit the accuracy of current landslide hazard assessments derived from this source. Global products from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global DEM (ASTER GDEM) offer more recent data but at the cost of spatial resolution. New data derived from the NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) in 2013 provides the opportunity to update hazard zones at a higher spatial resolution (approximately 6 meters). Hydrological filling of sinks or pits for current hazard zone simulation has previously been achieved through ArcInfo spatial analyst. Such hydrological processing typically only fills pits and can lead to drastic modifications of original elevation values

  12. Patterns of zone management uncertainty in cotton using tarnished plant bug distributions, NDVI, soil EC, yield and thermal imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management zones for various crops have been delineated using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), apparent bulk soil electrical conductivity (ECa - Veris), and yield data; however, estimations of uncertainty for these data layers are equally important considerations. The objective of this...

  13. Delineation of Gold Mineralization Zone using Resistivity and Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic Methods around, North Singhbhum Mobile Belt, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, A.; Panda, K. P.; Singh, A.; Sharma, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    The results of electrical resistivity and VLF electromagnetic surveys are presented in this study to delineate the suitable geological structure associated with gold mineralization near Lawa Village (Seraikela-Kharsawan, Jharkhand), India. The area under observation lies in North Singhbhum Mobile Belt (NSMB) which is bounded by Chotanagpur Gneiss Complex in north and Archean Singhbhum Craton in the south. Shear zone of the study area, trending E-W, is mainly associated with Cu-U mineralization which is also associated with gold. Previous geological studies have revealed that this region can be a potential site for gold prospects within NSMB. A comprehensive electrical resistivity imaging and very low frequency surveys have been performed around Lawa village to outline appropriate conducting zones, with their lateral extension and depth extent, which may be associated with gold mineralization. Resistivity survey done using Dipole-Dipole multi-electrode array reveals multiple zones of mineralization separated by variable distances. The VLF data in the current study was tainted by non-stationary and non-linear noises which cannot be eliminated by standard filtering techniques. Therefore to restore signals with significant geologic information empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique was used. The noise free data obtained was then processed using Fast Imaging technique to obtain apparent current density pseudo-sections for interpretation. Interpretation and analysis of results from each investigating survey demonstrate a steeply dipping conductor with E-W strike direction along the shear zone. These conductive zones are characterized by low resistivity and high current density values.

  14. Evaluation of methods for delineating riparian zones in a semi-arid montane watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica A. Salo; David M. Theobald; Thomas C. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Riparian zones in semi-arid, mountainous regions provide a disproportionate amount of the available wildlife habitat and ecosystem services. Despite their importance, there is little guidance on the best way to map riparian zones for broad spatial extents (e.g., large watersheds) when detailed maps from field data or high-resolution imagery and terrain data...

  15. LNAPL source zone delineation using soil gases in a heterogeneous silty-sand aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Grégory J. V.; Jousse, Florie; Luze, Nicolas; Höhener, Patrick; Atteia, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Source delineation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites is of high importance for remediation work. However, traditional methods like soil core extraction and analysis or recent Membrane Interface Probe methods are time consuming and costly. Therefore, the development of an in situ method based on soil gas analysis can be interesting. This includes the direct measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil gas taken from gas probes using a PID (Photo Ionization Detector) and the analysis of other soil gases related to VOC degradation distribution (CH4, O2, CO2) or related to presence of Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL) as 222Rn. However, in widespread heterogeneous formations, delineation by gas measurements becomes more challenging. The objective of this study is twofold: (i) to analyse the potential of several in situ gas measurement techniques in comparison to soil coring for LNAPL source delineation at a heterogeneous contaminated site where the techniques might be limited by a low diffusion potential linked to the presence of fine sands and silts, and (ii) to analyse the effect of vertical sediment heterogeneities on the performance of these gas measurement methods. Thus, five types of gases were analysed: VOCs, their three related degradation products O2, CO2 and CH4 and 222Rn. Gas measurements were compared to independent LNAPL analysis by coring. This work was conducted at an old industrial site frequently contaminated by a Diesel-Fuel mixture located in a heterogeneous fine-grained aquifer. Results show that in such heterogeneous media migration of reactive gases like VOCs occurs only across small distances and the VOC concentrations sampled with gas probes are mainly related to local conditions rather than the presence of LNAPL below the gas probe. 222Rn is not well correlated with LNAPL because of sediment heterogeneity. Oxygen, CO2, and especially CH4, have larger lengths of diffusion and give the clearest picture for LNAPL presence at this

  16. Delineation of the riparian zone in data-scarce regions using fuzzy membership functions: An evaluation based on the case of the Naryn River in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Florian; Lauermann, Magdalena; Cyffka, Bernd

    2018-04-01

    Riparian zones contain important ecosystems with a high biodiversity and relevant ecosystem services. From a process point of view, riparian zones are characterized by the interaction of hydrological, geomorphological and ecological processes. Consequently, their boundary is dynamic and blurred as it depends on not only the local valley morphology but also the hydrological regime. This makes a delineation of riparian zones from digital elevation data a challenging task as it should represent this blurred nature of riparian zone boundaries. While the application of high resolution topography from LIDAR and hydraulic models have become standard in many developed countries, studies and applications in remote areas still commonly rely on the freely available coarse resolution digital elevation models. In this article, we present the delineation of riparian zones from the SRTM-1 elevation model and fuzzy membership functions for the Naryn River in Kyrgyzstan having a length of approximately 700 km. We evaluate the extraction of the underlying channel network as well as the different indicator variables. The maximum user's accuracy for the delineation of riparian zones along the entire Naryn River is 82.14% reflecting the uncertainty arising from the heterogeneity of the riverscape as well as from the quality of the underlying elevation data. Despite the uncertainty, the fuzzy membership approach is considered as an appropriate method for riparian zone delineation as it reflects their dynamic, transitional character and can be used as indicator of connectivity within a riverscape.

  17. Delineation of a quick clay zone at Smørgrav, Norway, with electromagnetic methods under geotechnical constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalscheuer, Thomas; Bastani, Mehrdad; Donohue, Shane; Persson, Lena; Aspmo Pfaffhuber, Andreas; Reiser, Fabienne; Ren, Zhengyong

    2013-05-01

    In many coastal areas of North America and Scandinavia, post-glacial clay sediments have emerged above sea level due to iso-static uplift. These clays are often destabilised by fresh water leaching and transformed to so-called quick clays as at the investigated area at Smørgrav, Norway. Slight mechanical disturbances of these materials may trigger landslides. Since the leaching increases the electrical resistivity of quick clay as compared to normal marine clay, the application of electromagnetic (EM) methods is of particular interest in the study of quick clay structures. For the first time, single and joint inversions of direct-current resistivity (DCR), radiomagnetotelluric (RMT) and controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric (CSAMT) data were applied to delineate a zone of quick clay. The resulting 2-D models of electrical resistivity correlate excellently with previously published data from a ground conductivity metre and resistivity logs from two resistivity cone penetration tests (RCPT) into marine clay and quick clay. The RCPT log into the central part of the quick clay identifies the electrical resistivity of the quick clay structure to lie between 10 and 80 Ω m. In combination with the 2-D inversion models, it becomes possible to delineate the vertical and horizontal extent of the quick clay zone. As compared to the inversions of single data sets, the joint inversion model exhibits sharper resistivity contrasts and its resistivity values are more characteristic of the expected geology. In our preferred joint inversion model, there is a clear demarcation between dry soil, marine clay, quick clay and bedrock, which consists of alum shale and limestone.

  18. Modeling fire susceptibility to delineate wildland-urban interface for municipal-scale fire risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Ellen; Rapaport, Eric; Sherren, Kate

    2013-12-01

    The wildland-urban interface (WUI) is the region where development meets and intermingles with wildlands. The WUI has an elevated fire risk due to the proximity of development and residents to wildlands with natural wildfire regimes. Existing methods of delineating WUI are typically applied over a large region, use proxies for risk, and do not consider site-specific fire hazard drivers. While these models are appropriate for federal and provincial risk management, municipal managers require models intended for smaller regions. The model developed here uses the Burn-P3 fire behavior model to model WUI from local fire susceptibility (FS) in two study communities. Forest fuel code (FFC) maps for the study communities were modified using remote sensing data to produce detailed forest edges, including ladder fuels, update data currency, and add buildings and roads. The modified FFC maps used in Burn-P3 produced bimodal FS distributions for each community. The WUI in these communities was delineated as areas within community bounds where FS was greater than or equal to -1 SD from the mean FS value ([Formula: see text]), which fell in the trough of the bimodal distribution. The WUI so delineated conformed to the definition of WUI. This model extends WUI modeling for broader risk management initiatives for municipal management of risk, as it (a) considers site-specific drivers of fire behavior; (b) models risk, represented by WUI, specific to a community; and, (c) does not use proxies for risk.

  19. Delineation of groundwater development potential zones in parts of marginal Ganga Alluvial Plain in South Bihar, Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipankar; Dhar, Y R; Vittala, S S

    2010-06-01

    A part of the Gangetic Alluvial Plain covering 2,228 km(2), in the state of Bihar, is studied for demarcating groundwater development potential zones. The area is mainly agrarian and experiencing intensive groundwater draft to the tune of 0.12 million cubic metre per square kilometres per year from the Quaternary marginal alluvial deposits, unconformably overlain northerly sloping Precambrian bedrock. Multiparametric data on groundwater comprising water level, hydraulic gradient (pre- and post-monsoon), aquifer thickness, permeability, suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation and groundwater resources vs. draft are spatially analysed and integrated on a Geographical Information System platform to generate thematic layers. By integrating these layers, three zones have been delineated based on groundwater development potential. It is inferred that about 48% of the area covering northern part has high development potential, while medium and low development potential category covers 41% of the area. Further increase in groundwater extraction is not recommended for an area of 173 km(2), affected by over-exploitation. The replenishable groundwater resource available for further extraction has been estimated. The development potential enhances towards north with increase in thickness of sediments. Local deviations are due to variation of-(1) cumulative thickness of aquifers, (2) deeper water level resulting from localised heavy groundwater extraction and (3) aquifer permeability.

  20. Remote sensing applications for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  1. Remote sensing and aerial photography for delineation and management of coastal ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    sensing data. may provide necessary information to the planners and researchers. interested in the 11 .. coastal ecosystems. Mismanagement or lack of management of coastal zones may result in the loss of marine ecosystems, influencing erosion and the sea..., topographic maps and other resources. The effective management and research of coastal zones, require information on coastal landforms, wetlands, shoreline changes, sediment and current pattern, which can easily be obtained from the satellite data. Coastal...

  2. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took....../mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities where...

  3. Lucas Heights buffer zone: plan of management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This plan is being used by the Commission as a guide for its management of the Lucas Heights buffer zone, which is essentially a circular area having a 1-6 km radius around the HIFAR reactor. Aspects covered by this plan include past uses, current use, objectives for buffer zone land management, emergency evacuation, resource conservation, archaeology, fire, access, rehabilitation of disturbed areas, resource management and plan implementation

  4. Cacao Crop Management Zones Determination Based on Soil Properties and Crop Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Silva Matos de Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The use of management zones has ensured yield success for numerous agricultural crops. In spite of this potential, studies applying precision agricultural techniques to cacao plantations are scarce or almost nonexistent. The aim of the present study was to delineate management zones for cacao crop, create maps combining soil physical properties and cacao tree yield, and identify what combinations best fit within the soil chemical properties. The study was conducted in 2014 on a cacao plantation in a Nitossolo Háplico Eutrófico (Rhodic Paleudult in Bahia, Brazil. Soil samples were collected in a regular sampling grid with 120 sampling points in the 0.00-0.20 m soil layer, and pH(H2O, P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, H+Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, SB, V, TOC, effective CEC, CEC at pH 7.0, coarse sand, fine sand, clay, and silt were determined. Yield was measured in all the 120 points every month and stratified into annual, harvest, and early-harvest cacao yields. Data were subjected to geostatistical analysis, followed by ordinary kriging interpolation. The management zones were defined through a Fuzzy K-Means algorithm for combinations between soil physical properties and cacao tree yield. Concordance analysis was carried out between the delineated zones and soil chemical properties using Kappa coefficients. The zones that best classified the soil chemical properties were defined from the early-harvest cacao yield map associated with the clay or sand fractions. Silt content proved to be an inadequate variable for defining management zones for cacao production. The delineated management zones described the spatial variability of the soil chemical properties, and are therefore important for site-specific management in the cacao crop.

  5. Delineation of a wellhead protection zone and determination of flowpaths from potential groundwater contaminant source areas at Camp Ripley, Little Falls, Minnesota.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-12-22

    Groundwater at Camp Ripley, Minnesota, is recharged both on post and off site and discharged to rivers, wetlands, and pumping wells. The subsurface geologic materials have a wide range of permeabilities and are arranged in a complex fashion as a result of the region's multiple glacial advances. Correlation of individual glacial geologic units is difficult, even between nearby boreholes, because of the heterogeneities in the subsurface. This report documents the creation of a numerical model of groundwater flow for Camp Ripley and hydrologically related areas to the west and southwest. The model relies on a hydrogeological conceptual model built on the findings of a University of Minnesota-Duluth drilling and sampling program conducted in 2001. Because of the site's stratigraphic complexity, a geostatistical approach was taken to handle the uncertainty of the subsurface correlation. The U.S. Geological Survey's MODFLOW code was used to create the steady-state model, which includes input data from a variety of sources and is calibrated to water levels in monitoring wells across much of the site. This model was used for several applications. Wellhead protection zones were delineated for on-site production wells H, L, and N. The zones were determined on the basis of a probabilistic assessment of the groundwater captured by these wells; the assessment, in turn, had been based on multiple realizations of the study area's stratigraphy and groundwater flowfield. An additional application of the model was for estimating flowpaths and times of travel for groundwater at Camp Ripley's range areas and waste management facilities.

  6. Using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model in the delineation of gold mineralized zones within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au, Balikesir, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Abdelnasser, Amr; Karaman, Muhittin; Budakoglu, Murat

    2016-04-01

    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au mineralization that located at the Biga peninsula (W Turkey) developed around the Eybek pluton concentrated at its southern contact. This mineralization that hosted in the hornfels rocks of Karakaya Complex is associated with three main alteration zones; potassic, phyllic and propylitic alterations along the fault controlled margins of the Eybek pluton and quartz stockwork veining as well as brecciation zones. As well as two mineralized zones were occurred in the mine area; hypogene and oxidation/supergene zone. The hypogene zone has differentiated alteration types; high potassic and low phyllic alteration, while the oxidation/supergene zone has high phyllic and propylitic alterations. This work deals with the delineation of gold mineralized zone within this porphyry deposit using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model. Five zones of gold were calculated using its power-law C-V relationship that revealed that the main phase of gold mineralization stated at 5.3083 ppm Au concentration. In addition, the C-V log-log plot shows that the highly and moderately Au mineralization zone developed in western part of deposit correlated with oxidation zone related to propylitic alteration. On the other hand, its weakly mineralization zone has a widespread in the hypogene zone related to potassic alteration. This refers to the enrichment of gold and depletion of copper at the oxidation/supergene zone is due to the oxidation/supergene alteration processes that enrich the deposits by the meteoric water. Keywords: Concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model; gold mineralized zone; Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au; Balikesir; NW Turkey.

  7. Integrated geophysical investigations for the delineation of source and subsurface structure associated with hydro-uranium anomaly: A case study from South Purulia Shear Zone (SPSZ), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. P.; Biswas, A.

    2012-12-01

    South Purulia Shear Zone (SPSZ) is an important region for prospecting of uranium mineralization. Geological studies and hydro-uranium anomaly suggest the presence of Uranium deposit around Raghunathpur village which lies about 8 km north of SPSZ. However, detailed geophysical investigations have not been carried out in this region for investigation of uranium mineralization. Since surface signature of uranium mineralization is not depicted near the location, a deeper subsurface source is expected for hydro uranium anomaly. To delineate the subsurface structure and to investigate the origin of hydro-uranium anomaly present in the area, Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array and Gradient Resistivity Profiling (GRP) were performed at different locations along a profile perpendicular to the South Purulia Shear Zone. Apparent resistivity computed from the measured sounding data at various locations shows a continuously increasing trend. As a result, conventional apparent resistivity data is not able to detect the possible source of hydro uranium anomaly. An innovative approach is applied which depicts the apparent conductivity in the subsurface revealed a possible connection from SPSZ to Raghunathpur. On the other hand resistivity profiling data suggests a low resistive zone which is also characterized by low Self-Potential (SP) anomaly zone. Since SPSZ is characterized by the source of uranium mineralization; hydro-uranium anomaly at Raghunathpur is connected with the SPSZ. The conducting zone has been delineated from SPSZ to Raghunathpur at deeper depths which could be uranium bearing. Since the location is also characterized by a low gravity and high magnetic anomaly zone, this conducting zone is likely to be mineralized zone. Keywords: Apparent resistivity; apparent conductivity; Self Potential; Uranium mineralization; shear zone; hydro-uranium anomaly.

  8. Delineation of ground water potential zones using GIS and remote sensing - A case study from midland region of Vamanapuram river basin, Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Geena; Vinod P., G.; John, Shaleena Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    In a highly rugged terrain, shielded by hard crystalline rocks like that of Kerala, locating potential zones of groundwater is found to be an unenviable task. Remote sensing and Geographical information system technologies have been attempted widely to delineate the potential regions in such terrain. Geographical information system tool has been used for delineation of groundwater prospect zones in midland physiographic zone (30-200m) of Vamanapuram river basin. The terrain variables are generated using satellite imageries, SRTM DEM data of 30m resolution and SOI toposheets. The groundwater prospect zones were delineated through the integration of the reclassified raster map layers of geomorphology, slope percent, geology, land use / land cover and soil texture using the weighted overlay analysis in the GIS platform. The groundwater prospects in the study area were grouped into five classes and their distribution are; `very high/high' (8.79%), `moderate' (39.08%), and `very low / low' (52.01%). The study result of the area has been validated with water level data of dug wells and bore wells of the area. The spatial distribution map of the water level of the region is overlaid on groundwater prospect map and shows a positive correlation i.e., the water level at shallow depth in higher prospect zones and at deeper depth in poor to very poor zones. The Groundwater prospect map of midland region of Vamanapuram river basin can be used as base level information which can be further investigated with geophysical methods to locate potential well sites for the execution of water supply schemes.

  9. Characteristics and landcover of estuarine boundaries: implications for the delineation of the South African estuarine functional zone

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veldkornet, DA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Zulu-Natal), cultivation has removed estuarine habitat. Although delineation of boundaries can be complicated by landcover changes, the estuarine lateral boundary in Cape estuaries could be identified based on sediment characteristics (moisture content, organic content...

  10. Implications of multiple risk factors for delineation of disease control zones: Case study on foot-and-mouth disease occurrence in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrisostom, Ayebazibwe; Okurut, Ademun Anna Rose; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    strategies to promote disease control and livestock trade in endemic countries was to introduce the concept of disease-free zones within which specific sanitary and market standards have to be met. In Africa, it is only Namibia, Botswana and South Africa that have ever had FMD free OIE-declared zones......, water, animal products, utensils and livestock-human contacts. Like other developing countries, animal production and marketing are heavily constrained by limited access to lucrative international markets because of failure to meet the required standards by the World Trade Organization. One of the major....... In pursuit of possibilities of beef export to EU and other markets within Africa by the year 2020, Uganda delineated two disease control zones (DCZs) in areas with large livestock populations and as a consequence high risk for FMD, thus requiring high capital investment. This paper highlights the multiple...

  11. Seasonally-managed wetland footprint delineation using Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W. T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Epshtein, Olga [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment

    2014-01-09

    One major challenge in water resource management is the estimation of evapotranspiration losses from seasonally managed wetlands. Quantifying these losses is complicated by the dynamic nature of the wetlands' areal footprint during the periods of flood-up and drawdown. In this paper, we present a data-lean solution to this problem using an example application in the San Joaquin Basin, California. Through analysis of high-resolution Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite imagery, we develop a metric to better capture the extent of total flooded wetland area. The procedure is validated using year-long, continuously-logged field datasets for two wetlands within the study area. The proposed classification which uses a Landsat ETM + Band 5 (mid-IR wavelength) to Band 2 (visible green wavelength) ratio improves estimates by 30–50% relative to previous wetland delineation studies. Finally, requiring modest ancillary data, the study results provide a practical and efficient option for wetland management in data-sparse regions or un-gauged watersheds.

  12. Delineating Supply Chain Management (SCM Features in Construction Project Delivery: The Nigerian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict Amade

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to delineate SCM features using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP with a view to incorporating it into the delivery of construction projects in Nigeria. The study adopted an exploratory research design (quantitative and qualitative methods. A purposive and convenient sampling technique was deployed with the aid of semi-structured interview, case study; questionnaire survey in a construction firm in Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were used to collect primary data after being pre-tested via a pilot study for validity and reliability. The data collected were analysed using the AHP. Findings from the study shows that the following features are key; Instituting trust and long term relationships amongst supply chain partners (ITP, supply chain finance (SCF, supply chain and continuous performance measurement (SCCPM, information technology (IT, quality management (QM, supply base management (SBM, senior management’s commitment (SMC and supply chain orientation (SCO. In delivering construction projects to success using the SCM approach, adequate attention and emphasis should be accorded to the aforementioned important features in the order they appear as they would aid in effecting the much needed success. It is also expected that the features would further be beneficial to construction firms as it would enable the firms to manage, measure and evaluate the gains ensuing from the deployment of SCM techniques.

  13. 49 CFR 1105.9 - Coastal Zone Management Act requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coastal Zone Management Act requirements. 1105.9... ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS § 1105.9 Coastal Zone Management Act requirements. (a) If the proposed action affects land or water uses within a State coastal zone designated pursuant to the Coastal Zone Management Act (16 U.S.C...

  14. 32 CFR 643.33 - Policy-Coastal zone management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Coastal zone management. 643.33 Section... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.33 Policy—Coastal zone management. (a) The Coastal Zone Management Act of... affecting the coastal zone of a state, to conduct or support those activities in a manner which is, to the...

  15. Role delineation study for the American Society for Pain Management Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willens, Joyce S; DePascale, Christine; Penny, James

    2010-06-01

    A role delineation study, or job analysis, is a necessary step in the development of a quality credentialing program. The process requires a logical approach and systematic methods to have an examination that is legally defensible. There are three main phases: initial development and evaluation, validation study, and development of test specifications. In the first phase, the content expert panel discussed performance domains that exist in pain management nursing. The six domains developed were: 1) assessment, monitoring, and evaluation of pain; 2) pharmacologic pain management; 3) nonpharmacologic pain management; 4) therapeutic communication and counseling; 5) patient and family teaching; and 6) collaborative and organizational activities. The panel then produced a list of 70 task statements to develop an online survey which was sent to independent reviewers with expertise in pain management nursing. After the panel reviewed the results of the pilot test, it was decided to clarify a few items that did not perform as expected. After the questionnaire was finalized it was distributed to 1,500 pain management nurses. The final yield was 585 usable returns, for a response rate of 39%. Thirty-three percent of the respondents reported a bachelor's degree in nursing as the highest degree awarded. Over 80% indicated that they were certified in pain management. Over 35% reported working in a staff position, 14% as a nurse practitioner, and 13% as a clinical nurse specialist. Part of the questionnaire asked the participants to rate performance expectation, consequence or the likelihood that the newly certified pain management nurse could cause harm, and the frequency of how often that nurse performs in each of the performance domains. The performance expectation was rated from 0 (the newly certified pain management nurse was not at all expected to perform the domain task) to 2 (after 6 months the newly certified pain management nurse would be expected to perform the domain

  16. Delineation of the geometry of the nodes in the Alps-Dinarides hinge zone and recognition of seismogenic nodes (M ≥ 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, A.I.; Soloviev, A.A.; Panza, G.F.; Aoudia, A.; Peresan, A.

    2007-11-01

    In the junction zone between the Alps and the Dinarides, one of the most seismically active areas in Europe, we delineate a total of sixteen nodes which are capable of M ≥ 6.0 earthquakes using large-scale cartographic data. Seven of them have already experienced the occurrence of sufficiently well located earthquakes with M ≥ 6.0. Using these seven nodes as a learning set, we identify, by means of the pattern recognition methodology, three other nodes prone to earthquakes with M ≥ 6.0: one node in the Alpine domain and two in the northernmost Dinarides. (author)

  17. 77 FR 8219 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management... ICMP constitutes an approvable program and that requirements of the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA..., submitted a coastal management program to NOAA for approval under the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), 16...

  18. Combining criteria for delineating lahar- and flash-flood-prone hazard and risk zones for the city of Arequipa, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Thouret , Jean-Claude; Enjolras , G.; Martelli , K.; Santoni , O.; Luque , A.; Nagata , M.; Arguedas , A.; Macedo , L.

    2013-01-01

    Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru, is exposed to many natural hazards, most notably earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, lahars (volcanic debris flows), and flash floods. Of these, lahars and flash floods, triggered by occasional torrential rainfall, pose the most frequently occurring hazards that can affect the city and its environs, in particular the areas containing low-income neighbourhoods. This paper presents and discusses criteria for delineating areas prone to flash fl...

  19. The Oldman River triangle zone: a complicated tectonic wedge delineated by new structural mapping and seismic interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockmal, G. S. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Inst. of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology; Lawton, D. C.; Spratt, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; MacKay, P. A.

    1996-06-01

    The triangle zone exposed along and adjacent to the Alberta Foothills was characterized on the basis of new structural mapping and seismic surveys. Results indicate that the zone is comprised of a complicated structure involving significant deformation in the hanging wall of the upper detachment, including orogenic thrusts and large orogen-vergent folds, as well as secondary orogen-directed tectonic wedging. This structure is considered to be an example of a `nested` triangle zone, where an `outer` tectonic wedge with modest shortening encases an `inner` counterpart with substantially more shortening. Both of these wedges show evidence of synchronous deformation. 23 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Delineating Research Forums for Business and Management Education Scholars: The Business and Management Education Influence Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The authors used bibliometric analysis to create indices for both the percentage of articles a journal publishes on business and management education (BME) research and the relative scholarly impact an article is likely to have after being published in that journal. They envision that the dissemination of these indices will be helpful for scholars…

  1. 76 FR 80342 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management... program under the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), as amended at 16 U.S.C. 1451-1466, and the...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coastal Zone Management Act authorizes the Secretary of Commerce (Secretary) to...

  2. Approach for delineation of contributing areas and zones of transport to selected public-supply wells using a regional ground-water flow model, Palm Beach County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renken, R.A.; Patterson, R.D.; Orzol, L.L.; Dixon, Joann

    2001-01-01

    Rapid urban development and population growth in Palm Beach County, Florida, have been accompanied with the need for additional freshwater withdrawals from the surficial aquifer system. To maintain water quality, County officials protect capture areas and determine zones of transport of municipal supply wells. A multistep process was used to help automate the delineation of wellhead protection areas. A modular ground-water flow model (MODFLOW) Telescopic Mesh Refinement program (MODTMR) was used to construct an embedded flow model and combined with particle tracking to delineate zones of transport to supply wells; model output was coupled with a geographic information system. An embedded flow MODFLOW model was constructed using input and output file data from a preexisting three-dimensional, calibrated model of the surficial aquifer system. Three graphical user interfaces for use with the geographic information software, ArcView, were developed to enhance the telescopic mesh refinement process. These interfaces include AvMODTMR for use with MODTMR; AvHDRD to build MODFLOW river and drain input files from dynamically segmented linear (canals) data sets; and AvWELL Refiner, an interface designed to examine and convert well coverage spatial data layers to a MODFLOW Well package input file. MODPATH (the U.S. Geological Survey particle-tracking postprocessing program) and MODTOOLS (the set of U.S. Geological Survey computer programs to translate MODFLOW and MODPATH output to a geographic information system) were used to map zones of transport. A steady-state, five-layer model of the Boca Raton area was created using the telescopic mesh refinement process and calibrated to average conditions during January 1989 to June 1990. A sensitivity analysis of various model parameters indicates that the model is most sensitive to changes in recharge rates, hydraulic conductivity for layer 1, and leakance for layers 3 and 4 (Biscayne aquifer). Recharge (58 percent); river (canal

  3. 76 FR 57022 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and...: Illinois has submitted a coastal management program to NOAA for approval under the Coastal Zone Management...

  4. Use of geospatial technology for delineating groundwater potential zones with an emphasis on water-table analysis in Dwarka River basin, Birbhum, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Raju; Gupta, Srimanta; Gupta, Arindam; Reddy, D. V.; Kaur, Harjeet

    2018-05-01

    Dwarka River basin in Birbhum, West Bengal (India), is an agriculture-dominated area where groundwater plays a crucial role. The basin experiences seasonal water stress conditions with a scarcity of surface water. In the presented study, delineation of groundwater potential zones (GWPZs) is carried out using a geospatial multi-influencing factor technique. Geology, geomorphology, soil type, land use/land cover, rainfall, lineament and fault density, drainage density, slope, and elevation of the study area were considered for the delineation of GWPZs in the study area. About 9.3, 71.9 and 18.8% of the study area falls within good, moderate and poor groundwater potential zones, respectively. The potential groundwater yield data corroborate the outcome of the model, with maximum yield in the older floodplain and minimum yield in the hard-rock terrains in the western and south-western regions. Validation of the GWPZs using the yield of 148 wells shows very high accuracy of the model prediction, i.e., 89.1% on superimposition and 85.1 and 81.3% on success and prediction rates, respectively. Measurement of the seasonal water-table fluctuation with a multiplicative model of time series for predicting the short-term trend of the water table, followed by chi-square analysis between the predicted and observed water-table depth, indicates a trend of falling groundwater levels, with a 5% level of significance and a p-value of 0.233. The rainfall pattern for the last 3 years of the study shows a moderately positive correlation ( R 2 = 0.308) with the average water-table depth in the study area.

  5. Delineation of spall zone from pre/post shot reflections studies: Preliminary results from BEXAR. Los Alamos Source Region Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.R.; Cogbill, A.H.; Weaver, T.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miller, R.; Steeples, D. [Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States)

    1992-12-31

    In order to delineate the lateral and depth extent of spall from a buried nuclear explosion, we have performed a high-resolution pre- and post-shot seismic reflection survey from BEXAR. Although the data quality were marginal due to poor wave propagation through the volcanic tuffs of Pahute Mesa, a number of interesting differences are observed on the pre- and post-shot surveys. On the pre-shot survey, a reflector (reflector `` 1 ``) is observed at 250 ms (or about 150 m depth) using a stacking velocity of 1300 m/s. On the post-shot survey two reflectors are observed and a stacking velocity of 1150 m/s was used representing a 12% reduction in compressional velocity. With this stacking velocity, reflector `` 1 `` is recorded at 290 ms (still at about 150 m depth) and a new reflector ``2`` is observed at 210 ms (or about 100 m depth). These stacking velocities correspond well with available uphole travel times collected in U19ba and nearby U19ax (BEXAR and KEARSARGE emplacement holes, respectively). The cause for the differences observed in the pre- and post-shot surveys may be due to one of two reasons. First, it is possible that the near-surface rocks were damaged as part of the spallation process (thus reducing the in situ velocities) and reflector ``2`` represents a spall detachment surface. However, analysis of acceleration data collected close to the reflection line suggests that the ground motions were probably inadequate to damage the tuffs. Also, no evidence of actual spallation was actually observed. The second hypothesis is that the near-surface velocities of the tuffs were altered by the change in saturation state due to extensive rains occurring between the pre- and postshot surveys. Although the dependence of seismic velocity on saturation state is controlled by a number of complex factors, it cannot be ruled out.

  6. Detection of dead standing Eucalyptus camaldulensis without tree delineation for managing biodiversity in native Australian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltiadou, Milto; Campbell, Neil D. F.; Gonzalez Aracil, Susana; Brown, Tony; Grant, Michael G.

    2018-05-01

    In Australia, many birds and arboreal animals use hollows for shelters, but studies predict shortage of hollows in near future. Aged dead trees are more likely to contain hollows and therefore automated detection of them plays a substantial role in preserving biodiversity and consequently maintaining a resilient ecosystem. For this purpose full-waveform LiDAR data were acquired from a native Eucalypt forest in Southern Australia. The structure of the forest significantly varies in terms of tree density, age and height. Additionally, Eucalyptus camaldulensis have multiple trunk splits making tree delineation very challenging. For that reason, this paper investigates automated detection of dead standing Eucalyptus camaldulensis without tree delineation. It also presents the new feature of the open source software DASOS, which extracts features for 3D object detection in voxelised FW LiDAR. A random forest classifier, a weighted-distance KNN algorithm and a seed growth algorithm are used to create a 2D probabilistic field and to then predict potential positions of dead trees. It is shown that tree health assessment is possible without tree delineation but since it is a new research directions there are many improvements to be made.

  7. Radiotracer studies for coastal zone management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, C.; Kluss, T.; Airey, P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal engineers and coastal zone managers increasingly rely on numerical models of fluid, sediment and contaminant dynamics. These are used to underpin coastal structure design and to predict environmental response to specific events such as storms or pollutant spills, and gradual changes such as sea-level rise or changes in bathymetry. Radiotracer techniques can be used to provide dynamic data on the movement of a specific patch of water, sediment or pollutant over time, which can be compared with model predictions. Two case studies are presented where radiotracer studies were used to improve confidence in numerical models of: (1) 2D hydrodynamics and sediment transport at the Port of Songkhla, Thailand; and (2) 3D hydrodynamics and algal bloom transport in Manila Bay, Philippines

  8. Application of simulation technique on debris flow hazard zone delineation: a case study in the Daniao tribe, Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Tsai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan in August 2009 and induced considerable disasters, including large-scale landslides and debris flows. One of these debris flows was experienced by the Daniao tribe in Taitung, Eastern Taiwan. The volume was in excess of 500 000 m3, which was substantially larger than the original design mitigation capacity. This study considered large-scale debris flow simulations in various volumes at the same area by using the DEBRIS-2D numerical program. The program uses the generalized Julien and Lan (1991 rheological model to simulate debris flows. In this paper, the sensitivity factor considered on the debris flow spreading is the amount of the debris flow initial volume. These simulated results in various amounts of debris flow initial volume demonstrated that maximal depths of debris flows were almost deposited in the same area, and also revealed that a 20% variation in estimating the amount of total volume at this particular site results in a 2.75% variation on the final front position. Because of the limited watershed terrain, the hazard zones of debris flows were not expanded. Therefore, the amount of the debris flow initial volume was not sensitive.

  9. Delineating managed land for reporting national greenhouse gas emissions and removals to the United Nations framework convention on climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Domke, Grant; Kurz, Werner A; Rocha, Marcelo T; Huffman, Ted; Swan, Amy; Smith, James E; Woodall, Christopher; Krug, Thelma

    2018-05-29

    Land use and management activities have a substantial impact on carbon stocks and associated greenhouse gas emissions and removals. However, it is challenging to discriminate between anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic sources and sinks from land. To address this problem, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change developed a managed land proxy to determine which lands are contributing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals. Governments report all emissions and removals from managed land to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change based on this proxy, and policy interventions to reduce emissions from land use are expected to focus on managed lands. Our objective was to review the use of the managed land proxy, and summarize the criteria that governments have applied to classify land as managed and unmanaged. We found that the large majority of governments are not reporting on their application of the managed land proxy. Among the governments that do provide information, most have assigned all area in specific land uses as managed, while designating all remaining lands as unmanaged. This designation as managed land is intuitive for croplands and settlements, which would not exist without management interventions, but a portion of forest land, grassland, and wetlands may not be managed in a country. Consequently, Brazil, Canada and the United States have taken the concept further and delineated managed and unmanaged forest land, grassland and wetlands, using additional criteria such as functional use of the land and accessibility of the land to anthropogenic activity. The managed land proxy is imperfect because reported emissions from any area can include non-anthropogenic sources, such as natural disturbances. However, the managed land proxy does make reporting of GHG emissions and removals from land use more tractable and comparable by excluding fluxes from areas that are not directly influenced by anthropogenic activity. Moreover

  10. EIA modelling for coastal zone management. Part 2

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    stream_size 15 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Summer_Sch_EIA_Manage_Coast_Zone_2001_95.pdf.txt stream_source_info Summer_Sch_EIA_Manage_Coast_Zone_2001_95.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  11. An Efficient Method for Detecting Misbehaving Zone Manager in MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafsanjani, Marjan Kuchaki; Pakzad, Farzaneh; Asadinia, Sanaz

    In recent years, one of the wireless technologies increased tremendously is mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) in which mobile nodes organize themselves without the help of any predefined infrastructure. MANETs are highly vulnerable to attack due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology, cooperative algorithms, lack of centralized monitoring, management point and lack of a clear defense line. In this paper, we report our progress in developing intrusion detection (ID) capabilities for MANET. In our proposed scheme, the network with distributed hierarchical architecture is partitioned into zones, so that in each of them there is one zone manager. The zone manager is responsible for monitoring the cluster heads in its zone and cluster heads are in charge of monitoring their members. However, the most important problem is how the trustworthiness of the zone manager can be recognized. So, we propose a scheme in which "honest neighbors" of zone manager specify the validation of their zone manager. These honest neighbors prevent false accusations and also allow manager if it is wrongly misbehaving. However, if the manger repeats its misbehavior, then it will lose its management degree. Therefore, our scheme will be improved intrusion detection and also provide a more reliable network.

  12. Using remote sensing to inform integrated coastal zone management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available TO INFORM INTERGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT GISSA Western Cape Regional Meeting Wesley Roberts & Melanie Luck-Vogel 2 June 2010 CSIR NRE Ecosystems Earth Observation Group What is Integrated Coastal Zone Management? Integrated coastal management... D1D1 B a n d 1 Band 2 Quick theory of CVA Magnitude Direction ( ) ( )22 xaxbyaybM ?+?= Quadrant 1 (++) Accretion Quadrant 2 (-+) Quadrant 4 (+-) Quadrant 3 (--) Erosion CVA Results & Conclusions ? Change in image time series...

  13. Gaming disorder: Its delineation as an important condition for diagnosis, management, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, John B; Hao, Wei; Long, Jiang; King, Daniel L; Mann, Karl; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Chung, Thomas; Chan, Elda; Bahar, Norharlina; Achab, Sophia; Lee, Hae Kook; Potenza, Marc; Petry, Nancy; Spritzer, Daniel; Ambekar, Atul; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Griffiths, Mark D; Pontes, Halley M; Kuss, Daria; Higuchi, Susumu; Mihara, Satoko; Assangangkornchai, Sawitri; Sharma, Manoj; Kashef, Ahmad El; Ip, Patrick; Farrell, Michael; Scafato, Emanuele; Carragher, Natacha; Poznyak, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    Online gaming has greatly increased in popularity in recent years, and with this has come a multiplicity of problems due to excessive involvement in gaming. Gaming disorder, both online and offline, has been defined for the first time in the draft of 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). National surveys have shown prevalence rates of gaming disorder/addiction of 10%-15% among young people in several Asian countries and of 1%-10% in their counterparts in some Western countries. Several diseases related to excessive gaming are now recognized, and clinics are being established to respond to individual, family, and community concerns, but many cases remain hidden. Gaming disorder shares many features with addictions due to psychoactive substances and with gambling disorder, and functional neuroimaging shows that similar areas of the brain are activated. Governments and health agencies worldwide are seeking for the effects of online gaming to be addressed, and for preventive approaches to be developed. Central to this effort is a need to delineate the nature of the problem, which is the purpose of the definitions in the draft of ICD-11.

  14. The Green, Amber, Red Delineation of Risk and Need (GARDIAN) management system: a pragmatic approach to optimizing heart health from primary prevention to chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Melinda J; Kok, Simone; Jansen, Kiki; Stewart, Simon

    2013-08-01

    A sustained epidemic of cardiovascular disease and related risk factors is a global phenomenon contributing significantly to premature deaths and costly morbidity. Preventative strategies across the full continuum of life, from a population to individual perspective, are not optimally applied. This paper describes a simple and adaptable 'traffic-light' system we have developed to systematically perform individual risk and need delineation in order to 'titrate' the intensity and frequency of healthcare intervention in a cost-effective manner. The GARDIAN (Green Amber Red Delineation of Risk and Need) system is an individual assessment of risk and need that modulates the frequency and intensity of future healthcare intervention. Individual assessment of risk and need for ongoing intervention and support is determined with reference to three domains: (1) clinical stability, (2) gold-standard management, and (3) a broader, holistic assessment of individual circumstance. This can be applied from a primary prevention, secondary prevention, or chronic disease management perspective. Our experience with applying and validating GARDIAN to titrate healthcare resources according to need has been extensive to date, with >5000 individuals profiled in a host of clinical settings. A series of clinical randomized trials will determine the impact of the GARDIAN system on important indices of healthcare utilization and health status. The GARDIAN model to delineating risk and need for varied intensity of management shows strong potential to cost effectively improve health outcomes for both individuals at risk of heart disease and those with established heart disease.

  15. A Conceptual Model for Delineating Land Management Units (LMUs Using Geographical Object-Based Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Gerçek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Land management and planning is crucial for present and future use of land and the sustainability of land resources. Physical, biological and cultural characteristics of land can be used to define Land Management Units (LMUs that aid in decision making for managing land and communicating information between different research and application domains. This study aims to describe the classification of ecologically relevant land units that are suitable for land management, planning and conservation purposes. Relying on the idea of strong correlation between landform and potential landcover, a conceptual model for creating Land Management Units (LMUs from topographic data and biophysical information is presented. The proposed method employs a multi-level object-based classification of Digital Terrain Models (DTMs to derive landform units. The sensitivity of landform units to changes in segmentation scale is examined, and the outcome of the landform classification is evaluated. Landform classes are then aggregated with landcover information to produce ecologically relevant landform/landcover assemblages. These conceptual units that constitute a framework of connected entities are finally enriched given available socio-economic information e.g., land use, ownership, protection status, etc. to generate LMUs. LMUs attached to a geographic database enable the retrieval of information at various levels to support decision making for land management at various scales. LMUs that are created present a basis for conservation and management in a biodiverse area in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

  16. Multinational cash management and conglomerate discounts in the euro zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eije, Henk von; Westerman, Wim

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the impact of liberalisation, deregulation and the introduction of a single currency on cash management within multinationals in the euro zone. The developments in the euro zone reduce financial market imperfections in transferring cash and diminish the need for separate local cash

  17. Traffic incident management in construction and maintenance work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the Federal Highway Administration published updated rules governing work zone safety and mobility; all highway construction and maintenance projects using federal-aid highway funds are required to develop transportation management plans (TM...

  18. Management problems of this restricted zone around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.; Sobotovich, E.; Proscura, N.; Kozakov, S.; Korchagin, P.

    1996-01-01

    In this brief report are consider the main problems of minimization of the consequences of the accident and management of actions provided at present in the Chernobyl zone at the territory of Ukraine in decade retrospect

  19. Modeling alternative zoning strategies in forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krcmar, E.; Vertinsky, I.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2003-01-01

    To satisfy public demands for environmental values, forest companies are facing the prospect of a reduction in wood supply and increases in costs. Some Canadian provincial governments have proposed intensifying silviculture in special zones dedicated to timber production as the means for pushing out

  20. Delineation and validation of river network spatial scales for water resources and fisheries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhu; Brenden, Travis; Cao, Yong; Seelbach, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Identifying appropriate spatial scales is critically important for assessing health, attributing data, and guiding management actions for rivers. We describe a process for identifying a three-level hierarchy of spatial scales for Michigan rivers. Additionally, we conduct a variance decomposition of fish occurrence, abundance, and assemblage metric data to evaluate how much observed variability can be explained by the three spatial scales as a gage of their utility for water resources and fisheries management. The process involved the development of geographic information system programs, statistical models, modification by experienced biologists, and simplification to meet the needs of policy makers. Altogether, 28,889 reaches, 6,198 multiple-reach segments, and 11 segment classes were identified from Michigan river networks. The segment scale explained the greatest amount of variation in fish abundance and occurrence, followed by segment class, and reach. Segment scale also explained the greatest amount of variation in 13 of the 19 analyzed fish assemblage metrics, with segment class explaining the greatest amount of variation in the other six fish metrics. Segments appear to be a useful spatial scale/unit for measuring and synthesizing information for managing rivers and streams. Additionally, segment classes provide a useful typology for summarizing the numerous segments into a few categories. Reaches are the foundation for the identification of segments and segment classes and thus are integral elements of the overall spatial scale hierarchy despite reaches not explaining significant variation in fish assemblage data.

  1. A Boundary Delineation System for the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegraft, Douglas L.

    2018-05-01

    Federal government mapping of the offshore areas of the United States in support of the development of oil and gas resources began in 1954. The first mapping system utilized a network of rectangular blocks defined by State Plane coordinates which was later revised to utilize the Universal Transverse Mercator grid. Creation of offshore boundaries directed by the Submerged Lands Act and Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act were mathematically determined using early computer programs that performed the required computations, but required many steps. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management has revised these antiquated methods using GIS technology which provide the required accuracy and produce the mapping products needed for leasing of energy resources, including renewable energy projects, on the outer continental shelf. (Note: this is an updated version of a paper of the same title written and published in 2015).

  2. Formulating a coastal zone health metric for landuse impact management in urban coastal zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilkumar, P P; Varghese, Koshy; Ganesh, L S

    2010-11-01

    The need for ICZM arises often due to inadequate or inappropriate landuse planning practices and policies, especially in urban coastal zones which are more complex due to the larger number of components, their critical dimensions, attributes and interactions. A survey of literature shows that there is no holistic metric for assessing the impacts of landuse planning on the health of a coastal zone. Thus there is a need to define such a metric. The proposed metric, CHI (Coastal zone Health Indicator), developed on the basis of coastal system sustainability, attempts to gauge the health status of any coastal zone. It is formulated and modeled through an expert survey and pertains to the characteristic components of coastal zones, their critical dimensions, and relevant attributes. The proposed metric is applied to two urban coastal zones and validated. It can be used for more coast friendly and sustainable landuse planning/masterplan preparation and thereby for the better management of landuse impacts on coastal zones. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving environmental impact assessmentfor better integrated coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwi, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    How to make use of coastal and marine resources in a sustainable manner is an increasing concern among coastal stakeholders all over the world. Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) is a well-known concept nowadays, but its implementation is often hampered. This is also the case in Indonesia.

  4. Effectiveness of streamside management zones on water quality: pretreatment measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Boggs; G. Sun; S.G. McNulty; W. Swartley; E. Treasure

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paired watershed study is to quantify the effects of upland forest harvesting and Streamside Management Zones (SMZs) on stream water quantity and quality in North Carolina. Four watersheds ranging from 12 to 28 hectares (i.e., two on Hill Forest and two on Umstead Research Farm) with perennial stream channels were gauged for flow monitoring and...

  5. Prioritising coastal zone management issues through fuzzy cognitive mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliadou, Aleka; Santoro, Francesca; Nader, Manal R; Dagher, Manale Abou; Al Indary, Shadi; Salloum, Bachir Abi

    2012-04-30

    Effective public participation is an essential component of Integrated Coastal Zone Management implementation. To promote such participation, a shared understanding of stakeholders' objectives has to be built to ultimately result in common coastal management strategies. The application of quantitative and semi-quantitative methods involving tools such as Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping is presently proposed for reaching such understanding. In this paper we apply the Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping tool to elucidate the objectives and priorities of North Lebanon's coastal productive sectors, and to formalize their coastal zone perceptions and knowledge. Then, we investigate the potential of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping as tool for support coastal zone management. Five round table discussions were organized; one for the municipalities of the area and one for each of the main coastal productive sectors (tourism, industry, fisheries, agriculture), where the participants drew cognitive maps depicting their views. The analysis of the cognitive maps showed a large number of factors perceived as affecting the current situation of the North Lebanon coastal zone that were classified into five major categories: governance, infrastructure, environment, intersectoral interactions and sectoral initiatives. Furthermore, common problems, expectations and management objectives for all sectors were exposed. Within this context, Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping proved to be an essential tool for revealing stakeholder knowledge and perception and understanding complex relationships. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Challenges of Buffer Zone Management in Cross River National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These developments might be adduced to the low level of awareness of Park laws and buffer zone management policies by these communities. It is therefore recommended that public enlightenment campaigns should be stepped up to educate the populace on the need to abide by the laws and policies governing the Park ...

  7. Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) defines the authorities, roles, and responsibilities of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) and those contractor organizations participating in the Hanford Site' s Groundwater/Vadose Zone (GW/VZ) Integration Project. The PMP also describes the planning and control systems, business processes, and other management tools needed to properly and consistently conduct the Integration Project scope of work

  8. Aspen Delineation - Aspen Delineation Project [ds362

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The database represents delineations of aspen stands, where aspen assessment data was gathered. Aspen assessment information corresponding to this polygon layer can...

  9. Concept, approaches and applications of integrated coastal zone management in planning and management of Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, M.C.; Sinha, R.; Nigam, R.; Gujar, A.R.; Kotnala, K.L.

    of coastal planning and management in India is to achieve a balance between these two. In order to regulate coastal development and to ensure minimisation of long term problems, a specific coastal legislation namely Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) was enacted...

  10. Large-scale coastal behaviour in relation to coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The development of coastal erosion management - addressing typical traditional erosion problems - towards coastal zone management addressing the evaluation of alternative solutions to guarantee a variety of coastal zone functions on their economic time scale - has necessitated the formulation of

  11. 30 CFR 256.20 - Consideration of coastal zone management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of coastal zone management....20 Consideration of coastal zone management program. In the development of the leasing program, consideration shall be given to the coastal zone management program being developed or administered by an...

  12. 77 FR 59899 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coastal Zone Management Act Walter B. Jones and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Coastal Zone Management Act Walter B. Jones and NOAA Excellence Awards AGENCY... approved information collection. The 1990 reauthorization of the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) authorized an awards program to ``implement a program to promote excellence in coastal zone management by...

  13. 32 CFR 644.318 - Compliance with State Coastal Zone Management Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compliance with State Coastal Zone Management... (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.318 Compliance with State Coastal Zone Management Programs. Subpart H will outline the provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as...

  14. Achievements and Problems of Reform of Investment Management System for Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengrong; PAN

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone provides many possibilities for China’s economic construction. This paper made a comparative analysis on investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone and traditional investment management system,discussed achievements and problems of reform of investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone,and finally came up with pertinent policy recommendations.

  15. 23 CFR 630.1106 - Policy and procedures for work zone safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy and procedures for work zone safety management... Policy and procedures for work zone safety management. (a) Each agency's policy and processes, procedures, and/or guidance for the systematic consideration and management of work zone impacts, to be...

  16. Endovascular aneurysm repair simulation can lead to decreased fluoroscopy time and accurately delineate the proximal seal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ann H; Kendrick, Daniel E; Moorehead, Pamela A; Nagavalli, Anil; Miller, Claire P; Liu, Nathaniel T; Wang, John C; Kashyap, Vikram S

    2016-07-01

    The use of simulators for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is not widespread. We examined whether simulation could improve procedural variables, including operative time and optimizing proximal seal. For the latter, we compared suprarenal vs infrarenal fixation endografts, right femoral vs left femoral main body access, and increasing angulation of the proximal aortic neck. Computed tomography angiography was obtained from 18 patients who underwent EVAR at a single institution. Patient cases were uploaded to the ANGIO Mentor endovascular simulator (Simbionix, Cleveland, Ohio) allowing for three-dimensional reconstruction and adapted for simulation with suprarenal fixation (Endurant II; Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, Minn) and infrarenal fixation (C3; W. L. Gore & Associates Inc, Newark, Del) deployment systems. Three EVAR novices and three experienced surgeons performed 18 cases from each side with each device in randomized order (n = 72 simulations/participant). The cases were stratified into three groups according to the degree of infrarenal angulation: 0° to 20°, 21° to 40°, and 41° to 66°. Statistical analysis used paired t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Mean fluoroscopy time for participants decreased by 48.6% (P time decreased by 33.8% (P zone coverage in highly angulated aortic necks was significantly decreased. The infrarenal device resulted in mean aortic neck zone coverage of 91.9%, 89.4%, and 75.4% (P zone coverage. The side of femoral access for the main body did not influence proximal seal zone coverage regardless of infrarenal angulation. Simulation of EVAR leads to decreased fluoroscopy times for novice and experienced operators. Side of femoral access did not affect precision of proximal endograft landing. The angulated aortic neck leads to decreased proximal seal zone coverage regardless of infrarenal or suprarenal fixation devices. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationships between soil-based management zones and canopy sensing for corn nitrogen management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrating soil-based management zones (MZ) with crop-based active canopy sensors to direct spatially variable nitrogen (N) applications has been proposed for improving N fertilizer management of corn (Zea mays L.). Analyses are needed to evaluate relationships between canopy sensing and soil-based...

  18. Integrated inversion of airborne geophysics over a structural geological unit: A case study for delineation of a porphyry copper zone in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Maysam; Fournier, Dominique; Devriese, Sarah G. R.; Oldenburg, Douglas W.

    2018-05-01

    This work presents the application of an integrated geophysical survey of magnetometry and frequency-domain electromagetic data (FDEM) to image a geological unit located in the Kalat-e-Reshm prospect area in Iran which has good potential for ore mineralization. The aim of this study is to concentrate on a 3D arc-shaped andesite unit, where it has been concealed by a sedimentary cover. This unit consists of two segments; the top one is a porphyritic andesite having potential for ore mineralization, especially copper, whereas the lower segment corresponds to an unaltered andesite rock. Airborne electromagnetic data were used to delineate the top segment as a resistive unit embedded in a sediment column of alluvial fan, while the lower andesite unit was detected by magnetic field data. In our research, the FDEM data were first inverted by a laterally-constrained 1D program to provide three pieces of information that facilitate full 3D inversion of EM data: (1) noise levels associated with the FDEM observations, (2) an estimate of the general conductivity structure in the prospect area, and (3) the location of the sought target. Then EM data inversion was extended to 3D using a parallelized OcTree-based code to better determine the boundaries of the porphyry unit, where a transition exists from surface sediment to the upper segment. Moreover, a mixed-norm inversion approach was taken into account for magnetic data to construct a compact and sharp susceptible andesite unit at depth, beneath the top resistive and non-susceptible segment. The blind geological unit was eventually interpreted based on a combined model of conductivity and magnetic susceptibility acquired from individually inverting these geophysical surveys, which were collected simultaneously.

  19. Conflict resolution and alert zone estimation in air traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Vincent Hao-Hung

    The current air traffic control (ATC) system provides separations among all aircraft through pre-defined routes and flight procedures, and active controller participation. In particular, en route separations are achieved by choices of different flight routes, different flight levels, and speed control. During the final descent approach over an extended terminal area, aircraft separations are achieved by speed changes, altitude changes, and path stretching. Recently, a concept of free flight has been proposed for future air traffic management. In the proposed free flight environment, aircraft operators can change flight paths in real time, in order to achieve the best efficiency for the aircraft. Air traffic controllers are only supposed to intervene when situation warrants, to resolve potential conflicts among aircraft. In both cases, there is a region around each aircraft called alert zone. As soon as another aircraft touches the alert zone of own aircraft, either the own aircraft or both aircraft must initiate avoidance maneuvers to resolve a potential conflict. This thesis develops a systematic approach based on nonlinear optimal control theories to estimate alert zones in two aircraft conflict scenarios. Specifically, point-mass aircraft models are used to describe aircraft motions. Separate uses of heading, speed, and altitude control are first examined, and then the synergetic use of two control authorities are studied. Both cooperative maneuvers (in which both aircraft act) and non-cooperative maneuvers (in which the own aircraft acts alone) are considered. Optimal control problems are formulated to minimize the initial relative separation between the two aircraft for all possible initial conditions, subject to the requirement that inter-aircraft separation at any time satisfies the separation requirement. These nonlinear optimal control problems are solved numerically using a collation approach and the NPSOL software line for nonlinear programming. In

  20. 77 FR 62494 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Evaluations of Coastal Zone Management Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Evaluations of Coastal Zone Management Act Programs--State Coastal Management... request is for a new information collection. The Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as amended (CZMA; 16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.) requires that state coastal management programs and national estuarine research...

  1. Coastal Zone Management Act Boundary for the United States and US Territories as of December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the extent of the nation's coastal zone, as defined by the individual states and territories under the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972...

  2. Stakeholder involvement for management of the coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oen, Amy Mp; Bouma, Geiske M; Botelho, Maria; Pereira, Patrícia; Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Conides, Alexis; Przedrzymirska, Joanna; Isaksson, Ingela; Wolf, Christina; Breedveld, Gijs D; Slob, Adriaan

    2016-10-01

    The European Union (EU) has taken the lead to promote the management of coastal systems. Management strategies are implemented by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), as well as the recent Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) Directive. Most EU directives have a strong focus on public participation; however, a recent review found that the actual involvement of stakeholders was variable. The "Architecture and roadmap to manage multiple pressures on lagoons" (ARCH) research project has developed and implemented participative methodologies at different case study sites throughout Europe. These cases represent a broad range of coastal systems, and they highlight different legislative frameworks that are relevant for coastal zone management. Stakeholder participation processes were subsequently evaluated at 3 case study sites in order to assess the actual implementation of participation in the context of their respective legislative frameworks: 1) Byfjorden in Bergen, Norway, in the context of the WFD; 2) Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece, in the context of the MSFD; and 3) Nordre Älv Estuary, Sweden, in the context of the MSP Directive. An overall assessment of the evaluation criteria indicates that the ARCH workshop series methodology of focusing first on the current status of the lagoon or estuary, then on future challenges, and finally on identifying management solutions provided a platform that was conducive for stakeholder participation. Results suggest that key criteria for a good participatory process were present and above average at the 3 case study sites. The results also indicate that the active engagement that was initiated at the 3 case study sites has led to capacity building among the participants, which is an important intermediary outcome of public participation. A strong connection between participatory processes and policy can ensure the legacy of the intermediary outcomes, which is an important and necessary

  3. Explaining landholders' decisions about riparian zone management: the role of behavioural, normative, and control beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Kelly S; Terry, Deborah J; Masser, Barbara M; Bordia, Prashant; Hogg, Michael A

    2005-10-01

    Water quality is a key concern in the current global environment, with the need to promote practices that help to protect water quality, such as riparian zone management, being paramount. The present study used the theory of planned behaviour as a framework for understanding how beliefs influence decisions about riparian zone management. Respondents completed a survey that assessed their behavioural, normative, and control beliefs in relation to intentions to manage riparian zones on their property. The results of the study showed that, overall, landholders with strong intentions to manage their riparian zones differed significantly in terms of their beliefs compared to landholders who had weak intentions to manage their riparian zones. Strong intentions to manage riparian zones were associated with a favourable cost-benefit analysis, greater perceptions of normative support for the practice and lower perceptions of the extent to which barriers would impede management of riparian zones. It was also evident that willingness to comply with the recommendations of salient referents, beliefs about the benefits of riparian zone management and perceptions of the extent to which barriers would impede riparian zone management were most important for determining intentions to manage riparian zones. Implications for policy and extension practice are discussed.

  4. Flexor zone 5 cut injuries: emergency management and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the outcome and devise a protocol for emergency management of cut injuries in Flexor Zone 5 of hands. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plastic Surgery and Burn Unit, Mayo Hospital, KEMU, Lahore, Pakistan, from January 2009 to March 2013. Methodology: All patients above 12 years of age with single sharp cut injuries in Flexor Zone 5, with no skeletal injuries, presenting within 12 hours in emergency were included with follow-up of 6 months, with active range of motion evaluated by Strickland's adjusted formula. Power of opponens pollicis and adductor muscles was evaluated from P0-4. Nerve repair results were evaluated serially by advancing Tinnel's sign, electrophysiological studies and sensory perception scored from S0-4 compared to the normal opposite upper limb. Results: The study group comprised of 31 patients (M : F = 2.4 : 1). Average age was 27 years ranging from 17 - 53 years. In 25 (80%) cases, injury was accidental, in 3 (10%) homicidal and in 3 (10%) injury was suicidal. Four most commonly involved structures included Flexor carpi ulnaris, ulnar artery, ulnar nerve and Flexor digitorum superficialis. Median nerve and radial artery were involved in 10 cases each, while ulnar artery and ulnar nerve were involved in 14 cases each. Longtendons were involved in most cases with greater involvement of medial tendons. None of the patients required re-exploration for ischaemia of distal limb while doppler showed 22 out of 24 vascular anastomosis remained patent. Recovery of long-tendons was good and recovery after nerve repair was comparable in both median and ulnar nerves. Conclusion: Early and technically proper evaluation, exploration and repair of Zone 5 Flexor tendon injuries results in good functional and technical outcome. (author)

  5. Anthropogenic Reorganization of Critical Zone in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Anders, A. M.; Bettis, E. A., III; Blair, N. E.; Filley, T. R.; Grimley, D. A.; Le, P. V.; Lin, H.; Lin, Y. F. F.; Keefer, D. A.; Keefer, L. L.; Muste, M.; Packman, A. I.; Papanicolaou, T.; Rhoads, B. L.; Richardson, M.; Schnoebelen, D. J.; Stumpf, A.; Ward, A. S.; Wilson, C. G.; Woo, D.; Yan, Q.; Goodwell, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Intensification of industrial agricultural practices has resulted in some of the most profound global impacts in the Anthropocene. These include eutrophication of lakes, rivers, and oceans from nutrient loading, degradation of arable land from the loss of fertile organic soils through erosion, and loss and degradation of soil organic matter from mechanical impacts on the soil, among others. As we prepare to feed additional 2 billion people by 2050 along with the emerging practices of farming for bioenergy production, these practices will intensify further whose goal is to overcome bio-geo-physical rate limitations and rate limiting states to enhance agricultural productivity. These rate-enhancing efforts generally target the fast response production processes, creating an imbalance with the slower assimilative processes in the Critical Zone that cascade through complex inter-dependencies across carbon, soil, water, nutrient and ecological systems. These imbalances modify stores and create gradients for flux, which over time reorganize the landscape, both in structure and function. In this presentation we show how these reorganizations are occurring in the Critical Zone of intensively managed landscapes, and argue that an integrated understanding of such profound changes are necessary for developing sustainable solutions for maintaining agricultural productivity and mitigating agriculture based environmental impacts.

  6. Assessing the opportunity cost of implementing streamside management zone guidelines in eastern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2006-01-01

    Forest landowners, managers, loggers, land-use planners, and other decision/policy makers need to understand the opportunity cost associated with different levels of allowable management and required/voluntary protection in streamside management zones (SMZs). Four different logging technologies, two mature hardwood stands, three levels of streamside zone protection,...

  7. 30 CFR 250.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP? 250.226 Section 250.226 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA...

  8. Achievements and Problems of Reform of Investment Management System for Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone

    OpenAIRE

    PAN, Chengrong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone provides many possibilities for China’s economic construction. This paper made a comparative analysis on investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone and traditional investment management system, discussed achievements and problems of reform of investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone, and finally came up with pertinent policy recommendations.

  9. Managing Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Risks Drilling Geothermal Exploration and Delineation Wells with Small-Footprint Highly Portable Diamond Core Drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, J.; Listi, R.; Combs, J.; Welch, V.; Reilly, S.

    2012-12-01

    Small hydraulic core rigs are highly portable (truck or scow-mounted), and have recently been used for geothermal exploration in areas such as Nevada, California, the Caribbean Islands, Central and South America and elsewhere. Drilling with slim diameter core rod below 7,000' is common, with continuous core recovery providing native-state geological information to aid in identifying the resource characteristics and boundaries; this is a highly cost-effective process. Benefits associated with this innovative exploration and delineation technology includes the following: Low initial Capital Equipment Cost and consumables costs Small Footprint, reducing location and road construction, and cleanup costs Supporting drill rod (10'/3meter) and tools are relatively low weight and easily shipped Speed of Mobilization and rig up Reduced requirements for support equipment (cranes, backhoes, personnel, etc) Small mud systems and cementing requirements Continuous, simplified coring capability Depth ratings comparable to that of large rotary rigs (up to ~10,000'+) Remote/small-location accessible (flown into remote areas or shipped in overseas containers) Can be scow or truck-mounted This technical presentation's primary goal is to share the technology of utilizing small, highly portable hydraulic coring rigs to provide exploratory drilling (and in some cases, production drilling) for geothermal projects. Significant cost and operational benefits are possible for the Geothermal Operator, especially for those who are pursuing projects in remote locations or countries, or in areas that are either inaccessible or in which a small footprint is required. John D. Tuttle Sinclair Well Products jtuttle@sinclairwp.com

  10. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hemming

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method. An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS, such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy.

  11. Molecular Differentiation of Risk for Disease Progression: Delineating Stage-Specific Therapeutic Targets for Disease Management in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Worsham, Maria J; Raju, Usha; Chase, Gary; Lu, Mei

    2004-01-01

    .... The aim of this research is to 1a: identify an informative set of specific genetic alterations that underlie the pathogenesis of disease progression to serve as targets for management of disease at the earliest stages and 1b...

  12. Molecular Differentiation of Risk for Disease Progression: Delineating Stage-Specific Therapeutic Targets for Disease Management in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Worsham, Maria J; Raju, Usha; Lu, Mei

    2006-01-01

    .... The aim of this research is to 1a: identify an informative set of specific genetic alterations that underlie the pathogenesis of disease progression to serve as targets for management of disease at the earliest stages and 1b...

  13. Definition of Management Zones for Enhancing Cultivated Land Conservation Using Combined Spatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Hao-Xiang; Li, Feng; Li, Hong-Yi

    2013-10-01

    The loss of cultivated land has increasingly become an issue of regional and national concern in China. Definition of management zones is an important measure to protect limited cultivated land resource. In this study, combined spatial data were applied to define management zones in Fuyang city, China. The yield of cultivated land was first calculated and evaluated and the spatial distribution pattern mapped; the limiting factors affecting the yield were then explored; and their maps of the spatial variability were presented using geostatistics analysis. Data were jointly analyzed for management zone definition using a combination of principal component analysis with a fuzzy clustering method, two cluster validity functions were used to determine the optimal number of cluster. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 3,620 soil sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. It was shown that there existed great potential for increasing grain production, and the amount of cultivated land played a key role in maintaining security in grain production. Organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, elevation, thickness of the plow layer, and probability of irrigation guarantee were the main limiting factors affecting the yield. The optimal number of management zones was three, and there existed significantly statistical differences between the crop yield and field parameters in each defined management zone. Management zone I presented the highest potential crop yield, fertility level, and best agricultural production condition, whereas management zone III lowest. The study showed that the procedures used may be effective in automatically defining management zones; by the development of different management zones, different strategies of cultivated land management and practice in each zone could be determined, which is of great importance to enhance cultivated land conservation

  14. Coastal zone management in Dubai with reference to ecological characterization along Dubai Creek

    OpenAIRE

    Al Zahed, Khalid

    2008-01-01

    Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) is a dynamic process in which a coordinated strategy is developed and implemented for the allocation of environmental, socio-cultural, and institutional resources to achieve the conservation and sustainable multiple use of the coastal zone. The present study titled “Coastal Zone Management in Dubai with reference to ecological characterization” is an effort to consider critical water quality and ecological issues in the current and f...

  15. Planning and management of the coastal zone in India - A perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, B.U.; Chandramohan, P.; Desai, B.N.

    Zone Management Authority at the national level and a suitable agency in each of the maritime states for properly coordinating and implementing the coastal zone management program of the country. It is necessary to consider all major uses of the coastal...

  16. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? 148.730 Section 148.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...

  17. 76 FR 23708 - Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management Regional Water Exercise, East...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management Regional Water Exercise, East... the Regional Water Rescue Exercise. Basis and Purpose The Pierce County, Washington, Department of... to read as follows: Sec. 165.T13-0251 Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management...

  18. Areas of research and manpower development for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  19. Explorative study on management model of tourism business zone at Kuta, Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astawa, I. K.; Suardani, A. A. P.; Harmini, A. A. A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Business activities through asset management of indigenous village of Kuta provide an opportunity for the community to participate in improving their welfare. This study aims to analyze the management model of Kuta’s tourism business zone, the involvement of stakeholders in the management of Kuta’s tourism business zone in indigenous village of Kuta and the implications of each business tourism zone in indigenous village of Kuta in the level of community welfare in each zone. Data collection was done by observation, interview, questionnaire, and documentation. The main instrument of this study is the researchers themselves assisted with interview guideline. The results showed that the management model has been arranged in 5 tourism business zones in indigenous village of Kuta. The involvement of all stakeholders in the management of the tourism business zone follows the procedure of execution of duties and provides security, comfort and certainty of doing business activities at each zone. The implications of the tourism business in the level of community welfare in each zone in indigenous village of Kuta have been able to bring happiness in business and all community are satisfied with the income they earned from work in each business zone.

  20. An International Assessment of Mangrove Management: Incorporation in Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haille N. Carter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing recognition of the benefits provided by mangrove ecosystems, protection policies have emerged under both wetland and forestry programs. However, little consistency remains among these programs and inadequate coordination exists among sectors of government. With approximately 123 countries containing mangroves, the need for global management of these ecosystems is crucial to sustain the industries (i.e., fisheries, timber, and tourism and coastal communities that mangroves support and protect. To determine the most effective form of mangrove management, this review examines management guidelines, particularly those associated with Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM. Five case studies were reviewed to further explore the fundamentals of mangrove management. The management methodologies of two developed nations as well as three developing nations were assessed to encompass comprehensive influences on mangrove management, such as socioeconomics, politics, and land-use regulations. Based on this review, successful mangrove management will require a blend of forestry, wetland, and ICZM programs in addition to the cooperation of all levels of government. Legally binding policies, particularly at the international level, will be essential to successful mangrove management, which must include the preservation of existing mangrove habitat and restoration of damaged mangroves.

  1. AUTOMATION OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT OF THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Klementeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the industrially developed countries about 80–95% of the GDP increase is provided by new knowledge represented by new technologies and machinery. This transition to the new innovative development became possible with the creation of new technological patterns for organization of R&D, industrial and innovative activities. Despite of the fact that the structures of national and regional innovative systems of diff erent countries have much in common which concerns the components, the functional classifi cation and the interaction procedures, the question of theoretical structural description of the regional innovative system seems to be of importance. The object of research is the interaction between the entities of the Russian Arctic innovative system from the viewpoint of the complex information inputs. The subject of research is the model-algorithmic support of the automated system providing for innovative activities within the Russian Arctic zone.The article is aimed to work out the theoretical and practical methods for automation of the regional innovative system management with application of modern information technologies. In order to achieve the specifi ed goal, the following tasks are solved in the article: determining of the modern methods and approaches of organization and management of the information flows within the contemporary business communities; the analysis and structural description of the regional innovative system; working out of the concept for the complex automated information system supporting the innovative activity. The research methods. For solving of the stated tasks some methods and approaches for creating of the social networks, methods of organization of the information fl ows based on the Web 2.0 technology and some expert methods of innovation were used. Finally, the following results were obtained: the structural description of the regional innovative system has been worked out. The main

  2. Construction Project Administration and Management for Mitigating Work Zone Accidents and Fatalities: An Integrated Risk Management Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this research is to mitigate the risk of highway accidents (crashes) and fatalities in work zones. The approach of this research has been to address the mitigation of work zone crashes through the creation of a formal risk management mode...

  3. Visual Problem Appraisal-Kerela's Coast: A Simulation for Learning about Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Enserink, B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated management of coastal zones is crucial for the sustainable use of scarce and vulnerable natural resources and the economic survival of local and indigenous people. Conflicts of interest in coastal zones are manifold, especially in regions with high population pressure, such as Kerala (in

  4. A distributed control algorithm for internal flow management in a multi-zone climate unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, C. De; Jessen, J.J.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Schiøler, H.

    2008-01-01

    We examine a distributed control problem for internal flow management in a multi-zone climate unit. The problem consists of guaranteeing prescribed indoor climate conditions in a cascade connection of an arbitrarily large number of communicating zones, in which air masses are exchanged to redirect

  5. Ways for forestry management in radioactive contamination zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaletnik, N.N.; Pasternak, P.S.; Kiselevskij, R.G.; Molotkov, P.I.; Kuchma, N.D.; Landin, V.P.; Matukhno, Yu.D.; Shlonchak, G.L.; Podkur, P.P.; Khudolej, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    The necessity of realization of forestry protection measures in the radioactive contamination zone is determined by the forest ecological part and the problems of elimination of the territory secondary contamination in the process of radionuclide migration. The damage of forest tracts in the zone is analyzed. The data on pine surface contamination levels, needles appearance in forests with different degree of damage and crown phytomass, growth for pines 20 years old in forests with different damage degrees are considered. The index of pine forest state is obtained. The data discussed reveal the complicated situation, which takes place in the 30-km zone forests. It is shown that the depth of radionuclide migration into soil for forest areas is twice lower as compared with that for open places. 6 tabs

  6. Critical Transition in Critical Zone of Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Intensification of industrial agriculture has resulted in severe unintended global impacts, including degradation of arable land and eutrophication of receiving water bodies. Modern agricultural practices rely on significant direct and indirect human energy inputs, which have created imbalances between increased rates of biogeochemical processes related to production and background rates of natural processes. These imbalances have cascaded through the deep inter-dependencies between carbon, soil, water, nutrient and ecological processes, resulting in a critical transition of the Critical Zone and creating emergent dynamics and evolutionary trajectories. Understanding of these novel organization and function of the Critical Zone is vital for developing sustainable agricultural practices.

  7. Using historical crash data as part of traffic work zone safety planning and project management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This funding enabled the project entitled, USING HISTORICAL CRASH DATA AS PART OF TRAFFIC WORK ZONE SAFETY : PLANNING AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES to address the following: : Evaluate current organizational strategies with respect to w...

  8. Portable traffic management system smart work zone application : operational test evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    As part of its statewide Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) sponsored an operational test of the Portable Traffic Management System (PTMS) in a work zone application in cooperation with its pr...

  9. Integrated environmental zoning - An innovative Dutch approach to measuring and managing environmental spillovers in urban regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, D.; de Roo, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Dutch development of Integrated Environmental Zoning is an advanced effort to account cumulatively for several environmental spillovers from manufacturing, and to manage their impacts on surrounding residential areas. This national policy initiative involves mapping the spatial patterns of

  10. Application of Zoning and ``Limits of Acceptable Change'' to Manage Snorkelling Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, George S. J.; Dearden, Philip; Rollins, Rick

    2007-06-01

    Zoning and applying Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) are two promising strategies for managing tourism in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Typically, these management strategies require the collection and integration of ecological and socioeconomic data. This problem is illustrated by a case study of Koh Chang National Marine Park, Thailand. Biophysical surveys assessed coral communities in the MPA to derive indices of reef diversity and vulnerability. Social surveys assessed visitor perceptions and satisfaction with conditions encountered on snorkelling tours. Notably, increased coral mortality caused a significant decrease in visitor satisfaction. The two studies were integrated to prescribe zoning and “Limits of Acceptable Change” (LAC). As a biophysical indicator, the data suggest a LAC value of 0.35 for the coral mortality index. As a social indicator, the data suggest that a significant fraction of visitors would find a LAC value of under 30 snorkellers per site as acceptable. The draft zoning plan prescribed four different types of zones: (I) a Conservation Zone with no access apart from monitoring or research; (II) Tourism Zones with high tourism intensities at less vulnerable reefs; (III) Ecotourism zones with a social LAC standard of <30 snorkellers per site, and (IV) General Use Zones to meet local artisanal fishery needs. This study illustrates how ecological and socioeconomic field studies in MPAs can be integrated to craft zoning plans addressing multiple objectives.

  11. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum extent...

  12. Ecosystem-based management in the lodgepole pine zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin C. Hardy; Robert E. Keane; Catherine A. Stewart

    2000-01-01

    The significant geographic extent of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in the interior West and the large proportion within the mixed-severity fire regime has led to efforts for more ecologically based management of lodgepole pine. New research and demonstration activities are presented that may provide knowledge and techniques to manage lodgepole pine...

  13. Solid Waste and Water Quality Management Models for Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone, Nepal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredi, Emanuela Chiara; Flury, Bastian; Viviano, Gaetano; Thakuri, Sudeep; Khanal, Sanjay Nath; Jha, Pramod Kumar; Maskey, Ramesh Kumar; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Kafle, Kumud Raj; Bhochhibhoya, Silu; Ghimire, Narayan Prasad; Shrestha, Bharat Babu; Chaudhary, Gyanendra; Giannino, Francesco; Carteni, Fabrizio; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Salerno, Franco

    2010-01-01

    The problem of supporting decision- and policy-makers in managing issues related to solid waste and water quality was addressed within the context of a participatory modeling framework in the Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone in Nepal. We present the main findings of management-oriented

  14. 77 FR 28854 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coastal Zone Management Program Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... because of the importance of U.S. coastal areas, the U.S. Congress passed the Coastal Zone Management Act... (CZMP) Performance Management System; revise assessment document and multi-year strategy; submit.... Method of Collection Respondents have a choice of electronic or paper formats for submitting program...

  15. 78 FR 48046 - Safety Zone; Kuoni Destination Management Fireworks; San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Kuoni Destination Management Fireworks; San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the San Diego Bay in support of the Kuoni Destination Management Fireworks Display on August 6... Guard's ability to protect the public from the potential hazards associated with fireworks displays...

  16. The potential application of social impact assessment in integrated coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) would be significantly enhanced if there was greater connection to the field of social impact assessment (SIA). SIA is the process of managing the social issues of planned interventions (projects, policies, plans, and programs). SIA can also be used to

  17. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma: from genetics to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaini, Luca; Rossi, Davide; Paulli, Marco

    2016-04-28

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a rare B-cell malignancy involving the spleen, bone marrow, and frequently the blood. SMZL lymphomagenesis involves antigen and/or superantigen stimulation and molecular deregulation of genes (NOTCH2 and KLF2) involved in the physiological differentiation of spleen marginal zone B cells. Diagnosis requires either spleen histology or, alternatively, the documentation of a typical cell morphology and immunophenotype on blood cells coupled with the detection of intrasinusoidal infiltration by CD20(+) cells in the bone marrow. Among B-cell tumors, deletion of 7q and NOTCH2 mutations are almost specific lesions of SMZL, thus representing promising diagnostic biomarkers of this lymphoma. Although the majority of SMZLs show an indolent course with a median survival of approximately 10 years, nearly 30% of patients experience a poor outcome. No randomized trials are reported for SMZL, and few prospective trials are available. A watch-and-wait approach is advisable for asymptomatic patients. Treatment options for symptomatic patients ranges from splenectomy to rituximab alone or combined with chemotherapy. In some geographic areas, a subset of patients with SMZL associates with hepatitis C virus infection, prompting virus eradication as an effective lymphoma treatment. It would be worthwhile to explore deregulated cellular programs of SMZL as therapeutic targets in the future; improved clinical and biological prognostication will be essential for identifying patients who may benefit from novel approaches. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. Analysis of vineyard differential management zones and relation to vine development, grape maturity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Casanovas, J. A.; Agelet-Fernandez, J.; Arno, J.; Ramos, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of research was to analyse the potential of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps from satellite images, yield maps and grapevine fertility and load variables to delineate zones with different wine grape properties for selective harvesting. Two vineyard blocks located in NE Spain (Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah) were analysed. The NDVI was computed from a Quickbird-2 multi-spectral image at veraison (July 2005). Yield data was acquired by means of a yield monitor during September 2005. Other variables, such as the number of buds, number of shoots, number of wine grape clusters and weight of 100 berries were sampled in a 10 rows × 5 vines pattern and used as input variables, in combination with the NDVI, to define the clusters as alternative to yield maps. Two days prior to the harvesting, grape samples were taken. The analysed variables were probable alcoholic degree, pH of the juice, total acidity, total phenolics, colour, anthocyanins and tannins. The input variables, alone or in combination, were clustered (2 and 3 Clusters) by using the ISODATA algorithm, and an analysis of variance and a multiple rang test were performed. The results show that the zones derived from the NDVI maps are more effective to differentiate grape maturity and quality variables than the zones derived from the yield maps. The inclusion of other grapevine fertility and load variables did not improve the results. (Author) 36 refs.

  19. Experimental pavement delineation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, J. E.; Lorini, R. A.

    1981-06-01

    Visibility and durability of materials used to delineate shoulders and medians adjacent to asphalt pavements were evaluated. Materials evaluated were polysulfide and coal tar epoxies, one and two component polyesters, portland cement, acrylic paints, modified-alkyd traffic paint, preformed plastic tape, and thermoplastic markings. Neat applications, sand mortars, and surface treatments were installed in several geometric patterns including cross hatches, solid median treatments, and various widths of edge lines. Thermoplastic pavement markings generally performed very well, providing good visibility under adverse viewing conditions for at least 4 years. Thermoplastic 4 in. wide edge lines appear to provide adequate visibility for most conditions.

  20. Some aspects of integrated coastal zone management in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    . This trend has created tremendous pressures and the ecological balance is disturbing. There are various factors which are degrading the coastal waters. The Integrated Coastal Management is relatively a recent concept, which involves multidisciplinary approach...

  1. Primavera Ring. Management perspectives on La Primavera forest buffer zone, from the cultural landscapes approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alcocer Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current article intends to high light the need to implement a buffer zone for La Primavera Forest,  Biosphere reserve MaB UNESCO in Guadalajara, Jalisco. The criteria to develop this transition zone is based on understanding this territory as a Cultural Landscape. Seeking common ground between Biosphere Reserves and Cultural Landscapes criteria to organize the management and development of the buffer zone. To understand the opponents of city development and forest preservation as complementary elements, a paradigm shift is needed. This is an applied research from the ITESO, and it is structured as a Think Tank that involves society, government and academy.

  2. Environmental management zoning for coal mining in mainland China based on ecological and resources conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Haiqing; Chen, Fan; Wang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jie; Xu, Weihua

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to establish an environmental management zoning for coal mining industry which is served as a basis for making environmental management policies. Based on the specific impacts of coal mining and regional characteristics of environment and resources, the ecological impact, water resources impact, and arable land impact are chose as the zoning indexes to construct the index system. The ecological sensitivity is graded into three levels of low, medium, and high according to analytical hierarchy processes and gray fixed weight clustering analysis, and the water resources sensitivity is divided into five levels of lower, low, medium, high, and higher according to the weighted sum of sub-indexes, while only the arable land sensitive zone was extracted on the basis of the ratio of arable land to the county or city. By combining the ecological sensitivity zoning and the water resources sensitive zoning and then overlapping the arable-sensitive areas, the mainland China is classified into six types of environmental management zones for coal mining except to the forbidden exploitation areas.

  3. 30 CFR 250.260 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.260 Section 250.260 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT... Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.260 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must...

  4. Critical Zone Services as a Measure for Evaluating the Trade-offs in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone includes the range of biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. These services (Field et al. 2015) provide a measure to value processes that support the goods and services from our landscapes. In intensively managed landscapes the provisioning and regulating services are being altered through anthropogenic energy inputs so as to derive more agricultural productivity from the landscapes. Land use change and other alterations to the environment result in positive and/or negative net Critical Zone services. Through studies in the Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes (IMLCZO), this research seeks to answer questions such as: Are perennial bioenergy crops or annual replaced crops better for the land and surrounding environment? How do we evaluate the products and services from the land for the energy and resources we put in? Before the economic valuation of Critical Zone services, these questions seemed abstract. However, with developments such as Critical Zone services and life cycle assessments, they are more concrete. To evaluate the trade-offs between positive and negative impacts, life cycle assessments are used to create an inventory of all the energy inputs and outputs in a landscape management system. Total energy is computed by summing the mechanical energy used to construct tile drains, fertilizer, and other processes involved in intensely managed landscapes and the chemical energy gained by the production of biofuels from bioenergy crops. A multi-layer canopy model (MLCan) computes soil, water, and nutrient outputs for each crop type, which can be translated into Critical Zone services. These values are then viewed alongside the energy inputs into the system to show the relationship between agricultural practices and their corresponding ecosystem and environmental impacts.

  5. Modeling critical zone processes in intensively managed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Le, Phong; Woo, Dong; Yan, Qina

    2017-04-01

    Processes in the Critical Zone (CZ), which sustain terrestrial life, are tightly coupled across hydrological, physical, biochemical, and many other domains over both short and long timescales. In addition, vegetation acclimation resulting from elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, along with response to increased temperature and altered rainfall pattern, is expected to result in emergent behaviors in ecologic and hydrologic functions, subsequently controlling CZ processes. We hypothesize that the interplay between micro-topographic variability and these emergent behaviors will shape complex responses of a range of ecosystem dynamics within the CZ. Here, we develop a modeling framework ('Dhara') that explicitly incorporates micro-topographic variability based on lidar topographic data with coupling of multi-layer modeling of the soil-vegetation continuum and 3-D surface-subsurface transport processes to study ecological and biogeochemical dynamics. We further couple a C-N model with a physically based hydro-geomorphologic model to quantify (i) how topographic variability controls the spatial distribution of soil moisture, temperature, and biogeochemical processes, and (ii) how farming activities modify the interaction between soil erosion and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. To address the intensive computational demand from high-resolution modeling at lidar data scale, we use a hybrid CPU-GPU parallel computing architecture run over large supercomputing systems for simulations. Our findings indicate that rising CO2 concentration and air temperature have opposing effects on soil moisture, surface water and ponding in topographic depressions. Further, the relatively higher soil moisture and lower soil temperature contribute to decreased soil microbial activities in the low-lying areas due to anaerobic conditions and reduced temperatures. The decreased microbial relevant processes cause the reduction of nitrification rates, resulting in relatively lower nitrate

  6. Sequential versus simultaneous market delineation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Møllgaard, Peter; Kastberg Nielsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    and geographical markets. Using a unique data setfor prices of Norwegian and Scottish salmon, we propose a methodologyfor simultaneous market delineation and we demonstrate that comparedto a sequential approach conclusions will be reversed.JEL: C3, K21, L41, Q22Keywords: Relevant market, econometric delineation......Delineation of the relevant market forms a pivotal part of most antitrustcases. The standard approach is sequential. First the product marketis delineated, then the geographical market is defined. Demand andsupply substitution in both the product dimension and the geographicaldimension...

  7. An economic assessment of implementing streamside management zones in central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoxiang Li; Chris B. LeDoux; Jingxin Wang

    2006-01-01

    The effects of variable width of streamside management zones (25, 50, 75, and 100 ft) (SMZs) and removal level of trees (10%, 30%, and 50% of basal area) on production and cost of implementing SMZs in central Appalachian hardwood forests were simulated by using a computer model. Harvesting operations were performed on an 80-year-old generated natural hardwood stand...

  8. Application of Total Quality Management (TQM) in Secondary School Administration in Umuahia Education Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejionueme, L. K.; Oyoyo, Anthonia Oluchi

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the application of Total Quality Management (TQM) in secondary school administration in Umuahia Education Zone. Three research questions and one null hypothesis guided the study. Descriptive survey design was employed for the study. The population of the study comprised 1365 administrators. Multi-stage…

  9. Understanding the effectiveness of vegetated streamside management zones for protecting water quality (Chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Smethurst; Kevin Petrone; Daniel Neary

    2012-01-01

    We set out to improve understanding of the effectiveness of streamside management zones (SMZs) for protecting water quality in landscapes dominated by agriculture. We conducted a paired-catchment experiment that included water quality monitoring before and after the establishment of a forest plantation as an SMZ on cleared farmland that was used for extensive grazing....

  10. 75 FR 32855 - Safety Zone; Pierce County, WA, Department of Emergency Management, Regional Water Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Pierce County, WA, Department of Emergency Management, Regional Water Exercise AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Pierce County, Washington, Department of... immediate action is necessary to ensure safety of participants in the Pierce County Regional Water Rescue...

  11. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  12. 75 FR 58337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery published on.... 090511911-0307-02] RIN 0648-AX89 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  13. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.612 Section 285.612 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Plan § 285.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management...

  14. Zoning of the Russian Federation territory based on forest management and forest use intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Маrtynyuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Over extended periods issues of forest management intensification are important in all aspects of Russian forest sector development. Sufficient research has been done in silviculture, forest planning and forest economics to address forest management intensification targets. Systems of our national territory forest management and forest economics zoning due to specifics of timber processing and forest area infrastructure have been developed. Despite sufficient available experience in sustainable forest management so far intensification issues were addressed due to development of new woodlands without proper consideration of forest regeneration and sustainable forest management operations. It resulted in forest resource depletion and unfavorable substitution of coniferous forests with less valuable softwood ones in considerable territories (especially accessible for transport. The situation is complicated since degree of forest ecosystem changes is higher in territories with high potential productivity. Ongoing changes combined with the present effective forest management system resulted in a situation where development of new woodlands is impossible without heavy investments in road construction; meanwhile road construction is unfeasible due to distances to timber processing facilities. In the meantime, changes in forest legislation, availability of forest lease holding, and promising post-logging forest regeneration technologies generate new opportunities to increase timber volumes due to application of other procedures practically excluding development of virgin woodlands. With regard to above, the Russian territory was zoned on a basis of key factors that define forest management and forest use intensification based on forest ecosystem potential productivity and area transport accessibility. Based on available data with GIS analysis approach (taking into consideration value of various factors the Russian Federation forest resources have been

  15. An analysis of coastal zone management in England and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.D.R.

    1998-08-01

    The coastal zone is an area of crucial economic and ecological significance, which has increasingly been recognised in land-use planning. Within the coastal zone, integrating land-use planning and environmental management is recognised as one way to minimise trade-offs of interest between economic development and environmental objectives. Many governments are currently discussing the potential role of integrated coastal zone management (CZM) within their planning systems, while some international organisations promote CZM as a means to counter the loss of coastal resources due to human occupation of the coast. This thesis examines how the coastal zone in the United Kingdom is perceived and how effectively CZM is being promoted as a planning model to secure sustainable coastal development through the integration of planning policies. Policy integration is not a quixotic quest, but a model suggesting appropriate methods to manage and reduce conflicts. Any planning model can be traceable to varying assumptions and propositions from political thought, which in turn arises from different political practices. Each CZM plan thus reflects the planning and policy culture of its national system. In order to provide a context within which to assess the UK approach, the development of CZM in the Netherlands is also examined. Both national planning systems have comprehensive statutory land-use planning systems, while marine issues are controlled sectorally by central government. Neither administration has a national CZM policy framework. This thesis therefore includes a comparison of two management plans: the Wash Estuary Management Plan and Integraal Beleidsplan Voordelta. By comparing the organisational structures, policy development and implementation, the case studies provide an insight into the national CZM planning strategy currently being followed in the UK. Finally, the thesis concludes by identifying ways in which CZM might be further improved in the UK and also

  16. Long-Term Soil Experiments: A Key to Managing Earth's Rapidly Changing Critical Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    In a few decades, managers of Earth's Critical Zones (biota, humans, land, and water) will be challenged to double food and fiber production and diminish adverse effects of management on the wider environment. To meet these challenges, an array of scientific approaches is being used to increase understanding of Critical Zone functioning and evolution, and one amongst these approaches needs to be long-term soil field studies to move us beyond black boxing the belowground Critical Zone, i.e., to further understanding of processes driving changes in the soil environment. Long-term soil experiments (LTSEs) provide direct observations of soil change and functioning across time scales of decades, data critical for biological, biogeochemical, and environmental assessments of sustainability; for predictions of soil fertility, productivity, and soil-environment interactions; and for developing models at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Unfortunately, LTSEs globally are not in a good state, and they take years to mature, are vulnerable to loss, and even today remain to be fully inventoried. Of the 250 LTSEs in a web-based network, results demonstrate that soils and belowground Critical Zones are highly dynamic and responsive to human management. The objective of this study is to review the contemporary state of LTSEs and consider how they contribute to three open questions: (1) can soils sustain a doubling of food production in the coming decades without further impinging on the wider environment, (2) how do soils interact with the global C cycle, and (3) how can soil management establish greater control over nutrient cycling. While LTSEs produce significant data and perspectives for all three questions, there is on-going need and opportunity for reviews of the long-term soil-research base, for establishment of an efficiently run network of LTSEs aimed at sustainability and improving management control over C and nutrient cycling, and for research teams that

  17. A modeling study of water flow in the vadose zone beneath the Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, R.G.; Magnuson, S.O.; Nguyen, H.D.; Martian, P.

    1992-01-01

    A modeling study was conducted for the purpose of gaining insight into the nature of water flow in the vadose zone beneath the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The modeling study focused on three specific hydrologic aspects: (1) relationship between meteorologic conditions and net infiltration, (2) water movement associated with past flooding events, and (3) estimation of water travel-times through the vadose zone. This information is necessary for understanding how contaminants may be transported through the vadose zone. Evaluations of net infiltration at the RWMC were performed by modeling the processes of precipitation, evaporation, infiltration and soil-moisture redistribution. Water flow simulations were performed for two distinct time periods, namely 1955--1964 and 1984--1990. The patterns of infiltration were calculated for both the undisturbed (or natural sediments) and the pit/trench cover materials. Detailed simulations of the 1969 flooding of Pit 10 were performed to estimate the rate and extent of water movement through the vadose zone. Water travel-times through the vadose zone were estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. The simulations accounted for variability of soil and rock hydraulic properties as well as variations in the infiltration rate

  18. 77 FR 5389 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ...; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection AGENCY... Management Area (BSAI) in the Exclusive Economic Zone under the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the... Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). (a) Requirements. NMFS developed the...

  19. 76 FR 45219 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...-BA18 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... management plan amendment; request for comments. SUMMARY: Amendment 93 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP) would amend the Bering Sea and...

  20. A geomorphological approach to sustainable planning and management of the coastal zone of Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bakri, Dhia

    1996-10-01

    The coastal zone in Kuwait has been under a considerable pressure from conflicting land uses since the early 1960s, as well as from the destruction and oil pollution caused by the Gulf War. To avoid further damage and to protect the coastal heritage it is essential to adopt an environmentally sustainable management process. This paper shows how the study of coastal geomorphology can provide a sound basis for sustainable planning and management. Based on coastal landforms, sediments and processes, the coastline of Kuwait was divided into nine geomorphic zones. These zones were grouped into two main geomorphic provinces. The northern province is marked by extensive muddy intertidal flats and dominated by a depositional and low-energy environment. The southern geomorphic province is characterised by relatively steep beach profiles, rocky/sandy tidal flats and a moderate to high-energy environment. The study has demonstrated that pollution, benthic ecology and other environmental conditions of the coast are a function of coastline geomorphology, sedimentology and related processes. The geomorphological information was used to determine the coastal vulnerability and to assess the environmental impacts of development projects and other human activities. Several strategies were outlined to integrate the geomorphic approach into the management of the coastal resources.

  1. An Operational Web-Based Indicator System for Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Sten Hansen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are under severe pressure from anthropogenic activities, as well as on-going climate change with associated sea level rise and increased storminess. These challenges call for integrated and forward looking solutions. The concept on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, as defined during the last twenty years, provides the overall policy frames, but tools to support the planning and management efforts are almost lacking. Furthermore, the forward-looking dimension to embrace the effects of climate change is nearly absent in most implementations. The BLAST project, financed by the European Union Regional Fund through the INTERREG IV North Sea Region Programme, aimed at developing a web-based decision support system to assist Integrated Coastal Zone Management from a climate change perspective, and the current paper describes the methods used and the computing platform for implementing a decision support system. The software applied in developing the system is mainly Open Source components, thus, facilitating a more widespread use of the system.

  2. Delineating Cultural Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    APPENDIX A: Bibliography Albert , D. (1994). Knowledge structures. New York: Springer-Verlag. Amblard, F., & Deffuant, G. (2004). The role...Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Groeber, P., Schweitzer , F., & Press, K. (2009). How groups can foster consensus: The case of local cultures. Journal of...narratives. Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(4), 65-74. Stark, H. U., Tessone, C. J., & Schweitzer , F. (2008). Slower is faster: Fostering

  3. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma: a review of the clinical presentation, pathology, molecular biology, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Mendes LS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Larissa Sena Teixeira Mendes,1 Ming-Qing Du,2 Estella Matutes,3 Andrew Wotherspoon11Histopathology Department, Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK; 2Molecular Malignancy Laboratory and Department of Histopathology, University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust/Division of Molecular Histopathology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; 3Hematopathology Unit, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona University, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Splenic marginal zone lymphoma is a distinct low grade B-cell lymphoma primarily occurring in the spleen and separate from nodal marginal zone lymphoma and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. It is characterized by a relative indolent course, splenomegaly, moderate lymphocytosis, and an intrasinusoidal pattern of involvement, especially in the bone marrow. It is postulated that the neoplastic clone originates from persistent antigenic stimulation of marginal zone B-cells. Molecular and cytogenetic studies have failed to show specific alterations. There is no standard criterion to initiate treatment, which may include a watch and wait policy, splenectomy, or chemo/immunotherapy. This review highlights the main features of this entity, reassessing the guidelines for diagnosis, prognostic factors, staging, and management published by the SMZL Working Group (2008. Keywords: splenectomy, villous lymphocytes, guidelines

  4. 30 CFR 285.647 - How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.647 Section 285.647 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Activities Plan § 285.647 How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone...

  5. Socio-hydrological implications of water management in the dry zone of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upeksha Gamage, Isurun; Arachchige Hemachandra Jayasena, Hetti

    2018-06-01

    Water management plays a vital role in the agricultural economy and living conditions of people in Sri Lanka. Though government and non-government organizations have been readily contributing to water management, it is still inefficient, especially in terms of water allocation, consumption and conservation. To identify factors which could be used to implement integrated water resources management (IWRM), a socio-hydrological study was performed in five areas within the dry zone in Sri Lanka. The study covers a comprehensive analysis of how the household income, demography and education level correlating to water usage, purification and disposal methods. The average household income ranges from LKR 2500 to 15 000 per month. The results show that the average daily usage for drinking, cooking, washing, toiletries and bathing are 3, 5, 10, 7, and 85 L per person, respectively. Majority of the families use dug wells and pipe-borne water as the primary source. Correlation coefficients suggest that higher household income or level of education leads to increased water consumption (R = 0.91, 0.94). There is no linear relationship between the level of education with the good practices of water purification and disposal. Though these results indicate preliminary assessments based on the dry zone practices, efficient water management could be enhanced by strong socio-hydrological implications through educating people on conservation, usage, disposal practices and health concerns.

  6. Delineation of site-specific management units in a saline region at the Venice Lagoon margin, Italy, using soil reflectance and apparent electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Site-specific crop management utilizes site-specific management units (SSMUs) to apply inputs when, where, and in the amount needed to increase food productivity, optimize resource utilization, increase profitability, and reduce detrimental environmental impacts. It is the objective of this study to...

  7. Does tree harvesting in streamside management zones adversely affect stream turbidity? - preliminary observations from an Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Philip J. Smethurst; Brenda R. Baillie; Kevin C. Petrone; William E. Cotching; Craig C. Baillie

    2010-01-01

    In Australia, farmers and natural resource managers are striving to enhance environmental outcomes at farm and catchment scales by planting streamside management zones (SMZs) on farms with trees and other perennial vegetation. Lack of sound information on and funding for establishing and managing trees in SMZs is hindering widescale adoption of this practice....

  8. 76 FR 49417 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    .... 100819383-0386-01] RIN 0648-BA18 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Limited Access Privilege Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP). This proposed...

  9. 78 FR 65602 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...-BD03 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of fishery management plan amendment; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) has submitted...

  10. Water quality, biodiversity, and codes of practice in relation to harvesting forest plantations in streamside management zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Philip J. Smethurst; Brenda Baillie; Kevin C. Petrone

    2011-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs) are special landscape units that include riparian areas and adjacent lands that mitigate the movement of sediment, nutrients and other chemicals from upland forest and agricultural management areas into streams. The size, shape, and management of SMZs are governed by various combinations of economic, ecological, and regulatory factors...

  11. Simulation Based Exploration of Critical Zone Dynamics in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    The advent of high-resolution measurements of topographic and (vertical) vegetation features using areal LiDAR are enabling us to resolve micro-scale ( 1m) landscape structural characteristics over large areas. Availability of hyperspectral measurements is further augmenting these LiDAR data by enabling the biogeochemical characterization of vegetation and soils at unprecedented spatial resolutions ( 1-10m). Such data have opened up novel opportunities for modeling Critical Zone processes and exploring questions that were not possible before. We show how an integrated 3-D model at 1m grid resolution can enable us to resolve micro-topographic and ecological dynamics and their control on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes over large areas. We address the computational challenge of such detailed modeling by exploiting hybrid CPU and GPU computing technologies. We show results of moisture, biogeochemical, and vegetation dynamics from studies in the Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively managed Landscapes (IMLCZO) in the Midwestern United States.

  12. Evaluation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan Practices in the Turkish Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruk Özügül, M.; Yerliyurt, Bora; Seçilmişler, Töre

    2017-10-01

    In terms of both international and national contexts, mostly coastal zones are the place of complexity, vulnerability and competition, so that they have to be well-planned and managed. Diversity in users, land uses, investments, sectoral plans and policies make coastal areas highly complex and problematic zones where competition also takes place. Unless these dimensions of pressure aren’t balanced with precautionary actions, coastal zones transform into more vulnerable geographies. Within this context “Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Plan” appears as a major tool where “integration” becomes a vital keyword for such diversifying environments. This integration challenge covers sectoral, administrative, spatial, interdisciplinary (in terms of scientific research fields) and internationality dimensions. A set of basic principles could also be obtained from the literature in order to reach a better ICZM Plan practice. These could be summarized as; “a broader perspective”, “a long-term perspective”, “adaptive management and monitoring”, “local specificities, specific solutions and flexible measures”, “carrying capacity of ecosystems”, “a participatory process”, “well coordination of policies and partners” and “coherence between sectoral policy objectives, planning and management”. A similar problematic conceptualization is also viable for Turkey, where approximately 76% of the total border length and 27 of 81 provinces are coastal. Naturally, both ICZM and coastal zone planning are within the emerging planning issues of national agenda. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Turkish practices depending on the above-mentioned principles by comparing various official ICZM plans of selected provinces. As a general conclusion it is seen that ICZM -to be an integrative and multi-dimensional tool- is contextually misunderstood. From this perspective “the determination of the plan borders”, “unsuitability of the

  13. Actual problems of management of territory and natural objects in the zone of population relocation at the Chernobyl' NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Meshalkin, G.S.; Arkhipov, A.N.; Burov, N.I.; Mishenkov, N.N.; Fedotov, I.S.; Tursukova, T.A.; Kulikov, V.V.; Loginova, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    Basing on experimental data and using the research results and estimates of other authors an attempt is made to argue and formulate the principles of management for natural and agricultural lands, which can form the basis for development of the conception for use of the population relocation zone. The list of the first-priority works dealing with the problem of rational management of the zone natural objects is given. The necessity of development of the basis for organization of radioecologic nature, reserve, is shown. The scheme of organization of territory use in the population relocation zone is given. 2 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Operating in the Muskwa-Kechika special management zone : a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclean, G.I.; Anderson, B.; Laing, S.; Robert, J.

    1998-01-01

    The many challenges of exploring for natural gas in an area known as the Muskwa-Kechika special management zone of British Columbia were described. A key component of the stakeholder issues was addressing the concerns of the local First Nations that use the area for traditional purposes. Other stakeholders in the area are tour guides, trappers, non-government organizations that promote environmental and recreational values, and provincial ministries that are responsible for establishing regulations. The Muskwa-Kechika Protected Area was created in 1997 after Land and Resource Management plans reached a consensus on land use in the area. There are 4.4 million hectares in the area, 1.2 of which are designated as permanently protected. In support of this decision, Amoco Canada and Mobil surrendered 1420 hectares of petroleum and natural gas tenure in the area. The other 3.2 million hectares of the area lie in special management zones that allow for resource development under guidelines sensitive to wildlife and environmental values

  15. Sugarcane productivity correlated with physical-chemical attributes to create soil management zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Carlos Dalchiavon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The socioeconomic importance of sugar cane in Brazil is unquestionable because it is the raw material for the production of ethanol and sugar. The accurate spatial intervention in the management of the crop, resulting zones of soil management, increases productivity as well as its agricultural yields. The spatial and Person's correlations between sugarcane attributes and physico-chemical attributes of a Typic Tropustalf were studied in the growing season of 2009, in Suzanápolis, State of São Paulo, Brazil (20°28'10'' S lat.; 50°49'20'' W long., in order to obtain the one that best correlates with agricultural productivity. Thus, the geostatistical grid with 120 sampling points was installed to soil and data collection in a plot of 14.6 ha with second crop sugarcane. Due to their substantial and excellent linear and spatial correlations with the productivity of the sugarcane, the population of plants and the organic matter content of the soil, by evidencing substantial correlations, linear and spatial, with the productivity of sugarcane, were indicators of management zones strongly attached to such productivity.

  16. The demarcation of arbitrary boundaries for coastal zone management: the Israeli case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas, Eliraz; Fischhendler, Itay; Portman, Michelle E

    2010-11-01

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) addresses the interconnections, complexities, and conflicts between many users of the coastal area with different goals. It requires setting managerial boundaries that capture many elements of human and natural systems. Experience teaches us that without a directed effort managerial rules and laws are not likely to coincide with the physical sensitivity of units that reflect different environmental characteristics of the coastal zone. Hence the aim of this study is to explore why coastal managerial boundaries are set arbitrarily and whether and how it is possible to address the problems this poses. We examine what influences the decisions of a new coastal management authority in Israel to determine how this body overcomes the limits of arbitrary boundary demarcation. The study found that real life management succeeded to both address areas outside the arbitrary boundaries and also to respect some of the different socio-economic needs and physical constraints of the coastal sub-units. Israel's Coastal Environment Protection Law allows and, in fact, encourages the regulator to use discretion and to employ various criteria to balance development and conservation. This implies that policy makers are cognizant of a need to balance ecologically-sensitive boundaries that consider the homogeneity of the coast with politically feasible boundaries that are set arbitrarily. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 30 CFR 282.22 - Delineation Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delineation Plan. 282.22 Section 282.22 Mineral... § 282.22 Delineation Plan. All exploration activities shall be conducted in accordance with a Delineation Plan submitted by the lessee and approved by the Director. The Delineation Plan shall describe the...

  18. ODM2 Admin Pilot Project- a Data Management Application for Observations of the Critical Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, M.; McDowell, W. H.; Mayorga, E.; Setiawan, L.; Hooper, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    ODM2 Admin is a tool to manage data stored in a relational database using the Observation Data Model 2 (ODM2) information model. Originally developed by the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) to manage a wide range of Earth observations, it has now been deployed at 6 projects: the Catalina Jemez CZO, the Dry Creek Experimental Forest, Au Sable and Manistee River sites managed by Michigan State, Tropical Response to Altered Climate Experiment (TRACE) and the Critical Zone Integrative Microbial Ecology Activity (CZIMEA) EarthCube project; most of these deployments are hosted on a Microsoft Azure cloud server managed by CUAHSI. ODM2 Admin is a web application built on the Python open-source Django framework and available for download from GitHub and DockerHub. It provides tools for data ingestion, editing, QA/QC, data visualization, browsing, mapping and documentation of equipment deployment, methods, and citations. Additional features include the ability to generate derived data values, automatically or manually create data annotations and create datasets from arbitrary groupings of results. Over 22 million time series values for more than 600 time series are being managed with ODM2 Admin across the 6 projects as well as more than 12,000 soil profiles and other measurements. ODM2 Admin links with external identifier systems through DOIs, ORCiDs and IGSNs, so cited works, details about researchers and earth sample meta-data can be accessed directly from ODM2 Admin. This application is part of a growing open source ODM2 application ecosystem under active development. ODM2 Admin can be deployed alongside other tools from the ODM2 ecosystem, including ODM2API and WOFpy, which provide access to the underlying ODM2 data through a Python API and Water One Flow web services.

  19. Managed aquifer recharge of treated wastewater: water quality changes resulting from infiltration through the vadose zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Elise; Toze, Simon; Patterson, Bradley; Higginson, Simon

    2011-11-01

    Secondary treated wastewater was infiltrated through a 9 m-thick calcareous vadose zone during a 39 month managed aquifer recharge (MAR) field trial to determine potential improvements in the recycled water quality. The water quality improvements of the recycled water were based on changes in the chemistry and microbiology of (i) the recycled water prior to infiltration relative to (ii) groundwater immediately down-gradient from the infiltration gallery. Changes in the average concentrations of several constituents in the recycled water were identified with reductions of 30% for phosphorous, 66% for fluoride, 62% for iron and 51% for total organic carbon when the secondary treated wastewater was infiltrated at an applied rate of 17.5 L per minute with a residence time of approximately four days in the vadose zone and less than two days in the aquifer. Reductions were also noted for oxazepam and temazepam among the pharmaceuticals tested and for a range of microbial pathogens, but reductions were harder to quantify as their magnitudes varied over time. Total nitrogen and carbamazepine persisted in groundwater down-gradient from the infiltration galleries. Infiltration does potentially offer a range of water quality improvements over direct injection to the water table without passage through the unsaturated zone; however, additional treatment options for the non-potable water may still need to be considered, depending on the receiving environment or the end use of the recovered water. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A vadose zone Transport Processes Investigation within the glacial till at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwing, J.; Roepke, Craig Senninger; Brainard, James Robert; Glass, Robert John Jr.; Mann, Michael J.A.; Holt, Robert M..; Kriel, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a model Transport Processes Investigation (TPI) where field-scale vadose zone flow and transport processes are identified and verified through a systematic field investigation at a contaminated DOE site. The objective of the TPI is to help with formulating accurate conceptual models and aid in implementing rational and cost effective site specific characterization strategies at contaminated sites with diverse hydrogeologic settings. Central to the TPI are Transport Processes Characterization (TPC) tests that incorporate field surveys and large-scale infiltration experiments. Hypotheses are formulated based on observed pedogenic and hydrogeologic features as well as information provided by literature searches. The field and literature information is then used to optimize the design of one or more infiltration experiments to field test the hypothesis. Findings from the field surveys and infiltration experiments are then synthesized to formulate accurate flow and transport conceptual models. Here we document a TPI implemented in the glacial till vadose zone at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio, a US Department of Energy (DOE) uranium processing site. As a result of this TPI, the flow and transport mechanisms were identified through visualization of dye stain within extensive macro pore and fracture networks which provided the means for the infiltrate to bypass potential aquatards. Such mechanisms are not addressed in current vadose zone modeling and are generally missed by classical characterization methods

  1. A systematic review of socio-economic assessments in support of coastal zone management (1992-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gentil, Eric; Mongruel, Rémi

    2015-02-01

    Cooperation between the social and natural sciences has become essential in order to encompass all the dimensions of coastal zone management. Socio-economic approaches are increasingly recommended to complement integrated assessment in support of these initiatives. A systematic review of the academic literature was carried out in order to analyze the main types of socio-economic assessments used to inform the coastal zone management process as well as their effectiveness. A corpus of 1682 articles published between 1992 and 2011 was identified by means of the representative coverage approach, from which 170 were selected by applying inclusion/exclusion criteria and then classified using a content analysis methodology. The percentage of articles that mention the use of socio-economic assessment in support of coastal zone management initiatives is increasing but remains relatively low. The review examines the links between the issues addressed by integrated assessments and the chosen analytical frameworks as well as the various economic assessment methods which are used in the successive steps of the coastal zone management process. The results show that i) analytical frameworks such as 'risk and vulnerability', 'DPSIR', 'valuation', 'ecosystem services' and 'preferences' are likely to lead to effective integration of social sciences in coastal zone management research while 'integration', 'sustainability' and 'participation' remain difficult to operationalize, ii) risk assessments are insufficiently implemented in developing countries, and iii) indicator systems in support of multi-criteria analyses could be used during more stages of the coastal zone management process. Finally, it is suggested that improved collaboration between science and management would require that scientists currently involved in coastal zone management processes further educate themselves in integrated assessment approaches and participatory methodologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  2. Delineating SPTAN1 associated phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syrbe, Steffen; Harms, Frederike L; Parrini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    De novo in-frame deletions and duplications in the SPTAN1 gene, encoding the non-erythrocyte αII spectrin, have been associated with severe West syndrome with hypomyelination and pontocerebellar atrophy. We aimed at comprehensively delineating the phenotypic spectrum associated with SPTAN1 mutati...

  3. Surface runoff water quality in a managed three zone riparian buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, Richard; Sheridan, Joseph M

    2005-01-01

    Managed riparian forest buffers are an important conservation practice but there are little data on the water quality effects of buffer management. We measured surface runoff volumes and nutrient concentrations and loads in a riparian buffer system consisting of (moving down slope from the field) a grass strip, a managed forest, and an unmanaged forest. The managed forest consisted of sections of clear-cut, thinned, and mature forest. The mature forest had significantly lower flow-weighted concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, total Kjeldahl N (TKN), sediment TKN, total N (nitrate + TKN), dissolved molybdate reactive P (DMRP), total P, and chloride. The average buffer represented the conditions along a stream reach with a buffer system in different stages of growth. Compared with the field output, flow-weighted concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, DMRP, and total P decreased significantly within the buffer and flow-weighted concentrations of TKN, total N, and chloride increased significantly within the buffer. All loads decreased significantly from the field to the middle of the buffer, but most loads increased from the middle of the buffer to the sampling point nearest the stream because surface runoff volume increased near the stream. The largest percentage reduction of the incoming nutrient load (at least 65% for all nutrient forms) took place in the grass buffer zone because of the large decrease (68%) in flow. The average buffer reduced loadings for all nutrient species, from 27% for TKN to 63% for sediment P. The managed forest and grass buffer combined was an effective buffer system.

  4. Zone of Acceptance Under Performance Measurement: Does Performance Information Affect Employee Acceptance of Management Authority?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Aaes; Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2018-01-01

    Public sector employees have traditionally enjoyed substantial influence and bargaining power in organizational decision making, but few studies have investigated the formation of employee acceptance of management authority. Drawing on the ‘romance of leadership’ perspective, we argue that perfor......Public sector employees have traditionally enjoyed substantial influence and bargaining power in organizational decision making, but few studies have investigated the formation of employee acceptance of management authority. Drawing on the ‘romance of leadership’ perspective, we argue...... that performance information shapes employee attributions of leader quality and perceptions of a need for change in ways that affect their acceptance of management authority, conceptualized using Simon’s notion of a ‘zone of acceptance.’ We conducted a survey experiment among 1,740 teachers, randomly assigning...... true performance information about each respondent’s own school. When employees were exposed to signals showing low or high performance, their acceptance of management authority increased, whereas average performance signals reduced employee acceptance of management authority. The findings suggest...

  5. 78 FR 68390 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    .... 130306200-3200-01] RIN 0648-BD03 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 102 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) National.... SUMMARY: NMFS proposes regulations to implement Amendment 102 to the Fishery Management Plan for...

  6. 77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    .... 110207103-2041-02] RIN 0648-BA80 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection; Correction AGENCY: National Marine... Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection published on February 3, 2012. This...

  7. 76 FR 68354 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    .... 100819383-1652-02] RIN 0648-BA18 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Limited Access Privilege Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries.... SUMMARY: NMFS issues regulations implementing Amendment 93 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish...

  8. Response of herbaceous plant community diversity and composition to overstorey harvest within riparian management zones in Northern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric K. Zenner; Michelle A. Martin; Brian J. Palik; Jerilynn E. Peck; Charles R. Blinn

    2013-01-01

    Partial timber harvest within riparian management zones (RMZs) may permit active management of riparian forests while protecting stream ecosystems, but impacts on herbaceous communities are poorly understood. We compared herbaceous plant community abundance, diversity and composition in RMZs along small streams in northern Minnesota, USA, among four treatments before...

  9. Assessment of College Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Solid Waste Management in North Central Zone of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Mohammed Dauda; Makilik, Mangut; Ozoji, Bernadette Ebele

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on assessment of colleges of education students' knowledge and attitudes toward solid waste management in the North Central zone of Nigeria. The cross-sectional survey design was adopted. A students' knowledge and attitudes toward solid waste management questionnaire were used to collect data from 1,800 students. The findings…

  10. Boundaries Delineation of Marine Management Sharing According to Local Government Law No. 23/2014 (Case Study: Surabaya, Sidoarjo, Bangkalan and Sampang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomsin; Intan Ary Prayogi, S.

    2018-03-01

    Regional autonomy is the right, the authority, and the obligation of autonomous region to set up and manage their own affairs and interests of the community in accordance with the potential and peculiarities of each area. To implement regional autonomy, the autonomous region must be clear where the location of its borders. Boundary area is divided into two, namely boundaries in the land and boundaries in the sea. Based on the authority of region government that regulated in Law of Republic Indonesia Number 23 in 2014, the regional maritime boundary consist of maritime management boundary for the province and maritime income sharing boundary for the district/city. This study aimed to determine the maritime income sharing boundary between Surabaya City, Sidoarjo, Bangkalan and Sampang District related to the presence of tanah oloran. Tanah oloran is located in the border of Surabaya City and Sidoarjo district which is currently being disputed border and seizure of property by the two districts/cities. The results of research represent that the claim ownership of Tanah Oloran can impact on maritime income sharing boundaries of Surabaya City and Sidoarjo District with region maritime overlapping is 2,258 ha and will benefit for the region maritime income sharing Sidoarjo District Government.

  11. Delimitation and Classified Planning Management of Functional Renovation Zone: Experience of and Discussion on Shenzhen's Practice of Urban Renewal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wenxuan; Tong De; Liu Qing; Feng Changchun; Liu Jinxin

    2016-01-01

    Urban renewal is one of the important issues of urban development in China.Along with its development in the contemporary time,China has seen considerable achievements and problems as well in urban renewal.Taking into account that Shenzhen has carried out plenty of explorations on urban planning renewal,this paper takes it as an example to firstly analyze the plights of its urban renewal planning,the shortcomings of its urban renewal projects,and the advantages of functional renovation zones to manifest the necessity of the delimitation and classified planning management of functional renovation zone in urban renewal.It then summarizes the experience of its urban renewal unit planning in terms of the methods of zoning and implementation,and finally discusses the conceptual connotations of functional renovation zone,as well as the logic and characteristics of renovations of its delimitation and classified planning management,in hope of providing other Chinese cities with some references.

  12. Management of relapsed/refractory marginal zone lymphoma: focus on ibrutinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denlinger NM

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nathan M Denlinger, Narendranath Epperla, Basem M William Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center (OSUCCC-James, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Marginal zone lymphomas (MZLs consist of a diverse family of malignancies, which are derived from B-cells. The disease subtypes are recognized extranodal, nodal, and splenic MZLs. The disease characteristics, clinical course, and treatment vary considerably based on the site of involvement. In 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration approved ibrutinib, a first in class Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor that revolutionized the care of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients; for, the treatment of relapsed/refractory MZL based on pivotal open-label Phase II trial demonstrated an overall response rate of 48%, with a complete response rate of 3%, median progression-free survival of 14.2 months, and median overall survival not yet reached at a median follow-up of 19.4 months. In this review, we aim to summarize the current conundrums in the management of MZL and the evolving role of ibrutinib in the treatment of MZL. Keywords: non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, marginal zone, ibrutinib

  13. Critical Zone services as environmental assessment criteria in intensively managed landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Meredith; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-06-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) includes the biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. CZ services provide a measure for the goods and benefits derived from CZ processes. In intensively managed landscapes, cropland is altered through anthropogenic energy inputs to derive more productivity, as agricultural products, than would be possible under natural conditions. However, the actual costs of alterations to CZ functions within landscape profiles are unknown. Through comparisons of corn feed and corn-based ethanol, we show that valuation of these CZ services in monetary terms provides a more concrete tool for characterizing seemingly abstract environmental damages from agricultural production systems. Multiple models are combined to simulate the movement of nutrients throughout the soil system, enabling the measurement of agricultural anthropogenic impacts to the CZ's regulating services. Results indicate water quality and atmospheric stabilizing services, measured by soil carbon storage, carbon respiration, and nitrate leaching, among others, can cost more than double that of emissions estimated in previous studies. Energy efficiency in addition to environmental impact is assessed to demonstrate how the inclusion of CZ services is necessary in accounting for the entire life cycle of agricultural production systems. These results conclude that feed production systems are more energy efficient and less environmentally costly than corn-based ethanol.

  14. Vadose zone monitoring at the radioactive waste management complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, D.L.; Hubbell, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A network of vadose zone instruments was installed in surficial sediments and sedimentary interbeds beneath the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The network of instruments monitor moisture movement in a heterogeneous geologic system comprised of sediments which overlie and are intercalated with basalt flows. The general range of matric potentials in the surficial sediments (0 to 9.1 m) was from saturation to -3 bars. The basalt layer beneath the surficial sediments impedes downward water movement. The general range of matric potentials in the 9-, 34- and 73-m interbeds was from -0.3 to 1.7 bars. Preliminary results indicated downward moisture movement through the interbeds. 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  15. A simulation-optimization model for effective water resources management in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    -diffusion equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants introduced in a 3D turbulent flow field to the partial differential equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants in 3D transient groundwater flow systems. The model has been further developed to include the effects of density variations on surface water and groundwater flow, while the already built-in solute transport capabilities are used to simulate salinity interactions. The refined model is based on the finite volume method using a cell-centred structured grid, providing thus flexibility and accuracy in simulating irregular boundary geometries. For addressing water resources management problems, simulation models are usually externally coupled with optimisation-based management models. However this usually requires a very large number of iterations between the optimisation and simulation models in order to obtain the optimal management solution. As an alternative approach, for improved computational efficiency, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is trained as an approximate simulator of IRENE. The trained ANN is then linked to a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based optimisation model for managing salinisation problems in the coastal zone. The linked simulation-optimisation model is applied to a hypothetical study area for performance evaluation. Acknowledgement The work presented in this paper has been funded by the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (IKY), Fellowships of Excellence for Postdoctoral Studies (Siemens Program), 'A simulation-optimization model for assessing the best practices for the protection of surface water and groundwater in the coastal zone', (2013 - 2015). References Spanoudaki, K., Stamou, A.I. and Nanou-Giannarou, A. (2009). Development and verification of a 3-D integrated surface water-groundwater model. Journal of Hydrology, 375 (3-4), 410-427. Spanoudaki, K. (2010). Integrated numerical modelling of surface water groundwater systems (in Greek). Ph.D. Thesis, National Technical

  16. Towards an Integrated Management and Planning in the Romanian Black Sea Coastal Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Catalin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic and “natural” systems are, to a variable extent, now locked in a coevolutionary path, characterized by a joint determinism and complex feedback effects. The management of the coastal zones, including also modeling and assessment measures, should, be reoriented over time to properly capture the causes and consequences of the joint system changes as manifested in the coastal areas. This will require a collaborative work among a range of economical, environmental and social science disciplines. The pressures and the high instability are similar between the coast and the sea, in both senses (from the land to the sea and also from the sea to the land, being given by various factors as the strong winds, waves, storms, open sea, currents, as well well also the variability of temperatures, salinity, density, due to the Danube impact, etc. The influence of the rivers discharging into the Black Sea is important, while the coastal erosion, flooding, urbanization, tourism, naval industry have an impact on the coast and the sea environment. The Marine Spatial Planning Directive is appropriate in Romania to put in practice the similar tools, and practical approach from the coast to the maritime space. This paper aims to represent an useful starting point in the management of the coastal zones for both natural and social science research that would be seeked (by a more integrated modelling and assessment process to better describe and understand the functioning of the ecosystems, that form the coastal interface, and in particular the filter effect is exerted on nutrients in response to the environmental pressures, both anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic - the climate change, land use/cover change, urbanization and effluent treatment from both point and non-point sources. For this it is necessary a broad analytical framework (rather than a specific model in which to set a more detailed analysis.

  17. Riparian buffer zones on selected rivers in Lower Silesia - an important conservation practice and the management strategy in urban planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Maryna

    2013-09-01

    Buffer zones are narrow strips of land lying along the surface water, covered with appropriately selected vegetation. They separate aquatic ecosystems from the direct impact of agricultural land and reduce the movement of nutrients in the environment. In 2008 the European Commission established requirements for the implementation of buffer strips along water courses. Poland committed to the enforcement of these requirements until 1 January 2012. This was one of the reasons of this study. The subject of the analysis included the following rivers in Lower Silesia: Smortawa, Krynka, Czarna Woda and the selected transects of Ślęza and Nysa Łużycka. Detailed studies were designed to estimate the buffer zones occurring on these watercourses and assess these zones’ structure. This will be used to develop clear criteria for the selection of the width of these zones based on land use land management. It can be used in the implementation of executive acts at different levels of space management. Field research consisted of inventory the extent of riparian buffer strips on selected water courses and photographic documentation. Species composition of the vegetation forming a buffer zone was identified by using Braun-Blanquet method. There was lack of continuity of the riparian buffer zones on investigated rivers. Buffer zones should have carefully formulated definition and width because they are element of the significant ecological value, they perform important environmental protective functions and they are also the subject of Community law.

  18. Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in industrial zones, case study of Shahroud, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid, Nazemi; Roudbari, Aliakbar; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar

    2014-01-14

    The aim of the study was to design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in Shahroud industrial zone, evaluates the results and determine possible performance problems. This cross - sectional study was carried out for 4 years in Shahroud industrial zone and the implementation process included:1- Qualitative and quantitative analysis of all solid waste generated in the city, 2- determine the current state of solid waste management in the zone and to identify programs conducted, 3- Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern including design and implementation of training programs, laws, penalties and incentives and explain and implement programs for all factories and 4- The monitoring of the implementation process and determine the results. Annually, 1,728 tons of solid wastes generated in the town including 1603 tons of industrial wastes and 125 tons of municipal wastes. By implementing this pattern, the two separated systems of collection and recycling of domestic and industrial wastes was launched in this zone. Also consistent with the goals, the amount of solid wastes generated and disposed in 2009 was 51.5 and 28.6 kg per 100 million Rials production, respectively. Results showed that implementation of pattern of separated collection, training programs, capacity building, providing technical services, completing chain of industries and strengthening the cooperation between industrial estate management and industrial units could greatly reduce the waste management problems.

  19. Agricultural adaptation to water scarcity in the Sri Lankan dry zone: A comparison of two water managment regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    The island nation of Sri Lanka is divided into two agro-climatic zones: the southwestern wet zone and the northeastern dry zone. The dry zone is exposed to drought-like conditions for several months each year. Due to the sporadic nature of rainfall, dry zone livelihoods depend on the successful storage, capture, and distribution of water. Traditionally, water has been captured in rain-fed tanks and distributed through a system of dug canals. Recently, the Sri Lankan government has diverted the waters of the nation's largest river through a system of centrally managed reservoirs and canals and resettled farmers to cultivate this newly irrigated land. This study uses remotely sensed MODIS and LANDSAT imagery to compare vegetation health and cropping patterns in these distinct water management regimes under different conditions of water scarcity. Of particular interest are the socioeconomic, infrastructural, and institutional factors that affect cropping patterns, including field position, water storage capacity, and control of water resources. Results suggest that under known conditions of water scarcity, farmers cultivate other field crops in lieu of paddy. Cultivation changes depend to a large extent on the institutional distance between water users and water managers as well as the fragmentation of water resources within the system.

  20. Delineation of groundwater potential zone: An AHP/ANP approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater; multi-criteria decision making; analytical network process. J. Earth Syst. ... than AHP for decision making. ... the themes and provide utility weights for the alter- natives ... theory that has been applied to classifying ETM+ image.

  1. Vertical Electrical Sounding to delineate the potential Aquifer zones ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    48

    CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute, Groundwater Building, Uppal Road, ... techniques for groundwater prospecting was used in the Capital City, Niamey of Niger. ... Analysis of the result showed a good correlation between the ..... Fitterman D V, Meekes J A C, and Ritsema I L, 1988, Equivalence behavior of three ...

  2. Vertical electrical sounding to delineate the potential aquifer zones ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joy Choudhury

    2017-09-06

    fed irrigation, etc. The ... position is important for optimum groundwater ... regional scale to estimate natural groundwater ... lithology with depth by means of measured resis- .... stratification for all the VES survey carried out in.

  3. Information Architecture Used to Manage Multi-Domain Data Analysis in Intensively Managed Landscape - Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooper, R.; Angelo, B.; Marini, L.; Kumar, P.; Muste, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Intensively Managed Landscapes-Critical Zone Observatory (IML-CZO) is a multi-agency partnership that aims to understand the coevoluationary dynamics of change in the context of the landscape, soil, and biota. The Data Management aspect of IML-CZO provides data preservation and analysis for each of the scientific domains as they pursue environmental monitoring throughout the midwestern United States. Data Management is facilitated via data ingestion and storage through Clowder, an open-source, scalable data repository for organizing and analyzing data; and Geodashboard, a web application that provides exploring, querying, visualizing and downloading the data ingested into Clowder. The data collected covers many domains including geology, hydrology, and bioengineering. The data across these domains varies greatly; from real-time streams of environmental measurements to individual soil samples that are sent through a series of laboratories for analysis. All data can be uploaded to Clowder where metadata can be extracted or dynamically calculated based on the nature of the information. Geodashboard was created to provide scientists with a tool to explore data across these varying domains, and to visualize the extracted data from Clowder. Once Clowder has extracted the data, it is available for querying from a REST API for standardized and streamlined access. Users are able to explore the data on multiple axis, and are able to download data across multiple domains in a standardized format for further analysis and research. IML-CZO's Clowder has over 60 users and over 180 datasets. There are over 1.1 million extracted data points that date back to 1992, and it is continually growing.

  4. Utilizing management zones for Rotylenchulus reniformis in cotton: Effects on nematode levels, crop damage, and Pasteuria sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematode management zones (MZs) based on soil electrical conductivity (EC, a proxy for soil texture) have not been published for R. reniformis. We tested 1) whether R. reniformis levels and the amount of damage caused to cotton differed among MZs, 2) if the relative effectiveness of nematicides dif...

  5. Heritage and management in the transformation of industrial canal zones: the case of B5 in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curulli, G.I.; Koolen, G.A; Moacyr Eduardo Alves de Graca, xx

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to investigate the management process in the transformation of industrial canal zones. This term is referred to those abandoned factory areas along watercourses that have made many areas at the edge of a consolidated urban structure quite distinctive. In the long-term

  6. Conflict Management and Resolution Strategies between Teachers and School Leaders in Primary Schools of Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanka, Engdawork Birhanu; Thuo, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate various strategies used to manage and resolve conflict between teachers and school leaders in government primary schools of Wolaita zone. The study employed a descriptive survey design where both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to correct and analyze data, concurrently. From six…

  7. Livestock-rangeland management practices and community perceptions towards rangeland degradation in South Omo zone of Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admasu, T.; Abule, E.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted in Hamer and Benna-Tsemay districts of the South Omo zone of Ethiopia, with the objectives of assessing the range-livestock management practices and perceptions of the different pastoral groups (Hamer, Benna, and Tsemay) towards rangeland degradation. This information is

  8. Improving integration for integrated coastal zone management: an eight country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, M E; Esteves, L S; Le, X Q; Khan, A Z

    2012-11-15

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is a widely accepted approach for sustainable management of the coastal environment. ICZM emphasizes integration across sectors, levels of government, uses, stakeholders, and spatial and temporal scales. While improving integration is central to progress in ICZM, the role of and the achievement of integration remain understudied. To further study these two points, our research analyzes the performance of specific mechanisms used to support ICZM in eight countries (Belgium, India, Israel, Italy, Portugal, Sweden, UK, and Vietnam). The assessment is based on a qualitative comparative analysis conducted through the use of two surveys. It focuses on five ICZM mechanisms (environmental impact assessment; planning hierarchy; setback lines; marine spatial planning, and regulatory commission) and their role in improving integration. Our findings indicate that certain mechanisms enhance specific types of integration more effectively than others. Environmental impact assessment enhances science-policy integration and can be useful to integrate knowledge across sectors. Planning hierarchy and regulatory commissions are effective mechanisms to integrate policies across government levels, with the latter also promoting public-government integration. Setback lines can be applied to enhance integration across landscape units. Marine spatial planning is a multi-faceted mechanism with the potential to promote all types of integration. Policy-makers should adopt the mechanisms that are suited to the type of integration needed. Results of this study also contribute to evidence-based coastal management by identifying the most common impediments related to the mechanisms of integration in the eight studied countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrological and Oceanographic Considerations for Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Southern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman; Kjerfve

    1999-09-01

    / The objectives of this study are to: (1) characterize the meteorology and hydrology of the Maya Mountain-Marine Area Transect in southern Belize, (2) employ a simple water balance model to examine the discharge rates of seven watersheds to Port Honduras, (3) test the validity of the hydrological model, (4) explore the implications of potential landscape and hydrological alterations, and (5) examine the value of protected areas. The southern coastal portion of the study area is classified as wet tropical forest and the remainder as moist tropical forest. Rainfall is 3000-4000 mm annually. Resulting annual freshwater discharge directly into Port Honduras is calculated at 2.5 x 10(9) m3, a volume equal to the basin. During the rainy season, June-September, 84% of the annual discharge occurs, which causes the bay to become brackish. Port Honduras serves as an important nursery ground for many species of commercially important fish and shellfish. The removal of forest cover in the uplands, as a result of agriculture, aquaculture, and village development, is likely to significantly accelerate erosion. Increased erosion would reduce soil fertility in the uplands and negatively affect mangrove, seagrass, and coral reef productivity in the receiving coastal embayment. Alternatively, the conservation of an existing protected areas corridor, linking the Maya Mountains to the Caribbean Sea, is likely to enhance regional sustainable economic development. This study aims to support environmental management at the scale of the "ecoscape"-a sensible ecological unit of linked watersheds and coastal and marine environments.KEY WORDS: Ecosystem management; Coastal zone management; Belize; Hydrologyhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n2p229.html

  10. Harnessing genomics for delineating conservation units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W Chris; McKay, John K; Hohenlohe, Paul A; Allendorf, Fred W

    2012-09-01

    Genomic data have the potential to revolutionize the delineation of conservation units (CUs) by allowing the detection of adaptive genetic variation, which is otherwise difficult for rare, endangered species. In contrast to previous recommendations, we propose that the use of neutral versus adaptive markers should not be viewed as alternatives. Rather, neutral and adaptive markers provide different types of information that should be combined to make optimal management decisions. Genetic patterns at neutral markers reflect the interaction of gene flow and genetic drift that affects genome-wide variation within and among populations. This population genetic structure is what natural selection operates on to cause adaptive divergence. Here, we provide a new framework to integrate data on neutral and adaptive markers to protect biodiversity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Developing a methodology for identifying action zones to protect and manage groundwater well fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellier, Sandra; Viennot, Pascal; Ledoux, Emmanuel; Schott, Celine

    2013-04-01

    Implementation of a long term action plan to manage and protect well fields is a complex and very expensive process. In this context, the relevance and efficiency of such action plans on water quality should be evaluated. The objective of this study is to set up a methodology to identify relevant actions zones in which environmental changes may significantly impact the quantity or quality of pumped water. In the Seine-et-Marne department (France), under French environmental laws three sectors integrating numerous well-field pumping in Champigny's limestone aquifer are considered as priority. This aquifer, located at south-east of Paris, supplies more than one million people with drinking water. Catchments areas of these abstractions are very large (2000 km2) and their intrinsic vulnerability was established by a simple parametric approach that does not permit to consider the complexity of hydrosystem. Consequently, a methodology based on a distributed modeling of the process of the aquifer was developed. The basin is modeled using the hydrogeological model MODCOU, developed in MINES ParisTech since the 1980s. It simulates surface and groundwater flow in aquifer systems and allows to represent the local characteristics of the hydrosystem (aquifers communicating by leakage, rivers infiltration, supply from sinkholes and locally perched or dewatering aquifers). The model was calibrated by matching simulated river discharge hydrographs and piezometric heads with observed ones since the 1970s. Thanks to this modelling tool, a methodology based on the transfer of a theoretical tracer through the hydrosystem from the ground surface to the outlets was implemented to evaluate the spatial distribution of the contribution areas at contrasted, wet or dry recharge periods. The results show that the surface of areas contributing to supply most catchments is lower than 300 km2 and the major contributory zones are located along rivers. This finding illustrates the importance of

  12. Integrating GIS-based geologic mapping, LiDAR-based lineament analysis and site specific rock slope data to delineate a zone of existing and potential rock slope instability located along the grandfather mountain window-Linville Falls shear zone contact, Southern Appalachian Mountains, Watauga County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, K.A.; Wooten, R.M.; Latham, R.L.; Witt, A.W.; Douglas, T.J.; Bauer, J.B.; Fuemmeler, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Landslide hazard maps of Watauga County identify >2200 landslides, model debris flow susceptibility, and evaluate a 14km x 0.5km zone of existing and potential rock slope instability (ZEPRSI) near the Town of Boone. The ZEPRSI encompasses west-northwest trending (WNWT) topographic ridges where 14 active/past-active rock/weathered rock slides occur mainly in rocks of the Grandfather Mountain Window (GMW). The north side of this ridgeline is the GMW / Linville Falls Fault (LFF) contact. Sheared rocks of the Linville Falls Shear Zone (LFSZ) occur along the ridge and locally in the valley north of the contact. The valley is underlain principally by layered granitic gneiss comprising the Linville Falls/Beech Mountain/Stone Mountain Thrust Sheet. The integration of ArcGIS??? - format digital geologic and lineament mapping on a 6m LiDAR (Light Detecting and Ranging) digital elevation model (DEM) base, and kinematic analyses of site specific rock slope data (e.g., presence and degree of ductile and brittle deformation fabrics, rock type, rock weathering state) indicate: WNWT lineaments are expressions of a regionally extensive zone of fractures and faults; and ZEPRSI rock slope failures concentrate along excavated, north-facing LFF/LFSZ slopes where brittle fabrics overprint older metamorphic foliations, and other fractures create side and back release surfaces. Copyright 2009 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association.

  13. Fever prevalence and management among three rural communities in the North West Zone, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, R M; Alegana, V A; Amran, J; Noor, A M; Snow, R W

    2010-06-01

    Between March and August 2008 we undertook 2 cross-sectional surveys among 1375 residents of 3 randomly selected villages in the district of Gebiley in the North-West Zone, Somalia. We investigated for the presence of malaria infection and the period prevalence of self-reported fever 14 days prior to both surveys. All blood samples examined were negative for both species of Plasmodium. The period prevalence of 14-day fevers was 4.8% in March and 0.6% in August; the majority of fevers (84.4%) were associated with other symptoms including cough, running nose and sore throat; 48/64 cases had resolved by the day of interview (mean duration 5.4 days). Only 18 (37.5%) fever cases were managed at a formal health care facility: 7 within 24 hours and 10 within 24-72 hours of onset. None of the fevers were investigated for malaria; they were treated with antibiotics, antipyretics and vitamins.

  14. Integrated coastal zone management perspectives to ensure the sustainability of coral reefs in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, G; Leopold, M; Dumas, P S; Ferraris, J; Herrenschmidt, J B; Fontenelle, G

    2010-01-01

    Based on a pluridisciplinary research programme on New Caledonia's lagoon (2004-2008), this paper addresses economic, ecological and political issues in order to implement integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) in this French Pacific territory. The nickel mining industry constitutes the core of the re-balancing economic and social strategy between the Northern and Southern provinces. But major impacts on the coastal environment of metal-processing plants, harbours, and decades of mine exploitation have released a controversy. A short diachronic analysis suggests that such environmental concerns prompted the emergence of collective actions to among civil society, customary and institutional stakeholders. The inscription of New Caledonia lagoon and reef areas in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2008 would be both an outcome and a catalyst of this on-going process. Looking beyond the reefs towards the mainland and watersheds for the construction of local socio-ecological systems, we assume that the current stakes could result in the initiation of ICZM in New Caledonia. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Report: future industrial solid waste management in pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ), Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarani, Babak; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Alavi; Mokhtarani, Nader; Khaledi, Hossein Jomeh

    2006-06-01

    The Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ) is located in the south of Iran, on the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf. This area was established in 1998 for the utilization of south Pars field oil and gas resources. This field is one of the largest gas resources in the world and contains about 6% of the total fossil fuels known. Petrochemical industries, gas refineries and downstream industries are being constructed in this area. At present there are three gas refineries in operation and five more gas refineries are under construction. In this study, different types of solid waste including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the environmental impact. In the first stage, the types and amounts of industrial waste in PSEEZ were evaluated by an inventory. The main types of industrial waste are oil products (fuel oil, light oil, lubricating oil), spent catalysts, adsorbents, resins, coke, wax and packaging materials. The waste management of PSEEZ is quite complex because of the different types of industry and the diversity of industrial residues. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. Recently a design has been prepared for a disposal site in PSEEZ for the industrial waste that cannot be reused or recycled. The total surface area of this disposal site where the industrial waste should be tipped for the next 20 years was estimated to be about 42 000 m2.

  16. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments from C Waste Management Area: Investigation of the C-152 Transfer Line Leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Lanigan, David C.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

    2008-09-11

    The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in January 2007. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within waste management area (WMA) C. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physiochemical characterization data compiled on vadose zone sediment recovered from direct-push samples collected around the site of an unplanned release (UPR), UPR-200-E-82, adjacent to the 241-C-152 Diversion Box located in WMA C.

  17. Aspen Delineation - Inyo National Forest [ds366

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The database represents delineations of known aspen stands where aspen assessments were collected in the Inyo National Forest, Inyo County, California. The Inyo...

  18. Internal Flow Management in a Multi-Zone Climate Control Unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, C. De; Jessen, J.J.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Schiøler, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution, we examine a dynamic model describing the evolution of internal climate conditions in a closed environment partitioned into zones for which different climate conditions must be guaranteed. The zones are not separated, large air masses are exchanged among them, and the behavior

  19. Internal flow management in a multi-zone climate control unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Persis, C.; Jessen, Jan Jacob; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution, we examine a dynamic model describing the evolution of internal climate conditions in a closed environment partitioned into zones for which different climate conditions must be guaranteed. The zones are not separated, large air masses are exchanged among them, and the behavior...

  20. The impact of an efficient collection sites location on the zoning phase in municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiani, Gianpaolo, E-mail: gianpaolo.ghiani@unisalento.it; Manni, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.manni@unisalento.it; Manni, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.manni@unisalento.it; Toraldo, Massimiliano, E-mail: massimiliano.toraldo@unisalento.it

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We study the problems of locating collection areas and zoning the service territory in a municipal waste management system. • We investigate the impact that an efficient collection sites location has on the subsequent zoning phase. • On a real-world test case, we show that the proposed approach could allow achieving significant monetary savings. - Abstract: In this paper, we study two decisional problems arising when planning the collection of solid waste, namely the location of collection sites (together with bin allocation) and the zoning of the service territory, and we assess the potential impact that an efficient location has on the subsequent zoning phase. We first propose both an exact and a heuristic approach to locate the unsorted waste collection bins in a residential town, and to decide the capacities and characteristics of the bins to be located at each collection site. A peculiar aspect we consider is that of taking into account the compatibility between the different types of bins when allocating them to collection areas. Moreover, we propose a fast and effective heuristic approach to identify homogeneous zones that can be served by a single collection vehicle. Computational results on data related to a real-life instance show that an efficient location is fundamental in achieving consistent monetary savings, as well as a reduced environmental impact. These reductions are the result of one vehicle less needed to perform the waste collection operations, and an overall traveled distance reduced by about 25% on the average.

  1. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  2. Uses and flock management practices of scavenging chickens in Wolaita Zone of southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta, Takele Taye; Wakeyo, Oli

    2012-03-01

    Rearing of scavenging chickens is among the most commonly practiced farm activities in Ethiopia. This system is dominated by indigenous chickens. Output from indigenous chickens is low due to poor management and absence of intense selection that is intended to improve economically important traits. This showed that village chickens are rather evolved for adaptation traits. However, the level of risk is low, and this has made rearing of scavenging chickens a choice of farm activity for smallholder farmers. The objective of this study was to characterize the scavenging chickens' production system in Wolaita Zone. Single-visit survey involving individual interview of 119 farmers and 6 focus group discussions was used to collect the data. Our results showed that rearing of scavenging chickens was constrained especially by disease and predation problems. However, farmers proposed a set of solutions to minimize the effect of these problems. Rearing of scavenging chickens fulfils the multi-functional need of the society. This system has special features because it can sustain in its own without the need for modern commercial chicken farming facilities. However, farmers also reported the drawbacks of rearing of scavenging chickens and these mainly include uproot of garden crops and tiresomeness of the night watching. Selection of chickens was mainly depending on physically observed traits like body size and plumage colour. The initial foundation flock was mainly obtained from the local market. The ideal place for scavenging chickens production is the one that has intermediate weather condition and has some trees that can be used as shade; however, it was substantiated that it has to be free from bush and shrubs, weeds and wet lands. Therefore, these pieces of knowledge embedded among smallholder farmers need to be well documented and synthesized to design an appropriate type of technology packages that can be communicated back to farmers to improve productivity of the

  3. Characterization of Direct Push Vadose Zone Sediments from the T and TY Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

    2007-06-08

    This report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from 5 direct push characterization holes emplaced to investigate vadose zone contamination associated with leaks from tanks 241-TY-105 (UPR-200-W-152) and 241-TY-106 (UPR-200-W-153). Tank 241-TY-105 is estimated to have leaked 35,000 gal of tributyl phosphate (TBP) waste from the uranium recovery process to the vadose zone in 1960. Tank 241-TY-106 is estimated to have leaked 20,000 gal of TBP-uranium recovery waste to the vadose zone in 1959. Although several drywells in the vicinity of tank 241-TY-106 contain measurable quantities of cesium-137 and/or cobalt-60, their relatively low concentrations indicate that the contaminant inventory in the vadose zone around tank 241-TY-106 is quite small. Additionally, this report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from 7 direct push characterization holes emplaced to investigate vadose zone contamination associated with an overfill event and leak from tank 241-T-101.

  4. THE EXPERIENCE IN NATURAL-ECONOMIC ZONING OF THE REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RECREATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Vorobyova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studying and mapping of natural-economic zoning of the Republic of Buryatia for development of recreational environmental management. Regions with different structure of natural territorial complexes, which were modified to some extent by economic activity, were identified. Also were allocated 8 recreational areas, characterized by different set of recreational activities and different perspectives of development which should be considered as priority sites of environmental assessment and monitoring.

  5. Carbon storage, soil carbon dioxide efflux and water quality in three widths of piedmont streamside management zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erica F. Wadl; William Lakel; Michael Aust; John Seiler

    2010-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs) are used to protect water quality. Monitoring carbon pools and fluxes in SMZs may a good indicator of the SMZ’s overall function and health. In this project we evaluated some of these pools and fluxes from three different SMZ widths (30.5, 15.3, and 7.6 m) in the Piedmont of Virginia. We quantified carbon storage in the soil (upper 10...

  6. SLIC superpixels for object delineation UAV data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommelinck, Sophie Charlotte; Bennett, R.M.; Gerke, Markus; Koeva, M.N.; Yang, M.Y.; Vosselman, G.; Stachniss, C.; Förstner, W.; Schneider, J.

    2017-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are increasingly investigated with regard to their potential to create and update (cadastral) maps. UAVs provide a flexible and low-cost platform for high-resolution data, from which object outlines can be accurately delineated. This delineation could be automated with

  7. Analysis of lidar elevation data for improved identification and delineation of lands vulnerable to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of sea-level rise in shaping coastal landscapes is well recognized within the earth science community, but as with many natural hazards, communicating the risks associated with sea-level rise remains a challenge. Topography is a key parameter that influences many of the processes involved in coastal change, and thus, up-to-date, high-resolution, high-accuracy elevation data are required to model the coastal environment. Maps of areas subject to potential inundation have great utility to planners and managers concerned with the effects of sea-level rise. However, most of the maps produced to date are simplistic representations derived from older, coarse elevation data. In the last several years, vast amounts of high quality elevation data derived from lidar have become available. Because of their high vertical accuracy and spatial resolution, these lidar data are an excellent source of up-to-date information from which to improve identification and delineation of vulnerable lands. Four elevation datasets of varying resolution and accuracy were processed to demonstrate that the improved quality of lidar data leads to more precise delineation of coastal lands vulnerable to inundation. A key component of the comparison was to calculate and account for the vertical uncertainty of the elevation datasets. This comparison shows that lidar allows for a much more detailed delineation of the potential inundation zone when compared to other types of elevation models. It also shows how the certainty of the delineation of lands vulnerable to a given sea-level rise scenario is much improved when derived from higher resolution lidar data.

  8. Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  9. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: potential for improved water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite considerable heterogeneity over space and time, biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. Recently, these heterogeneous processes have been co...

  10. Ranking zones model – a multicriterial approach to the spatial management of urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marović

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban investment planning is highly complex and different views are provided by stakeholders and experts as to the scope, scale and potential solutions. The evaluation of such investments requires explicit consideration of multiple, conflicting and incommensurate criteria that have an important social, economic, and environmental influence on various stakeholders in different ways. To take into account all the dimensions, the proposed model is the Ranking Zones Model (RZM, based on PROMETHEE methods. The RZM comprises several steps providing a rank-list of all observed zones. It helps decision-makers come up with consistent decisions as to which zones to invest in and, at the same time, provides reassurance that the decision was based on a proper comparison of all relevant urban zone areas. The advantage of this approach is that even with a change in the decision-making structure, the actual procedure remains consistent.

  11. Contaminant Flux Reduction Barriers for Managing Difficult-to-Treat Source Zones in Unconsolidated Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-20

    estimated viscosity of 3-4 cP.  Solutions-IES Novel Silica Gel/Veg-Oil Grout: 5 wt- % of emulsified vegetable oil (EVO), 10 wt-% of sodium...site must have a lower low permeability unit such as a clay to prevent up flow; and a four sided barrier is recommended (three sided barriers are...depth to groundwater (ង ft)  Transmissive zone preferably with an underlying clay layer  Good accessibility to source zone  Availability of

  12. Soil Functional Zone Management: A Vehicle for Enhancing Production and Soil Ecosystem Services in Row-Crop Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alwyn; Kane, Daniel A; Ewing, Patrick M; Atwood, Lesley W; Jilling, Andrea; Li, Meng; Lou, Yi; Davis, Adam S; Grandy, A Stuart; Huerd, Sheri C; Hunter, Mitchell C; Koide, Roger T; Mortensen, David A; Smith, Richard G; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Spokas, Kurt A; Yannarell, Anthony C; Jordan, Nicholas R

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM) is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture, and no-tillage. SFZM creates distinct functional zones within crop row and inter-row spaces. By incorporating decimeter-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, SFZM attempts to foster greater soil biodiversity and integrate complementary soil processes at the sub-field level. Such integration maximizes soil services by creating zones of 'active turnover', optimized for crop growth and yield (provisioning services); and adjacent zones of 'soil building', that promote soil structure development, carbon storage, and moisture regulation (regulating and supporting services). These zones allow SFZM to secure existing agricultural productivity while avoiding or minimizing trade-offs with soil ecosystem services. Moreover, the specific properties of SFZM may enable sustainable increases in provisioning services via temporal intensification (expanding the portion of the year during which harvestable crops are grown). We present a conceptual model of 'virtuous cycles', illustrating how increases in crop yields within SFZM systems could create self-reinforcing feedback processes with desirable effects, including mitigation of trade-offs between yield maximization and soil ecosystem services. Through the creation of functionally distinct but interacting zones, SFZM may provide a vehicle for optimizing the delivery of multiple goods and services in

  13. Soil functional zone management: a vehicle for enhancing production and soil ecosystem services in row-crop agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwyn eWilliams

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture and no-tillage. SFZM creates distinct functional zones within crop row and inter-row spaces. By incorporating decimetre-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, SFZM attempts to foster greater soil biodiversity and integrate complementary soil processes at the sub-field level. Such integration maximizes soil services by creating zones of ‘active turnover’, optimized for crop growth and yield (provisioning services; and adjacent zones of ‘soil building’, that promote soil structure development, carbon storage and moisture regulation (regulating and supporting services. These zones allow SFZM to secure existing agricultural productivity while avoiding or minimizing trade-offs with soil ecosystem services. Moreover, the specific properties of SFZM may enable sustainable increases in provisioning services via temporal intensification (expanding the portion of the year during which harvestable crops are grown. We present a conceptual model of ‘virtuous cycles’, illustrating how increases in crop yields within SFZM systems could create self-reinforcing feedback processes with desirable effects, including mitigation of trade-offs between yield maximization and soil ecosystem services. Through the creation of functionally distinct but interacting zones, SFZM may provide a vehicle for optimizing the delivery of multiple

  14. Vadose zone monitoring at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1985--1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, D.L.

    1990-12-01

    Vadose zone monitoring at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was implemented under the Subsurface Investigation Program Plan. The objective of the Subsurface Investigation Program was to characterize the subsurface at the RWMC in order to measure and predict radionuclide transport. Soil moisture sensors were installed to characterize the uniformity of water entry to the surficial sediments and moisture flux in the surficial sediments and the deeper stratigraphic units. From 1985 to 1987, a network of vadose zone instruments was installed in sediments at the RWMC. The instruments included psychrometers, gypsum blocks, heat-dissipation sensors (HDSs), tensiometers, lysimeters, and neutron access tubes. These instruments were placed at depths up to 230 ft below land surface (BLS) in a heterogeneous geologic system comprised of sediments that overlie and are intercalated with basalt flows. After organic contaminants were detected in the subsurface at the RWMC in 1988, the vadose zone monitoring project was incorporated into a broader characterization effort. This report presents the analyses of the vadose zone monitoring data collected from FY-1985 to FY-1989. The performance of the instruments are compared. Matric potential ranges and trends in the surficial sediments and interbeds are discussed. Hydraulic gradients are calculated to determine the direction of moisture movement. Using the neutron logging data in conjunction with the matric potential and hydraulic gradient data, infiltration is examined with respect to seasonal nature and source. 14 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Interactive Cadastral Boundary Delineation from Uav Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelinck, S.; Höfle, B.; Koeva, M. N.; Yang, M. Y.; Vosselman, G.

    2018-05-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are evolving as an alternative tool to acquire land tenure data. UAVs can capture geospatial data at high quality and resolution in a cost-effective, transparent and flexible manner, from which visible land parcel boundaries, i.e., cadastral boundaries are delineable. This delineation is to no extent automated, even though physical objects automatically retrievable through image analysis methods mark a large portion of cadastral boundaries. This study proposes (i) a methodology that automatically extracts and processes candidate cadastral boundary features from UAV data, and (ii) a procedure for a subsequent interactive delineation. Part (i) consists of two state-of-the-art computer vision methods, namely gPb contour detection and SLIC superpixels, as well as a classification part assigning costs to each outline according to local boundary knowledge. Part (ii) allows a user-guided delineation by calculating least-cost paths along previously extracted and weighted lines. The approach is tested on visible road outlines in two UAV datasets from Germany. Results show that all roads can be delineated comprehensively. Compared to manual delineation, the number of clicks per 100 m is reduced by up to 86 %, while obtaining a similar localization quality. The approach shows promising results to reduce the effort of manual delineation that is currently employed for indirect (cadastral) surveying.

  16. Management of Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Complications via Retrograde Catheterization Through the Distal Stent-Graft Landing Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xicheng; Sun, Yuan; Chen, Zhaolei; Jing, Yuanhu; Xu, Miao

    2017-08-01

    A retrograde technique through the gap between the distal stent landing zone and the iliac artery wall has been applied to treat type II endoleak after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). In this study, we tried to investigate its efficacy in the management of type III endoleak and intraoperative accidental events. We reported 2 complications of EVAR that were difficult to treat with conventional methods. One patient had a sustained type III endoleak after EVAR, and the right renal artery was accidentally sealed by a graft stent in the other patient during the operation. Both complications were managed by the retrograde technique from the distal stent landing zone. In the first case, the endoleak was easily embolized by the retrograde catheterization technique, and in the second case, a stent was implanted in the right renal artery using the retrograde technique to restore blood flow. In some EVAR cases, the technique of retrograde catheterization through the distal stent-graft landing zone is feasible, safe, and easy to perform.

  17. An isotopic view of water and nitrate transport through the vadose zone in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J. R.; Pearlstein, S.; Hutchins, S.; Faulkner, B. R.; Rugh, W.; Willard, K.; Coulombe, R.; Compton, J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley and many more across the USA. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater exceeding the human health standard of 10 mg nitrate-N L-1. Much of the nitrogen (N) inputs to the GWMA comes from agricultural fertilizers, and thus efforts to reduce N inputs to groundwater are focused upon improving N management. However, the effectiveness of these improvements on groundwater quality is unclear because of the complexity of nutrient transport through the vadose zone and long groundwater residence times. Our objective was to focus on vadose zone transport and understand the dynamics and timing of N and water movement below the rooting zone in relation to N management and water inputs. Stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking water movement, and understanding N transformations. In partnership with local farmers and state agencies, we established lysimeters and groundwater wells in multiple agricultural fields in the GWMA, and have monitored nitrate, nitrate isotopes, and water isotopes weekly for multiple years. Our results indicate that vadose zone transport is highly complex, and the residence time of water collected in lysimeters was much longer than expected. While input precipitation water isotopes were highly variable over time, lysimeter water isotopes were surprisingly consistent, more closely resembling long-term precipitation isotope means rather than recent precipitation isotopic signatures. However, some particularly large precipitation events with unique isotopic signatures revealed high spatial variability in transport, with some lysimeters showing greater proportions of recent precipitation inputs than others. In one installation where we have groundwater wells and lysimeters at multiple depths, nitrate/nitrite concentrations decreased with depth. N concentrations

  18. Proposed Method for Disaggregation of Secondary Data: The Model for External Reliance of Localities in the Coastal Management Zone (MERLIN-CMZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Model for External Reliance of Localities In (MERLIN) Coastal Management Zones is a proposed solution to allow scaling of variables to smaller, nested geographies. Utilizing a Principal Components Analysis and data normalization techniques, smaller scale trends are linked to ...

  19. First progress report, 1961-1962, cooperative watershed management in the lower conifer zone of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt Hopkins; Kenneth L. Boden

    1962-01-01

    The job of watershed management research is to conduct studies which will suggest better methods of management for water and predict the effects of a wide span of land management practices upon streamflow, water yield, and sedimentation. A program for watershed management research was prepared by Henry Anderson in 1960 (Anderson, 1960).

  20. Aspen Delineation - Sierra State Parks [ds380

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SIERRA_SP_PTS) collected in aspen stands on lands administered by the...

  1. Aspen Delineation - Lassen National Forest [ds372

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (LASSEN_NF_EAGLELAKE_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the in the Eagle...

  2. Delineating organs at risk in radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Ausili Cèfaro, Giampiero; Perez, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an invaluable guide to the delineation of organs at risk of toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy. It details the radiological anatomy of organs at risk as seen on typical radiotherapy planning CT scans.

  3. Aspen Delineation - Sequoia National Forest [ds378

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SEQUOIA_NF_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Cannell Meadows Ranger...

  4. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: Potential for improved water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe Vidon; Craig Allan; Douglas Burns; Tim P. Duval; Noel Gurwick; Shreeram Inamdar; Richard Lowrance; Judy Okay; Durelle Scott; Stephen Sebestyen

    2010-01-01

    Biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. These heterogeneous processes have recently been conceptualized as "hot spots and moments" of retention, degradation, or production. Nevertheless, studies investigating...

  5. Groundwater management in coastal zones and on islands in crystalline bedrock areas of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Ekström, Linda Louise; Ljungkvist, Andreas; Granberg, Maria; Merisalu, Johanna; Pokorny, Sebastian; Barthel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater problems in coastal regions are usually not associated with the sparsely populated shores of water-rich Scandinavia. However, the combination of geology and the specific conditions of water usage create challenges even there. Along the Swedish coast, much of the groundwater occurs in fractured bedrock or in relatively small, shallow, and isolated quaternary sedimentary formations. Those aquifers cannot provide water to larger permanent settlements and are thus neither useful for the public water supply nor have previously received much attention from water authorities or researchers. However, of the 450,000 private wells in Sweden, many are located in coastal areas or on islands, creating pressure on groundwater resources in summer months as periods with low or no natural groundwater recharge. In view of the increasing water demand, as well as the awareness of environmental impacts and climate change, Swedish municipalities now recognize groundwater usage in coastal areas is a major concern. Here, we present the results of an investigation on the "Koster" archipelago which forms a microcosm of coastal zone groundwater problems in Sweden. Koster's geology is dominated by fractured, crystalline bedrock with occasional shallow quaternary deposits in between. With around 300 permanent residents, and up to 6,000 summer guests in peak holiday season, the existing water supply based on 800 private wells is at its limit. Water availability forms an obstacle to future development and the current mode of operation is unsustainable. Therefore, the municipality must decide how to secure future water supply which involves complex legal problems, as well as social, cultural, economic, hydrogeological, and environmental questions. As there are no observation wells on the islands, we used approximately 220 of the 800 wells (65% dug and shallow, 35% drilled and up to 120m deep) for our monitoring. Additionally, water samples were collected by property owners on four

  6. Impacts of Quaternary History on Critical Zone Structure and Processes: Examples and a Conceptual Model From the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Anders

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a critical zone (CZ supporting terrestrial life has fostered groundbreaking interdisciplinary science addressing complex interactions among water, soil, rock, air, and life near Earth's surface. Pioneering work has focused on the CZ in areas with residual soils and steady-state or erosional topography. CZ evolution in these areas is conceptualized as progressive weathering of local bedrock (e.g., in the flow-through reactor model. However, this model is not applicable to areas in which weathering profiles form in transported materials including the formerly glaciated portion of the Central Lowland of North America. We present a new conceptual model of CZ evolution in landscapes impacted by continental glaciation based on investigations at three study sites in the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory (IML-CZO The IML-CZO is devoted to the study of CZ processes in a region characterized by thick surficial deposits resulting from multiple continental glaciations, with bedrock at depths of up to 150 m. Here the physical (glacial ice, loess, developing soil profiles and biological (microbes, tundra, forest, prairie components of the CZ vary significantly in time. Moreover, the spatial relationships between mineral components of the CZ record a history of glacial-interglacial cycles and landscape evolution. We present cross-sections from IML-CZO sites to provide specific examples of how environmental change is recorded by the structure of the mineral components of the CZ. We build on these examples to create an idealized model of CZ evolution through a glacial cycle that represents the IML-CZO sites and other areas of low relief that have experienced continental glaciation. In addition, we identify two main characteristics of CZ structure which should be included in a conceptual model of CZ development in the IML-CZO and similar settings: (1 mineral components have diverse origins and transport trajectories including

  7. Impacts of Quaternary History on Critical Zone Structure and Processes: Examples and a Conceptual Model from the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Alison M.; Bettis, E. Arthur; Grimley, David A.; Stumpf, Andrew J.; Kumar, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The concept of a critical zone (CZ) supporting terrestrial life has fostered groundbreaking interdisciplinary science addressing complex interactions among water, soil, rock, air and life near Earth’s surface. Pioneering work has focused on the CZ in areas with residual soils and steady-state or erosional topography. CZ evolution in these areas is conceptualized as progressive weathering of local bedrock (e.g. in the flow-through reactor model). However, this model is not applicable to areas in which weathering profiles form in transported materials including the formerly glaciated portion of the Central Lowland of North America. We present a new conceptual model of CZ evolution in landscapes impacted by continental glaciation based on investigations at three study sites in the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory (IML-CZO) The IML-CZO is devoted to the study of CZ processes in a region characterized by thick surficial deposits resulting from multiple continental glaciations, with bedrock at depths of up to 150 m. Here the physical (glacial ice, loess, developing soil profiles) and biological (microbes, tundra, forest, prairie) components of the CZ vary significantly in time. Moreover, the spatial relationships between mineral components of the CZ record a history of glacial-interglacial cycles and landscape evolution. We present cross-sections from IML-CZO sites to provide specific examples of how environmental change is recorded by the structure of the mineral components of the CZ. We build on these examples to create an idealized model of CZ evolution through a glacial cycle that represents the IML-CZO sites and other areas of low relief that have experienced continental glaciation. In addition, we identify two main characteristics of CZ structure which should be included in a conceptual model of CZ development in the IML-CZO and similar settings: (1) mineral components have diverse origins and transport trajectories including alteration in

  8. 77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual Fishing Quota Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: NMFS is opening directed fishing for sablefish with fixed gear managed under the Individual Fishing...

  9. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Slant Borehole SX-108 in the S-SX Waste Management Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Wilson, Teresa C.; Wagnon, Kenneth B.; Williams, Bruce A.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-01-01

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.17. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is the fourth in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from a slant borehole installed beneath tank SX-108 (or simply SX-108 slant borehole)

  10. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 41-09-39 in the S-SX Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Wilson, Teresa C.; Wagnon, Kenneth B.; Williams, Bruce A.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 5.15. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole 41-09-39 installed adjacent to tank SX-109.

  11. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Slant Borehole SX-108 in the S-SX Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Wilson, Teresa C.; Wagnon, Kenneth B.; Williams, Bruce A.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.17. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is the fourth in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from a slant borehole installed beneath tank SX-108 (or simply SX-108 slant borehole).

  12. Specialized ecological forestry system for the management of forests in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchma, N.D.; Berchij, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    Prevention of radionuclides expansion in environment is one of the most complicated tasks in the complex of problems connected with measures, to decrease consequences of accident in Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Ten years experience of work in the exclusion zone show that the most real biogeochemical barrier on the way of radionuclides transfer are forests, which occupy half of the territory and keep main part of falls in the boundaries of forest landscapes

  13. Zone of Acceptance Under Performance Measurement: Does Performance Information Affect Employee Acceptance of Management Authority?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Aaes; Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2018-01-01

    Public sector employees have traditionally enjoyed substantial influence and bargaining power in organizational decision making, but few studies have investigated the formation of employee acceptance of management authority. Drawing on the “romance of leadership” perspective, the authors argue th...... that performance measurement can alter public sector authority relations and have implications regarding how public managers can use performance information strategically to gain acceptance of management authority and organizational change....

  14. A quantitative method for zoning of protected areas and its spatial ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen Sabatini, María; Verdiell, Adriana; Rodríguez Iglesias, Ricardo M; Vidal, Marta

    2007-04-01

    Zoning is a key prescriptive tool for administration and management of protected areas. However, the lack of zoning is common for most protected areas in developing countries and, as a consequence, many protected areas are not effective in achieving the goals for which they were created. In this work, we introduce a quantitative method to expeditiously zone protected areas and we evaluate its ecological implications on hypothetical zoning cases. A real-world application is reported for the Talampaya National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Argentina. Our method is a modification of the zoning forest model developed by Bos [Bos, J., 1993. Zoning in forest management: a quadratic assignment problem solved by simulated annealing. Journal of Environmental Management 37, 127-145.]. Main innovations involve a quadratic function of distance between land units, non-reciprocal weights for adjacent land uses (mathematically represented by a non-symmetric matrix), and the possibility of imposing a connectivity constraint. Due to its intrinsic spatial dimension, the zoning problem belongs to the NP-hard class, i.e. a solution can only be obtained in non-polynomial time [Nemhausser, G., Wolsey, L., 1988. Integer and Combinatorial Optimization. John Wiley, New York.]. For that purpose, we applied a simulated annealing heuristic implemented as a FORTRAN language routine. Our innovations were effective in achieving zoning designs more compatible with biological diversity protection. The quadratic distance term facilitated the delineation of core zones for elements of significance; the connectivity constraint minimized fragmentation; non-reciprocal land use weightings contributed to better representing management decisions, and influenced mainly the edge and shape of zones. This quantitative method can assist the zoning process within protected areas by offering many zonation scheme alternatives with minimum cost, time and effort. This ability provides a new tool to

  15. Land Use limitations and management option for a Savanna Zone Alfisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azubuike Chidowe Odunze

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A 50 by 50 m rigid grid survey of part of the Institute For Agricultural Research (IAR farm in Zaria (11° 10’N and 7°35’E was carried out to characterize the morphological, physical and chemical properties of soils at the site. Quick crosschecks in areas outside the rigid grid but having seemingly varying soil units was also studied in the field. Two soil units (‘Oxyaquic Vertic Paleustalfs / Gleyic Lixisol’ and ‘Aquic Kandiustalfs / Gleyic Lixisols’ were delineated. Soil samples were obtained from identified horizons of each pedon, air dried, sieved through 2.0mm sieve to obtain sub samples less than 2.0mm for laboratory analysis. Results obtained showed soils of the ‘Oxyaquic Vertic Paleustalfs / Gleyic Lixisol’ to have within its subsoil ‘Argillic’ pedogénetic features, mottling and ‘Gleyic’ properties, and no subsoil acidity problems. The subsoil has increasing clay with depth, and temporary stagnation of water. Soil condition in this unit would however be improved for sustainable crop production by liming and /or incorporation of farmyard manure, contour ridging and construction of field drainage ditches to conduct excess field and subsoil stagnated water away from the fields. Soils of the ‘Aquic Kandiustalfs / Gleyic Lixisols’ have ‘Kandic’ subsoil properties, ‘Gleyic’ and mottled subsoil horizons at shallow depths to the surface horizons, and exchange acidity (H++Al3+ values ranging between 0.6 and 1.4 cmolkg -1, suggesting acid soil problem in this unit. Also, extractable Zn values were very high and could adversely affect growth and production of crops. This problem would be corrected by liming, adequate drainage to remove stagnating subsoil and excess field water, and incorporation of farmyard manure to enhance the soils’ nutrient availability/exchange capacity, control soil acidity build up and improve aeration conditions in the plow layer.

  16. The Climate Change Vulnerability and Risk Management Matrix for the Coastal Zone of The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Amuzu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Global Climate Change is one of the dire challenges facing the international community today. Coastal zones are vulnerable to its impacts. An effective approach with long-term prospects in addressing climate change impacts is it’s mainstreaming into development agenda of sectoral policies. A comprehensive risk and vulnerability assessment is a pre-requisite to ensure that the right adaptive response is taken for effective integration into developmental plans. The objective of this study is to evaluate and prioritize risks, vulnerability and adaptation issues of current and anticipated impacts of climate change on the coastal zone of The Gambia. The study will also give a methodological contribution for assessing risks, vulnerability and adaptation from the sub-national to local levels. The relevance of this study will be to create a link between the sub-national and local levels in order to facilitate the integration and mainstreaming of climate change into sectoral and local policies for more climate-resilient communities. This will aid in the promotion of strategic investment of constrained developmental resources to actualize successfully dynamic coping strategies, elude ‘maladaptation’ and less compelling responsive measures. A purposive expert sampling technique was used in selecting respondents for the study. The findings of the study reveal that by the end of the 21st century, the climatic variables likely to have the highest impact on the coastal zone of The Gambia are ‘increased flood severity’ and ‘increased temperature’. The coastal zone of The Gambia showed a high vulnerability to these climate change variables. The suggested adaptive response in addressing the impacts of increased flood intensity in the study area includes; improving regulations for restricting agriculture and livestock grazing activities to improve land cover; strengthening of early-warning systems, among others. The suggested adaptive response in

  17. Contaminant Flux Reduction Barriers for Managing Difficult to Treat Source Zones in Unconsolidated Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-20

    formulation had a gel time of approximately 4 hours and had an estimated viscosity of 3-4 centipoise (cP).  Solutions-IES Novel Silica Gel/Veg-Oil Grout...site criteria:  Shallow depth to groundwater (ង feet [ft])  Transmissive zone preferably with an underlying clay layer  Good accessibility to...HYDROGEOLOGY The geology in the region near IS17MW03 consists of an orange to gray clay to about 12 ft below ground surface (bgs), followed by a

  18. Soil erosion from harvested sites versus streamside management zone sediment deposition in the Piedmont of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Lakel; W. Michael Aust; C. Andrew Dolloff; Amy W. Easterbrook

    2006-01-01

    Forestry best management practices were primarily developed to address two major issues related to soil erosion: water quality and site productivity. Sixteen watersheds managed as loblolly pine plantations in the piedmont region were monitored for soil erosion and water quality prior to treatment. Subsequently, all watersheds were harvested with clearcutting, ground-...

  19. Conversations outside the Comfort Zone: Identity Formation in SME Manager Action Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lisa; Gold, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider the construction of narrative identity and particularly how managers of small businesses may construct new narrative identities within the activity of the action learning situation. We build on recent work to suggest that the "world" of managers can be explored through a consideration of Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory…

  20. The Impact of Urban Development in the Arid Zone and its Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    From the experience in humid and semi-arid settings, the immediate impact of urbanization on the hydrological system is the interference with the natural direct infiltration pathways, resulting in a decrease of groundwater recharge as well as the possibility of surface flooding. In contrast, in the arid environment the limited rain amounts and number of rain events makes the contribution of rain of marginal importance in the city's water balance. The major impact of urbanization in the arid zone is the continuous excess of discharge of treated or untreated sewage or water spills, originating from the import of water to the city's water supply. Their effect can be advantageous if properly channeled. On the other hand, the polluting potential of these water excesses as well as the possibility of mobilizing stored salinity in the downstream locations is of concern, if the natural drainage network and its remediation capacity becomes overloaded. Further, since the arid zone hydrological cycle depends naturally on a discontinuous and episodal groundwater recharge pattern, the new situation requires the re-assessment of the eco-hydrological patterns in the downstream location.

  1. Forest Delineation Based on Airborne LIDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Pfeifer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The delineation of forested areas is a critical task, because the resulting maps are a fundamental input for a broad field of applications and users. Different national and international forest definitions are available for manual or automatic delineation, but unfortunately most definitions lack precise geometrical descriptions for the different criteria. A mandatory criterion in forest definitions is the criterion of crown coverage (CC, which defines the proportion of the forest floor covered by the vertical projection of the tree crowns. For loosely stocked areas, this criterion is especially critical, because the size and shape of the reference area for calculating CC is not clearly defined in most definitions. Thus current forest delineations differ and tend to be non-comparable because of different settings for checking the criterion of CC in the delineation process. This paper evaluates a new approach for the automatic delineation of forested areas, based on airborne laser scanning (ALS data with a clearly defined method for calculating CC. The new approach, the ‘tree triples’ method, is based on defining CC as a relation between the sum of the crown areas of three neighboring trees and the area of their convex hull. The approach is applied and analyzed for two study areas in Tyrol, Austria. The selected areas show a loosely stocked forest at the upper timberline and a fragmented forest on the hillside. The fully automatic method presented for delineating forested areas from ALS data shows promising results with an overall accuracy of 96%, and provides a beneficial tool for operational applications.

  2. Delimitation and Classified Planning Management of Functional Renovation Zone: Experience of and Discussion on Shenzhen’s Practice of Urban Renewal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao; Wenxuan; Tong; De; Liu; Qing; Feng; Changchun

    2016-01-01

    Urban renewal is one of the important issues of urban development in China.Along with its development in the contemporary time,China has seen considerable achievements and problems as well in urban renewal.Taking into account that Shenzhen has carried out plenty of explorations on urban planning renewal,this paper takes it as an example to firstly analyze the plights of its urban renewal planning,the shortcomings of its urban renewal projects,and the advantages of functional renovation zones to manifest the necessity of the delimitation and classified planning management of functional renovation zone in urban renewal.It then summarizes the experience of its urban renewal unit planning in terms of the methods of zoning and implementation,and finally discusses the conceptual connotations of functional renovation zone,as well as the logic and characteristics of renovations of its delimitation and classified planning management,in hope of providing other Chinese cities with some references.

  3. Need for setback lines in coastal zone management: A meteorological point of view

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    of property has been staggering. Monetary losses run into crores and are thus prohibitive. Therefore, coastal managers have to consider whether it is economically viable to rebuild as before, whether to abandon the impacted coast and move inland, or, whether...

  4. Need for setback lines in coastal zone management: a meteorological point of view

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    of property has been staggering. Monetary losses run into crores and are thus prohibitive. Therefore, coastal managers have to consider whether it is economically viable to rebuild as before, whether to abandon the impacted coast and move inland, or, whether...

  5. Variable rate application of nematicides on cotton fields: A promising site-specific management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests were conducted to determine if differences in response to nematicide application (i.e., root-knot nematode (RKN) population levels, cotton yield, and profitability) occurred among RKN management zones (MZ). The MZ were delineated using variables related to soil texture, including appare...

  6. Delineating Concept Meanings: The Case of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleg, Milton; Mahlios, Marc

    1990-01-01

    Presents a teacher-initiated model for reaching class consensus on the meaning of confusing or interchangeable concepts in social studies classrooms. Illustrates the model by delineating terrorism. Shows procedural steps that involve students in self and small group interviews where definitions are clarified until consensus is reached. Suggests…

  7. Scientific management of Mediterranean coastal zone: a hybrid ocean forecasting system for oil spill and search and rescue operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, A; Ferrer, M I; Vizoso, G; Orfila, A; Basterretxea, G; Casas, B; Alvarez, A; Roig, D; Garau, B; Martínez, M; Fernández, V; Fornés, A; Ruiz, M; Fornós, J J; Balaguer, P; Duarte, C M; Rodríguez, I; Alvarez, E; Onken, R; Orfila, P; Tintoré, J

    2006-01-01

    The oil spill from Prestige tanker showed the importance of scientifically based protocols to minimize the impacts on the environment. In this work, we describe a new forecasting system to predict oil spill trajectories and their potential impacts on the coastal zone. The system is formed of three main interconnected modules that address different capabilities: (1) an operational circulation sub-system that includes nested models at different scales, data collection with near-real time assimilation, new tools for initialization or assimilation based on genetic algorithms and feature-oriented strategic sampling; (2) an oil spill coastal sub-system that allows simulation of the trajectories and fate of spilled oil together with evaluation of coastal zone vulnerability using environmental sensitivity indexes; (3) a risk management sub-system for decision support based on GIS technology. The system is applied to the Mediterranean Sea where surface currents are highly variable in space and time, and interactions between local, sub-basin and basin scale increase the non-linear interactions effects which need to be adequately resolved at each one of the intervening scales. Besides the Mediterranean Sea is a complex reduced scale ocean representing a real scientific and technological challenge for operational oceanography and particularly for oil spill response and search and rescue operations.

  8. Need for science-policy linkages for river basins and coastal zone management: Meeting report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sardessai, S.

    tional trade in agricultural commodities and desig n ing nem a tode management technologies for organic farming sy s tems. He explained the status of the project based on the reviews of four Quinque n- nial Review Teams of ICAR for the per i ods... Irrigation Project in North Goa have a p parently brought great benefits by irrigating over 16,000 ha in 73 vi l lages, apart from hydropower generation. The im portance of participatory irrigation management (PIM) fo r maximizing cu l- tivation area...

  9. A methodological approach to be used in integrated coastal zone management processes: the case of the Catalan Coast (Catalonia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardá, Rafael; Avila, Conxita; Mora, Joan

    2005-02-01

    Since early 1999, we have been working on an environmental information system as a preliminary phase to develop the National Strategy of the Catalan Coast. Using the tourism industry as the main pressuring driver and the municipality as the territorial unit, we have compiled a vast amount of information that has been converted into an information platform for the general public, politicians, and public administrators. Working in close co-operation with the planning authorities of the Generalitat of Catalonia, we developed decision support tools as a methodological approach for coastal management. The decision support system is composed by: (a) the development of an environmental indicator-based report; (b) the use of a geographical information system (GIS); and (c) the incorporation of different types of graphical packages. These tools have been applied to the 70 municipalities of the Catalan Coast and a specific development of the system was carried out in the region of La Selva, municipalities of Blanes, Lloret de Mar, and Tossa de Mar (southern Costa Brava, Girona). The system has been designed to help coastal managers in Catalonia, and it is thought to be used in the process of developing the National Strategy for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) of the Catalan Coast following the EC Recommendation (COM/00/545).

  10. An innovative approach to determine economically optimal coastal setback lines for risk informed coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranasinghe, R.; Jongejan, R.B.; Callaghan, D.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    Current methods used to determine Coastal setback lines have several limitations. Furthermore, the historical practice of defining setback lines based on a single deterministic estimate is also proving inadequate with the emergence of risk management style coastal planning frameworks which require

  11. Management of Ecological-Economic Processes of Pollution Accumulation and Assimilation in the Coastal Zone Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. Timchenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A model for managing the balance of pollution (getting into the sea with the coastal runoff assimilation and accumulation, based on the negative feedback between the coastal economic system efficiency and penalties for the sea coastal zone pollution is proposed. The model is constructed by the Adaptive Balance of Causes method and is intended for finding a rational balance of profit from the use of assimilative resources of the marine environment and the costs of maintaining its quality. The increase of pollutions in the coastal zone is taken as proportional to the volume of product realization. The decrease of pollution concentration is related to the environment protection activities paid for by the production. The model contains the agents for managing the volume of the economic system generalized production release. The agents control pollution accumulation rate at different ones of the bio-chemical processes resulting in the marine environment natural purification. Scenario analysis of ecological-economic processes in the “Land–Sea” system is carried out, and the dependencies of economic subsystem production profitability on penalty sanctions limiting the pollutant flux getting into the sea are constructed. Sea temperature and water mass dynamics effect on these processes is considered. The scenarios of their intra-annual variability are constructed. It is shown that the sea temperature and near-water wind consideration in the model have a significant effect on marine environment pollution level and production profitability. The conclusion is that the proposed adaptive simulation model “Sea–Land” can be used for forecasting the scenarios of coastal subsystem production processes (the volume of generalized product manufacturing, production cost, profitability in parallel with the forecast of pollution concentration in the sea scenarios.

  12. The morphology and structure of the Hannibal Bank fisheries management zone, Pacific Panama using acoustic seabed mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cunningham

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hannibal Bank sits within the Coiba UNESCO World Heritage Site in Pacific Panama and is also a fisheries management zone. Despite the protected status of the area and the importance of the Bank for commercial fish species such as snapper and tuna, the seamount has received no detailed survey except some collection of organisms. This study mapped the major topographic features and complexity of the Hannibal Bank seamount using acoustic remote sensing. A survey area of around 125km² was defined using existing charts and side-scan sonar data were collected during July 2008. A bathymetric output was imported to ArcGIS where a digital bathymetric model and slope map were created. The Benthic Terrain Modeler BTM extension for ArcGIS was used to calculate bathymetric position index and rugosity, and used to create a map of zones representing the various seabed morphology zones. The Hannibal bank is an elongated, triangular guyot flat topped seamount, which ranges in depth from 53m to 416m, covers an area of 76km² and is 14.4km long and 7.1km wide. Hannibal bank is composed of steep slopes, more gentle slopes, top of the seamount, crests elevated ridges at the top of the pinnacles, rugose areas on crests, top of seamount and slope, gullies and pinnacles. The bank is asymmetric in nature with the Northerly side having a relatively gentle slope with gullies across the surface compared to the SouthWest side which is far steeper and more rugose. There are two pinnacles to the North and South East of the bank that range in depth from 180 to 333m. Rocky substrate makes up 22.6km² of the bank and sediment 37.8km². The bank and its steeply sided, rugose areas and pinnacles provide upright structures which can disrupt and topographically enhance currents, increasing productivity. The rugose areas of Hannibal Bank should be primary targets for further research efforts as they may contain corals and their rugosity indicates that these should be some of the

  13. The morphology and structure of the Hannibal Bank fisheries management zone, Pacific Panama using acoustic seabed mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sarah; Guzman, Hector M; Bates, Richard

    2013-12-01

    The Hannibal Bank sits within the Coiba UNESCO World Heritage Site in Pacific Panama and is also a fisheries management zone. Despite the protected status of the area and the importance of the Bank for commercial fish species such as snapper and tuna, the seamount has received no detailed survey except some collection of organisms. This study mapped the major topographic features and complexity of the Hannibal Bank seamount using acoustic remote sensing. A survey area of around 125 km2 was defined using existing charts and side-scan sonar data were collected during July 2008. A bathymetric output was imported to ArcGIS where a digital bathymetric model and slope map were created. The Benthic Terrain Modeler (BTM) extension for ArcGIS was used to calculate bathymetric position index and rugosity, and used to create a map of zones representing the various seabed morphology zones. The Hannibal bank is an elongated, triangular guyot (flat topped seamount), which ranges in depth from 53m to 416m, covers an area of 76 km2 and is 14.4 km long and 7.1 km wide. Hannibal bank is composed of steep slopes, more gentle slopes, top of the seamount, crests (elevated ridges at the top of the pinnacles), rugose areas (on crests, top of seamount and slope), gullies and pinnacles. The bank is asymmetric in nature with the Northerly side having a relatively gentle slope with gullies across the surface compared to the SouthWest side which is far steeper and more rugose. There are two pinnacles to the North and South East of the bank that range in depth from 180 to 333 m. Rocky substrate makes up 22.6 km2 of the bank and sediment 37.8 km2. The bank and its steeply sided, rugose areas and pinnacles provide upright structures which can disrupt and topographically enhance currents, increasing productivity. The rugose areas of Hannibal Bank should be primary targets for further research efforts as they may contain corals and their rugosity indicates that these should be some of the highest

  14. Management approaches to integrated solid waste in industrialized zones in Jordan: a case of Zarqa City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrayyan, Bassam; Hamdi, Moshrik R

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to recognize the difficulties experienced in managing waste and to understand the reasons for those difficulties, especially in developing countries such as Jordan. Zarqa is a Governorate located in central Jordan, which has 2874 registered industries, making up more than 52% of the total industries in the country. Zarqa Governorate suffers from serious solid waste problems. These problems arise from an absence of adequate policies, facilitating legislation, and an environmentally enthused public, which therefore have a negative impact on the environment and health. Solid waste generation in Zarqa Governorate has increased exponentially and has polluted natural resources and the environment. A significant change in municipal solid waste generation was evident between the years 1994 and 2000. The Zarqa Governorate generated 482 tons/day in 2002 with a per capita rate of 0.44 kg/cap-day [Consulting Engineers, 2002, Feasibility study for the treatment of industrial wastewater in Zarqa Governorate. A project funded by METAP and Zarqa Chamber of Industry. Unpublished report]. This manuscript assesses the current operational and management practices of solid waste in the Zarqa Governorate; and evaluates the associated issues of solid waste collection, storage, transport, disposal and recycling in developing countries. The lack of techniques, financial funds and awareness among public and private sectors form an obstacle for achieving a successful environmental program. Several options are proposed to address management goals. Although Jordan became the first country in the Middle East to adopt a national environmental strategy; waste disposal is still largely uncontrolled and large quantities of waste go uncollected. Ensuring proper management of solid wastes, enforcing regulations, and implementing proper environmental awareness programs that will enhance the public understanding and achieve greater efficiency, are the findings of this study.

  15. Management approaches to integrated solid waste in industrialized zones in Jordan: A case of Zarqa City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrayyan, Bassam; Hamdi, Moshrik R.

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to recognize the difficulties experienced in managing waste and to understand the reasons for those difficulties, especially in developing countries such as Jordan. Zarqa is a Governorate located in central Jordan, which has 2874 registered industries, making up more than 52% of the total industries in the country. Zarqa Governorate suffers from serious solid waste problems. These problems arise from an absence of adequate policies, facilitating legislation, and an environmentally enthused public, which therefore have a negative impact on the environment and health. Solid waste generation in Zarqa Governorate has increased exponentially and has polluted natural resources and the environment. A significant change in municipal solid waste generation was evident between the years 1994 and 2000. The Zarqa Governorate generated 482 tons/day in 2002 with a per capita rate of 0.44 kg/cap-day [Consulting Engineers, 2002, Feasibility study for the treatment of industrial wastewater in Zarqa Governorate. A project funded by METAP and Zarqa Chamber of Industry. Unpublished report]. This manuscript assesses the current operational and management practices of solid waste in the Zarqa Governorate; and evaluates the associated issues of solid waste collection, storage, transport, disposal and recycling in developing countries. The lack of techniques, financial funds and awareness among public and private sectors form an obstacle for achieving a successful environmental program. Several options are proposed to address management goals. Although Jordan became the first country in the Middle East to adopt a national environmental strategy; waste disposal is still largely uncontrolled and large quantities of waste go uncollected. Ensuring proper management of solid wastes, enforcing regulations, and implementing proper environmental awareness programs that will enhance the public understanding and achieve greater efficiency, are the findings of this study

  16. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters as of June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  17. Decomposition of Phragmites australis rhizomes in artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhen; Cui, Baoshan; Zhang, Yongtao

    2015-09-01

    Rhizomes are essential organs for growth and expansion of Phragmites australis. They function as an important source of organic matter and as a nutrient source, especially in the artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) of shallow lakes. In this study, decomposition experiments on 1- to 6-year-old P. australis rhizomes were conducted in the ALWTZ of Lake Baiyangdian to evaluate the contribution of the rhizomes to organic matter accumulation and nutrient release. Mass loss and changes in nutrient content were measured after 3, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days. The decomposition process was modeled with a composite exponential model. The Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors. A multiple stepwise regression model was utilized to determine the dominant factors that affect mass loss. Results showed that the decomposition rates in water were significantly higher than those in soil for 1- to 6-year-old rhizomes. However, the sequence of decomposition rates was identical in both water and soil. Significant relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors were observed at a later stage, and P-related factors proved to have a more significant impact than N-related factors on mass loss. According to multiple stepwise models, the C/P ratio was found to be the dominant factor affecting the mass loss in water, and the C/N and C/P ratios were the main factors affecting the mass loss in soil. The combined effects of harvesting, ditch broadening, and control of water depth should be considered for lake administrators.

  18. Multiple venous anastomoses decrease the need for intensive postoperative management in tamai zone I replantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok Hyeon Ryu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Venous anastomosis is an important component of digital replantation, but is not always feasible, as some cases require external bleeding to treat venous congestion in the replanted tissue. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between the number of vein anastomoses and the survival rate of Tamai zone I replantations. Methods A retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent replantation of a fingertip amputation between 2014 and 2016. Patient charts were reviewed for demographic information, the mechanism of injury, the number of venous anastomoses, and the use of anticoagulation, external bleeding, and/or leeches. The cohort was divided into 3 groups depending on the number of venous anastomoses: no veins (group 1, a single vein (group 2, and 2 or more veins (group 3. Survival rates and external bleeding rates were analyzed across the groups. Results The review identified 143 fingertip replantations among 134 patients. The overall survival rate was 94% (135 of 143. Failures were due equally to venous complications (n=4, 50% and to arterial complications (n=4, 50%. Our analysis did not identify any correlation between the number of veins anastomosed and the replant survival rate (P=0.689. However, a greater number of anastomoses was associated with a significantly lower frequency of external bleeding (P=0.017. Conclusions The number of venous anastomoses was not correlated with the survival rate. However, a greater number of venous anastomoses was associated with a decreased need for external bleeding, corresponding to a significant decrease in the need for postoperative monitoring and leech therapy.

  19. Multiple venous anastomoses decrease the need for intensive postoperative management in tamai zone I replantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Deok Hyeon; Roh, Si Young; Kim, Jin Soo; Lee, Dong Chul; Lee, Kyung Jin

    2018-01-01

    Background Venous anastomosis is an important component of digital replantation, but is not always feasible, as some cases require external bleeding to treat venous congestion in the replanted tissue. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between the number of vein anastomoses and the survival rate of Tamai zone I replantations. Methods A retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent replantation of a fingertip amputation between 2014 and 2016. Patient charts were reviewed for demographic information, the mechanism of injury, the number of venous anastomoses, and the use of anticoagulation, external bleeding, and/or leeches. The cohort was divided into 3 groups depending on the number of venous anastomoses: no veins (group 1), a single vein (group 2), and 2 or more veins (group 3). Survival rates and external bleeding rates were analyzed across the groups. Results The review identified 143 fingertip replantations among 134 patients. The overall survival rate was 94% (135 of 143). Failures were due equally to venous complications (n=4, 50%) and to arterial complications (n=4, 50%). Our analysis did not identify any correlation between the number of veins anastomosed and the replant survival rate (P=0.689). However, a greater number of anastomoses was associated with a significantly lower frequency of external bleeding (P=0.017). Conclusions The number of venous anastomoses was not correlated with the survival rate. However, a greater number of venous anastomoses was associated with a decreased need for external bleeding, corresponding to a significant decrease in the need for postoperative monitoring and leech therapy. PMID:29076329

  20. An automatic, stagnation point based algorithm for the delineation of Wellhead Protection Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea; di Molfetta, Antonio

    2008-07-01

    Time-related capture areas are usually delineated using the backward particle tracking method, releasing circles of equally spaced particles around each well. In this way, an accurate delineation often requires both a very high number of particles and a manual capture zone encirclement. The aim of this work was to propose an Automatic Protection Area (APA) delineation algorithm, which can be coupled with any model of flow and particle tracking. The computational time is here reduced, thanks to the use of a limited number of nonequally spaced particles. The particle starting positions are determined coupling forward particle tracking from the stagnation point, and backward particle tracking from the pumping well. The pathlines are postprocessed for a completely automatic delineation of closed perimeters of time-related capture zones. The APA algorithm was tested for a two-dimensional geometry, in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous aquifers, steady state flow conditions, single and multiple wells. Results show that the APA algorithm is robust and able to automatically and accurately reconstruct protection areas with a very small number of particles, also in complex scenarios.

  1. Management and Area-wide Evaluation of Water Conservation Zones in Agricultural Catchments for Biomass Production, Water Quality and Food Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Global land and water resources are under threat from both the agricultural and urban development to meet increased demand for food and from the resulting degradation of the environment. Poor crop yields due to water stress is one of the main reasons for the prevailing hunger and rural poverty in parts of the world. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s particularly in Latin America and Asia resulted in increased agricultural production and depended partly on water management. In the future, most food will still need to come from rain-fed agriculture. Water conservation zones in agricultural catchments, particularly in rainfed areas, play an important role in the capture and storage of water and nutrients from farmlands and wider catchments, and help improve crop production in times of need in these areas. Water conservation zones are considered to be an important part of water resource management strategies that have been developed to prevent reservoir siltation, reduce water quality degradation, mitigate flooding, enhance groundwater recharge and provide water for farming. In addition to making crop production possible in dry areas, water conservation zones minimize soil erosion, improve soil moisture status through capillary rise and enhance soil fertility and quality. These water conservation zones include natural and constructed wetlands (including riparian wetlands), farm ponds and riparian buffer zones. The management of water conservation zones has been a challenge due to the poor understanding of the relationship between upstream land use and the functions of these zones and their internal dynamics. Knowledge of sources and sinks of water and redefining water and nutrient budgets for water conservation zones are important for optimizing the capture, storage and use of water and nutrients in agricultural landscapes. The overall objective of this coordinated research project (CRP) was to assess and enhance ecosystem services provided by wetlands, ponds

  2. Essential trauma management training: addressing service delivery needs in active conflict zones in eastern Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Matthew G

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Access to governmental and international nongovernmental sources of health care within eastern Myanmar's conflict regions is virtually nonexistent. Historically, under these circumstances effective care for the victims of trauma, particularly landmine injuries, has been severely deficient. Recognizing this, community-based organizations (CBOs providing health care in these regions sought to scale up the capacity of indigenous health workers to provide trauma care. Case description The Trauma Management Program (TMP was developed by CBOs in cooperation with a United States-based health care NGO. The goal of the TMP is to improve the capacity of local health workers to deliver effective trauma care. From 2000 to the present, international and local health care educators have conducted regular workshops to train indigenous health workers in the management of landmine injuries, penetrating and blunt trauma, shock, wound and infection care, and orthopedics. Health workers have been regularly resupplied with the surgical instruments, supplies and medications needed to provide the care learnt through TMP training workshops. Discussion and Evaluation Since 2000, approximately 300 health workers have received training through the TMP, as part of a CBO-run health system providing care for approximately 250 000 internally displaced persons (IDPs and war-affected residents. Based on interviews with health workers, trauma registry inputs and photo/video documentation, protocols and procedures taught during training workshops have been implemented effectively in the field. Between June 2005 and June 2007, more than 200 patients were recorded in the trauma patient registry. The majority were victims of weapons-related trauma. Conclusion This report illustrates a method to increase the capacity of indigenous health workers to manage traumatic injuries. These health workers are able to provide trauma care for otherwise inaccessible

  3. Delineation, characterization, and classification of topographic eminences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Gaurav

    Topographic eminences are defined as upwardly rising, convex shaped topographic landforms that are noticeably distinct in their immediate surroundings. As opposed to everyday objects, the properties of a topographic eminence are dependent not only on how it is conceptualized, but is also intrinsically related to its spatial extent and its relative location in the landscape. In this thesis, a system for automated detection, delineation and characterization of topographic eminences based on an analysis of digital elevation models is proposed. Research has shown that conceptualization of eminences (and other landforms) is linked to the cultural and linguistic backgrounds of people. However, the perception of stimuli from our physical environment is not subject to cultural or linguistic bias. Hence, perceptually salient morphological and spatial properties of the natural landscape can form the basis for generically applicable detection and delineation of topographic eminences. Six principles of cognitive eminence modeling are introduced to develop the philosophical foundation of this research regarding eminence delineation and characterization. The first step in delineating eminences is to automatically detect their presence within digital elevation models. This is achieved by the use of quantitative geomorphometric parameters (e.g., elevation, slope and curvature) and qualitative geomorphometric features (e.g., peaks, passes, pits, ridgelines, and valley lines). The process of eminence delineation follows that of eminence detection. It is posited that eminences may be perceived either as monolithic terrain objects, or as composites of morphological parts (e.g., top, bottom, slope). Individual eminences may also simultaneously be conceived as comprising larger, higher order eminence complexes (e.g., mountain ranges). Multiple algorithms are presented for the delineation of simple and complex eminences, and the morphological parts of eminences. The proposed eminence

  4. A proposal for terrain zoning for risk management focusing on land use definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristizabal, Edier; Hermelin, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Land use planning is an essential tool for adequate risk management, which reduce its current scenarios and avoids the construction of future ones exposed to hazards; it should be approached from a knowledge of the risk as an element associated with communities development and in particular how they occupy and how they manage territory and their resources. The disaster-development relationship is critical, and its solution requires considering planning schemes of sectorial, environmental and territories development, Although in the past 10 years considerable progress has been made in this direction, there are still difficulties for a proper incorporation of hazard and/or susceptibility maps as structural elements of land use planning and of land use suitability for development of human settlements. It is fundamental to identify measures to reduce, mitigate or eliminate hazards in urbanized, rural and expansion areas, as well as to guide the uses and appropriate treatments which can be given according to their characteristics of susceptibility to natural phenomena. This paper proposes to divide the territory in urbanized areas which are themselves divided into stable areas for building, potentially unstable areas for intervention and unstable areas for recovery; undeveloped areas which could be urbanized, are divided into areas with minimal restrictions and areas with significant restrictions; and finally undeveloped areas not to be used for urbanization, which are divided into stable areas for rural consolidation, potentially instable areas for intervention, and instable areas for recovery and conservation.

  5. Ecosystem-based management of coastal zones in face of climate change impacts: Challenges and inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandino, Gerson; Elliff, Carla I; Silva, Iracema R

    2018-06-01

    Climate change effects have the potential of affecting both ocean and atmospheric processes. These changes pose serious threats to the millions of people that live by the coast. Thus, the objective of the present review is to discuss how climate change is altering (and will continue to alter) atmospheric and oceanic processes, what are the main implications of these alterations along the coastline, and which are the ecosystem-based management (EBM) strategies that have been proposed and applied to address these issues. While ocean warming, ocean acidification and increasing sea level have been more extensively studied, investigations on the effects of climate change to wind and wave climates are less frequent. Coastal ecosystems and their respective natural resources will respond differently according to location, environmental drivers and coastal processes. EBM strategies have mostly concentrated on improving ecosystem services, which can be used to assist in mitigating climate change effects. The main challenge for developing nations regards gaps in information and scarcity of resources. Thus, for effective management and adaptive EBM strategies to be developed worldwide, information at a local level is greatly needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of Streamside Management Zones for Conserving Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities Following Timber Harvest in Eastern Kentucky Headwater Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K. Adkins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Headwater streams generally comprise the majority of stream area in a watershed and can have a strong influence on downstream food webs. Our objective was to determine the effect of altering streamside management zone (SMZ configurations on headwater aquatic insect communities. Timber harvests were implemented within six watersheds in eastern Kentucky. The SMZ configurations varied in width, canopy retention and best management practice (BMP utilization at the watershed scale. Benthic macroinvertebrate samples collected one year before and four years after harvest indicated few differences among treatments, although post-treatment abundance was elevated in some of the treatment streams relative to the unharvested controls. Jaccard index values were similar across SMZ treatments after logging, indicating strong community overlap. These findings suggest that stream invertebrate communities did respond to the timber harvest, though not negatively. Results also suggest that SMZ criteria for aquatic habitats in steeply sloping topography, including at least 50 percent canopy retention and widths of at least 16.8 m, appear to be adequate for protecting benthic macroinvertebrate communities from logging impacts.

  7. Recent advances in probabilistic species pool delineations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Nikolaus Karger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A species pool is the set of species that could potentially colonize and establish within a community. It has been a commonly used concept in biogeography since the early days of MacArthur and Wilson’s work on Island Biogeography. Despite their simple and appealing definition, an operational application of species pools is bundled with a multitude of problems, which have often resulted in arbitrary decisions and workarounds when defining species pools. Two recently published papers address the operational problems of species pool delineations, and show ways of delineating them in a probabilistic fashion. In both papers, species pools were delineated using a process-based, mechanistical approach, which opens the door for a multitude of new applications in biogeography. Such applications include detecting the hidden signature of biotic interactions, disentangling the geographical structure of community assembly processes, and incorporating a temporal extent into species pools. Although similar in their conclusions, both ‘probabilistic approaches’ differ in their implementation and definitions. Here I give a brief overview of the differences and similarities of both approaches, and identify the challenges and advantages in their application.

  8. Application of Education Information Management Support Tools in the Promotion of Teaching/Learning and Management of Students' Performance in Federal Universities in the South-South Zone of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwuo, S. O.; Enefaa, Bestman Briggs Anthonia

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the application of education information management support tools in the promotion of teaching/learning and management of students' performance in federal universities in the South-South zone of Nigeria. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The…

  9. Managing dredged material in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Marta; Boniecka, Helena

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the legal and practical recommendations for the management of dredged material in the riparian countries of the Baltic Sea. The recommendations are contained in three conventions: LC, 2000. London Convention (1972), Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea area (Helsinki Convention) (1992), the OSPAR Convention (1972). Different approaches to evaluating the contamination level of dredge spoils, used by the Baltic Sea riparian countries, have been characterized. The differences in those approaches manifest themselves by various concentration limits for contaminants, which form a basis for the classification of dredged material as either contaminated or non-contaminated, and thus determine how the spoils will be processed further. Based on the collected information about the concentration limits for contaminants of surface sediments in the coastal ports, it was pointed out that it is necessary to conduct routine monitoring of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, tributyltin, and petroleum hydrocarbons in dredged sediments in all the Baltic Sea states. On the other hand, the monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, organochlorine, and organophosphoric pesticides is only needed in locations that are suspected of historical or being the local contamination sources. Due to significant economic limitations of chemical determinations, it is important to consider a simple screening test of sediment that would say whether sediment may be "contaminated" and qualifies for more detailed and costly chemical research. It may be typical basic physical-chemical analysis of sediments or ecotoxicological classification of sediments.Despite environmentally friendly tendencies, the practical application of dredged material within the Baltic Sea area is very limited. Dredged material is most frequently stored at the specifically designated sites. From among the practical uses of

  10. Manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mauritius

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    The distribution of manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the island nation Mauritius was delineated during cruise SK-35 of ORV Sagar Kanya in 1987. The areas surveyed included Saya de Malha and Nazareth Banks, the Cargados Carajos...

  11. PLASTIC AND GLASS GREENHOUSES DETECTION AND DELINEATION FROM WORLDVIEW-2 SATELLITE IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Koc-San

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse detection using remote sensing technologies is an important research area for yield estimation, sustainable development, urban and rural planning and management. An approach was developed in this study for the detection and delineation of greenhouse areas from high resolution satellite imagery. Initially, the candidate greenhouse patches were detected using supervised classification techniques. For this purpose, Maximum Likelihood (ML, Random Forest (RF, and Support Vector Machines (SVM classification techniques were applied and compared. Then, sieve filter and morphological operations were performed for improving the classification results. Finally, the obtained candidate plastic and glass greenhouse areas were delineated using boundary tracing and Douglas Peucker line simplification algorithms. The proposed approach was implemented in the Kumluca district of Antalya, Turkey utilizing pan-sharpened WorldView-2 satellite imageries. Kumluca is the prominent district of Antalya with greenhouse cultivation and includes both plastic and glass greenhouses intensively. When the greenhouse classification results were analysed, it can be stated that the SVM classification provides most accurate results and RF classification follows this. The SVM classification overall accuracy was obtained as 90.28%. When the greenhouse boundary delineation results were considered, the plastic greenhouses were delineated with 92.11% accuracy, while glass greenhouses were delineated with 80.67% accuracy. The obtained results indicate that, generally plastic and glass greenhouses can be detected and delineated successfully from WorldView-2 satellite imagery.

  12. Effect of forest harvesting best management practices on coarse woody debris distribution in stream and riparian zones in three Appalachian watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. McClure; R. K. Kolka; A. White

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of coarse woody debris (CWD) was analyzed in three Appalachian watersheds in eastern Kentucky, eighteen years after harvest. The three watersheds included an unharvested control (Control), a second watershed with best management practices (BMPs) applied that included a 15.2 m unharvested zone near the stream (BMP watershed), and a third watershed that...

  13. Delineation of major geologic structures in Turkey using SIR-B data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksoz, M. N.; Pettengill, G. H.; Ford, P.; Gulen, L.

    1984-01-01

    Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) images of well mapped segments of major faults, such as the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and East Anatolian Fault (EAF) will be studied to identify the prominent signatures that characterize the fault zones for those specific regions. The information will be used to delineate the unmapped fault zones in areas with similar geological and geomorphological properties. The data obtained from SIR-B images will be compared and correlated with the LANDSAT thematic mapper and seismicity alignments based on well constrained earthquake epicenters.

  14. Milk Production in the Sylvopastoral Zone of Senegal: Variation Factors and Local Populations’ Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Diop

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Sahelian region of Senegal, milk production in pastoral systems is subjected to inter- and intra-annual variations because the animal feed is almost exclusively based on natural resources. Studies conducted from a monitoring set-up in pastoralist settlements and in station, and data from Nestle Company have shown that milk production was highly related to the milk collection date, but with a low correlation with the total amount of rainfall. The relationship between total milk production and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was polynomial. The production peak was reached when the water content in forage was 70%. Surveys on pastoralists (men and women belonging to different ethnic groups and living in different production subsystems (Walo, Djoloff and Ferlo showed that the duration of lactation, number of cows and animal species were the main factors of variation of milk production. The actors in charge of milk production management differed depending on the ethnic group. Milk curdling and butter making were the two preserving methods used, and five types of gourds were used in the process. Dairy products still held a major place in farmers’ incomes and skim milk curd was the most marketed product.

  15. Geomorphic Regionalization of Coastal Zone Using Geospatial Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoranjan Mishra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The world coastal environment is made of diversified landforms and are also potentially vulnerable to climate variability, delta sinking, extreme events and anthropogenic interferences. Sustainable management of coastal resources and transforming quality ecosystem services to future generation are the goals of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM. Geographical homogenous unit are the basic implementation locus and back bone of these kinds of integrated management strategy and activities. However, coastal zone management projects in developing world using use arbitrary land-ward and sea-ward boundaries from physical reference as unit of management. The oversimplified fixed distance approaches are not able to map the spatial and temporal changes in coastal systems. The spatio-temporal variations of coastal systems are configured in geomorphic landforms and further that work on interaction between natural forces and anthropogenic inputs. The present research work is an attempt to present a simplified method of regionalization geomorphic landforms using geospatial platforms for delineating Orissa coast into smaller homogenous geographic unit as reference point for future management. Geomorphic landforms are reconstructed using Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ imagery, Survey of India topomaps, field survey and Digital Elevation Model data at geographic information system (GIS plat form. Seventy geomorphic features covering an area of 5033.64 km2 were identified and further, regionalized into five homogenous geographic units. The need of time is to recognize unsustainable coastal systems in these homogenous geographic units by fine tuning development parameters and also same time allowing coastal systems to adapt naturally to any kind of variability. Although, the methodology applied to Orissa for delineation homogenous geographic area but it can be replicated to any coast in world.

  16. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  17. Overview about polluted sites management by mining activities in coastal-desertic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arturo; Letelier, María Victoria; Arenas, Franko; Cuevas, Jacqueline; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    In Chile the main mining operations as well as artisanal and small-scale mining (copper, gold and silver) are located in desert areas. A large number of abandoned polluted sites with heavy metals and metalloids (Hg, Pb, Cu, Sb, As) remain in coastal areas close to human centers. The aim of this work was to identify the best remediation alternatives considering the physic-chemical characteristics of the coastal-desertic soils. The concentrations of above mentioned pollutants as well as soil properties were determined. The results showed variable concentration of the pollutants, highest detected values were: Hg (46.5 mg kg-1), Pb (84.7 mg kg-1), Cu (283.0 mg kg-1), Sb (90 mg kg-1), As (2,691 mg kg-1). The soils characteristic were: high alkalinity with pH: 7.75-9.66, high electric conductivity (EC: 1.94-118 mScm-1), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR: 5.07-8.22) and low permeability of the soils. Coastal-desertic sites are potential sources of pollution for population, and for terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Exposure routes of pollution for the population include: primary, by incidental ingestion and inhalation of soil and dust and secondary, by the ingestion of marine sediments, sea food and seawater. Rehabilitation of coastal-desertic sites, by using techniques like soil washing in situ, chemical stabilization, or phytostabilization, is conditioned by physic-chemical properties of the soils. In these cases the recommendation for an appropriate management, remediation and use of the sites includes: 1) physic chemical characterization of the soils, 2) evaluation of environmental risk, 3) education of the population and 3) application of a remediation technology according to soil characteristic and the planned use of the sites. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was supported by the Regional Council of Antofagasta under Project Estudio de ingeniería para la remediación de sitios abandonados con potencial presencia de contaminantes identificados en la comuna de

  18. Delineating Biophysical Environments of the Sunda Banda Seascape, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingshu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sunda Banda Seascape (SBS, located in the center of the Coral Triangle, is a global center of marine biodiversity and a conservation priority. We proposed the first biophysical environmental delineation of the SBS using globally available satellite remote sensing and model-assimilated data to categorize this area into unique and meaningful biophysical classes. Specifically, the SBS was partitioned into eight biophysical classes characterized by similar sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, currents, and salinity patterns. Areas within each class were expected to have similar habitat types and ecosystem functions. Our work supplemented prevailing global marine management schemes by focusing in on a regional scale with finer spatial resolution. It also provided a baseline for academic research, ecological assessments and will facilitate marine spatial planning and conservation activities in the area. In addition, the framework and methods of delineating biophysical environments we presented can be expanded throughout the whole Coral Triangle to support research and conservation activities in this important region.

  19. Using analytic element models to delineate drinking water source protection areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Heather A; Bondoc, Michael; McGinnis, John; Metropulos, Kathy; Heider, Pat; Reed, Allison; Saines, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Since 1999, Ohio EPA hydrogeologists have used two analytic element models (AEMs), the proprietary software GFLOW and U.S. EPA's WhAEM, to delineate protection areas for 535 public water systems. Both models now use the GFLOW2001 solution engine, integrate well with Geographic Information System (GIS) technology, have a user-friendly graphical interface, are capable of simulating a variety of complex hydrogeologic settings, and do not rely upon a model grid. These features simplify the modeling process and enable AEMs to bridge the gap between existing simplistic delineation methods and more complex numerical models. Ohio EPA hydrogeologists demonstrated that WhAEM2000 and GFLOW2000 were capable of producing capture zones similar to more widely accepted models by applying the AEMs to eight sites that had been previously delineated using other methods. After the Ohio EPA delineated protection areas using AEMs, more simplistic delineation methods used by other states (volumetric equation and arbitrary fixed radii) were applied to the same water systems to compare the differences between various methods. GIS software and two-tailed paired t-tests were used to quantify the differences in protection areas and analyze the data. The results of this analysis demonstrate that AEMs typically produce significantly different protection areas than the most simplistic delineation methods, in terms of total area and shape. If the volumetric equation had been used instead of AEMs, Ohio would not have protected 265 km2 of critical upgradient area and would have overprotected 269 km2 of primarily downgradient land. Since an increasing number of land-use restrictions are being tied to drinking water protection areas, this analysis has broad policy implications.

  20. Spatial variability and potential impacts of climate change on flood and debris flow hazard zone mapping and implications for risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Staffler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of this study were to identify the alpine torrent catchments that are sensitive to climatic changes and to assess the robustness of the methods for the elaboration of flood and debris flow hazard zone maps to specific effects of climate changes. In this study, a procedure for the identification and localization of torrent catchments in which the climate scenarios will modify the hazard situation was developed. In two case studies, the impacts of a potential increase of precipitation intensities to the delimited hazard zones were studied.

    The identification and localization of the torrent and river catchments, where unfavourable changes in the hazard situation occur, could eliminate speculative and unnecessary measures against the impacts of climate changes like a general enlargement of hazard zones or a general over dimensioning of protection structures for the whole territory. The results showed a high spatial variability of the sensitivity of catchments to climate changes. In sensitive catchments, the sediment management in alpine torrents will meet future challenges due to a higher rate for sediment removal from retention basins. The case studies showed a remarkable increase of the areas affected by floods and debris flow when considering possible future precipitation intensities in hazard mapping. But, the calculated increase in extent of future hazard zones lay within the uncertainty of the methods used today for the delimitation of the hazard zones. Thus, the consideration of the uncertainties laying in the methods for the elaboration of hazard zone maps in the torrent and river catchments sensitive to climate changes would provide a useful instrument for the consideration of potential future climate conditions. The study demonstrated that weak points in protection structures in future will become more important in risk management activities.

  1. Atrazine transport within a coastal zone in Southeastern Puerto Rico: a sensitivity analysis of an agricultural field model and riparian zone management model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality models are used to predict effects of conservation practices to mitigate the transport of herbicides to water bodies. We used two models - the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) and the Riparian Ecosystem Management Model (REMM) to predict the movement of atrazine from ...

  2. Managing new resources in Arctic marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourantidou, Melina; Fernandez, Linda; Kaiser, Brooks

    and management of the resource which poses challenges due its nature as a ‘sedentary species’ colonizing the Barents Sea continental shelf shared by Norway and Russia and approaching the fishery protection zone around Svalbard. Conversely, little research has looked into the implications of the invasion partly...... fishery straddling Arctic waters which lends towards different productivity under different management and we delineate acceptable risk levels in order build up a bioeconomic framework that pinpoints the underlying trade-offs. We also address the difficulties of managing the resource under uncertainty...

  3. A Geo-Aware Taxi Carrying Management System by Using Location Based Services and Zone Queuing Techniques on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyi-Ren Dow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxi plays a crucial role in the transportation system because of the characteristic that can be hailed conveniently. Most of the taxi drivers obtain passengers by hunting on the road or waiting in a fixed taxi queuing point; however these methods have poor performance, high vacancy rate, and several critical problems such as air pollution and foul up traffic. This study proposed a taxi carrying management system by using location based services and zone queuing techniques on Internet of things. The proposed system allows drivers to both hunt on the road and wait in a queuing zone. A queuing table is used in the control center and neighbor tables are used in RSUs for zone queuing establishment. Joining and leaving mechanisms are developed for zone queuing management. To enhance service efficiency and quality, we present a scheme to prevent the ping-pong effect which is based on the location based services, a hunting rate calculation scheme, and a path planning service for taxi drivers according to the history carrying record. PRISM is used to simulate the proposed system, and the results indicated that our scheme outperforms the waiting and hunting models in terms of number of customers, vacancy rate, and profit.

  4. A framework for delineating the regional boundaries of PM2.5 pollution: A case study of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Wu, Jiansheng

    2018-04-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution has been a major issue in many countries. Considerable studies have demonstrated that PM 2.5 pollution is a regional issue, but little research has been done to investigate the regional extent of PM 2.5 pollution or to define areas in which PM 2.5 pollutants interact. To allow for a better understanding of the regional nature and spatial patterns of PM 2.5 pollution, This study proposes a novel framework for delineating regional boundaries of PM 2.5 pollution. The framework consists of four steps, including cross-correlation analysis, time-series clustering, generation of Voronoi polygons, and polygon smoothing using polynomial approximation with exponential kernel method. Using the framework, the regional PM 2.5 boundaries for China are produced and the boundaries define areas where the monthly PM 2.5 time series of any two cities show, on average, more than 50% similarity with each other. These areas demonstrate straightforwardly that PM 2.5 pollution is not limited to a single city or a single province. We also found that the PM 2.5 areas in China tend to be larger in cold months, but more fragmented in warm months, suggesting that, in cold months, the interactions between PM 2.5 concentrations in adjacent cities are stronger than in warmer months. The proposed framework provides a tool to delineate PM 2.5 boundaries and identify areas where PM 2.5 pollutants interact. It can help define air pollution management zones and assess impacts related to PM 2.5 pollution. It can also be used in analyses of other air pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Permafrost delineation for remediation planning : Fort Wainwright, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astley, B. [Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Anchorage, AK (United States); Snyder, C. [YEC Inc., Valley Cottage, NJ (United States); Delaney, A. [Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Arcone, S.; Lawson, D. [Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH (United States)

    2003-07-01

    In the summer of 1999, geophysical and hydrogeological surveys were conducted at the Birch Hill Tank Farm and Truck Fill Stand in Fort Wainwright, Alaska to assess the distribution of benzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, and 1,2-dibromoethane. The Birch Hill site consists of a silt, sand and gravel fluvial deposit that overlies bedrock. Permafrost occurs discontinuously throughout the alluvium and underlying bedrock, resulting in a complex aquifer distribution. The bedrock beneath the Tank Farm is highly fractured and faulted with a weathered horizon that is 30 meters thick. The goal of this study was to map the discontinuous permafrost and aquifers in the alluvial deposits and weathered bedrock zone for the purpose of delineating bedrock depth and structural features that influence ground water flow. Several methods were used to define subsurface conditions, including borehole logs, DC resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar. A 3-D hydrogeologic model was used to develop a ground water flow model used to determine contaminant migration pathways and rates. The permafrost configuration was found to be the most important boundary condition in this model. 7 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  6. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management. Appendix F: User's guide for advection, convection prototype. [southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A user's manual is provided for the environmental computer model proposed for the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) application project for coastal zone land use investigations and marine resources management. The model was developed around the hydrologic cycle and includes two data bases consisting of climate and land use variables. The main program is described, along with control parameters to be set and pertinent subroutines.

  7. System of programs for the management of the common zone of the information processing system APIS working in real time on the reactor OSIRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Shahid, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The computing system APIS is designed to control the instrumentation of the experimental devices irradiated in the nuclear research reactor OSIRIS (Saclay swimming-pool reactor). OSIRIS runs on cycles of about 25 working days followed by an eight-day shutdown, during which period certain experiments disappear and others are coupled to the system. To obtain the required flexibility the software of the APIS system is made up of a set of application programs, each attached to a switch level and responsible for part of the work of the system. They all work on a memory zone known as ZCU (data zone common to all tasks) which contains all the parameters and arguments defining the system and the processing of connected experiments. This zone must be updated whenever the configuration of the system or experiments is changed. The system APIS for which the management of the ZCU's was made is presented, the general characteristics of the minicomputer MITRA-15 used to handle the ZCU management programs are given and the ZCU of a satellite unit is described in detail. The disadvantages of the present methods used to run the ZCU's are explained, then the method proposed for their automatic management is outlined and its advantages are discussed. The files processed during this work and the programs used for generation, updating and consultation of a ZCU are presented. The list of instructions available at the computer MITRA-15 and that of the subprogram SBRIMT are given in the appendix [fr

  8. Maritime zones delimitation - Problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrisios, Christos; Tsoulos, Lysandros

    2018-05-01

    The delimitation of maritime zones and boundaries foreseen by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is a factor of economic growth, effective management of the coastal and ocean environment and the cornerstone for maritime spatial planning. Maritime zones and boundaries form the outermost limits of coastal states and their accurate delineation and cartographic portrayal is a matter of national priority. Although UNCLOS is a legal document, its implementation -at first place- is purely technical and requires -amongst others- theoretical and applied background on Geodesy, Cartography and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for those involved. This paper provides a brief historical background of the evolution of the UNCLOS, presents the various concepts of the Convention and identifies the problems inherent in the maritime delimitation process. Furthermore, it presents solutions that will facilitate the cartographer's work in order to achieve unquestionable results. Through the paper it becomes evident that the role of the cartographer and the GIS expert is critical for the successful implementation of maritime delimitation.

  9. Technical Guidance Manual: Contaminant Flux Reduction Barriers for Managing Difficult-to-Treat Source Zones in Unconsolidated Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-20

    zone, the site must be:  Comprised of unconsolidated material (gravel, sand, silt, clay )  Have access around the source zone to building the...lower low permeability unit such as a clay to prevent up flow  For accessing the lower cost silica gel grouting technology, the hydraulic...hydraulic conductivity with sodium silicate grout.” (page 4-20).  Viscosities of typical grouts (Powers Figure 22.10)  Typical properties of Sodium

  10. Intrinsic properties of channel network structure and the hierarchical classification approach for stream-limits delineation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afana, A.; Barrio, G. del

    2009-07-01

    Delineation of drainage networks is an essential task in hydrological and geomorphologic analysis. Manual channel definition depends on topographic contrast and is highly subjective, leading to important errors at high resolutions. different automatic methods have proposed the use of a constant threshold of up sole contributing are to define channel initiation. Actually, these are the most commonly used for the automatic-channel network extraction from Digital Models (DEMs). However, these methods fall to detect and appropriate threshold when the basin is made up to heterogeneous sub-zones, as they only work either lumped or locally. In this study, the critical threshold area for channel delineation has been defined through the analysis of dominant geometric and topologic properties of stream network formation. (Author) 5 refs.

  11. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2006-07-31

    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste

  12. Aspen Delineation - Klamath National Forest, EUI [ds368

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The database represents delineations of known aspen stands where aspen assessments were collected in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County, California. The...

  13. Ecosystem-based management and refining governance of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone: A case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumin, Enid C.

    While there are as yet no wind energy facilities in New England coastal waters, a number of wind turbine projects are now operating on land adjacent to the coast. In the Gulf of Maine region (from Maine to Massachusetts), at least two such projects, one in Falmouth, Massachusetts, and another on the island of Vinalhaven, Maine, began operation with public backing only to face subsequent opposition from some who were initially project supporters. I investigate the reasons for this dynamic using content analysis of documents related to wind energy facility development in three case study communities. For comparison and contrast with the Vinalhaven and Falmouth case studies, I examine materials from Hull, Massachusetts, where wind turbine construction and operation has received steady public support and acceptance. My research addresses the central question: What does case study analysis of the siting and initial operation of three wind energy projects in the Gulf of Maine region reveal that can inform future governance of wind energy in Massachusetts state coastal waters? I consider the question with specific attention to governance of wind energy in Massachusetts, then explore ways in which the research results may be broadly transferable in the U.S. coastal context. I determine that the change in local response noted in Vinalhaven and Falmouth may have arisen from a failure of consistent inclusion of stakeholders throughout the entire scoping-to-siting process, especially around the reporting of environmental impact studies. I find that, consistent with the principles of ecosystem-based and adaptive management, design of governance systems may require on-going cycles of review and adjustment before the implementation of such systems as intended is achieved in practice. I conclude that evolving collaborative processes must underlie science and policy in our approach to complex environmental and wind energy projects; indeed, collaborative process is fundamental to

  14. Estimating CH4 emission from paddy managed soils in southern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria using an integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpeokhai, Agatha; Menz, Gunter; Thonfeld, Frank; Akinluyi, Francis

    2016-04-01

    ESTIMATING CH4 EMISSION FROM PADDY MANAGED SOILS IN SOUTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA ZONE OF NIGERIA USING AN INTEGRATED APPROACH Akpeokhai Agatha 1, Menz Gunter 1, Thonfeld Frank 1, Akinluyi Francis 2 1 Remote Sensing Research Group (RSRG), Geography Institute, University of Bonn, Germany. 2 Department Remote Sensing and Geo-Science Information System, School of Earth and Mineral Science, Federal University of Technology, Akure Nigeria. Methane is one of the most important greenhouse gases as it has the second greatest climate forcing potential. Paddy fields have been identified to be sources of methane and Nigerian paddies are not left out. In Nigeria, the guinea savanna region is regarded as the bread basket of the nation and this area is one of the major rice producing regions in Nigeria. Its location in the food basket region of the country makes this part a very important study site. However, since Nigerian paddies contribute to methane emission by how much do these paddies contribute to the emissions? Also, so far, there limited studies on methane from rice fields in West Africa thus making this study a very important start off point. To answer this huge question, methane emission will be estimated using an integrated approach in the North Central part of Nigeria. Land use change cultivated to rice was analysed using Remote sensing techniques to determine the changes in land cultivated to rice. Methane emission from these identified rice fields will be estimated using the IPCC Tier 1 set of equations. First relevant indices (Normalized Differential Moisture Index, Normalized Differential Wetness Index and Rice Growth Vegetation Index) were generated to aid classification of rice fields using LANDSAT data from the USGS. Next the LANDSAT datasets were analyzed for land use change cultivated to rice from 1990 to 2014 to generate rice field maps. ERDAS Imagine, ARCGIS and ENVI tools were used to meet these spatial needs. Methane emissions from this region will be

  15. Rational risk-based decision support for drinking water well managers by optimized monitoring designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzenhöfer, R.; Geiges, A.; Nowak, W.

    2011-12-01

    Advection-based well-head protection zones are commonly used to manage the contamination risk of drinking water wells. Considering the insufficient knowledge about hazards and transport properties within the catchment, current Water Safety Plans recommend that catchment managers and stakeholders know, control and monitor all possible hazards within the catchments and perform rational risk-based decisions. Our goal is to supply catchment managers with the required probabilistic risk information, and to generate tools that allow for optimal and rational allocation of resources between improved monitoring versus extended safety margins and risk mitigation measures. To support risk managers with the indispensable information, we address the epistemic uncertainty of advective-dispersive solute transport and well vulnerability (Enzenhoefer et al., 2011) within a stochastic simulation framework. Our framework can separate between uncertainty of contaminant location and actual dilution of peak concentrations by resolving heterogeneity with high-resolution Monte-Carlo simulation. To keep computational costs low, we solve the reverse temporal moment transport equation. Only in post-processing, we recover the time-dependent solute breakthrough curves and the deduced well vulnerability criteria from temporal moments by non-linear optimization. Our first step towards optimal risk management is optimal positioning of sampling locations and optimal choice of data types to reduce best the epistemic prediction uncertainty for well-head delineation, using the cross-bred Likelihood Uncertainty Estimator (CLUE, Leube et al., 2011) for optimal sampling design. Better monitoring leads to more reliable and realistic protection zones and thus helps catchment managers to better justify smaller, yet conservative safety margins. In order to allow an optimal choice in sampling strategies, we compare the trade-off in monitoring versus the delineation costs by accounting for ill-delineated

  16. Delineating fresh water and brackish water aquifers by GIS and groundwater quality data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, M.; Latif, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Mona project area, Bhalwal, district Sargodha to delineate fresh water and brackish water aquifers by GIS (Geographic Information System) and historic groundwater quality data of 138 deep tube wells installed in the study area. The groundwater quality zonations were made by overlapping maps of TDS (Total Dissolved Solids), SAR (Sodium Adsorption Ratio) and RSC (Residual Sodium Carbonate). Seven zones of groundwater quality consisting of good, marginal, hazardous and their combinations were identified. The results indicated redistribution of salts in the aquifer and rise in water table in some parts of the study area from 1965-1997. (author)

  17. 12 CFR 345.41 - Assessment area delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the bank's delineation of its assessment area(s) as a separate performance criterion, but the FDIC..., such as those consumer loans on which the bank elects to have its performance assessed). (d... area(s) delineated by a bank in its evaluation of the bank's CRA performance unless the FDIC determines...

  18. 12 CFR 228.41 - Assessment area delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... does not evaluate the bank's delineation of its assessment area(s) as a separate performance criterion..., such as those consumer loans on which the bank elects to have its performance assessed). (d... area(s) delineated by a bank in its evaluation of the bank's CRA performance unless the Board...

  19. Broadening the regulated-river management paradigm: A case study of the forgotten dead zone hindering Pallid Sturgeon recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Christopher S.; Treanor, Hilary B.; Kappenman, Kevin M.; Scholl, Eric A.; Ilgen, Jason E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

    2015-01-01

    The global proliferation of dams within the last half century has prompted ecologists to understand the effects of regulated rivers on large-river fishes. Currently, much of the effort to mitigate the influence of dams on large-river fishes has been focused on downriver effects, and little attention has been given to upriver effects. Through a combination of field observations and laboratory experiments, we tested the hypothesis that abiotic conditions upriver of the dam are the mechanism for the lack of recruitment in Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), an iconic large-river endangered species. Here we show for the first time that anoxic upriver habitat in reservoirs (i.e., the transition zone between the river and reservoir) is responsible for the lack of recruitment in Pallid Sturgeon. The anoxic condition in the transition zone is a function of reduced river velocities and the concentration of fine particulate organic material with high microbial respiration. As predicted, the river upstream of the transition zone was oxic at all sampling locations. Our results indicate that transition zones are an ecological sink for Pallid Sturgeon. We argue that ecologists, engineers, and policy makers need to broaden the regulated-river paradigm to consider upriver and downriver effects of dams equally to comprehensively mitigate altered ecosystems for the benefit of large-river fishes, especially for the Pallid Sturgeon.

  20. How Subsurface Water Technologies (SWT) can Provide Robust, Effective, and Cost-Efficient Solutions for Freshwater Management in Coastal Zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Raat, K.J.; Paalman, M.; Oosterhof, A.T.; Stuyfzand, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources in coastal zones are limited while demands are high, resulting in problems like seasonal water shortage, overexploitation of freshwater aquifers, and seawater intrusion. Three subsurface water technologies (SWT) that can provide robust, effective, and cost-efficient solutions to

  1. Integrated risk management for improving internal traffic control, work-zone safety, and mobility during major construction : tech transfer summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Construction work zones are among the most dangerous places to work in any industry in the world. This is because many factors in construction, such as constant change in working environments and driver errors, contribute to a workplace with a higher...

  2. U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety Office Zones in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [mso_zones_LOSCO_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset delineating the boundaries of the three U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety Office (MSO) zones that encompass the state of Louisiana. The MSO...

  3. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: RCRA Borehole 299-E33-338 Located Near the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Gee, Glendon W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Royack, Lisa J.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.8. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in June 2003. The overall goals of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., are: 1) to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities, 2) to identify and evaluate the efficacy of interim measures, and 3) to aid via collection of geotechnical information and data, future decisions that must be made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the near-term operations, future waste retrieval, and final closure activities for the single-shell tank waste management areas. For a more complete discussion of the goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, see the overall work plan, Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas (DOE 1999). Specific details on the rationale for activities performed at the B-BX-BY tank farm waste management area are found in CH2M HILL (2000).

  4. Efficacy evaluation of managed population shift in Ukraine from zone of obligate (compulsory) resettlement as a measure of public radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gun'ko, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of efficacy of the managed population transmigration from zone of obligate (compulsory) resettlement as a measure of civil protection after the Chernobyl NPP accident from the perspective of radiation biology. Materials and methods. Legislative and statutory-tutorial documents that regulate the managed population shift from radiologically contaminated territories of Ukraine and data from the Ukrainian State Service of Statistics on time limits and scopes of population transmigration from contaminated settlements were the informational back ground of the study. Data on retrospective and expected/anticipated radiation doses in population of settlements exposed to radiological contamination in Ukraine after the Chernobyl disaster summarized for the 1986-1997 period and up to 2055 were the information source for calculation of averted doses due to population shift. Battery of basic research empirical evidence review methods was applied under the calculation, systemic, and biomedical approach. Population shift from zone of obligate (compulsory) resettlement (hereafter referred to as Zone 2) to stop the radiation exposure as a tool of civil protection from emergency ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl NPP accident was scientifically substantiated and expedient from the perspective of radiation biology. Estimability of a managed population shift from 'dose-effect' perspective and 'benefit/harm' principle is worse because of data absence on individual radiation doses to migrants in the country. Public shift in 1990 and 1991 was most effective from the viewpoint of level of averted lifetime dose. Due to transmigration the averted lifetime dose to the most vulnerable group of the Chernobyl disaster survivors i.e. children aged 0 years varied from 11.2 to 28.8 mSv (calculated for the Perejizdiv village council of Zhytomyr province). Since 2000 there was almost no public shift being not accomplished in the scheduled scope. Delay and incompleteness of

  5. Efficacy evaluation of managed population shift in Ukraine from zone of obligate (compulsory) resettlement as a measure of public radiation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunko, N V

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of efficacy of the managed population transmigration from zone of obligate (compulsory) resettlement as a measure of civil protection after the Chernobyl NPP accident from the perspective of radiation biology. Legislative and statutory tutorial documents that regulate the managed population shift from radiologically contaminated territories of Ukraine and data from the Ukrainian State Service of Statistics on time limits and scopes of population transmigration from contaminated settlements were the informational back ground of the study. Data on retrospective and expected/anticipated radiation doses in population of settlements exposed to radiological contamination in Ukraine after the Chernobyl disaster summarized for the 1986-1997 peri od and up to 2055 were the information source for calculation of averted doses due to population shift. Battery of basic research empirical evidence review methods was applied under the calculation, systemic, and biomedical approach. Population shift from zone of obligate (compulsore) resettlement (hereafter referred to as Zone 2) to stop the radiation exposure as a tool of civil protection from emergency ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl NPP accident was scientifically substantiated and expedient from the perspective of radiation biology. Estimability of a managed population shift from "dose effect" perspective and "benefit/harm" principle is worse because of data absence on individual radiation doses to migrants in the country. Public shift in 1990 and 1991 was most effective from the viewpoint of level of averted lifetime dose. Due to transmigration the averted lifetime dose to the most vulnerable group of the Chernobyl disaster survivors i.e. children aged 0 years varied from 11.2 to 28.8 mSv (calculated for the Perejizdiv village council of Zhytomyr province). Since 2000 there was almost no public shift being not accomplished in the scheduled scope. Delay and incompleteness of transmigration have diminished the

  6. Delineating spring recharge areas in a fractured sandstone aquifer (Luxembourg) based on pesticide mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlin, J.; Drouet, L.; Gallé, T.; Pittois, D.; Bayerle, M.; Braun, C.; Maloszewski, P.; Vanderborght, J.; Elsner, M.; Kies, A.

    2013-06-01

    A simple method to delineate the recharge areas of a series of springs draining a fractured aquifer is presented. Instead of solving the flow and transport equations, the delineation is reformulated as a mass balance problem assigning arable land in proportion to the pesticide mass discharged annually in a spring at minimum total transport cost. The approach was applied to the Luxembourg Sandstone, a fractured-rock aquifer supplying half of the drinking water for Luxembourg, using the herbicide atrazine. Predictions of the recharge areas were most robust in situations of strong competition by neighbouring springs while the catchment boundaries for isolated springs were extremely sensitive to the parameter controlling flow direction. Validation using a different pesticide showed the best agreement with the simplest model used, whereas using historical crop-rotation data and spatially distributed soil-leaching data did not improve predictions. The whole approach presents the advantage of integrating objectively information on land use and pesticide concentration in spring water into the delineation of groundwater recharge zones in a fractured-rock aquifer.

  7. 77 FR 59852 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... made by this final rule to the management of the Amendment 80 fleet and an explanation of any... Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 97 ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS publishes regulations to implement Amendment 97 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  8. Relative importance of management, meteorological and environmental factors in the spatial distribution of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle in a temperate climate zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennema, S C; Ducheyne, E; Vercruysse, J; Claerebout, E; Hendrickx, G; Charlier, J

    2011-02-01

    Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution, is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. Diagnosis is hampered by the fact that the infection is mostly subclinical. To increase awareness and develop regionally adapted control methods, knowledge on the spatial distribution of economically important infection levels is needed. Previous studies modelling the spatial distribution of F. hepatica are mostly based on single cross-sectional samplings and have focussed on climatic and environmental factors, often ignoring management factors. This study investigated the associations between management, climatic and environmental factors affecting the spatial distribution of infection with F. hepatica in dairy herds in a temperate climate zone (Flanders, Belgium) over three consecutive years. A bulk-tank milk antibody ELISA was used to measure F. hepatica infection levels in a random sample of 1762 dairy herds in the autumns of 2006, 2007 and 2008. The infection levels were included in a Geographic Information System together with meteorological, environmental and management parameters. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between possible risk factors and infection levels. The prevalence and spatial distribution of F. hepatica was relatively stable, with small interannual differences in prevalence and location of clusters. The logistic regression model based on both management and climatic/environmental factors included the factors: annual rainfall, mowing of pastures, proportion of grazed grass in the diet and length of grazing season as significant predictors and described the spatial distribution of F. hepatica better than the model based on climatic/environmental factors only (annual rainfall, elevation and slope, soil type), with an Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic of 0.68 compared with 0.62. The results indicate that in temperate climate zones without large climatic

  9. Assessing Movements of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in Relation to Depopulated Buffer Zones for the Management of Wildlife Tuberculosis in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrom, Andrea E; Anderson, Dean P; Coleman, Morgan; Thomson, Caroline; Cross, Martin L; Pech, Roger P

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand, managing the threat of bovine tuberculosis (TB) to livestock includes population reduction of potentially infectious wildlife, primarily the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Population control is often targeted on forested buffer zones adjacent to farmland, in order to limit movements of possums across the buffer and reduce the risk of disease transmission to livestock. To assess the effectiveness of buffers in protecting livestock we analysed GPS telemetry data from possums located in untreated forest adjacent to buffers, and used these data to characterise patterns of movement that could lead to possums reaching farmland during the season when most dispersal occurs. Analyses of movement data showed that the direction of dispersal by sub-adult and adult possums and the extent of long exploratory movements were not biased toward forest buffers, even though these provided vacant habitat as suitable for possums as untreated forest. Instead, dispersal and exploratory movements were uncommon even for sub-adult possums and such events typically lasted buffer to reach farmland. Our results indicate short-term reduction in the risk of TB transmission from possums to livestock in New Zealand by the use of depopulated buffer zones, while acknowledging that the threat of disease spread from untreated forest is likely to increase over time as possum population density and, potentially, TB prevalence among those possums, increase in the buffer zone.

  10. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-E33-46 Near B 110 in the B BX-BY Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Gee, Glendon W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; mccain, r. G.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Orr, Robert D.; Legore, Virginia L.; Clayton, Ray E.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Kutynakov, I. V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Royack, Lisa J.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-ectractable sodium data from Table 4.17. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in December 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area. This report is the third in a series of three reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from a borehole installed approximately 4.5 m (15 ft) northeast of tank B- 110 (borehole 299-E33-46).

  11. Constructing development and integrated coastal zone management in the conditions of the landslide slopes of Cheboksary water reservoir (Volga River)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonorova, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    Uncontrolled construction and insufficient accounting of engineering-geological and hydro-geological conditions of the coastal zone, intensified technogenic impact on sloping surfaces and active urbanization led to the emergence of serious problems and emergency situations on the coasts of many Volga reservoirs, including the Cheboksary reservoir, within Cheboksary urban district and adjacent territories of Chuvashia. This article is devoted to substantiation of the possibility of rational construction development of landslide slopes of the Cheboksary water reservoir.

  12. An automatized frequency analysis for vine plot detection and delineation in remote sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Delenne , Carole; Rabatel , G.; Deshayes , M.

    2008-01-01

    The availability of an automatic tool for vine plot detection, delineation, and characterization would be very useful for management purposes. An automatic and recursive process using frequency analysis (with Fourier transform and Gabor filters) has been developed to meet this need. This results in the determination of vine plot boundary and accurate estimation of interrow width and row orientation. To foster large-scale applications, tests and validation have been carried out on standard ver...

  13. Slic Superpixels for Object Delineation from Uav Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelinck, S.; Bennett, R.; Gerke, M.; Koeva, M. N.; Yang, M. Y.; Vosselman, G.

    2017-08-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are increasingly investigated with regard to their potential to create and update (cadastral) maps. UAVs provide a flexible and low-cost platform for high-resolution data, from which object outlines can be accurately delineated. This delineation could be automated with image analysis methods to improve existing mapping procedures that are cost, time and labor intensive and of little reproducibility. This study investigates a superpixel approach, namely simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC), in terms of its applicability to UAV data. The approach is investigated in terms of its applicability to high-resolution UAV orthoimages and in terms of its ability to delineate object outlines of roads and roofs. Results show that the approach is applicable to UAV orthoimages of 0.05 m GSD and extents of 100 million and 400 million pixels. Further, the approach delineates the objects with the high accuracy provided by the UAV orthoimages at completeness rates of up to 64 %. The approach is not suitable as a standalone approach for object delineation. However, it shows high potential for a combination with further methods that delineate objects at higher correctness rates in exchange of a lower localization quality. This study provides a basis for future work that will focus on the incorporation of multiple methods for an interactive, comprehensive and accurate object delineation from UAV data. This aims to support numerous application fields such as topographic and cadastral mapping.

  14. Severe Psychological Distress of Evacuees in Evacuation Zone Caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, Yasuto; Suzuki, Yuriko; Shiga, Tetsuya; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Maeda, Masaharu; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Otsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has continued to affect the mental health status of residents in the evacuation zone. To examine the mental health status of evacuee after the nuclear accident, we conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey as part of the ongoing Fukushima Health Management Survey. We measured mental health status using the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6) in a total of 73,569 (response rate: 40.7%) evacuees aged 15 and over who lived in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. We then dichotomized responders using a 12/13 cutoff on the K6, and compared the proportion of K6 scores ≥13 and ≤12 in each risk factor including demographic information, socioeconomic variables, and disaster-related variables. We also performed bivariate analyses between mental health status and possible risk factors using the chi-square test. Furthermore, we performed multivariate regression analysis using modified Poisson regression models. The median K6 score was 5 (interquartile range: 1-10). The number of psychological distress was 8,717 (14.6%). We found that significant differences in the prevalence of psychological distress by almost all survey items, including disaster-related risk factors, most of which were also associated with increased Prevalence ratios (PRs). Additionally, we found that psychological distress in each evacuation zone was significantly positively associated with the radiation levels in their environment (r = 0.768, p = 0.002). The earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear accident likely caused severe psychological distress among residents in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. The close association between psychological distress and the radiation levels shows that the nuclear accident seriously influenced the mental health of the residents, which might be exacerbated by increased risk perception. To provide

  15. Effective removal of bromate in nitrate-reducing anoxic zones during managed aquifer recharge for drinking water treatment: Laboratory-scale simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; van Halem, Doris; Ding, Lei; Bai, Ying; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, Karin; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2018-03-01

    The removal of bromate (BrO 3 - ) as a by-product of ozonation in subsequent managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems, specifically in anoxic nitrate (NO 3 - )-reducing zones, has so far gained little attention. In this study, batch reactors and columns were used to explore the influence of NO 3 - and increased assimilable organic carbon (AOC) due to ozonation pre-treatment on BrO 3 - removal in MAR systems. 8 m column experiments were carried out for 10 months to investigate BrO 3 - behavior in anoxic NO 3 - -reducing zones of MAR systems. Anoxic batch experiments showed that an increase of AOC promoted microbial activity and corresponding BrO 3 - removal. A drastic increase of BrO 3 - biodegradation was observed in the sudden absence of NO 3 - in both batch reactors and columns, indicating that BrO 3 - and NO 3 - competed for biodegradation by denitrifying bacteria and NO 3 - was preferred as an electron acceptor under the simultaneous presence of NO 3 - and BrO 3 - . However, within 75 days' absence of NO 3 - in the anoxic column, BrO 3 - removal gradually decreased, indicating that the presence of NO 3 - is a precondition for denitrifying bacteria to reduce BrO 3 - in NO 3 - -reducing anoxic zones. In the 8 m anoxic column set-up (retention time 6 days), the BrO 3 - removal achieved levels as low as 1.3 μg/L, starting at 60 μg/L (98% removal). Taken together, BrO 3 - removal is likely to occur in vicinity of NO 3 - -reducing anoxic zones, so MAR systems following ozonation are potentially effective to remove BrO 3 - . Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Metal artefact reduction for accurate tumour delineation in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, David Gergely; Rechner, Laura A.; Appelt, Ane L.

    2018-01-01

    Background and purpose: Two techniques for metal artefact reduction for computed tomography were studied in order to identify their impact on tumour delineation in radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Using specially designed phantoms containing metal implants (dental, spine and hip) as well...... delineation significantly (pmetal implant....... as patient images, we investigated the impact of two methods for metal artefact reduction on (A) the size and severity of metal artefacts and the accuracy of Hounsfield Unit (HU) representation, (B) the visual impact of metal artefacts on image quality and (C) delineation accuracy. A metal artefact reduction...

  17. Probabilistic Risk Analysis and Fault Trees as Tools in Improving the Delineation of Wellhead Protection Areas: An Initial Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, C. M.; Silliman, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    Delineation of a wellhead protection area (WHPA) is a critical component of managing / protecting the aquifer(s) supplying potable water to a public water-supply well. While a number of previous authors have addressed questions related to uncertainties in advective capture zones, methods for assessing WHPAs in the presence of uncertainty in the chemistry of groundwater contaminants, the relationship between land-use and contaminant sources, and the impact on health risk within the receiving population are more limited. Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) combined with fault trees (FT) addresses this latter challenge by providing a structure whereby four key WHPA issues may be addressed: (i) uncertainty in land-use practices and chemical release, (ii) uncertainty in groundwater flow, (iii) variability in natural attenuation properties (and/or remediation) of the contaminants, and (iv) estimated health risk from contaminant arrival at a well. The potential utility of PRA-FT in this application is considered through a simplified case study involving management decisions related both to regional land use planning and local land-use zoning regulation. An application-specific fault tree is constructed to visualize and identify the events required for health risk failure at the well and a Monte Carlo approach is used to create multiple realizations of groundwater flow and chemical transport to a well in a model of a simple, unconfined aquifer. Model parameters allowed to vary during this simplified case study include hydraulic conductivity, probability of a chemical spill (related to land use variation in space), and natural attenuation through variation in rate of decay of the contaminant. Numerical results are interpreted in association with multiple land-use management scenarios as well as multiple cancer risk assumptions regarding the contaminant arriving at the well. This case study shows significant variability of health risk at the well, however general trends were

  18. Delineating gas bearing reservoir by using spectral decomposition attribute: Case study of Steenkool formation, Bintuni Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, A.; Pradana, G. S.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    Tectonic setting of the Bird Head Papua Island becomes an important model for petroleum system in Eastern part of Indonesia. The current exploration has been started since the oil seepage finding in Bintuni and Salawati Basin. The biogenic gas in shallow layer turns out to become an interesting issue in the hydrocarbon exploration. The hydrocarbon accumulation appearance in a shallow layer with dry gas type, appeal biogenic gas for further research. This paper aims at delineating the sweet spot hydrocarbon potential in shallow layer by applying the spectral decomposition technique. The spectral decomposition is decomposing the seismic signal into an individual frequency, which has significant geological meaning. One of spectral decomposition methods is Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), which transforms the seismic signal into individual time and frequency simultaneously. This method is able to make easier time-frequency map analysis. When time resolution increases, the frequency resolution will be decreased, and vice versa. In this study, we perform low-frequency shadow zone analysis in which the amplitude anomaly at a low frequency of 15 Hz was observed and we then compare it to the amplitude at the mid (20 Hz) and the high-frequency (30 Hz). The appearance of the amplitude anomaly at a low frequency was disappeared at high frequency, this anomaly disappears. The spectral decomposition by using CWT algorithm has been successfully applied to delineate the sweet spot zone.

  19. A survey on Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness implementation by nurses in four districts of West Arsi zone of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Sheka Shemsi; Sendo, Endalew Gemechu

    2018-01-01

    In Ethiopia, one in 17 children dies before 1 year of age and one in 11 children dies before 5 years. Research that examines the factors influencing the implementation of the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI) strategy in Ethiopia is limited. This study aimed to identify the factors compelling the execution of IMNCI by nurses in four districts of West Arsi zone of Ethiopia. A mixed-method cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2016 in West Arsi zone of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. A total of 185 Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI)-trained registered nurses working at Under-Five Clinic were purposively chosen for the study among 291 registered nurses based at health centers and hospitals in the Arsi zone. The study was complemented by a qualitative method. More than half (57.8%) of the nurses interviewed had been trained (51.35% of them attended in-service training). The most common issues encountered in the implementation of IMCI were: lack of trained staff (56.2%), lack of essential drugs and supplies (37.3%), and irregular supportive supervision (89.2%). The qualitative data supplemented the factors that influence IMNCI implementation, including drug unavailability, lack of human resources, and lack of effective supportive supervision and follow-up visits. Therefore, interventions aiming at training nurses, with emphasis on performing supportive consistent supervision and supporting the system of health care by enhancing admittance to indispensable drugs and supplies, are recommended to help IMCI implementation.

  20. Remote sensing application for delineating coastal vegetation - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Remote sensing data has been used for mapping coastal vegetation along the Goa Coast, India. The study envisages the use of digital image processing techniques for delineating geomorphic features and associated vegetation, including mangrove, along...

  1. Aspen Delineation - Plumas National Forest, FRRD [ds376

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (PLUMAS_NF_FEATHERRIVER_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Plumas...

  2. Delineating social network data anonymization via random edge perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang; Karras, Panagiotis; Raï ssi, Chedy; Kalnis, Panos; Pung, Hungkeng

    2012-01-01

    study of the probability of success of any}structural attack as a function of the perturbation probability. Our analysis provides a powerful tool for delineating the identification risk of perturbed social network data; our extensive experiments

  3. Perioperative Clinical Nurse Specialist Role Delineation: A Systematic Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Lisa M; Walker, Theodore J; Nader, Kelly C; Glover, Dennis E; Newkirk, Laura E

    2006-01-01

    A clearly defined role of the Perioperative Clinical Nurse Specialist (PONS) is not identified. The purpose of this study was to provide recommendations for a delineated role of the PONS that will provide role clarity and practice guidance...

  4. 77 FR 62482 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Aleutian Islands Management Area; Groundfish Retention Standard AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... standard (GRS) program in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area by removing certain... the Amendment 80 fleet. This action is intended to promote the goals and objectives of the Magnuson...

  5. 78 FR 12627 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Aleutian Islands Management Area; Groundfish Retention Standard AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI). This final rule removes certain regulatory... monitoring requirements for the Amendment 80 fleet and establishes a new requirement for Amendment 80...

  6. Interobserver delineation variation in lung tumour stereotacticbody radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, G. F.; Nygaard, D. E.; Hollensen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    the interobserver delineation variation for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of peripheral lung tumours using a cross-sectional study design. Methods 22 consecutive patients with 26 tumours were included. Positron emission tomography/CT scans were acquired for planning of SBRT. Three oncologists and three......-sectional analysis of delineation variation for peripheral lung tumours referred for SBRT, establishing the evidence that interobserver variation is very small for these tumours....

  7. A zone-specific fish-based biotic index as a management tool for the Zeeschelde estuary (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Jan; Quataert, Paul; Stevens, Maarten; Ollevier, Frans; Volckaert, Filip A M; Van den Bergh, Ericia; Maes, Joachim

    2010-07-01

    Fish-based indices monitor changes in surface waters and are a valuable aid in communication by summarising complex information about the environment (Harrison and Whitfield, 2004). A zone-specific fish-based multimetric estuarine index of biotic integrity (Z-EBI) was developed based on a 13 year time series of fish surveys from the Zeeschelde estuary (Belgium). Sites were pre-classified using indicators of anthropogenic impact. Metrics showing a monotone response with pressure classes were selected for further analysis. Thresholds for the good ecological potential (GEP) were defined from references. A modified trisection was applied for the other thresholds. The Z-EBI is defined by the average of the metric scores calculated over a one year period and translated into an ecological quality ratio (EQR). The indices integrate structural and functional qualities of the estuarine fish communities. The Z-EBI performances were successfully validated for habitat degradation in the various habitat zones. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Obstetric care providers' knowledge, practice and associated factors towards active management of third stage of labor in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenaw, Zelalem; Yohannes, Zemenu; Amano, Abdela

    2017-09-07

    Active management of third stage of labor played a great role to prevent child birth related hemorrhage. However, maternal morbidity and mortality related to hemorrhage is high due to lack of knowledge and skill of obstetric care providers 'on active management of third stage of labor. Our study was aimed to assess knowledge, practice and associated factors of obstetric care providers (Midwives, Nurses and Health officers) on active management of third stage of labor in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia. An institution based cross sectional study design was conducted from December 1-30 /2015 among midwives, nurses and health officers. Simple random sampling technique was used to get the total of 528 participants. Data entry was done using EPI Info 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 software package for analysis. The presence of association between independent and dependent variables was assessed using odds ratio with 97% confidence interval by applying logistic regression model. Of the 528 obstetric care providers 37.7% and 32.8% were knowledgeable and skilled to manage third stage of labor respectively. After controlling for possible confounding factors, the result showed that pre/in service training, being midwife and graduation year were found to be the major predictors of proper active management of third stage of labor. The knowledge and practice of obstetric care providers towards active management of third stage of labor can be improved with appropriate interventions like in-service trainings. This study also clearly showed that the level of knowledge and practice of obstetric care providers to wards active management of third stage of labor needs immediate attention of Universities and health science colleges better to revise their obstetrics course contents, health institutions and zonal health bureau should arrange trainings for their obstetrics care providers to enhance skill.

  9. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments from C Waste Management Area: Investigation of the C-152 Transfer Line Leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F; Serne, R JEFFREY; Bjornstad, Bruce N; Valenta, Michelle M; Lanigan, David C; Vickerman, Tanya S; Clayton, Ray E; Geiszler, Keith N; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Eric T; Kutynakov, I V; Baum, Steven R; Lindberg, Michael J; Orr, Robert D

    2007-02-05

    A geologic/geochemical investigation in the vicinity of UPR-200-E-82 was performed using pairs of cone-penetrometer probe holes. A total of 41 direct-push cone-penetrometer borings (19 pairs to investigate different high moisture zones in the same sampling location and 3 individual) were advanced to characterize vadose zone moisture and the distribution of contaminants. A total of twenty sample sets, containing up to two split-spoon liners and one grab sample, were delivered to the laboratory for characterization and analysis. The samples were collected around the documented location of the C-152 pipeline leak, and created an approximately 120-ft diameter circle around the waste site. UPR-200-E-82 was a loss of approximately 2,600 gallons of Cs-137 Recovery Process feed solution containing an estimated 11,300 Ci of cesium-137 and 5 Ci of technetium-99. Several key parameters that are used to identify subsurface contamination were measured, including: water extract pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, technetium-99, sodium, and uranium concentrations and technetium-99 and uranium concentrations in acid extracts. All of the parameters, with the exception of electrical conductivity, were elevated in at least some of the samples analyzed as part of this study. Specifically, soil pH was elevated (from 8.69 to 9.99) in five samples collected northeast and southwest of the C-152 pipeline leak. Similarly, samples collected from these same cone-pentrometer holes contained significantly more water-extractable sodium (more than 50 g/g of dry sediment), uranium (as much as 7.66E-01 g/g of dry sediment), nitrate (up to 30 g/g of dry sediment), and technetium-99 (up to 3.34 pCi/g of dry sediment). Most of the samples containing elevated concentrations of water-extractable sodium also had decreased levels of water extractable calcium and or magnesium, indicating that tank-related fluids that were high in sodium did seep into the vadose zone near these probe holes. Several of the

  10. Delineated Analysis of Robotic Process Automation Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchi Isaac; Riya Muni; Kenali Desai

    2017-01-01

    In this age and time when celerity is expected out of all the sectors of the country, the speed of execution of various processes and hence efficiency, becomes a prominent factor. To facilitate the speeding demands of these diverse platforms, Robotic Process Automation (RPA) is used. Robotic Process Automation can expedite back-office tasks in commercial industries, remote management tasks in IT industries and conservation of resources in multiple sectors. To implement RPA, many software ...

  11. Analysis of beach morphodynamics on the Bragantinian mangrove peninsula (Pará, North Brazil) as prerequisite for coastal zone management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Gesche; Soares, Cidiane

    2004-05-01

    A beach profile monitoring programme was initiated in 1997 as a contribution to the development of recommendations for an integrated coastal zone management scheme of the mangrove peninsula of Bragança, State of Pará (North Brazil). It was the first scientific investigation on the coastal morphodynamics in a mangrove environment, which was opened for human use only since the mid-1970s. The observations were carried out on five sections for 4 years, on a fortnightly basis whenever possible. Temporal evolution of the beach morphology was assessed using time series of beach height, changes in profile shape, sediment transport calculations, and photographs. This unique data set for new settlement areas in this mangrove-dominated coastal zone illuminates the role of the interaction between human activities and natural coastal dynamics. Four coastal cells were identified as coastal management units, each with specific dynamic behaviour and utilisation by humans. The cells are rather small with dimensions in the order of 1-3 km. Only one of the units (cell 1) had a stable coastline during the 4 years of observation, while all others are eroding. Clearing of vegetation is the principal reason for the enhancement of the natural chronic erosion at these sites. In the wake of increasing tourism, housing was erected on the first dune ridge (cell 2) with much damage to the natural vegetation. In this unit, erosion is predominantly targeted on the dunes. In cell 3, the most important reason for the increased erosion is clearing of the adjacent fringing mangroves. This is also true for cell 4, but additionally the construction of large fishing traps, which artificially entrap sand and create sandbanks and thereby increase velocities in the tidal channel tend to enhance erosion at the shoreline. Only for cell 1 can protection measures for the still available vegetation be recommended while a planned retreat of many tourism facilities and fishermen's housings should be included

  12. Factors affecting the reproductive performance of Bunaji cattle under different pastoral management systems in the Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduvie, L.O.; Bawa, E.K.; Dawuda, P.M.; Oyedipe, E.O.; Olorunju, S.A.S.; Bales, J.O.; Sekoni, V.O.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of management on the productivity of Bunaji cattle were investigated on 6 farms using 38 post-partum cows and 8 heifers. General information obtained on management of the farms indicated differences in managements practices between farms. The screening of the animals in the various farms for blood and endo-parasites showed that some of the farms had problems of helminthiasis and fascioliasis. Uterine involution was complete within 25 days of calving in all post-partum cows. Intervals from calving to ovulation and conception were different between farms. The conception rates for all farms over a period of 730 days ranged from 60 to 100%. A higher percentage of heifers on farm A reached puberty at an earlier age than those in farm B. It was concluded that management affects reproductive performance and thus productivity of Bunaji cattle, with nutrition and disease being the major contributing factors. (author). 10 refs, 7 tabs

  13. An Isotopic view of water and nitrogen transport through the vadose zone in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/MethodsGroundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nit...

  14. Assessing Movements of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula in Relation to Depopulated Buffer Zones for the Management of Wildlife Tuberculosis in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Byrom

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, managing the threat of bovine tuberculosis (TB to livestock includes population reduction of potentially infectious wildlife, primarily the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula. Population control is often targeted on forested buffer zones adjacent to farmland, in order to limit movements of possums across the buffer and reduce the risk of disease transmission to livestock. To assess the effectiveness of buffers in protecting livestock we analysed GPS telemetry data from possums located in untreated forest adjacent to buffers, and used these data to characterise patterns of movement that could lead to possums reaching farmland during the season when most dispersal occurs. Analyses of movement data showed that the direction of dispersal by sub-adult and adult possums and the extent of long exploratory movements were not biased toward forest buffers, even though these provided vacant habitat as suitable for possums as untreated forest. Instead, dispersal and exploratory movements were uncommon even for sub-adult possums and such events typically lasted <10 days. Dispersing possums settled predominantly in river valleys. A simulation model was developed for the 3-6-month dispersal season; it demonstrated a probability of <0.001 that an infected possum, originating from a low-density population with low disease prevalence in untreated forest, would move across 3 km of recently controlled forest buffer to reach farmland. Our results indicate short-term reduction in the risk of TB transmission from possums to livestock in New Zealand by the use of depopulated buffer zones, while acknowledging that the threat of disease spread from untreated forest is likely to increase over time as possum population density and, potentially, TB prevalence among those possums, increase in the buffer zone.

  15. Delineation of marine ecosystem zones in the northern Arabian Sea during winter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shalin, S

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available al., 2002). However, the accuracy of Chl a re- trieval is low in turbid waters and regions where the satellite signal is hampered by unaccounted atmospheric influences (Pozdnyakov and Grassl, 2003; Kahru et al., 2014). In this work, which focuses...

  16. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-W23-19[SX -115] in the S-SX Waste Management Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Gee, Glendon W.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Orr, Robert D.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Last, George V.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Burke, Deborah Sd; Wilson, Teresa C.; Williams, Bruce A.

    2001-01-01

    The Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project is led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. Their goals include defining risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities, identifying and evaluating the efficacy of interim measures, and collecting geo-technical information and data. The purpose of these activities is to support future decisions made by the U.S. Department of Energy regarding near-term operations, future waste retrieval, and final closure activities for the single-shell tank Waste Management Areas. To help in this effort, CH2M HILL contracted with scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to analyze sediment samples collected from borehole 299-W23-19. The conclusions reached from this study support specific mechanisms influencing subsurface migration of contaminants. The mechanisms are supported by the distributions of contaminants beneath tank farms. These observations will help DOE and CH2M HILL identify and implement viable remediation and closure activities

  17. Biological indication of production condition influence on the staff of State Specialized Enterprise for radioactive waste management and desactivation "Complex" in Chornobyl exclusion zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Tarasenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of comparative cytogenetical examination of two groups are presented. First group is staff from two workshops (RAW management and RAW deactivation of SJE “Complex” in Chornobyl exclusion zone. Second group consists of the persons who had no mutagenic factors influence during their professional activity (condi-tional control. Classical chromosome analysis method was used. It was found chromosome damages frequency in staff is significantly higher than spontaneous level in conditional control group. Professional experience dura-tion and external exposure integral doses of both workshops staff do not differ. Staff of RAW deactivation work-shop, who is additionally influenced by chemical and physical factors, has significantly higher chromosome ab-erration frequency, particularly due to specific cytogenetical markers of exposure. Correlation between external exposure integral doses and total chromosome aberration frequency, chromosome type aberration frequency, stabile interchromosomal exchanges frequency was found.

  18. 78 FR 59908 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Area; Amendment 99 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... comments. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council submitted Amendment 99 to the Fishery... review. If approved, Amendment 99 would enable the holders of license limitation program (LLP) licenses...

  19. 78 FR 63951 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Sebastian. Mail comments to P.O. Box 21668, Juneau, AK 99802-1668. Fax: Address written comments to Glenn....47(a) and (c). These vessels are able to participate in the fishery because they received a fishery... management measures in accordance with regulations implementing the AFA at 46 CFR 356.47, to allow vessels...

  20. 77 FR 42629 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... salmon resource. The RIR included a qualitative discussion of the benefits of a PSC limit to users of... effects of a rule (and alternatives to the rule), or more general descriptive statements, if... Office of NMFS and the Alaska Fisheries Science Center research, draft, and support the management...

  1. 76 FR 42099 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... is managed by a separate CDQ program. The inshore sector's pollock is subdivided among seven inshore... electronic reporting system with its data entry component, eLandings, for the catch accounting system to... catcher vessel delivering groundfish to a shoreside processor, stationary floating processor, or...

  2. Delineation of Suitable Cropland Areas Using a GIS Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation Approach in the Tam Dao National Park Region, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Dang Khoi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is recognized as one of the major threats to the buffer zones of protected areas (PAs in Vietnam. In particular, the expansion of land degradation into the PAs is exerting pressure on biodiversity conservation efforts. This degradation is partially the result of mismanagement: the utilization of the land is often unmatched with the inherent suitability of the land. Identification of the spatial distribution of suitable areas for cropland is essential for sustainable land-use recommendation. This paper aims to delineate the areas suitable for cropland in the Tam Dao National Park (TDNP region using a GIS-based multi-criteria evaluation of biophysical factors and Landsat ETM+ imagery. GIS is used to generate the factors, while MCE is used to aggregate them into a land suitability index. The results indicate the location and extent of crop farming areas at different suitability levels, i.e., most suitable (28.10%, moderately suitable (23.96%, marginally suitable (28.77%, and least suitable (19.17%. The current cropland covers 46.5% of the study area, while most and moderately suitable areas are estimated to be 52.06% of the territory. The results can be used to identify priority areas for crop farming and sustainable land-use management. The GIS-MCE approach provides an effective assessment tool for land-use managers working in protected areas of Vietnam.

  3. Determination of soil erosion and sedimentation affected by buffer zones and biochar amendment as best management practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khademalrasoul, Ataalah

    Sustainable management is one of the main challenges in modern agriculture. Soil erosion as one form of soil degradation is a threat against the soil sustainability. The main objective of my PhD study was to investigate the effectiveness of biochar as a non-structural best management practice (BMP...... bodies. Biochar as an organic amendment was in general able to improve soil quality by increasing soil aggregate stability, tensile strength (TS), and specific rupture energy (SRE) and on the other hand by decreasing clay dispersibility and the friability index (FI) of the soil aggregates. The results...... of rainfall-runoff simulations using round flumes in the laboratory indicated the positive effects of biochar amendment to mitigate runoff and soil erosion. Moreover laser scanning technique confirmed the positive effects of biochar lumps to enhance the soil surface roughness thereby reduce the runoff...

  4. Problems of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.Yi.

    2014-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone, aimed at the development of technologies, equipment and devices for radioactive waste management and ChNPP accident clean-up, at studying the composition and structure of the Exclusion zone soil activity solid bearers, form transformation of the fission products of fuel fallout radionuclide composition in the ChNPP near zone, the spatial distribution of radionuclides and other radioecological issues.. Much attention is paid to medical and biological aspects of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the workers of the Exclusion zone

  5. Life Management Technique of Thermal Fatigue for SMST Boiler Tube at Different Heating Zone Using Smithy Furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Shekhar Pal,; Pradeep Suman

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights on the evaluation of thermal fatigue failure for SMST (Salzgitter Mannesmann strain less boiler tube) DMV 304 HCu boiler tube using life management technique by using of smithy furnace. Boiler tubes are highly affected by operating conditions like, high temperature and high pressure. So it needs periodic checking for the purpose of safety and health assessment of the plant. So using this technique we can identify the degradation of tubes at microstructure...

  6. Strategic management - An online collaboration between two class groups separated by a "small pond" and six time zones

    OpenAIRE

    Asplund, Carl-Johan; Jordan, Paula F.

    2006-01-01

    An undergraduate course in Strategic Management seemingly provides similar basic content to students including the infamous SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threat) analysis along with the identification of functional level, business level, and generic strategies to enhance an organization’s competitiveness. One of the most common resources for this type of course is the article outlining a theoretical framework “How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy” by Michael Porter [Porter, ...

  7. Historical Delineation of Landscape Units Using Physical Geographic Characteristics and Land Use/Cover Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Campos, Oswaldo; Cruz-Cárdenas, Gustavo; Aquino, Roque Juan Carrasco; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo; Machuca, Martha Alicia Velázquez; Meléndez, Luis Arturo Ávila

    2018-03-01

    Landscape units are conceived as a part of the territory that share similar physical and geographic characteristics. Their delineation can contribute to identify the physical and social dynamics that emerge in the spatial environment and to propose strategies of planning and management of the territory. The main objective was to make a historical delineation of landscape units in the Duero river basin that demonstrate the dynamics of changes in the territory, the description of the actors involved, and the affectations in the natural and social environment. We analyzed the vegetation change and urban growth from 1983 to 2014, incorporating climatic, edaphic, and topographic variables. A Principal Component Analysis was performed with the information and results were used in Maximum Likelihood procedure to define different clusters based on environmental characteristics. We defined five categories from the Landsat images. Results showed landscape units with homogeneous environmental characteristics and some differences in the units' delineation were mainly influenced by political and socioeconomic factors. Temporally there was an increased tendency of landscape units, three in 1983, nine in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2011, and eight in 2014. This increase resulted from territory fragmentation because of berries and avocado cultivars expansion over wooded area.

  8. Historical Delineation of Landscape Units Using Physical Geographic Characteristics and Land Use/Cover Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Campos Oswaldo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Landscape units are conceived as a part of the territory that share similar physical and geographic characteristics. Their delineation can contribute to identify the physical and social dynamics that emerge in the spatial environment and to propose strategies of planning and management of the territory. The main objective was to make a historical delineation of landscape units in the Duero river basin that demonstrate the dynamics of changes in the territory, the description of the actors involved, and the affectations in the natural and social environment. We analyzed the vegetation change and urban growth from 1983 to 2014, incorporating climatic, edaphic, and topographic variables. A Principal Component Analysis was performed with the information and results were used in Maximum Likelihood procedure to define different clusters based on environmental characteristics. We defined five categories from the Landsat images. Results showed landscape units with homogeneous environmental characteristics and some differences in the units’ delineation were mainly influenced by political and socioeconomic factors. Temporally there was an increased tendency of landscape units, three in 1983, nine in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2011, and eight in 2014. This increase resulted from territory fragmentation because of berries and avocado cultivars expansion over wooded area.

  9. Methods for Delineating Degraded Land at Citarum Watershed, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suria Darma Tarigan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information on the extent and spatial location of degraded lands is very important to plan their rehabilitation.So far, various institutions issue different estimation on the extent of degraded land in Indonesia led to big confusion for rehabilitation planning. Ministry of Forestry estimates around 30.2 million ha of degraded land both inside and outside forestry area throughout Indonesia based on data released in 2007. Ministry of Forestry implementes the socalled scoring method in delineating degraded land. Criteria used in the scoring methods are: land cover, slope steepness, erosion, and management. Scoring method applies different weight to each of those criteria. This study aimed to analyze accuracy of scoring method and to compare it to propose alternative methods in delineating degraded land such as: a Inconsistency of land use, and b Combination of Inconsistency of land use and scoring method. The accuracy of these methods were obtained by comparing to the field observation. The slope map was derived from SRTM 30 m, soil map was obtained from Soil Research Institute and land cover/land use from Ministry for Environment. Using GIS analysis, those maps were used to compose land capability classification (LCC and inconsistency of land use. The study showed that scoring method had 66% accuracy in delineating degraded land. When scoring method was combined with Inconsistency method the accuracy increased about 7%.

  10. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  11. Benchmark of Client and Server-Side Catchment Delineation Approaches on Web-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Sermet, M. Y.; Sit, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in internet and cyberinfrastructure technologies have provided the capability to acquire large scale spatial data from various gauges and sensor networks. The collection of environmental data increased demand for applications which are capable of managing and processing large-scale and high-resolution data sets. With the amount and resolution of data sets provided, one of the challenging tasks for organizing and customizing hydrological data sets is delineation of watersheds on demand. Watershed delineation is a process for creating a boundary that represents the contributing area for a specific control point or water outlet, with intent of characterization and analysis of portions of a study area. Although many GIS tools and software for watershed analysis are available on desktop systems, there is a need for web-based and client-side techniques for creating a dynamic and interactive environment for exploring hydrological data. In this project, we demonstrated several watershed delineation techniques on the web with various techniques implemented on the client-side using JavaScript and WebGL, and on the server-side using Python and C++. We also developed a client-side GPGPU (General Purpose Graphical Processing Unit) algorithm to analyze high-resolution terrain data for watershed delineation which allows parallelization using GPU. The web-based real-time analysis of watershed segmentation can be helpful for decision-makers and interested stakeholders while eliminating the need of installing complex software packages and dealing with large-scale data sets. Utilization of the client-side hardware resources also eliminates the need of servers due its crowdsourcing nature. Our goal for future work is to improve other hydrologic analysis methods such as rain flow tracking by adapting presented approaches.

  12. Soil-gas monitoring: A tool for fault delineation studies along Hsinhua Fault (Tainan), Southern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walia, Vivek; Lin, Shih Jung; Fu, Ching Chou; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Hong, Wei-Li; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Cheng-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown the soil gas method to be one of the most reliable investigation tools in the research of earthquake precursory signals and fault delineation. The present research is aimed finding the relationship between soil gas distribution and tectonic systems in the vicinity of the Hsinhua Fault zone in the Tainan area of Southern Taiwan. More than 110 samples were collected along 13 traverses to find the spatial distribution of Rn, He, CO 2 and N 2 . The spatial congruence of all the gases shows that N 2 is the most probable carrier gas of He, whereas CO 2 seems to be a good carrier gas of Rn in this area. From the spatial distribution of Rn, He, CO 2 and N 2 the trace of Hsinhua Fault and neotectonic features can be identified. The spatial distribution of studied gases shows a clear anomalous trend ENE-SWS along the Hsinhua Fault.

  13. Quantifying the Road-Effect Zone: Threshold Effects of a Motorway on Anuran Populations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Eigenbrod

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The negative effect of roads on wildlife is recognized as a major contributor to the global biodiversity crisis, with anurans being among the most vulnerable groups overall. The "road-effect zone," i.e., the extent of significant ecological effects from the edge of a road (Forman and Alexander 1998, has important management implications, but has never been quantified for anurans. In the first study of its kind, we measured the extent and type of relationship underlying the road-effect zones of a motorway with a high proportion of heavy-truck traffic, particularly at night (Highway 401 for anuran species richness and relative abundance. We surveyed 34 ponds located 68-3262 m from the edge of the motorway, and used piecewise and linear regressions to determine if road-effect zones were clearly delineated by ecological thresholds. We found road-effect zones of 250-1000 m delineated by ecological thresholds for four of seven species and species richness, and road-effect zones of well beyond 1000 m best described by linear regressions for two species. The negative effect of Highway 401 was unexpectedly strong for four of seven species suggest that, in addition to road mortality, very high nighttime truck traffic can actually lead to reduced use of breeding habitat near the motorway either by acting as a barrier to forest habitat on the other side of the highway and/or because of traffic noise. Our results show that most anurans are likely to have reduced abundances near motorways, but that both the extent of the effect of this type of road and the underlying relationship vary considerably between species. Furthermore, the noise and/or barrier effect of very high nighttime traffic volumes can lead to negative effects of motorways even on species that are relatively unaffected by direct road mortality.

  14. Increasing land sustainability and productivity through soil-fertility management in the West African Sudano-Sahelian zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bationo, A.; Vanlauwe, B.; Kimetu, J.; Kihara, J.; Abdoulaye, M.S.; Adamou, A.; Tabo, R.; Koala, S.

    2005-01-01

    Food production has lagged behind population growth in most parts of the West African semi-arid tropics (WASAT). One of the reasons for low food production is decline in soil fertility as a consequence of continuous cropping without fertilization. As a result, there is a negative nutrient balance in most land-use systems in WASAT. The amount of nutrients leaving the soil, through crop uptake, leaching and erosion exceeds that returned through natural processes such as atmospheric deposition and biological nitrogen fixation or through additions of inorganic and organic fertilizers. Use of mineral fertilizers by many smallholder farmers remains low because of socio-economic constraints. Lack of adequate foreign exchange to import fertilizers, poor infrastructure and poor distribution mechanisms have hampered the use of inorganic fertilizers. Organic inputs such as manure, compost and crop residues are often proposed as alternatives to mineral fertilizers, however, it is important to recognize that in most cases the use of organic inputs is part of an internal flow of nutrients within the farm and does not add nutrient from outside the farm; also, quantities available are inadequate to meet nutrient needs over large areas because of limited availability, low nutrient content of the material, and high labour demands for processing and application. The beneficial effects of combined manure and inorganic nutrients on soil fertility have been repeatedly shown, yet there is need for more research on the establishment of the fertilizer equivalency of manures, in determining the optimum combination of these two plant nutrients and in taking into account the high variability in their quality. Such information is useful in formulating decision-support systems and in establishing simple guidelines for management and utilization of the resources. This paper highlights current research results on the management of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter and summarizes our

  15. Impacts of extensive driftnet fishery and late 1990s climate regime shift on dominant epipelagic nekton in the Transition Region and Subtropical Frontal Zone: Implications for fishery management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, T.; Nishikawa, H.; Igarashi, H.; Okamura, H.; Mahapatra, K.; Sakai, M.; Wakabayashi, T.; Inagake, D.; Okada, Y.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the impacts of extensive anthropogenic (high seas driftnet squid fishery) and natural (late 1990s major climate regime shift) events on dominant epipelagic fish, squid, and shark in the central North Pacific Transition Region based on a driftnet survey covering the years 1979-2006. Fishing was conducted by Japan, Korea and Taiwan to target neon flying squid in the period 1979-1992, resulting in a decline in stocks of the target species and non-target species (Pacific pomfret and juvenile blue shark), which were by-catch of this fishery. The catch was found to be at the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) level for neon flying squid, the underfished level for juvenile blue shark, but the overfished level for Pacific pomfret. The MSY of Pacific pomfret indicated that this species is more susceptible to exploitation than previously considered. In response to the late 1990s regime shift, neon flying squid and Pacific saury showed low stock levels in 1999-2002 and 1998-2002, respectively, as a result of reduced productivity in their nursery grounds (the Subtropical Frontal Zone and Kuroshio Extension Bifurcation Region, respectively). On the other hand, Pacific pomfret showed no decreasing trend in stock during the low- and intermediate-productivity regimes because of the high productivity of their main spawning/nursery ground (Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front), which was independent of the regime shifts. Thus, squid and saury appear to be more susceptible to the regime shift than pomfret. We discuss the implications for stock management of the species-specific responses to the fishery and the regime shift.

  16. Phytoscreening as an efficient tool to delineate chlorinated solvent sources at a chlor-alkali facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Loïc; Lagron, Jérôme; Cazaux, David; Limmer, Matt; Chalot, Michel

    2017-05-01

    Chlorinated ethenes (CE) are among the most common volatile organic compounds (VOC) that contaminate groundwater, currently representing a major source of pollution worldwide. Phytoscreening has been developed and employed through different applications at numerous sites, where it was generally useful for detection of subsurface chlorinated solvents. We aimed at delineating subsurface CE contamination at a chlor-alkali facility using tree core data that we compared with soil data. For this investigation a total of 170 trees from experimental zones was sampled and analyzed for perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations, measured by solid phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Within the panel of tree genera sampled, Quercus and Ulmus appeared to be efficient biomonitors of subjacent TCE and PCE contamination, in addition to the well known and widely used Populus and Salix genera. Among the 28 trees located above the dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) phase zone, 19 tree cores contained detectable amounts of CE, with concentrations ranging from 3 to 3000 μg L -1 . Our tree core dataset was found to be well related to soil gas sampling results, although the tree coring data were more informative. Our data further emphasized the need for choosing the relevant tree species and sampling periods, as well as taking into consideration the nature of the soil and its heterogeneity. Overall, this low-invasive screening method appeared useful to delineate contaminants at a small-scale site impacted by multiple sources of chlorinated solvents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Automated delineation of stroke lesions using brain CT images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline R. Gillebert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomographic (CT images are widely used for the identification of abnormal brain tissue following infarct and hemorrhage in stroke. Manual lesion delineation is currently the standard approach, but is both time-consuming and operator-dependent. To address these issues, we present a method that can automatically delineate infarct and hemorrhage in stroke CT images. The key elements of this method are the accurate normalization of CT images from stroke patients into template space and the subsequent voxelwise comparison with a group of control CT images for defining areas with hypo- or hyper-intense signals. Our validation, using simulated and actual lesions, shows that our approach is effective in reconstructing lesions resulting from both infarct and hemorrhage and yields lesion maps spatially consistent with those produced manually by expert operators. A limitation is that, relative to manual delineation, there is reduced sensitivity of the automated method in regions close to the ventricles and the brain contours. However, the automated method presents a number of benefits in terms of offering significant time savings and the elimination of the inter-operator differences inherent to manual tracing approaches. These factors are relevant for the creation of large-scale lesion databases for neuropsychological research. The automated delineation of stroke lesions from CT scans may also enable longitudinal studies to quantify changes in damaged tissue in an objective and reproducible manner.

  18. Delineating psychomotor slowing from reduced processing speed in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Matton, C.; Madani, Y.; Bouwel, L. van; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Psychomotor slowing is an intrinsic feature of schizophrenia that is poorly delineated from generally reduced processing speed. Although the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST) is widely used to assess psychomotor speed, the task also taps several higher-order cognitive processes.

  19. subsurface sequence delineation and saline water mapping of lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A subsurface sequence delineation and saline water mapping of Lagos State was carried out. Ten (10) deep boreholes with average depth of 300 m were drilled within the sedimentary basin. The boreholes were lithologically and geophysically logged. The driller's lithological logs aided by gamma and resistivity logs, ...

  20. A novel algorithm for delineating wetland depressions and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In traditional watershed delineation and topographic modeling, surface depressions are generally treated as spurious features and simply removed from a digital elevation model (DEM) to enforce flow continuity of water across the topographic surface to the watershed outlets. In reality, however, many depressions in the DEM are actual wetland landscape features that are seldom fully filled with water. For instance, wetland depressions in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) are seasonally to permanently flooded wetlands characterized by nested hierarchical structures with dynamic filling- spilling-merging surface-water hydrological processes. The objectives of this study were to delineate hierarchical wetland catchments and model their hydrologic connectivity using high-resolution LiDAR data and aerial imagery. We proposed a novel algorithm delineate the hierarchical wetland catchments and characterize their geometric and topological properties. Potential hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and streams were simulated using the least-cost path algorithm. The resulting flow network delineated putative temporary or seasonal flow paths connecting wetland depressions to each other or to the river network at scales finer than available through the National Hydrography Dataset. The results demonstrated that our proposed framework is promising for improving overland flow modeling and hydrologic connectivity analysis. Presentation at AWRA Spring Specialty Conference in Sn

  1. Riparian ecotone: A functional definition and delineation for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. S Verry; C. A Dolloff; M. E. Manning

    2004-01-01

    We propose a geomorphic basis for defining riparian areas using the term: riparian ecotone, discuss how past definitions fall short, and illustrate how a linked sequence of definition, delineation, and riparian sampling are used to accurately assess riparian resources on the ground. Our riparian ecotone is based on the width of the valley (its floodprone area width)...

  2. Effects of data resolution and stream delineation threshold area on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results also indicate that peak flow and slope of the hydrograph rising limb obtained from the SRTM DEM at different threshold areas (ranging from 0.25% to 3%) are greater than that for the TOPO DEM. Investigating the effects of stream network delineation threshold area on the simulated peak flow shows that the ...

  3. Nicolaides-Baraitser Syndrome : Delineation of the Phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, Sergio B.; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A.; Bottani, Armand; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Fryer, Alan; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Horn, Denise; Josifova, Dragana; Kuechler, Alma; Lees, Melissa; MacDermot, Kay; Magee, Alex; Morice-Picard, Fanny; Rosser, Elizabeth; Sarkar, Ajoy; Shannon, Nora; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Verloes, Alain; Wakeling, Emma; Wilson, Louise; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.

    Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NBS) is an infrequently described condition, thus far reported in five cases. In order to delineate the phenotype and its natural history in more detail, we gathered data on 18 hitherto unreported patients through a multi-center collaborative study, and follow-up data

  4. Nicolaides-Baraitser Syndrome: Delineation of the Phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, Sérgio B.; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A.; Bottani, Armand; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Fryer, Alan; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Horn, Denise; Josifova, Dragana; Kuechler, Alma; Lees, Melissa; Macdermot, Kay; Magee, Alex; Morice-Picard, Fanny; Rosser, Elizabeth; Sarkar, Ajoy; Shannon, Nora; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Verloes, Alain; Wakeling, Emma; Wilson, Louise; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NBS) is an infrequently described condition, thus far reported in five cases. In order to delineate the phenotype and its natural history in more detail, we gathered data on 18 hitherto unreported patients through a multi-center collaborative study, and follow-up data

  5. The Regionalization of Africa: Delineating Africa's Subregions Using Airline Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Pieter R.; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Current regionalizations of Africa have limitations in that they are attribute-based and regions are delineated according to national boundaries. Taking the world city network approach as starting point, it is possible to use relational data (i.e., information about the relationships between cities) rather than attribute data, and moreover, it…

  6. Land-use change and management effects on carbon sequestration in soils of Russia's South Taiga zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larionova, A.A.; Rozanova, L.N.; Yevdokimov, I.V.; Yermolayev, A.M.; Kurganova, I.N.; Blagodatsky, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of land use change and management on soil C sequestration was investigated during the 1980s-1990s on gray forest soils in Pushchino, and on the soddy-podzolic soil in Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve, Moscow Region, Russia (54 deg 50 min N, 37 deg 35 min E). Mean annual rates of C sequestration after establishment of perennials (layer 0-60 cm) were 63-182 g C/m 2 and 22-43 g C/m 2 for gray forest and soddy-podzolic soils, respectively. Grassing resulted in higher soil C accumulation than afforestation. Cutting and application of NPK fertilisers increased soil C accumulation, but newly formed soil organic matter was less resistant to decomposition than in unfertilised soil. Preliminary calculations of C sequestration due to abandonment of arable land in Russia since the early 1990s suggest that total C accumulation in soil and the plant biomass could represent about one tenth of industrial CO 2 emissions

  7. Legislation Amendment Impact on Coastal Management Pattern: An Edge of Chaos towards Punctuated Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Dian

    2017-07-01

    Management of coastal areas and small islands in Indonesia refers to a set of coordination consists of planning, utilizing, monitoring, and controlling coastal resources that are carried out by every level of the government and many related sectors. An alteration has occurred in National Act about Local Government, Act No. 23/2014, which has the implications in the coastal management territorial zone. The issues started by the shifting of the seaward delineation authorities, it is stated that from 0 - 12 Nautical Miles (nmi) are under provincial government which previously 0 - 4 nmi were under city government, and 4 - 12 nmi were under provincial government. That said, there are no territorial management that is handled by the city/local government, including permit regulation. In hierarchy, provincial government are in upper level than city government. Chaos are happening especially in the context of authorities’ management level, but to reach the main purpose of the National Act there should be an equilibrium point to normalize the situation and get the stakeholders understand the principles and keep engaged in the new form of management. This article aims to assess the impact of the National Act alteration to the sustainability of coastal management. A case study to simplify the model is in the East Java province. Theoretical framework to assess the alteration impact were related to Integrated Coastal Zone Management principles and regulatory review of the coastal zones. The analytical methods used in this article is descriptive comparative to observe the alteration in the pattern of coastal zone management variables. The comparative study was then mapped in a flow diagram to be compared on different management situation. As a result, significant changes were revealed in the pattern of the coastal management factors: (i) Authorities delineation; (ii) Planning documents; (iii) Permit system; (iv) Control; and (iii) Program Accreditation.

  8. Joining the Great Plains in Space, Place, and Time: Questioning a Time Zone Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Standard time zone boundaries are invisible in the landscape, yet they abruptly delineate a temporal difference of one hour between two large areas located relative to one another on Earth. In most cases, standard time zone boundaries follow political ones and define areas within which daylight saving time (DST)--the seasonal advancement of…

  9. Traffic flow characteristic and capacity in intelligent work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Intellgent transportation system (ITS) technologies are utilized to manage traffic flow and safety in : highway work zones. Traffic management plans for work zones require queuing analyses to determine : the anticipated traffic backups, but the predi...

  10. Cokriging of Electromagnetic Induction Soil Electrical Conductivity Measurements and Soil Textural Properties to Demarcate Sub-field Management Zones for Precision Irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R.; Cruz, L.; Whitney, J.; Telenko, D.; Oware, E. K.

    2017-12-01

    There is the growing need for the development of efficient irrigation management practices due to increasing irrigation water scarcity as a result of growing population and changing climate. Soil texture primarily controls the water-holding capacity of soils, which determines the amount of irrigation water that will be available to the plant. However, while there are significant variabilities in the textural properties of the soil across a field, conventional irrigation practices ignore the underlying variability in the soil properties, resulting in over- or under-irrigation. Over-irrigation leaches plant nutrients beyond the root-zone leading to fertilizer, energy, and water wastages with dire environmental consequences. Under-irrigation, in contrast, causes water stress of the plant, thereby reducing plant quality and yield. The goal of this project is to leverage soil textural map of a field to create water management zones (MZs) to guide site-specific precision irrigation. There is increasing application of electromagnetic induction methods to rapidly and inexpensively map spatially continuous soil properties in terms of the apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) of the soil. ECa is a measure of the bulk soil properties, including soil texture, moisture, salinity, and cation exchange capacity, making an ECa map a pseudo-soil map. Data for the project were collected from a farm site at Eden, NY. The objective is to leverage high-resolution ECa map to predict spatially dense soil textural properties from limited measurements of soil texture. Thus, after performing ECa mapping, we conducted particle-size analysis of soil samples to determine the textural properties of soils at selected locations across the field. We cokriged the high-resolution ECa measurements with the sparse soil textural data to estimate a soil texture map for the field. We conducted irrigation experiments at selected locations to calibrate representative water-holding capacities of each

  11. Dairy farms typology and management of animal genetic resources in the peri-urban zone of Bamako (Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Toure

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To characterise this development around Bamako (Mali, this study establishes a typology of dairy production systems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5–118 and 42% of farmers owned cropland (8.3± 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha. Feeding strategy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85% of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important parameters. According to breeders’ answers, thirty genetic profiles were identified, from local purebreds to different levels of crossbreds. Purebred animals raised were Fulani Zebu (45.8 %, Maure Zebu (9.2 %, Holstein (3.0 %, Azawak Zebu (1.3 %, Mere Zebu (0.5% and Kuri taurine (0.1 %. Holstein crossbred represented 30.5% of the total number of animals (19.0% Fulani-Holstein, 11.2% Maure-Holstein and 0.3% Kuri-Holstein. Montbéliarde, Normande and Limousin crossbreds were also found (6.6 %, 0.7% and 0.3 %, respectively. A multivariate analysis helped disaggregate the diversity of management practices. The high diversity of situations shows the need for consideration of typological characteristics for an appropriate intervention. Although strongly anchored on local breeds, the peri-urban dairy systems included a diversity of exotic cattle, showing an uncoordinated quest of breeders for innovation. Without a public intervention, this dynamic will result in an irremediable erosion of indigenous animal genetic resources.

  12. Target volume delineation in external beam partial breast irradiation: Less inter-observer variation with preoperative- compared to postoperative delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leij, Femke van der; Elkhuizen, Paula H.M.; Janssen, Tomas M.; Poortmans, Philip; Sangen, Maurice van der; Scholten, Astrid N.; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Boersma, Liesbeth J.

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of adequate target volume definition in external beam partial breast irradiation (PBI) could be overcome with preoperative irradiation, due to less inter-observer variation. We compared the target volume delineation for external beam PBI on preoperative versus postoperative CT scans of twenty-four breast cancer patients

  13. Target volume delineation in external beam partial breast irradiation: less inter-observer variation with preoperative- compared to postoperative delineation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leij, F. van der; Elkhuizen, P.H.M.; Janssen, T.M.; Poortmans, P.M.P.; Sangen, M. van der; Scholten, A.N.; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, C. van; Boersma, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of adequate target volume definition in external beam partial breast irradiation (PBI) could be overcome with preoperative irradiation, due to less inter-observer variation. We compared the target volume delineation for external beam PBI on preoperative versus postoperative CT scans of

  14. Evaluation of the effect of an environmental management program on exposure to manganese in a mining zone in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Moreno-Macías, Hortensia; Montes, Sergio; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth; Hernández-Bonilla, David; Catalán-Vázquez, Minerva; Díaz-Godoy, Raúl; Rodríguez-Dozal, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    In the state of Hidalgo, Mexico, is found the largest second deposit of Manganese (Mn) in Latin America. Various studies on the sources of emission, exposure, and the effects on the health of children and adults have been conducted utilizing an ecosystem approach. Given the findings of Mn levels in air and the neurocognitive effects, an Environmental Management Program (EMP) was designed and implemented with the purpose of reducing exposure to Mn of the population, including various actions for reducing Mn emissions into the atmosphere. To evaluate the impact of the EMP on the concentrations of Mn in air, as well as the modification of exposure to Mn in the blood and hair of adult residents of the communities intervened. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in five rural communities, in which Mn concentrations were evaluated in air and in blood in the years 2002 and 2007, pre-intervention, and in 2013, postintervention. In 2003, the concentration of hair Mn among the communities was evaluated. Measurements were carried out of Particulate Matter (PM) of >10 and 2.5μm (PM10 and PM2.5), and Mn in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured using proton-induced X-ray emissions (PIXE). The method of Difference in Differences (DID) was applied to estimate the impact of EMP on Mn concentrations in particulate matter via linear regression through multilevel models. To evaluate the effect of Mn concentrations in air over Mn concentrations in blood in both study periods in the mining communities per year (2002 and 2013), a linear regression model for each year was employed. We estimated that the EMP contributed to reducing the average daily concentrations of Mn in PM10 and PM2.5 by 92 and 85%, respectively. The adjusted model did not show an effect of Mn concentrations in air over Mn concentrations in blood in both study periods. The results suggest that the measures implemented to reduce Mn emissions in air exerted a significant impact on the reduction of inhaled exposure in adult

  15. Delineation of gravel-bed clusters via factorial kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fu-Chun; Wang, Chi-Kuei; Huang, Guo-Hao

    2018-05-01

    Gravel-bed clusters are the most prevalent microforms that affect local flows and sediment transport. A growing consensus is that the practice of cluster delineation should be based primarily on bed topography rather than grain sizes. Here we present a novel approach for cluster delineation using patch-scale high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). We use a geostatistical interpolation method, i.e., factorial kriging, to decompose the short- and long-range (grain- and microform-scale) DEMs. The required parameters are determined directly from the scales of the nested variograms. The short-range DEM exhibits a flat bed topography, yet individual grains are sharply outlined, making the short-range DEM a useful aid for grain segmentation. The long-range DEM exhibits a smoother topography than the original full DEM, yet groupings of particles emerge as small-scale bedforms, making the contour percentile levels of the long-range DEM a useful tool for cluster identification. Individual clusters are delineated using the segmented grains and identified clusters via a range of contour percentile levels. Our results reveal that the density and total area of delineated clusters decrease with increasing contour percentile level, while the mean grain size of clusters and average size of anchor clast (i.e., the largest particle in a cluster) increase with the contour percentile level. These results support the interpretation that larger particles group as clusters and protrude higher above the bed than other smaller grains. A striking feature of the delineated clusters is that anchor clasts are invariably greater than the D90 of the grain sizes even though a threshold anchor size was not adopted herein. The average areal fractal dimensions (Hausdorff-Besicovich dimensions of the projected areas) of individual clusters, however, demonstrate that clusters delineated with different contour percentile levels exhibit similar planform morphologies. Comparisons with a

  16. Multiscale Geoscene Segmentation for Extracting Urban Functional Zones from VHR Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyuan Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban functional zones, such as commercial, residential, and industrial zones, are basic units of urban planning, and play an important role in monitoring urbanization. However, historical functional-zone maps are rarely available for cities in developing countries, as traditional urban investigations focus on geographic objects rather than functional zones. Recent studies have sought to extract functional zones automatically from very-high-resolution (VHR satellite images, and they mainly concentrate on classification techniques, but ignore zone segmentation which delineates functional-zone boundaries and is fundamental to functional-zone analysis. To resolve the issue, this study presents a novel segmentation method, geoscene segmentation, which can identify functional zones at multiple scales by aggregating diverse urban objects considering their features and spatial patterns. In experiments, we applied this method to three Chinese cities—Beijing, Putian, and Zhuhai—and generated detailed functional-zone maps with diverse functional categories. These experimental results indicate our method effectively delineates urban functional zones with VHR imagery; different categories of functional zones extracted by using different scale parameters; and spatial patterns that are more important than the features of individual objects in extracting functional zones. Accordingly, the presented multiscale geoscene segmentation method is important for urban-functional-zone analysis, and can provide valuable data for city planners.

  17. Hydrological, meteorological and geohydrological data for an unsaturated zone study near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho - 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, L.C.; Pittman, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1952, radioactive waste has been buried at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in southeastern Idaho. In 1985, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, began a study of the geohydrology of the RWMC to provide a basis for estimating the extent of and the potential for migration of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste burial trenches and pits. This study is being conducted to provide hydrological, meteorological and geohydrological data for the test trench area adjacent to the northern boundary of the RWMC. During 1987, data were collected from the test trench area, where several types of instrumentation were installed in the surficial sediment in 1985. Hydrological data collected from both disturbed and undisturbed soil included measurements, from 28 thermocouple psychrometers placed at selected depths to about 6m. Soil moisture content measurements were collected bi-weekly in 9 neutron-probe access holes with a neutron moisture depth gage. Meteorological data summarized daily included: (1) incoming and emitted long-wave radiation; (2) incoming and reflected short-wave radiation; (3) air temperature; (4) relative humidity; (5) wind speed; (6) wind direction; and (7) precipitation. To describe grain-size distribution with depth, 17 samples were analyzed using sieve and pipette methods. Statistical parameters, carbonate content, color, particle roundness and sphericity, and mineralogic and clastic constituents were determined for each sample. Some samples were analyzed by x-ray diffraction techniques to determine bulk and clay mineralogy

  18. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-W23-19 [SX-115] in the S-SX Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Gee, Glendon W.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Last, George V.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Burke, Deborah S.; Wilson, Teresa C.; Williams, Bruce A.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.15 and 4.19. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project is led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. Their goals include defining risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities, identifying and evaluating the efficacy of interim measures, and collecting geotechnical information and data. The purpose of these activities is to support future decisions made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regarding near-term operations, future waste retrieval, and final closure activities for the single-shell tank Waste Management Areas. To help in this effort, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. contracted with scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to analyze sediment samples collected from borehole 299-W23-19.

  19. Tumor and target delineation: current research and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin-Seymour, Mary; Chen, George T.Y.; Rosenman, Julian; Michalski, Jeff; Lindsley, Karen; Goitein, Michael

    1995-01-01

    In the past decade, significant progress has been made in the imaging of tumors, three dimensional (3D) treatment planning, and radiation treatment delivery. At this time one of the greatest challenges for conformal radiation therapy is the accurate delineation of tumor and target volumes. The physician encounters many uncertainties in the process of defining both tumor and target. The sources of these uncertainties are discussed, as well as the issues requiring study to reduce these uncertainties

  20. Fuel conditioning facility zone-to-zone transfer administrative controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    The administrative controls associated with transferring containers from one criticality hazard control zone to another in the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) are described. FCF, located at the ANL-West site near Idaho Falls, Idaho, is used to remotely process spent sodium bonded metallic fuel for disposition. The process involves nearly forty widely varying material forms and types, over fifty specific use container types, and over thirty distinct zones where work activities occur. During 1999, over five thousand transfers from one zone to another were conducted. Limits are placed on mass, material form and type, and container types for each zone. Ml material and containers are tracked using the Mass Tracking System (MTG). The MTG uses an Oracle database and numerous applications to manage the database. The database stores information specific to the process, including material composition and mass, container identification number and mass, transfer history, and the operators involved in each transfer. The process is controlled using written procedures which specify the zone, containers, and material involved in a task. Transferring a container from one zone to another is called a zone-to-zone transfer (ZZT). ZZTs consist of four distinct phases, select, request, identify, and completion

  1. Scaling Critical Zone analysis tasks from desktop to the cloud utilizing contemporary distributed computing and data management approaches: A case study for project based learning of Cyberinfrastructure concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetnam, T. L.; Pelletier, J. D.; Merchant, N.; Callahan, N.; Lyons, E.

    2015-12-01

    Earth science is making rapid advances through effective utilization of large-scale data repositories such as aerial LiDAR and access to NSF-funded cyberinfrastructures (e.g. the OpenTopography.org data portal, iPlant Collaborative, and XSEDE). Scaling analysis tasks that are traditionally developed using desktops, laptops or computing clusters to effectively leverage national and regional scale cyberinfrastructure pose unique challenges and barriers to adoption. To address some of these challenges in Fall 2014 an 'Applied Cyberinfrastructure Concepts' a project-based learning course (ISTA 420/520) at the University of Arizona focused on developing scalable models of 'Effective Energy and Mass Transfer' (EEMT, MJ m-2 yr-1) for use by the NSF Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) project. EEMT is a quantitative measure of the flux of available energy to the critical zone, and its computation involves inputs that have broad applicability (e.g. solar insolation). The course comprised of 25 students with varying level of computational skills and with no prior domain background in the geosciences, collaborated with domain experts to develop the scalable workflow. The original workflow relying on open-source QGIS platform on a laptop was scaled to effectively utilize cloud environments (Openstack), UA Campus HPC systems, iRODS, and other XSEDE and OSG resources. The project utilizes public data, e.g. DEMs produced by OpenTopography.org and climate data from Daymet, which are processed using GDAL, GRASS and SAGA and the Makeflow and Work-queue task management software packages. Students were placed into collaborative groups to develop the separate aspects of the project. They were allowed to change teams, alter workflows, and design and develop novel code. The students were able to identify all necessary dependencies, recompile source onto the target execution platforms, and demonstrate a functional workflow, which was further improved upon by one of the group leaders over

  2. Crowdsourcing for error detection in cortical surface delineations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Melanie; Kondermann, Daniel; Andrulis, Jonas; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Maier-Hein, Lena

    2017-01-01

    With the recent trend toward big data analysis, neuroimaging datasets have grown substantially in the past years. While larger datasets potentially offer important insights for medical research, one major bottleneck is the requirement for resources of medical experts needed to validate automatic processing results. To address this issue, the goal of this paper was to assess whether anonymous nonexperts from an online community can perform quality control of MR-based cortical surface delineations derived by an automatic algorithm. So-called knowledge workers from an online crowdsourcing platform were asked to annotate errors in automatic cortical surface delineations on 100 central, coronal slices of MR images. On average, annotations for 100 images were obtained in less than an hour. When using expert annotations as reference, the crowd on average achieves a sensitivity of 82 % and a precision of 42 %. Merging multiple annotations per image significantly improves the sensitivity of the crowd (up to 95 %), but leads to a decrease in precision (as low as 22 %). Our experiments show that the detection of errors in automatic cortical surface delineations generated by anonymous untrained workers is feasible. Future work will focus on increasing the sensitivity of our method further, such that the error detection tasks can be handled exclusively by the crowd and expert resources can be focused on error correction.

  3. Image-Based Delineation and Classification of Built Heritage Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Oses

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundación Zain is developing new built heritage assessment protocols. The goal is to objectivize and standardize the analysis and decision process that leads to determining the degree of protection of built heritage in the Basque Country. The ultimate step in this objectivization and standardization effort will be the development of an information and communication technology (ICT tool for the assessment of built heritage. This paper presents the ground work carried out to make this tool possible: the automatic, image-based delineation of stone masonry. This is a necessary first step in the development of the tool, as the built heritage that will be assessed consists of stone masonry construction, and many of the features analyzed can be characterized according to the geometry and arrangement of the stones. Much of the assessment is carried out through visual inspection. Thus, this process will be automated by applying image processing on digital images of the elements under inspection. The principal contribution of this paper is the automatic delineation the framework proposed. The other contribution is the performance evaluation of this delineation as the input to a classifier for a geometrically characterized feature of a built heritage object. The element chosen to perform this evaluation is the stone arrangement of masonry walls. The validity of the proposed framework is assessed on real images of masonry walls.

  4. Tools to analyse and display variations in anatomical delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, Martin A.; McDermott, L.N.; Haworth, A; Van der Wath, E.; Hooton, B.

    2012-01-01

    Variations in anatomical delineation, principally due to a combination of inter-observer contributions and image-specificity, remain one of the most significant impediments to geometrically-accurate radiotherapy. Quantification of spatial variability of the delineated contours comprising a structure can be made with a variety of metrics, and the availability of software tools to apply such metrics to data collected during inter-observer or repeat-imaging studies would allow their validation. A suite of such tools have been developed which use an Extensible Markup Language format for the exchange of delineated 3D structures with radiotherapy planning or review systems. These tools provide basic operations for manipulating and operating on individual structures and related structure sets, and for deriving statistics on spatial variations of contours that can be mapped onto the surface of a reference structure. Use of these tools on a sample dataset is demonstrated together with import and display of results in the SWAN treatment plan review system.

  5. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health labour conditions and incidence of the people involved

  6. Problems of Chornobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashparov, V.A.

    2009-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved.

  7. Spatial and thematic assessment of object-based forest stand delineation using an OFA-matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, A.; Tiede, D.; Albrecht, F.; Lang, S.

    2012-10-01

    The delineation and classification of forest stands is a crucial aspect of forest management. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) can be used to produce detailed maps of forest stands from either orthophotos or very high resolution satellite imagery. However, measures are then required for evaluating and quantifying both the spatial and thematic accuracy of the OBIA output. In this paper we present an approach for delineating forest stands and a new Object Fate Analysis (OFA) matrix for accuracy assessment. A two-level object-based orthophoto analysis was first carried out to delineate stands on the Dehesa Boyal public land in central Spain (Avila Province). Two structural features were first created for use in class modelling, enabling good differentiation between stands: a relational tree cover cluster feature, and an arithmetic ratio shadow/tree feature. We then extended the OFA comparison approach with an OFA-matrix to enable concurrent validation of thematic and spatial accuracies. Its diagonal shows the proportion of spatial and thematic coincidence between a reference data and the corresponding classification. New parameters for Spatial Thematic Loyalty (STL), Spatial Thematic Loyalty Overall (STLOVERALL) and Maximal Interfering Object (MIO) are introduced to summarise the OFA-matrix accuracy assessment. A stands map generated by OBIA (classification data) was compared with a map of the same area produced from photo interpretation and field data (reference data). In our example the OFA-matrix results indicate good spatial and thematic accuracies (>65%) for all stand classes except for the shrub stands (31.8%), and a good STLOVERALL (69.8%). The OFA-matrix has therefore been shown to be a valid tool for OBIA accuracy assessment.

  8. Coastal zone management of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.

    stream_size 1 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_94.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_94.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  9. Integration of Remote Sensing and Geophysical Applications for Delineation of Geological Structures: Implication for Water Resources in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, L.; Farag, A. Z. A.

    2017-12-01

    North African countries struggle with insufficient, polluted, oversubscribed, and increasingly expensive water. This natural water shortage, in addition to the lack of a comprehensive scheme for the identification of new water resources challenge the political settings in north Africa. Groundwater is one of the main water resources and its occurrence is controlled by the structural elements which are still poorly understood. Integration of remote sensing images and geophysical tools enable us to delineate the surface and subsurface structures (i.e. faults, joints and shear zones), identify the role of these structures on groundwater flow and then to define the proper locations for groundwater wells. This approach were applied to three different areas in Egypt; southern Sinai, north eastern Sinai and the Eastern Desert using remote sensing, geophysical and hydrogeological datasets as follows: (1) identification of the spatial and temporal rainfall events using meteorological station data and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission data; (2) delineation of major faults and shear zones using ALOS Palsar, Landsat 8 and ASTER images, geological maps and field investigation; (3) generation of a normalized difference ratio image using Envisat radar images before and after the rain events to identify preferential water-channeling discontinuities in the crystalline terrain; (4) analysis of well data and derivations of hydrological parameters; (5) validation of the water-channeling discontinuities using Very Low Frequency, testing the structural elements (pre-delineated by remote sensing data) and their depth using gravity, magnetic and Vertical Electrical Sounding methods; (6) generation of regional groundwater flow and isotopic (18O and 2H) distribution maps for the sedimentary aquifer and an approximation flow map for the crystalline aquifer. The outputs include: (1) a conceptual/physical model for the groundwater flow in fractured crystalline and sedimentary aquifers; (2

  10. Ecological assessment of the marine ecosystems of Barbuda, West Indies: Using rapid scientific assessment to inform ocean zoning and fisheries management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselle, Jennifer E.; Estep, Andrew J.; Johnson, Ayana Elizabeth; Marhaver, Kristen L.; Richter, Lee J.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Grenda, David; Cannon, Abigail

    2018-01-01

    To inform a community-based ocean zoning initiative, we conducted an intensive ecological assessment of the marine ecosystems of Barbuda, West Indies. We conducted 116 fish and 108 benthic surveys around the island, and measured the abundance and size structure of lobsters and conch at 52 and 35 sites, respectively. We found that both coral cover and fish biomass were similar to or lower than levels observed across the greater Caribbean; live coral cover and abundance of fishery target species, such as large snappers and groupers, was generally low. However, Barbuda lacks many of the high-relief forereef areas where similar work has been conducted in other Caribbean locations. The distribution of lobsters was patchy, making it difficult to quantify density at the island scale. However, the maximum size of lobsters was generally larger than in other locations in the Caribbean and similar to the maximum size reported 40 years ago. While the lobster population has clearly been heavily exploited, our data suggest that it is not as overexploited as in much of the rest of the Caribbean. Surveys of Barbuda’s Codrington Lagoon revealed many juvenile lobsters, but none of legal size (95 mm carapace length), suggesting that the lagoon functions primarily as nursery habitat. Conch abundance and size on Barbuda were similar to that of other Caribbean islands. Our data suggest that many of the regional threats observed on other Caribbean islands are present on Barbuda, but some resources—particularly lobster and conch—may be less overexploited than on other Caribbean islands. Local management has the potential to provide sustainability for at least some of the island’s marine resources. We show that a rapid, thorough ecological assessment can reveal clear conservation opportunities and facilitate rapid conservation action by providing the foundation for a community-driven policymaking process at the island scale. PMID:29309413

  11. Hydrologic and Meteorological Data for an Unsaturated-Zone Study Area near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1990-96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, K. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Pittman, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Trenches and pits at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (formerly known as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) have been used for burial of radioactive waste since 1952. In 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, began a multi-phase study of the geohydrology of the RWMC to provide a basis for estimating the extent of and the potential for migration of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste trenches and pits. This phase of the study provides hydrologic and meteorological data collected at a designated test trench area adjacent to the northern boundary of the RWMC SDA from 1990 through 1996. The test trench area was constructed by the USGS in 1985. Hydrologic data presented in this report were collected during 1990-96 in the USGS test trench area. Soil-moisture content measurement from disturbed and undisturbed soil were collected approximately monthly during 1990-96 from 11 neutron-probe access holes with a neutron moisture gage. In 1994, three additional neutron access holes were completed for monitoring. A meteorological station inside the test trench area provided data for determination of evapotranspiration rates. The soil-moisture and meteorological data are contained in files on 3-1/2 inch diskettes (disks 1 and 2) included with this report. The data are presented in simple American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format with tab-delimited fields. The files occupy a total of 1.5 megabytes of disk space

  12. Boundary delineation for regional groundwater flow through geographic information system (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Tadashi; Munakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Hideo; Hyodo, Hiroshi

    2007-03-01

    Radionuclide migration toward the human environment is to be assessed as the part of long-term safety assessments of geologic disposal of radioactive waste. Geologic processes, which include volcanic activity, hydrothermal activity, seismicity and deformation, bring about hydrogeologic changes in the regional groundwater flow system around a repository site. Groundwater flow systems in Japan have been studied in several sites such as Tono mine, Kamaishi mine and Horonobe area, but methodology of studies in these sites does not have fully developed. This study was conducted to develop methodologies of boundary delineation for regional groundwater flow systems. Geographic Information System, GIS, was applied using available topographic, hydrologic and geologic data for an area of interest. Miyakoji in the Abukuma Mountains was selected as the area, for the reason of its simple geologic setting formed by granitic rocks and topographically gentle hills of drainage basin. Data used in this study cover topographic sheets, digital elevation model, satellite imagery, geologic maps, topographic classification maps, soil distribution maps and landuse maps. Through the GIS techniques using these data, thematic maps on topographic features, surface conditions, land coverage, geology and geologic structure and weathered crust were developed, and these thematic maps were further applied to extract four factors affecting the regional groundwater flows: topographic condition, precipitation recharge, fracture characteristics and potential flows. The present study revealed that, taking the potential groundwater flows and characteristics of fractured zones in the area into consideration, the groundwater flow system in Miyakoji drainage basin should be bounded by the Otakine Mountain and the northern part of Tokoha Drainage Basin. The delineated area is larger than understood before. (author)

  13. Ordering Interfluves: a Simple Proposal for Understanding Critical Zone Evolution and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecheisen, Z. S.; Richter, D., Jr.; Moon, S.; Halpin, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    A geomorphic interfluve ordering system, a reciprocal to the Hortonian-Strahler stream network order, is envisioned at the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory (CCZO) in the South Carolina Piedmont. In this system the narrowest and most highly dissected interfluves (gentle ridges and hilltops) are 1st order and increase in rank dendritically through interfluve branching and broadening. Interfluve order attends to the structure, function, and management of residual porous-solid systems in the transport of water, solutes, and eroded solids in our deeply weathered (>30m soil/saprolite) critical zone. Recently generated geospatial data regarding the interactions of geomorphology, human land use, and forest ecology further strengthen the utility of this system. These upland networks and corresponding "land-sheds" have potential in linking recent work in the fields of geophysics and geomorphology regarding bedrock weathering front dynamics. Patterns of bedrock weathering depth, landcover & land-use change, and soil erosion are considered as they correspond to interfluve order. With LiDAR mapping and the burgeoning development and utilization of geophysical techniques and models enabling new quantitative research of critical zone landscape structure and function, many physiographic regions could benefit from a system that delineates and orders interfluve networks.

  14. Geomorphic Flood Area (GFA): a QGIS tool for a cost-effective delineation of the floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samela, Caterina; Albano, Raffaele; Sole, Aurelia; Manfreda, Salvatore

    2017-04-01

    The importance of delineating flood hazard and risk areas at a global scale has been highlighted for many years. However, its complete achievement regularly encounters practical difficulties, above all the lack of data and implementation costs. In conditions of scarce data availability (e.g. ungauged basins, large-scale analyses), a fast and cost-effective floodplain delineation can be carried out using geomorphic methods (e.g., Manfreda et al., 2011; 2014). In particular, an automatic DEM-based procedure has been implemented in an open-source QGIS plugin named Geomorphic Flood Area - tool (GFA - tool). This tool performs a linear binary classification based on the recently proposed Geomorphic Flood Index (GFI), which exhibited high classification accuracy and reliability in several test sites located in Europe, United States and Africa (Manfreda et al., 2015; Samela et al., 2016, 2017; Samela, 2016). The GFA - tool is designed to make available to all users the proposed procedure, that includes a number of operations requiring good geomorphic and GIS competences. It allows computing the GFI through terrain analysis, turning it into a binary classifier, and training it on the base of a standard inundation map derived for a portion of the river basin (a minimum of 2% of the river basin's area is suggested) using detailed methods of analysis (e.g. flood hazard maps produced by emergency management agencies or river basin authorities). Finally, GFA - tool allows to extend the classification outside the calibration area to delineate the flood-prone areas across the entire river basin. The full analysis has been implemented in this plugin with a user-friendly interface that should make it easy to all user to apply the approach and produce the desired results. Keywords: flood susceptibility; data scarce environments; geomorphic flood index; linear binary classification; Digital elevation models (DEMs). References Manfreda, S., Di Leo, M., Sole, A., (2011). Detection of

  15. PET functional volume delineation: a robustness and repeatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Cheze-le Rest, Catherine; Albarghach, Nidal; Pradier, Olivier; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art algorithms for functional uptake volume segmentation in PET imaging consist of threshold-based approaches, whose parameters often require specific optimization for a given scanner and associated reconstruction algorithms. Different advanced image segmentation approaches previously proposed and extensively validated, such as among others fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering, or fuzzy locally adaptive bayesian (FLAB) algorithm have the potential to improve the robustness of functional uptake volume measurements. The objective of this study was to investigate robustness and repeatability with respect to various scanner models, reconstruction algorithms and acquisition conditions. Robustness was evaluated using a series of IEC phantom acquisitions carried out on different PET/CT scanners (Philips Gemini and Gemini Time-of-Flight, Siemens Biograph and GE Discovery LS) with their associated reconstruction algorithms (RAMLA, TF MLEM, OSEM). A range of acquisition parameters (contrast, duration) and reconstruction parameters (voxel size) were considered for each scanner model, and the repeatability of each method was evaluated on simulated and clinical tumours and compared to manual delineation. For all the scanner models, acquisition parameters and reconstruction algorithms considered, the FLAB algorithm demonstrated higher robustness in delineation of the spheres with low mean errors (10%) and variability (5%), with respect to threshold-based methodologies and FCM. The repeatability provided by all segmentation algorithms considered was very high with a negligible variability of <5% in comparison to that associated with manual delineation (5-35%). The use of advanced image segmentation algorithms may not only allow high accuracy as previously demonstrated, but also provide a robust and repeatable tool to aid physicians as an initial guess in determining functional volumes in PET. (orig.)

  16. Internal and external validation of an ESTRO delineation guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldesoky, Ahmed R.; Yates, Esben Svitzer; Nyeng, Tine B

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. Materials and methods Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized...... and axillary nodal levels and poor agreement for interpectoral, internal mammary nodal regions and LADCA. Correcting ABAS significantly improved all the results. External validation of ABAS showed comparable results. Conclusions ABAS is a clinically useful tool for segmenting structures in breast cancer loco...

  17. LMFBR accident delineation study: approach and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.; Sholtis, J.A.; Rios, M.; Worledge, D.H.; Conrad, P.W.; Varela, D.W.; Pickard, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    Event trees have been constructed for all phases of LMFBR accidents. The trees proved useful for identifying meaningful initiating accident categories and containment responses. In these areas, quantification appears feasible, given an adequate data base. Event trees were also used to represent in-core phenomenological questions governing accident progression and energetics, but here quantification appears impracticable because pervasive phenomenological uncertainties exist. Infrequent accident initiation is the dominant factor in assuring low risk. Nevertheless, containment promises an additional measure of risk reduction provided severe energetics are highly unlikely. The delineation served to systematize LMFBR safety issues and should aid in evaluating LMFBR R and D priorities

  18. Validation of holistic nursing competencies: role-delineation study, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Helen Lorraine; Erickson, Margaret Elizabeth; Campbell, Joan A; Brekke, Mary E; Sandor, M Kay

    2013-12-01

    The American Holistic Nurses Credentialing Corporation (AHNCC), certifying body for nurses practicing within the precepts of holistic nursing, uses a systematic process to guide program development. A previous publication described their early work that distinguished basic and advanced holistic nursing and development of related examinations. A more recent publication described the work of AHNCC from 2004 to 2012, including a role-delineation study (RDS) that was undertaken to identify and validate competencies currently used by holistic nurses. A final report describes the RDS design, methods, and raw data information. This article discusses AHNCC's goals for undertaking the 2012 Holistic Nursing RDS and the implications for the certification programs.

  19. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rubaire-Akiiki

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.

  20. Minimizing transient influence in WHPA delineation: An optimization approach for optimal pumping rate schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Pretelin, A.; Nowak, W.

    2017-12-01

    For most groundwater protection management programs, Wellhead Protection Areas (WHPAs) have served as primarily protection measure. In their delineation, the influence of time-varying groundwater flow conditions is often underestimated because steady-state assumptions are commonly made. However, it has been demonstrated that temporary variations lead to significant changes in the required size and shape of WHPAs. Apart from natural transient groundwater drivers (e.g., changes in the regional angle of flow direction and seasonal natural groundwater recharge), anthropogenic causes such as transient pumping rates are of the most influential factors that require larger WHPAs. We hypothesize that WHPA programs that integrate adaptive and optimized pumping-injection management schemes can counter transient effects and thus reduce the additional areal demand in well protection under transient conditions. The main goal of this study is to present a novel management framework that optimizes pumping schemes dynamically, in order to minimize the impact triggered by transient conditions in WHPA delineation. For optimizing pumping schemes, we consider three objectives: 1) to minimize the risk of pumping water from outside a given WHPA, 2) to maximize the groundwater supply and 3) to minimize the involved operating costs. We solve transient groundwater flow through an available transient groundwater and Lagrangian particle tracking model. The optimization problem is formulated as a dynamic programming problem. Two different optimization approaches are explored: I) the first approach aims for single-objective optimization under objective (1) only. The second approach performs multiobjective optimization under all three objectives where compromise pumping rates are selected from the current Pareto front. Finally, we look for WHPA outlines that are as small as possible, yet allow the optimization problem to find the most suitable solutions.

  1. FEATURES DELINEATION AND USE OF SPECIALLY PROTECTED THE CASPIAN LOWLAND THE REPUBLIC OF DAGHESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Kurbanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions of delimitation of state property on specially protected areas land of the Caspian lowland in Daghestan need further study. It is Requires the definition of the status of land of recreational zones of the coast of the Caspian sea, including coastal and border strips, legal and logical resolution of the millet for the management of these lands as Federal property. It is Necessary to accelerate the work on the delimitation of the remaining areas of land in this zone, to take inventory, to put these lands on cadastral registration and to sign lease agreements with businesses on these lands. 

  2. Artificial groundwater recharge zones mapping using remote sensing and GIS: a case study in Indian Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amanpreet; Panda, S N; Kumar, K S; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar

    2013-07-01

    Artificial groundwater recharge plays a vital role in sustainable management of groundwater resources. The present study was carried out to identify the artificial groundwater recharge zones in Bist Doab basin of Indian Punjab using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) for augmenting groundwater resources. The study area has been facing severe water scarcity due to intensive agriculture for the past few years. The thematic layers considered in the present study are: geomorphology (2004), geology (2004), land use/land cover (2008), drainage density, slope, soil texture (2000), aquifer transmissivity, and specific yield. Different themes and related features were assigned proper weights based on their relative contribution to groundwater recharge. Normalized weights were computed using the Saaty's analytic hierarchy process. Thematic layers were integrated in ArcGIS for delineation of artificial groundwater recharge zones. The recharge map thus obtained was divided into four zones (poor, moderate, good, and very good) based on their influence to groundwater recharge. Results indicate that 15, 18, 37, and 30 % of the study area falls under "poor," "moderate," "good," and "very good" groundwater recharge zones, respectively. The highest recharge potential area is located towards western and parts of middle region because of high infiltration rates caused due to the distribution of flood plains, alluvial plain, and agricultural land. The least effective recharge potential is in the eastern and middle parts of the study area due to low infiltration rate. The results of the study can be used to formulate an efficient groundwater management plan for sustainable utilization of limited groundwater resources.

  3. Automatic tumour volume delineation in respiratory-gated PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubbi, Jayavardhana; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Kanakatte, Aparna; Mani, Nallasamy; Kron, Tomas; Binns, David; Srinivasan, Bala

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a state-of-the-art functional imaging technique used in the accurate detection of cancer. The main problem with the tumours present in the lungs is that they are non-stationary during each respiratory cycle. Tumours in the lungs can get displaced up to 2.5 cm during respiration. Accurate detection of the tumour enables avoiding the addition of extra margin around the tumour that is usually used during radiotherapy treatment planning. This paper presents a novel method to detect and track tumour in respiratory-gated PET images. The approach followed to achieve this task is to automatically delineate the tumour from the first frame using support vector machines. The resulting volume and position information from the first frame is used in tracking its motion in the subsequent frames with the help of level set (LS) deformable model. An excellent accuracy of 97% is obtained using wavelets and support vector machines. The volume calculated as a result of the machine learning (ML) stage is used as a constraint for deformable models and the tumour is tracked in the remaining seven phases of the respiratory cycle. As a result, the complete information about tumour movement during each respiratory cycle is available in relatively short time. The combination of the LS and ML approach accurately delineated the tumour volume from all frames, thereby providing a scope of using PET images towards planning an accurate and effective radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer.

  4. Target delineation in radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, W.Y.; Nordell, B.; Karlsson, B.; Soederman, M.; Lindqvist, M.; Ericson, K.; Franck, A.; Lax, I.; Lindquist, C.

    1993-01-01

    A study of 6 selected arteriovenous malformation (AVM) patients was performed to investigate the feasibility of delineating an AVM on MR images and to compare the AVM volume outlined on different images. Conventional stereotaxic angiograms, stereotaxic MR images and MR angiograms using several different pulse sequences were obtained prior to radiosurgery. Treatment plans were made from the conventional stereotaxic angiograms. These plans were then transferred to a separate dose planning computer which displayed the MR images with the superimposed isodose lines. The radiated volumes of AVM and brain tissue were measured from these MR images. Last, an assessment was made of the radiation volume needed for an appropriate treatment of the AVM if the treatment plan was made from the MR images rather than from the conventional stereotaxic angiogram. It was possible to delineate medium and large size AVM nidi on stereotaxic MR images based on an integration of information obtained from various pulse sequences. The estimated volumes of the AVM nidi were found to be larger on the conventional stereotaxic angiograms than on the stereotaxic MR images. Consequently, a dose plan based on a conventional stereotaxic angiogram would result in a higher integral dose to the brain with the same target dose. By using reliable MR information it is expected that the volume of brain exposed to radiation could be decreased and the adverse effects of stereotactic radiosurgery for AVM thereby minimized. (orig.)

  5. Optical system for object detection and delineation in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Shwartz, Shoam; Donitza, Liad; Chaplanov, Loran

    2018-01-01

    Object recognition and delineation is an important task in many environments, such as in crime scenes and operating rooms. Marking evidence or surgical tools and attracting the attention of the surrounding staff to the marked objects can affect people's lives. We present an optical system comprising a camera, computer, and small laser projector that can detect and delineate objects in the environment. To prove the optical system's concept, we show that it can operate in a hypothetical crime scene in which a pistol is present and automatically recognize and segment it by various computer-vision algorithms. Based on such segmentation, the laser projector illuminates the actual boundaries of the pistol and thus allows the persons in the scene to comfortably locate and measure the pistol without holding any intermediator device, such as an augmented reality handheld device, glasses, or screens. Using additional optical devices, such as diffraction grating and a cylinder lens, the pistol size can be estimated. The exact location of the pistol in space remains static, even after its removal. Our optical system can be fixed or dynamically moved, making it suitable for various applications that require marking of objects in space.

  6. Recommendations for the delineation of organs at risk in ENT radiotherapy; Recommandations de delineation des organes a risque en radiotherapie ORL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, D.; Halimi, P.; Berges, O.; Deberne, M.; Botti, M.; Giraud, P. [Hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, Paris (France); Servagi-Vernat, S. [CHUjean-Minjoz, Besancon (France)

    2011-10-15

    Based on a literature survey, the authors propose recommendations for the delineation of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles, inner ear, larynx, buccal cavity, and temporomandibular joint. These recommendations of delineation of organs at risk are related to the functional anatomy of the considered structures, and correspond to volumes used in published surveys on dose-volume toxicity. They are simple and reproducible. Short communication

  7. The Euro Zone Crisis and Differentiation in the European Union: a Threat to the Goals of the EU or an Instrument of Managing the Divergence of National Interests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilpišauskas Ramūnas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the institutional evolution of the European Union (EU in reacting to the euro zone crisis and the new forms of differentiation in the EU. It presents and elaborates several arguments. First, despite calls to complete the creation of the “genuine Economic and Monetary Union“ and to make a step towards federal structure of the Union with single currency and single central budget used to react to asymmetric shocks, most decisions actually agreed upon by member states since the start of the crisis can be seen as attempts to avoid exactly such a scenario. Second, although the divide between the “Northern“ and “Southern“ groups of the EU member states seems attractive in its simplicity, it is a gross simplification of the current situation and hides important differences of member state preferences within each of the groupings. Third, it is also too simplistic to see the membership in the euro zone as the main characteristic defining the state of differentiation in the EU. As it is discussed in the text, both euro zone member states and EU countries outside the euro zone participate in different initiatives of integration and show different national preferences. Finally, the text concludes with a formulation of the main policy dilemmas for Lithuania in terms of ongoing process of complex differentiation and taking into account the prospect of joining the euro zone in 2015.

  8. A topological system for delineation and codification of the Earth's river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, K.L.; Verdin, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive reference system for the Earth's river basins is proposed as a support to fiver basin management, global change research, and the pursuit of sustainable development. A natural system for delineation and codification of basins is presented which is based upon topographic control and the topology of the fiver network. These characteristics make the system well suited for implementation and use with digital elevation models (DEMs) and geographic information systems. A demonstration of these traits is made with the 30-arcsecond GTOPO30 DEM for North America. The system has additional appeal owing to its economy of digits and the topological information that they carry. This is illustrated through presentation of comparisons with USGS hydrologic unit codes and demonstration of the use of code numbers to reveal dependence or independence of water use activities within a basin.

  9. An approach to delineate groundwater recharge potential sites in Ambalantota, Sri Lanka using GIS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Senanayake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for fresh water in Hambantota District, Sri Lanka is rapidly increasing with the enormous amount of ongoing development projects in the region. Nevertheless, the district experiences periodic water stress conditions due to seasonal precipitation patterns and scarcity of surface water resources. Therefore, management of available groundwater resources is critical, to fulfil potable water requirements in the area. However, exploitation of groundwater should be carried out together with artificial recharging in order to maintain the long term sustainability of water resources. In this study, a GIS approach was used to delineate potential artificial recharge sites in Ambalantota area within Hambantota. Influential thematic layers such as rainfall, lineament, slope, drainage, land use/land cover, lithology, geomorphology and soil characteristics were integrated by using a weighted linear combination method. Results of the study reveal high to moderate groundwater recharge potential in approximately 49% of Ambalantota area.

  10. Effective delineation of urban flooded areas based on aerial ortho-photo imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Guindon, Bert; Raymond, Don; Hong, Gang

    2016-10-01

    The combination of rapid global urban growth and climate change has resulted in increased occurrence of major urban flood events across the globe. The distribution of flooded area is one of the key information layers for applications of emergency planning and response management. While SAR systems and technologies have been widely used for flood area delineation, radar images suffer from range ambiguities arising from corner reflection effects and shadowing in dense urban settings. A new mapping framework is proposed for the extraction and quantification of flood extent based on aerial optical multi-spectral imagery and ancillary data. This involves first mapping of flood areas directly visible to the sensor. Subsequently, the complete area of submergence is estimated from this initial mapping and inference techniques based on baseline data such as land cover and GIS information such as available digital elevation models. The methodology has been tested and proven effective using aerial photography for the case of the 2013 flood in Calgary, Canada.

  11. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  12. Groundwater Capture Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Source water protection areas are delineated for each groundwater-based public water supply system using available geologic and hydrogeologic information to...

  13. Delineation of ground-water contamination using soil-gas analyses near Jackson, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the ground-water resources near Jackson, West Tennessee, was conducted during 1988-89. The study included determination of the occurrence of contaminants in the shallow aquifer using soil-gas analyses in the unsaturated zone. Between 1980 and 1988, an underground fuel-storage tank leaked about 3,000 gallons of unleaded fuel to the water table about 4 feet below land surface. A survey of soil gas using a gas chromatograph equipped with a photoionization detector showed concentrations of volatile organic compounds greater than IO, 000 parts per million near the leak These compounds were detected in an area about 240 feet long and 110 feet wide extending west from the point source. The chromatograms provided two distinct 'fingerprints' of volatile organic compounds. The first revealed the presence of benzene, toluene, andxylenes, which are constituents of unleaded fuel, in addition to other volatile compounds, in soil gas in the area near the leak The second did not reveal any detectable benzene, toluene, or xylenes in the soil-gas samples, but showed the presence of other unidentified volatile organic compounds in soil gas north of the storage tank. The distribution of total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone indicated that a second plume about 200 feet long and 90 feet wide was present about 100 feet north of the storage tank The second plume could have been the result of previous activities at this site during the 1950's or earlier. Activities at the site are believed to have included storage of solvents used at the nearby railyard and flushing of tanks containing tar onto a gravel-covered parking area. The delineation of these plumes has shown that soil-gas analyses can be a useful technique for identifying areas of contamination with volatile organic compounds in shallow water-table aquifers and may have broad applications in similar situations where the water table is relatively close to the surface.

  14. Geochemical Processes Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Zachara, John M.; Dresel, P. Evan; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-09-28

    This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical process information available for the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tank farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility. Two companion reports to this one were recently published which discuss the geology of the farms (Reidel and Chamness 2007) and groundwater flow and contamination beneath the farms (Horton 2007).

  15. Delineation, Characterization and Assessment of Gas-hydrates: Examples from Indian Offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, K.

    2017-12-01

    Successful test productions in McKenzie delta, Alaska, Nankai Trough and more recently in South China Sea have provided great hopes for production of gas-hydrates in near future, and boosted national programs of many countries including India. It has been imperative to map the prospective zones of gas-hydrates and evaluate their resource potential. Hence, we have adopted a systematic strategy for the delineation, characterization and quantification of gas-hydrates based on seismic traveltime tomography, full-waveform inversion, impedance inversion, attributes computation and rock-physical modeling. The bathymetry, seafloor temperature, total organic carbon content, sediment-thickness, rate of sedimentation, geothermal gradient imply that shallow sediments of Indian deep water are good hosts for occurrences of gas-hydrates. From the analysis of multi-channel seismic (MCS) data, we have identified the Krishna-Godavari (KG), Mahanadi and Andaman basins as prospective for gas-hydrates, and their presence has been validated by drilling and coring of Indian Expeditions-01 and -02. The MCS data also shows BSR-like features in the Cauvery, Kerala-Konkan and Saurashtra basins indicating that gas-hydrates cannot be ruled out from these basins also. We shall present several approaches that have been applied to field seismic and well-log data for the detection, characterization and quantification of gas-hydrates along the Indian margin.

  16. Soil-gas monitoring: A tool for fault delineation studies along Hsinhua Fault (Tainan), Southern Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, Vivek, E-mail: vivekwalia@rediffmail.com [National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shih Jung [National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Fu, Ching Chou; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Hong, Wei-Li [Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Wen, Kuo-Liang [National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Earth Sciences and Institute of Geophysics, National Central University, Jhongli 32054, Taiwan (China); Chen, Cheng-Hong [Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    Many studies have shown the soil gas method to be one of the most reliable investigation tools in the research of earthquake precursory signals and fault delineation. The present research is aimed finding the relationship between soil gas distribution and tectonic systems in the vicinity of the Hsinhua Fault zone in the Tainan area of Southern Taiwan. More than 110 samples were collected along 13 traverses to find the spatial distribution of Rn, He, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. The spatial congruence of all the gases shows that N{sub 2} is the most probable carrier gas of He, whereas CO{sub 2} seems to be a good carrier gas of Rn in this area. From the spatial distribution of Rn, He, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} the trace of Hsinhua Fault and neotectonic features can be identified. The spatial distribution of studied gases shows a clear anomalous trend ENE-SWS along the Hsinhua Fault.

  17. A probabilistic approach to delineating functional brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable observer-independent approach to delineating volumes of interest (VOIs) for functional brain regions that are not identifiable on structural MR images. The case is made for the raphe nuclei, a collection of nuclei situated in the brain stem known...... to be densely packed with serotonin transporters (5-hydroxytryptaminic [5-HTT] system). METHODS: A template set for the raphe nuclei, based on their high content of 5-HTT as visualized in parametric (11)C-labeled 3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile PET images, was created for 10...... healthy subjects. The templates were subsequently included in the region sets used in a previously published automatic MRI-based approach to create an observer- and activity-independent probabilistic VOI map. The probabilistic map approach was tested in a different group of 10 subjects and compared...

  18. Delineation of geological facies from poorly differentiated data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tartakovsky, Daniel [UCSC

    2008-01-01

    The ability to delineate geologic facies and to estima.te their properties from sparse data is essential for modeling physical and biochemical processes occurring in the 'ubsurface. If such data are poorly differentiated, this challcnrring task is complicated further by the absence of a clear distinction between different hydrofacies even at locations where data. are available. vVe consider three alt mative approaches for analysis of poorly differentiated data: a k-means clU!:iterinrr algorithm, an expectation-maximization algorithm, and a minimum-variance algorithm. Two distinct synthetically generated geological settings are used to r:tnalyze the ability of these algorithmti to as ign accurately the membership of such data in a given geologic facies. On average, the minimum-variance algorithm provides a more robust p rformance than its two counterparts and when combined with a nearest-neighbor algorithm, it also yields the most accurate reconstruction of the boundaries between the facies.

  19. ORIGAMI: DELINEATING HALOS USING PHASE-SPACE FOLDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falck, Bridget L.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    We present the ORIGAMI method of identifying structures, particularly halos, in cosmological N-body simulations. Structure formation can be thought of as the folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in six-dimensional phase space. ORIGAMI finds the outer folds that delineate these structures. Halo particles are identified as those that have undergone shell-crossing along three orthogonal axes, providing a dynamical definition of halo regions that is independent of density. ORIGAMI also identifies other morphological structures: particles that have undergone shell-crossing along 2, 1, or 0 orthogonal axes correspond to filaments, walls, and voids, respectively. We compare this method to a standard friends-of-friends halo-finding algorithm and find that ORIGAMI halos are somewhat larger, more diffuse, and less spherical, though the global properties of ORIGAMI halos are in good agreement with other modern halo-finding algorithms.

  20. ORIGAMI: DELINEATING HALOS USING PHASE-SPACE FOLDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, Bridget L.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the ORIGAMI method of identifying structures, particularly halos, in cosmological N-body simulations. Structure formation can be thought of as the folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in six-dimensional phase space. ORIGAMI finds the outer folds that delineate these structures. Halo particles are identified as those that have undergone shell-crossing along three orthogonal axes, providing a dynamical definition of halo regions that is independent of density. ORIGAMI also identifies other morphological structures: particles that have undergone shell-crossing along 2, 1, or 0 orthogonal axes correspond to filaments, walls, and voids, respectively. We compare this method to a standard friends-of-friends halo-finding algorithm and find that ORIGAMI halos are somewhat larger, more diffuse, and less spherical, though the global properties of ORIGAMI halos are in good agreement with other modern halo-finding algorithms.

  1. Electrocardiogram ST-Segment Morphology Delineation Method Using Orthogonal Transformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Amon

    Full Text Available Differentiation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic transient ST segment events of long term ambulatory electrocardiograms is a persisting weakness in present ischaemia detection systems. Traditional ST segment level measuring is not a sufficiently precise technique due to the single point of measurement and severe noise which is often present. We developed a robust noise resistant orthogonal-transformation based delineation method, which allows tracing the shape of transient ST segment morphology changes from the entire ST segment in terms of diagnostic and morphologic feature-vector time series, and also allows further analysis. For these purposes, we developed a new Legendre Polynomials based Transformation (LPT of ST segment. Its basis functions have similar shapes to typical transient changes of ST segment morphology categories during myocardial ischaemia (level, slope and scooping, thus providing direct insight into the types of time domain morphology changes through the LPT feature-vector space. We also generated new Karhunen and Lo ève Transformation (KLT ST segment basis functions using a robust covariance matrix constructed from the ST segment pattern vectors derived from the Long Term ST Database (LTST DB. As for the delineation of significant transient ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes, we present a study on the representation of transient ST segment morphology categories, and an evaluation study on the classification power of the KLT- and LPT-based feature vectors to classify between ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes of the LTST DB. Classification accuracy using the KLT and LPT feature vectors was 90% and 82%, respectively, when using the k-Nearest Neighbors (k = 3 classifier and 10-fold cross-validation. New sets of feature-vector time series for both transformations were derived for the records of the LTST DB which is freely available on the PhysioNet website and were contributed to the LTST DB. The

  2. The Significance of Land Cover Delineation on Soil Erosion Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiou, Nikolaos; Psomiadis, Emmanouil

    2018-04-25

    The study aims to evaluate the significance of land cover delineation on soil erosion assessment. To that end, RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) was implemented at the Upper Acheloos River catchment, Western Central Greece, annually and multi-annually for the period 1965-92. The model estimates soil erosion as the linear product of six factors (R, K, LS, C, and P) considering the catchment's climatic, pedological, topographic, land cover, and anthropogenic characteristics, respectively. The C factor was estimated using six alternative land use delineations of different resolution, namely the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) project (2000, 2012 versions) (1:100,000), a land use map conducted by the Greek National Agricultural Research Foundation (NAGREF) (1:20,000), a land use map conducted by the Greek Payment and Control Agency for Guidance and Guarantee Community Aid (PCAGGCA) (1:5,000), and the Landsat 8 16-day Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset (30 m/pixel) (two approximations) based on remote sensing data (satellite image acquired on 07/09/2016) (1:40,000). Since all other factors remain unchanged per each RUSLE application, the differences among the yielded results are attributed to the C factor (thus the land cover pattern) variations. Validation was made considering the convergence between simulated (modeled) and observed sediment yield. The latter was estimated based on field measurements conducted by the Greek PPC (Public Power Corporation). The model performed best at both time scales using the Landsat 8 (Eq. 13) dataset, characterized by a detailed resolution and a satisfactory categorization, allowing the identification of the most susceptible to erosion areas.

  3. Efforts to update firefighter safety zone guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret Butler

    2009-01-01

    One of the most critical decisions made on wildland fires is the identification of suitable safety zones for firefighters during daily fire management operations. To be effective (timely, repeatable, and accurate), these decisions rely on good training and judgment, but also on clear, concise guidelines. This article is a summary of safety zone guidelines and the...

  4. EPA Region 1 No Discharge Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset details No Discharge Zones (NDZ) for New England. Boaters may not discharge waste into these areas. Boundaries were determined mostly by Federal Register Environmental Documents in coordination with Massachusetts Coastal Zone Management (MA CZM) and EPA Region 1 Office of Ecosystem Protection (OEP) staff.

  5. Work zone performance monitoring application development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) requires state transportation agencies to (a) collect and analyze safety and mobility data to manage the work zone impacts of individual projects during construction and (b) improve overall agency processes a...

  6. WVSAMB Color Digital Orthophotos North Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital color orthophotography of the State of West Virginia (West Virginia State Plane Coordinate System North Zone). The W.V. state plane system has two...

  7. Delineating demographic units of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Ontario: cautions and insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Shuter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Delineating demographic structure across an organism’s range can reveal the extent to which population dynamics in different geographic areas are driven by local or external factors and can be crucial for effective conservation and management. Obtaining optimal data for such analyses can be time and resource-intensive and impending development and resource extraction pressures may necessitate the examination of existing data, even when they are less than ideal. We analyzed a historic telemetry dataset containing satellite radio-collar locations of 73 forest-dwelling woodland caribou in northern Ontario to determine demographic structure. We applied several clustering methods (i.e., agglomerative, divisive and fuzzy k-means to median seasonal locations. Results were used to distinguish demographic units and minimum convex polygons and fixed-kernel density estimates were used to delineate unit boundaries and core areas. For areas where sampling was considered representative of the distribution of caribou on the landscape, we assessed demographic distinctness by evaluating intra-individual variation in cluster membership, membership strength and distance between boundaries and core areas of adjacent units. The number and composition of clusters identified was similar among methods and caribou were grouped into 6 general clusters. The distinctions between the three clusters identified in the central portion of the province (i.e., Lac Seul, Wabakimi, Geraldton and the two clusters identified in the eastern portion of the province (i.e., Cochrane and Cochrane-Quebec were determined to represent demographic structuring. Additional distinctions in other areas (i.e., between The Red Lake and Lac Seul clusters in the west and between the central and eastern clusters may just be artifacts of the original sampling effort. Amongst demographic units, there was no evidence of individual flexibility in cluster membership and average membership strength was

  8. Delineation of contaminant plume for an inorganic contaminated site using electrical resistivity tomography: comparison with direct-push technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qing; Deng, Yaping; Shi, Xiaoqing; Sun, Yuanyuan; Duan, Weidong; Wu, Jichun

    2018-03-03

    Precise delineation of contaminant plume distribution is essential for effective remediation of contaminated sites. Traditional in situ investigation methods like direct-push (DP) sampling are accurate, but are usually intrusive and costly. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method, as a non-invasive geophysical technique to map spatiotemporal changes in resistivity of the subsurface, is becoming increasingly popular in environmental science. However, the resolution of ERT for delineation of contaminant plumes still remains controversial. In this study, ERT and DP technique were both conducted at a real inorganic contaminated site. The reliability of the ERT method was validated by the direct comparisons of their investigation results that the resistivity acquired by ERT method is in accordance with the total dissolved solid concentration in groundwater and the overall variation of the total iron content in soil obtained by DP technique. After testifying the applicability of ERT method for contaminant identification, the extension of contaminant plume at the study site was revealed by supplementary ERT surveys conducted subsequently in the surrounding area of the contaminant source zone.

  9. Comparison of [11C]choline Positron Emission Tomography With T2- and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Delineating Malignant Intraprostatic Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Joe H.; Lim Joon, Daryl; Davis, Ian D.; Lee, Sze Ting; Hiew, Chee-Yan; Esler, Stephen; Gong, Sylvia J.; Wada, Morikatsu; Clouston, David; O'Sullivan, Richard; Goh, Yin P.; Bolton, Damien; Scott, Andrew M.; Khoo, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of [ 11 C]choline positron emission tomography (CHOL-PET) with that of the combination of T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (T2W/DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for delineating malignant intraprostatic lesions (IPLs) for guiding focal therapies and to investigate factors predicting the accuracy of CHOL-PET. Methods and Materials: This study included 21 patients who underwent CHOL-PET and T2W/DW MRI prior to radical prostatectomy. Two observers manually delineated IPL contours for each scan, and automatic IPL contours were generated on CHOL-PET based on varying proportions of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV). IPLs identified on prostatectomy specimens defined reference standard contours. The imaging-based contours were compared with the reference standard contours using Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), and sensitivity and specificity values. Factors that could potentially predict the DSC of the best contouring method were analyzed using linear models. Results: The best automatic contouring method, 60% of the maximum SUV (SUV 60 ) , had similar correlations (DSC: 0.59) with the manual PET contours (DSC: 0.52, P=.127) and significantly better correlations than the manual MRI contours (DSC: 0.37, P<.001). The sensitivity and specificity values were 72% and 71% for SUV 60 ; 53% and 86% for PET manual contouring; and 28% and 92% for MRI manual contouring. The tumor volume and transition zone pattern could independently predict the accuracy of CHOL-PET. Conclusions: CHOL-PET is superior to the combination of T2W/DW MRI for delineating IPLs. The accuracy of CHOL-PET is insufficient for gland-sparing focal therapies but may be accurate enough for focal boost therapies. The transition zone pattern is a new classification that may predict how well CHOL-PET delineates IPLs

  10. Radiation protection zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Radiation being not visible, the zoning of an area containing radioactive sources is important in terms of safety. Concerning radiation protection, 2 work zones are defined by regulations: the monitored zone and the controlled zone. The ministerial order of 15 may 2006 settles the frontier between the 2 zones in terms of radiation dose rates, the rules for access and the safety standards in both zones. Radioprotection rules and the name of the person responsible for radiation protection must be displayed. The frontier between the 2 zones must be materialized and marked with adequate equipment (specific danger signs and tapes). Both zones are submitted to selective entrance, the access for the controlled zone is limited because of the radiation risk and of the necessity of confining radioactive contamination while the limitation of the access to the monitored zone is due to radiation risk only. (A.C.)

  11. Delineation of marsh types of the Texas coast from Corpus Christi Bay to the Sabine River in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Brasher, Michael G.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Mitchell, Michael K.; Ballard, Bart M.; Parr, Mark W.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Wilson, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal zone managers and researchers often require detailed information regarding emergent marsh vegetation types for modeling habitat capacities and needs of marsh-reliant wildlife (such as waterfowl and alligator). Detailed information on the extent and distribution of marsh vegetation zones throughout the Texas coast has been historically unavailable. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation and collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service via the Gulf Coast Joint Venture, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, the University of Louisiana-Lafayette, and Ducks Unlimited, Inc., has produced a classification of marsh vegetation types along the middle and upper Texas coast from Corpus Christi Bay to the Sabine River. This study incorporates approximately 1,000 ground reference locations collected via helicopter surveys in coastal marsh areas and about 2,000 supplemental locations from fresh marsh, water, and “other” (that is, nonmarsh) areas. About two-thirds of these data were used for training, and about one-third were used for assessing accuracy. Decision-tree analyses using Rulequest See5 were used to classify emergent marsh vegetation types by using these data, multitemporal satellite-based multispectral imagery from 2009 to 2011, a bare-earth digital elevation model (DEM) based on airborne light detection and ranging (lidar), alternative contemporary land cover classifications, and other spatially explicit variables believed to be important for delineating the extent and distribution of marsh vegetation communities. Image objects were generated from segmentation of high-resolution airborne imagery acquired in 2010 and were used to refine the classification. The classification is dated 2010 because the year is both the midpoint of the multitemporal satellite-based imagery (2009–11) classified and the date of the high-resolution airborne imagery that was used to develop image objects. Overall accuracy corrected for bias (accuracy

  12. Delineation of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in a large-scaled reclaimed land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B.; Park, S.; Hwang, J.; Song, S.; Choi, J.; Nam, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Saemangeum reclaimed land in Korea is currently under construction for an eco-friendly multifunctional complex including agriculture, eco-tourism, business, and renewable energy industry. Regarding water supply for the reclaimed land, groundwater is the sustainable water resource and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), subsurface fluids flowing from land to the sea, is considered as an alternative one. This study was conducted to identify SGD below a southeastern part of the reclaimed land and to delineate its pathway by investigating groundwater chemistry and electrical resistivity distribution of subsurface. Thirty four groundwater samples were collected from shallow agricultural wells placed along the past coast line (~5 km length) of the southeastern part in May and October, 2009. Field parameters including pH, EC, temperature, and ORP were measured using a portable multi-sensor and alkalinity by titration. They were analyzed for stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H), cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Si, and NH4), anions (Cl, NO3, SO4, and PO4), and metals (Fe and Mn). Mean EC value was 1,163 µS/cm, corresponding to the appropriate crop growth because the criteria of crop yield is less 2,000 µS/cm. Stable isotopes results were plotted on the local meteoric water line, indicating lighter than those from sea water. It implied that the groundwater originated from inland precipitation and occurred as SGD along the coast line. From the groundwater compositions showing various water types including Na-HCO3, Ca-Cl, and Na-Cl, it could be concluded that small-scale SGD and seawater intrusion have great influences on the groundwater quality. From correlation analysis of EC-pH, Cl-HCO3, NO3-SO4, NO3-Cl, and (Fe, Mn)-NH4, spatial distributions of SGD were identified. A small catchment (0.2 km2) in the reclaimed land was selected to delineate a SGD flow path by two-dimensional electrical resistivity survey. The longitudinal and transverse lines were 760 and 275 m, respectively

  13. Role of choline PET/CT in guiding target volume delineation for irradiation of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzenboeck, S.M.; Kurth, J. [University Medical Centre Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany); Gocke, C.; Kuhnt, T.; Hildebrandt, G. [University Medical Centre Rostock, Department of Radiotherapy, Rostock (Germany); Krause, B.J. [University Medical Centre Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany); Universitaet Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Universitaetsmedizin Rostock, Rostock (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Choline PET/CT has shown limitations for the detection of primary prostate cancer and nodal metastatic disease, mainly due to limited sensitivity and specificity. Conversely in the restaging of prostate cancer recurrence, choline PET/CT is a promising imaging modality for the detection of local regional and nodal recurrence with an impact on therapy management. This review highlights current literature on choline PET/CT for radiation treatment planning in primary and recurrent prostate cancer. Due to limited sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between benign and malignant prostatic tissues in primary prostate cancer, there is little enthusiasm for target volume delineation based on choline PET/CT. Irradiation planning for the treatment of single lymph node metastases on the basis of choline PET/CT is controversial due to its limited lesion-based sensitivity in primary nodal staging. In high-risk prostate cancer, choline PET/CT might diagnose lymph node metastases, which potentially can be included in the conventional irradiation field. Prior to radiation treatment of recurrent prostate cancer, choline PET/CT may prove useful for patient stratification by excluding distant disease which would require systemic therapy. In patients with local recurrence, choline PET/CT can be used to delineate local sites of recurrence within the prostatic resection bed allowing a boost to PET-positive sites. In patients with lymph node metastases outside the prostatic fossa and regional metastatic lymph nodes, choline PET/CT might influence radiation treatment planning by enabling extension of the target volume to lymphatic drainage sites with or without a boost to PET-positive lymph nodes. Further clinical randomized trials are required to assess treatment outcomes following choline-based biological radiation treatment planning in comparison with conventional radiation treatment planning. (orig.)

  14. Quality assurance tool for organ at risk delineation in radiation therapy using a parametric statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Cheukkai B; Nourzadeh, Hamidreza; Watkins, William T; Trifiletti, Daniel M; Alonso, Clayton E; Dutta, Sunil W; Siebers, Jeffrey V

    2018-02-26

    To develop a quality assurance (QA) tool that identifies inaccurate organ at risk (OAR) delineations. The QA tool computed volumetric features from prior OAR delineation data from 73 thoracic patients to construct a reference database. All volumetric features of the OAR delineation are computed in three-dimensional space. Volumetric features of a new OAR are compared with respect to those in the reference database to discern delineation outliers. A multicriteria outlier detection system warns users of specific delineation outliers based on combinations of deviant features. Fifteen independent experimental sets including automatic, propagated, and clinically approved manual delineation sets were used for verification. The verification OARs included manipulations to mimic common errors. Three experts reviewed the experimental sets to identify and classify errors, first without; and then 1 week after with the QA tool. In the cohort of manual delineations with manual manipulations, the QA tool detected 94% of the mimicked errors. Overall, it detected 37% of the minor and 85% of the major errors. The QA tool improved reviewer error detection sensitivity from 61% to 68% for minor errors (P = 0.17), and from 78% to 87% for major errors (P = 0.02). The QA tool assists users to detect potential delineation errors. QA tool integration into clinical procedures may reduce the frequency of inaccurate OAR delineation, and potentially improve safety and quality of radiation treatment planning. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. Semi-automatic delineation using weighted CT-MRI registered images for radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitton, I. [European Georges Pompidou Hospital, Department of Radiology, 20 rue Leblanc, 75015, Paris (France); Cornelissen, S. A. P. [Image Sciences Institute, UMC, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Duppen, J. C.; Rasch, C. R. N.; Herk, M. van [The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Steenbakkers, R. J. H. M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen (Netherlands); Peeters, S. T. H. [UZ Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgique (Belgium); Hoebers, F. J. P. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO clinic), GROW School for Oncology and Development Biology Maastricht, 6229 ET Maastricht (Netherlands); Kaanders, J. H. A. M. [UMC St-Radboud, Department of Radiotherapy, Geert Grooteplein 32, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nowak, P. J. C. M. [ERASMUS University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology,Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To develop a delineation tool that refines physician-drawn contours of the gross tumor volume (GTV) in nasopharynx cancer, using combined pixel value information from x-ray computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during delineation. Methods: Operator-guided delineation assisted by a so-called ''snake'' algorithm was applied on weighted CT-MRI registered images. The physician delineates a rough tumor contour that is continuously adjusted by the snake algorithm using the underlying image characteristics. The algorithm was evaluated on five nasopharyngeal cancer patients. Different linear weightings CT and MRI were tested as input for the snake algorithm and compared according to contrast and tumor to noise ratio (TNR). The semi-automatic delineation was compared with manual contouring by seven experienced radiation oncologists. Results: A good compromise for TNR and contrast was obtained by weighing CT twice as strong as MRI. The new algorithm did not notably reduce interobserver variability, it did however, reduce the average delineation time by 6 min per case. Conclusions: The authors developed a user-driven tool for delineation and correction based a snake algorithm and registered weighted CT image and MRI. The algorithm adds morphological information from CT during the delineation on MRI and accelerates the delineation task.

  16. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-E33-45 Near BX-102 in the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R JEFFREY.; Last, George V.; Gee, Glendon W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. This report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from a borehole installed northeast of tank BX-102 (borehole 299-E33-45). This report also presents data on the sediment lithologies, the vertical extent of contamination, their migration potential, and the source of the contamination in the vadose zone and perched water east of the BX Tank Farm. The near horizontally bedded, northeasterly dipping sediment likely caused horizontal flow of the migrating contaminants. At borehole 299-E33-45, there are several fine-grained lens within the H2 unit that cause horizontally spreading of percolating fluids. The 21-ft thick Plio-pleistocene fine grained silt/clay unit is also an important horizontal flow conduit as evidenced by the perched water between 227-232 ft bgs. Based on comparing the depth of penetration of contaminants and comparing the percentages that are water leachable, uranium migrates slower than technetium-99 and nitrate. The technetium-99 desorption data are consistently near zero, meaning that the technetium-99 is not interacting with the sediment. In summary, the moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, sodium, tritium, and uranium profiles do not suggest that plume has penetrated below 170 ft bgs. In general, the majority of the ratios of constituents found in the porewater in the Hanford formation sediments are closer to being from the 1951 metals waste solution that escaped tank BX-102 during a cascading accident. There may be a source of water, containing nitrate but not technetium, that is feeding the perched water zone. The deep vadose, perched and groundwater data do not present a clear picture on what might be occurring in the Pliopleistocene units

  17. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved. The collection comprises the information for scientists, experts, postgraduates and students in gaged in ecology, radioecology, nuclear engineering, radiology, radiochemistry and radiobiology

  18. Integrating geospatial and ground geophysical information as guidelines for groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrains of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mehnaz; Lone, Mahjoor Ahmad; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2012-08-01

    The increasing demand of water has brought tremendous pressure on groundwater resources in the regions were groundwater is prime source of water. The objective of this study was to explore groundwater potential zones in Maheshwaram watershed of Andhra Pradesh, India with semi-arid climatic condition and hard rock granitic terrain. GIS-based modelling was used to integrate remote sensing and geophysical data to delineate groundwater potential zones. In the present study, Indian Remote Sensing RESOURCESAT-1, Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-4) digital data, ASTER digital elevation model and vertical electrical sounding data along with other data sets were analysed to generate various thematic maps, viz., geomorphology, land use/land cover, geology, lineament density, soil, drainage density, slope, aquifer resistivity and aquifer thickness. Based on this integrated approach, the groundwater availability in the watershed was classified into four categories, viz. very good, good, moderate and poor. The results reveal that the modelling assessment method proposed in this study is an effective tool for deciphering groundwater potential zones for proper planning and management of groundwater resources in diverse hydrogeological terrains.

  19. Vadose zone transport field study: Detailed test plan for simulated leak tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL Ward; GW Gee

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology initiative was created in FY 1999 to reduce the uncertainty associated with vadose zone transport processes beneath waste sites at DOE's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This information is needed not only to evaluate the risks from transport, but also to support the adoption of measures for minimizing impacts to the groundwater and surrounding environment. The principal uncertainties in vadose zone transport are the current distribution of source contaminants and the natural heterogeneity of the soil in which the contaminants reside. Oversimplified conceptual models resulting from these uncertainties and limited use of hydrologic characterization and monitoring technologies have hampered the understanding contaminant migration through Hanford's vadose zone. Essential prerequisites for reducing vadose transport uncertainly include the development of accurate conceptual models and the development or adoption of monitoring techniques capable of delineating the current distributions of source contaminants and characterizing natural site heterogeneity. The Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS) was conceived as part of the initiative to address the major uncertainties confronting vadose zone fate and transport predictions at the Hanford Site and to overcome the limitations of previous characterization attempts. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is managing the VZTFS for DOE. The VZTFS will conduct field investigations that will improve the understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. Ideally, these methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing infrastructure (i.e., more than 1,300 steel-cased boreholes). The objectives of the VZTFS are to conduct controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field sites at Hanford to

  20. Emergency planning zone reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the process used by a large industrial Department of Energy (DOE) site to communicate changing hazards to its stakeholders and install the confidence necessary to implement the resulting emergency planning changes. Over the last decade as the sites missions have shifted from full-scale production to a greater emphasis on environmental restoration and waste management, the off-site threat from its operations has substantially decreased. The challenge was to clearly communicate the reduced hazards, install confidence in the technical analysis that documented the hazard reduction, and obtain stakeholder buy-in on the path forward to change the emergency management program. The most significant change to the emergency management program was the proposed reduction of the sites Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). As the EPZ is defined as an area for which planning is needed to protect the public in the event of an accident, the process became politically challenging. An overview of how the site initially approached this problem and then learned to more substantially involve the state and local emergency preparedness agencies and the local Citizens Advisory Board will be presented. (author)

  1. Deciphering groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain using geospatial technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Imran A; Sankar, K; Dar, Mithas A

    2011-02-01

    Remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) has become one of the leading tools in the field of groundwater research, which helps in assessing, monitoring, and conserving groundwater resources. This paper mainly deals with the integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS to delineate groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain. Digitized vector maps pertaining to chosen parameters, viz. geomorphology, geology, land use/land cover, lineament, relief, and drainage, were converted to raster data using 23 m×23 m grid cell size. Moreover, curvature of the study area was also considered while manipulating the spatial data. The raster maps of these parameters were assigned to their respective theme weight and class weights. The individual theme weight was multiplied by its respective class weight and then all the raster thematic layers were aggregated in a linear combination equation in Arc Map GIS Raster Calculator module. Moreover, the weighted layers were statistically modeled to get the areal extent of groundwater prospects with respect to each thematic layer. The final result depicts the favorable prospective zones in the study area and can be helpful in better planning and management of groundwater resources especially in hard rock terrains.

  2. Delineating social network data anonymization via random edge perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang

    2012-01-01

    Social network data analysis raises concerns about the privacy of related entities or individuals. To address this issue, organizations can publish data after simply replacing the identities of individuals with pseudonyms, leaving the overall structure of the social network unchanged. However, it has been shown that attacks based on structural identification (e.g., a walk-based attack) enable an adversary to re-identify selected individuals in an anonymized network. In this paper we explore the capacity of techniques based on random edge perturbation to thwart such attacks. We theoretically establish that any kind of structural identification attack can effectively be prevented using random edge perturbation and show that, surprisingly, important properties of the whole network, as well as of subgraphs thereof, can be accurately calculated and hence data analysis tasks performed on the perturbed data, given that the legitimate data recipient knows the perturbation probability as well. Yet we also examine ways to enhance the walk-based attack, proposing a variant we call probabilistic attack. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that such probabilistic attacks can also be prevented under sufficient perturbation. Eventually, we conduct a thorough theoretical study of the probability of success of any}structural attack as a function of the perturbation probability. Our analysis provides a powerful tool for delineating the identification risk of perturbed social network data; our extensive experiments with synthetic and real datasets confirm our expectations. © 2012 ACM.

  3. Volcanic calderas delineate biogeographic provinces among Yellowstone thermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina; Mitchell, Kendra; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

    2008-07-01

    It has been suggested that the distribution of microorganisms should be cosmopolitan because of their enormous capacity for dispersal. However, recent studies have revealed that geographically isolated microbial populations do exist. Geographic distance as a barrier to dispersal is most often invoked to explain these distributions. Here we show that unique and diverse sequences of the bacterial genus Sulfurihydrogenibium exist in Yellowstone thermal springs, indicating that these sites are geographically isolated. Although there was no correlation with geographic distance or the associated geochemistry of the springs, there was a strong historical signal. We found that the Yellowstone calderas, remnants of prehistoric volcanic eruptions, delineate biogeographical provinces for the Sulfurihydrogenibium within Yellowstone (chi(2): 9.7, P = 0.002). The pattern of distribution that we have detected suggests that major geological events in the past 2 million years explain more of the variation in sequence diversity in this system than do contemporary factors such as habitat or geographic distance. These findings highlight the importance of historical legacies in determining contemporary microbial distributions and suggest that the same factors that determine the biogeography of macroorganisms are also evident among bacteria.

  4. In-situ hydrocarbon delineation using laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taer, A.D.; Hastings, R.W.; Brown, A.Y.; Frend, R.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of hydrocarbons in soils was conducted at an active Shell Oil Company petroleum products terminal, located in Carson, California. An investigation approach involving Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and Cone Penetrometer Testing (CPT) technologies was implemented to provide real-time, in-situ characterization of site stratigraphy, hydrocarbon distribution and importantly, hydrocarbon product differentiation. The area of investigation is located along a property boundary, where a plume of separate phase hydrocarbons has been actively recovered for several years. CPT/LIF technology was selected for the investigation since previous delineation efforts using hydrocarbon fingerprinting methods proved inconclusive. Additionally, the CPT/LIF technology had the potential to provide a cost effective solution to accomplish project objectives. Based on the information obtained during this investigation, it was determined that the plume of separate phase hydrocarbons along the northern property boundary is from a source distinctly different than any identified hydrocarbons known to be from on-site sources. In addition, the plume was determined to not be connected with any other known on-site hydrocarbon plumes. The results of this CPT/LIF investigation were consistent with the known hydrogeologic conditions. This evaluation determined that CPT/LIF technology was very effective in addressing project objectives and resulted in a significant cost savings

  5. Delineation of the normal esophagus at computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, L.; Tylen, U.; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg

    1985-01-01

    It has been accepted by many that the esophagus in its entire length is easy to delineate at CT in most patients due to surrounding fat planes. As this is not the experience of the present authors, the CT of the thorax in 100 normal men and women without mediastinal disease and in good nutritional status was reviewed, to record the relationship between the esophagus and neighbouring structures. In the upper third of the esophagus there is almost never a definite border between its wall and that of the trachea, while a separating border or even a fat plane can be seen to the spine in between 25 and 50 per cent of those tested. The vessels, as a rule, have a flat plane towards the esophagus. The middle part of the esophagus has the same intimate relationship to the trachea and left main bronchus, i.e. almost never any separating border. Two thirds of the cases have no border to the upper part of the pericardium (left atrium), while about 70 per cent have a border or fat plane towards the aorta. The middle and lower third of the esophagus has, as a rule, a distinct border or fat plane to the spine. In about 50 per cent of the patients the anterior wall of the lower esophagus is separable from the pericardium. (orig.)

  6. Compact-Morphology-based poly-metallic Nodule Delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoening, Timm; Jones, Daniel O B; Greinert, Jens

    2017-10-17

    Poly-metallic nodules are a marine resource considered for deep sea mining. Assessing nodule abundance is of interest for mining companies and to monitor potential environmental impact. Optical seafloor imaging allows quantifying poly-metallic nodule abundance at spatial scales from centimetres to square kilometres. Towed cameras and diving robots acquire high-resolution imagery that allow detecting individual nodules and measure their sizes. Spatial abundance statistics can be computed from these size measurements, providing e.g. seafloor coverage in percent and the nodule size distribution. Detecting nodules requires segmentation of nodule pixels from pixels showing sediment background. Semi-supervised pattern recognition has been proposed to automate this task. Existing nodule segmentation algorithms employ machine learning that trains a classifier to segment the nodules in a high-dimensional feature space. Here, a rapid nodule segmentation algorithm is presented. It omits computation-intense feature-based classification and employs image processing only. It exploits a nodule compactness heuristic to delineate individual nodules. Complex machine learning methods are avoided to keep the algorithm simple and fast. The algorithm has successfully been applied to different image datasets. These data sets were acquired by different cameras, camera platforms and in varying illumination conditions. Their successful analysis shows the broad applicability of the proposed method.

  7. DNA Probe Pooling for Rapid Delineation of Chromosomal Breakpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Kwan, Johnson; Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly F.; Wang, Mei; Escudero, Tomas; Munne' , Santiago; Zitzelsberger, Horst F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich

    2009-01-30

    Structural chromosome aberrations are hallmarks of many human genetic diseases. The precise mapping of translocation breakpoints in tumors is important for identification of genes with altered levels of expression, prediction of tumor progression, therapy response, or length of disease-free survival as well as the preparation of probes for detection of tumor cells in peripheral blood. Similarly, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for carriers of balanced, reciprocal translocations benefit from accurate breakpoint maps in the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes followed by a selection of normal or balanced oocytes or embryos. We expedited the process of breakpoint mapping and preparation of case-specific probes by utilizing physically mapped bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. Historically, breakpoint mapping is based on the definition of the smallest interval between proximal and distal probes. Thus, many of the DNA probes prepared for multi-clone and multi-color mapping experiments do not generate additional information. Our pooling protocol described here with examples from thyroid cancer research and PGD accelerates the delineation of translocation breakpoints without sacrificing resolution. The turnaround time from clone selection to mapping results using tumor or IVF patient samples can be as short as three to four days.

  8. Directional phytoscreening: contaminant gradients in trees for plume delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Matt A; Shetty, Mikhil K; Markus, Samantha; Kroeker, Ryan; Parker, Beth L; Martinez, Camilo; Burken, Joel G

    2013-08-20

    Tree sampling methods have been used in phytoscreening applications to delineate contaminated soil and groundwater, augmenting traditional investigative methods that are time-consuming, resource-intensive, invasive, and costly. In the past decade, contaminant concentrations in tree tissues have been shown to reflect the extent and intensity of subsurface contamination. This paper investigates a new phytoscreening tool: directional tree coring, a concept originating from field data that indicated azimuthal concentrations in tree trunks reflected the concentration gradients in the groundwater around the tree. To experimentally test this hypothesis, large diameter trees were subjected to subsurface contaminant concentration gradients in a greenhouse study. These trees were then analyzed for azimuthal concentration gradients in aboveground tree tissues, revealing contaminant centroids located on the side of the tree nearest the most contaminated groundwater. Tree coring at three field sites revealed sufficiently steep contaminant gradients in trees reflected nearby groundwater contaminant gradients. In practice, trees possessing steep contaminant gradients are indicators of steep subsurface contaminant gradients, providing compass-like information about the contaminant gradient, pointing investigators toward higher concentration regions of the plume.

  9. Oncology Nurse Navigation: Results of the 2016 Role Delineation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubejko, Barbara G; Bellfield, Sonia; Kahn, Elisa; Lee, Carrie; Peterson, Nicole; Rose, Traudi; Murphy, Cynthia Miller; McCorkle, Michele

    2017-02-01

    In 2011, an oncology nurse navigator (ONN) role delineation survey (RDS) was conducted by the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) when the role was relatively new to oncology. Results did not demonstrate a unique skill set for the ONN; however, since then, the role has expanded. ONS and the Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation partnered in 2016 to complete an RDS of ONNs to redefine the role and determine the need for an ONN certification examination. A structured RDS was conducted using a formal consensus-building process. A survey was developed and released to examine the specific tasks, knowledge, and skills for the ONN as well as to determine which role possesses more responsibility for the tasks. The ONN role is evolving, and more was learned about its key tasks, including differences in the responsibilities of the ONN and the clinical or staff nurse. However, the RDS did not find an adequate difference in the knowledge required by the ONN and the clinical or staff nurse to support the need for a separate ONN certification.

  10. Reverse time migration of prism waves for salt flank delineation

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new reverse time migration method for imaging salt flanks with prism wave reflections. It consists of four steps: (1) migrating the seismic data with conventional RTM to give the RTM image; (2) using the RTM image as a reflectivity model to simulate source-side reflections with the Born approximation; (3) zero-lag correlation of the source-side reflection wavefields and receiver-side wavefields to produce the prism wave migration image; and (4) repeating steps 2 and 3 for the receiver-side reflections. An advantage of this method is that there is no need to pick the horizontal reflectors prior to migration of the prism waves. It also separately images the vertical structures at a different step to reduce crosstalk interference. The disadvantage of prism wave migration algorithm is that its computational cost is twice that of conventional RTM. The empirical results with a salt model suggest that prism wave migration can be an effective method for salt flank delineation in the absence of diving waves.

  11. Reverse time migration of prism waves for salt flank delineation

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei

    2013-09-22

    In this paper, we present a new reverse time migration method for imaging salt flanks with prism wave reflections. It consists of four steps: (1) migrating the seismic data with conventional RTM to give the RTM image; (2) using the RTM image as a reflectivity model to simulate source-side reflections with the Born approximation; (3) zero-lag correlation of the source-side reflection wavefields and receiver-side wavefields to produce the prism wave migration image; and (4) repeating steps 2 and 3 for the receiver-side reflections. An advantage of this method is that there is no need to pick the horizontal reflectors prior to migration of the prism waves. It also separately images the vertical structures at a different step to reduce crosstalk interference. The disadvantage of prism wave migration algorithm is that its computational cost is twice that of conventional RTM. The empirical results with a salt model suggest that prism wave migration can be an effective method for salt flank delineation in the absence of diving waves.

  12. 76 FR 37828 - Update to Indian Index Zone Price Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... to Indian Index Zone Price Points AGENCY: Office of Natural Resources Revenue, Interior. ACTION... (MMS) Minerals Revenue Management) is announcing an update to Indian index zone price points that will remove certain natural gas index prices from the Indian Index Zone calculation. These changes will impact...

  13. Recommendations for the delineation of organs at risk in ENT radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, D.; Halimi, P.; Berges, O.; Deberne, M.; Botti, M.; Giraud, P.; Servagi-Vernat, S.

    2011-01-01

    Based on a literature survey, the authors propose recommendations for the delineation of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles, inner ear, larynx, buccal cavity, and temporomandibular joint. These recommendations of delineation of organs at risk are related to the functional anatomy of the considered structures, and correspond to volumes used in published surveys on dose-volume toxicity. They are simple and reproducible. Short communication

  14. Sequential Versus Simultaneous Market Delineation: The Relevant Antitrust Market for Salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Peter, Møllgaard

    Delineation of the relevant market forms a pivotal part of most antitrust cases. The standard approach is sequential. First the product market is delineated, then the geographical market is defined. Demand andsupply substitution in both the product dimension and the geographical dimension will no...... and geographical markets. Using a unique data set for prices of Norwegian and Scottish salmon, we propose a methodology for simultaneous market delineation and we demonstrate that compared to a sequential approach conclusions will be reversed.......Delineation of the relevant market forms a pivotal part of most antitrust cases. The standard approach is sequential. First the product market is delineated, then the geographical market is defined. Demand andsupply substitution in both the product dimension and the geographical dimension...

  15. Dynamic Agroecological Zones for the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, D. R.; Rupp, R.; Gessler, P.; Pan, W.; Brown, D. J.; Machado, S.; Walden, V. P.; Eigenbrode, S.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Agroecological zones (AEZ's) have traditionally been defined by integrating multiple layers of biophysical (e.g. climate, soil, terrain) and occasionally socioeconomic data to create unique zones with specific ranges of land use constraints and potentials. Our approach to defining AEZ's assumes that current agricultural land uses have emerged as a consequence of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers. Therefore, we explore the concept that AEZ's can be derived from classifying the geographic distribution of current agricultural systems (e.g. the wheat-fallow cropping system zone) based on spatially geo-referenced annual cropland use data that is currently available through the National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS). By defining AEZ's in this way, we expect to: (1) provide baseline information that geographically delineates the boundaries of current AEZ's and subzones and therefore the capacity to evaluate shifts in AEZ boundaries over time; (2) assess the biophysical (e.g. climate, soils, terrain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. commodity prices) that are most useful for predicting and correctly classifying current AEZ's, subzones or future shifts in AEZ boundaries; (3) identify and develop AEZ-relevant climate mitigation and adaptation strategies; and (4) integrate biophysical and socioeconomic data sources to pursue a transdisciplinary examination of climate-driven AEZ futures. Achieving these goals will aid in realizing major objectives for a USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, Cooperative Agricultural Project entitled "Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) for Pacific Northwest Agriculture". REACCH is a research, education and extension project under the leadership of the University of Idaho with significant collaboration from Washington State University, Oregon State University and the USDA Agricultural Research Service that is working towards increasing the capacity of Inland Pacific

  16. A segmentation approach for a delineation of terrestrial ecoregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosad, J.; Stepinski, T.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial ecoregions are the result of regionalization of land into homogeneous units of similar ecological and physiographic features. Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World (TEW) is a commonly used global ecoregionalization based on expert knowledge and in situ observations. Ecological Land Units (ELUs) is a global classification of 250 meters-sized cells into 4000 types on the basis of the categorical values of four environmental variables. ELUs are automatically calculated and reproducible but they are not a regionalization which makes them impractical for GIS-based spatial analysis and for comparison with TEW. We have regionalized terrestrial ecosystems on the basis of patterns of the same variables (land cover, soils, landform, and bioclimate) previously used in ELUs. Considering patterns of categorical variables makes segmentation and thus regionalization possible. Original raster datasets of the four variables are first transformed into regular grids of square-sized blocks of their cells called eco-sites. Eco-sites are elementary land units containing local patterns of physiographic characteristics and thus assumed to contain a single ecosystem. Next, eco-sites are locally aggregated using a procedure analogous to image segmentation. The procedure optimizes pattern homogeneity of all four environmental variables within each segment. The result is a regionalization of the landmass into land units characterized by uniform pattern of land cover, soils, landforms, climate, and, by inference, by uniform ecosystem. Because several disjoined segments may have very similar characteristics, we cluster the segments to obtain a smaller set of segment types which we identify with ecoregions. Our approach is automatic, reproducible, updatable, and customizable. It yields the first automatic delineation of ecoregions on the global scale. In the resulting vector database each ecoregion/segment is described by numerous attributes which make it a valuable GIS resource for

  17. Delineating the cell death mechanisms associated with skin electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheis, Katherine; Smith, Trevor R F; Kiosses, William B; Kraynyak, Kimberly A; Wong, Amelia; Oh, Janet; Broderick, Kate Elizabeth

    2018-06-28

    The immune responses elicited following delivery of DNA vaccines to the skin has previously been shown to be significantly enhanced by the addition of electroporation (EP) to the treatment protocol. Principally, EP increases the transfection of pDNA into the resident skin cells. In addition to increasing the levels of in vivo transfection, the physical insult induced by EP is associated with activation of innate pathways which are believed to mediate an adjuvant effect, further enhancing DNA vaccine responses. Here, we have investigated the possible mechanisms associated with this adjuvant effect, primarily focusing on the cell death pathways associated with the skin EP procedure independent of pDNA delivery. Using the minimally invasive CELLECTRA®-3P intradermal electroporation device that penetrates the epidermal and dermal layers of the skin, we have investigated apoptotic and necrotic cell death in relation to the vicinity of the electrode needles and electric field generated. Employing the well-established TUNEL assay, we detected apoptosis beginning as early as one hour after EP and peaking at the 4 hour time point. The majority of the apoptotic events were detected in the epidermal region directly adjacent to the electrode needle. Using a novel propidium iodide in vivo necrotic cell death assay, we detected necrotic events concentrated in the epidermal region adjacent to the electrode. Furthermore, we detected up-regulation of calreticulin expression on skin cells after EP, thus labeling these cells for uptake by dendritic cells and macrophages. These results allow us to delineate the cell death mechanisms occurring in the skin following intradermal EP independently of pDNA delivery. We believe these events contribute to the adjuvant effect observed following electroporation at the skin treatment site.

  18. Delineation of peatland lagg boundaries from airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Melanie N.; Richardson, Murray C.; Price, Jonathan S.

    2017-09-01

    In Canada, peatlands are the most common type of wetland, but boundary delineation in peatland complexes has received little attention in the scientific literature. Typically, peatland boundaries are mapped as crisp, absolute features, and the transitional lagg zone—the ecotone found between a raised bog and the surrounding mineral land—is often overlooked. In this study, we aim (1) to advance existing approaches for detecting and locating laggs and lagg boundaries using airborne LiDAR surveys and (2) to describe the spatial distribution of laggs around raised bog peatlands. Two contrasting spatial analytical approaches for lagg detection were tested using five LiDAR-derived topographic and vegetation indices: topography, vegetation height, topographic wetness index, the standard deviation of the vegetation's height (as a proxy for the complexity of the vegetation's structure), and local indices of elevation variance. Using a dissimilarity approach (edge-detection, split-moving window analysis), no one variable accurately depicted both the lagg-mineral land and bog-lagg boundaries. Some indicators were better at predicting the bog-lagg boundary (i.e., vegetation height) and others at finding the lagg-mineral land boundary (i.e., topography). Dissimilarity analysis reinforces the usefulness of derived variables (e.g., wetness indices) in locating laggs, especially for those with weak topographic and vegetation gradients. When the lagg was confined between the bog and the adjacent upland, it took a linear form, parallel to the peatland's edge and was easier to predict. When the adjacent mineral land was flat or sloping away from the peatland, the lagg was discontinuous and intermittent and more difficult to predict.

  19. Delineation of the calcineurin-interacting region of cyclophilin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, M; Allain, F; Haendler, B; Slomianny, M C; Spik, G

    2000-12-01

    The immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibits T-cell function by blocking the phosphatase activity of calcineurin. This effect is mediated by formation of a complex between the drug and cyclophilin (CyP), which creates a composite surface able to make high-affinity contacts with calcineurin. In vitro, the CyPB/CsA complex is more effective in inhibiting calcineurin than the CyPA/CsA and CyPC/CsA complexes, pointing to fine structural differences in the calcineurin-binding region. To delineate the calcineurin-binding region of CyPB, we mutated several amino acids, located in two loops corresponding to CyPA regions known to be involved, as follows: R76A, G77H, D155R, and D158R. Compared to wild-type CyPB, the G77H, D155R, and D158R mutants had intact isomerase and CsA-binding activities, indicating that no major conformational changes had taken place. When complexed to CsA, they all displayed only reduced affinity for calcineurin and much decreased inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase activity. These results strongly suggest that the three amino acids G77, D155, and D158 are directly involved in the interaction of CyPB/CsA with calcineurin, in agreement with their exposed position. The G77, D155, and D158 residues are not maintained in CyPA and might therefore account for the higher affinity of the CyPB/CsA complex for calcineurin.

  20. Delineating advanced practice nursing in New Zealand: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carryer, J; Wilkinson, J; Towers, A; Gardner, G

    2018-03-01

    A variety of advanced practice nursing roles and titles have proliferated in response to the changing demands of a population characterized by increasing age and chronic illness. Whilst similarly identified as advanced practice roles, they do not share a common practice profile, educational requirements or legislative direction. The lack of clarity limits comparative research that can inform policy and health service planning. To identify advanced practice roles within nursing titles employed in New Zealand and practice differences between advanced practice and other roles. Replicating recent Australian research, 3255 registered nurses/nurse practitioners in New Zealand completed the amended Advanced Practice Delineation survey tool. The mean domain scores of the predominant advanced practice position were compared with those of other positions. Differences between groups were explored using one-way ANOVA and post hoc between group comparisons. Four nursing position bands were identified: nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, domain-specific and registered nurse. Significant differences between the bands were found on many domain scores. The nurse practitioner and clinical nurse specialist bands had the most similar practice profiles, nurse practitioners being more involved in direct care and professional leadership. Similar to the position of clinical nurse consultant in Australia, those practicing as clinical nurse specialists were deemed to reflect the threshold for advanced practice nursing. The results identified different practice patterns for the identified bands and distinguish the advanced practice nursing roles. By replicating the Australian study of Gardener et al. (2016), this NZ paper extends the international data available to support more evidence-based nursing workforce planning and policy development. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  1. An Unusual Case of Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma Arising in the Breast - Its Diagnosis and the Role of Radiotherapy in its Management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rock, Kathy

    2011-10-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary lymphoma of the breast accounts for 0.04-0.5% of all breast malignancies and approximately 1% of all extranodal lymphomas. For stage IE node-negative disease, involved field radiotherapy is recommended except for very young women in whom the risk of breast cancer is a concern. The rate of complete response for limited stage extranodal marginal B-cell lymphoma is in excess of 90%. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 62-year-old lady who presented with a unilateral painless palpable right breast lump. She subsequently underwent a trucut biopsy of the lesion. The histology revealed a low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma (NHL). Immunohistochemistry showed that more than 95% of the cells were B cells which were CD 20+\\/CD 45+ and BC L6+. This confirmed the diagnosis of marginal zone lymphoma. Staging work-up was negative for distant metastases. Serum alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were normal. The patient had no \\'B\\' symptoms. Her final diagnosis was clinical stage IAE NHL, and she was referred for curative radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: Radiation treatment is a safe and extremely effective modality of treatment for early stage I marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the breast.

  2. Assessment of the perceived effects and management challenges of Mikania micrantha invasion in Chitwan National Park buffer zone community forest, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Akriti

    2017-04-01

    The effects of invasion by Mikania micrantha in the buffer zone of Chitwan National Park (CNP) of Nepal are well documented; however the studies were confined to appraising the perception of household and did not assess the changes in livelihood activities after the invasion. This study presents the effects of invasion of M. micrantha on the livelihood of buffer zone of the Chitwan National Park; hence addressing the gap in information and shows the complex effect of M. micrantha on rural livelihood. The study used a questionnaire survey to 170 households in the CNP of Nepal. The results indicate that the invasion of M. micrantha have negative effects on the community livelihood in the study area. Basic forest products such as fodder and fuel wood have become scarce as a result of reduction in the native plants. Also the spread of M. micrantha is creating impassable copse that destroy wildlife abode and jungle paths resulting into animals to shift their habitat to core area thereby reducing tourism revenues. Therefore, the study concludes that invasion of M. micrantha directly or indirectly is modifying the rural household livelihoods and a quick action is stipulated. Hence, a higher level body like the Ministry of Forestry or Department of National Park and Wildlife Conservation needs to take care of issues related to alien species. Correspondingly, it is also very important that people are aware and educated about alien species and their effects.

  3. Delineation of a shallow subsurface aquiclude relief with aero electromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, A.; Winkler, E.; Bieber, G.; Motschka, K.; Reitner, H.

    2009-04-01

    Within a governmental groundwater remediation project in Austria, a new (overworked) characterization of a large catchment area (600 km2) with aeroelectromagnetics (AEM) was carried out. This catchment area is a large and important zone of subsurface water resources for currently and future municipal and rural water supply. Conflicts in future land use between e.g. agricultura, excavigation of mass materials, city and regional planning, ect. are preassigned and have impacts concerning the quality and quantity of available groundwater. The geology of the investigation area is a typical post-glacial region, characterized by aggradational deposition areas. The thickness of the wide-spread terrace gravels ranges from 10m to 40m, being the preferred ground water aquifer. The subsurface of the investigation area is built up by a Neogen basement, the so called Molasse and is acting as an aquiclude relative to the overlying quaternary sediments. Aeroelectromagnetic data from a former aerogeophysical survey were reinterpreted with a new processing and interpretation approach for the determination of this geological 3 layer case. This aeroelectromagnetic inversion integrates results from borehole data, ground geoelectric surveys and from geological mapping as a priori input information. The inversion result for a measured AEM data value is determined by a combination of geostatistically weighted additional information and likelihood weighted theoretical models. The primary aim of the study was the delineation of the aquiclude relief. The ground water circulation within the different terrace gravels is substantially affected by this Neogen relief. Depressions and prequaternary (tertiary) riverbeds within the Molasse often show other trends of water flow than the surficial, recent vales. The knowledge of the hydrogeological framework is essential for identification and definition of water protection and catchment areas as a decision base for national land use regulations. The

  4. Empowering the child and caregiver: yellow zone Asthma Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakar, Chitra; Portnoy, Jay M

    2014-11-01

    Current guidelines, both national and international, elegantly describe evidence-based measures to attain and maintain long-term control of asthma. These strategies, typically discussed between the provider and patient, are provided in the form of written (or electronic) instructions as part of the green zone of the color-coded Asthma Action Plan. The red zone of the Asthma Action Plan has directives on when to use systemic corticosteroids and seek medical attention. The transition zone between the green zone of good control and the red zone of asthma exacerbation is the yellow zone. This zone guides the patient on self-management of exacerbations outside a medical setting. Unfortunately, the only recommendation currently available to patients per the current asthma guidelines is the repetitive use of reliever bronchodilators. This approach, while providing modest symptom relief, does not reliably prevent progression to the red zone. In this document, we present new, evidence-based, yellow zone intervention options.

  5. Population genetics of chamois in the contact zone between the Alps and the Dinaric Mountains: uncovering the role of habitat fragmentation and past management

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buzan, E. V.; Bryja, Josef; Zemanová, Barbora; Kryštufek, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2013), s. 401-412 ISSN 1566-0621 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rupicapra rupicapra * Microsatellites * Population structure * Fragmentation * Conservation management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.846, year: 2013

  6. An Isotopic View of Water and Nitrate Transport Through the Vadose Zone in Oregon’s Southern Willamette Valley’s Groundwater Management Area (S-GWMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon’s southern Willamette Valley and many more across the USA. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater exceedi...

  7. Using helicopter TEM to delineate fresh water and salt water zones in the aquifer beneath the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski, Joel E.; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang K. H.; Kgotlhang, Lesego

    2017-09-01

    The Okavango Delta is a vast wetland wilderness in the middle of the Kalahari Desert of Botswana. It is a largely closed hydrological system with most water leaving the delta by evapotranspiration. In spite of this, the channels and swamps of the delta remain surprisingly low in salinity. To help understand the hydrological processes at work, we reanalyzed a previous inversion of data collected from a helicopter transient electromagnetic (HTEM) survey of the entire delta and performed an inversion of a high resolution dataset recorded during the same survey. Our results show widespread infiltration of fresh water to as much as ∼200 m depth into the regional saline aquifer. Beneath the western delta, freshwater infiltration extends to only about 80 m depth. Hydrological modeling with SEAWAT confirms that this may be due to rebound of the regional saltwater-freshwater interface following the cessation of surface flooding over this part of the delta in the 1880s. Our resistivity models also provide evidence for active and inactive saltwater fingers to as much as ∼100 m beneath islands. These results demonstrate the great extent of freshwater infiltration across the delta and also show that all vegetated areas along the delta's channels and swamps are potential locations for transferring solutes from surface water to an aquifer at depth.

  8. STUDY REGARDING DELINEATION OF FLOOD HAZARD ZONES IN THE HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF THE SOMEŞ RIVER, BORDER AREA

    OpenAIRE

    STOICA F.; ROŞU I.; SOFRONIE C.; DULĂU R.; SÂRB M.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrological studies will provide the characteristic parameters for the floods occurred for the calculus discharges with overflow probabilities of 0,1%; 1%, 5%, 10%. The hydrologic and hydraulic models will be made by using the hydro-meteorological data base and the topographical measurements on site; them calibration will be done according to the records of the historical floods. The studies on the hydrologic and hydraulic models will be necessary for the establishment of the carrying ca...

  9. STUDY REGARDING DELINEATION OF FLOOD HAZARD ZONES IN THE HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF THE SOMEŞ RIVER, BORDER AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOICA F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological studies will provide the characteristic parameters for the floods occurred for the calculus discharges with overflow probabilities of 0,1%; 1%, 5%, 10%. The hydrologic and hydraulic models will be made by using the hydro-meteorological data base and the topographical measurements on site; them calibration will be done according to the records of the historical floods. The studies on the hydrologic and hydraulic models will be necessary for the establishment of the carrying capacity of the riverbeds, for the delimitation of the flood plains and for the detection of the transit discharges at the hydro-technical installations, but also for the establishment of the parameters needed for the structural measures’ projects. These will be based on the 1D and 2D unstable hydro-dynamic models. Therefore, the users would be able to assess the proposed measures and the impact over the river’s system; of course with the potential combination of the 1D and 2D. The main objectives followed by the project are: • identification of the river basins or river sub-basins with flood risks; • regionalization of the flood hazard; • presentation of the main flash floods occurred during the last 30 years, which induced floods; • assessment of the consequences of eventual flood over the population, properties and environment; • the establishment of the protection degree, accepted for the human settlements, for the economic and social objectives, for the farm areas, etc.;

  10. The Effects of Ethical Behaviors of the Managers on Organizational Climate: an Application in 3rd Organizational Industrial Zone in Konya

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan CELIK; Rabia YILMAZ

    2016-01-01

    Various reasons such as professional advances in business life and increasing consciousness of the employees, and the emergence of various ethical values and principles have significant role in increase of ethical behaviors of the managers. One of the important domains that the ethical behaviors of the managers affect at most is the organizational climate. Ethics takes on a task at the point of organizing and advocating the true and false concepts, and recommending the best to people. And, th...

  11. Exploring Farmers’ Indigenous Knowledge of Soil Quality and Fertility Management Practices in Selected Farming Communities of the Guinea Savannah Agro-Ecological Zone of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Ansong Omari; Sonoko Dorothea Bellingrath-Kimura; Elsie Sarkodee Addo; Yosei Oikawa; Yoshiharu Fujii

    2018-01-01

    Efforts to improve soil productive capacity aimed at boosting crop production in the Northern Ghana has primarily focused on field-based experiments with little documentation on farmer practice and local indigenous knowledge of soil management. A sample group of 114 farmers from five farming communities in the Guinea Savannah was interviewed to evaluate their indigenous knowledge of crop production practices in the context of soil health, fertilization management, and crop yield. Data were co...

  12. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  13. Reducing risk where tectonic plates collide—U.S. Geological Survey subduction zone science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Ludwig, Kristin A.; Bekins, Barbara; Brocher, Thomas M.; Brock, John C.; Brothers, Daniel; Chaytor, Jason D.; Frankel, Arthur; Geist, Eric L.; Haney, Matt; Hickman, Stephen H.; Leith, William S.; Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Schulz, William H.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Wallace, Kristi; Watt, Janet; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-06-19

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) serves the Nation by providing reliable scientific information and tools to build resilience in communities exposed to subduction zone earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions. Improving the application of USGS science to successfully reduce risk from these events relies on whole community efforts, with continuing partnerships among scientists and stakeholders, including researchers from universities, other government labs and private industry, land-use planners, engineers, policy-makers, emergency managers and responders, business owners, insurance providers, the media, and the general public.Motivated by recent technological advances and increased awareness of our growing vulnerability to subduction-zone hazards, the USGS is uniquely positioned to take a major step forward in the science it conducts and products it provides, building on its tradition of using long-term monitoring and research to develop effective products for hazard mitigation. This science plan provides a blueprint both for prioritizing USGS science activities and for delineating USGS interests and potential participation in subduction zone science supported by its partners.The activities in this plan address many USGS stakeholder needs:High-fidelity tools and user-tailored information that facilitate increasingly more targeted, neighborhood-scale decisions to mitigate risks more cost-effectively and ensure post-event operability. Such tools may include maps, tables, and simulated earthquake ground-motion records conveying shaking intensity and frequency. These facilitate the prioritization of retrofitting of vulnerable infrastructure;Information to guide local land-use and response planning to minimize development in likely hazardous zones (for example, databases, maps, and scenario documents to guide evacuation route planning in communities near volcanoes, along coastlines vulnerable to tsunamis, and built on landslide-prone terrain);New tools

  14. A Driver Pressure State Impact Response (DPSIR) framework applied to an interdisciplinary coastal zone management workshop along the eastern Gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, E.; Baldwin, C.; Jones, C.; Lewison, R. L.; Lieske, S.; Rudd, M.

    2016-02-01

    The flexibility of the Driver Pressure State Impact Response (DPSIR) framework is demonstrated through application to the coastal zone of east Gulf of Thailand during an inter-disciplinary multi-cultural workshop comprised of participants (including practitioners) from south-east Asian coastal countries, North America and Australia in January 2015. The benefits of the framework as identified by participants included systematic and critical thinking, and identification of data gaps and other needs, such as capacity building. We use four case studies that highlight cross-border social-ecological challenges in Thailand and Cambodia to demonstrate: a) participant learning, b) individuality and flexibility of approaches (e.g. scales considered), c) participants' feedback on its application, and d) its potential use to identify both data-gaps and low-hanging-fruit type actions.

  15. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-E33-46 Near Tank B-110 in the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Gee, Glendon W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Mccain, Richard G.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Orr, Robert D.; Legore, Virginia L.; Clayton, Ray E.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Royack, Lisa J.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents vadose sediment characterization data that improves understanding of the nature and extent of past releases in the B tank farm. A vertical borehole, located approximately 15 ft (5 m) from the northeast edge of single-shell tank 241-B-110 was drilled to a total depth of 264.4 ft bgs, the groundwater table was encountered at 255.8 ft bgs. During drilling, a total of 3 two-ft long, 4-inch diameter split-spoon core samples were collected between 10 and 254 ft bgs-an average of every 7.5 ft. Grab samples were collected between these core sample intervals to yield near continuous samples to a depth of 78.3 m (257 ft). Geologic logging occurred after each core segment was emptied into an open plastic container, followed by photographing and sub-sampling for physical and chemical characterization. In addition, 54 out of a total of 120 composite grab samples were opened, sub-sampled, logged, and photographed. Immediately following the geologic examination, the core an d selected grab samples were sub-sampled for moisture content, gamma-emission radiocounting, tritium and strontium-90 determinations, total carbon and inorganic carbon content, and 8 M nitric acid extracts (which provide a measure of the total leachable sediment content of contaminants) and one-to-one sediment to water extracts (which provide soil pH, electrical conductivity, cation, and anion data and water soluble contaminant data). Later, additional aliquots of selected sleeves or grab samples were removed to measure particle size distribution and mineralogy and to squeeze porewater. Major conclusions follow. Vadose zone contamination levels were lower than generally anticipated prior to the initiation of the field investigation. Strong evidence of extensive vadose zone lateral migration in WMA BBXBY exists. There are indications that such lateral migration may have extended into WMA B-BX-BY from adjacent past practice discharge sites. Ponding of runoff from natural precipitation in the

  16. 78 FR 7402 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Paperwork Submissions Under the Coastal Zone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Paperwork Submissions Under the Coastal Zone Management Act Federal Consistency... collection. A number of paperwork submissions are required by the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) federal... used by coastal states with federally-approved Coastal Zone Management Programs to determine if Federal...

  17. Assessment of groundwater potential zones using multi-influencing factor (MIF) and GIS: a case study from Birbhum district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Raju; Gupta, Srimanta; Guin, Shirshendu; Kaur, Harjeet

    2017-11-01

    Remote sensing and GIS play a vital role in exploration and assessment of groundwater and has wide application in detection, monitoring, assessment, conservation and various other fields of groundwater-related studies. In this research work, delineation of groundwater potential zone in Birbhum district has been carried out. Various thematic layers viz. geology, geomorphology, soil type, elevation, lineament and fault density, slope, drainage density, land use/land cover, soil texture, and rainfall are digitized and transformed into raster data in ArcGIS 10.3 environment as input factors. Thereafter, multi-influencing factor (MIF) technique is employed where ranks and weights, assigned to each factor are computed statistically. Finally, groundwater potential zones are classified into four categories namely low, medium, high and very high zone. It is observed that 18.41% (836.86 km2) and 34.41% (1563.98 km2) of the study area falls under `low' and `medium' groundwater potential zone, respectively. Approximately 1601.19 km2 area accounting for 35.23% of the study area falls under `high' category and `very high' groundwater potential zone encompasses an area of 542.98 km2 accounting for 11.95% of the total study area. Finally, the model generated groundwater potential zones are validated with reported potential yield data of various wells in the study area. Success and prediction rate curve reveals an accuracy achievement of 83.03 and 78%, respectively. The outcome of the present research work will help the local authorities, researchers, decision makers and planners in formulating better planning and management of groundwater resources in the study area in future perspectives.

  18. Prediction of groundwater flowing well zone at An-Najif Province, central Iraq using evidential belief functions model and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abadi, Alaa M; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to delineate groundwater flowing well zone potential in An-Najif Province of Iraq in a data-driven evidential belief function model developed in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. An inventory map of 68 groundwater flowing wells was prepared through field survey. Seventy percent or 43 wells were used for training the evidential belief functions model and the reset 30 % or 19 wells were used for validation of the model. Seven groundwater conditioning factors mostly derived from RS were used, namely elevation, slope angle, curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index, lithological units, and distance to the Euphrates River in this study. The relationship between training flowing well locations and the conditioning factors were investigated using evidential belief functions technique in a GIS environment. The integrated belief values were classified into five categories using natural break classification scheme to predict spatial zoning of groundwater flowing well, namely very low (0.17-0.34), low (0.34-0.46), moderate (0.46-0.58), high (0.58-0.80), and very high (0.80-0.99). The results show that very low and low zones cover 72 % (19,282 km(2)) of the study area mostly clustered in the central part, the moderate zone concentrated in the west part covers 13 % (3481 km(2)), and the high and very high zones extended over the northern part cover 15 % (3977 km(2)) of the study area. The vast spatial extension of very low and low zones indicates that groundwater flowing wells potential in the study area is low. The performance of the evidential belief functions spatial model was validated using the receiver operating characteristic curve. A success rate of 0.95 and a prediction rate of 0.94 were estimated from the area under relative operating characteristics curves, which indicate that the developed model has excellent capability to predict groundwater flowing well zones. The produced map of groundwater

  19. Delineation of marsh types from Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, to Perdido Bay, Alabama, in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Michael G. Brasher,; Jenneke M. Visser,; Michael K. Mitchell,; Bart M. Ballard,; Mark W. Parr,; Barry C. Wilson,

    2015-07-23

    Coastal zone managers and researchers often require detailed information regarding emergent marsh vegetation types (that is, fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline) for modeling habitat capacities and needs of marsh dependent taxa (such as waterfowl and alligator). Detailed information on the extent and distribution of emergent marsh vegetation types throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico coast has been historically unavailable. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Gulf Coast Joint Venture, the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Ducks Unlimited, Inc., and the Texas A&M University-Kingsville, produced a classification of emergent marsh vegetation types from Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, to Perdido Bay, Alabama.

  20. Target volume delineation variation in radiotherapy for early stage rectal cancer in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijkamp, Jasper; Haas-Kock, Danielle F.M. de; Beukema, Jannet C.; Neelis, Karen J.; Woutersen, Dankert; Ceha, Heleen; Rozema, Tom; Slot, Annerie; Vos-Westerman, Hanneke; Intven, Martijn; Spruit, Patty H.; Linden, Yvette van der; Geijsen, Debby; Verschueren, Karijn; Herk, Marcel B. van; Marijnen, Corrie A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure and improve the quality of target volume delineation by means of national consensus on target volume definition in early-stage rectal cancer. Methods and materials: The CTV’s for eight patients were delineated by 11 radiation oncologists in 10 institutes according to local guidelines (phase 1). After observer variation analysis a workshop was organized to establish delineation guidelines and a digital atlas, with which the same observers re-delineated the dataset (phase 2). Variation in volume, most caudal and cranial slice and local surface distance variation were analyzed. Results: The average delineated CTV volume decreased from 620 to 460 cc (p < 0.001) in phase 2. Variation in the caudal CTV border was reduced significantly from 1.8 to 1.2 cm SD (p = 0.01), while it remained 0.7 cm SD for the cranial border. The local surface distance variation (cm SD) reduced from 1.02 to 0.74 for anterior, 0.63 to 0.54 for lateral, 0.33 to 0.25 for posterior and 1.22 to 0.46 for the sphincter region, respectively. Conclusions: The large variation in target volume delineation could significantly be reduced by use of consensus guidelines and a digital delineation atlas. Despite the significant reduction there is still a need for further improvement.