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Sample records for delineate management zones

  1. Delineation and Scale Effect of Precision Agriculture Management Zones Using Yield Monitor Data Over Four Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; PAN Yu-chun; GE Zhong-qiang; ZHAO Chun-jiang

    2007-01-01

    In this study, precision agriculture management zones were delineated using yield data over four years from the combine harvester equipped with yield monitor and DGPS receiver. Relative yields measured during each year were interpolated to 4 m2 grid size using ordinary kriging. The resultant interpolated yield maps were averaged across years to create a map of the mean relative yield, which was then used for cluster analysis. The mean yield map of post-classification was processed by applying majority filtering with window sizes that were equivalent to the grid sizes of 12, 20, 28, 36, 44, 52 and 60 m. The scale effect of management zones was evaluated using relative variance reduction, test of significant differences of the means of yield zones, spatial fragmentation, and spatial agreement. The results showed that the post-classification majority filtering (PCMF) eliminated lots of isolated cells or patches caused by random variation while preserving yield means, high variance reduction, general yield patterns, and high spatial agreement. The zoned result can be used as yield goal map for preplant or in-season fertilizer recommendation in precision agriculture.

  2. Delineation of Management Zones in Precision Agriculture by Integration of Proximal Sensing with Multivariate Geostatistics. Examples of Sensor Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Castrignanò

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental to the philosophy of Precision Agriculture (PA is the concept of matching inputs to needs. Recent research in PA has focused on use of Management Zones (MZ that are field areas characterised by homogeneous attributes in landscape and soil conditions. Proximal sensing (such as Electromagnetic Induction (EMI, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR and X-ray fluorescence can complement direct sampling and a multisensory platform can enable us to map soil features unambiguously. Several methods of multi-sensor data analysis have been developed to determine the location of subfield areas. Modern geostatistical techniques, treating variables as continua in a joint attribute and geographic space, offer the potential to analyse such data effectively. The objective of the paper is to show the potential of multivariate geostatistics to create MZ in the perspective of PA by integrating field data from different types of sensors, describing two study cases. In particular, in the first case study, cokriging and factorial cokriging were employed to produce thematic maps of soil trace elements and to delineate homogenous zones, respectively. In the second case, a multivariate geostatistical data-fusion technique (multi collocated cokriging was applied to different geophysical sensor data (GPR and EMI, for stationary estimation of soil water content and for delineating within-field zone with different wetting degree. The results have shown that linking sensors of different type improves the overall assessment of soil and sensor data fusion could be effectively applied to delineate MZs in Precision Agriculture. However, techniques of data integration are urgently required as a result of the proliferation of data from different sources.

  3. Delineating management zones for precision agriculture applications: a case study on wheat in sub-tropical Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnior Melo Damian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In sub-tropical Brazil, the wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crop requires identification of pending constraints as premise for grain yield (GY increases. In this light, spatial variation of soil properties and their relationship with GY were investigated in a case study, where the delineation of homogeneous zones could lead to site-specific management in view of crop improvement. In 2012, twelve chemical and physical soil attributes, GY and the three yield components (spikes per square meters, grains per spike, grain weight were geo-referentially assessed in a 50×50 m grid in a 4.7 ha wheat field. GY exhibited a modest mean (2.61 Mg ha–1, associated with a noticeable variation (CV, 17.4%. A multiple stepwise regression of soil carbon (C and pH explained a high share of GY variation (R2, 0.83**. Maps of C, pH and GY obtained through inverse distance weighting showed the spatial trends of the three traits. C and pH clustering delineated three homogeneous zones at respective low, intermediate and high levels of C, pH, and also GY, setting the premise for a differential management of crop inputs. In particular, a significant part (21.8% of field surface featured very low GY (2.05 Mg ha–1; thus substantial yield increase could be envisaged through targeted supply of organic amendments (soil C, 14.1 g dm–3, and especially lime (soil pH, 4.92. A larger field portion (54% showed intermediate GY (2.65 Mg ha–1, C (15.3 g dm–3 and pH (5.23, deserving a lesser degree of amelioration. The remaining 24.2% of field surface exhibited the highest GY (3.16 Mg ha–1, C (17.2 g dm–3 and pH (5.46. Based on the difference between GY registered in the low vs. high zone, overcoming soil constraints could be credited with a remarkable (>50% yield increase, although further years of wheat cropping would be needed to prove the consistency of the two temporally stable soil traits, C and pH, as yield determinants. Nevertheless, this case study addressing a world

  4. AN APPLICATION OF HYBRID CLUSTERING AND NEURAL BASED PREDICTION MODELLING FOR DELINEATION OF MANAGEMENT ZONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babankumar S. Bansod

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Starting from descriptive data on crop yield and various other properties, the aim of this study is to reveal the trends on soil behaviour, such as crop yield. This study has been carried out by developing web application that uses a well known technique- Cluster Analysis. The cluster analysis revealed linkages between soil classes for the same field as well as between different fields, which can be partly assigned to crops rotation and determination of variable soil input rates. A hybrid clustering algorithm has been developed taking into account the traits of two clustering technologies: i Hierarchical clustering, ii K-means clustering. This hybrid clustering algorithm is applied to sensor- gathered data about soil and analysed, resulting in the formation of well delineatedmanagement zones based on various properties of soil, such as, ECa , crop yield, etc. One of the purposes of the study was to identify the main factors affecting the crop yield and the results obtained were validated with existing techniques. To accomplish this purpose, geo-referenced soil information has been examined. Also, based on this data, statistical method has been used to classify and characterize the soil behaviour. This is done using a prediction model, developed to predict the unknown behaviour of clusters based on the known behaviour of other clusters. In predictive modeling, data has been collected for the relevant predictors, a statistical model has been formulated, predictions were made and the model can be validated (or revised as additional data becomes available. The model used in the web application has been formed taking into account neural network based minimum hamming distance criterion.

  5. Delineation of Site-Specific Management Zones Based on Temporal and Spatial Variability of Soil Electrical Conductivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; SHI Zhou; LI Feng

    2007-01-01

    A coastal saline field of 10.5 ha was selected as the study site and 122 bulk electrical conductivity(ECb)measurements were performed thrice in situ in the topsoil(0-20 cm)across the field using a hand held device to assess the spatial variability and temporal stability of the distribution of soil electrical conductivity(EC),to identify the management zones using cluster analysis based on the spatiotemporal variability of soil EC,and to evaluate the probable potential for sitespecific management in coastal regions with conventional statistics and geostatistical techniques.The results indicated high coefficients of variation for topsoil salinity over all the three samplings.The spatial structure of the salinity variability remained relatively stable with time.Kriged contour maps,drawn on the basis of spatial variance structure of the data.showed the spatial trend of the salinity distribution and revealed areas of consistently high or consistently low salinity,while a temporal stability map indicated stable and unstable regions.On the basis of the spatiotemporal characteristics.cluster analysis divided the site into three potential management zones.each with difierent characteristics that could have an impact on the way the field was managed.On the basis of the clearly defined management zones it was concluded that coastal saline land could be managed in a site-specific way.

  6. Assessment of the spatial variability in tall wheatgrass forage using LANDSAT 8 satellite imagery to delineate potential management zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicore, Pablo; Serrano, João; Shahidian, Shakib; Sousa, Adelia; Costa, José Luis; da Silva, José Rafael Marques

    2016-09-01

    Little information is available on the degree of within-field variability of potential production of Tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum) forage under unirrigated conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize the spatial variability of the accumulated biomass (AB) without nutritional limitations through vegetation indexes, and then use this information to determine potential management zones. A 27-×-27-m grid cell size was chosen and 84 biomass sampling areas (BSA), each 2 m(2) in size, were georeferenced. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers were applied after an initial cut at 3 cm height. At 500 °C day, the AB from each sampling area, was collected and evaluated. The spatial variability of AB was estimated more accurately using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), calculated from LANDSAT 8 images obtained on 24 November 2014 (NDVInov) and 10 December 2014 (NDVIdec) because the potential AB was highly associated with NDVInov and NDVIdec (r (2)  = 0.85 and 0.83, respectively). These models between the potential AB data and NDVI were evaluated by root mean squared error (RMSE) and relative root mean squared error (RRMSE). This last coefficient was 12 and 15 % for NDVInov and NDVIdec, respectively. Potential AB and NDVI spatial correlation were quantified with semivariograms. The spatial dependence of AB was low. Six classes of NDVI were analyzed for comparison, and two management zones (MZ) were established with them. In order to evaluate if the NDVI method allows us to delimit MZ with different attainable yields, the AB estimated for these MZ were compared through an ANOVA test. The potential AB had significant differences among MZ. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that NDVI obtained from LANDSAT 8 images can be reliably used for creating MZ in soils under permanent pastures dominated by Tall wheatgrass.

  7. Delineation of groundwater potential zone: An AHP/ANP approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Etishree Agarwal; Rajat Agarwal; R D Garg; P K Garg

    2013-06-01

    The sustainable development and management of groundwater resource requires precise quantitative assessment based on scientific principle and modern techniques. In the present study, groundwater potential zone are delineated using remote sensing, geographical information system (GIS) and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh. The analytical network process (ANP) is a method that makes it possible for one to deal systematically, and includes the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a special case. The AHP and ANP are used to determine the weights of various themes and their classes for identifying the groundwater potential zone. These weights are applied in a linear combination to obtain five different groundwater potential zone in the study area, namely ‘very poor’, ‘poor’, ‘moderate’, ‘good’ and ‘very good’. It has been concluded that about 153.39 km2 area has very good groundwater potential which is only 3.37% of the total study area. However, the area having very poor groundwater potential is about 850 km2 which is about 19.63% of the study area. The area having good, moderate and poor groundwater potential is about 540.25, 1135.5, 1868.6 km2, respectively. The groundwater potential zone map was finally verified using the well yield data of 37 pumping wells, and the result was found satisfactory.

  8. Transit Traffic Analysis Zone Delineating Method Based on Thiessen Polygon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwei Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A green transportation system composed of transit, busses and bicycles could be a significant in alleviating traffic congestion. However, the inaccuracy of current transit ridership forecasting methods is imposing a negative impact on the development of urban transit systems. Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ delineating is a fundamental and essential step in ridership forecasting, existing delineating method in four-step models have some problems in reflecting the travel characteristics of urban transit. This paper aims to come up with a Transit Traffic Analysis Zone delineation method as supplement of traditional TAZs in transit service analysis. The deficiencies of current TAZ delineating methods were analyzed, and the requirements of Transit Traffic Analysis Zone (TTAZ were summarized. Considering these requirements, Thiessen Polygon was introduced into TTAZ delineating. In order to validate its feasibility, Beijing was then taken as an example to delineate TTAZs, followed by a spatial analysis of office buildings within a TTAZ and transit station departure passengers. Analysis result shows that the TTAZs based on Thiessen polygon could reflect the transit travel characteristic and is of in-depth research value.

  9. Delineating riparian zones for entire river networks using geomorphological criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fernández

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Riparian zone delineation is a central issue for riparian and river ecosystem management, however, criteria used to delineate them are still under debate. The area inundated by a 50-yr flood has been indicated as an optimal hydrological descriptor for riparian areas. This detailed hydrological information is, however, not usually available for entire river corridors, and is only available for populated areas at risk of flooding. One of the requirements for catchment planning is to establish the most appropriate location of zones to conserve or restore riparian buffer strips for whole river networks. This issue could be solved by using geomorphological criteria extracted from Digital Elevation Models. In this work we have explored the adjustment of surfaces developed under two different geomorphological criteria with respect to the flooded area covered by the 50-yr flood, in an attempt to rapidly delineate hydrologically-meaningful riparian zones for entire river networks. The first geomorphological criterion is based on the surface that intersects valley walls at a given number of bankfull depths above the channel (BFDAC, while the second is based on the surface defined by a~threshold value indicating the relative cost of moving from the stream up to the valley, accounting for slope and elevation change (path distance. As the relationship between local geomorphology and 50-yr flood has been suggested to be river-type dependant, we have performed our analyses distinguishing between three river types corresponding with three valley morphologies: open, shallow vee and deep vee valleys (in increasing degree of valley constrainment. Adjustment between the surfaces derived from geomorphological and hydrological criteria has been evaluated using two different methods: one based on exceeding areas (minimum exceeding score and the other on the similarity among total area values. Both methods have pointed out the same surfaces when looking for those that

  10. Delineation of Precision Agriculture Management Zones in Oasis Field Based on K-means Algorithm%基于K-均值聚类的绿洲农田管理分区提取的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安光辉; 马蓉; 陈伟; 芦帅

    2011-01-01

    根据产量数据的空间变异划分管理分区是确定精准农业变量作业单元的有效途径,可以为样区土壤管理提供科学的决策依据.本研究以新疆绿洲农田为研究对象,通过安装在John Deer 9970采棉机上的Insight产量监测系统获取棉花产量实时数据,并以之为数据源进行农田精准管理分区的研究.研究采用K-均值聚类算法提取管理分区,并以方差减少率的变化来评价管理分区划分的效果.结果表明:当过滤窗口尺度为18 m×18 m,管理分区数为4时,各分区内的棉花产量变异较小且分区间棉花产量变异较大,分区尺度适合变量作业.%Zoning based on spatial variability of yield on a field scale is a key to variable rate application in precision agriculture. The objective of this research was to delineate precision agriculture management zones of oasis cotton field. Firstly by means of the Insight yield monitor system installed on the JD 9970 cotton picker, the real time cotton yield data is obtained. Then K-means clustering algorithm was used to delineate management zones with the yield data as main data source. In order to determine the optimum management zones, the relative variance reduction was used to judge its reasonability. The results showed that when the size of the filter window is 18mX18m and the whole field is divided into four management zones the regional differences all decreased obviously and the difference between regions is very significant. Moreover,the region scale of the management zones delineated with this method is suitable for variable-rate application. The delineated management zones can be used for fertilizer recommendation to manage soil nutrient and salinity more efficiently in coastal saline field.

  11. ModBack - simplified contaminant source zone delineation using backtracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielsch, K.; Herold, M.; Ptak, T.

    2012-12-01

    al. (2005). The contaminant plume length can be estimated using plume length statistics, first order rate degradation equations or calculations based on site specific hydraulic and chemical parameters. Furthermore, an analytical tool is included to identify the distribution of contaminants across a control plane. All relevant output can be graphically displayed and saved as vector data to be later used in GIS software. ModBack has been already used to delimit the zones of source presence or absence at several test sites. With ModBack, a tool is now available which enables environmental consultants, engineers and environmental agencies to delineate possible sources of contamination already at the planning stage of site investigation and remediation measures, helping to significantly reduce costs of contaminated site management. Bayer-Raich, M., Jarsjö, J., Holder, T. and Ptak, T. (2003): "Numerical estimations of contaminant mass flow rate based on concentration measurements in pumping wells", ModelCare 2002: A Few Steps Closer to Reality, IAHS Publication No. 277, 10-16. Jarsjö, J., Bayer-Raich, M., Ptak, T. (2005): "Monitoring groundwater contamination and delineating source zones at industrial sites: Uncertainty analyses using integral pumping tests", Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 79, 107-134

  12. Hornblendite delineates zones of mass transfer through the lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daczko, Nathan R.; Piazolo, Sandra; Meek, Uvana; Stuart, Catherine A.; Elliott, Victoria

    2016-08-01

    Geochemical signatures throughout the layered Earth require significant mass transfer through the lower crust, yet geological pathways are under-recognized. Elongate bodies of basic to ultrabasic rocks are ubiquitous in exposures of the lower crust. Ultrabasic hornblendite bodies hosted within granulite facies gabbroic gneiss of the Pembroke Valley, Fiordland, New Zealand, are typical occurrences usually reported as igneous cumulate hornblendite. Their igneous features contrast with the metamorphic character of their host gabbroic gneiss. Both rock types have a common parent; field relationships are consistent with modification of host gabbroic gneiss into hornblendite. This precludes any interpretation involving cumulate processes in forming the hornblendite; these bodies are imposter cumulates. Instead, replacement of the host gabbroic gneiss formed hornblendite as a result of channeled high melt flux through the lower crust. High melt/rock ratios and disequilibrium between the migrating magma (granodiorite) and its host gabbroic gneiss induced dissolution (grain-scale magmatic assimilation) of gneiss and crystallization of mainly hornblende from the migrating magma. The extent of this reaction-replacement mechanism indicates that such hornblendite bodies delineate significant melt conduits. Accordingly, many of the ubiquitous basic to ultrabasic elongate bodies of the lower crust likely map the ‘missing’ mass transfer zones.

  13. Ground-Water Capture Zone Delineation of Hypothetical Systems: Methodology Comparison and Real-World Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, J. A.; Lilly, M. R.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2003-12-01

    A capture zone is the aquifer volume through which ground-water flows to a pumping well over a given time of travel. Determining a well's capture zone aids in water-supply management by creating an awareness of the water source. This helps ensure sustainable pumping operations and outlines areas where protection from contamination is critical. We are delineating the capture zones of hypothetical conceptual models that resemble the Fairbanks, Alaska floodplain both in aquifer parameters and boundary conditions. We begin with a very simple hydrogeologic system and gradually add complexity such as heterogeneity, anisotropy, multiple wells, and zones of permafrost. Commonly-used delineation methods are applied to each case. These include calculated fixed-radius, analytical and numerical models. The calculated fixed-radius method uses a mathematical equation with several simplifying assumptions. Analytical techniques employ a series of equations that likewise assume simple conditions, although to a lesser degree than the fixed-radius method. Our chosen numerical model is MODFLOW-2000, which offers a particle-tracking package (MODPATH) for delineating recharge areas. The delineations are overlayed for each conceptual model in order to compare the capture zones produced by the different methods. Contrasts between capture zones increase with the complexity of the hydrogeology. Simpler methods are restricted by their underlying assumptions. When methods can no longer account for complexities in the conceptual model, the resulting delineations remain similar to those of simpler models. Meanwhile, the zones generated by more sophisticated methods are able to change with changes to the conceptual model. Hence, the simpler methods now lack accuracy and credibility. We have found that these simpler techniques tend to overestimate the capture zone. Water-supply managers must consider such inaccuracies when evaluating the costs of each method. In addition to comparing delineation

  14. Delineation of Tsunami Risk Zones for Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijetunge, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    The coastal belts of several Indian Ocean countries including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand suffered massive loss of life and damage to property due to the tsunami unleashed by the great earthquake of moment magnitude 9.1-9.3 in the Andaman-Sunda subduction zone on December 26, 2004. In Sri Lanka, 13 of the 14 administrative districts lying along the coastal belt were affected: the death toll was over 35,000 with 20,000 injured and about 100,000 dwellings and other buildings either completely or partially damaged leaving half a million people homeless and causing massive disruption to livelihoods. However, it was clear in the immediate aftermath of the tsunami that the degree of damage along the coastal belt of Sri Lanka was not uniform: some areas suffered more damage, some less, and in certain other areas, often not far away, there was no damage at all. This suggests that the level of risk for coastal communities from future events of tsunami exhibits considerable variation even along a short stretch of the shoreline. The high cost and the scarcity of coastal lands in many areas demand an accurate assessment of the tsunami risk rather than arbitrary conservative zonation. Moreover, information relating to the spatial distribution of tsunami risk is essential in formulating post-tsunami coastal land use plans as well as in planning of evacuation of people during tsunami warnings. However, neither comprehensive probabilistic assessments of the tsunami hazard nor detailed information pertaining to the vulnerability of coastal communities are available at present for the coastal zone of Sri Lanka. Consequently, the methodology adopted in the present paper is to use field observations and numerical simulations of the December 2004 tsunami, which may be considered a worst-case scenario, in order to obtain the variation along the coastline of three parameters that quantify the tsunami impact. These three parameters are the tsunami height, the horizontal

  15. Automated, reproducible delineation of zones at risk from inundation by large volcanic debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Steve P.; Iverson, Richard M.

    1997-01-01

    Large debris flows can pose hazards to people and property downstream from volcanoes. We have developed a rapid, reproducible, objective, and inexpensive method to delineate distal debris-flow hazard zones. Our method employs the results of scaling and statistical analyses of the geometry of volcanic debris flows (lahars) to predict inundated valley cross-sectional areas (A) and planimetric areas (B) as functions of lahar volume. We use a range of specified lahar volumes to evaluate A and B. In a Geographic Information System (GIS) we employ the resulting range of predicted A and B to delineate gradations in inundation hazard, which is highest near the volcano and along valley thalwegs and diminishes as distances from the volcano and elevations above valley floors increase. Comparison of our computer-generated hazard maps with those constructed using traditional, field-based methods indicates that our method can provide an accurate means of delineating lahar hazard zones.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF HYDROGEOLOGIC MAPPING TO DELINEATE PROTECTION ZONES AROUND SPRINGS: REPORT OF TWO CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods commonly used to delineate protection zones for water-supply wells are often not directly applicable for springs. This investigation focuses on the use of hydrogeologic mapping methods to identify physical and hydrologic features that control ground-water flow to springs...

  17. Delineation of Groundwater Potential Zone in Sengipatti for Thanjavur District using Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva, G.; Nasir, N.; Selvakumar, R.

    2017-07-01

    Purpose of the ground water is very important to in our world. The condition of the ground water level and occurrence is differing from geological nature of earth. The present study, delineate the ground water potential zone in the hard rock terrain of Sengipatti and surrounding area using Remote sensing, Geographical Information System (GIS) and Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique is use to determined the weights of the different themes. Thus thematic layers drainage, geomorphology, land use/land cover, slope, lithology are prepare using Geological Survey of India Toposheets and IRS-IC satellite image. The weights are applied to the thematic layers after linear combination of the all layers. Finally delineate the possible ground water potential zone in the study area. Thus prospective zone are classify the three categories high, moderate, low. It has been total study area of the sengipatti region 32.28% of the area is high ground water potential zone and 34.1% area was moderate ground water potential zone and 33.63% area is low ground water potential zone.

  18. Landsat TM image segmentation for delineating geological zone correlated vegetation stratification in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyati, Christopher; Ratshibvumo, Thihanedzwi; Ogola, Jason

    Image classification approaches are widely used in mapping vegetation on remotely sensed images. Vegetation assemblages are equivalent to habitats. Whereas sub-pixel classification approaches potentially can produce more realistic, homogenous habitat maps, pixel-based hard classifier approaches often result in non-homogenous habitat zones. This salt-and-pepper habitat mapping is particularly a challenge on images of savannas, given the characteristic patchy texture of scattered trees and grass. Image segmentation techniques offer possibilities for homogenous habitat classification. This study aimed at establishing the extent to which established, field surveyed and geology-related vegetation types in South Africa’s Kruger National Park (KNP) can be reproduced using image segmentation. Rain season Landsat TM images were used, selected to coincide with the peak in vegetation productivity, which was deemed the time of year when discrimination between key habitats in KNP is most likely to be successful. The multiresolution segmentation mode in eCognition 5.0 was employed, object classification accomplished using the nearest neighbour (NN) classifier, using object texture and training area mean values in the NN feature space. Compared to delineations of the vegetation types of KNP on a digital map of the vegetation zones that was tested, image segmentation successfully mapped the zones (overall accuracy 85.3%, K^ = 82.7%) despite slight shifts in the location of vegetation zone boundaries. Maximum likelihood classification (MLC) of the same images was only 37% accurate (K^ = 24.2%). Whereas the vegetation zones resulting from MLC were non-homogenous, with considerable spectral confusion among the vegetation zones, image segmentation produced more homogenous vegetation zones, comparably more useful for conservation management, because realistic and meaningful habitat maps are important in biodiversity conservation as input data upon which to base management decisions

  19. Applications of simulation technique on debris-flow hazard zone delineation: a case study in Hualien County, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Hsu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows pose severe hazards to communities in mountainous areas, often resulting in the loss of life and property. Helping debris-flow-prone communities delineate potential hazard zones provides local authorities with useful information for developing emergency plans and disaster management policies. In 2003, the Soil and Water Conservation Bureau of Taiwan proposed an empirical model to delineate hazard zones for all creeks (1420 in total with potential of debris flows and utilized the model to help establish a hazard prevention system. However, the model does not fully consider hydrologic and physiographical conditions for a given creek in simulation. The objective of this study is to propose new approaches that can improve hazard zone delineation accuracy and simulate hazard zones in response to different rainfall intensity. In this study, a two-dimensional commercial model FLO-2D, physically based and taking into account the momentum and energy conservation of flow, was used to simulate debris-flow inundated areas.

    Sensitivity analysis with the model was conducted to determine the main influence parameters which affect debris flow simulation. Results indicate that the roughness coefficient, yield stress and volumetric sediment concentration dominate the computed results. To improve accuracy of the model, the study examined the performance of the rainfall-runoff model of FLO-2D as compared with that of the HSPF (Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran model, and then the proper values of the significant parameters were evaluated through the calibration process. Results reveal that the HSPF model has a better performance than the FLO-2D model at peak flow and flow recession period, and the volumetric sediment concentration and yield stress can be estimated by the channel slope. The validation of the model for simulating debris-flow hazard zones has been confirmed by a comparison of field evidence from historical debris

  20. Groundwater protection in fractured media: a vulnerability-based approach for delineating protection zones in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Alain; Tripet, Jean-Pierre; Kozel, Ronald; Meylan, Benjamin; Sinreich, Michael; Zwahlen, François

    2008-11-01

    A vulnerability-based approach for delineating groundwater protection zones around springs in fractured media has been developed to implement Swiss water-protection regulations. It takes into consideration the diversity of hydrogeological conditions observed in fractured aquifers and provides individual solutions for each type of setting. A decision process allows for selecting one of three methods, depending on the spring vulnerability and the heterogeneity of the aquifer. At the first stage, an evaluation of spring vulnerability is required, which is essentially based on spring hydrographs and groundwater quality monitoring. In case of a low vulnerability of the spring, a simplified method using a fixed radius approach (“distance method”) is applied. For vulnerable springs, additional investigations must be completed during a second stage to better characterize the aquifer properties, especially in terms of heterogeneity. This second stage includes a detailed hydrogeological survey and tracer testing. If the aquifer is assessed as slightly heterogeneous, the delineation of protection zones is performed using a calculated radius approach based on tracer test results (“isochrone method”). If the heterogeneity is high, a groundwater vulnerability mapping method is applied (“DISCO method”), based on evaluating discontinuities, protective cover and runoff parameters. Each method is illustrated by a case study.

  1. Management of coastal zone vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 14 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  2. Instrumentation for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  3. Delineation of estuarine management areas using multivariate geostatistics: the case of Sado Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caeiro, Sandra; Goovaerts, Pierre; Painho, Marco; Costa, M Helena

    2003-09-15

    The Sado Estuary is a coastal zone located in the south of Portugal where conflicts between conservation and development exist because of its location near industrialized urban zones and its designation as a natural reserve. The aim of this paper is to evaluate a set of multivariate geostatistical approaches to delineate spatially contiguous regions of sediment structure for Sado Estuary. These areas will be the supporting infrastructure of an environmental management system for this estuary. The boundaries of each homogeneous area were derived from three sediment characterization attributes through three different approaches: (1) cluster analysis of dissimilarity matrix function of geographical separation followed by indicator kriging of the cluster data, (2) discriminant analysis of kriged values of the three sediment attributes, and (3) a combination of methods 1 and 2. Final maximum likelihood classification was integrated into a geographical information system. All methods generated fairly spatially contiguous management areas that reproduce well the environment of the estuary. Map comparison techniques based on kappa statistics showed thatthe resultant three maps are similar, supporting the choice of any of the methods as appropriate for management of the Sado Estuary. However, the results of method 1 seem to be in better agreement with estuary behavior, assessment of contamination sources, and previous work conducted at this site.

  4. Capture zone delineation methodology based on the maximum concentration: Preventative groundwater well protection areas for heat exchange fluid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkonen, Jarkko; Neupauer, Roseanna M.

    2016-05-01

    Capture zones of water supply wells are most often delineated based on travel times of water or solute to the well, with the assumption that if the travel time is sufficiently large, the concentration of chemical at the well will not exceed the drinking water standards. In many situations, the likely source concentrations or release masses of contamination from the potential sources are unknown; therefore, the exact concentration at the well cannot be determined. In situations in which the source mass can be estimated with some accuracy, the delineation of the capture zone should be based on the maximum chemical concentration that can be expected at the well, rather than on an arbitrary travel time. We present a new capture zone delineation methodology that is based on this maximum chemical concentration. The method delineates capture zones by solving the adjoint of the advection-dispersion-reaction equation and relating the adjoint state and the known release mass to the expected chemical concentration at the well. We demonstrate the use of this method through a case study in which soil heat exchange systems are potential sources of contamination. The heat exchange fluid mixtures contain known fluid volumes and chemical concentrations; thus, in the event of a release, the release mass of the chemical is known. We also demonstrate the use of a concentration basis in quantifying other measures of well vulnerability including exposure time and time to exceed a predefined threshold concentration at the well.

  5. Delineating Groundwater Vulnerability and Protection Zone Mapping in Fractured Rock Masses: Focus on the DISCO Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Meerkhan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hard-rock catchments are considered to be source of valuable water resources for water supply to inhabitants and ecosystems. The present work aims to develop a groundwater vulnerability approach in the Caldas da Cavaca hydromineral system (Aguiar da Beira, Central Portugal in order to improve the hydrogeological conceptual site model. Different types of information were overlaid, generating several thematic maps to achieve an integrated framework of key sectors in the study site. Thus, a multi-technical approach was used, encompassing field and laboratory techniques, whereby different types of data were collected from fields such as geology, hydrogeology, applied geomorphology and geophysics and hydrogeomechanics, with the fundamental aim of applying the so-called DISCO index method. All of these techniques were successfully performed and an intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to contamination assessment, based on the multicriteria methodology of GOD-S, DRASTIC-Fm, SINTACS, SI and DISCO indexes, was delineated. Geographic Information Systems (GIS provided the basis on which to organize and integrate the databases and to produce all the thematic maps. This multi-technical approach highlights the importance of groundwater vulnerability to contamination mapping as a tool to support hydrogeological conceptualization, contributing to improving the decision-making process regarding water resources management and sustainability.

  6. Combining criteria for delineating lahar- and flash-flood-prone hazard and risk zones for the city of Arequipa, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Thouret

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru, is exposed to many natural hazards, most notably earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, lahars (volcanic debris flows, and flash floods. Of these, lahars and flash floods, triggered by occasional torrential rainfall, pose the most frequently occurring hazards that can affect the city and its environs, in particular the areas containing low-income neighbourhoods. This paper presents and discusses criteria for delineating areas prone to flash flood and lahar hazards, which are localized along the usually dry (except for the rainy season ravines and channels of the Río Chili and its tributaries that dissect the city. Our risk-evaluation study is based mostly on field surveys and mapping, but we also took into account quality and structural integrity of buildings, available socio-economic data, and information gained from interviews with risk-managers officials.

    In our evaluation of the vulnerability of various parts of the city, in addition to geological and physical parameters, we also took into account selected socio-economic parameters, such as the educational and poverty level of the population, unemployment figures, and population density. In addition, we utilized a criterion of the "isolation factor", based on distances to access emergency resources (hospitals, shelters or safety areas, and water in each city block. By combining the hazard, vulnerability and exposure criteria, we produced detailed risk-zone maps at the city-block scale, covering the whole city of Arequipa and adjacent suburbs. Not surprisingly, these maps show that the areas at high risk coincide with blocks or districts with populations at low socio-economic levels. Inhabitants at greatest risk are the poor recent immigrants from rural areas who live in unauthorized settlements in the outskirts of the city in the upper parts of the valleys. Such settlements are highly exposed to natural hazards and have little access

  7. Combining criteria for delineating lahar- and flash-flood-prone hazard and risk zones for the city of Arequipa, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, J.-C.; Enjolras, G.; Martelli, K.; Santoni, O.; Luque, J. A.; Nagata, M.; Arguedas, A.; Macedo, L.

    2013-02-01

    Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru, is exposed to many natural hazards, most notably earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, lahars (volcanic debris flows), and flash floods. Of these, lahars and flash floods, triggered by occasional torrential rainfall, pose the most frequently occurring hazards that can affect the city and its environs, in particular the areas containing low-income neighbourhoods. This paper presents and discusses criteria for delineating areas prone to flash flood and lahar hazards, which are localized along the usually dry (except for the rainy season) ravines and channels of the Río Chili and its tributaries that dissect the city. Our risk-evaluation study is based mostly on field surveys and mapping, but we also took into account quality and structural integrity of buildings, available socio-economic data, and information gained from interviews with risk-managers officials. In our evaluation of the vulnerability of various parts of the city, in addition to geological and physical parameters, we also took into account selected socio-economic parameters, such as the educational and poverty level of the population, unemployment figures, and population density. In addition, we utilized a criterion of the "isolation factor", based on distances to access emergency resources (hospitals, shelters or safety areas, and water) in each city block. By combining the hazard, vulnerability and exposure criteria, we produced detailed risk-zone maps at the city-block scale, covering the whole city of Arequipa and adjacent suburbs. Not surprisingly, these maps show that the areas at high risk coincide with blocks or districts with populations at low socio-economic levels. Inhabitants at greatest risk are the poor recent immigrants from rural areas who live in unauthorized settlements in the outskirts of the city in the upper parts of the valleys. Such settlements are highly exposed to natural hazards and have little access to vital resources. Our

  8. Delineation of seismic source zones based on seismicity parameters and probabilistic evaluation of seismic hazard using logic tree approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Vipin; T G Sitharam

    2013-06-01

    The delineation of seismic source zones plays an important role in the evaluation of seismic hazard. In most of the studies the seismic source delineation is done based on geological features. In the present study, an attempt has been made to delineate seismic source zones in the study area (south India) based on the seismicity parameters. Seismicity parameters and the maximum probable earthquake for these source zones were evaluated and were used in the hazard evaluation. The probabilistic evaluation of seismic hazard for south India was carried out using a logic tree approach. Two different types of seismic sources, linear and areal, were considered in the present study to model the seismic sources in the region more precisely. In order to properly account for the attenuation characteristics of the region, three different attenuation relations were used with different weightage factors. Seismic hazard evaluation was done for the probability of exceedance (PE) of 10% and 2% in 50 years. The spatial variation of rock level peak horizontal acceleration (PHA) and spectral acceleration (Sa) values corresponding to return periods of 475 and 2500 years for the entire study area are presented in this work. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values at ground surface level were estimated based on different NEHRP site classes by considering local site effects.

  9. Patterns of zone management uncertainty in cotton using tarnished plant bug distributions, NDVI, soil EC, yield and thermal imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management zones for various crops have been delineated using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), apparent bulk soil electrical conductivity (ECa - Veris), and yield data; however, estimations of uncertainty for these data layers are equally important considerations. The objective of this...

  10. Implications of different digital elevation models and preprocessing techniques to delineate debris flow inundation hazard zones in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. R.; Griffin, R.; Irwin, D.

    2013-12-01

    Heavy rains and steep, volcanic slopes in El Salvador cause numerous landslides every year, posing a persistent threat to the population, economy and environment. Although potential debris inundation hazard zones have been delineated using digital elevation models (DEMs), some disparities exist between the simulated zones and actual affected areas. Moreover, these hazard zones have only been identified for volcanic lahars and not the shallow landslides that occur nearly every year. This is despite the availability of tools to delineate a variety of landslide types (e.g., the USGS-developed LAHARZ software). Limitations in DEM spatial resolution, age of the data, and hydrological preprocessing techniques can contribute to inaccurate hazard zone definitions. This study investigates the impacts of using different elevation models and pit filling techniques in the final debris hazard zone delineations, in an effort to determine which combination of methods most closely agrees with observed landslide events. In particular, a national DEM digitized from topographic sheets from the 1970s and 1980s provide an elevation product at a 10 meter resolution. Both natural and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain limit the accuracy of current landslide hazard assessments derived from this source. Global products from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global DEM (ASTER GDEM) offer more recent data but at the cost of spatial resolution. New data derived from the NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) in 2013 provides the opportunity to update hazard zones at a higher spatial resolution (approximately 6 meters). Hydrological filling of sinks or pits for current hazard zone simulation has previously been achieved through ArcInfo spatial analyst. Such hydrological processing typically only fills pits and can lead to drastic modifications of original elevation values

  11. Vertical electrical sounding to delineate the potential aquifer zones for drinking water in Niamey city, Niger, Africa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joy Choudhury; K Lohith Kumar; E Nagaiah; S Sonkamble; Shakeel Ahmed; Venay Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Niger is a landlocked African country and the only source of surface water is the Niger River which flows in the western part of Niger and only few villages near to the river gets benefited from it, leaving most of the areas dependent on groundwater solely. The groundwater resources in Niger are mainly used for drinking, livestock and domestic needs. It can be observed that the water exploitation is minimal there due to several factors like undeveloped areas, less population, limited wells, rain-fed irrigation, etc. The delineation of potential aquifer zones is an important aspect for groundwater prospecting. Hence, the direct current (DC) resistivity soundings method also known as vertical electrical sounding (VES) is one of the most applied geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting that was used in the capital city, Niamey of Niger. Twelve VES surveys, each of AB spacing 400 m were carried out in lateritic and granitic rock formations with a view to study the layer response and to delineate the potential zones. Potential aquifer zones were at shallow depth ranging from 10 to 25 m for the drilled borehole depth of 80–85 m in every village. Analysis of the result showed a good correlation between the acquired data and the lithologs.

  12. Vertical electrical sounding to delineate the potential aquifer zones for drinking water in Niamey city, Niger, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Joy; Kumar, K. Lohith; Nagaiah, E.; Sonkamble, S.; Ahmed, Shakeel; Kumar, Venay

    2017-08-01

    Niger is a landlocked African country and the only source of surface water is the Niger River which flows in the western part of Niger and only few villages near to the river gets benefited from it, leaving most of the areas dependent on groundwater solely. The groundwater resources in Niger are mainly used for drinking, livestock and domestic needs. It can be observed that the water exploitation is minimal there due to several factors like undeveloped areas, less population, limited wells, rain-fed irrigation, etc. The delineation of potential aquifer zones is an important aspect for groundwater prospecting. Hence, the direct current (DC) resistivity soundings method also known as vertical electrical sounding (VES) is one of the most applied geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting that was used in the capital city, Niamey of Niger. Twelve VES surveys, each of AB spacing 400 m were carried out in lateritic and granitic rock formations with a view to study the layer response and to delineate the potential zones. Potential aquifer zones were at shallow depth ranging from 10 to 25 m for the drilled borehole depth of 80-85 m in every village. Analysis of the result showed a good correlation between the acquired data and the lithologs.

  13. Detailed Vertical and Lateral Delineation of Redox Zones in Contaminant Plumes Using Redox-Sensitive Tapes (RST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, P.; Oeste, F. D.; Melzer, R.; Martus, P.

    2006-12-01

    Innovative redox-sensitive tapes (RST) have been developed for a detailed vertical and lateral delineation of redox zones in contaminated aquifers. The RST have the potential to become an integral part of a data acquisition strategy for monitored natural attenuation (MNA). The tape material, consists of a 2 cm wide synthetic textile coated with reactive manganese dioxide minerals. The RST are submerged into existing monitoring wells for approximately one month. This time period is sufficient to allow for a reaction of the mineral coating with groundwater. The RST are aimed at investigating four different redox-zones in contaminated aquifers: Mn(II)-oxidizing, Mn(IV)-reducing, Fe(III)-reducing and sulfate-reducing. Two RST case studies are presented. The RST investigations on a coal tar contaminated site allowed for a precise lateral and vertical delineation of the contaminant plume using the existing monitoring well network. The RST investigations on a BTEX contaminated site yielded a good correlation of RST data with hydrochemical data at the wells sampled. In the majority of plume wells located 50 m downstream of the source area and beyond, Mn(IV)-reducing environment appeared to be prevailing. Comparing the RST data with hydrochemical data indicated evidence for the transport of transformation products with groundwater flow. The repeated application of the RST facilitated an assessment of the plume dynamics. No significant seasonal variation with respect to the redox zone distribution was observed within the contaminant plume. However, the assessment of the changes in redox conditions over a time period of 2.5 years showed that the iron-reducing zone is shrinking and the sulfate-reducing zone disappeared completely indicating that the contaminant plume might decrease in the near future. Thus, the application of the RST facilitated an assessment of the plume dynamics on a centimeter-scale without the necessity of pumping and treating contaminated groundwater.

  14. LNAPL source zone delineation using soil gases in a heterogeneous silty-sand aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Grégory J. V.; Jousse, Florie; Luze, Nicolas; Höhener, Patrick; Atteia, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Source delineation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites is of high importance for remediation work. However, traditional methods like soil core extraction and analysis or recent Membrane Interface Probe methods are time consuming and costly. Therefore, the development of an in situ method based on soil gas analysis can be interesting. This includes the direct measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil gas taken from gas probes using a PID (Photo Ionization Detector) and the analysis of other soil gases related to VOC degradation distribution (CH4, O2, CO2) or related to presence of Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPL) as 222Rn. However, in widespread heterogeneous formations, delineation by gas measurements becomes more challenging. The objective of this study is twofold: (i) to analyse the potential of several in situ gas measurement techniques in comparison to soil coring for LNAPL source delineation at a heterogeneous contaminated site where the techniques might be limited by a low diffusion potential linked to the presence of fine sands and silts, and (ii) to analyse the effect of vertical sediment heterogeneities on the performance of these gas measurement methods. Thus, five types of gases were analysed: VOCs, their three related degradation products O2, CO2 and CH4 and 222Rn. Gas measurements were compared to independent LNAPL analysis by coring. This work was conducted at an old industrial site frequently contaminated by a Diesel-Fuel mixture located in a heterogeneous fine-grained aquifer. Results show that in such heterogeneous media migration of reactive gases like VOCs occurs only across small distances and the VOC concentrations sampled with gas probes are mainly related to local conditions rather than the presence of LNAPL below the gas probe. 222Rn is not well correlated with LNAPL because of sediment heterogeneity. Oxygen, CO2, and especially CH4, have larger lengths of diffusion and give the clearest picture for LNAPL presence at this

  15. Definition of Management Zones of Soil Nutrientsbased on Fcm Algorithm in Oasis Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Chen, Yan

    The objective of this research was to define management zones of oasis cotton field. The variables of organic matter, available N, available P and available K data determined in 193 topsoil (0-30cm) samples were selected as data sources. Fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to delineate management zones. In order to determine the optimum fuzzy control parameters, the fuzziness performance index (FPI), c-Ф combinations and the multiple regression based on external variable were used in this study. Meanwhile, the cotton yield was chosen as the external variable. The whole field was divided in four management zones. And fuzziness exponent was 1.6. The zoning statistics showed that variation coefficient of soil nutrients decreased, while the means of the soil nutrients differed sharply between management zones. The average confusion index was 0.19 in all management zones. The overlapping of fuzzy classes at points was low and the spatial distribution of membership grades was unambiguous. The results indicated that fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm could be used to delineate management zones by selecting the appropriate external variables. The defined management zones can be used for fertilizer recommendation to manage soil nutrient more efficiently.

  16. Determination of potential management zones from soil electrical conductivity, yield and crop data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan LI; Zhou SHI; Ci-fang WU; Hong-yi LI; Feng LI

    2008-01-01

    One approach to apply precision agriculture to optimize crop production and environmental quality is identifying management zones. In this paper, the variables of soil electrical conductivity (EC) data, cotton yield data and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in an about 15 ha field in a coastal saline land were selected as data resources, and their spatial variabilities were firstly analyzed and spatial distribution maps constructed with geostatistics technique. Then fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to define management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 224 georeferenced soil and yield sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. The results reveal that the optimal number of management zones for the present study area was 3 and the defined management zones provided a better description of soil properties and yield variation. Statistical analyses indicate significant differences between the chemical properties of soil samples and crop yield in each management zone, and management zone 3 presented the highest nutrient level and potential crop productivity, whereas management zone 1 the lowest. Based on these findings, we conclude that fuzzy c-means clustering approach can be used to delineate management zones by using the given three variables in the coastal saline soils, and the defined management zones form an objective basis for targeting soil samples for nutrient analysis and development of site-specific application strategies.

  17. Remote sensing applications for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  18. Delineating shallow saline groundwater zones from Southern India using geophysical indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, N C; Singh, V P; Ahmed, S

    2013-06-01

    A geophysical survey was conducted over an industrial belt encompassing 80 functional leather factories in Southern India. These factories discharge untreated effluents which pollute shallow groundwater where electrical conductivity (EC) value had a wide range between 545 and 26,600 μS/cm (mean, 3, 901 μS/cm). The ranges of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions were from 46 to 4,850 mg/L (mean, 348 mg/L) and 25 to 10,390 mg/L (mean, 1,079 mg/L), respectively. Geoelectrical layer parameters of 37 vertical electrical soundings were analyzed to demarcate fresh and saline water zones. However, the analysis not did lead to a unique resolution of saline and fresh waters. It was difficult to assign a definitive value to the aquifer resistivity of any area. Thus, geophysical indicators, namely longitudinal unit conductance (S), transverse unit resistance (T), and average longitudinal resistivity (Rs), were calculated for identifying fresh and saline waters. Spatial distributions of S, T, and R s reflected widely varying ranges for the saline and fresh water zones. Further, the empirical relation of formation factor (F) was established from pore-water resistivity and aquifer resistivity for fresh and saline aquifers, which may be used to estimate local EC values from the aquifer resistivity, where well water is not available.

  19. Delineation of uplifting and subsiding zones in the Western Pannonian Basin using sinousity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, Judit; Kovács, Gábor; Zámolyi, András.; Pál, Lénárd; Székely, Balázs

    2010-05-01

    The recent tectonic setting of the Pannonian-basin is partly caracterised by different uplift and subsident pattern. Our study area the western part of the Bakony-Hill is currently uplifting while the neighbouring Little Hungarian Plane subsides. The contact zone of this two domain can be outline only from seismic profiles and borehole data. This normal faulting represented displacement int he seismic profile, however cannot be traced up to the surface. The depth conditions can only be partly recontsructed because we use TWT data, but there is evidence that early pannonian strata are faulted. In order to trace the faulted we analysed several seismic profile. We anticipate, that there motions inply surface this placement. Slope angles are therefore are disturbed, the valley slopes are modified and the river courses are sensitive to that change and accomodate to the new setting, restoring the original channel slope. Analysing the sinousity of these river course. We can inply to the differential uplift pattern. Historic maps were used for river course velineation, The Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire (1806-1869) perfect possibility for that. This mapsheets record the pre-regulation conditions of the hidrological system, this situation is the closest to the natural unmodified state.

  20. Shades of gray: The delineation of marker expression within the adult rodent subventricular zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamber, Carlyn; Kozareva, Danka A; Kamphuis, Willem; Hol, Elly M

    2013-12-01

    The research field of adult neurogenesis is rapidly expanding with more and more information becoming available on the identity of the cells located within the subventricular zone (SVZ). Much of our understanding is based on rodent studies. The SVZ is comprised of several different cell types including B1 astrocytes, transit amplifying progenitor cells (C cells), and neuroblasts (A cells). B1 astrocytes are the quiescent neural stem cells that continue to divide throughout a lifespan. They give rise to a progenitor cell, termed a C cell, which in turn, generates neuroblasts destined for the olfactory bulb. There is much controversy over how to distinguish various SVZ cell types. This review summarizes the known markers for rodent SVZ cell types, with particular attention paid towards B1 astrocytes and C cells. Unfortunately, there is no perfect stem cell marker. B1 astrocytes, C cells, and neuroblasts gain and lose marker expression patterns throughout their lineage progression. These expression patterns often overlap at the transition from one cell type to another. The SVZ cell lineage must be seen as a continuum, rather than a static and inert system. This view will aid in understanding the mechanisms underlying marker expression and cellular behavior in the SVZ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    place in Arendal, Norway between 3-7 July 2011. The main objective of the Symposium was to present current knowledge and to address issues on advice and management related to the coastal zone. The major themes of papers included in this book are: Coastal habitats and ecosystem services Adaptation...... integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took....../mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities where...

  2. Cacao Crop Management Zones Determination Based on Soil Properties and Crop Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Silva Matos de Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The use of management zones has ensured yield success for numerous agricultural crops. In spite of this potential, studies applying precision agricultural techniques to cacao plantations are scarce or almost nonexistent. The aim of the present study was to delineate management zones for cacao crop, create maps combining soil physical properties and cacao tree yield, and identify what combinations best fit within the soil chemical properties. The study was conducted in 2014 on a cacao plantation in a Nitossolo Háplico Eutrófico (Rhodic Paleudult in Bahia, Brazil. Soil samples were collected in a regular sampling grid with 120 sampling points in the 0.00-0.20 m soil layer, and pH(H2O, P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, H+Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, SB, V, TOC, effective CEC, CEC at pH 7.0, coarse sand, fine sand, clay, and silt were determined. Yield was measured in all the 120 points every month and stratified into annual, harvest, and early-harvest cacao yields. Data were subjected to geostatistical analysis, followed by ordinary kriging interpolation. The management zones were defined through a Fuzzy K-Means algorithm for combinations between soil physical properties and cacao tree yield. Concordance analysis was carried out between the delineated zones and soil chemical properties using Kappa coefficients. The zones that best classified the soil chemical properties were defined from the early-harvest cacao yield map associated with the clay or sand fractions. Silt content proved to be an inadequate variable for defining management zones for cacao production. The delineated management zones described the spatial variability of the soil chemical properties, and are therefore important for site-specific management in the cacao crop.

  3. Delineation of a wellhead protection zone and determination of flowpaths from potential groundwater contaminant source areas at Camp Ripley, Little Falls, Minnesota.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-12-22

    Groundwater at Camp Ripley, Minnesota, is recharged both on post and off site and discharged to rivers, wetlands, and pumping wells. The subsurface geologic materials have a wide range of permeabilities and are arranged in a complex fashion as a result of the region's multiple glacial advances. Correlation of individual glacial geologic units is difficult, even between nearby boreholes, because of the heterogeneities in the subsurface. This report documents the creation of a numerical model of groundwater flow for Camp Ripley and hydrologically related areas to the west and southwest. The model relies on a hydrogeological conceptual model built on the findings of a University of Minnesota-Duluth drilling and sampling program conducted in 2001. Because of the site's stratigraphic complexity, a geostatistical approach was taken to handle the uncertainty of the subsurface correlation. The U.S. Geological Survey's MODFLOW code was used to create the steady-state model, which includes input data from a variety of sources and is calibrated to water levels in monitoring wells across much of the site. This model was used for several applications. Wellhead protection zones were delineated for on-site production wells H, L, and N. The zones were determined on the basis of a probabilistic assessment of the groundwater captured by these wells; the assessment, in turn, had been based on multiple realizations of the study area's stratigraphy and groundwater flowfield. An additional application of the model was for estimating flowpaths and times of travel for groundwater at Camp Ripley's range areas and waste management facilities.

  4. Using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model in the delineation of gold mineralized zones within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au, Balikesir, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Abdelnasser, Amr; Karaman, Muhittin; Budakoglu, Murat

    2016-04-01

    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au mineralization that located at the Biga peninsula (W Turkey) developed around the Eybek pluton concentrated at its southern contact. This mineralization that hosted in the hornfels rocks of Karakaya Complex is associated with three main alteration zones; potassic, phyllic and propylitic alterations along the fault controlled margins of the Eybek pluton and quartz stockwork veining as well as brecciation zones. As well as two mineralized zones were occurred in the mine area; hypogene and oxidation/supergene zone. The hypogene zone has differentiated alteration types; high potassic and low phyllic alteration, while the oxidation/supergene zone has high phyllic and propylitic alterations. This work deals with the delineation of gold mineralized zone within this porphyry deposit using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model. Five zones of gold were calculated using its power-law C-V relationship that revealed that the main phase of gold mineralization stated at 5.3083 ppm Au concentration. In addition, the C-V log-log plot shows that the highly and moderately Au mineralization zone developed in western part of deposit correlated with oxidation zone related to propylitic alteration. On the other hand, its weakly mineralization zone has a widespread in the hypogene zone related to potassic alteration. This refers to the enrichment of gold and depletion of copper at the oxidation/supergene zone is due to the oxidation/supergene alteration processes that enrich the deposits by the meteoric water. Keywords: Concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model; gold mineralized zone; Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au; Balikesir; NW Turkey.

  5. Characteristics and landcover of estuarine boundaries: implications for the delineation of the South African estuarine functional zone

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veldkornet, DA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available , electrical conductivity), groundwater characteristics (salinity, conductivity and depth) and plant species. The delineation of the EFZ needs to be consistent, inclusive of all estuarine physical and biological processes, and cost-effective to identify so...

  6. Seasonally-managed wetland footprint delineation using Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W. T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Epshtein, Olga [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment

    2014-01-09

    One major challenge in water resource management is the estimation of evapotranspiration losses from seasonally managed wetlands. Quantifying these losses is complicated by the dynamic nature of the wetlands' areal footprint during the periods of flood-up and drawdown. In this paper, we present a data-lean solution to this problem using an example application in the San Joaquin Basin, California. Through analysis of high-resolution Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite imagery, we develop a metric to better capture the extent of total flooded wetland area. The procedure is validated using year-long, continuously-logged field datasets for two wetlands within the study area. The proposed classification which uses a Landsat ETM + Band 5 (mid-IR wavelength) to Band 2 (visible green wavelength) ratio improves estimates by 30–50% relative to previous wetland delineation studies. Finally, requiring modest ancillary data, the study results provide a practical and efficient option for wetland management in data-sparse regions or un-gauged watersheds.

  7. Role delineation study for the American Society for Pain Management Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willens, Joyce S; DePascale, Christine; Penny, James

    2010-06-01

    A role delineation study, or job analysis, is a necessary step in the development of a quality credentialing program. The process requires a logical approach and systematic methods to have an examination that is legally defensible. There are three main phases: initial development and evaluation, validation study, and development of test specifications. In the first phase, the content expert panel discussed performance domains that exist in pain management nursing. The six domains developed were: 1) assessment, monitoring, and evaluation of pain; 2) pharmacologic pain management; 3) nonpharmacologic pain management; 4) therapeutic communication and counseling; 5) patient and family teaching; and 6) collaborative and organizational activities. The panel then produced a list of 70 task statements to develop an online survey which was sent to independent reviewers with expertise in pain management nursing. After the panel reviewed the results of the pilot test, it was decided to clarify a few items that did not perform as expected. After the questionnaire was finalized it was distributed to 1,500 pain management nurses. The final yield was 585 usable returns, for a response rate of 39%. Thirty-three percent of the respondents reported a bachelor's degree in nursing as the highest degree awarded. Over 80% indicated that they were certified in pain management. Over 35% reported working in a staff position, 14% as a nurse practitioner, and 13% as a clinical nurse specialist. Part of the questionnaire asked the participants to rate performance expectation, consequence or the likelihood that the newly certified pain management nurse could cause harm, and the frequency of how often that nurse performs in each of the performance domains. The performance expectation was rated from 0 (the newly certified pain management nurse was not at all expected to perform the domain task) to 2 (after 6 months the newly certified pain management nurse would be expected to perform the domain

  8. Implications of multiple risk factors for delineation of disease control zones: Case study on foot-and-mouth disease occurrence in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrisostom, Ayebazibwe; Okurut, Ademun Anna Rose; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important livestock disease worldwide. It is endemic in Uganda and most other African countries because of multiple risk factors including high livestock density, animal movements, proximity to wild animals, cross-border transactions, wind...... strategies to promote disease control and livestock trade in endemic countries was to introduce the concept of disease-free zones within which specific sanitary and market standards have to be met. In Africa, it is only Namibia, Botswana and South Africa that have ever had FMD free OIE-declared zones....... In pursuit of possibilities of beef export to EU and other markets within Africa by the year 2020, Uganda delineated two disease control zones (DCZs) in areas with large livestock populations and as a consequence high risk for FMD, thus requiring high capital investment. This paper highlights the multiple...

  9. Geophysical delineation of the freshwater/saline-water transition zone in the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer, Travis and Hays Counties, Texas, September 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J.D.; Kress, W.H.; Shah, S.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Smith, B.A.; Hunt, B.B.

    2007-01-01

    During September 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Barton Springs/Edwards Aquifer Conservation District, conducted a geophysical pilot study to determine whether time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) sounding could be used to delineate the freshwater/saline-water transition zone in the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer in Travis and Hays Counties, Texas. There was uncertainty regarding the application of TDEM sounding for this purpose because of the depth of the aquifer (200-500 feet to the top of the aquifer) and the relatively low-resistivity clayey units in the upper confining unit. Twenty-five TDEM soundings were made along four 2-3-mile-long profiles in a study area overlying the transition zone near the Travis-Hays County boundary. The soundings yield measurements of subsurface electrical resistivity, the variations in which were correlated with hydrogeologic and stratigraphic units, and then with dissolved solids concentrations in the aquifer. Geonics Protem 47 and 57 systems with 492-foot and 328-foot transmitter-loop sizes were used to collect the TDEM soundings. A smooth model (vertical delineation of calculated apparent resistivity that represents an estimate [non-unique] of the true resistivity) for each sounding site was created using an iterative software program for inverse modeling. The effectiveness of using TDEM soundings to delineate the transition zone was indicated by comparing the distribution of resistivity in the aquifer with the distribution of dissolved solids concentrations in the aquifer along the profiles. TDEM sounding data show that, in general, the Edwards aquifer in the study area is characterized by a sharp change in resistivity from west to east. The western part of the Edwards aquifer in the study area shows higher resistivity than the eastern part. The higher resistivity regions correspond to lower dissolved solids concentrations (freshwater), and the lower resistivity regions correspond to

  10. Delineating Research Forums for Business and Management Education Scholars: The Business and Management Education Influence Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The authors used bibliometric analysis to create indices for both the percentage of articles a journal publishes on business and management education (BME) research and the relative scholarly impact an article is likely to have after being published in that journal. They envision that the dissemination of these indices will be helpful for scholars…

  11. Delineating Research Forums for Business and Management Education Scholars: The Business and Management Education Influence Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The authors used bibliometric analysis to create indices for both the percentage of articles a journal publishes on business and management education (BME) research and the relative scholarly impact an article is likely to have after being published in that journal. They envision that the dissemination of these indices will be helpful for scholars…

  12. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents.

  13. The integration of geology, geophysics, petrophysics and petroleum engineering in reservoir delineation, description and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This book covers the proceedings of the first Archie Conference. Topics covered include: reservoir characterization: petrophysical formation evaluation; reservoir properties prediction; origin, description and evaluation of fractured reservoirs; 2-D and 3-D in seismic reservoir delineation and development, and the utilization of geoscience and engineering technology to increase hydrocarbon recovery.

  14. Resolution and sensitivity of boat-towed RMT data to delineate fracture zones - Example of the Stockholm bypass multi-lane tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Suman; Bastani, Mehrdad; Malehmir, Alireza; Pedersen, Laust B.

    2017-04-01

    The resolution and sensitivity of water-borne boat-towed multi-frequency radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) data for delineating zones of weaknesses in bedrock are examined in this study. 2D modeling of RMT data along 40 profiles in joint transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) as well as determinant mode was used for this purpose. The RMT data were acquired over two water passages from the Lake Mälaren near the city of Stockholm where one of the largest underground infrastructure projects, a multi-lane tunnel, in Europe is currently being developed. Comparison with available borehole coring, refraction seismic and bathymetric data was used to scrutinize the RMT resistivity models. A low-resistivity zone observed in the middle of all the profiles is suggested to be from fracture/fault zones striking in the same direction as the water passages. Drilling observations confirm the presence of brittle structures in the bedrock, which manifest themselves as zones of low-resistivity and low-velocity in the RMT and refraction seismic data, respectively. Nevertheless, RMT is an inductive electromagnetic method hence the presence of conductive lake sediments may shield detecting the underlying fractured bedrock. The loss of resolution at depth implies that the structures within the bedrock under the lake sediments cannot reliably be delineated. To support this, a synthetic data analysis was carried out providing useful information on how to improve and plan the lake measurements for future studies. Synthetic modeling results for example suggested that frequencies as low as 3 kHz would be required to reliably resolve the bedrock and fracture zone within it in the study area. The modeling further illustrated the advantage of a fresh water layer that acts as a near-surface homogeneous medium eliminating the static shift effects. While boat-towed RMT data provided substantial information about the subsurface geology, the acquisition system should be upgraded to enable

  15. Regional extent of the large coseismic slip zone of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake delineated by on-fault aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, A.; Igarashi, T.; Fukuda, J.

    2012-12-01

    In order to image the rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, many fault source models have recently been developed following this giant earthquake by inverting for slip on the fault plane, based on a variety of collected data, strong ground motion, geodetic, and tsunami recordings. Most of these studies suggest that the area of largest coseismic slip (~30-80 m) was located near the mainshock hypocenter, extending eastward to a location near the Japan Trench axis. However, the estimated outer edges of the large-slip zone are substantially different between these models, due to the currently limited spatial resolution of slip along the fault. Consequently, there are insufficient constraints as to how far the large-slip zone extended along the plate interface during the mainshock rupture. Here we delineate the outer edge of this large-slip zone in detail, by applying a spatial correlation between on-fault aftershocks and slip to the Tohoku aftershock sequence. We focus on the sharp density contrast observed for interplate, repeating, and down-dip compressional earthquakes induced by the Tohoku-Oki mainshock. The seismicity rate of interplate earthquakes changed significantly after the mainshock, probably as a result of stress perturbations by the large-slip, and here we use this information as qualitative constraints in constructing our model. The model that we present for the large-slip zone incorporates the main features of previously proposed fault source models, and also the observed fine-scale heterogeneities of fault slip associated with this event. It is important to highlight that the outer edge of this large-slip zone shows a remarkably complex shape. In particular, it is narrow and elongate southward along the ~35 km iso-depth contour of the plate boundary offshore of Fukushima and Ibaraki. This southward elongate slip zone corresponds to down-dip regions that appear to have produced higher relative levels of short-period seismic radiation. We

  16. Explosion impacts during transport of hazardous cargo: GIS-based characterization of overpressure impacts and delineation of flammable zones for ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanloo, Bahareh; Tansel, Berrin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate accidental releases of ammonia followed by an en-route incident in an attempt to further predict the consequences of hazardous cargo accidents. The air dispersion model Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) was employed to track the probable outcomes of a hazardous material release of a tanker truck under different explosion scenarios. The significance of identification of the flammable zones was taken into consideration; in case the flammable vapor causes an explosion. The impacted areas and the severity of the probable destructions were evaluated for an explosion by considering the overpressure waves. ALOHA in conjunction with ArcGIS was used to delineate the flammable and overpressure impact zones for different scenarios. Based on the results, flammable fumes were formed in oval shapes having a chief axis along the wind direction at the time of release. The expansions of the impact areas under the overpressure value which can lead to property damage for 2 and 20 tons releases, under very stable and unstable atmospheric conditions were estimated to be around 1708, 1206; 3742, 3527 feet, respectively, toward the wind direction. A sensitivity analysis was done to assess the significance of wind speed on the impact zones. The insight provided by this study can be utilized by decision makers in transportation of hazardous materials as a guide for possible rerouting, rescheduling, or limiting the quantity of hazardous cargo to reduce the possible impacts after hazardous cargo accidents during transport.

  17. Delineation of spall zone from pre/post shot reflections studies: Preliminary results from BEXAR. Los Alamos Source Region Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.R.; Cogbill, A.H.; Weaver, T.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miller, R.; Steeples, D. [Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States)

    1992-12-31

    In order to delineate the lateral and depth extent of spall from a buried nuclear explosion, we have performed a high-resolution pre- and post-shot seismic reflection survey from BEXAR. Although the data quality were marginal due to poor wave propagation through the volcanic tuffs of Pahute Mesa, a number of interesting differences are observed on the pre- and post-shot surveys. On the pre-shot survey, a reflector (reflector `` 1 ``) is observed at 250 ms (or about 150 m depth) using a stacking velocity of 1300 m/s. On the post-shot survey two reflectors are observed and a stacking velocity of 1150 m/s was used representing a 12% reduction in compressional velocity. With this stacking velocity, reflector `` 1 `` is recorded at 290 ms (still at about 150 m depth) and a new reflector ``2`` is observed at 210 ms (or about 100 m depth). These stacking velocities correspond well with available uphole travel times collected in U19ba and nearby U19ax (BEXAR and KEARSARGE emplacement holes, respectively). The cause for the differences observed in the pre- and post-shot surveys may be due to one of two reasons. First, it is possible that the near-surface rocks were damaged as part of the spallation process (thus reducing the in situ velocities) and reflector ``2`` represents a spall detachment surface. However, analysis of acceleration data collected close to the reflection line suggests that the ground motions were probably inadequate to damage the tuffs. Also, no evidence of actual spallation was actually observed. The second hypothesis is that the near-surface velocities of the tuffs were altered by the change in saturation state due to extensive rains occurring between the pre- and postshot surveys. Although the dependence of seismic velocity on saturation state is controlled by a number of complex factors, it cannot be ruled out.

  18. EIA modelling for coastal zone management. Part 2

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    stream_size 15 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Summer_Sch_EIA_Manage_Coast_Zone_2001_95.pdf.txt stream_source_info Summer_Sch_EIA_Manage_Coast_Zone_2001_95.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  19. An Efficient Method for Detecting Misbehaving Zone Manager in MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafsanjani, Marjan Kuchaki; Pakzad, Farzaneh; Asadinia, Sanaz

    In recent years, one of the wireless technologies increased tremendously is mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) in which mobile nodes organize themselves without the help of any predefined infrastructure. MANETs are highly vulnerable to attack due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology, cooperative algorithms, lack of centralized monitoring, management point and lack of a clear defense line. In this paper, we report our progress in developing intrusion detection (ID) capabilities for MANET. In our proposed scheme, the network with distributed hierarchical architecture is partitioned into zones, so that in each of them there is one zone manager. The zone manager is responsible for monitoring the cluster heads in its zone and cluster heads are in charge of monitoring their members. However, the most important problem is how the trustworthiness of the zone manager can be recognized. So, we propose a scheme in which "honest neighbors" of zone manager specify the validation of their zone manager. These honest neighbors prevent false accusations and also allow manager if it is wrongly misbehaving. However, if the manger repeats its misbehavior, then it will lose its management degree. Therefore, our scheme will be improved intrusion detection and also provide a more reliable network.

  20. The Green, Amber, Red Delineation of Risk and Need (GARDIAN) management system: a pragmatic approach to optimizing heart health from primary prevention to chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Melinda J; Kok, Simone; Jansen, Kiki; Stewart, Simon

    2013-08-01

    A sustained epidemic of cardiovascular disease and related risk factors is a global phenomenon contributing significantly to premature deaths and costly morbidity. Preventative strategies across the full continuum of life, from a population to individual perspective, are not optimally applied. This paper describes a simple and adaptable 'traffic-light' system we have developed to systematically perform individual risk and need delineation in order to 'titrate' the intensity and frequency of healthcare intervention in a cost-effective manner. The GARDIAN (Green Amber Red Delineation of Risk and Need) system is an individual assessment of risk and need that modulates the frequency and intensity of future healthcare intervention. Individual assessment of risk and need for ongoing intervention and support is determined with reference to three domains: (1) clinical stability, (2) gold-standard management, and (3) a broader, holistic assessment of individual circumstance. This can be applied from a primary prevention, secondary prevention, or chronic disease management perspective. Our experience with applying and validating GARDIAN to titrate healthcare resources according to need has been extensive to date, with >5000 individuals profiled in a host of clinical settings. A series of clinical randomized trials will determine the impact of the GARDIAN system on important indices of healthcare utilization and health status. The GARDIAN model to delineating risk and need for varied intensity of management shows strong potential to cost effectively improve health outcomes for both individuals at risk of heart disease and those with established heart disease.

  1. Formulating a coastal zone health metric for landuse impact management in urban coastal zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilkumar, P P; Varghese, Koshy; Ganesh, L S

    2010-11-01

    The need for ICZM arises often due to inadequate or inappropriate landuse planning practices and policies, especially in urban coastal zones which are more complex due to the larger number of components, their critical dimensions, attributes and interactions. A survey of literature shows that there is no holistic metric for assessing the impacts of landuse planning on the health of a coastal zone. Thus there is a need to define such a metric. The proposed metric, CHI (Coastal zone Health Indicator), developed on the basis of coastal system sustainability, attempts to gauge the health status of any coastal zone. It is formulated and modeled through an expert survey and pertains to the characteristic components of coastal zones, their critical dimensions, and relevant attributes. The proposed metric is applied to two urban coastal zones and validated. It can be used for more coast friendly and sustainable landuse planning/masterplan preparation and thereby for the better management of landuse impacts on coastal zones.

  2. Lahar Hazard Mapping of Mount Shasta, California: A GIS-based Delineation of Potential Inundation Zones in Mud and Whitney Creek Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, S. C.; Roberts, M.

    2005-12-01

    Mount Shasta, the southernmost stratovolcano in the Cascade Range (41.4°N) has frequently produced lahars of various magnitudes during the last 10,000 years. These include large flows of eruptive origin, reaching more than 40 km from the summit, and studies have shown that at least 70 debris flows of noneruptive origin have occurred during the last 1,000 years in various stream channels. The Mud and Whitney Creek drainages have historically produced more debris flows than any other glacier-headed channel on the volcano. Periods of accelerated glacial melt have produced lahars in Whitney Creek with a volume of 4 x 106 m3 and a runout distance of about 27 km from the summit. Mud Creek flows from 1924 to 1931 covered an area of more than 6 km2 near the community of McCloud with an estimated 23 x 106 m3 of mud. A much older lahar in Big Canyon Creek may have deposited a volume of 70 x 106 m3 over present day Mount Shasta City and beyond. The LAHARZ inundation modeling tool was used to objectively delineate lahar inundation zones in Whitney and Mud Creek basins based on a 30 m digital elevation model and a range of potential volumes extrapolated from local events. The predicted inundation areas for the largest volume modeled are between 31 and 34 km2, reaching distances of about 32 km from the summit, well within reach of populated areas and significant bodies of water on the NW and SE flanks of the volcano. The resulting lahar inundation hazard zones are discussed with a focus on model limitations, cartographic implications, and the advantages of using 3D hazard maps.

  3. A risk-informed approach to coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongejan, R.B.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    Economic and population growth have led to an unprecedented increase in the value at risk in coastal zones over the last century. To avoid excessive future losses, particularly in the light of projected climate change impacts, coastal zone managers have various instruments at their disposal. These

  4. Delineation of maritime management boundary between Surabaya, Gresik and Bangkalan using SPOT 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomsin; Ayuningtyas, M.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a lot of marine resource management in this area such as shipping lane, Suramadu Bridge, Tanjung Perak Port, Teluk Lamong Port and other ports in Gresik and Bangkalan. According to the Law No. 32/2004 about local government stated that cities/regencies have full authorities to manage the sea untill 1/3 provincial authorities up to 12 nautial miles and then changed to the Law No. 24/2014, the authority of marine resource management is the provincial government up to 12 nautical miles from baseline. Regency and city governments just to get sharing of marine managed by province up to 4 nautical miles from baselines. The baseline as referenced in Law No. 32/2004 is low water line (LWL) and high water level (HWL) in Law No. 23/2014. The problem is maps (topographic map and nautical chart) which is used in this area were not referenced by HWL. Therefore, in this paper, we used SPOT 7 imagery to determine HWL in this area. After that, boundary of marine resource management is determined by median line and equidistance methods. Median line is used to determine maritime boundary between opposite cities/regencies (Surabaya - Gresik and Bangkalan) and equidistance is used to determine between adjacent cities/regencies (Surabaya and Gresik). The results of this study indicate that Surabaya, Gresik and Bangkalan have the right to earn sharing of marine resource management in the shipping lanes, Teluk Lamong Port and Suramadu Bridge. In this case, the change of Law No. 32/2004 to Law No. 23/2004 had an impact on the maritime boundary such as Surabaya getting loss of 70.844 ha, Bangkalan getting loss of 407.705 ha and Gresik benefit of 331.003 ha.

  5. DEFINING MANAGEMENT ZONES BASED ON SOIL ATTRIBUTES AND SOYBEAN PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRICIO TOMAZ RAMOS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Demarcating soil management zones can be useful, for instance, delimiting homogeneous areas and selecting attributes that are generally correlated with plant productivity, but doing so involves several different steps. The objective of this study was to identify the chemical and physical attributes of soil and soybean plants that explain crop productivity, in addition to suggesting and testing a methodological procedure for defining soil management zones. The procedure consisted of six steps: sample collection, data filtering, variable selection, interpolation, grouping, and evaluation of management zones. The samples were collected in an experimental area of 12.5 ha cultivated with soybean during the 2013/14 crop in Dystrophic Red Latosol, in Mato Grosso, Brazil. A total of 117 pairs of plant and soil samples were collected. Student’s t - test was used ( α = 0.02 to verify that the number of samples was adequate for correlation analysis. Results showed that only the P and Mn content in the grains explained (based on R 2 values the variation in soybean grain productivity the area. Based on the interpolation of these contents by ordinary kriging, the fuzzy C - means algorithm was used to separate them into groups by similarity. Division into two groups was the best option, which could be differentiated by Mann – Whitney test (P < 0.05, resulting in a map with 10 management zones.

  6. Coastal zone management around the southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, R.; Van de Wetering, B.G.M.; Verhagen, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Southern North Sea is bordered by Great-Britain, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. The North Sea basin and its adjacent shorelines are intensively used. Management of the basin and the coastal zone is therefore essential. Because of the small scale of the area, the dense pop

  7. Use of radar remote sensing in coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, presented in poster form addresses the use of radar remote sensing in coastal zone management. Current and future applications in The Netherlands are highlighted with an outlook to technology and models that are involved. Applications include monitoring of the environment, oil spills, sh

  8. Use of radar remote sensing in coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, presented in poster form addresses the use of radar remote sensing in coastal zone management. Current and future applications in The Netherlands are highlighted with an outlook to technology and models that are involved. Applications include monitoring of the environment, oil spills,

  9. Prioritising coastal zone management issues through fuzzy cognitive mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliadou, Aleka; Santoro, Francesca; Nader, Manal R; Dagher, Manale Abou; Al Indary, Shadi; Salloum, Bachir Abi

    2012-04-30

    Effective public participation is an essential component of Integrated Coastal Zone Management implementation. To promote such participation, a shared understanding of stakeholders' objectives has to be built to ultimately result in common coastal management strategies. The application of quantitative and semi-quantitative methods involving tools such as Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping is presently proposed for reaching such understanding. In this paper we apply the Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping tool to elucidate the objectives and priorities of North Lebanon's coastal productive sectors, and to formalize their coastal zone perceptions and knowledge. Then, we investigate the potential of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping as tool for support coastal zone management. Five round table discussions were organized; one for the municipalities of the area and one for each of the main coastal productive sectors (tourism, industry, fisheries, agriculture), where the participants drew cognitive maps depicting their views. The analysis of the cognitive maps showed a large number of factors perceived as affecting the current situation of the North Lebanon coastal zone that were classified into five major categories: governance, infrastructure, environment, intersectoral interactions and sectoral initiatives. Furthermore, common problems, expectations and management objectives for all sectors were exposed. Within this context, Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping proved to be an essential tool for revealing stakeholder knowledge and perception and understanding complex relationships.

  10. Anal transition zone in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Holder-Murray; Alessandro Fichera

    2009-01-01

    Preservation of the anal transition zone has long been a significant source of controversy in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis. The two techniques for restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (RPC IPAA) in common practice are a stapled anastomosis and a handsewn anastomosis;these techniques differ in the amount of remaining rectal mucosa and therefore the presence of the anal transition zone following surgery. Each technique has advantages and disadvantages in long-term functional outcomes, operative and postoperative complications, and risk of neoplasia. Therefore, we propose a selective approach to performing a stapled RPC IPAA based on the presence of dysplasia in the preoperative endoscopic evaluation.

  11. Coastal zone - Terra (and aqua) incognita - Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyan, R. D.; Velikova, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    In the Black Sea coastal states (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Ukraine), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has no properly established legal and institutional framework. The term "coastal zone" is undefined in national (reportedly with the exception of Bulgaria) and regional legislative documents. The interface between science and policy within ICZM remains poorly developed. Policies for streamlining efforts have been ill-managed and decisions taken in functional zoning and the balanced use and protection of coastal zones have often been shown to be incorrect. The observed proliferation of consultative committees and councils has not been much helpful, public participation has been widely neglected. Illegal practices are in place, and coastal developments continue being largely unsustainable. These problems are often explained by the low awareness of ICZM benefits, and hence, a shortage of political good will, but also by the lack of appropriate Black Sea scientific research, which would ensure a fundamental knowledge-base. There are hundreds of organizations involved in collection of data and information of relevance for ICZM, although there is a distinct lack of coordination. Consequently, there is a substantial overlap of activities, whilst important scientific and policy questions remain unanswered. We review the status of ICZM or mismanagement (ICZmisM) in the Black Sea region, building links between environmental problems and policy measures in response, and providing appropriate examples. Recommendations are put forward with regard to major gaps in ICZM at levels of its theoretical development and practical implementation within the region. The review is intended to remind of major disastrous consequences of present complacency and laissez-faire in the management of the Black Sea. This paper calls for urgent implementation of ICZM in the Black Sea at national and regional levels.

  12. Spatial-temporal management zones for biomass moisture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, Spyros; Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    weather forecast information a model based on Fluid Computational Dynamics (CFD), was developed. The use of a CFD model provides for the consideration of factors such as field topology, geometrical features and local weather conditions.     Management zones were created for the specific field based...... executed in an open and un-controlled environment.  The main objectives of the project were to investigate the potential of selective biomass harvesting based on biomass moisture content. A field experiment was conducted in the University farm of Aarhus University in Denmark in 2009. About 450...... on the initial biomass moisture content. The CFD model took into account, field topography and local weather conditions. Based on this model the data were produced for a 6-hour interval and the biomass moisture map were created. The results demonstrated specific management zones for the biomass moisture which...

  13. Managing spatial development in zones undergoing major structural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper considers different aspects of spatial development management in the zones characterized by significant spatial interventions, whose consequences are structural changes in usage of space, social and economic development, environmental and ambient quality. Those are, above all, big mining regions, zones of big water accumulations and main infrastructure corridors. Paper deals with normative, institutional and organizational assumptions for managing spatial development, planning approaches, construction and spatial arrangement, searching and structuring data basis and development of information system, system of indicators and monitoring system. Special attention is given to balance and synchronization of activities during compilation of study, planning and technical documentation, as well as procedures of considering and enacting appropriate decisions by competent authorities on national, regional and local level.

  14. Buffer zone water repellency: effects of the management practice

    OpenAIRE

    Rasa, Kimmo; Räty, Mari; Nikolenko, Olga; Horn, Rainer; Yli-Halla, Markku; Uusi-Kämppä, Jaana; Pietola, Liisa

    2006-01-01

    Water repellency index R was measured in a heavy clay and a sandy loam, used as arable land or buffer zone (BZ). Further, effect of management practise and ageing of BZs were studied. Water repellency was proved to be a common phenomenon on these soils. Harvesting and grazing increased water repellency as does ageing.Low water repellency is supposed to prevent preferential flows and provide evenly distributed water infiltration pattern through large soil volume, which favours nutrient retention.

  15. Large-scale coastal behaviour in relation to coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The development of coastal erosion management - addressing typical traditional erosion problems - towards coastal zone management addressing the evaluation of alternative solutions to guarantee a variety of coastal zone functions on their economic time scale - has necessitated the formulation of lar

  16. Large-scale coastal behaviour in relation to coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The development of coastal erosion management - addressing typical traditional erosion problems - towards coastal zone management addressing the evaluation of alternative solutions to guarantee a variety of coastal zone functions on their economic time scale - has necessitated the formulation of lar

  17. Aspen Delineation - Aspen Delineation Project [ds362

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands, where aspen assessment data was gathered. Aspen assessment information corresponding to this polygon layer can...

  18. Achievements and Problems of Reform of Investment Management System for Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengrong; PAN

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone provides many possibilities for China’s economic construction. This paper made a comparative analysis on investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone and traditional investment management system,discussed achievements and problems of reform of investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone,and finally came up with pertinent policy recommendations.

  19. Small mammal communities of streamside management zones in intensively managed pine forests of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darren A. Miller; Ronald E. Thill; M. Anthony Melchiors; T. Bently Wigley; Philip A. Tappe

    2004-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs), composed primarily of hardwoods in the southeastern United States, provide habitat diversity within intensively managed pine (Pinus spp.) plantations. However, effects of SMZ width and adjacent plantation structure on riparian wildlife communities are poorly understood. Therefore, during 1990-1995, we examined small mammal...

  20. Fine-scale delineation of the location of and relative ground shaking within the San Andreas Fault zone at San Andreas Lake, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.; Rymer, M.J.; Goldman, M.R.; Prentice, C.S.; Sickler, R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The San Francisco Public Utilities Commission is seismically retrofitting the water delivery system at San Andreas Lake, San Mateo County, California, where the reservoir intake system crosses the San Andreas Fault (SAF). The near-surface fault location and geometry are important considerations in the retrofit effort. Because the SAF trends through highly distorted Franciscan mélange and beneath much of the reservoir, the exact trace of the 1906 surface rupture is difficult to determine from surface mapping at San Andreas Lake. Based on surface mapping, it also is unclear if there are additional fault splays that extend northeast or southwest of the main surface rupture. To better understand the fault structure at San Andreas Lake, the U.S. Geological Survey acquired a series of seismic imaging profiles across the SAF at San Andreas Lake in 2008, 2009, and 2011, when the lake level was near historical lows and the surface traces of the SAF were exposed for the first time in decades. We used multiple seismic methods to locate the main 1906 rupture zone and fault splays within about 100 meters northeast of the main rupture zone. Our seismic observations are internally consistent, and our seismic indicators of faulting generally correlate with fault locations inferred from surface mapping. We also tested the accuracy of our seismic methods by comparing our seismically located faults with surface ruptures mapped by Schussler (1906) immediately after the April 18, 1906 San Francisco earthquake of approximate magnitude 7.9; our seismically determined fault locations were highly accurate. Near the reservoir intake facility at San Andreas Lake, our seismic data indicate the main 1906 surface rupture zone consists of at least three near-surface fault traces. Movement on multiple fault traces can have appreciable engineering significance because, unlike movement on a single strike-slip fault trace, differential movement on multiple fault traces may exert compressive and

  1. Conflict resolution and alert zone estimation in air traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Vincent Hao-Hung

    The current air traffic control (ATC) system provides separations among all aircraft through pre-defined routes and flight procedures, and active controller participation. In particular, en route separations are achieved by choices of different flight routes, different flight levels, and speed control. During the final descent approach over an extended terminal area, aircraft separations are achieved by speed changes, altitude changes, and path stretching. Recently, a concept of free flight has been proposed for future air traffic management. In the proposed free flight environment, aircraft operators can change flight paths in real time, in order to achieve the best efficiency for the aircraft. Air traffic controllers are only supposed to intervene when situation warrants, to resolve potential conflicts among aircraft. In both cases, there is a region around each aircraft called alert zone. As soon as another aircraft touches the alert zone of own aircraft, either the own aircraft or both aircraft must initiate avoidance maneuvers to resolve a potential conflict. This thesis develops a systematic approach based on nonlinear optimal control theories to estimate alert zones in two aircraft conflict scenarios. Specifically, point-mass aircraft models are used to describe aircraft motions. Separate uses of heading, speed, and altitude control are first examined, and then the synergetic use of two control authorities are studied. Both cooperative maneuvers (in which both aircraft act) and non-cooperative maneuvers (in which the own aircraft acts alone) are considered. Optimal control problems are formulated to minimize the initial relative separation between the two aircraft for all possible initial conditions, subject to the requirement that inter-aircraft separation at any time satisfies the separation requirement. These nonlinear optimal control problems are solved numerically using a collation approach and the NPSOL software line for nonlinear programming. In

  2. GIS-based colour composites and overlays to delineate heavy metal contamination zones in the shallow alluvial aquifers, Ankaleshwar industrial estate, south Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suyash; Shirke, K. D.; Pawar, N. J.

    2008-03-01

    In an attempt to delineate heavy metal contamination precincts and to evaluate the extent and degree of toxic levels, besides their possible sources, 38 water samples from Ankaleshwar Industrial Estate, south Gujarat, India were analyzed. By clutching geochemical analyses and GIS-based colour composites areas depicting anomalously high concentration of heavy metals (Mo, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co, Cd, etc.) in the groundwater were revealed. The multicomponent overlays in grey-scale facilitated in identifying situates of heavy metal ‘hot spots’, and lateral protuberances of the contamination plume around defile stretch of the main stream Amla Khadi flowing through the area. The multiple pollution plumes emerging from other parts of the area further coincide with effluent laden streams and small channels indicating industrial establishments as major sources of groundwater contamination. Influent nature of the streams, accelerated infiltration process, high mass influx and shallow groundwater table are the factors conducive for easy access of heavy metals to the phreatic aquifers affecting over 20 km2 area. On the basis of P/ U ratios (concentration of metals in polluted water to unpolluted water), geogenic and anthropogenic sources have been identified. Very high levels of technogenic elements present in the ground water raise concerns about possible migration into food crops, as the area is an important horticultural locale and is highly cultivated.

  3. Environmental analysis and zoning for an urban park management purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Maria Zanin

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental analysis and zoning were carried out for management purpose of the Longines Malinowski Municipal Park (LMMP. With an area of 24.85 ha, this urban park includes a patch of sub-tropical humid forest, completely surrounded by residential and commercial areas in the City of Erechim, Rio Grande do Sul State,Brazil. Landscape features derived from aerophotogrametric maps, based on the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS-IDRISI, resulted in several thematic maps, through which a proposal of environmental zoning was perfomed, observing the definition of five zones of use. The environmental diagnosis identified several types of activities potentially harmful to the biodiversity of the LMMP and city's environmental quality. The implementation of a management plan would be essential to maintain and preseve this urban park, aiming to ensure its participation in the urban quality of life.Foram realizados a análise e o zoneamento ambiental com a finalidade do manejo do Parque Municipal Longines Malinowski (PMLM. Com 24,85 ha, este parque urbano inclui um fragmento de floresta sub-tropical úmida, completamente cercado por áreas residenciais e comerciais na cidade de Erechim, Rio Grande do Sul. As características da paisagem, obtidas de cartas aerofotogramétricas, com base no uso de Sistemas de Informações Geográficas (SIG-IDRISI, resultaram em diversas cartas temáticas, pelas quais foi efetuada uma proposta do zoneamento ambiental, observando a definição de cinco zonas de uso. O diagnóstico ambiental identificou diversos tipos de atividades potencialmente prejudiciais à biodiversidade do PMLM e à qualidade ambiental da cidade. A implementação de um plano de manejo é essencial à manutenção e à conservação deste parque urbano, assegurando sua participação na qualidade de vida urbana.

  4. Marine disaster prevention and integrated coastal zone management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许富祥; 韦锋余

    2001-01-01

    Ocean is home town of wind and rain, treasury of resources. To exploit and use ocean will make great contribution to people′s existence and development. China is a great oceanic country with precinct sea area of 3,000,000 km2. The eastern coastal region with only 60 km width, 15 % area and 40% of population of China, has created about 60 % of GDP and has become the most developed region. But marine disaster in China is frequent and serious. From statistical data, economy loss made by surge.billow, sea ice, tsunami, red tide, oil spill, coast erosion, bay deposit, sea water intrusion, sea levelrise. land salinization. sea water pollution, etc. increase quickly. Economy loss per year is one billionin the 1980s, 10 billion in the 1990s, exceeded 20 billion in 1996, and 30 billion in 1997. About 80% of it happened in the coastal area. So, marine disaster at present has become obstacle of society progress and economy development in coastal area. To mitigate marine disaster has become need for the economy development, also important task of the integrated coastal zone management. In this article, we briefly introduce countermeasures for marine disaster prevention, coastal zone management, and achievements made in the past 50 years, its problems now confronted, and the main countermeasures in the 21 st century.

  5. Stakeholder involvement for management of the coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oen, Amy Mp; Bouma, Geiske M; Botelho, Maria; Pereira, Patrícia; Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Conides, Alexis; Przedrzymirska, Joanna; Isaksson, Ingela; Wolf, Christina; Breedveld, Gijs D; Slob, Adriaan

    2016-10-01

    The European Union (EU) has taken the lead to promote the management of coastal systems. Management strategies are implemented by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), as well as the recent Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) Directive. Most EU directives have a strong focus on public participation; however, a recent review found that the actual involvement of stakeholders was variable. The "Architecture and roadmap to manage multiple pressures on lagoons" (ARCH) research project has developed and implemented participative methodologies at different case study sites throughout Europe. These cases represent a broad range of coastal systems, and they highlight different legislative frameworks that are relevant for coastal zone management. Stakeholder participation processes were subsequently evaluated at 3 case study sites in order to assess the actual implementation of participation in the context of their respective legislative frameworks: 1) Byfjorden in Bergen, Norway, in the context of the WFD; 2) Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece, in the context of the MSFD; and 3) Nordre Älv Estuary, Sweden, in the context of the MSP Directive. An overall assessment of the evaluation criteria indicates that the ARCH workshop series methodology of focusing first on the current status of the lagoon or estuary, then on future challenges, and finally on identifying management solutions provided a platform that was conducive for stakeholder participation. Results suggest that key criteria for a good participatory process were present and above average at the 3 case study sites. The results also indicate that the active engagement that was initiated at the 3 case study sites has led to capacity building among the participants, which is an important intermediary outcome of public participation. A strong connection between participatory processes and policy can ensure the legacy of the intermediary outcomes, which is an important and necessary

  6. Coastal Zone Management Act Boundary for the United States and US Territories as of December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the extent of the nation's coastal zone, as defined by the individual states and territories under the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972...

  7. Analysis of vineyard differential management zones and relation to vine development, grape maturity and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Casasnovas, José Antonio; Agelet Fernández, J.; Arnó Satorra, Jaume; Ramos Martín, Ma. C. (Ma. Concepción)

    2012-01-01

    The objective of research was to analyse the potential of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps from satellite images, yield maps and grapevine fertility and load variables to delineate zones with different wine grape properties for selective harvesting. Two vineyard blocks located in NE Spain (Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah) were analysed. The NDVI was computed from a Quickbird-2 multi-spectral image at veraison (July 2005). Yield data was acquired by means of a yield monitor duri...

  8. 30 CFR 250.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP? 250.226 Section 250.226 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act...

  9. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hemming

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method. An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS, such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy.

  10. Definition of management zones for enhancing cultivated land conservation using combined spatial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Hao-Xiang; Li, Feng; Li, Hong-Yi

    2013-10-01

    The loss of cultivated land has increasingly become an issue of regional and national concern in China. Definition of management zones is an important measure to protect limited cultivated land resource. In this study, combined spatial data were applied to define management zones in Fuyang city, China. The yield of cultivated land was first calculated and evaluated and the spatial distribution pattern mapped; the limiting factors affecting the yield were then explored; and their maps of the spatial variability were presented using geostatistics analysis. Data were jointly analyzed for management zone definition using a combination of principal component analysis with a fuzzy clustering method, two cluster validity functions were used to determine the optimal number of cluster. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 3,620 soil sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. It was shown that there existed great potential for increasing grain production, and the amount of cultivated land played a key role in maintaining security in grain production. Organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, elevation, thickness of the plow layer, and probability of irrigation guarantee were the main limiting factors affecting the yield. The optimal number of management zones was three, and there existed significantly statistical differences between the crop yield and field parameters in each defined management zone. Management zone I presented the highest potential crop yield, fertility level, and best agricultural production condition, whereas management zone III lowest. The study showed that the procedures used may be effective in automatically defining management zones; by the development of different management zones, different strategies of cultivated land management and practice in each zone could be determined, which is of great importance to enhance cultivated land conservation

  11. Coastal zone management in Dubai with reference to ecological characterization along Dubai Creek

    OpenAIRE

    Al Zahed, Khalid

    2008-01-01

    Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) is a dynamic process in which a coordinated strategy is developed and implemented for the allocation of environmental, socio-cultural, and institutional resources to achieve the conservation and sustainable multiple use of the coastal zone. The present study titled “Coastal Zone Management in Dubai with reference to ecological characterization” is an effort to consider critical water quality and ecological issues in the current and f...

  12. 77 FR 28854 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coastal Zone Management Program Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coastal Zone Management Program Administration AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... importance of U.S. coastal areas, the U.S. Congress passed the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (CZMA),...

  13. 78 FR 48046 - Safety Zone; Kuoni Destination Management Fireworks; San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... [Docket No. USCG-2013-0666] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Kuoni Destination Management Fireworks; San Diego... safety zone on the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay in support of the Kuoni Destination Management... San Diego, Coast Guard; telephone 619-278-7656, email d11marineeventssandiego@uscg.mil . If you have...

  14. An International Assessment of Mangrove Management: Incorporation in Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haille N. Carter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing recognition of the benefits provided by mangrove ecosystems, protection policies have emerged under both wetland and forestry programs. However, little consistency remains among these programs and inadequate coordination exists among sectors of government. With approximately 123 countries containing mangroves, the need for global management of these ecosystems is crucial to sustain the industries (i.e., fisheries, timber, and tourism and coastal communities that mangroves support and protect. To determine the most effective form of mangrove management, this review examines management guidelines, particularly those associated with Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM. Five case studies were reviewed to further explore the fundamentals of mangrove management. The management methodologies of two developed nations as well as three developing nations were assessed to encompass comprehensive influences on mangrove management, such as socioeconomics, politics, and land-use regulations. Based on this review, successful mangrove management will require a blend of forestry, wetland, and ICZM programs in addition to the cooperation of all levels of government. Legally binding policies, particularly at the international level, will be essential to successful mangrove management, which must include the preservation of existing mangrove habitat and restoration of damaged mangroves.

  15. Data interpolation in the definition of management zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelyn Schenatto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture (PA comprises the use of management zones (MZs. Sample data are usually interpolated to define MZs. Current research checks whether there is a need for data interpolation by evaluating the quality of MZs by five indices – variance reduction (VR, fuzzy performance index (FPI, modified partition entropy index (MPE, Kappa index and the cluster validation index (CVI, of which the latter has been focused in current assay. Soil texture, soil resistance to penetration, elevation and slope in an experimental area of 15.5 ha were employed as attributes to the generation of MZ, correlating them with data of soybean yield from 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 harvests. Data interpolation prior to MZs generation is important to achieve MZs as a smoother contour and for a greater reduction in data variance. The Kriging interpolator had the best performance. CVI index proved to be efficient in choosing MZs, with a less subjective decision on the best interpolator or number of MZs.

  16. Managing shallow aquifers in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aditya; Manthrithilake, Herath; Siddiqui, Salman; Rajah, Ameer; Pathmarajah, S

    2015-07-01

    This study looks at the groundwater issues in the dry zone of Sri Lanka and shows how the use of remote sensing with high-resolution images can help in groundwater management. A new approach is developed for automatic extraction of the location of agro-wells using high-spatial-resolution satellite imageries. As an example, three pilot sites in three different aquifer systems in the country are considered, and their high-resolution images are analyzed over two temporal time periods. The analysis suggests that the well density in all three regions has increased over the last few years, indicating higher levels of groundwater extraction. Using the well inventory developed by this new approach, the water budgeting was prepared for the mainland of Jaffna Peninsula. The analysis shows a wide variation in well density in the Jaffna Peninsula, ranging from (as little as) less than 15 wells per square kilometer to (as high as) more than 200 wells per square kilometer. Calculations made for the maximum allowable water extraction in each administrative division of Jaffna show that less than 3 h of daily extraction per well is possible in some districts. This points to an increasing pressure on groundwater resources in the region and thus highlights the importance of understanding groundwater budgets for sustainable development of the aquifers.

  17. Breeding bird response to partially harvested riparian management zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Peterson, Anna; Hanowski, JoAnn; Blinn, Charles R.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Niemi, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    We compared avian communities among three timber harvesting treatments in 45-m wide even-age riparian management zones (RMZs) placed between upland clearcuts and along one side of first- or second-order streams in northern Minnesota, USA. The RMZs had three treatments: (1) unharvested, (2) intermediate residual basal area (RBA) (targeted goal 11.5 m2/ha, realized 16.0 m2/ha), and (3) low RBA (targeted goal 5.7 m2/ha, realized 8.7 m2/ha). Surveys were conducted one year pre-harvest and three consecutive years post-harvest. There was no change in species richness, diversity, or total abundance associated with harvest but there were shifts in the types of birds within the community. In particular, White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) and Chestnut-sided Warblers (Dendroica pensylvanica) increased while Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) and Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus) decreased. The decline of avian species associated with mature forest in the partially harvested treatments relative to controls indicates that maintaining an unharvested RMZ adjacent to an upland harvest may aid in maintaining avian species associated mature forest in Minnesota for at least three years post-harvest. However, our observations do not reflect reproductive success, which is an area for future research.

  18. Considerations for choosing HOT lane delineation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlavacek, I.; Vitek, M. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Carrizales, J.; Machemehl, R. [Texas Dept. of Transportation, Austin, TX (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Transportation agencies are looking for ways to move more vehicles with fewer tax dollars. One innovative technique is managed lanes. These are special purpose lanes on highways with controlled access to allow manipulation of service parameters. An example of a managed facility, high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are gaining support as a tool for encouraging higher vehicle occupancy while dealing with many of the shortcomings of high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes. Because managed lanes, including HOT lanes, are controlled access facilities and must be separated from general purpose lanes, one of the principle issues is the type of delineation technique that should be used. Though the specifics of delineating a managed lane are numerous, and allow for a wide variety of possibilities, most delineation techniques used can be categorized into three broad types: concrete barriers, buffer separation, and plastic posts. This paper presented the advantages, disadvantages, required and desirable conditions for implementation of each type. The project involved assembling an expert panel to gather collective knowledge of factors and to share experiences and make recommendations regarding delineation device implementation. Panel recommendations and secondary source information were presented as conceptual guidance regarding managed lane delineation measures. Buffer type delineators were found to be least costly in terms of both initial and maintenance costs, and concrete barriers provide the best means of controlling access so they are the best means of guaranteeing toll collection from all users. 11 refs.

  19. Precision control of soil N cycling via soil functional zone management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing the soil nitrogen (N) cycle is a major component of agricultural sustainability. Soil functional zone management (SFZM), a novel framework of agroecosystem management, may improve soil N management compared with conventional and no-tillage approaches by focusing on the timing and location (...

  20. Areas of research and manpower development for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  1. Delineation of Landslide Prone Areas based on Geotechnical and Mineralogical Evaluation of Rocks and Soil to Understand the Failure Zones in a part of Alaknanda Valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, H.; Singh, N.; Sen, R.; Vishwakarma, C. A.; Singh, P.; Rena, V.; Mukherjee, S.

    2016-12-01

    infer the type of debris material associated with the slides. Also satellite imageries LANDSAT, ASTER DEM/ SRTM etc were used to study the existing landslides and preparation of a landslide inventory map. By correlating the landslide frequencies of different classes the map is prepared which delineates the area into various susceptible zones.

  2. IODE's Role in Managing and Exchanging Ocean Data from Coastal Zones

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The coastal zones in the world are exposed to continuously increasing environmental stresses: pollution, eutrophication, erosion problems which are amplified by steadily growing economic and recreational use and demographic changes. In view of the position of the coastal environment as a buffering zone and interface between land and open ocean, an effort in integrated coastal zone management is required to achieve sustainable development. Besides the possible impact of global climate change a...

  3. Visual Problem Appraisal-Kerela's Coast: A Simulation for Learning about Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Enserink, B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated management of coastal zones is crucial for the sustainable use of scarce and vulnerable natural resources and the economic survival of local and indigenous people. Conflicts of interest in coastal zones are manifold, especially in regions with high population pressure, such as Kerala (in

  4. Visual Problem Appraisal-Kerela's Coast: A Simulation for Learning about Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Enserink, B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated management of coastal zones is crucial for the sustainable use of scarce and vulnerable natural resources and the economic survival of local and indigenous people. Conflicts of interest in coastal zones are manifold, especially in regions with high population pressure, such as Kerala (in

  5. Sage-grouse Management Zones in the Western U.S. and Canada - DRAFT

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set depicts a preliminary version of the management zone boundaries for Greater and Gunnison sage-grouse in the western United States and Canada. These...

  6. Application of zoning and "limits of acceptable change" to manage snorkelling tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, George S J; Dearden, Philip; Rollins, Rick

    2007-06-01

    Zoning and applying Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) are two promising strategies for managing tourism in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Typically, these management strategies require the collection and integration of ecological and socioeconomic data. This problem is illustrated by a case study of Koh Chang National Marine Park, Thailand. Biophysical surveys assessed coral communities in the MPA to derive indices of reef diversity and vulnerability. Social surveys assessed visitor perceptions and satisfaction with conditions encountered on snorkelling tours. Notably, increased coral mortality caused a significant decrease in visitor satisfaction. The two studies were integrated to prescribe zoning and "Limits of Acceptable Change" (LAC). As a biophysical indicator, the data suggest a LAC value of 0.35 for the coral mortality index. As a social indicator, the data suggest that a significant fraction of visitors would find a LAC value of under 30 snorkellers per site as acceptable. The draft zoning plan prescribed four different types of zones: (I) a Conservation Zone with no access apart from monitoring or research; (II) Tourism Zones with high tourism intensities at less vulnerable reefs; (III) Ecotourism zones with a social LAC standard of Zones to meet local artisanal fishery needs. This study illustrates how ecological and socioeconomic field studies in MPAs can be integrated to craft zoning plans addressing multiple objectives.

  7. Application of Zoning and ``Limits of Acceptable Change'' to Manage Snorkelling Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, George S. J.; Dearden, Philip; Rollins, Rick

    2007-06-01

    Zoning and applying Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) are two promising strategies for managing tourism in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Typically, these management strategies require the collection and integration of ecological and socioeconomic data. This problem is illustrated by a case study of Koh Chang National Marine Park, Thailand. Biophysical surveys assessed coral communities in the MPA to derive indices of reef diversity and vulnerability. Social surveys assessed visitor perceptions and satisfaction with conditions encountered on snorkelling tours. Notably, increased coral mortality caused a significant decrease in visitor satisfaction. The two studies were integrated to prescribe zoning and “Limits of Acceptable Change” (LAC). As a biophysical indicator, the data suggest a LAC value of 0.35 for the coral mortality index. As a social indicator, the data suggest that a significant fraction of visitors would find a LAC value of under 30 snorkellers per site as acceptable. The draft zoning plan prescribed four different types of zones: (I) a Conservation Zone with no access apart from monitoring or research; (II) Tourism Zones with high tourism intensities at less vulnerable reefs; (III) Ecotourism zones with a social LAC standard of <30 snorkellers per site, and (IV) General Use Zones to meet local artisanal fishery needs. This study illustrates how ecological and socioeconomic field studies in MPAs can be integrated to craft zoning plans addressing multiple objectives.

  8. [Defining of wheat growth management zones based on remote sensing and geostatistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhu, Yan; Ma, Meng-Li; Wang, Hang; Cao, Wei-Xing; Tian, Yong-Chao

    2011-02-01

    Taking the winter wheat planting areas in Rugao City and Haian County of Jiangsu Province as test objects, the clustering defining of wheat growth management zones was made, based on the spatial variability analysis and principal component extraction of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data calculated from the HJ-1A/B CCD images (30 m resolution) at different growth stages of winter wheat, and of the soil nutrient indices (total nitrogen, organic matter, available phosphorus, and available potassium). The results showed that the integration of the NDVI at heading stage with above-mentioned soil nutrient indices produced the best results of wheat growth management zone defining, with the variation coefficients of NDVI and soil nutrient indices in each defined zone ranged in 4.5% -6.1% and 3.3% -87.9%, respectively. However, the variation coefficients were much larger when the wheat growth management zones were defined individually by NDVI or by soil nutrient indices, suggesting that the newly developed defining method could reduce the variability within the defined management zones and improve the crop management precision, and thereby, contribute to the winter wheat growth management and process simulation at regional scale.

  9. Stakeholder involvement for management of the coastal zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oen, A.M.P.; Bouma, G.M.; Botelho, M.; Pereira, P.; Haeger-Eugensson, M.; Conides, A.; Przedrzymirska, J.; Isaksson, I.; Wolf, C.; Breedveld, G.D.; Slob, A.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has taken the lead to promote the management of coastal systems. Management strategies are implemented by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), as well as the recent Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) Directive. Most EU

  10. The potential application of social impact assessment in integrated coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) would be significantly enhanced if there was greater connection to the field of social impact assessment (SIA). SIA is the process of managing the social issues of planned interventions (projects, policies, plans, and programs). SIA can also be used to consi

  11. The potential application of social impact assessment in integrated coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) would be significantly enhanced if there was greater connection to the field of social impact assessment (SIA). SIA is the process of managing the social issues of planned interventions (projects, policies, plans, and programs). SIA can also be used to consi

  12. 76 FR 23708 - Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management Regional Water Exercise, East...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Management Regional Water Exercise, East Passage, Tacoma, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... of Emergency Management is sponsoring a Regional Water Rescue Exercise in the waters of East Passage..., Washington for a Regional Water Rescue Exercise near Browns Point. A safety zone is necessary to ensure...

  13. Influence of Variable Streamside Management Zone Configurations on Water Quality after Forest Harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emma L. Witt; Christopher D. Barton; Jeffrey W. Stringer; Randy Kolka; Mac A. Cherry

    2016-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs) are a common best management practice (BMP) used to reduce water quality impacts from logging. The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of varying SMZ configurations on water quality. Treatments (T1, T2, and T3) that varied in SMZ width, canopy retention within the SMZ, and BMP utilization were applied at the...

  14. Some aspects of integrated coastal zone management in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    . This trend has created tremendous pressures and the ecological balance is disturbing. There are various factors which are degrading the coastal waters. The Integrated Coastal Management is relatively a recent concept, which involves multidisciplinary approach...

  15. Analysis of vineyard differential management zones and relation to vine development, grape maturity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Casanovas, J. A.; Agelet-Fernandez, J.; Arno, J.; Ramos, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of research was to analyse the potential of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps from satellite images, yield maps and grapevine fertility and load variables to delineate zones with different wine grape properties for selective harvesting. Two vineyard blocks located in NE Spain (Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah) were analysed. The NDVI was computed from a Quickbird-2 multi-spectral image at veraison (July 2005). Yield data was acquired by means of a yield monitor during September 2005. Other variables, such as the number of buds, number of shoots, number of wine grape clusters and weight of 100 berries were sampled in a 10 rows × 5 vines pattern and used as input variables, in combination with the NDVI, to define the clusters as alternative to yield maps. Two days prior to the harvesting, grape samples were taken. The analysed variables were probable alcoholic degree, pH of the juice, total acidity, total phenolics, colour, anthocyanins and tannins. The input variables, alone or in combination, were clustered (2 and 3 Clusters) by using the ISODATA algorithm, and an analysis of variance and a multiple rang test were performed. The results show that the zones derived from the NDVI maps are more effective to differentiate grape maturity and quality variables than the zones derived from the yield maps. The inclusion of other grapevine fertility and load variables did not improve the results. (Author) 36 refs.

  16. Construction and implementation of multisource spatial data management system of China's coastal zone and offshore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yunyan; WANG Jinggui; WANG Zuoyong; YANG Xiaomei

    2004-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand of national spatial database infrastructureconstruction and application, a concept modelof China' s coastal zone scientific data platform is established based on the information feature analysis of a compounddataset, consisting of remote sensing data and conventional data. Based on this concept model, the detailed logicaldatabase structure and the storage strategy of remote sensing data and their metadata using ArcSDE are designed. Thecomplicated technology of multisources data combination in this research is crucial to the future coastal zone andoffshore database construction and practical nmning, which will provide intelligent information analysis andtechnological service for coastal zone and offshore investigation, research, development and management.

  17. AQUAZONE: A Spatial Decision Support System for Aquatic Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhri A. Arezki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, the Sebkha Lake of Oran (Algeria has been the subject of many studies for its protection and recovery. Many environmental and wetlands experts are a hope on the integration of this rich and fragile space, ecologically, as a pilot project in "management of water tides". Support the large of Sebkha (Lake of Oran is a major concern for governments looking to make this a protected natural area and viable place. It was a question of putting in place a management policy to respond to the requirements of economic, agricultural and urban development and the preservation of this natural site through management of its water and the preservation of its quality. The objective of this study is to design and develop a Spatial Decision Support System, namely AQUAZONE, able to assist decision makers in various natural resource management projects. The proposed system integrates remote sensing image processing methods, from display operations, to analysis results, in order to extract useful knowledge to best natural resource management, and in particular define the extension of Sebkha Lake of Oran (Algeria. Two methods were applied to classify LANDSAT 5 TM images of Oran (Algeria: Fuzzy C-Means (FCM applied on multi spectral images, and the other that comes with the manual which is the Ordered Queue-based Watershed (OQW. The FCM will serve as initialization phase, to automatically discover the different classes (urban, forest, water, etc.. from a LANDSAT 5 TM images, and also minimize ambiguity in grayscale and establish Land cover map of this region.

  18. A Dynamic GIS as an Efficient Tool for Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Gourmelon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution addresses both the role of geographical information in participatory research of coastal zones, and its potential to bridge the gap between research and coastal zone management. Over a one year period, heterogeneous data (spatial, temporal, qualitative and quantitative were obtained which included the process of interviews, storing in a spatio-temporal database. The GIS (Geographic Information System produced temporal snapshots of daily human activity patterns allowing it to map, identify and quantify potential space-time conflicts between activities. It was furthermore used to facilitate the exchange of ideas and knowledge at various levels: by mapping, simulation, GIS analysis and data collection. Results indicated that both captured data and the participatory workshop added real value to management and therefore it was deemed well managed by stakeholders. To incorporate a dynamic GIS would enhance pro-active integrated management by opening the path for better discussions whilst permitting management simulated scenarios.

  19. Implementing Database Lookup Method in Mobile Wimax for Location Management Area Based Mbs Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sivaranjani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The mobile WiMAX plays a vital role in accessing the delay sensitive audio, video streaming and mobile IPTV. To minimize the handover delay, a Location Management Area (LMA based Multicast and Broadcast Service (MBS zone is established. The handover delay is increased based on the size of the MBS zone. In this paper, Location Management Area is easily identified by using Database Lookup Method to obtain efficient bandwidth utilization along with reduced handover delay and increased throughput. The handover delay and throughput is calculated by implementing this scenario in OPNET tool.

  20. Alternate technique in managing adhesions after zone 3 extensor tendon repair: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangatharam, Sudhagar; LeBlanc, Monique

    2013-03-01

    Extensor tendon injuries are given less importance than the flexor tendon injuries; however, the extensor mechanism is more complicated than flexor tendon system, and regaining satisfactory function is a challenge. It has been reported that loss of digital flexion would affect grasp and power grip imposing greater functional loss than digital extensor lag. Zone 3 extensor tendon management is complex because of excessive scar formation limiting composite digital flexion and extension. The adhesions are more common if the tendon is immobilized for long period. The purpose of this care report is to describe the alternate technique in managing adhesion after prolong immobilization in zone 3 extensor tendon injuries.

  1. Critical Zone Services as a Measure for Evaluating the Trade-offs in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone includes the range of biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. These services (Field et al. 2015) provide a measure to value processes that support the goods and services from our landscapes. In intensively managed landscapes the provisioning and regulating services are being altered through anthropogenic energy inputs so as to derive more agricultural productivity from the landscapes. Land use change and other alterations to the environment result in positive and/or negative net Critical Zone services. Through studies in the Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes (IMLCZO), this research seeks to answer questions such as: Are perennial bioenergy crops or annual replaced crops better for the land and surrounding environment? How do we evaluate the products and services from the land for the energy and resources we put in? Before the economic valuation of Critical Zone services, these questions seemed abstract. However, with developments such as Critical Zone services and life cycle assessments, they are more concrete. To evaluate the trade-offs between positive and negative impacts, life cycle assessments are used to create an inventory of all the energy inputs and outputs in a landscape management system. Total energy is computed by summing the mechanical energy used to construct tile drains, fertilizer, and other processes involved in intensely managed landscapes and the chemical energy gained by the production of biofuels from bioenergy crops. A multi-layer canopy model (MLCan) computes soil, water, and nutrient outputs for each crop type, which can be translated into Critical Zone services. These values are then viewed alongside the energy inputs into the system to show the relationship between agricultural practices and their corresponding ecosystem and environmental impacts.

  2. Internal flow management in a multi-zone climate control unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Persis, C.; Jessen, Jan Jacob; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2006-01-01

    of each zone is strongly affected by those in the neighbor zones. We discuss a control strategy which, by acting on the heating and ventilation devices of the overall system, is able to achieve the control task while efficiently managing the internal flow. It is pointed out that the controller is hybrid......In this contribution, we examine a dynamic model describing the evolution of internal climate conditions in a closed environment partitioned into zones for which different climate conditions must be guaranteed. The zones are not separated, large air masses are exchanged among them, and the behavior...... and decentralized. An additional feature of the controller is that it takes on values in a finite set. The possible implementation in a networked environment is briefly discussed....

  3. An idealized rural coastal zone management integrating land and water use

    OpenAIRE

    Dagoon, N. J.

    1998-01-01

    Various countries have formulated special integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) strategies which seek to both manage development and conserve natural resources and integrate and coordinate the relevant people sectors and their functions and roles within the bounds of this rich realm. Concerns that may be addressed by ICZM include: 1) Natural resources degradation; 2) Pollution; 3) Land use conflicts; and, 4) Destruction of life and property by natural hazards. Some prevalent sources of en...

  4. Supply Chain Management Strategies in Terms of Decoupling Points and Decoupling Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Wikner, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Part 2: Knowledge Discovery and Sharing; International audience; Supply chain management is concerned with decisions related to the physical perspective of the enterprise and how the flow of goods and services is arranged. A wide set of strategies have evolved over time to provide guidelines for the decision makers but many of these strategies share a common foundation in process management that is based on decoupling points and decoupling zones. The strategies concerned here are segmentation...

  5. Migrant farmers as information brokers: agroecosystem management in the transition zone of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Marney E. Isaac; Luke C. N. Anglaaere; Daniel S. Akoto; Evans Dawoe

    2014-01-01

    Environmentally induced farmer migration is an important livelihood strategy, yet little is known of the effects on the destination region agroecosystem information networks and management practices. In the forest-savanna transition zone (Brong Ahafo Region) of Ghana, where migration from northern regions (migrant) and from neighboring regions (settler) is active, we chart the role of migrant famers and the type of agroecosystem management practices embedded in information networks using a so...

  6. Application of Total Quality Management (TQM) in Secondary School Administration in Umuahia Education Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejionueme, L. K.; Oyoyo, Anthonia Oluchi

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the application of Total Quality Management (TQM) in secondary school administration in Umuahia Education Zone. Three research questions and one null hypothesis guided the study. Descriptive survey design was employed for the study. The population of the study comprised 1365 administrators. Multi-stage…

  7. 76 FR 11161 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... (58 FR 59375) and subsequent amendments. This announcement is consistent with Sec. 679.23(g)(1), which... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual Fishing Quota Program AGENCY: National... under the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) Program and the Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program....

  8. 77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Federal Register, November 9, 1993 (58 FR 59375) and subsequent amendments. This announcement is... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual Fishing Quota Program AGENCY: National... under the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) Program and the Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program....

  9. Managing riparian zone vegetation to sustain streamflow: results of paired catchment experiments in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, DF

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Managing reparian zone vegetation to sustain streamflow: Results of paired c... David F Scott Canadian Journal of Forest Research; Jul 1999; 29, 7; ProQuest Agriculture Journals pg. 1149...

  10. Understanding the effectiveness of vegetated streamside management zones for protecting water quality (Chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Smethurst; Kevin Petrone; Daniel Neary

    2012-01-01

    We set out to improve understanding of the effectiveness of streamside management zones (SMZs) for protecting water quality in landscapes dominated by agriculture. We conducted a paired-catchment experiment that included water quality monitoring before and after the establishment of a forest plantation as an SMZ on cleared farmland that was used for extensive grazing....

  11. Spatial information for coastal zone management: the example of the Banten Bay seagrass ecosystem, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, W.J.A.M.; Buurman, J.J.G.; Kiswara, W.

    2003-01-01

    Geo-information technology can be useful in Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). The benefits lie in the fact that geo-information technology can process large amounts of spatial data and can integrate different types and sources of data. The general aim of this paper is to demonstrate these b

  12. Strengthening coastal zone management in the Wadden Sea by applying ‘knowledge-practice interfaces’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puente Rodriguez, D.; Giebels, D.; Jonge, de V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge management (e.g., production, mobilization, integration) is key to achieve socio-ecological sustainability and to handle the many challenges that distress coastal zones – e.g. finding a balance between ecological conservation and economic development. Building on the concept of

  13. Identification of functional zones and methods of target management in Sanjiangyuan National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengdi Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional zones are the key link for the master planning and scientific management of national parks. We established an evaluation index system to comprehensively analyze regional ecological and environmental features in our study area, the source region of the Yellow River in the Sanjiangyuan National Park. The evaluation index system contains 13 evaluation indices, which include ecosystem services, potential habitat for key species, ecological sensitivity, and ecological pressure classes. By using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and experts marking methods and combining the requirements of management and control measures, the study area was divided into four primary functional zones, including a core reserve area, ecological restoration area, traditional utilization area, and residential and recreational service area. The protection gradation for each zone is reduced in turn, and the gradation of utilization and public accessibility is enhanced. This functional zones method laid a solid foundation for the effective planning of Sanjiangyuan National Park, while at the same time, our study provides new insight into the functional zones of national parks.

  14. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  15. 78 FR 59908 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 99 AGENCY: National... more efficient vessels that are able to meet modern vessel safety standards. This action is intended to... review and comment. NMFS manages the U.S. groundfish fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  16. Ecological zones of California deserts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological zones within California deserts. We derived ecological zones by reclassifying LANDFIRE vegetation biophysical setting types, plus...

  17. Need for science-policy linkages for river basins and coastal zone management: Meeting report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sardessai, S.

    SCIENCE, VOL. 90, NO. 12, 25 JUNE 2006 * A report on the workshop on ? Science ? policy interactions on river basins and coastal zone manageme nt, Goa? held at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa during 7 ? 8 March 2006. services, front line... shop on science ? policy interactions on river basins and coastal zone management held at the N a tional Institute of Oceanography, Goa. S u gandha Sardessai had co n vened this workshop with an overall objective of bringing t o- gether releva nt...

  18. Zoning of the Russian Federation territory based on forest management and forest use intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Маrtynyuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Over extended periods issues of forest management intensification are important in all aspects of Russian forest sector development. Sufficient research has been done in silviculture, forest planning and forest economics to address forest management intensification targets. Systems of our national territory forest management and forest economics zoning due to specifics of timber processing and forest area infrastructure have been developed. Despite sufficient available experience in sustainable forest management so far intensification issues were addressed due to development of new woodlands without proper consideration of forest regeneration and sustainable forest management operations. It resulted in forest resource depletion and unfavorable substitution of coniferous forests with less valuable softwood ones in considerable territories (especially accessible for transport. The situation is complicated since degree of forest ecosystem changes is higher in territories with high potential productivity. Ongoing changes combined with the present effective forest management system resulted in a situation where development of new woodlands is impossible without heavy investments in road construction; meanwhile road construction is unfeasible due to distances to timber processing facilities. In the meantime, changes in forest legislation, availability of forest lease holding, and promising post-logging forest regeneration technologies generate new opportunities to increase timber volumes due to application of other procedures practically excluding development of virgin woodlands. With regard to above, the Russian territory was zoned on a basis of key factors that define forest management and forest use intensification based on forest ecosystem potential productivity and area transport accessibility. Based on available data with GIS analysis approach (taking into consideration value of various factors the Russian Federation forest resources have been

  19. Management of Contaminants Stored in Low Permeability Zones - A State of the Science Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    229 USEPA, 2006. Evaluation of the Role of Dehalococcoides Organisms in the Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Ethylenes in Ground Water. US...Supporting Information for Section 4: Transport in Heterogeneous Media Appendix D. Screening Method To Estimate if a Chlorinated Solvent Site is...effort is a conviction that managing contaminants in low k zones is central to developing sound solutions at sites where releases of chlorinated

  20. Climate Change, Offshore Wind Power, and the Coastal Zone Management Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    have begun to plan and develop coastal and offshore wind energy farms,9 the largest and best-known being Cape Wind Associates’ proposal for a 130...is produced. Offshore wind energy projects can conversely take advantage of the relatively consistent nature of coastal winds, caused by the...coastal zone management programs. The CZMA provides for two types of federal consistency, the second of which is directly relevant to offshore wind energy development

  1. An Operational Web-Based Indicator System for Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Sten Hansen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are under severe pressure from anthropogenic activities, as well as on-going climate change with associated sea level rise and increased storminess. These challenges call for integrated and forward looking solutions. The concept on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, as defined during the last twenty years, provides the overall policy frames, but tools to support the planning and management efforts are almost lacking. Furthermore, the forward-looking dimension to embrace the effects of climate change is nearly absent in most implementations. The BLAST project, financed by the European Union Regional Fund through the INTERREG IV North Sea Region Programme, aimed at developing a web-based decision support system to assist Integrated Coastal Zone Management from a climate change perspective, and the current paper describes the methods used and the computing platform for implementing a decision support system. The software applied in developing the system is mainly Open Source components, thus, facilitating a more widespread use of the system.

  2. THEORY AND METHOD FOR WETLAND BOUNDARY DELINEATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the subjectivity of wetland boundary criteria and their causes at present, this paper suggested that, under the condition that the mechanism of wetland formation process has not been understood,"black box" method of System Theory can be used to delineate wetland boundaries scientifically. After analyzing the difference of system construction among aquatic habitats, wetlands and uplands, the lower limit of rooted plants was chosen as the lower boundary criterion of wetlands. Because soil diagnostic horizon is the result of the long-term interaction among all environments, and it is less responsive than vegetation to short-term change, soil diagnostic horizon was chosen as the indicator to delineate wetland upper boundary, which lies at the thinning-out point of soil diagnostic horizon. Case study indicated that it was feasible using the lower limit of rooted plants and the thinning-out point of soil diagnostic horizon as criteria to delineate the lower and upper boundaries of wetland. In the study area, the thinning-out line of albic horizon was coincident with the 55.74m contour line, the maximum horizonerror was less than lm, and the maximum vertical error less than 0.04m. The problem on wetland definition always arises on the boundaries. Having delineated wetland boundaries, wetlands can be defined as follows: wetlands are the transitional zones between uplands and deepwater habitats, they are a kind of azonal complex that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water, with the lower boundary lying at the lower limit of rooted plants, and the upper boundary at the thinning-out line of upland soil diagnostic horizon.

  3. Developing a Geological Management Information System: National Important Mining Zone Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Geo-data is a foundation for the prediction and assessment of ore resources, so managing and making full use of those data, including geography database, geology database, mineral deposits database, aeromagnetics database, gravity database, geochemistry database and remote sensing database, is very significant. We developed national important mining zone database (NIMZDB) to manage 14 national important mining zone databases to support a new round prediction of ore deposit. We found that attention should be paid to the following issues: ① data accuracy: integrity, logic consistency, attribute,spatial and time accuracy; ② management of both attribute and spatial data in the same system; ③transforming data between MapGIS and ArcGIS; ④ data sharing and security; ⑤ data searches that can query both attribute and spatial data. Accuracy of input data is guaranteed and the search, analysis and translation of data between MapGIS and ArcGIS has been made convenient via the development of a checking data module and a managing data module based on MapGIS and ArcGIS. Using ArcSDE, we based data sharing on a client/server system, and attribute and spatial data are also managed in the same system.

  4. Water quality, biodiversity, and codes of practice in relation to harvesting forest plantations in streamside management zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Philip J. Smethurst; Brenda Baillie; Kevin C. Petrone

    2011-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs) are special landscape units that include riparian areas and adjacent lands that mitigate the movement of sediment, nutrients and other chemicals from upland forest and agricultural management areas into streams. The size, shape, and management of SMZs are governed by various combinations of economic, ecological, and regulatory factors...

  5. Shapefile for Coastal Zone Management Program counties of the United States and its territories, 2009 (CZMP_counties_2009.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shapefile for 492 Coastal Zone Management Program (CZMP) counties and county equivalents, 2009, extracted from the U.S. Census Bureau's MAF/TIGER database of U.S....

  6. Sugarcane productivity correlated with physical-chemical attributes to create soil management zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Carlos Dalchiavon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The socioeconomic importance of sugar cane in Brazil is unquestionable because it is the raw material for the production of ethanol and sugar. The accurate spatial intervention in the management of the crop, resulting zones of soil management, increases productivity as well as its agricultural yields. The spatial and Person's correlations between sugarcane attributes and physico-chemical attributes of a Typic Tropustalf were studied in the growing season of 2009, in Suzanápolis, State of São Paulo, Brazil (20°28'10'' S lat.; 50°49'20'' W long., in order to obtain the one that best correlates with agricultural productivity. Thus, the geostatistical grid with 120 sampling points was installed to soil and data collection in a plot of 14.6 ha with second crop sugarcane. Due to their substantial and excellent linear and spatial correlations with the productivity of the sugarcane, the population of plants and the organic matter content of the soil, by evidencing substantial correlations, linear and spatial, with the productivity of sugarcane, were indicators of management zones strongly attached to such productivity.

  7. Ethics and Vulnerability in Street Prostitution; An Argument in Favour of Managed Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carline

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article draws upon the work of Judith Butler, in particular her approach to ethics and the concepts of vulnerability and „liveable lives,‟ in order to provide a critical analysis of reform proposals contained in the Criminal Justice and Immigration Bill (now Act 2008 in relation to street prostitution. The article will argue that the proposals presented in the Bill problematically use the vulnerability of street sex workers in order to promote a moralistic agenda. In contrast it will be argued that managed zones, as proposed by Liverpool City Council, provide a potentially more ethical approach to the issue of street prostitution.

  8. A vadose zone Transport Processes Investigation within the glacial till at the Fernald Environmental Management Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwing, J. (FERMCO Technology Development, Cincinnati, OH); Roepke, Craig Senninger; Brainard, James Robert; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Mann, Michael J. A.; Holt, Robert M.; Kriel, Kelly

    2007-08-01

    This report describes a model Transport Processes Investigation (TPI) where field-scale vadose zone flow and transport processes are identified and verified through a systematic field investigation at a contaminated DOE site. The objective of the TPI is to help with formulating accurate conceptual models and aid in implementing rational and cost effective site specific characterization strategies at contaminated sites with diverse hydrogeologic settings. Central to the TPI are Transport Processes Characterization (TPC) tests that incorporate field surveys and large-scale infiltration experiments. Hypotheses are formulated based on observed pedogenic and hydrogeologic features as well as information provided by literature searches. The field and literature information is then used to optimize the design of one or more infiltration experiments to field test the hypothesis. Findings from the field surveys and infiltration experiments are then synthesized to formulate accurate flow and transport conceptual models. Here we document a TPI implemented in the glacial till vadose zone at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio, a US Department of Energy (DOE) uranium processing site. As a result of this TPI, the flow and transport mechanisms were identified through visualization of dye stain within extensive macro pore and fracture networks which provided the means for the infiltrate to bypass potential aquatards. Such mechanisms are not addressed in current vadose zone modeling and are generally missed by classical characterization methods.

  9. Migrant farmers as information brokers: agroecosystem management in the transition zone of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marney E. Isaac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally induced farmer migration is an important livelihood strategy, yet little is known of the effects on the destination region agroecosystem information networks and management practices. In the forest-savanna transition zone (Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana, where migration from northern regions (migrant and from neighboring regions (settler is active, we chart the role of migrant famers and the type of agroecosystem management practices embedded in information networks using a social networks approach. Based on empirical network data from 44 respondents across three communities, we illustrate a diffuse information network, with variable tie frequency between settlement categories (local, settler, or migrant of farmers. The cohesion of this network is dependent on a few strategic bridging ties initiated by migrant farmers, who are thus centrally positioned to exchange agroecosystem management practices between geographically and socially distant groups. At the individual level, migrant and settler farmers are more likely: (1 to have larger networks with more ties between members of their networks, (2 to be brokers positioned between non-migrant farmers, and (3 to tend (although not statistically significantly to use pro-environmental management regimes, including agroforestry practices, new planting methods, and plot-scale weeding. We conceptualize this phenomenon as extended social and environmental experience and the deployment of social-ecological memory, with migrant farmers as potential agents of innovation and adaptive management.

  10. Coastal Zone Management Act and related legislation: Revision 3. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    In recognition of the increasing pressures upon the nation`s coastal resources, Congress enacted the Coastal Zone Management Act in 1972. Its purpose is to encourage states to preserve, protect, develop, and, where possible, restore or enhance such valuable natural resources as wetlands, floodplains, estuaries, beaches, dunes, barrier islands, and coral reefs, as well as the fish and wildlife utilizing those habitats. A unique feature of the Act is that participation by states is voluntary. One key provision for encouraging states to participate is the availability of federal financial assistance to any coastal state or territory, including those on the Great Lakes, which is willing to develop and implement a comprehensive coastal management program. Additionally, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) was passed in 1983. This report contains the legislative history and statues associated with each Act. Regulations for implementation and other guidance are included.

  11. 30 CFR 282.22 - Delineation Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delineation Plan. 282.22 Section 282.22 Mineral... § 282.22 Delineation Plan. All exploration activities shall be conducted in accordance with a Delineation Plan submitted by the lessee and approved by the Director. The Delineation Plan shall describe...

  12. [Spatial variability and management zone of soil major nutrients in tobacco fields in Qiannan mountainous region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, De-Chuan; Luo, Hong-Xiang; Song, Ze-Min; Guo, Guang-Dong; Chen, Yong-An; Li, Yu-Xiang; Jiang, Yu-Ping; Li, Zhang-Hai

    2014-06-01

    Spatial variability and management zone of soil major nutrients in tobacco fields in Qian-nan mountainous region were analyzed using geostatistics and fuzzy c-mean algorithm. Results indicated that the level of soil organic matter (OM) was moderate, and alkalytic nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) were rich according to tobacco soil nutrient classification standards. Coefficients of variation (CV) of OM, AN, AP and AK were moderate. Contents of OM, AN, AP and AK fitted log-normal distributions. Correlation analysis showed moderate correlations between OM and AN, AP and AK. OM and AN were best described by Gaussian semivariogram models, while AP and AK were described by exponential models. The four nutrients displayed moderate spatial autocorrelation. There were significant differences among lag distances of four soil nutrients. OM, AN, AP and AK in the majority of studied regions varied at moderate to very rich levels, and deficiencies of OM, AN, AP and AK only accounted for 0.93%, 0.53%, 0.24% and 7.91% of the total studied region, respectively. Based on the results, the studied region was divided into two management zones (MZ), namely MZ1 and MZ2, accounting for 69. 8% and 30. 2% of the studied region respectively. The soil levels of OM, AN, AP and AK in MZ1 were significantly lower than those in MZ2 (P < 0.01).

  13. 30 CFR 250.260 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.260 Section 250.260 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT... Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.260 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must.... “Information” as required by 15 CFR 930.76(a) and 15 CFR 930.58(a)(2)) and “Analysis” as required by 15 CFR...

  14. Hyporheic Zone Management: Nitrate Removal from Treated Wastewater Effluent using an Engineered Hyporheic Zone as a Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, M.; Herzog, S.; Jones, Z.; Sharp, J.

    2014-12-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is a natural bioreactor within streambed sediments. The dynamic interface of streamwater and groundwater creates a diverse microbial community that has potential to provide substantial contaminant removal. However, insufficient water exchange between the stream and the HZ is often a limiting factor for improved streamwater quality. Modular subsurface hydraulic conductivity (K) modifications with the addition of organic carbon substrates have been proposed as a means to increase hyporheic exchange and enhance natural water treatment via denitrification. Subsurface K modification flow paths are well understood from previous computer modeling and tracer testing studies, but treatment capabilities have yet to be tested in physical systems. This research applied chemical and molecular biological techniques to investigate nitrate removal and microbial community structure in a bench-scale stream simulation with subsurface K and carbon modifications. The system received treated wastewater effluent containing soluble nitrogen primarily in the form of nitrate at concentrations fluctuating from 4-7mg/L. To gain insight into denitrification potential and relative microbial activity along hyporheic flow paths, profiles of nitrate fate, total bacterial presence and the density of the denitrification genes (nirS and nirK) were quantified spatially. Nitrate tests showed a decrease from ~7mg/L in the influent to less than 1mg/L along hyporheic flowpaths. This was accompanied by an increase in 16S rRNA copies (representative of total bacterial biomass) from approximately 200000 gene copies in the influent zone to 630000 gene copies in the effluent zone. Also, the bacterial communities had a greater presence in the upper 6cm of the sediment layer with nirS amplifying 4-5 cycles earlier than nirK in the PCR analysis. The nirS gene concentration was nearly an order of magnitude greater in the effluent zone than the carbon modified zone, suggesting that leached

  15. Unidades de manejo a partir de dados de produtividade = Determination of management zones using yield data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lairton Milani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A agricultura de precisão é um conjunto de tecnologias que visa o aumento da eficiência com base no manejo diferenciado de áreas agrícolas. Neste contexto, é importante estabelecer metodologias nos quais informações de produtividade, solo ou indicadores compostos possam ser utilizados para a determinação de unidades de manejo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver uma metodologia para definição de unidades de manejo em função de mapas de produtividade de cinco safras agrícolas. Foi medida a produtividade da cultura soja, durante os anos de 1998 a 2002, de uma área localizada no município de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, e utilizando técnicas de geoestatística foram gerados mapas de produtividade. A área amostrada possui 1,74 ha, sendo constituída de 256 parcelas, 128 com manejo químico localizado e 128 sem manejo químico localizado. Na colheita, utilizou-se uma colhedora de parcelas e verificou-se dependência espacial para os sistemas de cultivo, em todos os anos. Os valores pontuais de produtividade de soja de cada ano foram padronizadosutilizando-se a técnica denominada escore padrão, em seguida reclassificados em baixo, médio e alto, o que possibilitou a comparação das produtividades de diferentes anos e a geração de um mapa de produtividade média. Com a produtividade padronizada e ocoeficiente de variação classificados em baixo, médio e alto foi gerado um mapa com as unidades de manejo. A metodologia mostrou-se eficiente para identificar regiões homogêneas.Precision agriculture is a set of technologies that aims the efficiency increase based on the differentiated management of agricultural areas. In this context, it is important to establish methodologies to use the yield information, soil or indicators in the determination of management zones. The aim of this paper was to develop a methodology for the definition of management zones according to yield maps of five growing seasons. The soybean yield was

  16. International cooperation for integrated management of coastal regions; La cooperation internationale pour une gestion integree de la zone cotiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosc, E.; Houlbreque, F.; Boisson, F. [Agence internationale de l' energie atomique - AIEA, Vienna (Austria); Scholten, J.; Betti, M. [Agence internationale de l' energie atomique (AIEA) Monaco (Monaco)

    2010-06-15

    Coastal zones which comprise < 20% of the earth surface are one of the most dynamic areas of the world. Housing more than 50% of the earth's population, the coastal zones are affected by natural and anthropogenic induced pressures which challenge the sustainability of the coastal environment and its resources. Most of the environmental pressures originate from outside the coastal zones thus requiring an inter-regional approach for coastal environmental assessments. It is one of the missions of the Marine Environment Laboratories (MEL) of the International Atomic Energy Agency to assist Member States in coastal zone management by applying nuclear and isotopic techniques. These techniques are used in many ways at MEL to enhance the understanding of marine ecosystems and to improve their management and protection. The article gives an overview of MEL's current marine coastal projects and research activities. (author)

  17. Identifying soil management zones in a sugarcane field using proximal sensed electromagnetic induction and gamma-ray spectrometry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerley, Claire; Huang, Jingyi; Nielson, Rod; Sefton, Michael; Triantafilis, John

    2017-04-01

    Over 70% of the Australian sugarcane industry operates in alluvial-estuarine areas characterised by sodic and infertile soils. There is a need to supply ameliorants and improve fertilisers and minimise off-farm pollution to the Great Barrier Reef. Therefore, information is required about the spatial variation in soils. However, traditional approaches are cost-prohibitive. Herein we showed how a digital soil mapping (DSM) approach can be used to identify soil management zones. In the first instance, ancillary data, including electromagnetic induction and gamma-ray spectrometry data were collected. Using a fuzzy k-means clustering algorithm management zones from two to six were identified. Using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) analysis of various topsoil (0-0.3m) and subsoil (0.6-0.9m) physical (e.g. clay) and chemical (e.g. exchangeable sodium percentage [ESP], exchangeable calcium and magnesium) properties, 3 zones were determined from minimising the mean squared prediction error. To manage the moderately sodic topsoil ESP of zones 3A and 3C and sodic 3B, different gypsum requirements were prescribed. Lime can also be added differentially to address low exchangeable Ca in zone 3A, 3B and 3C. With regard to exchangeable Mg, zones 3A and 3C do not require any fertiliser, whereas zone 3A requires the addition of a moderate amount. The results were consistent with percentage yield variance, suggesting the lower yield in 3C due to topsoil sodicity and strongly sodic subsoil with higher clay content. We concluded that the DSM approach was successful in identifying soil management zones and can be used to improve structural stability and soil fertility.

  18. Evaluating Groundwater Management Sustainability under Limited Data Availability in Semiarid Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Senent-Aparicio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have devoted their efforts to finding an objective measurement of sustainability by developing evaluation tools based on sustainability indices. These indexes not only reveal the current state of water resources in a given area but also contribute to the development and implementation of effective sustainable water management and decision-making. The great disadvantage of these indices is that for proper application, a number of variables are necessary and they are usually not available in data-scarce aquifers. This study was designed to evaluate sustainability in groundwater resource management in an aquifer in a semiarid zone, using readily available parameters and under a pressure-state-response framework. This methodology has been applied to an aquifer in Southeast Spain with satisfactory results, since the indicators that were evaluated reflect the two main problems that hinder sustainable resource management: the contamination of groundwater by intensive local farming; and the need for external inputs from other basins to alleviate water stress. Therefore, the methodology used can be replicated in other areas with similar characteristics to those of the case study.

  19. Critical Zone services as environmental assessment criteria in intensively managed landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Meredith; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-06-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) includes the biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. CZ services provide a measure for the goods and benefits derived from CZ processes. In intensively managed landscapes, cropland is altered through anthropogenic energy inputs to derive more productivity, as agricultural products, than would be possible under natural conditions. However, the actual costs of alterations to CZ functions within landscape profiles are unknown. Through comparisons of corn feed and corn-based ethanol, we show that valuation of these CZ services in monetary terms provides a more concrete tool for characterizing seemingly abstract environmental damages from agricultural production systems. Multiple models are combined to simulate the movement of nutrients throughout the soil system, enabling the measurement of agricultural anthropogenic impacts to the CZ's regulating services. Results indicate water quality and atmospheric stabilizing services, measured by soil carbon storage, carbon respiration, and nitrate leaching, among others, can cost more than double that of emissions estimated in previous studies. Energy efficiency in addition to environmental impact is assessed to demonstrate how the inclusion of CZ services is necessary in accounting for the entire life cycle of agricultural production systems. These results conclude that feed production systems are more energy efficient and less environmentally costly than corn-based ethanol.

  20. A simulation-optimization model for effective water resources management in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    -diffusion equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants introduced in a 3D turbulent flow field to the partial differential equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants in 3D transient groundwater flow systems. The model has been further developed to include the effects of density variations on surface water and groundwater flow, while the already built-in solute transport capabilities are used to simulate salinity interactions. The refined model is based on the finite volume method using a cell-centred structured grid, providing thus flexibility and accuracy in simulating irregular boundary geometries. For addressing water resources management problems, simulation models are usually externally coupled with optimisation-based management models. However this usually requires a very large number of iterations between the optimisation and simulation models in order to obtain the optimal management solution. As an alternative approach, for improved computational efficiency, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is trained as an approximate simulator of IRENE. The trained ANN is then linked to a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based optimisation model for managing salinisation problems in the coastal zone. The linked simulation-optimisation model is applied to a hypothetical study area for performance evaluation. Acknowledgement The work presented in this paper has been funded by the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (IKY), Fellowships of Excellence for Postdoctoral Studies (Siemens Program), 'A simulation-optimization model for assessing the best practices for the protection of surface water and groundwater in the coastal zone', (2013 - 2015). References Spanoudaki, K., Stamou, A.I. and Nanou-Giannarou, A. (2009). Development and verification of a 3-D integrated surface water-groundwater model. Journal of Hydrology, 375 (3-4), 410-427. Spanoudaki, K. (2010). Integrated numerical modelling of surface water groundwater systems (in Greek). Ph.D. Thesis, National Technical

  1. Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in industrial zones, case study of Shahroud, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid, Nazemi; Roudbari, Aliakbar; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar

    2014-01-14

    The aim of the study was to design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in Shahroud industrial zone, evaluates the results and determine possible performance problems. This cross - sectional study was carried out for 4 years in Shahroud industrial zone and the implementation process included:1- Qualitative and quantitative analysis of all solid waste generated in the city, 2- determine the current state of solid waste management in the zone and to identify programs conducted, 3- Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern including design and implementation of training programs, laws, penalties and incentives and explain and implement programs for all factories and 4- The monitoring of the implementation process and determine the results. Annually, 1,728 tons of solid wastes generated in the town including 1603 tons of industrial wastes and 125 tons of municipal wastes. By implementing this pattern, the two separated systems of collection and recycling of domestic and industrial wastes was launched in this zone. Also consistent with the goals, the amount of solid wastes generated and disposed in 2009 was 51.5 and 28.6 kg per 100 million Rials production, respectively. Results showed that implementation of pattern of separated collection, training programs, capacity building, providing technical services, completing chain of industries and strengthening the cooperation between industrial estate management and industrial units could greatly reduce the waste management problems.

  2. Agricultural adaptation to water scarcity in the Sri Lankan dry zone: A comparison of two water managment regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    The island nation of Sri Lanka is divided into two agro-climatic zones: the southwestern wet zone and the northeastern dry zone. The dry zone is exposed to drought-like conditions for several months each year. Due to the sporadic nature of rainfall, dry zone livelihoods depend on the successful storage, capture, and distribution of water. Traditionally, water has been captured in rain-fed tanks and distributed through a system of dug canals. Recently, the Sri Lankan government has diverted the waters of the nation's largest river through a system of centrally managed reservoirs and canals and resettled farmers to cultivate this newly irrigated land. This study uses remotely sensed MODIS and LANDSAT imagery to compare vegetation health and cropping patterns in these distinct water management regimes under different conditions of water scarcity. Of particular interest are the socioeconomic, infrastructural, and institutional factors that affect cropping patterns, including field position, water storage capacity, and control of water resources. Results suggest that under known conditions of water scarcity, farmers cultivate other field crops in lieu of paddy. Cultivation changes depend to a large extent on the institutional distance between water users and water managers as well as the fragmentation of water resources within the system.

  3. Delineation of areas contributing groundwater to selected receiving surface water bodies for long-term average hydrologic conditions from 1968 to 1983 for Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misut, Paul E.; Monti,, Jack

    2016-10-05

    To assist resource managers and planners in developing informed strategies to address nitrogen loading to coastal water bodies of Long Island, New York, the U.S. Geological Survey and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation initiated a program to delineate a comprehensive dataset of groundwater recharge areas (or areas contributing groundwater), travel times, and outflows to streams and saline embayments on Long Island. A four-layer regional three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater-flow model of hydrologic conditions from 1968 to 1983 was used to provide delineations of 48 groundwater watersheds on Long Island. Sixteen particle starting points were evenly spaced within each of the 4,000- by 4,000-foot model cells that receive water-table recharge and tracked using forward particle-tracking analysis modeling software to outflow zones. For each particle, simulated travel times were grouped by age as follows: less than or equal to 10 years, greater than 10 years and less than or equal to 100 years, greater than 100 years and less than or equal to 1,000 years, and greater than 1,000 years; and simulated ending zones were grouped into 48 receiving water bodies, based on the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Waterbody Inventory/Priority Waterbodies List. Areal delineation of travel time zones and groundwater contributing areas were generated and a table was prepared presenting the sum of groundwater outflow for each area.

  4. Investigation of Industrial Waste Management in Industries Located Between Tehran and Karaj Zone in 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    M Karimaee; M. R Gohari; R Nabizade; A Jonidi; Farzadkia, M.; Karami, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In recent years, poor industrial waste managements have created many crises in human societies. The aim of this study was to investigate industrial waste management located between Tehran and Karaj zone in 2009-2010.Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive and sectional which was done by site visits, (Iranian environmental protection organization)  use of questionnaires, database production and results analysis. The questionnaire consisted of 45 questio...

  5. Ecological characteristics and management of geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boothroyd, Ian K.G. [Golder Associates Ltd., P.O. Box 33849, Takapuna, and School of Geography, Geology and Environmental Science, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2009-03-15

    New Zealand has an array of geothermal systems with distinctive ecological features, with many occurring in the Taupo Volcanic Zone in the Central North Island. Associated with these geothermal features are characteristic geophysical and geochemical components, and distinctive terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with many attributes that are common across a range of the biotic groups. Zonation amongst vegetation communities is closely related to soil temperature and these associations generally occur in a predictable sequence along the soil temperature gradient. Similarly, clear distinctions in aquatic flora and fauna occur longitudinally downstream from the source of thermal springs and vertically on geyser mounds. The characteristic vegetation communities associated with geothermal fields and the invertebrate and algal communities found in geothermally influenced springs and streams are described, in particular the features of the Wairakei geothermal field. At this field four plant associations are recognized (non-vegetated soilfield, prostrate kanuka shrubland, prostrate kanuka scrub, mixed fernland), but all the major aquatic macroinvertebrate groups are represented and commonly found in natural freshwaters throughout New Zealand. The current management of geothermal ecosystems is reviewed with particular reference to the Waikato region of New Zealand. Management of geothermal resources in New Zealand aims to balance development with the protection of highly valued surface features via a series of regional policies, rules and regulations. Geothermal habitats, ecological gradients, and at-risk geothermal plants are included in the definition of geothermal systems for management purposes. With the recognition of the unique ecological diversity and function of geothermal ecosystems, knowledge and understanding of their ecological characteristics will be critical to the ability to utilize and sustain geothermal resources into the future. (author)

  6. Improving integration for integrated coastal zone management: an eight country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, M E; Esteves, L S; Le, X Q; Khan, A Z

    2012-11-15

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is a widely accepted approach for sustainable management of the coastal environment. ICZM emphasizes integration across sectors, levels of government, uses, stakeholders, and spatial and temporal scales. While improving integration is central to progress in ICZM, the role of and the achievement of integration remain understudied. To further study these two points, our research analyzes the performance of specific mechanisms used to support ICZM in eight countries (Belgium, India, Israel, Italy, Portugal, Sweden, UK, and Vietnam). The assessment is based on a qualitative comparative analysis conducted through the use of two surveys. It focuses on five ICZM mechanisms (environmental impact assessment; planning hierarchy; setback lines; marine spatial planning, and regulatory commission) and their role in improving integration. Our findings indicate that certain mechanisms enhance specific types of integration more effectively than others. Environmental impact assessment enhances science-policy integration and can be useful to integrate knowledge across sectors. Planning hierarchy and regulatory commissions are effective mechanisms to integrate policies across government levels, with the latter also promoting public-government integration. Setback lines can be applied to enhance integration across landscape units. Marine spatial planning is a multi-faceted mechanism with the potential to promote all types of integration. Policy-makers should adopt the mechanisms that are suited to the type of integration needed. Results of this study also contribute to evidence-based coastal management by identifying the most common impediments related to the mechanisms of integration in the eight studied countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrological and Oceanographic Considerations for Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Southern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman; Kjerfve

    1999-09-01

    / The objectives of this study are to: (1) characterize the meteorology and hydrology of the Maya Mountain-Marine Area Transect in southern Belize, (2) employ a simple water balance model to examine the discharge rates of seven watersheds to Port Honduras, (3) test the validity of the hydrological model, (4) explore the implications of potential landscape and hydrological alterations, and (5) examine the value of protected areas. The southern coastal portion of the study area is classified as wet tropical forest and the remainder as moist tropical forest. Rainfall is 3000-4000 mm annually. Resulting annual freshwater discharge directly into Port Honduras is calculated at 2.5 x 10(9) m3, a volume equal to the basin. During the rainy season, June-September, 84% of the annual discharge occurs, which causes the bay to become brackish. Port Honduras serves as an important nursery ground for many species of commercially important fish and shellfish. The removal of forest cover in the uplands, as a result of agriculture, aquaculture, and village development, is likely to significantly accelerate erosion. Increased erosion would reduce soil fertility in the uplands and negatively affect mangrove, seagrass, and coral reef productivity in the receiving coastal embayment. Alternatively, the conservation of an existing protected areas corridor, linking the Maya Mountains to the Caribbean Sea, is likely to enhance regional sustainable economic development. This study aims to support environmental management at the scale of the "ecoscape"-a sensible ecological unit of linked watersheds and coastal and marine environments.KEY WORDS: Ecosystem management; Coastal zone management; Belize; Hydrologyhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n2p229.html

  8. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Multi-Skilled, Self-Managing Work Teams in a Zone-Construction Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    THE NATIONAL SHIPBUILDING RESEARCH PROGRAM Multi- SkiIled , Self-Managing Work Teams in a Zone-Construction Environment U.S. DEPARTMENT OF...at NASSCO in 1980, the mere fact that the shipyard was successful in overcoming union resistance to the project, speaks well for the shipyard. Unions

  9. 75 FR 53025 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ..., and sport fisheries in their regions of origin. The ] State of Alaska Board of Fisheries adopts..., sport, and personal use fisheries. The first management priority is to meet spawning escapement goals to... the U.S. exclusive economic zone, and observing vessels fishing in international waters is outside...

  10. Livestock-rangeland management practices and community perceptions towards rangeland degradation in South Omo zone of Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admasu, T.; Abule, E.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted in Hamer and Benna-Tsemay districts of the South Omo zone of Ethiopia, with the objectives of assessing the range-livestock management practices and perceptions of the different pastoral groups (Hamer, Benna, and Tsemay) towards rangeland degradation. This information is

  11. Structural Dynamics of Management Zones for the Site-Specific Control of Tarnished Plant Bugs in Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision-based agricultural application of insecticide relies on a non-random distribution of pests; tarnished plant bugs (Lygus lineolaris) are known to prefer vigorously growing patches of cotton. Management zones for various crops have been readily defined using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vege...

  12. An Analysis of Coastal Zone Management Program Proposals to Determine their Effect on the United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    with brief policy summaries. Areas covered are: Agricul- tural Practices, Archaeological Areas and Historic Sites, Aquaculture , Breakwaters...Bulkheads, Commercial Development, Dredging, Forest Management Practices, Jetties and Groins, Landfill, Marinas , Mining, Outdoor Advertising, Piers, Ports and...consistent with other CZMP policies. Accessibility to the coastal zone will be accomplished through a coastal trails system and expansion of marinas

  13. Conflict Management and Resolution Strategies between Teachers and School Leaders in Primary Schools of Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanka, Engdawork Birhanu; Thuo, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate various strategies used to manage and resolve conflict between teachers and school leaders in government primary schools of Wolaita zone. The study employed a descriptive survey design where both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to correct and analyze data, concurrently. From six…

  14. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal... Plan § 285.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? Your SAP will be processed based on how your commercial lease was issued: ER29AP09.118 ...

  15. 77 FR 5389 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... sectors as well as representatives for the six western Alaska Community Development Quota Program... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  16. Utilizing management zones for Rotylenchulus reniformis in cotton: Effects on nematode levels, crop damage, and Pasteuria sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematode management zones (MZs) based on soil electrical conductivity (EC, a proxy for soil texture) have not been published for R. reniformis. We tested 1) whether R. reniformis levels and the amount of damage caused to cotton differed among MZs, 2) if the relative effectiveness of nematicides dif...

  17. Monitoring and Management of Coastal Zones Which are Under Flooding Risk with Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direk, S.; Seker, D. Z.; Musaoglu, N.; Gazioglu, C.

    2012-12-01

    great flexibility for the display and visualization of data to a wider audience. Today GIS, plays a key role in monitoring and management procedures and re-shaping the environment. The capability of GIS in handling spatial data, presented new opportunities for adaptation of more cost-effective and efficient procedures. By using remote sensing and GIS, coastal zone could be monitored and managed more easily. The map/chart of interested coastal areas could be done more accurately and rapidly. Maps/charts of areas before and after flooding could be done by using satellites or areal images and the effect of damage could be analyzed in a short time.

  18. Report: future industrial solid waste management in pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ), Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarani, Babak; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Alavi; Mokhtarani, Nader; Khaledi, Hossein Jomeh

    2006-06-01

    The Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ) is located in the south of Iran, on the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf. This area was established in 1998 for the utilization of south Pars field oil and gas resources. This field is one of the largest gas resources in the world and contains about 6% of the total fossil fuels known. Petrochemical industries, gas refineries and downstream industries are being constructed in this area. At present there are three gas refineries in operation and five more gas refineries are under construction. In this study, different types of solid waste including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the environmental impact. In the first stage, the types and amounts of industrial waste in PSEEZ were evaluated by an inventory. The main types of industrial waste are oil products (fuel oil, light oil, lubricating oil), spent catalysts, adsorbents, resins, coke, wax and packaging materials. The waste management of PSEEZ is quite complex because of the different types of industry and the diversity of industrial residues. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. Recently a design has been prepared for a disposal site in PSEEZ for the industrial waste that cannot be reused or recycled. The total surface area of this disposal site where the industrial waste should be tipped for the next 20 years was estimated to be about 42 000 m2.

  19. Integrated coastal zone management perspectives to ensure the sustainability of coral reefs in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, G; Leopold, M; Dumas, P S; Ferraris, J; Herrenschmidt, J B; Fontenelle, G

    2010-01-01

    Based on a pluridisciplinary research programme on New Caledonia's lagoon (2004-2008), this paper addresses economic, ecological and political issues in order to implement integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) in this French Pacific territory. The nickel mining industry constitutes the core of the re-balancing economic and social strategy between the Northern and Southern provinces. But major impacts on the coastal environment of metal-processing plants, harbours, and decades of mine exploitation have released a controversy. A short diachronic analysis suggests that such environmental concerns prompted the emergence of collective actions to among civil society, customary and institutional stakeholders. The inscription of New Caledonia lagoon and reef areas in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2008 would be both an outcome and a catalyst of this on-going process. Looking beyond the reefs towards the mainland and watersheds for the construction of local socio-ecological systems, we assume that the current stakes could result in the initiation of ICZM in New Caledonia. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Fever prevalence and management among three rural communities in the North West Zone, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, R M; Alegana, V A; Amran, J; Noor, A M; Snow, R W

    2010-06-01

    Between March and August 2008 we undertook 2 cross-sectional surveys among 1375 residents of 3 randomly selected villages in the district of Gebiley in the North-West Zone, Somalia. We investigated for the presence of malaria infection and the period prevalence of self-reported fever 14 days prior to both surveys. All blood samples examined were negative for both species of Plasmodium. The period prevalence of 14-day fevers was 4.8% in March and 0.6% in August; the majority of fevers (84.4%) were associated with other symptoms including cough, running nose and sore throat; 48/64 cases had resolved by the day of interview (mean duration 5.4 days). Only 18 (37.5%) fever cases were managed at a formal health care facility: 7 within 24 hours and 10 within 24-72 hours of onset. None of the fevers were investigated for malaria; they were treated with antibiotics, antipyretics and vitamins.

  1. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments from C Waste Management Area: Investigation of the C-152 Transfer Line Leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Lanigan, David C.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

    2008-09-11

    The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in January 2007. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within waste management area (WMA) C. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physiochemical characterization data compiled on vadose zone sediment recovered from direct-push samples collected around the site of an unplanned release (UPR), UPR-200-E-82, adjacent to the 241-C-152 Diversion Box located in WMA C.

  2. 23 CFR 630.1108 - Work zone safety management measures and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... highway project can affect driver behavior, helping to maintain appropriate speeds and improve driver... that may be mitigated by improved driver behavior and awareness of the work zone; (vi) Work zone... by improving road user behavior and awareness. (2) Costs associated with the provision of...

  3. Internal Flow Management in a Multi-Zone Climate Control Unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, C. De; Jessen, J.J.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Schiøler, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution, we examine a dynamic model describing the evolution of internal climate conditions in a closed environment partitioned into zones for which different climate conditions must be guaranteed. The zones are not separated, large air masses are exchanged among them, and the behavior

  4. Management with the insufficient proximal landing zone for endovascular repair in aortic dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hao; YANG Hong-yu; ZOU Jun-jie; ZHANG Xi-wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Sufficient length of the proximal landing zone (PLZ) is the key for a successful thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) of an aortic lesion. The aim of this research was to investigate the safety, feasibility, efficacy, and problems of endovascular repair for aortic dissection with insufficient PLZ.Methods The clinical data between August 2005 and February 2010 from patients with insufficient PLZ for endovascular repair of aortic dissection were retrospectively reviewed. According to the classification proposed by Ishimaru, aortic zone 0 was involved in 3 cases, zone 1 in 10 cases, and zone 2 in 11 cases. A hybrid surgical procedure of supraortic debranching and revascularization, directly coverage the orifice of left subclavian artery, or a left common carotid artery chimney graft technique were performed to obtain an adequate proximal aortic landing zone.Results There was no significant difference in risk factors and diameter of the PLZ between Zone 0, Zone 1, and Zone 2. But the length of the PLZ was significantly different in the three groups (P <0.01). There was no significant difference in technical and clinical success rate between the groups.Conclusions The procedure for extending an insufficient PLZ for endovascular repair for aortic arch pathology is feasible and relatively safe. The applicability of TEVAR in such aortic disorders may be expanded.

  5. Integrating GIS-based geologic mapping, LiDAR-based lineament analysis and site specific rock slope data to delineate a zone of existing and potential rock slope instability located along the grandfather mountain window-Linville Falls shear zone contact, Southern Appalachian Mountains, Watauga County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, K.A.; Wooten, R.M.; Latham, R.L.; Witt, A.W.; Douglas, T.J.; Bauer, J.B.; Fuemmeler, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Landslide hazard maps of Watauga County identify >2200 landslides, model debris flow susceptibility, and evaluate a 14km x 0.5km zone of existing and potential rock slope instability (ZEPRSI) near the Town of Boone. The ZEPRSI encompasses west-northwest trending (WNWT) topographic ridges where 14 active/past-active rock/weathered rock slides occur mainly in rocks of the Grandfather Mountain Window (GMW). The north side of this ridgeline is the GMW / Linville Falls Fault (LFF) contact. Sheared rocks of the Linville Falls Shear Zone (LFSZ) occur along the ridge and locally in the valley north of the contact. The valley is underlain principally by layered granitic gneiss comprising the Linville Falls/Beech Mountain/Stone Mountain Thrust Sheet. The integration of ArcGIS??? - format digital geologic and lineament mapping on a 6m LiDAR (Light Detecting and Ranging) digital elevation model (DEM) base, and kinematic analyses of site specific rock slope data (e.g., presence and degree of ductile and brittle deformation fabrics, rock type, rock weathering state) indicate: WNWT lineaments are expressions of a regionally extensive zone of fractures and faults; and ZEPRSI rock slope failures concentrate along excavated, north-facing LFF/LFSZ slopes where brittle fabrics overprint older metamorphic foliations, and other fractures create side and back release surfaces. Copyright 2009 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association.

  6. Aspen Delineation - Inyo National Forest [ds366

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of known aspen stands where aspen assessments were collected in the Inyo National Forest, Inyo County, California. The Inyo...

  7. Carbon storage, soil carbon dioxide efflux and water quality in three widths of piedmont streamside management zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erica F. Wadl; William Lakel; Michael Aust; John Seiler

    2010-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs) are used to protect water quality. Monitoring carbon pools and fluxes in SMZs may a good indicator of the SMZ’s overall function and health. In this project we evaluated some of these pools and fluxes from three different SMZ widths (30.5, 15.3, and 7.6 m) in the Piedmont of Virginia. We quantified carbon storage in the soil (upper 10...

  8. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  9. Characterization of Direct Push Vadose Zone Sediments from the T and TY Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

    2007-06-08

    This report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from 5 direct push characterization holes emplaced to investigate vadose zone contamination associated with leaks from tanks 241-TY-105 (UPR-200-W-152) and 241-TY-106 (UPR-200-W-153). Tank 241-TY-105 is estimated to have leaked 35,000 gal of tributyl phosphate (TBP) waste from the uranium recovery process to the vadose zone in 1960. Tank 241-TY-106 is estimated to have leaked 20,000 gal of TBP-uranium recovery waste to the vadose zone in 1959. Although several drywells in the vicinity of tank 241-TY-106 contain measurable quantities of cesium-137 and/or cobalt-60, their relatively low concentrations indicate that the contaminant inventory in the vadose zone around tank 241-TY-106 is quite small. Additionally, this report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from 7 direct push characterization holes emplaced to investigate vadose zone contamination associated with an overfill event and leak from tank 241-T-101.

  10. Optimal design of an internal monitoring program for personnel in the Chornobyl exclusion zone radwaste management industrial complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, O O; Medvedev, S Yu; Novikov, O E; Andreyev, V V

    2007-01-01

    Modern state and approach regarding organisation of individual internal dose monitoring of the personnel of industrial complex for radioactive waste management at the Chornobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) is presented. Sensitivity and adequacy of the acknowledged instrumental methods is considered taking into account the features of interpretation using indirect methods in the specific working conditions of industrial complex for radioactive waste management at the CEZ. The performed analysis enables clear recommendations to be made with regard to optimum design of an internal monitoring program for personnel, including application of specific techniques.

  11. Consistent assessment of the status and prospects of institutional and innovational subsurface resources management in the arctic zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Tatarkin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects the available information about the problem of development of the institutional framework of the innovative subsurface resource management in the Arctic zone, and the relevance of studies of this problem is proved, the interpretation of a number of terms of the study is defined. The main institutions, mechanisms, and instruments governing the innovative subsurface resource management are determined. Most important conventional institutional instruments of regulation are known to rigorously include regulatory support, program and project support, organizational support and financial support. A consistent approach to the assessment of the level of the institutional framework of the innovative subsurface resource management and its impact on socio-economic development of the regions of the arctic countries is produced. This paper estimates loss of profits caused by incomplete development of the institutional framework of the innovative subsurface resource management, which prevents the deployment of the mineral and resource potential of the Arctic zone. We propose the directions of possible Russian cooperation with arctic countries in order to improve the institutional framework of the innovative subsurface resource management in the Arctic.

  12. Planning and management of the coastal zone in India - A perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, B.U.; Chandramohan, P.; Desai, B.N.

    zone, relevant to its physical, chemical, and biological regimes, as well as man's socioeconomic and political systems. The goals must be clearly specified and policies with necessary built-in legislative powers should be framed for implementation. Most...

  13. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: potential for improved water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite considerable heterogeneity over space and time, biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. Recently, these heterogeneous processes have been co...

  14. Ranking zones model – a multicriterial approach to the spatial management of urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marović

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban investment planning is highly complex and different views are provided by stakeholders and experts as to the scope, scale and potential solutions. The evaluation of such investments requires explicit consideration of multiple, conflicting and incommensurate criteria that have an important social, economic, and environmental influence on various stakeholders in different ways. To take into account all the dimensions, the proposed model is the Ranking Zones Model (RZM, based on PROMETHEE methods. The RZM comprises several steps providing a rank-list of all observed zones. It helps decision-makers come up with consistent decisions as to which zones to invest in and, at the same time, provides reassurance that the decision was based on a proper comparison of all relevant urban zone areas. The advantage of this approach is that even with a change in the decision-making structure, the actual procedure remains consistent.

  15. Science to Improve Management of the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone: A Collaborative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    cooperative activities of several partnering networks. For example, the Gulf of Mexico Alliance ( GOMA ), a partnership developed by the states of Alabama...The GOMA was formed in 2005 in response to the U.S. Ocean Action Plan’s call for regional ocean governance, with the overarching goal to increase...Zone, as a priority need. GOMAs commitment to address the hypoxic zone was strengthened in the subsequent Governor’s Action Plan II (http

  16. Soil functional zone management: a vehicle for enhancing production and soil ecosystem services in row-crop agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwyn eWilliams

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture and no-tillage. SFZM creates distinct functional zones within crop row and inter-row spaces. By incorporating decimetre-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, SFZM attempts to foster greater soil biodiversity and integrate complementary soil processes at the sub-field level. Such integration maximizes soil services by creating zones of ‘active turnover’, optimized for crop growth and yield (provisioning services; and adjacent zones of ‘soil building’, that promote soil structure development, carbon storage and moisture regulation (regulating and supporting services. These zones allow SFZM to secure existing agricultural productivity while avoiding or minimizing trade-offs with soil ecosystem services. Moreover, the specific properties of SFZM may enable sustainable increases in provisioning services via temporal intensification (expanding the portion of the year during which harvestable crops are grown. We present a conceptual model of ‘virtuous cycles’, illustrating how increases in crop yields within SFZM systems could create self-reinforcing feedback processes with desirable effects, including mitigation of trade-offs between yield maximization and soil ecosystem services. Through the creation of functionally distinct but interacting zones, SFZM may provide a vehicle for optimizing the delivery of multiple

  17. Soil Functional Zone Management: A Vehicle for Enhancing Production and Soil Ecosystem Services in Row-Crop Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alwyn; Kane, Daniel A; Ewing, Patrick M; Atwood, Lesley W; Jilling, Andrea; Li, Meng; Lou, Yi; Davis, Adam S; Grandy, A Stuart; Huerd, Sheri C; Hunter, Mitchell C; Koide, Roger T; Mortensen, David A; Smith, Richard G; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Spokas, Kurt A; Yannarell, Anthony C; Jordan, Nicholas R

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM) is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture, and no-tillage. SFZM creates distinct functional zones within crop row and inter-row spaces. By incorporating decimeter-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, SFZM attempts to foster greater soil biodiversity and integrate complementary soil processes at the sub-field level. Such integration maximizes soil services by creating zones of 'active turnover', optimized for crop growth and yield (provisioning services); and adjacent zones of 'soil building', that promote soil structure development, carbon storage, and moisture regulation (regulating and supporting services). These zones allow SFZM to secure existing agricultural productivity while avoiding or minimizing trade-offs with soil ecosystem services. Moreover, the specific properties of SFZM may enable sustainable increases in provisioning services via temporal intensification (expanding the portion of the year during which harvestable crops are grown). We present a conceptual model of 'virtuous cycles', illustrating how increases in crop yields within SFZM systems could create self-reinforcing feedback processes with desirable effects, including mitigation of trade-offs between yield maximization and soil ecosystem services. Through the creation of functionally distinct but interacting zones, SFZM may provide a vehicle for optimizing the delivery of multiple goods and services in

  18. Soil Functional Zone Management: A Vehicle for Enhancing Production and Soil Ecosystem Services in Row-Crop Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alwyn; Kane, Daniel A.; Ewing, Patrick M.; Atwood, Lesley W.; Jilling, Andrea; Li, Meng; Lou, Yi; Davis, Adam S.; Grandy, A. Stuart; Huerd, Sheri C.; Hunter, Mitchell C.; Koide, Roger T.; Mortensen, David A.; Smith, Richard G.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Spokas, Kurt A.; Yannarell, Anthony C.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM) is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture, and no-tillage. SFZM creates distinct functional zones within crop row and inter-row spaces. By incorporating decimeter-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, SFZM attempts to foster greater soil biodiversity and integrate complementary soil processes at the sub-field level. Such integration maximizes soil services by creating zones of ‘active turnover’, optimized for crop growth and yield (provisioning services); and adjacent zones of ‘soil building’, that promote soil structure development, carbon storage, and moisture regulation (regulating and supporting services). These zones allow SFZM to secure existing agricultural productivity while avoiding or minimizing trade-offs with soil ecosystem services. Moreover, the specific properties of SFZM may enable sustainable increases in provisioning services via temporal intensification (expanding the portion of the year during which harvestable crops are grown). We present a conceptual model of ‘virtuous cycles’, illustrating how increases in crop yields within SFZM systems could create self-reinforcing feedback processes with desirable effects, including mitigation of trade-offs between yield maximization and soil ecosystem services. Through the creation of functionally distinct but interacting zones, SFZM may provide a vehicle for optimizing the delivery of multiple goods and services

  19. 75 FR 32855 - Safety Zone; Pierce County, WA, Department of Emergency Management, Regional Water Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Management, Regional Water Exercise AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Pierce County, Washington, Department of Emergency Management is sponsoring a Regional Water Rescue... County, Washington, Department of Emergency Management is sponsoring a Regional Water Rescue Exercise...

  20. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  1. Main Economic Policies in order to Manage an Optimum Accession of Romania to the Euro Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian ANGHEL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analysing several options concerning the economic policies Romania should adopt in the following years, in order to attenuate the long term vulnerabilities within the process of joining to the Euro zone, with the observation that, the economic policies proposed in the current work were selected mainly based on the decisive factors for the real equilibrium exchange rate in Romania. Fulfilling the nominal criteria for adhesion can prove itself to be more facile but not able to ensure, on a long term and in a sustainable manner, reaching an optimum for the economy that adheres irreversibly to the Euro zone. It is important to analyze how the competitiveness of other economies evolved prior and after joining the Euro zone, from the perspective of identifying some economic policies meant to ensure the accomplishment of the real convergence criteria to the Euro zone for Romania’s case, on a long term. The economic policies proposed by the authors try to help covering the greatest delays for Romania in comparison with other states in the Euro zone and which, unsolved, can create in time significant vulnerabilities on a long term, having a negative impact for many generations of Romanians from now on.

  2. Proposed Method for Disaggregation of Secondary Data: The Model for External Reliance of Localities in the Coastal Management Zone (MERLIN-CMZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Model for External Reliance of Localities In (MERLIN) Coastal Management Zones is a proposed solution to allow scaling of variables to smaller, nested geographies. Utilizing a Principal Components Analysis and data normalization techniques, smaller scale trends are linked to ...

  3. VT New Market Tax Credit - Hot Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EconOther_NMTC layer delineates New Market Tax Credit (NMTC) "hot zones" and qualified counties and census tracts. This dataset is designed to...

  4. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: Potential for improved water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe Vidon; Craig Allan; Douglas Burns; Tim P. Duval; Noel Gurwick; Shreeram Inamdar; Richard Lowrance; Judy Okay; Durelle Scott; Stephen Sebestyen

    2010-01-01

    Biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. These heterogeneous processes have recently been conceptualized as "hot spots and moments" of retention, degradation, or production. Nevertheless, studies investigating...

  5. 23 CFR 630.1106 - Policy and procedures for work zone safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intrusion of motorized traffic into the work space and other potentially hazardous areas in the work zone... to work activities; Other Traffic Control Measures including uniformed law enforcement officers to... standards and/or guidance contained in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) and the...

  6. Groundwater management in coastal zones and on islands in crystalline bedrock areas of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Ekström, Linda Louise; Ljungkvist, Andreas; Granberg, Maria; Merisalu, Johanna; Pokorny, Sebastian; Barthel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater problems in coastal regions are usually not associated with the sparsely populated shores of water-rich Scandinavia. However, the combination of geology and the specific conditions of water usage create challenges even there. Along the Swedish coast, much of the groundwater occurs in fractured bedrock or in relatively small, shallow, and isolated quaternary sedimentary formations. Those aquifers cannot provide water to larger permanent settlements and are thus neither useful for the public water supply nor have previously received much attention from water authorities or researchers. However, of the 450,000 private wells in Sweden, many are located in coastal areas or on islands, creating pressure on groundwater resources in summer months as periods with low or no natural groundwater recharge. In view of the increasing water demand, as well as the awareness of environmental impacts and climate change, Swedish municipalities now recognize groundwater usage in coastal areas is a major concern. Here, we present the results of an investigation on the "Koster" archipelago which forms a microcosm of coastal zone groundwater problems in Sweden. Koster's geology is dominated by fractured, crystalline bedrock with occasional shallow quaternary deposits in between. With around 300 permanent residents, and up to 6,000 summer guests in peak holiday season, the existing water supply based on 800 private wells is at its limit. Water availability forms an obstacle to future development and the current mode of operation is unsustainable. Therefore, the municipality must decide how to secure future water supply which involves complex legal problems, as well as social, cultural, economic, hydrogeological, and environmental questions. As there are no observation wells on the islands, we used approximately 220 of the 800 wells (65% dug and shallow, 35% drilled and up to 120m deep) for our monitoring. Additionally, water samples were collected by property owners on four

  7. Aspen Delineation - Sequoia National Forest [ds378

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SEQUOIA_NF_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Cannell Meadows Ranger...

  8. Defining Hydrophytes for Wetland Identification and Delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Engineers); Norman Melvin and Michelle Schuman (U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service); Mary Butterwick and Bill...Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual (Environmental Laboratory 1987) “Large plants (macrophytes), such as aquatic mosses , liverworts

  9. Aspen Delineation - Plumas National Forest [ds374

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (PLUMAS_NF_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Plumas National Forest,...

  10. Aspen Delineation - Lassen National Forest [ds372

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (LASSEN_NF_EAGLELAKE_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the in the Eagle...

  11. Aspen Delineation - Sierra State Parks [ds380

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SIERRA_SP_PTS) collected in aspen stands on lands administered by the...

  12. Delineating organs at risk in radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Ausili Cèfaro, Giampiero; Perez, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an invaluable guide to the delineation of organs at risk of toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy. It details the radiological anatomy of organs at risk as seen on typical radiotherapy planning CT scans.

  13. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 41-09-39 in the S-SX Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Wilson, Teresa C.; Wagnon, Kenneth B.; Williams, Bruce A.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 5.15. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole 41-09-39 installed adjacent to tank SX-109.

  14. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Slant Borehole SX-108 in the S-SX Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Wilson, Teresa C.; Wagnon, Kenneth B.; Williams, Bruce A.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.17. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is the fourth in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from a slant borehole installed beneath tank SX-108 (or simply SX-108 slant borehole).

  15. Technical efficiency and management factors in plantain production in humid forest zone of Nigeria: A simulation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DO Awotide

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigated the effect of changing some management factors on technical efficiency in plantain production with a view to understanding the functional relationship between technical efficiency and agricultural productivity. Data were r collected from a cross-sectional survey of two local government areas and six villages in Ibadan area of Oyo State in the humid forest zone of Nigeria. Stochastic frontier and multiple regression models were fitted and a simulation analysis was carried out on the management levels of plantain farmers. The results revealed that educational level alone did not significantly influence technical efficiency but its combination with extension assistance significantly influenced technical efficiency in the study area. Periodic extension assistance received significantly influenced technical efficiency.

  16. Determination of soil erosion and sedimentation affected by buffer zones and biochar amendment as best management practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khademalrasoul, Ataalah

    Sustainable management is one of the main challenges in modern agriculture. Soil erosion as one form of soil degradation is a threat against the soil sustainability. The main objective of my PhD study was to investigate the effectiveness of biochar as a non-structural best management practice (BMP......) to improve soil structural properties in order to lowering the erodibility of the soil. A second objective was to parameterize a spatially distributed erosion model (WaTEM, Water and Tillage Erosion Model) for planning of the placement of buffer zones (a structural BMP) to reduce sediment transport to water...... of rainfall-runoff simulations using round flumes in the laboratory indicated the positive effects of biochar amendment to mitigate runoff and soil erosion. Moreover laser scanning technique confirmed the positive effects of biochar lumps to enhance the soil surface roughness thereby reduce the runoff...

  17. Erroneous Zones in Human-centered Library Management%图书馆人性化管理的误区

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁吉文

    2011-01-01

    Human-centered management stresses respect for human nature and fits in with modern library management.However,in practice there are erroneous zones.This paper explores them from the perspectives of readers,librarians and library.%人性化管理强调对人性的尊重,它符合现代图书馆的管理要求,但实践中,一些图书馆在运用人性化管理手段时,存在一些认识误区,给图书馆发展带来障碍。该文从读者、馆员、图书馆三个角度对人性化管理的一些认识误区进行探讨。

  18. Engineered Hyporheic Zones as Novel Water Quality Best Management Practice: Flow and Contaminant Attenuation in Constructed Stream Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, S.; McCray, J. E.; Higgins, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    The hyporheic zone is a hotspot for biogeochemical processing that can attenuate a variety of nonpoint source contaminants in streamwater. However, hyporheic zones in urban and agricultural streams are often degraded and poorly connected with surface water. In order to increase hyporheic exchange and improve water quality, we introduced engineered streambeds as a stormwater and restoration best management practice. Modifications to streambed hydraulic conductivity and reactivity are termed Biohydrochemical Enhancement structures for Streamwater Treatment (BEST). BEST are subsurface modules that utilize low- and high-permeability sediments to drive efficient hyporheic exchange, and reactive geomedia to increase reaction rates within the hyporheic zone. This work presents the first physical performance data of BEST modules at the pilot scale. BEST modules were installed in a constructed stream facility at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, CO. This facility features two 15m artificial streams, which included an all sand control condition alongside the BEST test condition. Streams were continuously operated at a discharge of 1 L/s using recycled water. Time-lapse electrical resistivity surveys demonstrated that BEST modules provided substantially greater hyporheic exchange than the control condition. Water quality samples at the hyporheic and reach scales also revealed greater attenuation of nitrogen, coliforms, and select metals and trace organics by BEST modules relative to the control condition. These experimental results were also compared to previous numerical model simulations to evaluate model accuracy. Together, these results show that BEST may be an effective best management practice for improving streamwater quality in urban and agricultural settings.

  19. Need for setback lines in coastal zone management: A meteorological point of view

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    of property has been staggering. Monetary losses run into crores and are thus prohibitive. Therefore, coastal managers have to consider whether it is economically viable to rebuild as before, whether to abandon the impacted coast and move inland, or, whether...

  20. bioeconomics of managing the spread of exotic pest species with barrier zones

    OpenAIRE

    Sharov, A. A.; Liebhold, A M

    1998-01-01

    Exotic pests are serious threats to North American ecosystems; thus, economic analysis of decisions about eradication, stopping, or slowing their spread may be critical to ecosystem management. We present a model to analyze costs and benefits of altering the spread rates of invading organisms. The target rate of population expansion (which may be positive or negative) is considered as a control function, and the present value of net benefits from managing population spread is the criterion th...

  1. A quantitative method for zoning of protected areas and its spatial ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen Sabatini, María; Verdiell, Adriana; Rodríguez Iglesias, Ricardo M; Vidal, Marta

    2007-04-01

    Zoning is a key prescriptive tool for administration and management of protected areas. However, the lack of zoning is common for most protected areas in developing countries and, as a consequence, many protected areas are not effective in achieving the goals for which they were created. In this work, we introduce a quantitative method to expeditiously zone protected areas and we evaluate its ecological implications on hypothetical zoning cases. A real-world application is reported for the Talampaya National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Argentina. Our method is a modification of the zoning forest model developed by Bos [Bos, J., 1993. Zoning in forest management: a quadratic assignment problem solved by simulated annealing. Journal of Environmental Management 37, 127-145.]. Main innovations involve a quadratic function of distance between land units, non-reciprocal weights for adjacent land uses (mathematically represented by a non-symmetric matrix), and the possibility of imposing a connectivity constraint. Due to its intrinsic spatial dimension, the zoning problem belongs to the NP-hard class, i.e. a solution can only be obtained in non-polynomial time [Nemhausser, G., Wolsey, L., 1988. Integer and Combinatorial Optimization. John Wiley, New York.]. For that purpose, we applied a simulated annealing heuristic implemented as a FORTRAN language routine. Our innovations were effective in achieving zoning designs more compatible with biological diversity protection. The quadratic distance term facilitated the delineation of core zones for elements of significance; the connectivity constraint minimized fragmentation; non-reciprocal land use weightings contributed to better representing management decisions, and influenced mainly the edge and shape of zones. This quantitative method can assist the zoning process within protected areas by offering many zonation scheme alternatives with minimum cost, time and effort. This ability provides a new tool to

  2. Delimitation and Classified Planning Management of Functional Renovation Zone: Experience of and Discussion on Shenzhen’s Practice of Urban Renewal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao; Wenxuan; Tong; De; Liu; Qing; Feng; Changchun

    2016-01-01

    Urban renewal is one of the important issues of urban development in China.Along with its development in the contemporary time,China has seen considerable achievements and problems as well in urban renewal.Taking into account that Shenzhen has carried out plenty of explorations on urban planning renewal,this paper takes it as an example to firstly analyze the plights of its urban renewal planning,the shortcomings of its urban renewal projects,and the advantages of functional renovation zones to manifest the necessity of the delimitation and classified planning management of functional renovation zone in urban renewal.It then summarizes the experience of its urban renewal unit planning in terms of the methods of zoning and implementation,and finally discusses the conceptual connotations of functional renovation zone,as well as the logic and characteristics of renovations of its delimitation and classified planning management,in hope of providing other Chinese cities with some references.

  3. Delineation of Fractured Aquifer Using Numerical Analysis (Factor of Resistivity Data in a Granite Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolland Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In hard rock terrain, fractured aquifers comprise the major source of groundwater availability where the phreatic aquifer is desaturated. Identification of fracture zones in hard rock terrain and potential groundwater source delineation had been a perennial problem in hydrology. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the study over a small watershed area, in a granite terrain, wherein an attempt was made to delineate and map the fractured aquifer using numerical (factor analysis of the conventional vertical electrical sounding data, which was obscure in curve matching technique. This numerical approach in concatenation with resistivity imaging or other techniques would prove to be an effective tool in groundwater exploration.

  4. Forest Delineation Based on Airborne LIDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Pfeifer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The delineation of forested areas is a critical task, because the resulting maps are a fundamental input for a broad field of applications and users. Different national and international forest definitions are available for manual or automatic delineation, but unfortunately most definitions lack precise geometrical descriptions for the different criteria. A mandatory criterion in forest definitions is the criterion of crown coverage (CC, which defines the proportion of the forest floor covered by the vertical projection of the tree crowns. For loosely stocked areas, this criterion is especially critical, because the size and shape of the reference area for calculating CC is not clearly defined in most definitions. Thus current forest delineations differ and tend to be non-comparable because of different settings for checking the criterion of CC in the delineation process. This paper evaluates a new approach for the automatic delineation of forested areas, based on airborne laser scanning (ALS data with a clearly defined method for calculating CC. The new approach, the ‘tree triples’ method, is based on defining CC as a relation between the sum of the crown areas of three neighboring trees and the area of their convex hull. The approach is applied and analyzed for two study areas in Tyrol, Austria. The selected areas show a loosely stocked forest at the upper timberline and a fragmented forest on the hillside. The fully automatic method presented for delineating forested areas from ALS data shows promising results with an overall accuracy of 96%, and provides a beneficial tool for operational applications.

  5. Establishing physiographic provinces for an integrative approach of the coastal zone management - The case of Rhodes Island, Aegean Sea, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Vasileios; Angelos Hatiris, Georgios; Sioulas, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The coastal zone is a dynamic natural system affected by terrestrial and marine processes as well as human intervention. The sediments derived by the land and supplied by the adjacent catchment are reworked and distributed according to the prevailing hydrodynamic regime. Based on inland and coastal physiography of Rhodes Island, six (6) main Physiographic Provinces were identified, which incorporate 56 main drainage basins and 168 interfluves. Moreover, the variety of coastal types was mapped and the total length of the island's coastline ( 285 km) was measured by using geospatial tools (ArcGIS and Google Earth). The coastline is comprised of depositional sandy beaches (44.5%), rocky coasts (47%) and coasts altered from anthropogenic constructions (8.5%). The Physiographic Provinces were defined in order to facilitate an Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) scheme for Rhodes Island and also adaptation measures. Overexploitation of the island's natural coastal environment by the tourism industry, mainly in the northern and northeastern parts of the island, left a series of adverse effects on the coastal area, such as erosion of beaches, water and energy overconsumption and land degradation.

  6. 关于煤矿火区封闭与管理的探讨%Investigate on Fire Zone Sealing and Management in Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任振宇

    2013-01-01

    In our country every year because of fire accidents make many of the mining area are closed,and thus lead to a large number of resources are frozen.The author summarize site management experience for many years,discuss fire zone sealing,fire zone management and closed fire zone unsealed,emphasize the programmatic role of the "coal mine safety regulations"and "mine sealing fire preventing and extinguishing specification"in fire zone management and have a certain reference value for management personnel of the mine fire zone.%在我国每年都会因为火灾事故而使得许多采区被封闭,因而也导致大量资源被冻结。作者总结多年的现场管理经验,对火区封闭、火区管理及封闭火区的启封进行了论述,强调了在火区管理中《煤矿安全规程》及《矿井密闭防灭火规范》的纲领性作用,对矿井现场火区的管理人员均有一定的参考价值。

  7. Delineation of eco—geographic regional system of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUShaohong; YANGOinye; ZHENGDu

    2003-01-01

    Eco-geographic regionalization has been one of the most important topics in China's regionalization researches since the end of the 20th century. It is a major ecosystem in geographic zonality. A hierarchical system, which is formed by division or combination of natural features based on geographic relativity and comparison of major ecosystem factors (including biological and non-biological) and geographic zonality, is called eco-geographic regional system. This paper introduces process of China's regionalization development. The first level unit, temperature zone, is delineated with main criteria of temperature. The second level unit, humidity region, is based on criteria of water/moisture states. The third level unit, natural region, is divided according to medium geomorphologic units. Vegetation types and soils are applied as supplementary criteria to indicate temperature and water/moisture states. Mapping process from qualitative to quantitative and China's eco-geographic regional system are also explained in this paper.

  8. Management approaches to integrated solid waste in industrialized zones in Jordan: a case of Zarqa City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrayyan, Bassam; Hamdi, Moshrik R

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to recognize the difficulties experienced in managing waste and to understand the reasons for those difficulties, especially in developing countries such as Jordan. Zarqa is a Governorate located in central Jordan, which has 2874 registered industries, making up more than 52% of the total industries in the country. Zarqa Governorate suffers from serious solid waste problems. These problems arise from an absence of adequate policies, facilitating legislation, and an environmentally enthused public, which therefore have a negative impact on the environment and health. Solid waste generation in Zarqa Governorate has increased exponentially and has polluted natural resources and the environment. A significant change in municipal solid waste generation was evident between the years 1994 and 2000. The Zarqa Governorate generated 482 tons/day in 2002 with a per capita rate of 0.44 kg/cap-day [Consulting Engineers, 2002, Feasibility study for the treatment of industrial wastewater in Zarqa Governorate. A project funded by METAP and Zarqa Chamber of Industry. Unpublished report]. This manuscript assesses the current operational and management practices of solid waste in the Zarqa Governorate; and evaluates the associated issues of solid waste collection, storage, transport, disposal and recycling in developing countries. The lack of techniques, financial funds and awareness among public and private sectors form an obstacle for achieving a successful environmental program. Several options are proposed to address management goals. Although Jordan became the first country in the Middle East to adopt a national environmental strategy; waste disposal is still largely uncontrolled and large quantities of waste go uncollected. Ensuring proper management of solid wastes, enforcing regulations, and implementing proper environmental awareness programs that will enhance the public understanding and achieve greater efficiency, are the findings of this study.

  9. The morphology and structure of the Hannibal Bank fisheries management zone, Pacific Panama using acoustic seabed mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sarah; Guzman, Hector M; Bates, Richard

    2013-12-01

    The Hannibal Bank sits within the Coiba UNESCO World Heritage Site in Pacific Panama and is also a fisheries management zone. Despite the protected status of the area and the importance of the Bank for commercial fish species such as snapper and tuna, the seamount has received no detailed survey except some collection of organisms. This study mapped the major topographic features and complexity of the Hannibal Bank seamount using acoustic remote sensing. A survey area of around 125 km2 was defined using existing charts and side-scan sonar data were collected during July 2008. A bathymetric output was imported to ArcGIS where a digital bathymetric model and slope map were created. The Benthic Terrain Modeler (BTM) extension for ArcGIS was used to calculate bathymetric position index and rugosity, and used to create a map of zones representing the various seabed morphology zones. The Hannibal bank is an elongated, triangular guyot (flat topped seamount), which ranges in depth from 53m to 416m, covers an area of 76 km2 and is 14.4 km long and 7.1 km wide. Hannibal bank is composed of steep slopes, more gentle slopes, top of the seamount, crests (elevated ridges at the top of the pinnacles), rugose areas (on crests, top of seamount and slope), gullies and pinnacles. The bank is asymmetric in nature with the Northerly side having a relatively gentle slope with gullies across the surface compared to the SouthWest side which is far steeper and more rugose. There are two pinnacles to the North and South East of the bank that range in depth from 180 to 333 m. Rocky substrate makes up 22.6 km2 of the bank and sediment 37.8 km2. The bank and its steeply sided, rugose areas and pinnacles provide upright structures which can disrupt and topographically enhance currents, increasing productivity. The rugose areas of Hannibal Bank should be primary targets for further research efforts as they may contain corals and their rugosity indicates that these should be some of the highest

  10. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz-Sørensen, Molly; Vella, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus' revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus' within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2), which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41) and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p < 0.001) with an estimated effective population size of 130 individuals. Results of spatially explicit Bayesian genetic cluster analysis detected two geographically distinct subpopulations within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus' within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus' within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone

  11. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae, within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Buchholz-Sørensen

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus' revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus' within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2, which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41 and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p < 0.001 with an estimated effective population size of 130 individuals. Results of spatially explicit Bayesian genetic cluster analysis detected two geographically distinct subpopulations within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus' within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus' within Malta's Fisheries

  12. Application of Education Information Management Support Tools in the Promotion of Teaching/Learning and Management of Students' Performance in Federal Universities in the South-South Zone of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwuo, S. O.; Enefaa, Bestman Briggs Anthonia

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the application of education information management support tools in the promotion of teaching/learning and management of students' performance in federal universities in the South-South zone of Nigeria. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The…

  13. Decomposition of Phragmites australis rhizomes in artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhen; Cui, Baoshan; Zhang, Yongtao

    2015-09-01

    Rhizomes are essential organs for growth and expansion of Phragmites australis. They function as an important source of organic matter and as a nutrient source, especially in the artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) of shallow lakes. In this study, decomposition experiments on 1- to 6-year-old P. australis rhizomes were conducted in the ALWTZ of Lake Baiyangdian to evaluate the contribution of the rhizomes to organic matter accumulation and nutrient release. Mass loss and changes in nutrient content were measured after 3, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days. The decomposition process was modeled with a composite exponential model. The Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors. A multiple stepwise regression model was utilized to determine the dominant factors that affect mass loss. Results showed that the decomposition rates in water were significantly higher than those in soil for 1- to 6-year-old rhizomes. However, the sequence of decomposition rates was identical in both water and soil. Significant relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors were observed at a later stage, and P-related factors proved to have a more significant impact than N-related factors on mass loss. According to multiple stepwise models, the C/P ratio was found to be the dominant factor affecting the mass loss in water, and the C/N and C/P ratios were the main factors affecting the mass loss in soil. The combined effects of harvesting, ditch broadening, and control of water depth should be considered for lake administrators.

  14. Essential trauma management training: addressing service delivery needs in active conflict zones in eastern Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Matthew G

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Access to governmental and international nongovernmental sources of health care within eastern Myanmar's conflict regions is virtually nonexistent. Historically, under these circumstances effective care for the victims of trauma, particularly landmine injuries, has been severely deficient. Recognizing this, community-based organizations (CBOs providing health care in these regions sought to scale up the capacity of indigenous health workers to provide trauma care. Case description The Trauma Management Program (TMP was developed by CBOs in cooperation with a United States-based health care NGO. The goal of the TMP is to improve the capacity of local health workers to deliver effective trauma care. From 2000 to the present, international and local health care educators have conducted regular workshops to train indigenous health workers in the management of landmine injuries, penetrating and blunt trauma, shock, wound and infection care, and orthopedics. Health workers have been regularly resupplied with the surgical instruments, supplies and medications needed to provide the care learnt through TMP training workshops. Discussion and Evaluation Since 2000, approximately 300 health workers have received training through the TMP, as part of a CBO-run health system providing care for approximately 250 000 internally displaced persons (IDPs and war-affected residents. Based on interviews with health workers, trauma registry inputs and photo/video documentation, protocols and procedures taught during training workshops have been implemented effectively in the field. Between June 2005 and June 2007, more than 200 patients were recorded in the trauma patient registry. The majority were victims of weapons-related trauma. Conclusion This report illustrates a method to increase the capacity of indigenous health workers to manage traumatic injuries. These health workers are able to provide trauma care for otherwise inaccessible

  15. Assessment of Streamside Management Zones for Conserving Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities Following Timber Harvest in Eastern Kentucky Headwater Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K. Adkins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Headwater streams generally comprise the majority of stream area in a watershed and can have a strong influence on downstream food webs. Our objective was to determine the effect of altering streamside management zone (SMZ configurations on headwater aquatic insect communities. Timber harvests were implemented within six watersheds in eastern Kentucky. The SMZ configurations varied in width, canopy retention and best management practice (BMP utilization at the watershed scale. Benthic macroinvertebrate samples collected one year before and four years after harvest indicated few differences among treatments, although post-treatment abundance was elevated in some of the treatment streams relative to the unharvested controls. Jaccard index values were similar across SMZ treatments after logging, indicating strong community overlap. These findings suggest that stream invertebrate communities did respond to the timber harvest, though not negatively. Results also suggest that SMZ criteria for aquatic habitats in steeply sloping topography, including at least 50 percent canopy retention and widths of at least 16.8 m, appear to be adequate for protecting benthic macroinvertebrate communities from logging impacts.

  16. Green reconstruction of the tsunami-affected areas in India using the integrated coastal zone management concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonak, Sangeeta; Pangam, Prajwala; Giriyan, Asha

    2008-10-01

    A tsunami, triggered by a massive undersea earthquake off Sumatra in Indonesia, greatly devastated the lives, property and infrastructure of coastal communities in the coastal states of India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Thailand. This event attracted the attention of environmental managers at all levels, local, national, regional and global. It also shifted the focus from the impact of human activities on the environment to the impacts of natural hazards. Recovery/reconstruction of these areas is highly challenging. A clear understanding of the complex dynamics of the coast and the types of challenges faced by the several stakeholders of the coast is required. Issues such as sustainability, equity and community participation assume importance. The concept of ICZM (integrated coastal zone management) has been effectively used in most parts of the world. This concept emphasizes the holistic assessment of the coast and a multidisciplinary analysis using participatory processes. It integrates anthropocentric and eco-centric approaches. This paper documents several issues involved in the recovery of tsunami-affected areas and recommends the application of the ICZM concept to the reconstruction efforts.

  17. Integrative System of Management Categories and Function Zones of Protected Areas%保护地管理类别和功能分区结合体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏友照; 解焱; MACKINNON John

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of establishing management category system and function zonation system of protected areas. It proposed a new management category system (including four categories, strict protected category, habitat/species management category, nature park category, and multifunctional category, simplified from the system of six categories established by IUCN), a new function zonation system (including 5+1 zones, closed zone, control zone, tourist zone, resource use zone, high-intensity use zone, and external buffer zone, revised from the three zones represented by the Man and Biosphere Reserve System) for protected areas, and an innovative application of combining the two systems together. Combining the proposed management category system and function zonation system together will allow developing specific management objectives for each different management categories and different function zones, and therefore it would provide flexible options for management of protected areas with multiple functions. This system would also allow establishing a set of management standards to regulate protected areas' management practices, and provide evaluation criteria for supervision. In the end, the paper also described the advantages of the integrative system of management categories and the function zones compared with IUCN's management category system of protected areas, and how the system can address some key problems existing in the management of protected areas. Fig 1, Tab 4, Ref 24%讨论了对保护地进行管理分类和功能分区的必要性,提出了新的保护地管理分类方法(由IUCN制定的6类简化为4类:严格保护类、栖息地/物种管理类、自然公园类和多用途类)和功能分区方法(由人与生物圈保护区体系的三区法修改为5+1区:封闭区、控制区、旅游区、资源利用区、高强度使用区和外围缓冲区),并创新性地将管理类别和功能分区结合在一起运用,针对不同

  18. Using Nonlinear Dynamics for Environmental Management of the Vadose Zone and Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris

    2003-03-27

    The need to improve characterization and prediction methods for flow and transport in partially saturated and saturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock has long been recognized. Such improvement would be specifically welcomed in the fields of environmental management, containment and remediation of contaminated sites. Until recently, flow and transport processes in heterogeneous soils and fractured rock (with oscillating irregularities) were assumed to be random and were analyzed using conventional stochastic and deterministic methods. In this presentation, I will present the results of laboratory and field investigations of flow and transport in unsaturated soils and fractured rock, applying the methods of nonlinear dynamics and deterministic chaos. I will discuss using these methods for the development of improved characterization and prediction methods as well as for the development of remediation technologies for contaminated soils and groundwater.

  19. Managing dredged material in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Marta; Boniecka, Helena

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the legal and practical recommendations for the management of dredged material in the riparian countries of the Baltic Sea. The recommendations are contained in three conventions: LC, 2000. London Convention (1972), Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea area (Helsinki Convention) (1992), the OSPAR Convention (1972). Different approaches to evaluating the contamination level of dredge spoils, used by the Baltic Sea riparian countries, have been characterized. The differences in those approaches manifest themselves by various concentration limits for contaminants, which form a basis for the classification of dredged material as either contaminated or non-contaminated, and thus determine how the spoils will be processed further. Based on the collected information about the concentration limits for contaminants of surface sediments in the coastal ports, it was pointed out that it is necessary to conduct routine monitoring of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, tributyltin, and petroleum hydrocarbons in dredged sediments in all the Baltic Sea states. On the other hand, the monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, organochlorine, and organophosphoric pesticides is only needed in locations that are suspected of historical or being the local contamination sources. Due to significant economic limitations of chemical determinations, it is important to consider a simple screening test of sediment that would say whether sediment may be "contaminated" and qualifies for more detailed and costly chemical research. It may be typical basic physical-chemical analysis of sediments or ecotoxicological classification of sediments.Despite environmentally friendly tendencies, the practical application of dredged material within the Baltic Sea area is very limited. Dredged material is most frequently stored at the specifically designated sites. From among the practical uses of

  20. An automatic, stagnation point based algorithm for the delineation of Wellhead Protection Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea; di Molfetta, Antonio

    2008-07-01

    Time-related capture areas are usually delineated using the backward particle tracking method, releasing circles of equally spaced particles around each well. In this way, an accurate delineation often requires both a very high number of particles and a manual capture zone encirclement. The aim of this work was to propose an Automatic Protection Area (APA) delineation algorithm, which can be coupled with any model of flow and particle tracking. The computational time is here reduced, thanks to the use of a limited number of nonequally spaced particles. The particle starting positions are determined coupling forward particle tracking from the stagnation point, and backward particle tracking from the pumping well. The pathlines are postprocessed for a completely automatic delineation of closed perimeters of time-related capture zones. The APA algorithm was tested for a two-dimensional geometry, in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous aquifers, steady state flow conditions, single and multiple wells. Results show that the APA algorithm is robust and able to automatically and accurately reconstruct protection areas with a very small number of particles, also in complex scenarios.

  1. Influence of aquifer heterogeneity on karst hydraulics and catchment delineation employing distributive modeling approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oehlmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to their heterogeneous nature, karst aquifers pose a major challenge for hydrogeological investigations. Important procedures like the delineation of catchment areas for springs are hindered by the unknown locations and hydraulic properties of highly conductive karstic zones. In this work numerical modeling was employed as a tool in delineating catchment areas of several springs within a karst area in southwestern Germany. For this purpose, different distributive modeling approaches were implemented in the Finite Element simulation software Comsol Multiphysics®. The investigation focuses on the question to which degree the effect of karstification has to be taken into account for accurately simulating the hydraulic head distribution and the observed spring discharges. The results reveal that the representation of heterogeneities has a large influence on the delineation of the catchment areas. Not only the location of highly conductive elements but also their geometries play a major role for the resulting hydraulic head distribution and thus for catchment area delineation. The size distribution of the karst conduits derived from the numerical models agrees with knowledge from karst genesis. It was thus shown that numerical modeling is a useful tool for catchment delineation in karst aquifers based on results from different field observations.

  2. Challenges and lessons learned in establishing a critical zone observatory in an intensively managed rural landscape of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, D.; Tripathi, S.; Harsha, K. S.; Adla, S.; Dash, S. K.; Chander, Y.; Mahajan, P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Sen, I. S.; Sinha, R.

    2016-12-01

    The study of critical earth system processes, particularly in densely populated regions in the developing world, entails the additional challenges of incorporating anthropogenic forcing and the economic constraints of low-cost technology. The criteria for site selection of Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) networks (crucial for the advancement of hydrological research in data scarce regions) generally give weightage to pristine, undisturbed regions to study isolated critical zone processes. This study details the factors involved and challenges faced in establishing a CZO in the Pandu River basin (Uttar Pradesh, India). This region is representative of the fertile Ganga River Basin which produces 50% of India's food grain annually and is critical for the food security of about 40% of the Indian population. Moreover, Uttar Pradesh has the highest absolute population and population density among all Indian states, amongst the lowest GDP/capita, an average landholding size of 0.76 ha with 92% of operational farm-holdings categorized as small or marginal. The significant proportion of Indians disgruntled with the state of public sector corruption may transform into scepticism towards government projects such as ours, thereby constraining our options for secure site selection. Within the framework of hypothesis-experiment-learning feedback loops, this paper chronicles iterative field trials and their outcomes in establishing an intensively managed rural landscape CZO. The work includes a conscious effort to combine the strengths of low-cost sensor, data logging and data-transfer technology and citizen science approaches through participatory data collection guided by scientific, socio-economic, cultural, political and administrative considerations.

  3. Delineation, characterization, and classification of topographic eminences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Gaurav

    Topographic eminences are defined as upwardly rising, convex shaped topographic landforms that are noticeably distinct in their immediate surroundings. As opposed to everyday objects, the properties of a topographic eminence are dependent not only on how it is conceptualized, but is also intrinsically related to its spatial extent and its relative location in the landscape. In this thesis, a system for automated detection, delineation and characterization of topographic eminences based on an analysis of digital elevation models is proposed. Research has shown that conceptualization of eminences (and other landforms) is linked to the cultural and linguistic backgrounds of people. However, the perception of stimuli from our physical environment is not subject to cultural or linguistic bias. Hence, perceptually salient morphological and spatial properties of the natural landscape can form the basis for generically applicable detection and delineation of topographic eminences. Six principles of cognitive eminence modeling are introduced to develop the philosophical foundation of this research regarding eminence delineation and characterization. The first step in delineating eminences is to automatically detect their presence within digital elevation models. This is achieved by the use of quantitative geomorphometric parameters (e.g., elevation, slope and curvature) and qualitative geomorphometric features (e.g., peaks, passes, pits, ridgelines, and valley lines). The process of eminence delineation follows that of eminence detection. It is posited that eminences may be perceived either as monolithic terrain objects, or as composites of morphological parts (e.g., top, bottom, slope). Individual eminences may also simultaneously be conceived as comprising larger, higher order eminence complexes (e.g., mountain ranges). Multiple algorithms are presented for the delineation of simple and complex eminences, and the morphological parts of eminences. The proposed eminence

  4. Plastic and Glass Greenhouses Detection and Delineation from WORLDVIEW-2 Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc-San, D.; Sonmez, N. K.

    2016-06-01

    Greenhouse detection using remote sensing technologies is an important research area for yield estimation, sustainable development, urban and rural planning and management. An approach was developed in this study for the detection and delineation of greenhouse areas from high resolution satellite imagery. Initially, the candidate greenhouse patches were detected using supervised classification techniques. For this purpose, Maximum Likelihood (ML), Random Forest (RF), and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classification techniques were applied and compared. Then, sieve filter and morphological operations were performed for improving the classification results. Finally, the obtained candidate plastic and glass greenhouse areas were delineated using boundary tracing and Douglas Peucker line simplification algorithms. The proposed approach was implemented in the Kumluca district of Antalya, Turkey utilizing pan-sharpened WorldView-2 satellite imageries. Kumluca is the prominent district of Antalya with greenhouse cultivation and includes both plastic and glass greenhouses intensively. When the greenhouse classification results were analysed, it can be stated that the SVM classification provides most accurate results and RF classification follows this. The SVM classification overall accuracy was obtained as 90.28%. When the greenhouse boundary delineation results were considered, the plastic greenhouses were delineated with 92.11% accuracy, while glass greenhouses were delineated with 80.67% accuracy. The obtained results indicate that, generally plastic and glass greenhouses can be detected and delineated successfully from WorldView-2 satellite imagery.

  5. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters as of June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  6. Recent advances in probabilistic species pool delineations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Nikolaus Karger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A species pool is the set of species that could potentially colonize and establish within a community. It has been a commonly used concept in biogeography since the early days of MacArthur and Wilson’s work on Island Biogeography. Despite their simple and appealing definition, an operational application of species pools is bundled with a multitude of problems, which have often resulted in arbitrary decisions and workarounds when defining species pools. Two recently published papers address the operational problems of species pool delineations, and show ways of delineating them in a probabilistic fashion. In both papers, species pools were delineated using a process-based, mechanistical approach, which opens the door for a multitude of new applications in biogeography. Such applications include detecting the hidden signature of biotic interactions, disentangling the geographical structure of community assembly processes, and incorporating a temporal extent into species pools. Although similar in their conclusions, both ‘probabilistic approaches’ differ in their implementation and definitions. Here I give a brief overview of the differences and similarities of both approaches, and identify the challenges and advantages in their application.

  7. Overview about polluted sites management by mining activities in coastal-desertic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arturo; Letelier, María Victoria; Arenas, Franko; Cuevas, Jacqueline; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    In Chile the main mining operations as well as artisanal and small-scale mining (copper, gold and silver) are located in desert areas. A large number of abandoned polluted sites with heavy metals and metalloids (Hg, Pb, Cu, Sb, As) remain in coastal areas close to human centers. The aim of this work was to identify the best remediation alternatives considering the physic-chemical characteristics of the coastal-desertic soils. The concentrations of above mentioned pollutants as well as soil properties were determined. The results showed variable concentration of the pollutants, highest detected values were: Hg (46.5 mg kg-1), Pb (84.7 mg kg-1), Cu (283.0 mg kg-1), Sb (90 mg kg-1), As (2,691 mg kg-1). The soils characteristic were: high alkalinity with pH: 7.75-9.66, high electric conductivity (EC: 1.94-118 mScm-1), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR: 5.07-8.22) and low permeability of the soils. Coastal-desertic sites are potential sources of pollution for population, and for terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Exposure routes of pollution for the population include: primary, by incidental ingestion and inhalation of soil and dust and secondary, by the ingestion of marine sediments, sea food and seawater. Rehabilitation of coastal-desertic sites, by using techniques like soil washing in situ, chemical stabilization, or phytostabilization, is conditioned by physic-chemical properties of the soils. In these cases the recommendation for an appropriate management, remediation and use of the sites includes: 1) physic chemical characterization of the soils, 2) evaluation of environmental risk, 3) education of the population and 3) application of a remediation technology according to soil characteristic and the planned use of the sites. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was supported by the Regional Council of Antofagasta under Project Estudio de ingeniería para la remediación de sitios abandonados con potencial presencia de contaminantes identificados en la comuna de

  8. Fire occurrence zoning from local to global scale in the European Mediterranean basin: implications for multi-scale fire management and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutsias N

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes and evaluates a relatively new concept for fire occurrence zoning based on documented historical fire records. The proposed method creates continuous kernel density surfaces based on wildland fire ignition observations. Kernels have the advantage of directly producing density estimates that are not influenced by grid size or localization effects. Within this scheme, kernel density surfaces have been created and reclassified to construct fire occurrence zones at local to global scales in the Mediterranean Basin. Specifically, fire occurrence zones were created for the European scale (European Mediterranean Basin, national scale (Greece, regional scale (Peloponnese, Greece and local scale (Chalkidiki, Greece. To evaluate fire occurrence zones, we compared the observed with the expected distribution of the number of fires within these zones using a Monte Carlo randomization test, finding that these numbers were statistically different in all cases. The deviations observed from the expected distributions towards the high occurrence zone indicated their successful assessment and value. In this paper, we further discuss their potential role and use for multi-scale fire management and policy in a European context.

  9. Delineation of level III aquatic ecological function regionalization in the Taihu Lake basin%太湖流域水生态功能三级分区

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永年; 高俊峰; 陈垌烽; 许妍; 赵家虎

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic ecoregions have been used as spatial units for aquatic ecosystem management at the watershed scale. According to the protection requirements and characteristics of aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake basin, the main purpose and the principles of level III aquatic ecological function regionalization delineation in this basin were proposed. Then the indicators for delineating level III aquatic ecological function regionalization were established based on regionalization objective and principles. The indicators for delineating level Ili aquatic ecological function regionalization in the non-Taihu Lake area included benthic Shannon-Wiener diversity index, chlorophyll content, water habitat types and benthic indicator species types (including Ephemera, Bivalvia, snail, Chironomidae and Oligochaeta), and the regionalization indicators for delineating level III aquatic ecological function regionalization in the Taihu Lake area included benthic Shannon-Wiener diversity index, chlorophyll content, water flow velocity and benthic indicator species (including Oligochaeta, Chironomidae class, Bivalvia, snail and others) ratio. With the aid of GIS technology, the spatial distribution of the indicators for level III aquatic ecological function regionalization delineation was identified based on the raster data from 1106 aquatic ecoregion function units in the non-Taihu Lake area and 3568 aquatic ecoregion function units in the Taihu Lake area, respectively. Two-step spatial clustering analysis approach and manual-assisted method were used to delineate level III aquatic ecological function zones. Then the Taihu Lake basin was divided into 21 level III aquatic ecological function zones. Moreover, the characteristics of the 21 zones were summarized, showing that there were significant differences in the aspects such as topography, soil type, water quality and aquatic ecology. The results of quantitative comparison of aquatic life also indicated that the benthic dominant

  10. Managing the critical zone to obtain and sustain multiple benefits from working landscapes: The value of partnerships between LTAR and NSF CZO networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, K. A.; Seyfried, M. S.; Pierson, F. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone Observatories add value to earth system science and society by addressing research gaps to understand the critical zone, the surface skin of the earth that extends from the top of the tree canopy to the lower limits of the groundwater. The Critical Zone (CZ) sustains life on earth and provides food, shelter, forage, and fuel and other services to human well-being. This Zone is also where most of human activities take place and thus subject to change and degradation. Managing the critical zone to obtain and sustain these services will require initiatives, policies and incentives that maintain and enhance this zone. The Critical Zone Observatories are seeking to address major gaps in understanding how earth surface evolves over time and how it will respond to future changes. Many of these gaps in our understanding occur at the interface between disciplines, across space and deep time scales, and multiple dimensions. For example, the Reynolds Creek CZO seeks to understand the role of soil environmental variables such as soil moisture and depth that vary across complex terrain in governing soil carbon storage and turnover in a semi-arid environment. For this reason, soil samples are being collected to depth of bedrock. Other networks and agencies such as the new LTAR and NEON are quantifying soil carbon at more shallow depths that will likely capture the variability in near surface soil carbon that is more sensitive to management and climate changes but may underestimate the total stores of carbon on the landscape. The CZOs also provide a platform to conduct interdisciplinary to transdisciplinary science by integrating across geological, soil, hydrologic, ecological, and social sciences to understand the critical zone. The emergence of the CZO Network and the LTAR network brings the opportunity to standardize methods and test hypotheses and ask questions across broad environmental conditions and gradients that could not be achieved with single

  11. Manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mauritius

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    The distribution of manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the island nation Mauritius was delineated during cruise SK-35 of ORV Sagar Kanya in 1987. The areas surveyed included Saya de Malha and Nazareth Banks, the Cargados Carajos...

  12. Delineating Biophysical Environments of the Sunda Banda Seascape, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingshu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sunda Banda Seascape (SBS, located in the center of the Coral Triangle, is a global center of marine biodiversity and a conservation priority. We proposed the first biophysical environmental delineation of the SBS using globally available satellite remote sensing and model-assimilated data to categorize this area into unique and meaningful biophysical classes. Specifically, the SBS was partitioned into eight biophysical classes characterized by similar sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, currents, and salinity patterns. Areas within each class were expected to have similar habitat types and ecosystem functions. Our work supplemented prevailing global marine management schemes by focusing in on a regional scale with finer spatial resolution. It also provided a baseline for academic research, ecological assessments and will facilitate marine spatial planning and conservation activities in the area. In addition, the framework and methods of delineating biophysical environments we presented can be expanded throughout the whole Coral Triangle to support research and conservation activities in this important region.

  13. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-E33-45 Near BX-102 in the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Gee, Glendon W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.22. The data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The remaining text is unchanged from the original report issued in 2002. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area B-BX-BY. This report is the first in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole 299-E33-45 installed northeast of tank BX-102.

  14. Electromagnetic Delineation and Confirmation of Areas of Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction in a Large River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, J.; Dawe, M. R.; Butler, K. E.; Macquarrie, K. T.

    2004-05-01

    Riverbank filtration systems are typically located in heterogeneous alluvial river valley deposits. Delineation of riverbed areas where there is downward river water infiltration is important for determining the fluxes, quality, and travel time of water supplied to production wells. Efficient methods of delineation are especially required in large rivers that may also have relatively large water depths. A portion of the City of Fredericton well field recharge zone lies beneath the adjacent Saint John River, where a discontinuity in the clay/silt aquitard may allow hydraulic connection between the esker-like aquifer and the river. In this project we have investigated the potential for using electromagnetic methods to delineate zones of low electrical conductivity. Such zones, in a fresh water environment, suggest the absence of clay/silt materials. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, a total of 120 km of electromagnetic data were acquired using the Geonics EM31 and EM34 ground conductivity meters. The survey was carried out using an outboard-motor-powered canoe and raft with onboard DGPS system. Both electromagnetic instruments were operated in the vertical dipole mode, thereby providing maximum depths of exploration of approximately 30 meters. The water depths in the survey area fall in the range where the EM31 and EM34 results are very sensitive to the conductivity structure. We applied a novel bathymetry correction approach to compensate for water depth effects. Contouring of the apparent conductivity data revealed a conductivity low with an approximate area of 6 hectares. The absence of the clay/silt aquitard was confirmed by high resolution seismic profiling and drilling and sampling of riverbed sediments. Further confirmation of river water infiltration has been provided by hydraulic data from mini-piezometers and temperature time series collected beneath the riverbed. Apparent conductivity mapping proved to be a sensitive and efficient method for delineating

  15. Atrazine transport within a coastal zone in Southeastern Puerto Rico: a sensitivity analysis of an agricultural field model and riparian zone management model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality models are used to predict effects of conservation practices to mitigate the transport of herbicides to water bodies. We used two models - the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) and the Riparian Ecosystem Management Model (REMM) to predict the movement of atrazine from ...

  16. Investigations into traditionally managed Djallonké-sheep production in the humid and subhumid zones of Asante, Ghana: II. Reproductive events and prolificacy(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, J C; Weniger, J H; Schwartz, H J

    1994-01-12

    Parturitions of 338 among humid-zone ewes and 690 among subhumid-zone ewes gave rise to 361 and 797 live-born lambs, respectively. Mean age and weight at first parity were 431.3 days and 15.6 kg for the humid-zone ewes while those for the subhumid-zone ewes were 429.4 days and 17.0 kg. Early age at first parity is related to physiological age and growth of body weight which is closely related to early sexual maturity. The monthly distribution of parturitions is discussed with considerably higher peaks in October, April and May in the humid zone while in the subhumid zone, high frequencies were recorded in July, August, February and March. Higher parities significantly shortened the successive parturition intervals within and between the climatic zones with general intervals of 234.2 and 208.7 days among the humid- and the subhumid-zone ewes, respectively, at the fifth parity. The shortest parturition intervals (242.6 days) were recorded during the dryspell-minor wet season (August-October) in the humid zone and the major-wet season (May-July; 223.9 days) in the subhumid zone. Higher annual reproduction rates of 1.95 (1st year) and 1.79 (2nd year) lambs among the free-range ewes while subnormal rates of 1.72 (1st year) and 1.68 (2nd year) lambs among the humid-zone ewes were recorded. These differences are related to the natural service, parturition intervals, litter size and the availability of fodder plants as influenced by management (semi-tethering as against free-range). ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Untersuchungen über traditionelle Schafproduktion in der humiden und sub-humiden Asante Region Ghanas II. Reproduktionsleistungen und Fruchtbarkeitsraten Gegenüber 690 Lebendgeburten bei 338 Mutterschafen in der humiden Zone (H) wurden in der semi-humiden Zone (SH) 797 Geburten bei 361 Mutterschafen erfaßt. Mit einem Erstlammalter zwischen 431,3 (H) und 429,4 (SH) Tagen und Körpergewichten von 15,6 kg (H) und 17,0 kg (SH) sind Mutterschafe zu diesem Zeitpunkt in der semi

  17. Criteria for Incorporating the Guidelines of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Territorial Land Use Planning: Study Case for the Colombian Pacific Coastal Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela López Rodrí­guez; Paula Cristina Sierra-Correa; Pilar Lozano-Rivera

    2013-01-01

    In Colombia, Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has been implemented through the “National Environmental Policy of the Oceanic Spaces and Coastal and Insular Areas of Colombia-PNAOCI” (Acronyms in Spanish), whose guidelines have considered the need to include marine and coastal ecosystems in land use planning. ICZM, as a special planning approach, can contribute to territorial land use planning of the municipalities located in coastal areas, because it can provide guidelines for the co...

  18. In-Season Root-Zone Nitrogen Management Strategies for Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency in High-Yielding Maize Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-Feng; CHEN Xin-Ping; ZHANG Fu-Suo; CAO Ming-Hui; CUI Zhen-Ling; BAI Jin-Shun; YUE Shan-Chao; CHEN Su-Yi; T.M(U)LLER

    2012-01-01

    Many recently developed N management strategies have been extremely successful in improving N use efficiency.However,attempts to further increase grain yields have had limited success.Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at four sites to evaluate the effect of an in-season root-zone N management strategy on maize (Zea mays L.).According to the in-season root-zone N management,the optimal N rate (ONR) was determined by subtracting measured soil mineral N (NH4+-N and NO3--N) in the root zone from N target values.Other treatments included a control without N fertilization,70% of ONR,130% of ONR,and recommended N rate (RNR) by agronomists in China that have been shown to approach maize yield potentials.Although apparent N recovery for the ONR treatment was significantly higher than that under RNR in 2007,grain yield declined from 13.3 to 11.0 Mg ha-1 because of an underestimation of N uptake.In 2008,N target values were adjusted to match crop uptake,and N fertilization rates were reduced from 450 kg N ha- 1 for RNR to 225 to 265 kg N ha-1 for ONR.High maize yields were maintained at 12.6 to 13.5 Mg ha-1,which were twice the yield from typical farmers'practice.As a result,apparent N recovery increased from 29% to 66%,and estimated N losses decreased significantly for the ONR treatment compared to the RNR treatment.In conclusion,the in-season root-zone N management approach was able to achieve high yields,high NUE and low N losses.

  19. The role of delineation education programs for improving interobserver variability in target volume delineation in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onal, Cem; Cengiz, Mustafa; Guler, Ozan C; Dolek, Yemliha; Ozkok, Serdar

    2017-05-01

    To assess whether delineation courses for radiation oncologists improve interobserver variability in target volume delineation for post-operative gastric cancer radiotherapy planning. 29 radiation oncologists delineated target volumes in a gastric cancer patient. An experienced radiation oncologist lectured about delineation based on contouring atlas and delineation recommendations. After the course, the radiation oncologists, blinded to the previous delineation, provided delineation for the same patient. The difference between delineated volumes and reference volumes for pre- and post-course clinical target volume (CTV) were 19.8% (-42.4 to 70.6%) and 12.3% (-12.0 to 27.3%) (p = 0.26), respectively. The planning target volume (PTV) differences pre- and post-course according to the reference volume were 20.5% (-40.7 to 93.7%) and 13.1% (-10.6 to 29.5%) (p = 0.30), respectively. The concordance volumes between the pre- and post-course CTVs and PTVs were 467.1 ± 89.2 vs 597.7 ± 54.6 cm(3) (p target volume changes on toxicity and local control should be evaluated for further studies. Advances in knowledge: This study demonstrated that a delineation course based on current recommendations helped physicians delineate smaller and more homogeneous target volumes. Better target volume delineation allows proper target volume irradiation and preventing unnecessary normal tissue irradiation.

  20. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  1. Moving window analysis and riparian boundary delineation on the Northern Plains of Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Robert; Khomo, Lesego M.; Levick, Shaun; Rogers, Kevin H.

    2009-09-01

    Landscapes commonly comprise of mosaics, patches and boundaries. Riparian boundaries are complex to delineate and characterize, with a multitude of variables available for delineation. Multiple methods exist for boundary delineation such as two-dimensional wombling, constrained classification techniques and discontinuity detection. One method that has proven to be reliable in boundary delineation with one-dimensional transect data is the moving split window (MSW) analysis. This study demonstrates the efficacy of MSW to delineate grass species turnover and environmental boundaries across two geologically dissimilar riparian zones in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. There are few studies that have delineated riparian boundaries of Kruger National Park, and none that have used the MSW analysis. MSW detects significant changes in dissimilarity indices of variables along gradients. Significant shifts in dissimilarity designate boundaries at various spatial scales dictated by window sizes. Significant boundaries emerge by altering window sizes, increasing quadrat width and removing infrequent herbaceous species. By utilizing these three methods, MSW background variance was reduced and riparian and wetland/upland boundaries were sharper and more easily defined.

  2. Male pseudohermaphroditism: genetics and clinical delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J L

    1978-10-19

    The genetics and clinical delineation of male pseudohermaphroditism are reviewed. These disorders are categorized initially by their genetic etiology--cytogenetic, Mendelian, or teratogenic. It is especially important to distinguish cytogenetic forms, usually associated with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, from Mendelian (genetic) forms because in the former the prevalence of gonadoblastomas or dysgerminomas is about 15--20%. Genetic forms include (1) those associated with a multiple malformation pattern, (2) those due to an error in adrenal or testicular hormonal biosynthesis, (3) complete testicular feminization, (4) incomplete testicular feminization, (5) Reifenstein syndrome, (6) pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias, and (7) agondia, and possibly other conditions. Incomplete testicular feminization and the Reifenstein syndrome may or may not represent varied expressivity of the same trait. The designation pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias is appropriate only if constellations of clinical features are present and if no metabolic abnormalities are demonstrable. Etiology and available genetic data are reviewed for each of these disorders.

  3. Trisomy 4 mosaicism: Delineation of the phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Arjan; van der Kevie-Kersemaekers, Anne-Marie; Huijsdens-van Amsterdam, Karin; Dahhan, Nordin; Knegt, Lia; Vansenne, Fleur; Cobben, Jan Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Trisomy 4 mosaicism in liveborns is very rare. We describe a 17-month-old girl with trisomy 4 mosaicism. Clinical findings in this patient are compared to previously reported patients. Based on the few descriptions available in the literature the common phenotype of trisomy 4 mosaicism seems to consist of IUGR, low birth weight/length/OFC, congenital heart defects, characteristic thumb anomalies (aplasia/hypoplasia), skin abnormalities (hypo-/hyperpigmentation), several dysmorphic features, and likely some degree of intellectual disability. When trisomy 4 mosaicism is suspected clinicians should be aware that a normal karyotype in lymphocytes does not exclude mosaicism for trisomy 4. This report contributes to a further delineation of the phenotype associated with trisomy 4 mosaicism.

  4. Catchment delineation and morphometric analysis using geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Kumar, Rohitashw; Singh, P K; Singh, Manjeet; Yadav, K K; Mittal, H K

    2015-01-01

    The geographical information system (GIS) has emerged as an efficient tool in delineation of drainage patterns of watershed planning and management. The morphometric parameters of basins can address linear, areal and relief aspects. The study deals with the integrated watershed management of Baliya micro-watersheds, located in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan, India. Morphometric analysis in hydrological investigation is an important aspect and it is inevitable in the development and management of drainage basins. The determination of linear, areal and relief parameters indicate fairly good significance. The low value of the bifurcation ratio of 4.19 revealed that the drainage pattern has not been distorted by structural disturbance. The high value of the elongation ratio (0.68) compared to the circulatory ratio (0.27) indicates an elongated shape of the watershed. The high value of drainage density (5.39 km/km(2)) and stream frequency (12.32) shows that the region has impermeable subsoil material under poor vegetative cover with a low relief factor. The morphometric parameters of relief ratio (0.041) and relative relief (0.99%) show that the watershed can be treated using GIS techniques to determine the morphometric presence of dendritic drainage pattern, with a view to selecting the soil and water conservation measures and water harvesting.

  5. Ecosystem-based management and refining governance of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone: A case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumin, Enid C.

    While there are as yet no wind energy facilities in New England coastal waters, a number of wind turbine projects are now operating on land adjacent to the coast. In the Gulf of Maine region (from Maine to Massachusetts), at least two such projects, one in Falmouth, Massachusetts, and another on the island of Vinalhaven, Maine, began operation with public backing only to face subsequent opposition from some who were initially project supporters. I investigate the reasons for this dynamic using content analysis of documents related to wind energy facility development in three case study communities. For comparison and contrast with the Vinalhaven and Falmouth case studies, I examine materials from Hull, Massachusetts, where wind turbine construction and operation has received steady public support and acceptance. My research addresses the central question: What does case study analysis of the siting and initial operation of three wind energy projects in the Gulf of Maine region reveal that can inform future governance of wind energy in Massachusetts state coastal waters? I consider the question with specific attention to governance of wind energy in Massachusetts, then explore ways in which the research results may be broadly transferable in the U.S. coastal context. I determine that the change in local response noted in Vinalhaven and Falmouth may have arisen from a failure of consistent inclusion of stakeholders throughout the entire scoping-to-siting process, especially around the reporting of environmental impact studies. I find that, consistent with the principles of ecosystem-based and adaptive management, design of governance systems may require on-going cycles of review and adjustment before the implementation of such systems as intended is achieved in practice. I conclude that evolving collaborative processes must underlie science and policy in our approach to complex environmental and wind energy projects; indeed, collaborative process is fundamental to

  6. Estimating CH4 emission from paddy managed soils in southern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria using an integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpeokhai, Agatha; Menz, Gunter; Thonfeld, Frank; Akinluyi, Francis

    2016-04-01

    ESTIMATING CH4 EMISSION FROM PADDY MANAGED SOILS IN SOUTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA ZONE OF NIGERIA USING AN INTEGRATED APPROACH Akpeokhai Agatha 1, Menz Gunter 1, Thonfeld Frank 1, Akinluyi Francis 2 1 Remote Sensing Research Group (RSRG), Geography Institute, University of Bonn, Germany. 2 Department Remote Sensing and Geo-Science Information System, School of Earth and Mineral Science, Federal University of Technology, Akure Nigeria. Methane is one of the most important greenhouse gases as it has the second greatest climate forcing potential. Paddy fields have been identified to be sources of methane and Nigerian paddies are not left out. In Nigeria, the guinea savanna region is regarded as the bread basket of the nation and this area is one of the major rice producing regions in Nigeria. Its location in the food basket region of the country makes this part a very important study site. However, since Nigerian paddies contribute to methane emission by how much do these paddies contribute to the emissions? Also, so far, there limited studies on methane from rice fields in West Africa thus making this study a very important start off point. To answer this huge question, methane emission will be estimated using an integrated approach in the North Central part of Nigeria. Land use change cultivated to rice was analysed using Remote sensing techniques to determine the changes in land cultivated to rice. Methane emission from these identified rice fields will be estimated using the IPCC Tier 1 set of equations. First relevant indices (Normalized Differential Moisture Index, Normalized Differential Wetness Index and Rice Growth Vegetation Index) were generated to aid classification of rice fields using LANDSAT data from the USGS. Next the LANDSAT datasets were analyzed for land use change cultivated to rice from 1990 to 2014 to generate rice field maps. ERDAS Imagine, ARCGIS and ENVI tools were used to meet these spatial needs. Methane emissions from this region will be

  7. Knowledge and Practice of Clinicians regarding Syndromic Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Public Health Facilities of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addisu Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs are the leading causes of morbidity among young adults. This study assessed the knowledge and practice of clinicians regarding syndromic management of STIs in public health facilities of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study with mixed methods of data collection was conducted in public health facilities of Gamo Gofa Zone. The study included 250 clinicians and 12 health facilities, 26 mystery clients were hired, and 120 STI patient cards were reviewed. Data was entered in EPI info version 7.0.1 and analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results. Of the participated clinicians, 32 (12.8% were trained on syndromic management of STIs. Highest knowledge of clinicians was for urethral discharge (27.2%. Professional category of clinicians and type of health facility (AOR = 0.194; 95% CI = 0.092, 0.412 were determinants of urethral discharge knowledge. Of the cards reviewed, only in 8.3% of cards and 19.23% of mystery clients did the clinicians correctly follow the guideline. Conclusion. Knowledge and practice of clinicians regarding syndromic management of STIs in study area were poor. Efforts should be made to increase the knowledge of clinicians by providing training on syndromic management of STIs and supportive supervision should be regular.

  8. Sampling Rate Independent Filtration Approach for Automatic ECG Delineation

    CERN Document Server

    Chereda, Hryhorii; Tymoshenko, Yury

    2016-01-01

    In this paper different types of ECG automatic delineation approaches were overviewed. A combination of these approaches was used to create sampling rate independent filtration algorithm for automatic ECG delineation that is capable of distinguishing different morphologies of T and P waves and QRS complexes. Created filtration algorithm was compared with algorithme \\`a trous. It was investigated that continuous wavelets transform with proposed automatic adaptation for different sampling rates procedure can be used for delineation problem.

  9. Help for delineation: what kind of tools?; Aide a la delineation: quels outils pratiques?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointreau, Y.; Bera, G.; Barillot, I. [Centre Henry-S.-Kaplan, CHU Bretonneau, Clinique d' Oncologie Radiotherapie, 37 - Tours (France); Barillot, I. [Universits Francois-Rabelais, 37 - Tours (France)

    2009-10-15

    The planning of radiotherapy has known major developments during the last years. With the emergence of news techniques such as conformational radiotherapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy or stereotactic radiation therapy, the definition of target volumes was of great importance. The recommendations for the target volumes definition have been defined in the ICRU 50 and 62 reports, without any guidelines for volume delineation. Among the uncertainties that may influence the outcome after irradiation, the intra- and inter observers variations in delineation are the most important. Many teams have offered guidelines or atlases to homogenize these volumes and reduce these variations related to medical intervention. The aim of this paper is to present the main recommendations. (authors)

  10. pyLIDEM: A Python-Based Tool to Delineate Coastal Watersheds Using LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Banion, R.; Alameddine, I.; Gronewold, A.; Reckhow, K.

    2008-12-01

    Accurately identifying the boundary of a watershed is one of the most fundamental and important steps in any hydrological assessment. Representative applications include defining a study area, predicting overland flow, estimating groundwater infiltration, modeling pollutant accumulation and wash-off rates, and evaluating effectiveness of pollutant mitigation measures. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, the most comprehensive water quality management program in the United States (US), is just one example of an application in which accurate and efficient watershed delineation tools play a critical role. For example, many impaired water bodies currently being addressed through the TMDL program drain small coastal watersheds with relatively flat terrain, making watershed delineation particularly challenging. Most of these TMDL studies use 30-meter digital elevation models (DEMs) that rarely capture all of the small elevation changes in coastal watersheds, leading to errors not only in watershed boundary delineation, but in subsequent model predictions (such as watershed runoff flow and pollutant deposition rate predictions) for which watershed attributes are key inputs. Manually delineating these low-relief coastal watersheds through the use of expert knowledge of local water flow patterns, often produces relatively accurate (and often more accurate) watershed boundaries as compared to the boundaries generated by the 30-meter DEMs. Yet, manual delineation is a costly and time consuming procedure that is often not opted for. There is a growing need, therefore, particularly to address the ongoing needs of the TMDL program (and similar environmental management programs), for software tools which can utilize high resolution topography data to more accurately delineate coastal watersheds. Here, we address this need by developing pyLIDEM (python LIdar DEM), a python-based tool which processes bare earth high

  11. Aspen Delineation - El Dorado National Forest [ds364

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of known aspen stands, where aspen assessments were gathered in the Eldorado National Forest, Eldorado and Amador Counties,...

  12. Aspen Delineation - Klamath National Forest, EUI [ds368

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of known aspen stands where aspen assessments were collected in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County, California. The...

  13. Enhancements to TauDEM to support Rapid Watershed Delineation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazib, N. S.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    Watersheds are widely recognized as the basic functional unit for water resources management studies and are important for a variety of problems in hydrology, ecology, and geomorphology. Nevertheless, delineating a watershed spread across a large region is still cumbersome due to the processing burden of working with large Digital Elevation Model. Terrain Analysis Using Digital Elevation Models (TauDEM) software supports the delineation of watersheds and stream networks from within desktop Geographic Information Systems. A rich set of watershed and stream network attributes are computed. However limitations of the TauDEM desktop tools are (1) it supports only one type of raster (tiff format) data (2) requires installation of software for parallel processing, and (3) data have to be in projected coordinate system. This paper presents enhancements to TauDEM that have been developed to extend its generality and support web based watershed delineation services. The enhancements of TauDEM include (1) reading and writing raster data with the open-source geospatial data abstraction library (GDAL) not limited to the tiff data format and (2) support for both geographic and projected coordinates. To support web services for rapid watershed delineation a procedure has been developed for sub setting the domain based on sub-catchments, with preprocessed data prepared for each catchment stored. This allows the watershed delineation to function locally, while extending to the full extent of watersheds using preprocessed information. Additional capabilities of this program includes computation of average watershed properties and geomorphic and channel network variables such as drainage density, shape factor, relief ratio and stream ordering. The updated version of TauDEM increases the practical applicability of it in terms of raster data type, size and coordinate system. The watershed delineation web service functionality is useful for web based software as service deployments

  14. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2006-07-31

    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste

  15. Delineating groundwater and subsurface structures by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araffa, Sultan Awad Sultan; Helaly, Ahmed S.; Khozium, Ashraf; Lala, Amir M. S.; Soliman, Shokry A.; Hassan, Noha M.

    2015-06-01

    Geophysical tools such as magnetic, gravity and electric resistivity have been used to delineate subsurface structures, groundwater aquifer around Cairo-Belbies Desert road. A dipole-dipole section was measured at the central part of the study area with 2100 m length and electrode spacing 50 m for greater penetration depth. The results of the inverse resistivity data indicate that the study area includes two groundwater aquifers at different depths. The shallow aquifer water is near the surface and the deep aquifer lies at depth of about 115 m and exhibits low resistivity values ranging from 20 to 100 ohm m. One hundred and fifty-two gravity stations were measured using Autograv gravimeter (CG3), different gravity corrections (drift, elevation and latitude corrections) were applied. The corrected data represented by Bouguer anomaly map were filtered into regional and residual gravity anomaly maps. The residual gravity map indicates that the area is dissected by many faults with NW-SE, N-S, E-W and NE-SW trends. One hundred and fifty-three ground magnetic measurements are collected using two Proton magnetometers (Envimag). The corrected magnetic data are represented by total magnetic intensity map that was reduced to the magnetic pole. 3D magnetic modeling was applied to detect the depth of basaltic sheet and basement complex. The results indicated that the elevation of upper surface of basalt is ranging from 148 to -153 m and the elevation of lower surface of basalt is ranging from 148 to 269 m.

  16. Aspen Characteristics - Aspen Delineation Project [ds361

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit (Placer and...

  17. How Subsurface Water Technologies (SWT) can Provide Robust, Effective, and Cost-Efficient Solutions for Freshwater Management in Coastal Zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Raat, K.J.; Paalman, M.; Oosterhof, A.T.; Stuyfzand, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources in coastal zones are limited while demands are high, resulting in problems like seasonal water shortage, overexploitation of freshwater aquifers, and seawater intrusion. Three subsurface water technologies (SWT) that can provide robust, effective, and cost-efficient solutions to

  18. How Subsurface Water Technologies (SWT) can Provide Robust, Effective, and Cost-Efficient Solutions for Freshwater Management in Coastal Zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Raat, K.J.; Paalman, M.; Oosterhof, A.T.; Stuyfzand, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources in coastal zones are limited while demands are high, resulting in problems like seasonal water shortage, overexploitation of freshwater aquifers, and seawater intrusion. Three subsurface water technologies (SWT) that can provide robust, effective, and cost-efficient solutions to

  19. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: RCRA Borehole 299-E33-338 Located Near the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Gee, Glendon W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Royack, Lisa J.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.8. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in June 2003. The overall goals of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., are: 1) to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities, 2) to identify and evaluate the efficacy of interim measures, and 3) to aid via collection of geotechnical information and data, future decisions that must be made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the near-term operations, future waste retrieval, and final closure activities for the single-shell tank waste management areas. For a more complete discussion of the goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, see the overall work plan, Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas (DOE 1999). Specific details on the rationale for activities performed at the B-BX-BY tank farm waste management area are found in CH2M HILL (2000).

  20. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: RCRA Borehole 299-E33-338 Located Near the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Gee, Glendon W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Royack, Lisa J.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.8. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in June 2003. The overall goals of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., are: 1) to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities, 2) to identify and evaluate the efficacy of interim measures, and 3) to aid via collection of geotechnical information and data, future decisions that must be made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the near-term operations, future waste retrieval, and final closure activities for the single-shell tank waste management areas. For a more complete discussion of the goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, see the overall work plan, Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas (DOE 1999). Specific details on the rationale for activities performed at the B-BX-BY tank farm waste management area are found in CH2M HILL (2000).

  1. Tools to analyse and display variations in anatomical delineation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, Martin A.; McDermott, L. N.; Haworth, A.; van der Wath, E.; Hooton, B.

    2012-01-01

    Variations in anatomical delineation, principally due to a combination of inter-observer contributions and image-specificity, remain one of the most significant impediments to geometrically-accurate radiotherapy. Quantification of spatial variability of the delineated contours comprising a structure

  2. Glacial Delineation and Ice Retreat on Pico de Orizaba, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, A. E.; Weissling, B.; Xie, H.

    2011-12-01

    Pico de Orizaba, a dormant stratovolcano at the eastern end of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt at approximately 19 degrees of latitude and the third largest peak in North America (5636 m), hosts what is likely the last significant tropical zone glacier (Jamapa Glacier) in the Northern Hemisphere. Not since the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58 has Pico's glacial environment been studied with any focused effort, perhaps due to the general innaccessibility, high altitude, and steep slopes. As are most glaciers around the world, the Jamapa Glacier is retreating, with a remarkable loss of ice in the past 2 decades. The rate and pattern of retreat is important to understanding climate change forcing as well as understanding environmental and water supply impacts to a substantial human population who live along the base of the volcano. Through the use of satellite imagery (LandSat, ASTER, IKONOS), legacy hand-drawn maps, aerial photographs, and first-hand accounts from climber's expeditions, a reasonably accurate map of almost 60 years of glacial retreat has been produced. Legacy hand-drawn maps of the ice edge, that pre-date the satellite era, did not fit perfectly with modern images when layered in ArcGIS. Oblique perspectives in Google Earth and various aerial and surface-based photographs of the mountain were used to help fit the ice edge to the actual topography. The disparity of satellite image pixel resolution (from 1 m IKONOS to 60 m LandSat) was addressed using various imagery analysis tools (eg. edge detection convolution filters and pixel unmixing) in order to delineate an approximate ice edge for the respective image date. The final map shows the nature of ice edge retreat on Pico de Orizaba from 1945 up until the present (Feb 2011).

  3. A Review on the Behavior Management of Tourists in Domestic Scenic Zone%国内景区游客行为管理研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建军; 谢朝武

    2012-01-01

    Scenic zone is the main occurring site of tourists behavior. The research on the tourists behavior in scenic zone is multi-perspective and multi-layered. From the point of view of the comprehensive quality of visitors, the research of tourists behavior in scenic zone mainly focused on the four aspects: bad behavior, environmental awareness and attitude and behavior, influence of behavior and behavior management.%景区是游客旅游行为发生的主要空间载体,有关景区游客行为的研究是多视角、多层次的。从游客综合素质的视角来看,我国学者对景区游客行为的研究主要集中在景区游客的不良行为、景区游客的环境意识和态度及行为、景区游客的行为影响和行为管理等四个方面。

  4. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-E33-46 Near B 110 in the B BX-BY Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Gee, Glendon W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; mccain, r. G.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Orr, Robert D.; Legore, Virginia L.; Clayton, Ray E.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Kutynakov, I. V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Royack, Lisa J.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-ectractable sodium data from Table 4.17. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in December 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area. This report is the third in a series of three reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from a borehole installed approximately 4.5 m (15 ft) northeast of tank B- 110 (borehole 299-E33-46).

  5. The impact of an efficient collection sites location on the zoning phase in municipal solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Gianpaolo; Manni, Andrea; Manni, Emanuele; Toraldo, Massimiliano

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we study two decisional problems arising when planning the collection of solid waste, namely the location of collection sites (together with bin allocation) and the zoning of the service territory, and we assess the potential impact that an efficient location has on the subsequent zoning phase. We first propose both an exact and a heuristic approach to locate the unsorted waste collection bins in a residential town, and to decide the capacities and characteristics of the bins to be located at each collection site. A peculiar aspect we consider is that of taking into account the compatibility between the different types of bins when allocating them to collection areas. Moreover, we propose a fast and effective heuristic approach to identify homogeneous zones that can be served by a single collection vehicle. Computational results on data related to a real-life instance show that an efficient location is fundamental in achieving consistent monetary savings, as well as a reduced environmental impact. These reductions are the result of one vehicle less needed to perform the waste collection operations, and an overall traveled distance reduced by about 25% on the average.

  6. U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety Office Zones in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [mso_zones_LOSCO_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset delineating the boundaries of the three U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety Office (MSO) zones that encompass the state of Louisiana. The MSO...

  7. Severe Psychological Distress of Evacuees in Evacuation Zone Caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, Yasuto; Suzuki, Yuriko; Shiga, Tetsuya; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Maeda, Masaharu; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Otsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Background Following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has continued to affect the mental health status of residents in the evacuation zone. To examine the mental health status of evacuee after the nuclear accident, we conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey as part of the ongoing Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods We measured mental health status using the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6) in a total of 73,569 (response rate: 40.7%) evacuees aged 15 and over who lived in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. We then dichotomized responders using a 12/13 cutoff on the K6, and compared the proportion of K6 scores ≥13 and ≤12 in each risk factor including demographic information, socioeconomic variables, and disaster-related variables. We also performed bivariate analyses between mental health status and possible risk factors using the chi-square test. Furthermore, we performed multivariate regression analysis using modified Poisson regression models. Results The median K6 score was 5 (interquartile range: 1–10). The number of psychological distress was 8,717 (14.6%). We found that significant differences in the prevalence of psychological distress by almost all survey items, including disaster-related risk factors, most of which were also associated with increased Prevalence ratios (PRs). Additionally, we found that psychological distress in each evacuation zone was significantly positively associated with the radiation levels in their environment (r = 0.768, p = 0.002). Conclusion The earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear accident likely caused severe psychological distress among residents in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. The close association between psychological distress and the radiation levels shows that the nuclear accident seriously influenced the mental health of the residents, which might be exacerbated by

  8. Severe Psychological Distress of Evacuees in Evacuation Zone Caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuto Kunii

    Full Text Available Following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has continued to affect the mental health status of residents in the evacuation zone. To examine the mental health status of evacuee after the nuclear accident, we conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey as part of the ongoing Fukushima Health Management Survey.We measured mental health status using the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6 in a total of 73,569 (response rate: 40.7% evacuees aged 15 and over who lived in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. We then dichotomized responders using a 12/13 cutoff on the K6, and compared the proportion of K6 scores ≥13 and ≤12 in each risk factor including demographic information, socioeconomic variables, and disaster-related variables. We also performed bivariate analyses between mental health status and possible risk factors using the chi-square test. Furthermore, we performed multivariate regression analysis using modified Poisson regression models.The median K6 score was 5 (interquartile range: 1-10. The number of psychological distress was 8,717 (14.6%. We found that significant differences in the prevalence of psychological distress by almost all survey items, including disaster-related risk factors, most of which were also associated with increased Prevalence ratios (PRs. Additionally, we found that psychological distress in each evacuation zone was significantly positively associated with the radiation levels in their environment (r = 0.768, p = 0.002.The earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear accident likely caused severe psychological distress among residents in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. The close association between psychological distress and the radiation levels shows that the nuclear accident seriously influenced the mental health of the residents, which might be exacerbated by increased risk perception. To

  9. Probabilistic Risk Analysis and Fault Trees as Tools in Improving the Delineation of Wellhead Protection Areas: An Initial Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, C. M.; Silliman, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    Delineation of a wellhead protection area (WHPA) is a critical component of managing / protecting the aquifer(s) supplying potable water to a public water-supply well. While a number of previous authors have addressed questions related to uncertainties in advective capture zones, methods for assessing WHPAs in the presence of uncertainty in the chemistry of groundwater contaminants, the relationship between land-use and contaminant sources, and the impact on health risk within the receiving population are more limited. Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) combined with fault trees (FT) addresses this latter challenge by providing a structure whereby four key WHPA issues may be addressed: (i) uncertainty in land-use practices and chemical release, (ii) uncertainty in groundwater flow, (iii) variability in natural attenuation properties (and/or remediation) of the contaminants, and (iv) estimated health risk from contaminant arrival at a well. The potential utility of PRA-FT in this application is considered through a simplified case study involving management decisions related both to regional land use planning and local land-use zoning regulation. An application-specific fault tree is constructed to visualize and identify the events required for health risk failure at the well and a Monte Carlo approach is used to create multiple realizations of groundwater flow and chemical transport to a well in a model of a simple, unconfined aquifer. Model parameters allowed to vary during this simplified case study include hydraulic conductivity, probability of a chemical spill (related to land use variation in space), and natural attenuation through variation in rate of decay of the contaminant. Numerical results are interpreted in association with multiple land-use management scenarios as well as multiple cancer risk assumptions regarding the contaminant arriving at the well. This case study shows significant variability of health risk at the well, however general trends were

  10. The state of art of the website of the IAH Coastal Aquifer Dynamics and Coastal Zone Management (CAD-CZM) Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappa, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    They are now almost two years that in the framework of IAH Coastal Aquifer Dynamics and Coastal Zone Management (CAD-CZM) Network, it has been set up a website www.iah-cad-czm.net, where we have been collecting and uploading, information about studies aimed to know properties and state of exploitation about coastal aquifers and coastal zone management. The website would be a tool aimed to collect and share information and data referred this topic, available not only for researchers, for whom it might be a starting point for their studies, but also for stake holders, which needs few information about a coastal aquifer or a coastal zone. Until now they have been contacted several tens of researchers, which have contributed to the website implementation, by filling a questionnaire, we sent them, which was referred to coastal aquifers they have studied. Any questionnaire summarizes information referred to coastal aquifer location, its exstension, and some basic pieces of information, related to hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical properties of it, but also the most important scientific references, that can be consulted to have more and deeper information, about it. In the poster we are going to present, we are interested in showing the state of art of this collecting and uploading data, as until now the filled questionnaires, present in the website, are more than sixty and at the date of the EGU 2017, it may be they could be much more. On the other hand to present it at EGU is a way for trying to receive suggestions and contributions for make it better.

  11. Obstetric care providers' knowledge, practice and associated factors towards active management of third stage of labor in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenaw, Zelalem; Yohannes, Zemenu; Amano, Abdela

    2017-09-07

    Active management of third stage of labor played a great role to prevent child birth related hemorrhage. However, maternal morbidity and mortality related to hemorrhage is high due to lack of knowledge and skill of obstetric care providers 'on active management of third stage of labor. Our study was aimed to assess knowledge, practice and associated factors of obstetric care providers (Midwives, Nurses and Health officers) on active management of third stage of labor in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia. An institution based cross sectional study design was conducted from December 1-30 /2015 among midwives, nurses and health officers. Simple random sampling technique was used to get the total of 528 participants. Data entry was done using EPI Info 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 software package for analysis. The presence of association between independent and dependent variables was assessed using odds ratio with 97% confidence interval by applying logistic regression model. Of the 528 obstetric care providers 37.7% and 32.8% were knowledgeable and skilled to manage third stage of labor respectively. After controlling for possible confounding factors, the result showed that pre/in service training, being midwife and graduation year were found to be the major predictors of proper active management of third stage of labor. The knowledge and practice of obstetric care providers towards active management of third stage of labor can be improved with appropriate interventions like in-service trainings. This study also clearly showed that the level of knowledge and practice of obstetric care providers to wards active management of third stage of labor needs immediate attention of Universities and health science colleges better to revise their obstetrics course contents, health institutions and zonal health bureau should arrange trainings for their obstetrics care providers to enhance skill.

  12. Recognition and Survey the Productive Residues of the Curing Centers and Presenting the Management Methods. (The case study: the 7th zone of Karaj municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gohari Mokammel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The high risk of residues of curing centre and extensive use of them endangered all over the world. According to the reports of the world health organization (WHO 75-90% of productive residue of curing centre is usual kind and is out of danger and management of them is like the urban waste material. On the basis of this reports 10 to 25% (percent of the mentioned residues are placed in the group of dangerous residues, and it needs a precise and wise management program. The aim of this research in the first step is to recognize and survey the sources of productive hospital residues and in the next step physical analysis of them. Finally, by considering the taken results, the suitable management methods for the zone would be presentable. On the basis of the available statistics, the seventh zone of Karaj municipality has 174280 per population (89059 per men and 85221 per women.In this zone totally one hospital with 316 beds Approval and 278 beds are used, 14 clinic 35 Medical recognition laboratory 69 Drugstore and there are nine rehabilitate centre, the way of study is descriptive interruptive. In this research recognition of productive source of hospital residue taken and process, sampling, analyzing of the data and presenting appropriate management methods suitable with the zone. At last after the taken data analysis, the results are described as follows: The average of infectious and disinfections residue of Alborz hospital, clinics and medical recognition laboratory by order 55, 45 and 23 , 77 and 15.7, 84.3 percent are obtained. The average of plastic and paper in productive residues of Alborz hospital, drugstores and rehabilitate centre by order 43.8, 8.4 and17.2, 67.6 and 0.2, 20.3 percent are calculated. Daily economical benefit in the case of performing the recovery plan for the Alborz hospital, 69 drugstores and 9 health centre totally 1369355 Rials calculated, and of this rate plastic with 923211 Rials is placed on the first grade. The

  13. A detailed study on Catchment delineation for Urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, B.; B M, A.; Lohani, B.; Jain, A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban flood modelling is carried out for predicting, analysing and planning of floods in urban areas. Catchment information is an important input for urban flood modelling. Automatic catchment delineation at gully gratings for urban areas using appropriate software packages/methods along with an appropriate set of input data and parameters is still a research challenge. Considering the above, the aim of this study is to (i) identify the best suitable software for automatic catchment delineation by considering gully grating as outlet (ii) understand the effect of resolution of DEM on catchments delineated (iii) understand whether to consider DEM or DSM for catchment delineation (iv) study the effect of grid based and TIN based DEM. In this study catchment delineation has been investigated considering IIT Kanpur as a study site. LiDAR data are used to generate DEM/DSM of the study area. A comparative study of catchment delineation has been carried out between ArcHydro 10.1, BASINS 4.1, ArcSWAT, WMS 7.1, and HEC-GeoHMS approaches. Catchments have been delineated for different drainage threshold areas using gully grating points as outlets and their effects have been compared for the aforementioned software. In order to understand the effect of resolution of data, DEMs of 1m and 5m resolution have been generated and compared against each other. Effects of building ridge lines and their contribution to catchment delineation has been studied by generating a DSM of 1m resolution, and comparing the results with catchments delineated using 1m DEM. In order to assess the effects of the types of DEM over catchment delineation, a grid based DEM and TIN based DEM are compared against each other using WMS 7.1 software. The results for the catchment delineation using various software illustrate that ArcHydro 10.1 performs better than any other aforementioned software. Also, it is noted that varied drainage threshold area parameters, resolutions of DEM, selection of DEM

  14. Determination of management zones from normalized and standardized equivalent produtivity maps in the soybean culture Unidades de manejo a partir de mapas de produtividade normalizada e padronizada equivalente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazieli Suszek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Through the site-specific management, the precision agriculture brings new techniques for the agricultural sector, as well as a larger detailing of the used methods and increase of the global efficiency of the system. The objective of this work was to analyze two techniques for definition of management zones using soybean yield maps, in a productive area handled with localized fertilization and other with conventional fertilization. The sampling area has 1.74 ha, with 128 plots with site-specific fertilization and 128 plots with conventional fertilization. The productivity data were normalized by two techniques (normalized and standardized equivalent productivity, being later classified in management zones. It can be concluded that the two methods of management zones definition had revealed to be efficient, presenting similarities in the data disposal. Due to the fact that the equivalent standardized productivity uses standard score, it contemplates a better statistics justification.Por meio do manejo diferenciado, a agricultura de precisão traz novas técnicas para o setor agrícola, bem como maior detalhamento dos métodos utilizados e aumento da eficiência global do sistema. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar duas técnicas para definição de unidades de manejo com base em mapas de produtividade de soja, em uma área produtiva manejada com adubação química localizada e outra com adubação química convencional. A área experimental possui 1,74 ha, constituída de 128 amostras com adubação localizada e 128 com adubação convencional. Os dados de produtividade foram normalizados por duas técnicas (produtividade normalizada e padronizada equivalente e posteriormente definidas unidades de manejo. Pode-se concluir que os dois métodos de definição de unidades de manejo mostraram-se eficientes, apresentando semelhanças na disposição dos dados. Devido à produtividade padronizada equivalente utilizar escore-padrão, ela contempla

  15. Delineating gas bearing reservoir by using spectral decomposition attribute: Case study of Steenkool formation, Bintuni Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, A.; Pradana, G. S.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    Tectonic setting of the Bird Head Papua Island becomes an important model for petroleum system in Eastern part of Indonesia. The current exploration has been started since the oil seepage finding in Bintuni and Salawati Basin. The biogenic gas in shallow layer turns out to become an interesting issue in the hydrocarbon exploration. The hydrocarbon accumulation appearance in a shallow layer with dry gas type, appeal biogenic gas for further research. This paper aims at delineating the sweet spot hydrocarbon potential in shallow layer by applying the spectral decomposition technique. The spectral decomposition is decomposing the seismic signal into an individual frequency, which has significant geological meaning. One of spectral decomposition methods is Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), which transforms the seismic signal into individual time and frequency simultaneously. This method is able to make easier time-frequency map analysis. When time resolution increases, the frequency resolution will be decreased, and vice versa. In this study, we perform low-frequency shadow zone analysis in which the amplitude anomaly at a low frequency of 15 Hz was observed and we then compare it to the amplitude at the mid (20 Hz) and the high-frequency (30 Hz). The appearance of the amplitude anomaly at a low frequency was disappeared at high frequency, this anomaly disappears. The spectral decomposition by using CWT algorithm has been successfully applied to delineate the sweet spot zone.

  16. An Isotopic view of water and nitrogen transport through the vadose zone in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/MethodsGroundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nit...

  17. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments from C Waste Management Area: Investigation of the C-152 Transfer Line Leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F; Serne, R JEFFREY; Bjornstad, Bruce N; Valenta, Michelle M; Lanigan, David C; Vickerman, Tanya S; Clayton, Ray E; Geiszler, Keith N; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Eric T; Kutynakov, I V; Baum, Steven R; Lindberg, Michael J; Orr, Robert D

    2007-02-05

    A geologic/geochemical investigation in the vicinity of UPR-200-E-82 was performed using pairs of cone-penetrometer probe holes. A total of 41 direct-push cone-penetrometer borings (19 pairs to investigate different high moisture zones in the same sampling location and 3 individual) were advanced to characterize vadose zone moisture and the distribution of contaminants. A total of twenty sample sets, containing up to two split-spoon liners and one grab sample, were delivered to the laboratory for characterization and analysis. The samples were collected around the documented location of the C-152 pipeline leak, and created an approximately 120-ft diameter circle around the waste site. UPR-200-E-82 was a loss of approximately 2,600 gallons of Cs-137 Recovery Process feed solution containing an estimated 11,300 Ci of cesium-137 and 5 Ci of technetium-99. Several key parameters that are used to identify subsurface contamination were measured, including: water extract pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, technetium-99, sodium, and uranium concentrations and technetium-99 and uranium concentrations in acid extracts. All of the parameters, with the exception of electrical conductivity, were elevated in at least some of the samples analyzed as part of this study. Specifically, soil pH was elevated (from 8.69 to 9.99) in five samples collected northeast and southwest of the C-152 pipeline leak. Similarly, samples collected from these same cone-pentrometer holes contained significantly more water-extractable sodium (more than 50 g/g of dry sediment), uranium (as much as 7.66E-01 g/g of dry sediment), nitrate (up to 30 g/g of dry sediment), and technetium-99 (up to 3.34 pCi/g of dry sediment). Most of the samples containing elevated concentrations of water-extractable sodium also had decreased levels of water extractable calcium and or magnesium, indicating that tank-related fluids that were high in sodium did seep into the vadose zone near these probe holes. Several of the

  18. The Effects of Ethical Behaviors of the Managers on Organizational Climate: an Application in 3rd Organizational Industrial Zone in Konya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan CELIK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various reasons such as professional advances in business life and increasing consciousness of the employees, and the emergence of various ethical values and principles have significant role in increase of ethical behaviors of the managers. One of the important domains that the ethical behaviors of the managers affect at most is the organizational climate. Ethics takes on a task at the point of organizing and advocating the true and false concepts, and recommending the best to people. And, the organizational climate is a phenomenon that represents the scope and quality of the relationships of all the individuals in an organization and identifies the organization from the psychological aspect. The ethical behaviors of the managers are the power that can change the perceptions of the employees about the organization, and then the balances of the organizational climate. This study that was carried out via the survey technique has been implemented to persons in organizations located in Industrial Zone of Konya. As a result of implementation work, it has been revealed that the occupational commitment, which is a dimension of the ethical behaviors of the managers have significant effects on recognition, organizational structure, standards, responsibility and commitment that are sub-dimensions of the organizational climate. The honesty among the sub-dimensions of the ethical behaviors of the managers have been determined to have significant effects on structure, standards and commitment which are sub-dimensions of organizational climate. Finally, the equality and objectivity sub-dimension of the ethical behaviors of the managers have been determined to have significant effects on standards and commitment dimensions among the sub-dimensions of the organizational climate.

  19. Aspen Delineation - Plumas National Forest, FRRD [ds376

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (PLUMAS_NF_FEATHERRIVER_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Plumas...

  20. Deviations in delineated GTV caused by artefacts in 4DCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Gitte Fredberg; Nygaard, Ditte Eklund; Brink, Carsten;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is used for breathing-adapted radiotherapy planning. Irregular breathing, large tumour motion or interpolation of images can cause artefacts in the 4DCT. This study evaluates the impact of artefacts on gross tumour volume (GTV......) size. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 19 4DCT scans of patients with peripheral lung tumours, GTV was delineated in all bins. Variations in GTV size between bins in each 4DCT scan were analysed and correlated to tumour motion and variations in breathing signal amplitude and breathing signal period. End......-expiration GTV size (GTVexp) was considered as reference for GTV size. Intra-session delineation error was estimated by re-delineation of GTV in eight of the 4DCT scans. RESULTS: In 16 of the 4DCT scans the maximum deviations from GTVexp were larger than could be explained by delineation error. The deviations...

  1. Remote sensing application for delineating coastal vegetation - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Remote sensing data has been used for mapping coastal vegetation along the Goa Coast, India. The study envisages the use of digital image processing techniques for delineating geomorphic features and associated vegetation, including mangrove, along...

  2. Delineating incised stream sediment sources within a San Francisco Bay tributary basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Paul; Benda, Lee; Pearce, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Erosion and sedimentation pose ubiquitous problems for land and watershed managers, requiring delineation of sediment sources and sinks across landscapes. However, the technical complexity of many spatially explicit erosion models precludes their use by practitioners. To address this critical gap, we demonstrate a contemporary use of applied geomorphometry through a straightforward GIS analysis of sediment sources in the San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA, designed to support erosion reduction strategies. Using 2 m lidar digital elevation models, we delineated the entire river network in the Arroyo Mocho watershed (573 km2) at the scale of ˜ 30 m segments and identified incised landforms using a combination of hillslope gradient and planform curvature. Chronic erosion to the channel network was estimated based on these topographic attributes and the size of vegetation, and calibrated to sediment gage data, providing a spatially explicit estimate of sediment yield from incised channels across the basin. Rates of erosion were summarized downstream through the channel network, revealing patterns of sediment supply at the reach scale. Erosion and sediment supply were also aggregated to subbasins, allowing comparative analyses at the scale of tributaries. The erosion patterns delineated using this approach provide land use planners with a robust framework to design erosion reduction strategies. More broadly, the study demonstrates a modern analysis of important geomorphic processes affected by land use that is easily applied by agencies to solve common problems in watersheds, improving the integration between science and environmental management.

  3. Soil management practice in Croatian vineyard affect CO2 fluxes and soil degradation in trafficking zones. First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunovic, Igor; Bilandzija, Darija; Andabaka, Zeljko; Stupic, Domagoj; Cacic, Marija; Brezinscak, Luka; Maletic, Edi; Pereira, Paulo; Kisic, Ivica

    2017-04-01

    Vineyards represent one of the most degradation prone types of intensively managed land on Earth. Steep slopes encourage grape producers to adopt environmental friendly soil management like mulching or continuous no-tillage. In this context, producers have concerns about efficient fertilisation practices and water competitions between vine and grasses in continuous no-tillage inter rows. Vineyards in semi-humid areas like Continental Croatia mostly not suffer from water deficit during growth. Nevertheless, lack of research of different soil management practices open dilemma about soil compaction concerns in intensively trafficked soils in vineyard of semi-humid areas. Soil compaction, determined by bulk density (BD), soil water content (SWC) and CO2 fluxes from trafficked inter row positions were recorded in 2016 in an experiment in which four different soil management systems were compared in a vineyard raised on a silty clay loam soil, near Zagreb, Croatia: No-tillage (NT) system, continuous tillage (CT) and yearly inversed grass covered (INV-GC) and tillage managed (INV-T) inter rows are subjected to intensive traffic. Grape yield and must quality of grape variety Chardonnay was also monitored. Tractor traffic increased the soil BD at 0-10 and 10-20 cm, but especially at the 0-10 cm depth. CT treatment record lowest compaction at 0-10 cm because of tillage. Soil water content showed better conservation possibilities of INV-GC in drier period. In wet period SWC possibilities are similar between treatments. The results of soil compaction under different management indicate that vineyard soil differently response to traffic intensity and impact on microfauna activity and CO2 emissions. INV-GC and NT managed soils record lower CO2 fluxes from vineyard soil compared to CT and INV-T treatments. Management treatments did not statistically influenced on grape yields. Several years of investigation is needed to confirm the overall impact of different management

  4. Assessing Movements of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula in Relation to Depopulated Buffer Zones for the Management of Wildlife Tuberculosis in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Byrom

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, managing the threat of bovine tuberculosis (TB to livestock includes population reduction of potentially infectious wildlife, primarily the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula. Population control is often targeted on forested buffer zones adjacent to farmland, in order to limit movements of possums across the buffer and reduce the risk of disease transmission to livestock. To assess the effectiveness of buffers in protecting livestock we analysed GPS telemetry data from possums located in untreated forest adjacent to buffers, and used these data to characterise patterns of movement that could lead to possums reaching farmland during the season when most dispersal occurs. Analyses of movement data showed that the direction of dispersal by sub-adult and adult possums and the extent of long exploratory movements were not biased toward forest buffers, even though these provided vacant habitat as suitable for possums as untreated forest. Instead, dispersal and exploratory movements were uncommon even for sub-adult possums and such events typically lasted <10 days. Dispersing possums settled predominantly in river valleys. A simulation model was developed for the 3-6-month dispersal season; it demonstrated a probability of <0.001 that an infected possum, originating from a low-density population with low disease prevalence in untreated forest, would move across 3 km of recently controlled forest buffer to reach farmland. Our results indicate short-term reduction in the risk of TB transmission from possums to livestock in New Zealand by the use of depopulated buffer zones, while acknowledging that the threat of disease spread from untreated forest is likely to increase over time as possum population density and, potentially, TB prevalence among those possums, increase in the buffer zone.

  5. 77 FR 42629 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... to manage the hard caps for Chinook salmon PSC. For the GOA, the data will be more variable and less... effects of the rule fall primarily on a distinct segment of the industry, or portion thereof (e.g., user group, gear type, geographic area), that segment would be considered the universe for purposes of...

  6. A methodology for validation of integrated systems models with an application to coastal-zone management in Southwest Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giang, N.T.

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Systems Models (ISMs) have been developed over decades to support the planning and management of natural resources and the environment. The development of these models is based on the concepts of systems approach and integrated approach. However, the lack of a generally accepted

  7. A methodology for validation of integrated systems models with an application to coastal-zone management in Southwest Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giang, N.T.

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Systems Models (ISMs) have been developed over decades to support the planning and management of natural resources and the environment. The development of these models is based on the concepts of systems approach and integrated approach. However, the lack of a generally accepted definitio

  8. Active management of third stage of labour, post–partum haemorrhage and maternal death rate in the Vanga Health Zone, Province of Bandundu, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Fina Lubaki

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-partum haemorrhage (PPH is the single largest cause of maternal death worldwide and a particular burden for developing countries. In Africa, about 33.9 % of maternal deaths are due to PPH. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, the prevalence of PPH is unknown. PPH can be prevented with active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL. Objectives: To describe the practice of AMTSL in Vanga Health Zone and to calculate the incidence of PPH in Vanga Health Zone.Method: An intervention study with post-test-only design was conducted among health maternity wards using a data collection sheet to obtain information. All pregnant women attending Vanga Health maternity wards constituted the study population. Frequencies were determined for variables of interest.Results: From April 2007 to March 2008, 6339 deliveries took place at Vanga Health maternity wards, representing 71% of the institutional delivery rate. The number of deliveries realised with the practice of (AMTSL were 5562; 366 cases of PPH were reported, making an incidence of 5.77%. Three cases of maternal deaths – two of which were related to PPH – were reported during the study period, which means there was a decline of 70% compared with the previous two years.Conclusion: The prevalence of PPH has been estimated to be 5.77%; PPH represents the cause of 67% of all maternal deaths. The extension of AMTSL practice, combined with the assurance of better supplies of oxytocin to enhance drug management, is strongly advised/suggested. As a number of births still take place outside the health maternity wards, the introduction of oral misoprostol could be considered a part of AMTSL for use by patients being treated by traditional midwives.

  9. Delineation of flood-prone areas and the identification of residential hotspots for two African cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Risi, Raffaele; Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Yeshitela, Kumelachew; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Renner, Florian; Printz, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    This work employs two GIS-based frameworks for identifying the urban residential hot spots. This is done by overlaying a map of potentially flood prone areas (the topographic wetness index, TWI) and a map of urban morphology types (UMT) classified as residential. The topographic wetness index (TWI, Qin et al. 2011) allows for the delineation of a portion of a hydrographic basin potentially exposed to flood inundation by identifying all the areas characterized by a topographic index that exceeds a given threshold. The urban morphological types (Pauleit and Duhme 2000, Gill et al. 2008, Cavan et al. 2012) form the foundation of a classification scheme which brings together facets of urban form and function. The application of the UMTs allows the delineation of geographical units. The distinction of UMTs at a 'meso'-scale (i.e. between the city level and that of the individual units) makes a suitable basis for the spatial analysis of cities. The TWI threshold value depends on the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM), topology of the hydrographic basin (i.e. urban, peri-urban or rural) and the constructed infrastructure (Manfreda et al. 2011). This threshold value is usually calibrated based on the results of detailed delineation of the inundation profile for selected zones. In this study, the TWI threshold is calibrated based on the calculated inundation profiles for various return periods for selected zones within the basin through a Bayesian framework. The Bayesian framework enables the probabilistic characterization of the threshold value by calculating the complementary probability of false delineation of flood prone zones as a function of various threshold values. For a given return period, the probability of false delineation is calculated as the sum of the probability of indicating a zone flood prone which is not indicated as such by the inundation profile and the probability that a zone is indicated as not flood prone but indicated as flood prone by

  10. Shallow groundwater nitrogen responses to different land use managements in the riparian zone of Yuqiao Reservoir in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Haiming; YIN Chengqing

    2008-01-01

    This field study investigated the nitrogen concentrations in the shallow groundwater from an ephemeral stream and four land uses:cropland,two-year restored (2yr) and five-years restored (5yr) woodlands,fishponds,and the nitrogen flux in the riparian zone of Yuqiao Reservoir.The groundwater nitrate-N concentrations in cropland were the highest among the four land uses.Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and nitrate-N concentrations in the 2yr woodland were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in 5yr woodland.The lowest nitrogen concentrations were detected in fishponds.Nitrate-N was the main form in cropland and 2yr woodland,whereas both nitrate-N and diSSolved organic nitrogen (DON) were the main species in 5yr woodland and fishponds.But,ammonium-N was the main form in the ephemeral stream.During the rainy season,the groundwater flow wim dissolved nitrogen drains from upland into the reservoir along the hydraulic gradient.The woodland between the cropland and reservoir could act as a buffer to retain shallow groundwater nitrogen.The dominant form of ammonium-N in the groundwater TDN pool in ephemeral stream indicated that nitrogen from the village and orchard in upland flowed into the reservoir via subsurface flow.The fishpond Was not an important pollution source for nitrogen transfer via shallow groundwater.

  11. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus’ revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus’ within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2), which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41) and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p < 0.001) with an estimated effective population size of 130 individuals. Results of spatially explicit Bayesian genetic cluster analysis detected two geographically distinct subpopulations within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus’ within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus’ within Malta’s Fisheries

  12. Geoelectric investigation to delineate groundwater potential and recharge zones in Suki river basin, north Maharashtra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Gupta; S N Patil; S T Padmane; Vinit C Erram; S H Mahajan

    2015-10-01

    Suki river basin of Raver sub-division is located towards the northeastern part of Jalgaon district in Maharashtra State. The existing land use pattern of the region clearly shows that more than 60% of the area is utilized for agricultural sector. Groundwater is the major source of irrigation and domestic purposes. To assess the overall water resources development of Raver area for better environment in future, investigation was carried out with the help of geophysical indicators. Vertical electrical sounding studies were conducted at 17 stations in the study area using Wenner configuration. The study was aimed at characterizing the aquifer in the area as well as assessing its potential risk to contaminant seepage in terms of protective capacity of the overburden rock materials using Dar-Z arrouk (D-Z) parameters, viz., the transverse resistance (), longitudinal conductance (), transverse resistivity (ρ) and longitudinal resistivity (ρ). These were computed to generate the resistivity regime of freshwater-bearing formations and its movement. The central-western part of the study area reflects very good to good protective capacity rating as can be seen from the high longitudinal conductance values. The low value of the protective capacity in the eastern part is making the aquifer system in the area highly vulnerable to surface contamination. This indicates that the ground water quality may have been deteriorated in the area and borehole water samples should be randomly sampled for contaminant loads based on this analysis.

  13. Geoelectric investigation to delineate groundwater potential and recharge zones in Suki river basin, north Maharashtra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gautam; Patil, S. N.; Padmane, S. T.; Erram, Vinit C.; Mahajan, S. H.

    2015-10-01

    Suki river basin of Raver sub-division is located towards the northeastern part of Jalgaon district in Maharashtra State. The existing land use pattern of the region clearly shows that more than 60% of the area is utilized for agricultural sector. Groundwater is the major source of irrigation and domestic purposes. To assess the overall water resources development of Raver area for better environment in future, investigation was carried out with the help of geophysical indicators. Vertical electrical sounding studies were conducted at 17 stations in the study area using Wenner configuration. The study was aimed at characterizing the aquifer in the area as well as assessing its potential risk to contaminant seepage in terms of protective capacity of the overburden rock materials using Dar- Zarrouk (D-Z) parameters, viz., the transverse resistance ( T), longitudinal conductance ( S), transverse resistivity ( ρ t ) and longitudinal resistivity ( ρ l ). These were computed to generate the resistivity regime of freshwater-bearing formations and its movement. The central-western part of the study area reflects very good to good protective capacity rating as can be seen from the high longitudinal conductance values. The low value of the protective capacity in the eastern part is making the aquifer system in the area highly vulnerable to surface contamination. This indicates that the ground water quality may have been deteriorated in the area and borehole water samples should be randomly sampled for contaminant loads based on this analysis.

  14. A tree canopy height delineation method based on Morphological Reconstruction—Open Crown Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Jing, L.; Li, Y.; Tang, Y.; Li, H.; Lin, Q.

    2016-04-01

    For the purpose of forest management, high resolution LIDAR and optical remote sensing imageries are used for treetop detection, tree crown delineation, and classification. The purpose of this study is to develop a self-adjusted dominant scales calculation method and a new crown horizontal cutting method of tree canopy height model (CHM) to detect and delineate tree crowns from LIDAR, under the hypothesis that a treetop is radiometric or altitudinal maximum and tree crowns consist of multi-scale branches. The major concept of the method is to develop an automatic selecting strategy of feature scale on CHM, and a multi-scale morphological reconstruction-open crown decomposition (MRCD) to get morphological multi-scale features of CHM by: cutting CHM from treetop to the ground; analysing and refining the dominant multiple scales with differential horizontal profiles to get treetops; segmenting LiDAR CHM using watershed a segmentation approach marked with MRCD treetops. This method has solved the problems of false detection of CHM side-surface extracted by the traditional morphological opening canopy segment (MOCS) method. The novel MRCD delineates more accurate and quantitative multi-scale features of CHM, and enables more accurate detection and segmentation of treetops and crown. Besides, the MRCD method can also be extended to high optical remote sensing tree crown extraction. In an experiment on aerial LiDAR CHM of a forest of multi-scale tree crowns, the proposed method yielded high-quality tree crown maps.

  15. Delineating native and invasive plant functional groups in shrub-steppe vegetation using bidirectional reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naupari, Javier A.; Vierling, Lee A.; Eitel, Jan U. H.

    2013-01-01

    Delineating invasive and native plant types using remote sensing is important for managing rangelands. Remote characterization of rangeland vegetation often utilizes only the nadir view, which can be complicated by background soil reflectance. We therefore collected bidirectional radiometric measurements on a shrub-steppe vegetated landscape throughout the mid- to late-growing season to: (1) quantify the BRFs of four rangeland vegetation functional groups (native shrub, native grasses, invasive annual grasses, and forbs), and (2) examine ways in which bidirectional reflectance values may help delineate native and invasive vegetation types. We found that the invasive grass medusahead rye (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski) could be discriminated from other vegetation types at nadir and across four forward-viewing zenith angles because this species exhibited structural changes when leaf orientation changed from erectophile to planophile during and after the filling of seedheads. We also confirmed that native shrubs exhibited the highest anisotropy in all wavebands, as the relatively complex structure of the shrub canopy and concomitant shadowing greatly affected values of normalized difference vegetation index across all view angles. In order to delineate rangeland vegetation types at coarser scales, further study is needed to quantify the spectral angular signatures of these plant groups using satellite-based images.

  16. Cattle-rangeland management practices and perceptions of pastoralists towards rangeland degradation in the Borana zone of southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, T B; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N

    2007-03-01

    A survey was conducted in the Borana pastoral areas of southern Ethiopia to assess current livestock production systems, rangeland management practices and the perceptions of the pastoralists towards rangeland degradation. This information is considered vital to future pastoral development planning and interventions. Data were collected from a total of 20 villages that were identified from 5 peasant associations, namely Did Yabello, Moyatte, Did Harra, Dubuluk and Melbana. The average household size in the study area was 7.23. The majority of the pastoralists relied on both livestock and crop farming. The average livestock holding per household was 14 cattle, 10 goats, 6 sheep and 2 camels. Livestock holdings, with the exception of camels, has shown a declining trend over time. The two most important traditional rangeland management strategies adopted by the pastoralists included burning and mobility, but since 1974/75 burning has no longer been practised. With regard to mobility, the livestock herding falls in two categories, namely: home based and satellite herding. The former involves the herding of milking cows, calves and immature animals (2 years) further away from the encampments. Based on the pastoralists' perceptions, the major constraints on livestock production in descending order, were recurrent drought, feed and water scarcity, animal diseases, predators and communal land ownership. All the respondents considered the condition of the rangelands to have declined dramatically over time. In the past most development policies were based on equilibrium theories that opposed the communal use of the rangelands and traditional range management practices. The way in which the pastoral system affects the rangeland ecosystem functioning is contentious to this theory and the 'tragedy of the commons'. There was also a perceived problem of bush encroachment and the ban on traditional burning practices and recurrent droughts were seen as aggravating factors to this

  17. Legislation Amendment Impact on Coastal Management Pattern: An Edge of Chaos towards Punctuated Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Dian

    2017-07-01

    Management of coastal areas and small islands in Indonesia refers to a set of coordination consists of planning, utilizing, monitoring, and controlling coastal resources that are carried out by every level of the government and many related sectors. An alteration has occurred in National Act about Local Government, Act No. 23/2014, which has the implications in the coastal management territorial zone. The issues started by the shifting of the seaward delineation authorities, it is stated that from 0 - 12 Nautical Miles (nmi) are under provincial government which previously 0 - 4 nmi were under city government, and 4 - 12 nmi were under provincial government. That said, there are no territorial management that is handled by the city/local government, including permit regulation. In hierarchy, provincial government are in upper level than city government. Chaos are happening especially in the context of authorities’ management level, but to reach the main purpose of the National Act there should be an equilibrium point to normalize the situation and get the stakeholders understand the principles and keep engaged in the new form of management. This article aims to assess the impact of the National Act alteration to the sustainability of coastal management. A case study to simplify the model is in the East Java province. Theoretical framework to assess the alteration impact were related to Integrated Coastal Zone Management principles and regulatory review of the coastal zones. The analytical methods used in this article is descriptive comparative to observe the alteration in the pattern of coastal zone management variables. The comparative study was then mapped in a flow diagram to be compared on different management situation. As a result, significant changes were revealed in the pattern of the coastal management factors: (i) Authorities delineation; (ii) Planning documents; (iii) Permit system; (iv) Control; and (iii) Program Accreditation.

  18. Towards a High-Resolution Global Inundation Delineation Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluet-Chouinard, E.; Lehner, B.

    2011-12-01

    Although their importance for biodiversity, flow regulation and ecosystem service provision is widely recognized, wetlands and temporarily inundated landscapes remain poorly mapped globally because of their inherent elusive nature. Inventorying of wetland resources has been identified in international agreements as an essential component of appropriate conservation efforts and management initiatives of these threatened ecosystems. However, despite recent advances in remote sensing surface water monitoring, current inventories of surface water variations remain incomplete at the regional-to-global scale due to methodological limitations restricting truly global application. Remote sensing wetland applications such as SAR L-band are particularly constrained by image availability and heterogeneity of acquisition dates, while coarse resolution passive microwave and multi-sensor methods cannot discriminate distinct surface water bodies. As a result, the most popular global wetland dataset remains to this day the Global Lake & Wetland Database (Lehner and Doll, 2004) a spatially inconsistent database assembled from various existing data sources. The approach taken in this project circumvents the limitations of current global wetland monitoring methods by combining globally available topographic and hydrographic data to downscale coarse resolution global inundation data (Prigent et al., 2007) and thus create a superior inundation delineation map product. The developed procedure downscales inundation data from the coarse resolution (~27km) of current passive microwave sensors to the finer spatial resolution (~500m) of the topographic and hydrographic layers of HydroSHEDS' data suite (Lehner et al., 2006), while retaining the high temporal resolution of the multi-sensor inundation dataset. From the downscaling process emerges new information on the specific location of inundation, but also on its frequency and duration. The downscaling algorithm employs a decision tree

  19. Benchmark of Client and Server-Side Catchment Delineation Approaches on Web-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Sermet, M. Y.; Sit, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in internet and cyberinfrastructure technologies have provided the capability to acquire large scale spatial data from various gauges and sensor networks. The collection of environmental data increased demand for applications which are capable of managing and processing large-scale and high-resolution data sets. With the amount and resolution of data sets provided, one of the challenging tasks for organizing and customizing hydrological data sets is delineation of watersheds on demand. Watershed delineation is a process for creating a boundary that represents the contributing area for a specific control point or water outlet, with intent of characterization and analysis of portions of a study area. Although many GIS tools and software for watershed analysis are available on desktop systems, there is a need for web-based and client-side techniques for creating a dynamic and interactive environment for exploring hydrological data. In this project, we demonstrated several watershed delineation techniques on the web with various techniques implemented on the client-side using JavaScript and WebGL, and on the server-side using Python and C++. We also developed a client-side GPGPU (General Purpose Graphical Processing Unit) algorithm to analyze high-resolution terrain data for watershed delineation which allows parallelization using GPU. The web-based real-time analysis of watershed segmentation can be helpful for decision-makers and interested stakeholders while eliminating the need of installing complex software packages and dealing with large-scale data sets. Utilization of the client-side hardware resources also eliminates the need of servers due its crowdsourcing nature. Our goal for future work is to improve other hydrologic analysis methods such as rain flow tracking by adapting presented approaches.

  20. Delineation of Crystalline Extended Defects on Multicrystalline Silicon Wafers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fathi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have selected Secco and Yang etch solutions for the crystalline defect delineation on multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si wafers. Following experimentations and optimization of Yang and Secco etching process parameters, we have successfully revealed crystalline extended defects on mc-Si surfaces. A specific delineation process with successive application of Yang and Secco agent on the same sample has proved the increased sensitivity of Secco etch to crystalline extended defects in mc-Si materials. The exploration of delineated mc-Si surfaces indicated that strong dislocation densities are localized mainly close to the grain boundaries and on the level of small grains in size (below 1 mm. Locally, we have observed the formation of several parallel dislocation lines, perpendicular to the grain boundaries. The overlapping of several dislocations lines has revealed particular forms for etched pits of dislocations.

  1. Analysis of the cost and return to management of small scale cassava production in the humid zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobadia, E.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a major staple food in Nigeria. Available literature showed that not much work had been done on the return to management (RTM of this crop particularly in recent times. Crop production variables of capital, hired labour, family labour and fertilizer-use were studied. Costs and returns of cassava production in the study area were computed. The study showed that the average cost of producing an hectare of cassava irf N 10, 343.99. The total return was valued at N 45, 165.57 with an average RTM of N 34, 821.58. The study also revealed that labour and fertilizer are crucial variables to productivity of the farm-firm in terms of output per hectare. It was concluded that cassava production is a profitable venture and comparable to any Government Service which the unemployed and young school leavers should be encouraged to go into.

  2. Interobserver delineation variation in lung tumour stereotacticbody radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, G. F.; Nygaard, D. E.; Hollensen, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In radiotherapy, delineation uncertainties are important as they contribute to systematic errors and can lead to geographical miss of the target. For margin computation, standard deviations (SDs) of all uncertainties must be included as SDs. The aim of this study was to quantify...... the interobserver delineation variation for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of peripheral lung tumours using a cross-sectional study design. Methods 22 consecutive patients with 26 tumours were included. Positron emission tomography/CT scans were acquired for planning of SBRT. Three oncologists and three...

  3. Impacts of extensive driftnet fishery and late 1990s climate regime shift on dominant epipelagic nekton in the Transition Region and Subtropical Frontal Zone: Implications for fishery management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, T.; Nishikawa, H.; Igarashi, H.; Okamura, H.; Mahapatra, K.; Sakai, M.; Wakabayashi, T.; Inagake, D.; Okada, Y.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the impacts of extensive anthropogenic (high seas driftnet squid fishery) and natural (late 1990s major climate regime shift) events on dominant epipelagic fish, squid, and shark in the central North Pacific Transition Region based on a driftnet survey covering the years 1979-2006. Fishing was conducted by Japan, Korea and Taiwan to target neon flying squid in the period 1979-1992, resulting in a decline in stocks of the target species and non-target species (Pacific pomfret and juvenile blue shark), which were by-catch of this fishery. The catch was found to be at the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) level for neon flying squid, the underfished level for juvenile blue shark, but the overfished level for Pacific pomfret. The MSY of Pacific pomfret indicated that this species is more susceptible to exploitation than previously considered. In response to the late 1990s regime shift, neon flying squid and Pacific saury showed low stock levels in 1999-2002 and 1998-2002, respectively, as a result of reduced productivity in their nursery grounds (the Subtropical Frontal Zone and Kuroshio Extension Bifurcation Region, respectively). On the other hand, Pacific pomfret showed no decreasing trend in stock during the low- and intermediate-productivity regimes because of the high productivity of their main spawning/nursery ground (Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front), which was independent of the regime shifts. Thus, squid and saury appear to be more susceptible to the regime shift than pomfret. We discuss the implications for stock management of the species-specific responses to the fishery and the regime shift.

  4. Pattern, presentation and management of vascular injuries due to pellets and rubber bullets in a conflict zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd L Wani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rubber bullets and pellet guns are considered non-lethal low-velocity weapons. They are used to disperse a mob during street protests. The present study was undertaken to analyze the pattern, presentation and management of vascular injuries caused by these weapons. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective study of patients with features of vascular injuries due to pellets and rubber bullets from June 2010 to November 2010. All patients with features of vascular injuries due to these non-lethal weapons were included in the study. Vascular injuries caused by other causes were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 35 patients who presented with features of vascular injury during this period were studied. All of them were males. The mean age was 22 years. Fifteen patients were revascularized primarily, 19 patients needed reverse saphenous vein graft and, in one, patient lateral repair was done. There were two mortalities in our series. Wound infection was the most common complication. The amputation rate was around 6%. Conclusion: Pellet and rubber bullets can cause serious life-threatening injuries. Vascular injury caused by these weapons need no different approach than other vascular injuries. Early revascularization and prompt resuscitation prevents the loss of limb or life.

  5. Quantifying the Road-Effect Zone: Threshold Effects of a Motorway on Anuran Populations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Eigenbrod

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The negative effect of roads on wildlife is recognized as a major contributor to the global biodiversity crisis, with anurans being among the most vulnerable groups overall. The "road-effect zone," i.e., the extent of significant ecological effects from the edge of a road (Forman and Alexander 1998, has important management implications, but has never been quantified for anurans. In the first study of its kind, we measured the extent and type of relationship underlying the road-effect zones of a motorway with a high proportion of heavy-truck traffic, particularly at night (Highway 401 for anuran species richness and relative abundance. We surveyed 34 ponds located 68-3262 m from the edge of the motorway, and used piecewise and linear regressions to determine if road-effect zones were clearly delineated by ecological thresholds. We found road-effect zones of 250-1000 m delineated by ecological thresholds for four of seven species and species richness, and road-effect zones of well beyond 1000 m best described by linear regressions for two species. The negative effect of Highway 401 was unexpectedly strong for four of seven species suggest that, in addition to road mortality, very high nighttime truck traffic can actually lead to reduced use of breeding habitat near the motorway either by acting as a barrier to forest habitat on the other side of the highway and/or because of traffic noise. Our results show that most anurans are likely to have reduced abundances near motorways, but that both the extent of the effect of this type of road and the underlying relationship vary considerably between species. Furthermore, the noise and/or barrier effect of very high nighttime traffic volumes can lead to negative effects of motorways even on species that are relatively unaffected by direct road mortality.

  6. Dairy farms typology and management of animal genetic resources in the peri-urban zone of Bamako (Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Toure

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To characterise this development around Bamako (Mali, this study establishes a typology of dairy production systems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5–118 and 42% of farmers owned cropland (8.3± 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha. Feeding strategy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85% of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important parameters. According to breeders’ answers, thirty genetic profiles were identified, from local purebreds to different levels of crossbreds. Purebred animals raised were Fulani Zebu (45.8 %, Maure Zebu (9.2 %, Holstein (3.0 %, Azawak Zebu (1.3 %, Mere Zebu (0.5% and Kuri taurine (0.1 %. Holstein crossbred represented 30.5% of the total number of animals (19.0% Fulani-Holstein, 11.2% Maure-Holstein and 0.3% Kuri-Holstein. Montbéliarde, Normande and Limousin crossbreds were also found (6.6 %, 0.7% and 0.3 %, respectively. A multivariate analysis helped disaggregate the diversity of management practices. The high diversity of situations shows the need for consideration of typological characteristics for an appropriate intervention. Although strongly anchored on local breeds, the peri-urban dairy systems included a diversity of exotic cattle, showing an uncoordinated quest of breeders for innovation. Without a public intervention, this dynamic will result in an irremediable erosion of indigenous animal genetic resources.

  7. 12 CFR 228.41 - Assessment area delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....41 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Records, Reporting, and Disclosure Requirements § 228.41..., but the Board reviews the delineation for compliance with the requirements of this section. (b...

  8. The Regionalization of Africa: Delineating Africa's Subregions Using Airline Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Pieter R.; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Current regionalizations of Africa have limitations in that they are attribute-based and regions are delineated according to national boundaries. Taking the world city network approach as starting point, it is possible to use relational data (i.e., information about the relationships between cities) rather than attribute data, and moreover, it…

  9. Crowdsourcing for error detection in cortical surface delineations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Kondermann, Daniel; Andrulis, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    crowdsourcing platform were asked to annotate errors in automatic cortical surface delineations on 100 central, coronal slices of MR images. RESULTS: On average, annotations for 100 images were obtained in less than an hour. When using expert annotations as reference, the crowd on average achieves a sensitivity...

  10. Delineating psychomotor slowing from reduced processing speed in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Matton, C.; Madani, Y.; Bouwel, L. van; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Psychomotor slowing is an intrinsic feature of schizophrenia that is poorly delineated from generally reduced processing speed. Although the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST) is widely used to assess psychomotor speed, the task also taps several higher-order cognitive processes. Re

  11. Contested delineations: planning, law, and the governance of protected areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beunen, R.; Assche, van K.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we reflect on the relationship between planning and law. We analyse the Dutch interpretation and implementation of the European Union Habitats and Birds Directives by investigating the practices of delineation of protected areas. These directives provide a legislative framework for the

  12. Dynamic Stereochemistry: A Simple Approach to Delineating Relative Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Dipak K.

    2007-01-01

    A simple approach for delineating the stereochemistry of the products relative to that of the reactants in reactions involving stereogenic centers is addressed. The reaction at the tetrahedral center involves the cleavage of a bond to one of the ligands in the reactant and the resulting new ligand in the product is labeled by affixing prime to the…

  13. Further delineation of the hypotrichosis-deafness syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensel, M.A.M. van; Geel, M. van; Steijlen, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    We recently delineated a novel disorder characterized by hypotrichosis, nail dystrophy and sensorineural deafness and caused by a missense mutation in GJB2 (connexin26). The patient, a girl, was two years old when we first saw her. We had the opportunity to re-examine her at four years of age and fo

  14. Automated delineation of stroke lesions using brain CT images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline R. Gillebert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomographic (CT images are widely used for the identification of abnormal brain tissue following infarct and hemorrhage in stroke. Manual lesion delineation is currently the standard approach, but is both time-consuming and operator-dependent. To address these issues, we present a method that can automatically delineate infarct and hemorrhage in stroke CT images. The key elements of this method are the accurate normalization of CT images from stroke patients into template space and the subsequent voxelwise comparison with a group of control CT images for defining areas with hypo- or hyper-intense signals. Our validation, using simulated and actual lesions, shows that our approach is effective in reconstructing lesions resulting from both infarct and hemorrhage and yields lesion maps spatially consistent with those produced manually by expert operators. A limitation is that, relative to manual delineation, there is reduced sensitivity of the automated method in regions close to the ventricles and the brain contours. However, the automated method presents a number of benefits in terms of offering significant time savings and the elimination of the inter-operator differences inherent to manual tracing approaches. These factors are relevant for the creation of large-scale lesion databases for neuropsychological research. The automated delineation of stroke lesions from CT scans may also enable longitudinal studies to quantify changes in damaged tissue in an objective and reproducible manner.

  15. The Regionalization of Africa: Delineating Africa's Subregions Using Airline Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Pieter R.; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Current regionalizations of Africa have limitations in that they are attribute-based and regions are delineated according to national boundaries. Taking the world city network approach as starting point, it is possible to use relational data (i.e., information about the relationships between cities) rather than attribute data, and moreover, it…

  16. Delineation of nuclear structures in 3D multicellular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-09-13

    A pipeline, implemented within the Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK) and The Visualization Toolkit (VTK) framework, to delineate each nucleus and to profile morphometric and colony organization. At an abstract level, our approach is an extension of a previously developed method for monolayer call structure models.

  17. Delineating psychomotor slowing from reduced processing speed in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Matton, C.; Madani, Y.; Bouwel, L. van; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Psychomotor slowing is an intrinsic feature of schizophrenia that is poorly delineated from generally reduced processing speed. Although the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST) is widely used to assess psychomotor speed, the task also taps several higher-order cognitive processes.

  18. Applying geographic information systems to delineate residential suburbs and summarise data based on individual parcel attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan A. Sinske

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information aggregation to suburb level is of interest to engineers and urban planners. Readily available suburb boundaries do not always correspond to the suburb names recorded for individual properties in different data bases and unwanted errors are inherent. This mismatch of suburb names at different spatial scales poses a particular problem to analysts. As part of a parallel research project into the development of a robust guideline for suburb-based water demand analyses it was necessary to evaluate a large number of suburbs in terms of various attributes, one of which was the total suburb area.Objectives: Suburb boundaries were needed to assess the total suburb area. The objective of this research was to develop a novel geographic information system (GIS application to delineate suburbs with boundaries corresponding to information contained in another data base comprising individual property records. The suburb boundaries derived in this manner may not relate to municipal boundaries, or sociopolitical boundaries, nor do they have to. The fundamentally correct suburb boundary would be the one encompassing what is perceived to be the suburb based on the suburb name in a particular data base that also contains other interesting attributes, such as water use, of individual properties.Method: The ArcGIS environment was used to delineate suburbs by means of triangulated irregular network (TIN modelling. Boundaries for suburbs with predominantly residential land use were created that included all residential properties according to the suburb name field as recorded in the treasury system. Other vacant areas were also included so as to obtain the total suburb area. The methodology was developed to assist research in the field of potable water services, but the method presented could be applied to other services that require management of information at suburb level.Results: This article illustrates how a tedious task of suburb

  19. Flow Routing for Delineating Supraglacial Meltwater Channel Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora King

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing interest in supraglacial channels, coupled with the increasing availability of high-resolution remotely sensed imagery of glacier surfaces, motivates the development and testing of new approaches to delineating surface meltwater channels. We utilized a high-resolution (2 m digital elevation model of parts of the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS and retention of visually identified sinks (i.e., moulins to investigate the ability of a standard D8 flow routing algorithm to delineate supraglacial channels. We compared these delineated channels to manually digitized channels and to channels extracted from multispectral imagery. We delineated GrIS supraglacial channel networks in six high-elevation (above 1000 m and one low-elevation (below 1000 m catchments during and shortly after peak melt (July and August 2012, and investigated the effect of contributing area threshold on flow routing performance. We found that, although flow routing is sensitive to data quality and moulin identification, it can identify 75% to 99% of channels observed with multispectral analysis, as well as low-order, high-density channels (up to 15.7 km/km2 with a 0.01 km2 contributing area threshold in greater detail than multispectral methods. Additionally, we found that flow routing can delineate supraglacial channel networks on rough ice surfaces with widespread crevassing. Our results suggest that supraglacial channel density is sufficiently high during peak melt that low contributing area thresholds can be employed with little risk of overestimating the channel network extent.

  20. Managing new resources in Arctic marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourantidou, Melina; Fernandez, Linda; Kaiser, Brooks

    and management of the resource which poses challenges due its nature as a ‘sedentary species’ colonizing the Barents Sea continental shelf shared by Norway and Russia and approaching the fishery protection zone around Svalbard. Conversely, little research has looked into the implications of the invasion partly...... fishery straddling Arctic waters which lends towards different productivity under different management and we delineate acceptable risk levels in order build up a bioeconomic framework that pinpoints the underlying trade-offs. We also address the difficulties of managing the resource under uncertainty......Along with the Arctic’s icy barriers melting which allows species to move northwards, new invasion corridors also arise with the opening of new shipping routes. The Snow Crab in the North West Atlantic is suspected to be a stowaway transferred via ballast water from the North Pacific...

  1. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-W23-19 [SX-115] in the S-SX Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Gee, Glendon W.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Last, George V.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Burke, Deborah S.; Wilson, Teresa C.; Williams, Bruce A.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.15 and 4.19. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project is led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. Their goals include defining risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities, identifying and evaluating the efficacy of interim measures, and collecting geotechnical information and data. The purpose of these activities is to support future decisions made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regarding near-term operations, future waste retrieval, and final closure activities for the single-shell tank Waste Management Areas. To help in this effort, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. contracted with scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to analyze sediment samples collected from borehole 299-W23-19.

  2. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and Cryptosporidium species in extensively managed pigs in Mekelle and urban areas of southern zone of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdneh Tomass

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and Cryptosporidium species in extensively managed pigs in Mekelle and urban areas of southern zone of Tigray Region, Ethiopia during June - September, 2012. Material and methods: Seven hundred fourteen pigs of different ages and sexes were selected for fecal sample collection. Fecal samples were collected from the rectum of pigs with strict sanitation. A total of 25 soil samples were also collected from backyards of pig pens using clean zipped plastic bags. Both fecal and soil samples were examined for eggs and cysts of GIT parasites by flotation and sedimentation techniques. Modified Ziehl – Neelsen technique was used to examine oocysts of Cryptosporidium species from 276 randomly selected fecal samples. Results: Out of 714 pigs examined through flotation and sedimentation, 27.3% were infected by at least one gastrointestinal parasite. Ascaris suum (25.9% was the most prevalent parasite followed by Fasciola hepatica (1.8%, Eimeria spp. (1.7% and Trichuris suis (0.3%. There was no significant association between sex and prevalence of parasites ÷2[df 1] = 1.921; P=0.166. Contrary to this, age of pigs had effect on prevalence of parasites ÷2[df 2] = 8.376; P=0.015. About 7% of pigs examined were positive for oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. Moreover, 72% of the soil samples found to be contaminated with eggs of Ascaris spp. in the study area. Apart from causing morbidity in the infected pigs, the potential of Ascaris of pigs to infect man and vice versa together with poor environmental hygiene, may complicate the epidemiology and control of Ascariasis in the study areas. Extensively managed pigs may also act as potential reservoirs for zoonoses of Cryptosporidium species. Conclusion: It is concluded that further investigations are crucial on molecular characterization of Ascaris and Cryptosporidium isolates of extensively managed pigs to determine the

  3. Scaling Critical Zone analysis tasks from desktop to the cloud utilizing contemporary distributed computing and data management approaches: A case study for project based learning of Cyberinfrastructure concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetnam, T. L.; Pelletier, J. D.; Merchant, N.; Callahan, N.; Lyons, E.

    2015-12-01

    Earth science is making rapid advances through effective utilization of large-scale data repositories such as aerial LiDAR and access to NSF-funded cyberinfrastructures (e.g. the OpenTopography.org data portal, iPlant Collaborative, and XSEDE). Scaling analysis tasks that are traditionally developed using desktops, laptops or computing clusters to effectively leverage national and regional scale cyberinfrastructure pose unique challenges and barriers to adoption. To address some of these challenges in Fall 2014 an 'Applied Cyberinfrastructure Concepts' a project-based learning course (ISTA 420/520) at the University of Arizona focused on developing scalable models of 'Effective Energy and Mass Transfer' (EEMT, MJ m-2 yr-1) for use by the NSF Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) project. EEMT is a quantitative measure of the flux of available energy to the critical zone, and its computation involves inputs that have broad applicability (e.g. solar insolation). The course comprised of 25 students with varying level of computational skills and with no prior domain background in the geosciences, collaborated with domain experts to develop the scalable workflow. The original workflow relying on open-source QGIS platform on a laptop was scaled to effectively utilize cloud environments (Openstack), UA Campus HPC systems, iRODS, and other XSEDE and OSG resources. The project utilizes public data, e.g. DEMs produced by OpenTopography.org and climate data from Daymet, which are processed using GDAL, GRASS and SAGA and the Makeflow and Work-queue task management software packages. Students were placed into collaborative groups to develop the separate aspects of the project. They were allowed to change teams, alter workflows, and design and develop novel code. The students were able to identify all necessary dependencies, recompile source onto the target execution platforms, and demonstrate a functional workflow, which was further improved upon by one of the group leaders over

  4. Management zones in agriculture acording to the soil and landscape variables Zonas de manejo agrícolas de acordo com variáveis de solo e paisagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hevandro C. Delalibera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of spatial variability of soil and plants attributes, or precision agriculture, a technique that aims the rational use of natural resources, is expanding commercially in Brazil. Nevertheless, there is a lack of mathematical analysis that supports the correlation of these independent variables and their interactions with the productivity, identifying scientific standards technologically applicable. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of soil variability according to the eleven physical and seven chemical indicators in an agricultural area. It was used two multivariate techniques: the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and the principal component analysis (PCA. According to the HCA, the area was divided into five management zones: zone 1 with 2.87ha, zone 2 with 0.8ha, zone 3 with 1.84ha, zone 4 with 1.33ha and zone 5 with 2.76ha. By the PCA, it was identified the most important variables within each zone: V% for the zone 1, CTC in the zone 2, levels of H+Al in the zone 4 and sand content and altitude in the zone 5. The zone 3 was classified as an intermediate zone with characteristics of all others. According to the results it is concluded that it is possible to separate into groups (management zones samples with the same patterns of variability by the multivariate statistical techniques.O estudo da variabilidade espacial de atributos do solo e plantas ou agricultura de precisão, técnica que visa ao uso racional dos recursos naturais, está expandindo-se comercialmente no Brasil. Porém ainda ressente-se de análise que dê respaldo matemático a correlação de variáveis independentes e suas interações com a variável produtividade, identificando padrões científicos tecnologicamente aplicáveis. Objetivou-se identificar padrões de variabilidade do solo com base em onze indicadores químicos e sete físicos em área agrícola. Utilizaram-se duas técnicas de estatística multivariada: análise hierárquica de

  5. Delineation of a clinical syndrome caused by mosaic trisomy 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, E.M.; Bienz, G.; Straumann, E.; Bosceh, N. [Univ. Children`s Hospital, Basel (Switzerland)

    1996-03-15

    We report on a boy with mosaic trisomy 15. The clinical manifestations are compared with those of the few cases reported up to now. A clinical syndrome is delineated consisting of a characteristic shape of the nose and other minor craniofacial anomalies, as well as typical deformities of the hands and feet. Different degrees of mosaicism may explain the more or less severe manifestations in individual patients. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Methods for Data-based Delineation of Spatial Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, John E.

    2012-10-01

    In data analysis, it is often useful to delineate or segregate areas of interest from the general population of data in order to concentrate further analysis efforts on smaller areas. Three methods are presented here for automatically generating polygons around spatial data of interest. Each method addresses a distinct data type. These methods were developed for and implemented in the sample planning tool called Visual Sample Plan (VSP). Method A is used to delineate areas of elevated values in a rectangular grid of data (raster). The data used for this method are spatially related. Although VSP uses data from a kriging process for this method, it will work for any type of data that is spatially coherent and appears on a regular grid. Method B is used to surround areas of interest characterized by individual data points that are congregated within a certain distance of each other. Areas where data are “clumped” together spatially will be delineated. Method C is used to recreate the original boundary in a raster of data that separated data values from non-values. This is useful when a rectangular raster of data contains non-values (missing data) that indicate they were outside of some original boundary. If the original boundary is not delivered with the raster, this method will approximate the original boundary.

  7. Image-Based Delineation and Classification of Built Heritage Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Oses

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundación Zain is developing new built heritage assessment protocols. The goal is to objectivize and standardize the analysis and decision process that leads to determining the degree of protection of built heritage in the Basque Country. The ultimate step in this objectivization and standardization effort will be the development of an information and communication technology (ICT tool for the assessment of built heritage. This paper presents the ground work carried out to make this tool possible: the automatic, image-based delineation of stone masonry. This is a necessary first step in the development of the tool, as the built heritage that will be assessed consists of stone masonry construction, and many of the features analyzed can be characterized according to the geometry and arrangement of the stones. Much of the assessment is carried out through visual inspection. Thus, this process will be automated by applying image processing on digital images of the elements under inspection. The principal contribution of this paper is the automatic delineation the framework proposed. The other contribution is the performance evaluation of this delineation as the input to a classifier for a geometrically characterized feature of a built heritage object. The element chosen to perform this evaluation is the stone arrangement of masonry walls. The validity of the proposed framework is assessed on real images of masonry walls.

  8. Coastal zone management of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D

    stream_size 1 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_94.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_94.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  9. Methane oxidation in a crude oil contaminated aquifer: Delineation of aerobic reactions at the plume fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, R.T.; Bekins, B.A.; Delin, G.N.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Blowes, D.W.; Kirshtein, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    High resolution direct-push profiling over short vertical distances was used to investigate CH4 attenuation in a petroleum contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota. The contaminant plume was delineated using dissolved gases, redox sensitive components, major ions, carbon isotope ratios in CH4 and CO2, and the presence of methanotrophic bacteria. Sharp redox gradients were observed near the water table. Shifts in ??13CCH4 from an average of - 57.6??? (?? 1.7???) in the methanogenic zone to - 39.6??? (?? 8.7???) at 105 m downgradient, strongly suggest CH4 attenuation through microbially mediated degradation. In the downgradient zone the aerobic/anaerobic transition is up to 0.5 m below the water table suggesting that transport of O2 across the water table is leading to aerobic degradation of CH4 at this interface. Dissolved N2 concentrations that exceeded those expected for water in equilibrium with the atmosphere indicated bubble entrapment followed by preferential stripping of O2 through aerobic degradation of CH4 or other hydrocarbons. Multivariate and cluster analysis were used to distinguish between areas of significant bubble entrapment and areas where other processes such as the infiltration of O 2 rich recharge water were important O2 transport mechanisms. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A screening tool for delineating subregions of steady recharge within groundwater models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Ferré, T. P. A.; Bakker, Mark; Crompton, Becky

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a screening method for simplifying groundwater models by delineating areas within the domain that can be represented using steady-state groundwater recharge. The screening method is based on an analytical solution for the damping of sinusoidal infiltration variations in homogeneous soils in the vadose zone. The damping depth is defined as the depth at which the flux variation damps to 5% of the variation at the land surface. Groundwater recharge may be considered steady where the damping depth is above the depth of the water table. The analytical solution approximates the vadose zone diffusivity as constant, and we evaluated when this approximation is reasonable. We evaluated the analytical solution through comparison of the damping depth computed by the analytic solution with the damping depth simulated by a numerical model that allows variable diffusivity. This comparison showed that the screening method conservatively identifies areas of steady recharge and is more accurate when water content and diffusivity are nearly constant. Nomograms of the damping factor (the ratio of the flux amplitude at any depth to the amplitude at the land surface) and the damping depth were constructed for clay and sand for periodic variations between 1 and 365 d and flux means and amplitudes from nearly 0 to 1 × 10−3 m d−1. We applied the screening tool to Central Valley, California, to identify areas of steady recharge. A MATLAB script was developed to compute the damping factor for any soil and any sinusoidal flux variation.

  11. Investigating the Capability of High Resolution ALSM to Provide Accurate Watershed Delineation and Stream Network Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, A.; Slatton, K. C.; Hatfield, K.

    2007-05-01

    The development of geographic information systems (GIS) and digital elevation models (DEMs) has provided an opportunity to describe the pathways of water movement in a watershed. Adequate DEM resolution is of high importance in stream network detection. Local, state, and federal agencies have relied on US Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps for information on stream networks for planning, management, and regulatory programs related to streams. DEM creation techniques that avoid map contours as the source of digital heights can improve watershed delineation and stream network data quality. Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) technology (also referred to as LIDAR) provides DEMs of fine resolution and high accuracy. However, there are shortcomings in using both low resolution and high resolution DEMs. The focus of this work will be in the unique aspects of using ALSM data in watershed delineation and stream network mapping, in comparison to the other sources of DEM. In particular the reliability of both input data and output results of stream network using different resolutions will be evaluated. In this study, stream location resulting from high-resolution ALSM and low- resolution NED are compared to ground truth locations of the stream in Hogtown Creek Watershed, located in Gainesville, Florida. This study shows that ALSM-derived models are more successful at delineating streams and at locating them in their topographically correct position as compared to lower resolution DEMs. However, high resolution ALSM data produce artifacts that can affect the flow of water as predicted by stream network algorithms. Methods for overcoming the challenges with regard to ALSM data in stream network detection are presented.

  12. Timing and causes of gully erosion in the riparian zone of the semi-arid tropical Victoria River, Australia: Management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, G. L.; Wasson, R. J.; Boggs, G. S.; Douglas, M.

    2016-08-01

    Gully erosion in the seasonally wet tropics of Australia is a major source of sediment in rivers. Stabilization of gullies to reduce impacts on aquatic ecosystems and water storages is a focus for management. However, the cause of the gully erosion is poorly understood and so a critical context for soil conservation is missing. It is uncertain if they are the result of post-European cattle grazing or are they much older and related to non-human factors. The causes of riparian gully erosion along a reach of the Victoria River in the semi-arid tropics of Australia were investigated using several methods. Gully complexes were described and characterised by two major components: a Flood Drainage Channel (FDC) and upslope of this an Outer Erosion Feature (OEF) characterised by badlands set within an amphitheatre. The OEF is likely to be a major source of sediment that appears to be of recent origin. A review of historical records, combined with Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating, showed that the FDCs were well established prior to the introduction of domestic stock. It also showed that the badlands began to develop about 90 years ago; that is, about 40 years after the arrival of domestic stock. In addition, an analysis of aerial photos coupled with an on-ground survey and analysis of fallout radionuclides revealed that erosion processes are still active within the gully complexes. While the FDCs are natural drainage channels, cattle grazing probably triggered the badland formation, with the expansion aided by increased rainfall in the past 40 years. Therefore, the OEFs are of human origin and protection from grazing of the riparian zone should slow badland erosion and reduce sediment input to the river.

  13. Between and within-field variation in physico-chemical soil properties of vineyards: implications for terroir zoning and management in Heuvelland, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, Emma; Verdoodt, Ann; Cornelis, Wim; Delbecque, Nele; Tiebergijn, Lynn; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Gabriels, Donald

    2015-04-01

    The 'Heuvelland' region with a surface area of 94 km² is situated in the Province of West Flanders, Belgium, bordering with France. The region comprises a number of hills ("heuvel") on which a fast growing 'wine culture' is developing. Both professional as well as non-professional wine makers together cultivate about 19 ha of vineyards, and are still expanding. Grapes cultivated include Chardonnay, Pinot gris and Pinot noir among others. The small-scale, strongly dispersed vineyards are located in different landscape positions of variable aspect. The objective of our preliminary study was to assess the between-field and within-field variation in physico-chemical soil properties of these vineyards with the aim to better characterise the terroir(s) in Heuvelland and provide guidelines for soil management. Fourteen vineyards from five different wineries were selected for detailed soil sampling. Twenty-five sampling sites were chosen according to the topography, soil map units and observed variability in grape growth. The soil was sampled using 15 cm depth increments up to a depth of 60 cm or a shallower lithic contact. Composite samples of 5 sampling locations along the contour lines were taken per within-field zone. Besides the texture, pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorous and exchangeable base cations (Ca, Mg, K), also some micronutrients (Fe, B, Cu, Mn) were determined using standard laboratory procedures. The soils developed on Quaternary niveo-eolian sandy loam and loamy sediments of variable thickness covering marine sandy and clayey sediments of the Tertiary. Where the Tertiary clayey sediments occur at shallow depth, they can strongly influence the internal drainage. At higher positions in the landscape, iron-rich sandstone layers are found at shallow depth. Fragments of this iron-rich sandstone can also be found at lower positions (colluvial material). This iron sandstone is claimed to contribute to the unique character of this wine

  14. Identifying tree crown delineation shapes and need for remediation on high resolution imagery using an evidence based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, Donald G.; Walsworth, Nicholas; Gougeon, François A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to fully realize the benefits of automated individual tree mapping for tree species, health, forest inventory attribution and forest management decision making, the tree delineations should be as good as possible. The concept of identifying poorly delineated tree crowns and suggesting likely types of remediation was investigated. Delineations (isolations or isols) were classified into shape types reflecting whether they were realistic tree shapes and the likely kind of remediation needed. Shape type was classified by an evidence based rules approach using primitives based on isol size, shape indices, morphology, the presence of local maxima, and matches with template models representing trees of different sizes. A test set containing 50,000 isols based on an automated tree delineation of 40 cm multispectral airborne imagery of a diverse temperate-boreal forest site was used. Isolations representing single trees or several trees were the focus, as opposed to cases where a tree is split into several isols. For eight shape classes from regular through to convolute, shape classification accuracy was in the order of 62%; simplifying to six classes accuracy was 83%. Shape type did give an indication of the type of remediation and there were 6% false alarms (i.e., isols classed as needing remediation but did not). Alternately, there were 5% omissions (i.e., isols of regular shape and not earmarked for remediation that did need remediation). The usefulness of the concept of identifying poor delineations in need of remediation was demonstrated and one suite of methods developed and shown to be effective.

  15. DELINEATION OF STRUCTURAL DAMAGE FROM PIEZO-FIBRE-BASED SENSOR DEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD MEHDIZADEH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates diagnostic techniques to distinguish sensor degradation from structural damage, with a focus on interdigital piezoelectric fibre transducers. With the increasing application of structural health monitoring (SHM systems to manage the on-going integrity of safety-critical structures, it is important to improve the reliability of SHM systems by reducing erroneous information from sensors. This requires a new capability to delineate failures associated with sensors and the sensor network from actual damage in the structure being monitored. This is especially important when the deleterious structural changes in the sensor occurs without any discernible change in the structure being monitored In the present work, an assessment is carried out to quantify the degradation in the electric and electromechanical characteristics of polymer composite PZT sensors, under fatigue loading. Changes in the electrical properties of these sensors such as capacitance and inductance have been measured. Insight into the sensor damage was sought by comparingstrain measurements experimentally determined from the sensor to that determined theoretically. The results show that the delineation of structural damage from sensor degradation may be possible by monitoring the changes in the key electrical properties of the sensor components such as electrodes and PZT fibers.

  16. Geomorphic Flood Area (GFA): a QGIS tool for a cost-effective delineation of the floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samela, Caterina; Albano, Raffaele; Sole, Aurelia; Manfreda, Salvatore

    2017-04-01

    The importance of delineating flood hazard and risk areas at a global scale has been highlighted for many years. However, its complete achievement regularly encounters practical difficulties, above all the lack of data and implementation costs. In conditions of scarce data availability (e.g. ungauged basins, large-scale analyses), a fast and cost-effective floodplain delineation can be carried out using geomorphic methods (e.g., Manfreda et al., 2011; 2014). In particular, an automatic DEM-based procedure has been implemented in an open-source QGIS plugin named Geomorphic Flood Area - tool (GFA - tool). This tool performs a linear binary classification based on the recently proposed Geomorphic Flood Index (GFI), which exhibited high classification accuracy and reliability in several test sites located in Europe, United States and Africa (Manfreda et al., 2015; Samela et al., 2016, 2017; Samela, 2016). The GFA - tool is designed to make available to all users the proposed procedure, that includes a number of operations requiring good geomorphic and GIS competences. It allows computing the GFI through terrain analysis, turning it into a binary classifier, and training it on the base of a standard inundation map derived for a portion of the river basin (a minimum of 2% of the river basin's area is suggested) using detailed methods of analysis (e.g. flood hazard maps produced by emergency management agencies or river basin authorities). Finally, GFA - tool allows to extend the classification outside the calibration area to delineate the flood-prone areas across the entire river basin. The full analysis has been implemented in this plugin with a user-friendly interface that should make it easy to all user to apply the approach and produce the desired results. Keywords: flood susceptibility; data scarce environments; geomorphic flood index; linear binary classification; Digital elevation models (DEMs). References Manfreda, S., Di Leo, M., Sole, A., (2011). Detection of

  17. 75 FR 37245 - 2010 Standards for Delineating Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ...(b) is used in a much more limited fashion, only applying that criterion to those potential... estimates. The urbanized areas and urban clusters used in the 2018 update will be those delineated with 2010... delineated urbanized area of at least 50,000 population or a Census Bureau delineated urban cluster of...

  18. Ordering Interfluves: a Simple Proposal for Understanding Critical Zone Evolution and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecheisen, Z. S.; Richter, D., Jr.; Moon, S.; Halpin, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    A geomorphic interfluve ordering system, a reciprocal to the Hortonian-Strahler stream network order, is envisioned at the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory (CCZO) in the South Carolina Piedmont. In this system the narrowest and most highly dissected interfluves (gentle ridges and hilltops) are 1st order and increase in rank dendritically through interfluve branching and broadening. Interfluve order attends to the structure, function, and management of residual porous-solid systems in the transport of water, solutes, and eroded solids in our deeply weathered (>30m soil/saprolite) critical zone. Recently generated geospatial data regarding the interactions of geomorphology, human land use, and forest ecology further strengthen the utility of this system. These upland networks and corresponding "land-sheds" have potential in linking recent work in the fields of geophysics and geomorphology regarding bedrock weathering front dynamics. Patterns of bedrock weathering depth, landcover & land-use change, and soil erosion are considered as they correspond to interfluve order. With LiDAR mapping and the burgeoning development and utilization of geophysical techniques and models enabling new quantitative research of critical zone landscape structure and function, many physiographic regions could benefit from a system that delineates and orders interfluve networks.

  19. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rubaire-Akiiki

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.

  20. Geochemical Characterization Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2008-01-07

    This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank (SST) farms at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical information available for the vadose zone beneath the SST farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF).

  1. Estimation of effective soil hydraulic parameters for water management studies in semi-arid zones. Integral use of modelling, remote sensing and parameter estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhorar, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: evapotranspiration, effective soil hydraulic parameters, remote sensing, regional water management, groundwater use, Bhakra Irrigation System, India.The meaningful application of water management simulation models at regional scale for the analysis of alternate water manage

  2. PET functional volume delineation: a robustness and repeatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatt, Mathieu [CHU Morvan, INSERM, U650, LaTIM, Brest (France); CHU MORVAN, LaTIM, INSERM U650, Brest (France); Cheze-le Rest, Catherine [CHU Morvan, INSERM, U650, LaTIM, Brest (France); CHU, Academic Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brest (France); Albarghach, Nidal; Pradier, Olivier [CHU Morvan, INSERM, U650, LaTIM, Brest (France); CHU, Institute of Oncology, Brest (France); Visvikis, Dimitris [CHU Morvan, INSERM, U650, LaTIM, Brest (France)

    2011-04-15

    Current state-of-the-art algorithms for functional uptake volume segmentation in PET imaging consist of threshold-based approaches, whose parameters often require specific optimization for a given scanner and associated reconstruction algorithms. Different advanced image segmentation approaches previously proposed and extensively validated, such as among others fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering, or fuzzy locally adaptive bayesian (FLAB) algorithm have the potential to improve the robustness of functional uptake volume measurements. The objective of this study was to investigate robustness and repeatability with respect to various scanner models, reconstruction algorithms and acquisition conditions. Robustness was evaluated using a series of IEC phantom acquisitions carried out on different PET/CT scanners (Philips Gemini and Gemini Time-of-Flight, Siemens Biograph and GE Discovery LS) with their associated reconstruction algorithms (RAMLA, TF MLEM, OSEM). A range of acquisition parameters (contrast, duration) and reconstruction parameters (voxel size) were considered for each scanner model, and the repeatability of each method was evaluated on simulated and clinical tumours and compared to manual delineation. For all the scanner models, acquisition parameters and reconstruction algorithms considered, the FLAB algorithm demonstrated higher robustness in delineation of the spheres with low mean errors (10%) and variability (5%), with respect to threshold-based methodologies and FCM. The repeatability provided by all segmentation algorithms considered was very high with a negligible variability of <5% in comparison to that associated with manual delineation (5-35%). The use of advanced image segmentation algorithms may not only allow high accuracy as previously demonstrated, but also provide a robust and repeatable tool to aid physicians as an initial guess in determining functional volumes in PET. (orig.)

  3. 基于 GIS的地铁保护区信息管理系统应用研究%Application research on information management system of metro safety protection zone based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许碧华

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the problems of miscellaneous operation projects , many risk sources , long cycle and difficult manage-ment in metro safety protection zone , an information management system of metro safety protection zone was established by u -sing Baidu Map based on GIS technology .The data structure , overall framework and technical route of the system were illus-trated.The practical example showed that the system realized the functions of information storage , query, statistics, manage-ment and sharing in the whole process from land leasing to construction of project in the metro safety protection zone .It pro-vides informatization support for the safe operation and external risk sources retrospecting of metro .%针对地铁安全保护区内作业项目繁杂、风险源多、周期长、难以管理等问题,基于GIS技术,利用百度地图建立了地铁保护区信息管理系统,论述了系统的数据结构、总体框架和技术路线。实例表明,该系统实现了地铁保护区内项目从土地出让到施工全过程信息的存储、查询、统计、管理以及信息共享等功能,为地铁的安全运营和外部风险源追溯等提供了信息化支持。

  4. Zonal management of multi-purposes groundwater utilization based on water quality and impact on the aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is widely used for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture in the Pingtung Plain, Southwestern Taiwan. The overexploitation and poor quality of groundwater in some areas of the Pingtung Plain pose great challenges for the safe use and sustainable management of groundwater resources. Thus, establishing an effective management plan for multi-purpose groundwater utilization in the Pingtung Plain is imperative. Considerations of the quality of the groundwater and potential impact on the aquifer of groundwater exploitation are paramount to multi-purpose groundwater utilization management. This study proposes a zonal management plan for the multi-purpose use of groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The zonal management plan is developed by considering the spatial variability of the groundwater quality and the impact on the aquifer, which is defined as the ratio of the actual groundwater extraction rate to transmissivity. A geostatistical Kriging approach is used to spatially delineate the safe zones based on the water quality standards applied in the three groundwater utilization sectors. Suitable zones for the impact on the aquifer are then spatially determined. The evaluation results showing the safe water quality zones for the three types of utilization demands and suitable zones for the impact on aquifer are integrated to create a zonal management map for multi-purpose groundwater utilization which can help government administrators to establish a water resource management strategy for safe and sustainable use of groundwater to meet multi-purpose groundwater utilization requirements in the Pingtung Plain.

  5. Origami: Delineating Cosmic Structures with Phase-Space Folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Mark C.; Falck, Bridget L.; Szalay, Alex S.

    2015-01-01

    Structures like galaxies and filaments of galaxies in the Universe come about from the origami-like folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in 6D phase space. The ORIGAMI method identifies these structures in a cosmological simulation, delineating the structures according to their outer folds. Structure identification is a crucial step in comparing cosmological simulations to observed maps of the Universe. The ORIGAMI definition is objective, dynamical and geometric: filament, wall and void particles are classified according to the number of orthogonal axes along which dark-matter streams have crossed. Here, we briefly review these ideas, and speculate on how ORIGAMI might be useful to find cosmic voids.

  6. Regional Geochemical Division-A Tool for Delineating Geochemical Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Regional geochemical division is a mapping technique to divide an area into slices where the associations between geochemical elements are relatively simple and uniform. The result of division is expressed on a 2-D map. The scheme of regional geochemical division includes non-supervised pattern recognition, elementary statistics and factor analysis. A practical example in a gold prospecting area in Jilin, China, and the corresponding explanation are presented. Regional geochemical division is a basic approach to the delineation of the geochemical blocks as well.

  7. Fluorescence polarization imaging for delineating nonmelanoma skin cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavsky, A. N.; Neel, V.; Anderson, R. R.

    2004-09-01

    We present a method for detecting nonmelanoma skin cancers using exogenous fluorescence polarization. We built an automated system that permits exogenous fluorescence polarization imaging. It includes a tunable linearly polarized monochromatic light source and a CCD camera equipped with a rotating linear polarizer and a filter to reject excitation light. Two fluorophores that are retained in tumors, toluidine blue and methylene blue, are employed. We demonstrate that fluorescence polarization imaging can be used for accurate delineation of nonmelanoma cancers. The results suggest that this optical technique may be suitable for real-time noninvasive demarcation of epithelial cancers.

  8. ORIGAMI: Delineating Cosmic Structures with Phase-Space Folds

    CERN Document Server

    Neyrinck, Mark C; Szalay, Alex S

    2013-01-01

    Structures like galaxies and filaments of galaxies in the Universe come about from the origami-like folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in 6D phase space. The ORIGAMI method identifies these structures in a cosmological simulation, delineating the structures according to their outer folds. Structure identification is a crucial step in comparing cosmological simulations to observed maps of the Universe. The ORIGAMI definition is objective, dynamical and geometric: filament, wall and void particles are classified according to the number of orthogonal axes along which dark-matter streams have crossed. Here, we briefly review these ideas, and speculate on how ORIGAMI might be useful to find cosmic voids.

  9. A GIS-based methodology to delineate potential areas for groundwater development: a case study from Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vishnu P.; Shrestha, Sangam; Kazama, Futaba

    2013-06-01

    For an effective planning of activities aimed at recovering aquifer depletion and maintaining health of groundwater ecosystem, estimates of spatial distribution in groundwater storage volume would be useful. The estimated volume, if analyzed together with other hydrogeologic characteristics, may help delineate potential areas for groundwater development. This study proposes a GIS-based ARC model to delineate potential areas for groundwater development; where `A' stands for groundwater availability, `R' for groundwater release potential of soil matrix, and `C' for cost for groundwater development. The model is illustrated with a case of the Kathmandu Valley in Central Nepal, where active discussions are going on to develop and implement groundwater management strategies. The study results show that shallow aquifers have high groundwater storage potential (compared to the deep) and favorable areas for groundwater development are concentrated at some particular areas in shallow and deep aquifers. The distribution of groundwater storage and potential areas for groundwater development are then mapped using GIS.

  10. Flow zone characterisation in a fractured aquifer using spring and open-well T and EC monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbotui, Prodeo; West, Landis; Bottrell, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The Cretaceous Chalk is a very important aquifer in England, and its relatively high transmissivity derives essentially from a well-developed network of solutionally-enhanced fractures and conduits. Like other fractured aquifers, characterisation and delineation of flow pathways and hence catchment boundaries is important. Determination of flow pathways for source catchment delineation (e.g. identification of safeguarding zones around wells) is critical for the effective management and protection of the groundwater resource. It also determines the areal extent of contamination from known sources, and enables the targeted sampling of flow zones e.g. for monitored natural attenuation (MNA). A rather simplistic conceptualisation of the unconfined chalk aquifer of East Yorkshire is currently used as a basis for numerical simulations: linearly reducing hydraulic conductivity (K) with depth below the maximum groundwater elevation, reducing to a minimum value below the zone of groundwater table fluctuation. This study represents an attempt to improve this conceptualisation via improved characterisation of permeable zones within the aquifer. The methods used are: pumping test drawdown analyses for transmissivity, ambient open-well dilution testing; rainfall, groundwater head, and spring / open-well specific electrical conductance (SEC) and temperature monitoring. Pumping test analyses yield overall well transmissivity; the open-well dilution/monitoring approach identifies inflow, outflow, crossflow zones and direction and rate of flow in wells; seasonal changes in flows in wells and springs reflect the annual recharge and recession cycle and the impact of seasonal hydraulic head variation on the activation/deactivation of permeable pathways. Variations in spring and well-water electrical conductivity / temperature provide insight into groundwater residence times and the degree of isolation of groundwater from atmospheric and soil zone sources of CO2. The results of the

  11. Individual tree crown delineation using localized contour tree method and airborne LiDAR data in coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Yu, Bailang; Wu, Qiusheng; Huang, Yan; Chen, Zuoqi; Wu, Jianping

    2016-10-01

    Individual tree crown delineation is of great importance for forest inventory and management. The increasing availability of high-resolution airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data makes it possible to delineate the crown structure of individual trees and deduce their geometric properties with high accuracy. In this study, we developed an automated segmentation method that is able to fully utilize high-resolution LiDAR data for detecting, extracting, and characterizing individual tree crowns with a multitude of geometric and topological properties. The proposed approach captures topological structure of forest and quantifies topological relationships of tree crowns by using a graph theory-based localized contour tree method, and finally segments individual tree crowns by analogy of recognizing hills from a topographic map. This approach consists of five key technical components: (1) derivation of canopy height model from airborne LiDAR data; (2) generation of contours based on the canopy height model; (3) extraction of hierarchical structures of tree crowns using the localized contour tree method; (4) delineation of individual tree crowns by segmenting hierarchical crown structure; and (5) calculation of geometric and topological properties of individual trees. We applied our new method to the Medicine Bow National Forest in the southwest of Laramie, Wyoming and the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest in the central portion of the Cascade Range of Oregon, U.S. The results reveal that the overall accuracy of individual tree crown delineation for the two study areas achieved 94.21% and 75.07%, respectively. Our method holds great potential for segmenting individual tree crowns under various forest conditions. Furthermore, the geometric and topological attributes derived from our method provide comprehensive and essential information for forest management.

  12. Artificial groundwater recharge zones mapping using remote sensing and GIS: a case study in Indian Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amanpreet; Panda, S N; Kumar, K S; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar

    2013-07-01

    Artificial groundwater recharge plays a vital role in sustainable management of groundwater resources. The present study was carried out to identify the artificial groundwater recharge zones in Bist Doab basin of Indian Punjab using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) for augmenting groundwater resources. The study area has been facing severe water scarcity due to intensive agriculture for the past few years. The thematic layers considered in the present study are: geomorphology (2004), geology (2004), land use/land cover (2008), drainage density, slope, soil texture (2000), aquifer transmissivity, and specific yield. Different themes and related features were assigned proper weights based on their relative contribution to groundwater recharge. Normalized weights were computed using the Saaty's analytic hierarchy process. Thematic layers were integrated in ArcGIS for delineation of artificial groundwater recharge zones. The recharge map thus obtained was divided into four zones (poor, moderate, good, and very good) based on their influence to groundwater recharge. Results indicate that 15, 18, 37, and 30 % of the study area falls under "poor," "moderate," "good," and "very good" groundwater recharge zones, respectively. The highest recharge potential area is located towards western and parts of middle region because of high infiltration rates caused due to the distribution of flood plains, alluvial plain, and agricultural land. The least effective recharge potential is in the eastern and middle parts of the study area due to low infiltration rate. The results of the study can be used to formulate an efficient groundwater management plan for sustainable utilization of limited groundwater resources.

  13. Molecular delineation of species in the coral holobiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stat, Michael; Baker, Andrew C; Bourne, David G; Correa, Adrienne M S; Forsman, Zac; Huggett, Megan J; Pochon, Xavier; Skillings, Derek; Toonen, Robert J; van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Gates, Ruth D

    2012-01-01

    The coral holobiont is a complex assemblage of organisms spanning a diverse taxonomic range including a cnidarian host, as well as various dinoflagellate, prokaryotic and acellular symbionts. With the accumulating information on the molecular diversity of these groups, binomial species classification and a reassessment of species boundaries for the partners in the coral holobiont is a logical extension of this work and will help enhance the capacity for comparative research among studies. To aid in this endeavour, we review the current literature on species diversity for the three best studied partners of the coral holobiont (coral, Symbiodinium, prokaryotes) and provide suggestions for future work on systematics within these taxa. We advocate for an integrative approach to the delineation of species using both molecular genetics in combination with phenetic characters. We also suggest that an a priori set of criteria be developed for each taxonomic group as no one species concept or accompanying set of guidelines is appropriate for delineating all members of the coral holobiont. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Internal and external validation of an ESTRO delineation guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldesoky, Ahmed R.; Yates, Esben Svitzer; Nyeng, Tine B

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. Materials and methods Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized mu......-regional radiation therapy in a multi-institutional setting. However, manual correction of some structures is important before clinical use. The ABAS is now available for routine clinical use in Danish patients. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd......Background and purpose To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. Materials and methods Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized...... and axillary nodal levels and poor agreement for interpectoral, internal mammary nodal regions and LADCA. Correcting ABAS significantly improved all the results. External validation of ABAS showed comparable results. Conclusions ABAS is a clinically useful tool for segmenting structures in breast cancer loco...

  15. An approach to delineate groundwater recharge potential sites in Ambalantota, Sri Lanka using GIS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Senanayake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for fresh water in Hambantota District, Sri Lanka is rapidly increasing with the enormous amount of ongoing development projects in the region. Nevertheless, the district experiences periodic water stress conditions due to seasonal precipitation patterns and scarcity of surface water resources. Therefore, management of available groundwater resources is critical, to fulfil potable water requirements in the area. However, exploitation of groundwater should be carried out together with artificial recharging in order to maintain the long term sustainability of water resources. In this study, a GIS approach was used to delineate potential artificial recharge sites in Ambalantota area within Hambantota. Influential thematic layers such as rainfall, lineament, slope, drainage, land use/land cover, lithology, geomorphology and soil characteristics were integrated by using a weighted linear combination method. Results of the study reveal high to moderate groundwater recharge potential in approximately 49% of Ambalantota area.

  16. Effective delineation of urban flooded areas based on aerial ortho-photo imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Guindon, Bert; Raymond, Don; Hong, Gang

    2016-10-01

    The combination of rapid global urban growth and climate change has resulted in increased occurrence of major urban flood events across the globe. The distribution of flooded area is one of the key information layers for applications of emergency planning and response management. While SAR systems and technologies have been widely used for flood area delineation, radar images suffer from range ambiguities arising from corner reflection effects and shadowing in dense urban settings. A new mapping framework is proposed for the extraction and quantification of flood extent based on aerial optical multi-spectral imagery and ancillary data. This involves first mapping of flood areas directly visible to the sensor. Subsequently, the complete area of submergence is estimated from this initial mapping and inference techniques based on baseline data such as land cover and GIS information such as available digital elevation models. The methodology has been tested and proven effective using aerial photography for the case of the 2013 flood in Calgary, Canada.

  17. An approach to delineate groundwater recharge potential sites in Ambalantota, Sri Lanka using GIS techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.P. Senanayake; D.M.D.O.K. Dissanayake; B.B. Mayadunna; W.L. Weerasekera

    2016-01-01

    The demand for fresh water in Hambantota District, Sri Lanka is rapidly increasing with the enormous amount of ongoing development projects in the region. Nevertheless, the district experiences periodic water stress conditions due to seasonal precipitation patterns and scarcity of surface water resources. Therefore, management of available groundwater resources is critical, to fulfil potable water re-quirements in the area. However, exploitation of groundwater should be carried out together with artificial recharging in order to maintain the long term sustainability of water resources. In this study, a GIS approach was used to delineate potential artificial recharge sites in Ambalantota area within Ham-bantota. Influential thematic layers such as rainfall, lineament, slope, drainage, land use/land cover, li-thology, geomorphology and soil characteristics were integrated by using a weighted linear combination method. Results of the study reveal high to moderate groundwater recharge potential in approximately 49%of Ambalantota area.

  18. Recommendations for the delineation of organs at risk in ENT radiotherapy; Recommandations de delineation des organes a risque en radiotherapie ORL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, D.; Halimi, P.; Berges, O.; Deberne, M.; Botti, M.; Giraud, P. [Hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, Paris (France); Servagi-Vernat, S. [CHUjean-Minjoz, Besancon (France)

    2011-10-15

    Based on a literature survey, the authors propose recommendations for the delineation of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles, inner ear, larynx, buccal cavity, and temporomandibular joint. These recommendations of delineation of organs at risk are related to the functional anatomy of the considered structures, and correspond to volumes used in published surveys on dose-volume toxicity. They are simple and reproducible. Short communication

  19. Delineation of Groundwater Flow Pathway in Fractured Bedrock Using Nano-Iron Tracer Test in the Sealed Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Po-Yu; Chia, Yeeping; Chiu, Yung-Chia; Liou, Ya-Hsuan; Teng, Mao-Hua; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lee, Tsai-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Deterministic delineation of the preferential flow paths and their hydraulic properties are desirable for developing hydrogeological conceptual models in bedrock aquifers. In this study, we proposed using nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) as a tracer to characterize the fractured connectivity and hydraulic properties. Since nZVI particles are magnetic, we designed a magnet array to attract the arriving nZVI particles in the observation well for identifying the location of incoming tracer. This novel approach was examined at two experiment wells with well hydraulic connectivity in a hydrogeological research station in the fractured aquifer. Heat-pulse flowmeter test was used to detect the vertical distribution of permeable zones in the borehole, providing the design basis of tracer test. Then, the less permeable zones in the injection well were sealed by casing to prevent the injected nZVI particles from being stagnated at the bottom hole. Afterwards, hydraulic test was implemented to examine the hydraulic connectivity between two wells. When nZVI slurry was released in the injection well, they could migrate through connected permeable fractures to the observation well. A breakthrough curve was obtained by the fluid conductivity sensor in the observation well, indicating the arrival of nZVI slurry. The iron nanoparticles that were attracted to the magnets in the observation well provide the quantitative information to locate the position of tracer inlet, which corroborates well with the depth of a permeable zone delineated by the flowmeter. Finally, the numerical method was utilized to simulate the process of tracer migration. This article demonstrates that nano-iron tracer test can be a promising approach for characterizing connectivity patterns and transmissivities of the flow paths in the fractured rock.

  20. 内陆开放型经济实验区食品供应链管理研究%Study on Food Supply Chain Management in Inland Open Economic Experimental Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建功

    2015-01-01

    分析了内陆开放型经济实验区食品供应链的特点,从整合供应链、降低国际化食品供应链中的不确定性两方面提出了加快内陆开放型经济实验品食品供应链管理的建议。%In this paper, we analyzed the characteristics of the food supply chains in inland open economic experimental zones and then from the aspects of supply chain integration and reducing the uncertainty in the international food supply chain, proposed the suggestions to improve the management level of the food supply chains in inland open economic experimental zones.

  1. Geochemical Processes Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Zachara, John M.; Dresel, P. Evan; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-09-28

    This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical process information available for the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tank farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility. Two companion reports to this one were recently published which discuss the geology of the farms (Reidel and Chamness 2007) and groundwater flow and contamination beneath the farms (Horton 2007).

  2. Impact of Onne Free Zone on Supply Chain Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Onne Free Zone on Supply Chain Performance of Registered Oil and Gas ... operational challenges and add to the cost of doing business in the zone. ... of experienced supply chain, logistics or operations managers of sampled oil ...

  3. Semi-automated stand delineation in Mediterranean Pinus sylvestris plantations through segmentation of LiDAR data: The influence of pulse density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varo-Martínez, Mª Ángeles; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.; Hernández-Clemente, Rocío; Duque-Lazo, Joaquín

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, forest-stand delineation has been assessed based on orthophotography. The application of LiDAR has improved forest management by providing high-spatial-resolution data on the vertical structure of the forest. The aim of this study was to develop and test a semi-automated algorithm for stands delineation in a plantation of Pinus sylvestris L. using LiDAR data. Three specific objectives were evaluated, i) to assess two complementary LiDAR metrics, Assmann dominant height and basal area, for the characterization of the structure of P. sylvestris Mediterranean forests based on object-oriented segmentation, ii) to evaluate the influence of the LiDAR pulse density on forest-stand delineation accuracy, and iii) to investigate the algorithmś effectiveness in the delineation of P. sylvestris stands for map prediction of Assmann dominant height and basal area. Our results show that it is possible to generate accurate P. sylvestris forest-stand segmentations using multiresolution or mean shift segmentation methods, even with low-pulse-density LiDAR - which is an important economic advantage for forest management. However, eCognition multiresolution methods provided better results than the OTB (Orfeo Tool Box) for stand delineation based on dominant height and basal area estimations. Furthermore, the influence of pulse density on the results was not statistically significant in the basal area calculations. However, there was a significant effect of pulse density on Assmann dominant height [F2,9595 = 5.69, p = 0.003].for low pulse density. We propose that the approach shown here should be considered for stand delineation in other large Pinus plantations in Mediterranean regions with similar characteristics.

  4. Farmers' perceptions of the impacts of human- wildlife conflict on their livelihood and natural resource management efforts in Cheha Woreda of Guraghe Zone, Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne Mojo; Jessica Rothschuh; Mehari Alebachew

    2014-01-01

    ... sustainable land management practices among resident agrarian families. In 2011, a household survey was conducted to assess farmers' perceptions of human-wildlife conflicts and the effects of these conflicts on land management in Cheha Woreda...

  5. Delineation of ground-water contamination using soil-gas analyses near Jackson, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the ground-water resources near Jackson, West Tennessee, was conducted during 1988-89. The study included determination of the occurrence of contaminants in the shallow aquifer using soil-gas analyses in the unsaturated zone. Between 1980 and 1988, an underground fuel-storage tank leaked about 3,000 gallons of unleaded fuel to the water table about 4 feet below land surface. A survey of soil gas using a gas chromatograph equipped with a photoionization detector showed concentrations of volatile organic compounds greater than IO, 000 parts per million near the leak These compounds were detected in an area about 240 feet long and 110 feet wide extending west from the point source. The chromatograms provided two distinct 'fingerprints' of volatile organic compounds. The first revealed the presence of benzene, toluene, andxylenes, which are constituents of unleaded fuel, in addition to other volatile compounds, in soil gas in the area near the leak The second did not reveal any detectable benzene, toluene, or xylenes in the soil-gas samples, but showed the presence of other unidentified volatile organic compounds in soil gas north of the storage tank. The distribution of total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone indicated that a second plume about 200 feet long and 90 feet wide was present about 100 feet north of the storage tank The second plume could have been the result of previous activities at this site during the 1950's or earlier. Activities at the site are believed to have included storage of solvents used at the nearby railyard and flushing of tanks containing tar onto a gravel-covered parking area. The delineation of these plumes has shown that soil-gas analyses can be a useful technique for identifying areas of contamination with volatile organic compounds in shallow water-table aquifers and may have broad applications in similar situations where the water table is relatively close to the surface.

  6. Engaging local communities in the process of participatory management in the coastal zone - the experience of the Region of the Vistula Lagoon

    OpenAIRE

    Przedrzymirska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Based on experience gained through the collaboration of two FP7 projects (ARCH and LAGOONS), a methodology used for stakeholders’ involvement in the management of lagoons under climate and anthropogenic pressures is discussed. The central objective of the ARCH project (Architecture and roadmap to manage multiple pressures on lagoons) was to develop participative methodologies in collaboration with the involved managers, policy makers and stakeholders to manage the multiple problem...

  7. A probabilistic approach to delineating functional brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable observer-independent approach to delineating volumes of interest (VOIs) for functional brain regions that are not identifiable on structural MR images. The case is made for the raphe nuclei, a collection of nuclei situated in the brain stem known...... to be densely packed with serotonin transporters (5-hydroxytryptaminic [5-HTT] system). METHODS: A template set for the raphe nuclei, based on their high content of 5-HTT as visualized in parametric (11)C-labeled 3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile PET images, was created for 10...... healthy subjects. The templates were subsequently included in the region sets used in a previously published automatic MRI-based approach to create an observer- and activity-independent probabilistic VOI map. The probabilistic map approach was tested in a different group of 10 subjects and compared...

  8. ORIGAMI: Delineating Halos using Phase-Space Folds

    CERN Document Server

    Falck, Bridget L; Szalay, Alexander S

    2012-01-01

    We present the ORIGAMI method of identifying structures, particularly halos, in cosmological N-body simulations. Structure formation can be thought of as the folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in six-dimensional phase space. ORIGAMI finds the outer folds that delineate these structures. Halo particles are identified as those that have undergone shell-crossing along 3 orthogonal axes, providing a dynamical definition of halo regions that is independent of density. ORIGAMI also identifies other morphological structures: particles that have undergone shell-crossing along 2, 1, or 0 orthogonal axes correspond to filaments, walls, and voids respectively. We compare this method to a standard Friends-of-Friends halo-finding algorithm and find that ORIGAMI halos are somewhat larger, more diffuse, and less spherical, though the global properties of ORIGAMI halos are in good agreement with other modern halo-finding algorithms.

  9. ORIGAMI: DELINEATING HALOS USING PHASE-SPACE FOLDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falck, Bridget L.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    We present the ORIGAMI method of identifying structures, particularly halos, in cosmological N-body simulations. Structure formation can be thought of as the folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in six-dimensional phase space. ORIGAMI finds the outer folds that delineate these structures. Halo particles are identified as those that have undergone shell-crossing along three orthogonal axes, providing a dynamical definition of halo regions that is independent of density. ORIGAMI also identifies other morphological structures: particles that have undergone shell-crossing along 2, 1, or 0 orthogonal axes correspond to filaments, walls, and voids, respectively. We compare this method to a standard friends-of-friends halo-finding algorithm and find that ORIGAMI halos are somewhat larger, more diffuse, and less spherical, though the global properties of ORIGAMI halos are in good agreement with other modern halo-finding algorithms.

  10. Application of the marine Ex-Bz transient system for delineating near shore resistive targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Eldad; Goldman, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Under certain conditions, multidimensional coastal effect significantly enhances relative target response of the broadside transient marine Ex-Bz system. The effect is caused by a redistribution of the induced currents between the resistive target and the sea bottom compared to that existing in a 1-D geometry. As a result, the effect strongly depends on specific geoelectric conditions in the near-shore environment. The first study of the effect in the Mediterranean coast of central Israel was addressing shallow groundwater problem under specific geoelectric, hydrogeological and geomorphological conditions. Under different conditions (e.g. deep targets and sharp near-shore bathymetry), the influence of the effect on target response might be significantly different. More general analysis carried out in this study comprises various geoelectric scenarios that include both shallow and deep resistive targets at different distances from the shore line as well as various geometries of the target and the near-shore bathymetry. The study includes three major exploration aspects of the system, namely signal detectability, lateral and vertical resolution. Taking into account poor lateral resolution of the classical frequency domain CSEM and the limited application in shallow sea, the described broadside transient Ex-Bz system might represent a desired alternative for delineating shallow and deep resistive targets in transition zone.

  11. Integrating indicator-based geostatistical estimation and aquifer vulnerability of nitrate-N for establishing groundwater protection zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Shih-Kai

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater nitrate-N contamination occurs frequently in agricultural regions, primarily resulting from surface agricultural activities. The focus of this study is to establish groundwater protection zones based on indicator-based geostatistical estimation and aquifer vulnerability of nitrate-N in the Choushui River alluvial fan in Taiwan. The groundwater protection zones are determined by univariate indicator kriging (IK) estimation, aquifer vulnerability assessment using logistic regression (LR), and integration of the IK estimation and aquifer vulnerability using simple IK with local prior means (sIKlpm). First, according to the statistical significance of source, transport, and attenuation factors dominating the occurrence of nitrate-N pollution, a LR model was adopted to evaluate aquifer vulnerability and to characterize occurrence probability of nitrate-N exceeding 0.5 mg/L. Moreover, the probabilities estimated using LR were regarded as local prior means. IK was then used to estimate the actual extent of nitrate-N pollution. The integration of the IK estimation and aquifer vulnerability was obtained using sIKlpm. Finally, groundwater protection zones were probabilistically determined using the three aforementioned methods, and the estimated accuracy of the delineated groundwater protection zones was gauged using a cross-validation procedure based on observed nitrate-N data. The results reveal that the integration of the IK estimation and aquifer vulnerability using sIKlpm is more robust than univariate IK estimation and aquifer vulnerability assessment using LR for establishing groundwater protection zones. Rigorous management practices for fertilizer use should be implemented in orchards situated in the determined groundwater protection zones.

  12. Zoning Districts, Zoning, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'Zoning'. Data by this publisher are often...

  13. Delineating Concealed Faults within Cogdell Oil Field via Earthquake Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, C.; Walter, J. I.; Brudzinski, M.; Skoumal, R.; Savvaidis, A.; Frohlich, C.; Borgfeldt, T.; Dotray, P.

    2016-12-01

    Cogdell oil field, located within the Permian Basin of western Texas, has experienced several earthquakes ranging from magnitude 1.7 to 4.6, most of which were recorded since 2006. Using the Earthscope USArray, Gan and Frohlich [2013] relocated some of these events and found a positive correlation in the timing of increased earthquake activity and increased CO2 injection volume. However, focal depths of these earthquakes are unknown due to 70 km station spacing of the USArray. Accurate focal depths as well as new detections can delineate subsurface faults and establish whether earthquakes are occurring in the shallow sediments or in the deeper basement. To delineate subsurface fault(s) in this region, we first detect earthquakes not currently listed in the USGS catalog by applying continuous waveform-template matching algorithms to multiple seismic data sets. We utilize seismic data spanning the time frame of 2006 to 2016 - which includes data from the U.S. Geological Survey Global Seismographic Network, the USArray, and the Sweetwater, TX broadband and nodal array located 20-40 km away. The catalog of earthquakes enhanced by template matching reveals events that were well recorded by the large-N Sweetwater array, so we are experimenting with strategies for optimizing template matching using different configurations of many stations. Since earthquake activity in the Cogdell oil field is on-going (a magnitude 2.6 occurred on May 29, 2016), a temporary deployment of TexNet seismometers has been planned for the immediate vicinity of Cogdell oil field in August 2016. Results on focal depths and detection of small magnitude events are pending this small local network deployment.

  14. Groundwater Capture Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Source water protection areas are delineated for each groundwater-based public water supply system using available geologic and hydrogeologic information to...

  15. The Valley Bottom Extraction Tool (V-BET): A GIS tool for delineating valley bottoms across entire drainage networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jordan T.; Macfarlane, William W.; Wheaton, Joseph M.

    2016-12-01

    The shape, size and extent of a valley bottom dictates the form and function of the associated river or stream. Consequently, accurate, watershed-wide delineation of valley bottoms is increasingly recognized as a necessary component of watershed management. While many valley bottom delineation approaches exist, methods that can be effectively applied across entire drainage networks to produce reasonably accurate results are lacking. Most existing tools are designed to work using high resolution topography data (i.e. > 2 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM)) and can only be applied over relatively short reach lengths due to computational or data availability limitations. When these precise mapping approaches are applied throughout drainage networks (i.e. 102-104 km), the computational techniques often either do not scale, or the algorithms perform inconsistently. Other tools that produce outputs at broader scale extents generally utilize coarser input topographic data to produce more poorly resolved valley bottom approximations. To fill this methodology gap and produce relatively accurate valley bottoms over large areas, we developed an algorithm that accepts terrain data from one to 10 m with slope and valley width parameters that scale based on drainage area, allowing for watershed-scale valley bottom delineation. We packaged this algorithm in the Valley Bottom Extraction Tool (V-BET) as an open-source ArcGIS toolbox for ease of use. To illustrate V-BET's scalability and test the tool's robustness across different physiographic settings, we delineated valley bottoms for the entire perennial drainage network of Utah as well as twelve watersheds across the interior Columbia River Basin (totaling 55,400 km) using 10 m DEMs. We found that even when driven with relatively coarse data (10 m DEMs), V-BET produced a relatively accurate approximation of valley bottoms across the entire watersheds of these diverse physiographic regions.

  16. Geophysical and geochemical studies to delineate seawater intrusion in Bagoush area, Northwestern coast, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mustafa A.; Mahmoud, Hussein Hosni; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; El-Shiekh, Abdelfattah; Parker, Beth

    2016-09-01

    Coastal aquifers are the main source for sustainable freshwater in many arid and semi-arid regions around the earth. In such regions, groundwater extraction far exceeds the natural replenishment rates due to additional demands on groundwater resources especially in the last few decades. The characterization of the seawater intrusion in the Baghoush area along the northwestern coast of Egypt assesses the risk of seawater intrusion for the purpose of managing the groundwater resources in coastal areas. The (SI) in the oolitic Pleistocene aquifer is affected by several natural factors, including the drainage patterns, geological structures, distance from the sea and the manipulation of groundwater. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) has been implemented to identify the geometry of the brackish/saline water interface and to map the distribution of brackish water zone floating over the denser saline water. Seven 2-D resistivity imaging profiles were conducted using a Wenner array with different electrode distance spacings. The inverse resistivity models of these profiles indicate that these profiles are composed of three zones: the upper dry zone, the middle brackish water zone, and the lower saline water zone. The thickness of the brackish groundwater zone decreases toward the sea and the resistivity decreases with depth due to increase in water salinity. Water table along these profiles decreases from south to north, which indicates that groundwater flow is from south (inland) to north (sea). Groundwater chemistry and stable isotopes were used to determine the fresh groundwater recharge source(s), to identify mixing of different groundwaters, to evaluate seawater intrusion zone along the coast, and to investigate the upwelling of deep saline groundwater underneath the brackish zone. The recharge of fresh groundwater originates from the mountain watershed located upstream as well as the annual rainfall; however, seawater is the main source of groundwater

  17. Delineating demographic units of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Ontario: cautions and insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Shuter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Delineating demographic structure across an organism’s range can reveal the extent to which population dynamics in different geographic areas are driven by local or external factors and can be crucial for effective conservation and management. Obtaining optimal data for such analyses can be time and resource-intensive and impending development and resource extraction pressures may necessitate the examination of existing data, even when they are less than ideal. We analyzed a historic telemetry dataset containing satellite radio-collar locations of 73 forest-dwelling woodland caribou in northern Ontario to determine demographic structure. We applied several clustering methods (i.e., agglomerative, divisive and fuzzy k-means to median seasonal locations. Results were used to distinguish demographic units and minimum convex polygons and fixed-kernel density estimates were used to delineate unit boundaries and core areas. For areas where sampling was considered representative of the distribution of caribou on the landscape, we assessed demographic distinctness by evaluating intra-individual variation in cluster membership, membership strength and distance between boundaries and core areas of adjacent units. The number and composition of clusters identified was similar among methods and caribou were grouped into 6 general clusters. The distinctions between the three clusters identified in the central portion of the province (i.e., Lac Seul, Wabakimi, Geraldton and the two clusters identified in the eastern portion of the province (i.e., Cochrane and Cochrane-Quebec were determined to represent demographic structuring. Additional distinctions in other areas (i.e., between The Red Lake and Lac Seul clusters in the west and between the central and eastern clusters may just be artifacts of the original sampling effort. Amongst demographic units, there was no evidence of individual flexibility in cluster membership and average membership strength was

  18. Delineation of marsh types of the Texas coast from Corpus Christi Bay to the Sabine River in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Brasher, Michael G.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Mitchell, Michael K.; Ballard, Bart M.; Parr, Mark W.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Wilson, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal zone managers and researchers often require detailed information regarding emergent marsh vegetation types for modeling habitat capacities and needs of marsh-reliant wildlife (such as waterfowl and alligator). Detailed information on the extent and distribution of marsh vegetation zones throughout the Texas coast has been historically unavailable. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation and collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service via the Gulf Coast Joint Venture, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, the University of Louisiana-Lafayette, and Ducks Unlimited, Inc., has produced a classification of marsh vegetation types along the middle and upper Texas coast from Corpus Christi Bay to the Sabine River. This study incorporates approximately 1,000 ground reference locations collected via helicopter surveys in coastal marsh areas and about 2,000 supplemental locations from fresh marsh, water, and “other” (that is, nonmarsh) areas. About two-thirds of these data were used for training, and about one-third were used for assessing accuracy. Decision-tree analyses using Rulequest See5 were used to classify emergent marsh vegetation types by using these data, multitemporal satellite-based multispectral imagery from 2009 to 2011, a bare-earth digital elevation model (DEM) based on airborne light detection and ranging (lidar), alternative contemporary land cover classifications, and other spatially explicit variables believed to be important for delineating the extent and distribution of marsh vegetation communities. Image objects were generated from segmentation of high-resolution airborne imagery acquired in 2010 and were used to refine the classification. The classification is dated 2010 because the year is both the midpoint of the multitemporal satellite-based imagery (2009–11) classified and the date of the high-resolution airborne imagery that was used to develop image objects. Overall accuracy corrected for bias (accuracy

  19. WVSAMB Color Digital Orthophotos North Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital color orthophotography of the State of West Virginia (West Virginia State Plane Coordinate System North Zone). The W.V. state plane system has two...

  20. Variable rate application of nematicides on cotton fields: a promising site-specific management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Brenda V; Perry, Calvin; Sullivan, Dana; Lu, Ping; Kemerait, Robert; Davis, Richard F; Smith, Amanda; Vellidis, George; Nichols, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Field tests were conducted to determine if differences in response to nematicide application (i.e., root-knot nematode (RKN) populations, cotton yield, and profitability) occurred among RKN management zones (MZ). The MZ were delineated using fuzzy clustering of five terrain (TR) and edaphic (ED) field features related to soil texture: apparent soil electrical conductivity shallow (ECa-shallow) and deep (ECa-deep), elevation (EL), slope (SL), and changes in bare soil reflectance. Zones with lowest mean values of ECa- shallow, ECa- deep, NDVI, and SL were designated as at greater risk for high RKN levels. Nematicide-treated plots (4 rows wide and 30 m long) were established in a randomized complete block design within each zone, but the number of replications in each zone varied from four to six depending on the size of the zone.The nematicides aldicarb (Temik 15 G) and 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D,Telone II) were applied at two rates (0.51 and 1.0 kg a.i./ha for aldicarb, and 33.1 and 66.2 kg a.i./ha for 1,3-D) to RKN MZ in commercial fields between 2007 and 2009. A consolidated analysis over the entire season showed that regardless of the zone, there were not differences between aldicarb rates and 1,3-D rates. The result across zones showed that 1,3-D provided better RKN control than did aldicarb in zones with low ECa values (high RKN risk zones exhibiting more coarse-textured sandy soils). In contrast, in low risk zones with relatively higher ECa values (heavier textured soil), the effects of 1,3-D and aldicarb were equal and application of any of the treatments provided sufficient control. In low RKN risk zones, a farmer would often have lost money if a high rate of 1,3-D was applied. This study showed that the effect of nematicide type and rate on RKN control and cotton yield varied across management zones (MZ) with the most expensive treatment likely to provide economic benefit only in zones with coarser soil texture. This study demonstrates the value of site

  1. Comparison of [{sup 11}C]choline Positron Emission Tomography With T2- and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Delineating Malignant Intraprostatic Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Joe H. [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lim Joon, Daryl [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Davis, Ian D. [Monash University Eastern Health Clinical School, Victoria (Australia); Lee, Sze Ting [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Centre for PET, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Victoria (Australia); Hiew, Chee-Yan; Esler, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Gong, Sylvia J. [Centre for PET, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Wada, Morikatsu [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Clouston, David [Tissupath, Mt Waverley, Victoria (Australia); O' Sullivan, Richard [Healthcare Imaging, Epworth Hospital, Victoria (Australia); Goh, Yin P. [Diagnostic Imaging, Monash Health, Victoria (Australia); Bolton, Damien [Department of Urology, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Scott, Andrew M. [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Centre for PET, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Victoria (Australia); Khoo, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.khoo@rmh.nhs.uk [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Royal Marsden Hospital, National Health Service Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Monash University, Victoria (Australia)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography (CHOL-PET) with that of the combination of T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (T2W/DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for delineating malignant intraprostatic lesions (IPLs) for guiding focal therapies and to investigate factors predicting the accuracy of CHOL-PET. Methods and Materials: This study included 21 patients who underwent CHOL-PET and T2W/DW MRI prior to radical prostatectomy. Two observers manually delineated IPL contours for each scan, and automatic IPL contours were generated on CHOL-PET based on varying proportions of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV). IPLs identified on prostatectomy specimens defined reference standard contours. The imaging-based contours were compared with the reference standard contours using Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), and sensitivity and specificity values. Factors that could potentially predict the DSC of the best contouring method were analyzed using linear models. Results: The best automatic contouring method, 60% of the maximum SUV (SUV{sub 60}) , had similar correlations (DSC: 0.59) with the manual PET contours (DSC: 0.52, P=.127) and significantly better correlations than the manual MRI contours (DSC: 0.37, P<.001). The sensitivity and specificity values were 72% and 71% for SUV{sub 60}; 53% and 86% for PET manual contouring; and 28% and 92% for MRI manual contouring. The tumor volume and transition zone pattern could independently predict the accuracy of CHOL-PET. Conclusions: CHOL-PET is superior to the combination of T2W/DW MRI for delineating IPLs. The accuracy of CHOL-PET is insufficient for gland-sparing focal therapies but may be accurate enough for focal boost therapies. The transition zone pattern is a new classification that may predict how well CHOL-PET delineates IPLs.

  2. Delineation of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in a large-scaled reclaimed land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B.; Park, S.; Hwang, J.; Song, S.; Choi, J.; Nam, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Saemangeum reclaimed land in Korea is currently under construction for an eco-friendly multifunctional complex including agriculture, eco-tourism, business, and renewable energy industry. Regarding water supply for the reclaimed land, groundwater is the sustainable water resource and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), subsurface fluids flowing from land to the sea, is considered as an alternative one. This study was conducted to identify SGD below a southeastern part of the reclaimed land and to delineate its pathway by investigating groundwater chemistry and electrical resistivity distribution of subsurface. Thirty four groundwater samples were collected from shallow agricultural wells placed along the past coast line (~5 km length) of the southeastern part in May and October, 2009. Field parameters including pH, EC, temperature, and ORP were measured using a portable multi-sensor and alkalinity by titration. They were analyzed for stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H), cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Si, and NH4), anions (Cl, NO3, SO4, and PO4), and metals (Fe and Mn). Mean EC value was 1,163 µS/cm, corresponding to the appropriate crop growth because the criteria of crop yield is less 2,000 µS/cm. Stable isotopes results were plotted on the local meteoric water line, indicating lighter than those from sea water. It implied that the groundwater originated from inland precipitation and occurred as SGD along the coast line. From the groundwater compositions showing various water types including Na-HCO3, Ca-Cl, and Na-Cl, it could be concluded that small-scale SGD and seawater intrusion have great influences on the groundwater quality. From correlation analysis of EC-pH, Cl-HCO3, NO3-SO4, NO3-Cl, and (Fe, Mn)-NH4, spatial distributions of SGD were identified. A small catchment (0.2 km2) in the reclaimed land was selected to delineate a SGD flow path by two-dimensional electrical resistivity survey. The longitudinal and transverse lines were 760 and 275 m, respectively

  3. Semi-automatic delineation using weighted CT-MRI registered images for radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitton, I. [European Georges Pompidou Hospital, Department of Radiology, 20 rue Leblanc, 75015, Paris (France); Cornelissen, S. A. P. [Image Sciences Institute, UMC, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Duppen, J. C.; Rasch, C. R. N.; Herk, M. van [The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Steenbakkers, R. J. H. M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen (Netherlands); Peeters, S. T. H. [UZ Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgique (Belgium); Hoebers, F. J. P. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO clinic), GROW School for Oncology and Development Biology Maastricht, 6229 ET Maastricht (Netherlands); Kaanders, J. H. A. M. [UMC St-Radboud, Department of Radiotherapy, Geert Grooteplein 32, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nowak, P. J. C. M. [ERASMUS University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology,Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To develop a delineation tool that refines physician-drawn contours of the gross tumor volume (GTV) in nasopharynx cancer, using combined pixel value information from x-ray computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during delineation. Methods: Operator-guided delineation assisted by a so-called ''snake'' algorithm was applied on weighted CT-MRI registered images. The physician delineates a rough tumor contour that is continuously adjusted by the snake algorithm using the underlying image characteristics. The algorithm was evaluated on five nasopharyngeal cancer patients. Different linear weightings CT and MRI were tested as input for the snake algorithm and compared according to contrast and tumor to noise ratio (TNR). The semi-automatic delineation was compared with manual contouring by seven experienced radiation oncologists. Results: A good compromise for TNR and contrast was obtained by weighing CT twice as strong as MRI. The new algorithm did not notably reduce interobserver variability, it did however, reduce the average delineation time by 6 min per case. Conclusions: The authors developed a user-driven tool for delineation and correction based a snake algorithm and registered weighted CT image and MRI. The algorithm adds morphological information from CT during the delineation on MRI and accelerates the delineation task.

  4. Definition and automatic anatomy recognition of lymph node zones in the pelvis on CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Guo, Shuxu; Attor, Rosemary; Reinicke, Danica; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-03-01

    Currently, unlike IALSC-defined thoracic lymph node zones, no explicitly provided definitions for lymph nodes in other body regions are available. Yet, definitions are critical for standardizing the recognition, delineation, quantification, and reporting of lymphadenopathy in other body regions. Continuing from our previous work in the thorax, this paper proposes a standardized definition of the grouping of pelvic lymph nodes into 10 zones. We subsequently employ our earlier Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) framework designed for body-wide organ modeling, recognition, and delineation to actually implement these zonal definitions where the zones are treated as anatomic objects. First, all 10 zones and key anatomic organs used as anchors are manually delineated under expert supervision for constructing fuzzy anatomy models of the assembly of organs together with the zones. Then, optimal hierarchical arrangement of these objects is constructed for the purpose of achieving the best zonal recognition. For actual localization of the objects, two strategies are used -- optimal thresholded search for organs and one-shot method for the zones where the known relationship of the zones to key organs is exploited. Based on 50 computed tomography (CT) image data sets for the pelvic body region and an equal division into training and test subsets, automatic zonal localization within 1-3 voxels is achieved.

  5. Europe’s Green Arteries—A Continental Dataset of Riparian Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof J. Weissteiner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Riparian zones represent ecotones between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and are of utmost importance to biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Modelling/mapping of these valuable and fragile areas is needed for improved ecosystem management, based on an accounting of changes and on monitoring of their functioning over time. In Europe, the main legislative driver behind this goal is the European Commission’s Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, on the one hand aiming at halting biodiversity loss, on the other hand enhancing ecosystem services by 2020, and restoring them as far as is feasible. A model, based on Earth Observation data, including Digital Elevation Models, hydrological, soil, land cover/land use data, and vegetation indices is employed in a multi-modular and stratified approach, based on fuzzy logic and object based image analysis, to delineate potential, observed and actual riparian zones. The approach is designed in an open modular way, allowing future modifications and repeatability. The results represent a first step of a future monitoring and assessment campaign for European riparian zones and their implications on biodiversity and on ecosystem functions and services. Considering the complexity and the enormous extent of the area, covering 39 European countries, including Turkey, the level of detail is unprecedented. Depending on the accounting modus, 0.95%–1.19% of the study area can be attributed as actual riparian area (considering Strahler’s stream orders 3–8, based on the Copernicus EU-Hydro dataset, corresponding to 55,558–69,128 km2. Similarly, depending on the accounting approach, the potential riparian zones cover an area about 3–5 times larger. Land cover/land use in detected riparian areas was mainly of semi-natural characteristics, while the potential riparian areas are predominately covered by agriculture, followed by semi-natural and urban areas.

  6. Integrating geospatial and ground geophysical information as guidelines for groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrains of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mehnaz; Lone, Mahjoor Ahmad; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2012-08-01

    The increasing demand of water has brought tremendous pressure on groundwater resources in the regions were groundwater is prime source of water. The objective of this study was to explore groundwater potential zones in Maheshwaram watershed of Andhra Pradesh, India with semi-arid climatic condition and hard rock granitic terrain. GIS-based modelling was used to integrate remote sensing and geophysical data to delineate groundwater potential zones. In the present study, Indian Remote Sensing RESOURCESAT-1, Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-4) digital data, ASTER digital elevation model and vertical electrical sounding data along with other data sets were analysed to generate various thematic maps, viz., geomorphology, land use/land cover, geology, lineament density, soil, drainage density, slope, aquifer resistivity and aquifer thickness. Based on this integrated approach, the groundwater availability in the watershed was classified into four categories, viz. very good, good, moderate and poor. The results reveal that the modelling assessment method proposed in this study is an effective tool for deciphering groundwater potential zones for proper planning and management of groundwater resources in diverse hydrogeological terrains.

  7. Proteomic molecular portrait of interface zone in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suki; Kim, Min Ju; An, Heejung; Kim, Baek Gil; Choi, Yoon Pyo; Kang, Kyu Sub; Gao, Ming-Qing; Park, Hangran; Na, Hyung Jin; Kim, Hye Kyung; Yun, Hae Ree; Kim, Dong Su; Cho, Nam Hoon

    2010-11-05

    Surgical tumor margins are intended to encompass residual tumor cells but may not always accurately delineate the boundary between tumor and normal tissue. Efforts to define tumor margins based on molecular analysis have achieved limited success. Furthermore, no clinical trials have addressed the scope of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we considered the tumor cell population and surrounding microenvironment in delineating tumor margins, classifying breast cancer into tumor and normal zones, and introducing the concept of an interface zone, the region between the invading tumor front and normal tissue, which develops during tumor invasion and metastasis through remodeling of the tumor microenvironment. Pathological signatures of invasion markers in tumor tissues are most dynamic within the invading tumor front. We compared protein profiles of tumor, normal, and interface zones using MALDI-MS. Proteins upregulated in the interface zone were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting and confirmed by database searching with chemically assisted MALDI-PSD spectra. Upregulation was confirmed for RhoGDIα, CAPG, WDR1, and CK8 by Western and immunohistochemical analyses. Our results demonstrate that the molecular profile of the interface zone is unique and suggest that upregulation of proteins here may be related to progression and metastasis of breast carcinomas.

  8. Deciphering groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain using geospatial technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Imran A; Sankar, K; Dar, Mithas A

    2011-02-01

    Remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) has become one of the leading tools in the field of groundwater research, which helps in assessing, monitoring, and conserving groundwater resources. This paper mainly deals with the integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS to delineate groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain. Digitized vector maps pertaining to chosen parameters, viz. geomorphology, geology, land use/land cover, lineament, relief, and drainage, were converted to raster data using 23 m×23 m grid cell size. Moreover, curvature of the study area was also considered while manipulating the spatial data. The raster maps of these parameters were assigned to their respective theme weight and class weights. The individual theme weight was multiplied by its respective class weight and then all the raster thematic layers were aggregated in a linear combination equation in Arc Map GIS Raster Calculator module. Moreover, the weighted layers were statistically modeled to get the areal extent of groundwater prospects with respect to each thematic layer. The final result depicts the favorable prospective zones in the study area and can be helpful in better planning and management of groundwater resources especially in hard rock terrains.

  9. Delineating liver events in trichloroethylene-induced autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kathleen M; Przybyla, Beata; Pumford, Neil R; Han, Tao; Fuscoe, James; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Holland, Ricky D; Doss, Jason C; Macmillan-Crow, Lee Ann; Blossom, Sarah J

    2009-04-01

    Exposure to the environmental pollutant trichloroethylene (TCE) has been linked to autoimmune disease development in humans. Chronic (32-week) low-level exposure to TCE has been shown to promote autoimmune hepatitis in association with CD4(+) T cell activation in autoimmune-prone MRL+/+ mice. MRL+/+ mice are usually thought of as a model of systemic lupus rather than an organ-specific disease such as autoimmune hepatitis. Consequently, the present study examined gene expression and metabolites to delineate the liver events that skewed the autoimmune response toward that organ in TCE-treated mice. Female MRL+/+ mice were treated with 0.5 mg/mL TCE in their drinking water. The results showed that TCE-induced autoimmune hepatitis could be detected in as little as 26 weeks. TCE exposure also generated a time-dependent increase in the number of antibodies specific for liver proteins. The gene expression correlated with the metabolite analysis to show that TCE upregulated the methionine/homocysteine pathway in the liver after 26 weeks of exposure. The results also showed that TCE exposure altered the expression of selective hepatic genes associated with immunity and inflammation. On the basis of these results, future mechanistic studies will focus on how alterations in genes associated with immunity and inflammation, in conjunction with protein alterations in the liver, promote liver immunogenicity in TCE-treated MRL+/+ mice.

  10. Delineating social network data anonymization via random edge perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang

    2012-01-01

    Social network data analysis raises concerns about the privacy of related entities or individuals. To address this issue, organizations can publish data after simply replacing the identities of individuals with pseudonyms, leaving the overall structure of the social network unchanged. However, it has been shown that attacks based on structural identification (e.g., a walk-based attack) enable an adversary to re-identify selected individuals in an anonymized network. In this paper we explore the capacity of techniques based on random edge perturbation to thwart such attacks. We theoretically establish that any kind of structural identification attack can effectively be prevented using random edge perturbation and show that, surprisingly, important properties of the whole network, as well as of subgraphs thereof, can be accurately calculated and hence data analysis tasks performed on the perturbed data, given that the legitimate data recipient knows the perturbation probability as well. Yet we also examine ways to enhance the walk-based attack, proposing a variant we call probabilistic attack. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that such probabilistic attacks can also be prevented under sufficient perturbation. Eventually, we conduct a thorough theoretical study of the probability of success of any}structural attack as a function of the perturbation probability. Our analysis provides a powerful tool for delineating the identification risk of perturbed social network data; our extensive experiments with synthetic and real datasets confirm our expectations. © 2012 ACM.

  11. DNA Probe Pooling for Rapid Delineation of Chromosomal Breakpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Kwan, Johnson; Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly F.; Wang, Mei; Escudero, Tomas; Munne' , Santiago; Zitzelsberger, Horst F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich

    2009-01-30

    Structural chromosome aberrations are hallmarks of many human genetic diseases. The precise mapping of translocation breakpoints in tumors is important for identification of genes with altered levels of expression, prediction of tumor progression, therapy response, or length of disease-free survival as well as the preparation of probes for detection of tumor cells in peripheral blood. Similarly, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for carriers of balanced, reciprocal translocations benefit from accurate breakpoint maps in the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes followed by a selection of normal or balanced oocytes or embryos. We expedited the process of breakpoint mapping and preparation of case-specific probes by utilizing physically mapped bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. Historically, breakpoint mapping is based on the definition of the smallest interval between proximal and distal probes. Thus, many of the DNA probes prepared for multi-clone and multi-color mapping experiments do not generate additional information. Our pooling protocol described here with examples from thyroid cancer research and PGD accelerates the delineation of translocation breakpoints without sacrificing resolution. The turnaround time from clone selection to mapping results using tumor or IVF patient samples can be as short as three to four days.

  12. Reverse time migration of prism waves for salt flank delineation

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei

    2013-09-22

    In this paper, we present a new reverse time migration method for imaging salt flanks with prism wave reflections. It consists of four steps: (1) migrating the seismic data with conventional RTM to give the RTM image; (2) using the RTM image as a reflectivity model to simulate source-side reflections with the Born approximation; (3) zero-lag correlation of the source-side reflection wavefields and receiver-side wavefields to produce the prism wave migration image; and (4) repeating steps 2 and 3 for the receiver-side reflections. An advantage of this method is that there is no need to pick the horizontal reflectors prior to migration of the prism waves. It also separately images the vertical structures at a different step to reduce crosstalk interference. The disadvantage of prism wave migration algorithm is that its computational cost is twice that of conventional RTM. The empirical results with a salt model suggest that prism wave migration can be an effective method for salt flank delineation in the absence of diving waves.

  13. Volcanic calderas delineate biogeographic provinces among Yellowstone thermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina; Mitchell, Kendra; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

    2008-07-01

    It has been suggested that the distribution of microorganisms should be cosmopolitan because of their enormous capacity for dispersal. However, recent studies have revealed that geographically isolated microbial populations do exist. Geographic distance as a barrier to dispersal is most often invoked to explain these distributions. Here we show that unique and diverse sequences of the bacterial genus Sulfurihydrogenibium exist in Yellowstone thermal springs, indicating that these sites are geographically isolated. Although there was no correlation with geographic distance or the associated geochemistry of the springs, there was a strong historical signal. We found that the Yellowstone calderas, remnants of prehistoric volcanic eruptions, delineate biogeographical provinces for the Sulfurihydrogenibium within Yellowstone (chi(2): 9.7, P = 0.002). The pattern of distribution that we have detected suggests that major geological events in the past 2 million years explain more of the variation in sequence diversity in this system than do contemporary factors such as habitat or geographic distance. These findings highlight the importance of historical legacies in determining contemporary microbial distributions and suggest that the same factors that determine the biogeography of macroorganisms are also evident among bacteria.

  14. Delineation of Steroid-Degrading Microorganisms through Comparative Genomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee H. Bergstrand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Steroids are ubiquitous in natural environments and are a significant growth substrate for microorganisms. Microbial steroid metabolism is also important for some pathogens and for biotechnical applications. This study delineated the distribution of aerobic steroid catabolism pathways among over 8,000 microorganisms whose genomes are available in the NCBI RefSeq database. Combined analysis of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal genomes with both hidden Markov models and reciprocal BLAST identified 265 putative steroid degraders within only Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, which mainly originated from soil, eukaryotic host, and aquatic environments. These bacteria include members of 17 genera not previously known to contain steroid degraders. A pathway for cholesterol degradation was conserved in many actinobacterial genera, particularly in members of the Corynebacterineae, and a pathway for cholate degradation was conserved in members of the genus Rhodococcus. A pathway for testosterone and, sometimes, cholate degradation had a patchy distribution among Proteobacteria. The steroid degradation genes tended to occur within large gene clusters. Growth experiments confirmed bioinformatic predictions of steroid metabolism capacity in nine bacterial strains. The results indicate there was a single ancestral 9,10-seco-steroid degradation pathway. Gene duplication, likely in a progenitor of Rhodococcus, later gave rise to a cholate degradation pathway. Proteobacteria and additional Actinobacteria subsequently obtained a cholate degradation pathway via horizontal gene transfer, in some cases facilitated by plasmids. Catabolism of steroids appears to be an important component of the ecological niches of broad groups of Actinobacteria and individual species of Proteobacteria.

  15. Transient flow conditions change how we should think about WHPA delineation: a joint frequency and probability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Pretelin (1), Abelardo; Nowak (1), Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Well head protection areas (WHPAs) are frequently used as safety measures for drinking water wells, preventing them from being polluted by restricting land use activities in their proximities. Two sources of uncertainty are involved during delineation: 1) uncertainty in aquifer parameters and 2) time-varying groundwater flow scenarios and their own inherent uncertainties. The former has been studied by Enzenhoefer et al (2012 [1] and 2014 [2]) as probabilistic risk version of WHPA delineation. The latter is frequently neglected and replaced by steady-state assumptions; thereby ignoring time-variant flow conditions triggered either by anthropogenic causes or climatic conditions. In this study we analyze the influence of transient flow considerations in WHPA delineation, following annual seasonality behavior; with transiency represented by four transient conditions: (I) regional groundwater flow direction, (II) strength of the regional hydraulic gradient, (III) natural recharge to the groundwater and (IV) pumping rate. Addressing WHPA delineation in transient flow scenarios is computationally expensive. Thus, we develop an efficient method using a dynamic superposition of steady-state flow solutions coupled with a reversed formulation of advective-dispersive transport based on a Lagrangian particle tracking with continuous injection. This analysis results in a time-frequency map of pixel-wise membership to the well catchment. Additional to transient flow conditions, we recognize two sources of uncertainty, inexact knowledge of transient drivers and parameters. The uncertainties are accommodated through Monte Carlo simulation. With the help of a global sensitivity analysis, we investigate the impact of transiency in WHPA solutions. In particular, we evaluate: (1) Among all considered transients, which ones are the most influential. (2) How influential in WHPA delineation is the transience-related uncertainty compared to aquifer parameter uncertainty. Literature [1] R

  16. Vadose zone transport field study: Detailed test plan for simulated leak tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL Ward; GW Gee

    2000-06-23

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology initiative was created in FY 1999 to reduce the uncertainty associated with vadose zone transport processes beneath waste sites at DOE's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This information is needed not only to evaluate the risks from transport, but also to support the adoption of measures for minimizing impacts to the groundwater and surrounding environment. The principal uncertainties in vadose zone transport are the current distribution of source contaminants and the natural heterogeneity of the soil in which the contaminants reside. Oversimplified conceptual models resulting from these uncertainties and limited use of hydrologic characterization and monitoring technologies have hampered the understanding contaminant migration through Hanford's vadose zone. Essential prerequisites for reducing vadose transport uncertainly include the development of accurate conceptual models and the development or adoption of monitoring techniques capable of delineating the current distributions of source contaminants and characterizing natural site heterogeneity. The Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS) was conceived as part of the initiative to address the major uncertainties confronting vadose zone fate and transport predictions at the Hanford Site and to overcome the limitations of previous characterization attempts. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is managing the VZTFS for DOE. The VZTFS will conduct field investigations that will improve the understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. Ideally, these methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing infrastructure (i.e., more than 1,300 steel-cased boreholes). The objectives of the VZTFS are to conduct controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field sites at

  17. Target volume delineation variation in radiotherapy for early stage rectal cancer in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Jasper; de Haas-Kock, Danielle F. M.; Beukema, Jannet C.; Neelis, Karen J.; Woutersen, Dankert; Ceha, Heleen; Rozema, Tom; Slot, Annerie; Vos-Westerman, Hanneke; Intven, Martijn; Spruit, Patty H.; van der Linden, Yvette; Geijsen, Debby; Verschueren, Karijn; van Herk, Marcel B.; Marijnen, Corrie A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure and improve the quality of target volume delineation by means of national consensus on target volume definition in early-stage rectal cancer. Methods and materials: The CTV's for eight patients were delineated by 11 radiation oncologists in 10 institutes

  18. Tree crown delineation from high resolution airborne LiDAR based on densities of high points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.Z.A.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Tree detection and tree crown delineation from Airborne LiDAR has been focusing mostly on utilizing the canopy height model (CHM). This paper presents a method for individual tree crown delineation based on densities of high points (DHP) from the high resolution Airborne LiDAR. The DHP method relies

  19. Geometrical Comparison Measures for Tumor Delineation, what do they mean for the Actual Dosis Plan?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Christian; Persson, G.; Højgaard, L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Gross tumour volume (GTV) delineation is central for radiotherapy planning. It provides the basis of the clinical target volume and finally the planning target volume (PTV) which is used for dose optimization. GTV delineations are prone to intermethod and interobserver variat...

  20. An Unusual Case of Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma Arising in the Breast - Its Diagnosis and the Role of Radiotherapy in its Management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rock, Kathy

    2011-10-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary lymphoma of the breast accounts for 0.04-0.5% of all breast malignancies and approximately 1% of all extranodal lymphomas. For stage IE node-negative disease, involved field radiotherapy is recommended except for very young women in whom the risk of breast cancer is a concern. The rate of complete response for limited stage extranodal marginal B-cell lymphoma is in excess of 90%. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 62-year-old lady who presented with a unilateral painless palpable right breast lump. She subsequently underwent a trucut biopsy of the lesion. The histology revealed a low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma (NHL). Immunohistochemistry showed that more than 95% of the cells were B cells which were CD 20+\\/CD 45+ and BC L6+. This confirmed the diagnosis of marginal zone lymphoma. Staging work-up was negative for distant metastases. Serum alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were normal. The patient had no \\'B\\' symptoms. Her final diagnosis was clinical stage IAE NHL, and she was referred for curative radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: Radiation treatment is a safe and extremely effective modality of treatment for early stage I marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the breast.

  1. An Unusual Case of Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma Arising in the Breast - Its Diagnosis and the Role of Radiotherapy in its Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Kathy; Rangaswamy, Guhan; O'Sullivan, Siobhra; Coffey, Jerome

    2011-10-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary lymphoma of the breast accounts for 0.04-0.5% of all breast malignancies and approximately 1% of all extranodal lymphomas. For stage IE node-negative disease, involved field radiotherapy is recommended except for very young women in whom the risk of breast cancer is a concern. The rate of complete response for limited stage extranodal marginal B-cell lymphoma is in excess of 90%. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 62-year-old lady who presented with a unilateral painless palpable right breast lump. She subsequently underwent a trucut biopsy of the lesion. The histology revealed a low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Immunohistochemistry showed that more than 95% of the cells were B cells which were CD 20+/CD 45+ and BC L6+. This confirmed the diagnosis of marginal zone lymphoma. Staging work-up was negative for distant metastases. Serum alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were normal. The patient had no 'B' symptoms. Her final diagnosis was clinical stage IAE NHL, and she was referred for curative radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: Radiation treatment is a safe and extremely effective modality of treatment for early stage I marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the breast.

  2. Delineating relative homogeneous G+C domains in DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W

    2001-10-03

    The concept of homogeneity of G+C content is always relative and subjective. This point is emphasized and quantified in this paper using a simple example of one sequence segmented into two subsequences. Whether the sequence is homogeneous or not can be answered by whether the two-subsequence model describes the DNA sequence better than the one-sequence model. There are at least three equivalent ways of looking at the 1-to-2 segmentation: Jensen-Shannon divergence measure, log likelihood ratio test, and model selection using Bayesian information criterion. Once a criterion is chosen, a DNA sequence can be recursively segmented into multiple domains. We use one subjective criterion called segmentation strength based on the Bayesian information criterion. Whether or not a sequence is homogeneous and how many domains it has depend on this criterion. We compare six different genome sequences (yeast S. cerevisiae chromosome III and IV, bacterium M. pneumoniae, human major histocompatibility complex sequence, longest contigs in human chromosome 21 and 22) by recursive segmentations at different strength criteria. Results by recursive segmentation confirm that yeast chromosome IV is more homogeneous than yeast chromosome III, human chromosome 21 is more homogeneous than human chromosome 22, and bacterial genomes may not be homogeneous due to short segments with distinct base compositions. The recursive segmentation also provides a quantitative criterion for identifying isochores in human sequences. Some features of our recursive segmentation, such as the possibility of delineating domain borders accurately, are superior to those of the moving-window approach commonly used in such analyses.

  3. Disease quantification on PET/CT images without object delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Wu, Caiyun; Fitzpatrick, Danielle; Winchell, Nicole; Schuster, Stephen J.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2017-03-01

    The derivation of quantitative information from images to make quantitative radiology (QR) clinically practical continues to face a major image analysis hurdle because of image segmentation challenges. This paper presents a novel approach to disease quantification (DQ) via positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images that explores how to decouple DQ methods from explicit dependence on object segmentation through the use of only object recognition results to quantify disease burden. The concept of an object-dependent disease map is introduced to express disease severity without performing explicit delineation and partial volume correction of either objects or lesions. The parameters of the disease map are estimated from a set of training image data sets. The idea is illustrated on 20 lung lesions and 20 liver lesions derived from 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-PET/CT scans of patients with various types of cancers and also on 20 NEMA PET/CT phantom data sets. Our preliminary results show that, on phantom data sets, "disease burden" can be estimated to within 2% of known absolute true activity. Notwithstanding the difficulty in establishing true quantification on patient PET images, our results achieve 8% deviation from "true" estimates, with slightly larger deviations for small and diffuse lesions where establishing ground truth becomes really questionable, and smaller deviations for larger lesions where ground truth set up becomes more reliable. We are currently exploring extensions of the approach to include fully automated body-wide DQ, extensions to just CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone, to PET/CT performed with radiotracers other than FDG, and other functional forms of disease maps.

  4. Breast cancer margin delineation with fluorescence lifetime imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Jennifer E.; Gorpas, Dimitris; Darrow, Morgan; Unger, Jakob; Bold, Richard; Marcu, Laura

    2017-02-01

    The current standard of care for early stages of breast cancer is breast-conserving surgery (BCS). BCS involves a lumpectomy procedure, during which the tumor is removed with a rim of normal tissue-if cancer cells found in that rim of tissue, it is called a positive margin and means part of the tumor remains in the breast. Currently there is no method to determine if cancer cells exist at the margins of lumpectomy specimens aside from time-intensive histology methods that result in reoperations in up to 38% of cases. We used fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) to measure time-resolved autofluorescence from N=13 ex vivo human breast cancer specimens (N=10 patients undergoing lumpectomy or mastectomy) and compared our results to histology. Tumor (both invasive and ductal carcinoma in situ), fibrous tissue, fat and fat necrosis have unique fluorescence signatures. For instance, between 500-580 nm, fluorescence lifetime of tumor was shortest (4.7 +/- 0.4 ns) compared to fibrous tissue (5.5 +/- 0.7 ns) and fat (7.0 +/- 0.1 ns), P<0.05 (ANOVA). These differences are due to the biochemical properties of lipid, nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and collagen fibers in the fat, tumor and fibrous tissue, respectively. Additionally, the FLIm data is augmented to video of the breast tissue with image processing algorithms that track a blue (450 nm) aiming beam used in parallel with the 355 nm excitation beam. This allows for accurate histologic co-registration and in the future will allow for three-dimensional lumpectomy surfaces to be imaged for cancer margin delineation.

  5. Bread board float zone experiment system for high purity silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A breadboard float zone experimental system has been established at Westech Systems for use by NASA in the float zone experimental area. A used zoner of suitable size and flexibility was acquired and installed with the necessary utilities. Repairs, alignments and modifications were made to provide for dislocation free zoning of silicon. The zoner is capable of studying process parameters used in growing silicon in gravity and is flexible to allow trying of new features that will test concepts of zoning in microgravity. Characterizing the state of the art molten zones of a growing silicon crystal will establish the data base against which improvements of zoning in gravity or growing in microgravity can be compared. 25 mm diameter was chosen as the reference size, since growth in microgravity will be at that diameter or smaller for about the next 6 years. Dislocation free crystals were growtn in the 100 and 111 orientations, using a wide set of growth conditions. The zone shape at one set of conditions was measured, by simultaneously aluminum doping and freezing the zone, lengthwise slabbing and delineating by etching. The whole set of crystals, grown under various conditions, were slabbed, polished and striation etched, revealing the growth interface shape and the periodic and aperiodic natures of the striations.

  6. Delineation of a shallow subsurface aquiclude relief with aero electromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, A.; Winkler, E.; Bieber, G.; Motschka, K.; Reitner, H.

    2009-04-01

    Within a governmental groundwater remediation project in Austria, a new (overworked) characterization of a large catchment area (600 km2) with aeroelectromagnetics (AEM) was carried out. This catchment area is a large and important zone of subsurface water resources for currently and future municipal and rural water supply. Conflicts in future land use between e.g. agricultura, excavigation of mass materials, city and regional planning, ect. are preassigned and have impacts concerning the quality and quantity of available groundwater. The geology of the investigation area is a typical post-glacial region, characterized by aggradational deposition areas. The thickness of the wide-spread terrace gravels ranges from 10m to 40m, being the preferred ground water aquifer. The subsurface of the investigation area is built up by a Neogen basement, the so called Molasse and is acting as an aquiclude relative to the overlying quaternary sediments. Aeroelectromagnetic data from a former aerogeophysical survey were reinterpreted with a new processing and interpretation approach for the determination of this geological 3 layer case. This aeroelectromagnetic inversion integrates results from borehole data, ground geoelectric surveys and from geological mapping as a priori input information. The inversion result for a measured AEM data value is determined by a combination of geostatistically weighted additional information and likelihood weighted theoretical models. The primary aim of the study was the delineation of the aquiclude relief. The ground water circulation within the different terrace gravels is substantially affected by this Neogen relief. Depressions and prequaternary (tertiary) riverbeds within the Molasse often show other trends of water flow than the surficial, recent vales. The knowledge of the hydrogeological framework is essential for identification and definition of water protection and catchment areas as a decision base for national land use regulations. The

  7. Dynamic Agroecological Zones for the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, D. R.; Rupp, R.; Gessler, P.; Pan, W.; Brown, D. J.; Machado, S.; Walden, V. P.; Eigenbrode, S.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Agroecological zones (AEZ's) have traditionally been defined by integrating multiple layers of biophysical (e.g. climate, soil, terrain) and occasionally socioeconomic data to create unique zones with specific ranges of land use constraints and potentials. Our approach to defining AEZ's assumes that current agricultural land uses have emerged as a consequence of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers. Therefore, we explore the concept that AEZ's can be derived from classifying the geographic distribution of current agricultural systems (e.g. the wheat-fallow cropping system zone) based on spatially geo-referenced annual cropland use data that is currently available through the National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS). By defining AEZ's in this way, we expect to: (1) provide baseline information that geographically delineates the boundaries of current AEZ's and subzones and therefore the capacity to evaluate shifts in AEZ boundaries over time; (2) assess the biophysical (e.g. climate, soils, terrain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. commodity prices) that are most useful for predicting and correctly classifying current AEZ's, subzones or future shifts in AEZ boundaries; (3) identify and develop AEZ-relevant climate mitigation and adaptation strategies; and (4) integrate biophysical and socioeconomic data sources to pursue a transdisciplinary examination of climate-driven AEZ futures. Achieving these goals will aid in realizing major objectives for a USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, Cooperative Agricultural Project entitled "Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) for Pacific Northwest Agriculture". REACCH is a research, education and extension project under the leadership of the University of Idaho with significant collaboration from Washington State University, Oregon State University and the USDA Agricultural Research Service that is working towards increasing the capacity of Inland Pacific

  8. ArcGIS-based data management system of earthquake micro-zoning in Xi' an City%基于ArcGIS的西安市地震小区划数据管理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田勤虎; 刘晨; 种瑾; 魏电信; 张峰

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake micro-zoning in Xi' an City is an important project in the eleventh five-year plan of earthquake disaster prevention and reduction in Shaanxi Province, and establishment of a data management system based on GIS platform is an important work of the project. According to analysis of multi-source result data of the project, a development platform based on ArcGIS software was determined,and a data management system of earthquake micro-zoning was established. Necessary fundamental functions to realize the system and a basic system frame were proposed and the key links of conceptual model design, logic model design, physical model design, etc. Were de-scri bed for the databases. At last,the technical links of data preparation, data generation, data loading, etc. Were described in detail. These works would be helpful to realization of organization and management of result dato on earthquake micro-zoning in Xi' an City.%建立基于GIS平台的数据管理系统是陕西省防震减灾“十一五”重点项目西安市地震小区划项目中的一项重要工作,通过对该项目多源成果数据的分析,确定以ArcGIS软件为开发平台,建立地震小区划数据管理系统.提出了实现该系统须具备的基本功能、系统的基本框架,并对概念模型设计、逻辑模型设计、物理模型设计等关键环节进行了数据库详细设计.最后,对入库数据的数据准备、数据生成、数据入库等技术环节做了详细论述,这些工作将有助于实现西安市地震小区划成果数据的有效组织与管理.

  9. A Driver Pressure State Impact Response (DPSIR) framework applied to an interdisciplinary coastal zone management workshop along the eastern Gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, E.; Baldwin, C.; Jones, C.; Lewison, R. L.; Lieske, S.; Rudd, M.

    2016-02-01

    The flexibility of the Driver Pressure State Impact Response (DPSIR) framework is demonstrated through application to the coastal zone of east Gulf of Thailand during an inter-disciplinary multi-cultural workshop comprised of participants (including practitioners) from south-east Asian coastal countries, North America and Australia in January 2015. The benefits of the framework as identified by participants included systematic and critical thinking, and identification of data gaps and other needs, such as capacity building. We use four case studies that highlight cross-border social-ecological challenges in Thailand and Cambodia to demonstrate: a) participant learning, b) individuality and flexibility of approaches (e.g. scales considered), c) participants' feedback on its application, and d) its potential use to identify both data-gaps and low-hanging-fruit type actions.

  10. Development of resource shed delineation in aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental issues in aquatic ecosystems of high management priority involve spatially explicit phenomena that occur over vast areas. A "landscape" perspective is thus necessary, including an understanding of how ecological phenomena at a local scale are affected by physical fo...

  11. Tillage and phosphorus management effects on enzyme-labile bioactive phosphorus availability in brazilian cerrado oxisols and temperature zone typic hapludults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillage management practices have a direct effect on the behavior and availability of soil nutrients. Phosphorus (P) is an essential element in crop growth which can be growth-limiting or an environmental contaminant, if present in excess. Sorption and availability of various soil P forms were eva...

  12. Soil macrofauna functional groups and their effects on soil structure, as related to agricultural management practices across agroecological zones of Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayuke, F.O.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the effects of crop management practices on soil macrofauna and the links with soil aggregation and soil organic matter dynamics, which is key to the improvement of infertile or degrading soils in Sub-Sahara Africa. Soil macrofauna, especially earthworms and termite

  13. The Supervisory Role of the National Universities Commission and the Management of Universities in the South-South Zone of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroma, N. S.

    2007-01-01

    Issues such as financial autonomy, academic autonomy and administrative autonomy are crucial to the effective management of university education globally. For many years Nigerian universities have complained of being impeded in these areas because of the supervisory role of the National Universities Commission (NUC) which tend to encroach on their…

  14. Controlled-source electromagnetic and seismic delineation of subseafloor fluid flow structures in a gas hydrate province, offshore Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, Eric; Weitemeyer, Karen; Minshull, Tim A.; Best, Angus I.; Sinha, Martin; Jegen-Kulcsar, Marion; Hölz, Sebastian; Berndt, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Deep sea pockmarks underlain by chimney-like or pipe structures that contain methane hydrate are abundant along the Norwegian continental margin. In such hydrate provinces the interaction between hydrate formation and fluid flow has significance for benthic ecosystems and possibly climate change. The Nyegga region, situated on the western Norwegian continental slope, is characterized by an extensive pockmark field known to accommodate substantial methane gas hydrate deposits. The aim of this study is to detect and delineate both the gas hydrate and free gas reservoirs at one of Nyegga's pockmarks. In 2012, a marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) survey was performed at a pockmark in this region, where high-resolution 3-D seismic data were previously collected in 2006. 2-D CSEM inversions were computed using the data acquired by ocean bottom electrical field receivers. Our results, derived from unconstrained and seismically constrained CSEM inversions, suggest the presence of two distinctive resistivity anomalies beneath the pockmark: a shallow vertical anomaly at the underlying pipe structure, likely due to gas hydrate accumulation, and a laterally extensive anomaly attributed to a free gas zone below the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. This work contributes to a robust characterization of gas hydrate deposits within subseafloor fluid flow pipe structures.

  15. Individual object delineation revising cadastral boundaries by means of VHSR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Stefan; Tiede, Dirk; Schumacher, Jens; Hölbling, Daniel

    2007-10-01

    A rapidly increasing demand for accurate and updated geo-spatial information requires advanced techniques for extracting and providing relevant information. The presented work was carried out in a 3654 km2 sized area in the region of Stuttgart/Germany, characterized by high dynamic growth and steady economic development. The project Biotope Information and Management System (BIMS) provides and monitors aggregated spatial units relevant for regional planning tasks. We discuss experiences from the first phase of the project, in which we developed an adaptive per-parcel approach for delineating elementary units using SPOT-5 MS data (5 m GSD). The target geometry was pre-defined by digital cadastre data from 2005, but not all existing boundaries were retained: some were dismissed, others introduced. We followed a threefold strategy: (1) a parcel with internal homogeneity remains the same; (2) neighboring parcels with similar spectral behavior are merged; (3) a single, heterogeneous parcel is split and new boundaries are generated. By this, the initial number of units dropped to one fourth. The majority of the units were merged due to trans-boundary homogeneity, one fourth was subdivided. Assets of this approach are its cost-efficiency, the high matching degree of the produced geometry and the transferability to similar cases because of the standardized character of the data sets involved.

  16. Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007–Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

  17. STUDY REGARDING DELINEATION OF FLOOD HAZARD ZONES IN THE HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF THE SOMEŞ RIVER, BORDER AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOICA F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological studies will provide the characteristic parameters for the floods occurred for the calculus discharges with overflow probabilities of 0,1%; 1%, 5%, 10%. The hydrologic and hydraulic models will be made by using the hydro-meteorological data base and the topographical measurements on site; them calibration will be done according to the records of the historical floods. The studies on the hydrologic and hydraulic models will be necessary for the establishment of the carrying capacity of the riverbeds, for the delimitation of the flood plains and for the detection of the transit discharges at the hydro-technical installations, but also for the establishment of the parameters needed for the structural measures’ projects. These will be based on the 1D and 2D unstable hydro-dynamic models. Therefore, the users would be able to assess the proposed measures and the impact over the river’s system; of course with the potential combination of the 1D and 2D. The main objectives followed by the project are: • identification of the river basins or river sub-basins with flood risks; • regionalization of the flood hazard; • presentation of the main flash floods occurred during the last 30 years, which induced floods; • assessment of the consequences of eventual flood over the population, properties and environment; • the establishment of the protection degree, accepted for the human settlements, for the economic and social objectives, for the farm areas, etc.;

  18. Using helicopter TEM to delineate fresh water and salt water zones in the aquifer beneath the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski, Joel E.; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang K. H.; Kgotlhang, Lesego

    2017-09-01

    The Okavango Delta is a vast wetland wilderness in the middle of the Kalahari Desert of Botswana. It is a largely closed hydrological system with most water leaving the delta by evapotranspiration. In spite of this, the channels and swamps of the delta remain surprisingly low in salinity. To help understand the hydrological processes at work, we reanalyzed a previous inversion of data collected from a helicopter transient electromagnetic (HTEM) survey of the entire delta and performed an inversion of a high resolution dataset recorded during the same survey. Our results show widespread infiltration of fresh water to as much as ∼200 m depth into the regional saline aquifer. Beneath the western delta, freshwater infiltration extends to only about 80 m depth. Hydrological modeling with SEAWAT confirms that this may be due to rebound of the regional saltwater-freshwater interface following the cessation of surface flooding over this part of the delta in the 1880s. Our resistivity models also provide evidence for active and inactive saltwater fingers to as much as ∼100 m beneath islands. These results demonstrate the great extent of freshwater infiltration across the delta and also show that all vegetated areas along the delta's channels and swamps are potential locations for transferring solutes from surface water to an aquifer at depth.

  19. Reducing risk where tectonic plates collide—U.S. Geological Survey subduction zone science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Ludwig, Kristin A.; Bekins, Barbara; Brocher, Thomas M.; Brock, John C.; Brothers, Daniel; Chaytor, Jason D.; Frankel, Arthur; Geist, Eric L.; Haney, Matt; Hickman, Stephen H.; Leith, William S.; Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Schulz, William H.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Wallace, Kristi; Watt, Janet; Wein, Anne

    2017-06-19

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) serves the Nation by providing reliable scientific information and tools to build resilience in communities exposed to subduction zone earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions. Improving the application of USGS science to successfully reduce risk from these events relies on whole community efforts, with continuing partnerships among scientists and stakeholders, including researchers from universities, other government labs and private industry, land-use planners, engineers, policy-makers, emergency managers and responders, business owners, insurance providers, the media, and the general public.Motivated by recent technological advances and increased awareness of our growing vulnerability to subduction-zone hazards, the USGS is uniquely positioned to take a major step forward in the science it conducts and products it provides, building on its tradition of using long-term monitoring and research to develop effective products for hazard mitigation. This science plan provides a blueprint both for prioritizing USGS science activities and for delineating USGS interests and potential participation in subduction zone science supported by its partners.The activities in this plan address many USGS stakeholder needs:High-fidelity tools and user-tailored information that facilitate increasingly more targeted, neighborhood-scale decisions to mitigate risks more cost-effectively and ensure post-event operability. Such tools may include maps, tables, and simulated earthquake ground-motion records conveying shaking intensity and frequency. These facilitate the prioritization of retrofitting of vulnerable infrastructure;Information to guide local land-use and response planning to minimize development in likely hazardous zones (for example, databases, maps, and scenario documents to guide evacuation route planning in communities near volcanoes, along coastlines vulnerable to tsunamis, and built on landslide-prone terrain);New tools

  20. Set the Special Zone of Mine Rights Management Reform for Integrated Exploration%建立矿业权管理综合改革“特区”实现整装勘查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱清; 余振国

    2012-01-01

    矿业权管理综合改革已经进入深水区.要在整装勘查区快速实现找矿突破,实现“三五八”宏伟目标,必须用新政策、新手段、新方法,走局部试验、总结经验、整体铺开的道路.提出了在整装勘查区建立矿业权管理综合改革“特区”,通过充分调动投资方、地勘单位、地质找矿科技人员、地方政府、矿区居民五方的积极性,建立五方共赢机制,实现特区“扩权、搞活、创新、公平”的目标.最后提出了特区建设的路径和建议.%Mine rights management reform has come to a critical stage. If we want to reach prospecting breakthrough in integrated exploration district to achieve the " 358" goal, new policy, new instrument and new method must be applied and the way of partial area trial, experience summary and overall promotion must be stick to. Proposes was made to set special zone for comprehensive management reform of mine rights in integrated exploration areas. The investors, exploration units, technicians, local governments and residents should all be fully motivated for a whole win ?win mechanism for the five sides to achieve the goal of dynamic, innovative and fair. Finally some suggestions were given for special zone construction.

  1. Assessment of groundwater potential zones using multi-influencing factor (MIF) and GIS: a case study from Birbhum district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Raju; Gupta, Srimanta; Guin, Shirshendu; Kaur, Harjeet

    2017-05-01

    Remote sensing and GIS play a vital role in exploration and assessment of groundwater and has wide application in detection, monitoring, assessment, conservation and various other fields of groundwater-related studies. In this research work, delineation of groundwater potential zone in Birbhum district has been carried out. Various thematic layers viz. geology, geomorphology, soil type, elevation, lineament and fault density, slope, drainage density, land use/land cover, soil texture, and rainfall are digitized and transformed into raster data in ArcGIS 10.3 environment as input factors. Thereafter, multi-influencing factor (MIF) technique is employed where ranks and weights, assigned to each factor are computed statistically. Finally, groundwater potential zones are classified into four categories namely low, medium, high and very high zone. It is observed that 18.41% (836.86 km2) and 34.41% (1563.98 km2) of the study area falls under `low' and `medium' groundwater potential zone, respectively. Approximately 1601.19 km2 area accounting for 35.23% of the study area falls under `high' category and `very high' groundwater potential zone encompasses an area of 542.98 km2 accounting for 11.95% of the total study area. Finally, the model generated groundwater potential zones are validated with reported potential yield data of various wells in the study area. Success and prediction rate curve reveals an accuracy achievement of 83.03 and 78%, respectively. The outcome of the present research work will help the local authorities, researchers, decision makers and planners in formulating better planning and management of groundwater resources in the study area in future perspectives.

  2. Delineating Partnerships from other Forms of Collaboration in Regional Development Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Wilgaard

    2016-01-01

    literature depicts similar difficulties in delineating partnerships from other collaboration models causing diversified messages about partnerships. In an attempt to invigorate the partnership literature by delineating partnerships from other forms of collaboration and thus progress the work and output...... to delineate partnerships from other forms of collaboration such as networks, clusters and governance-partnerships.......The idea of an all-encompassing partnership has vindicated all sorts of collaboration models to be articulated as partnerships although not occurring as ones, leaving practitioners and politicians of regional development planning with suboptimal ways of collaborating. Reviewing the partnership...

  3. Impact of CT/MRI Image Registration on Target Delineation of Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer with Brain Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang LI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Accurate target delineation in radiation therapy is a key component of the treatment regimen for brain metastasis for which CT/MRI fusion technology provides a feasible method. The aim of this study is to explore the role of CT/MRI image registration in target delineation for lung cancer with brain metastasis. Methods The image data of 31 patients were processed using Oncentra MasterPlan. The GTVs were delineated on CT and CT/MRI images, and their differences were compared to analyze the impact of the maximum average error and tumor edema on target delineation. Results The GTVs delineated on CT/MRI images were markedly smaller than those delineated on CT images. Target delineation was clearly influenced by edema. Conclusion The technology of CT/MRI image registration can improve the accuracy of target delineation for lung cancer with brain metastasis.

  4. Community disruptions and business costs for distant tsunami evacuations using maximum versus scenario-based zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Wilson, Rick I.; Ratliff, Jamie L.; Peters, Jeff; MacMullan, Ed; Krebs, Tessa; Shoaf, Kimberley; Miller, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Well-executed evacuations are key to minimizing loss of life from tsunamis, yet they also disrupt communities and business productivity in the process. Most coastal communities implement evacuations based on a previously delineated maximum-inundation zone that integrates zones from multiple tsunami sources. To support consistent evacuation planning that protects lives but attempts to minimize community disruptions, we explore the implications of scenario-based evacuation procedures and use the California (USA) coastline as our case study. We focus on the land in coastal communities that is in maximum-evacuation zones, but is not expected to be flooded by a tsunami generated by a Chilean earthquake scenario. Results suggest that a scenario-based evacuation could greatly reduce the number of residents and employees that would be advised to evacuate for 24–36 h (178,646 and 159,271 fewer individuals, respectively) and these reductions are concentrated primarily in three counties for this scenario. Private evacuation spending is estimated to be greater than public expenditures for operating shelters in the area of potential over-evacuations ($13 million compared to $1 million for a 1.5-day evacuation). Short-term disruption costs for businesses in the area of potential over-evacuation are approximately $122 million for a 1.5-day evacuation, with one-third of this cost associated with manufacturing, suggesting that some disruption costs may be recouped over time with increased short-term production. There are many businesses and organizations in this area that contain individuals with limited mobility or access and functional needs that may have substantial evacuation challenges. This study demonstrates and discusses the difficulties of tsunami-evacuation decision-making for relatively small to moderate events faced by emergency managers, not only in California but in coastal communities throughout the world.

  5. Application of nanoscale zero-valent iron tracer to delineate groundwater flow paths between a screened well and an open well in fractured rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, P. Y.; Chiu, Y.; Liou, Y. H.; Teng, M. H.; Chia, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Fracture flow is of importance for water resources as well as the investigation of contaminant pathways. In this study, a novel characterization approach of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) tracer test was developed to accurately identify the connecting fracture zones of preferential flow between a screened well and an open well. Iron nanoparticles are magnetic and can be attracted by a magnet. This feature make it possible to design a magnet array for attracting nZVI particles at the tracer inlet to characterize the location of incoming tracer in the observation well. This novel approach was tested at two experiment wells with well hydraulic connectivity in a hydrogeological research station in central Taiwan. A heat-pulse flowmeter can be used to detect changes in flow velocity for delineating permeable fracture zones in the borehole and providing the design basis for the tracer test. Then, the most permeable zone in the injection well was hydraulically isolated by well screen to prevent the injected nZVI particles from being stagnated at the hole bottom. Afterwards, another hydraulic test was implemented to re-examine the hydraulic connectivity between the two wells. When nZVI slurry was injected in the injection well, they migrated through connected permeable fractures to the observation well. A breakthrough curve, observed by the fluid conductivity sensor in the observation well, indicated the arrival of nZVI slurry. The iron nanoparticles attracted to the magnets in the observation well provide the position of tracer inlet, which corroborates well with the depth of a permeable zone delineated by the flowmeter. This article demonstrates the potential of nano-iron tracer test to provide the quantitative information of fracture flow paths in fractured rock.

  6. Watershed delineation and nitrogen source analysis for Bayou ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient pollution in stormwater runoff from urbanized areas contributes to water quality degradation in streams and receiving waterbodies. Agriculture, population growth, and industrial activities are significant sources of nitrogen inputs for surface waters. Increased nitrogen loading stimulates eutrophication through algal blooms, which leads to an overall decrease in drinking water and aquatic habitat quality. Bayou Chico, a highly urbanized watershed in the Pensacola Bay system in northwest Florida, is a nutrient-impaired waterbody under management to reduce bacteria and nutrient loadings, in accordance with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection’s (FDEP) Basin Management Action Plan. Best management practices and green infrastructure (GI) throughout Bayou Chico help reduce nitrogen inputs by retaining and filtering water. GI can function as a nitrogen sink by sorption or infiltration into soils, sequestration into plant material, and denitrification through microbial processes. However, a better understanding of the efficiency of these systems is needed to better inform management practices on future nitrogen reduction. This project will address two issues relating to the presence of nitrogen in the Bayou Chico watershed: 1) the identification of specific nitrogen sources within urbanized areas, and 2) the potential rates of nitrogen removal and sequestration from GI and nitrogen transport throughout the bayou. To accomplish these goals, nitr

  7. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  8. Discriminating Between Subhorizontal Lower Crustal and Upper Mantle Reflectivity to Delineate Moho Geometry Under the Transylvanian Basin, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillerup, M. A.; Knapp, J. H.; Knapp, C.

    2005-12-01

    A thick interval (~16 km) of reflective layered material at the crust/mantle boundary beneath the Transylvanian Basin, Romania, complicates delineation of the Mohorovicic discontinuity based on the deep seismic reflection method. Seismic reflection data from DRACULA I, collected during Project DRACULA (Deep Reflection Acquisition Constraining Unusual Lithospheric Activity), correlated with existing deep (17 s) industry reflection data constrains this regional subhorizontal fabric and may show a genetic relationship to the Vrancea Seismogenic zone. Portions of the DRACULA I line exhibit subhorizontal reflectivity in excess of 25 seconds (~75 km) with no clear reflective break indicating probable Moho location. Other bright reflectors in the southeastern end of DRACULA I at 7-10 seconds TWTT may represent the westward continuation of structural detachments from the Eastern Carpathians. The subhorizontal laterally continuous 10-17 second TWTT crust/mantle reflective interval is the most pervasive feature observed on all the profiles used in this study, and shows continuity of the Transylvanian crust into the Eastern Carpathians. The subhorizontal nature of this crust/mantle reflective interval seems to preclude the existence of a former Miocene-age suture zone to account for Miocene subduction as currently proposed for the geodynamic setting of the Vrancea seismogenic zone. A continuous lower crust without a plate boundary beneath the Transylvanian Basin advocates the less invasive process of active continental lithospheric delamination as a means to explain the Vrancea seismicity. Although still preliminary, results from the DRACULA I and supporting industry profiles, speak strongly against Miocene-age northwestward subduction in the Southeast Carpathians to be responsible for the intermediate-depth seismicity.

  9. Delineating Urban Fringe Area by Land Cover Information Entropy—An Empirical Study of Guangzhou-Foshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has caused many environmental problems, such as the heat island effect, intensifying air pollution, pollution from runoff, loss of wildlife habitat, etc. Accurate evaluations of these problems demand an accurate delineation of the spatial extent of the urban fringe. Conceptual and analytical ambiguity of the urban fringe and a general lack of consensus among researchers have made its measurement very difficult. This study reports a compound and reliable method to delineate the urban fringe area using a case study. Based on the 'fringe effect' theory in landscape ecology, the existing land cover information entropy model for defining the urban fringe is renewed by incorporating scale theory, cartography and urban geography theory. Results show that the urban fringe area of Guangzhou and Foshan metropolitan area covers an area of 2031 km2, and it occupies over 31% of the total study area. Result evaluation by industry structure data shows satisfactory correspondence with different land cover types. This paper reports the method and outcome of an attempt to provide an objective, repeatable and generally applicable method for mapping its spatial extent from remote sensing imageries, and could be beneficial to relevant urban studies and urban fringe management projects.

  10. Mapping subtrappean sediments and delineating structure with the aid of heliborne time domain electromagnetics: Case study from Kaladgi Basin, Karnataka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, M.; Markandeyulu, A.; Chaturvedi, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Mapping of subtrappean sediments is a complex geological problem attempted by many interpreters applying different geophysical techniques. Variations in thickness and resistivity of traps and underlying sediments, respectively, results in considerable uncertainty in the interpretation of geophysical data. It is proposed that the transient electromagnetic technique is an effective geophysical tool for delineation of the sub-trappean sediments, due to marked resistivity contrast between the Deccan trap, and underlying sediments and/or basement. The northern margin of the Kaladgi basin is covered under trap. A heliborne time domain electromagnetic survey was conducted to demarcate the basin extent and map the sub-trappean sediments. Conductivity depth transformations were used to map the interface between conductive trap and resistive 'basement'. Two resistivity contrast boundaries are picked: the first corresponds to the bottom of the shallow conductive unit interpreted as the base of the Deccan Volcanics and the second - picked at the base of a deeper subsurface conductive zone - is interpreted as the weathered paleo-surface of the crystalline basement. This second boundary can only be seen in areas where the volcanics are thin or absent, suggesting that the volcanics are masking the EM signal preventing deeper penetration. An interesting feature, which shows prominently in the EM data but less clearly imaged in the magnetic data, is observed in the vicinity of Mudhol. The surface geology interpreted from satellite imagery show Deccan trap cover around Mudhol. Modelling of TDEM data suggest the presence of synclinal basin structure. The depth of penetration of the heliborne TDEM data is estimated to be approximately 350 m for the study area. This suggests that heliborne TDEM could penetrate significant thicknesses of conductive Deccan trap cover to delineate structure below in the Bagalkot Group.

  11. Delineating wetland catchments and modeling hydrologic connectivity using lidar data and aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    In traditional watershed delineation and topographic modeling, surface depressions are generally treated as spurious features and simply removed from a digital elevation model (DEM) to enforce flow continuity of water across the topographic surface to the watershed outlets. In re...

  12. PET-based delineation of tumour volumes in lung cancer: comparison with pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Andrea; Mai, Sebastian; Bohnenberger, Hendrik; Kirsch, Carl-Martin; Grgic, Aleksandar [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany); Kim, Yoo Jin; Bohle, Rainer M. [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Homburg (Germany); Kremp, Stephanie; Fleckenstein, Jochen; Ruebe, Christian [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Radiooncology, Homburg (Germany); Schaefers, Hans-Joachim [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Homburg (Germany); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin [MeVis Research Center for Medical Diagnostic Systems and Visualization, Bremen (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    The objective of the study was to validate an adaptive, contrast-oriented thresholding algorithm (COA) for tumour delineation in {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in comparison with pathological findings. The impact of tumour localization, tumour size and uptake heterogeneity on PET delineation results was also investigated. PET tumour delineation by COA was compared with both CT delineation and pathological findings in 15 patients to investigate its validity. Correlations between anatomical volume, metabolic volume and the pathology reference as well as between the corresponding maximal diameters were determined. Differences between PET delineations and pathological results were investigated with respect to tumour localization and uptake heterogeneity. The delineated volumes and maximal diameters measured on PET and CT images significantly correlated with the pathology reference (both r > 0.95, p < 0.0001). Both PET and CT contours resulted in overestimation of the pathological volume (PET 32.5 {+-} 26.5 %, CT 46.6 {+-} 27.4 %). CT volumes were larger than those delineated on PET images (CT 60.6 {+-} 86.3 ml, PET 48.3 {+-} 61.7 ml). Maximal tumour diameters were similar for PET and CT (51.4 {+-} 19.8 mm for CT versus 53.4 {+-} 19.1 mm for PET), slightly overestimating the pathological reference (mean difference CT 4.3 {+-} 3.2 mm, PET 6.2 {+-} 5.1 mm). PET volumes of lung tumours located in the lower lobe were significantly different from those determined from pathology (p = 0.037), whereas no significant differences were observed for tumours located in the upper lobe (p = 0.066). Only minor correlation was found between pathological tumour size and PET heterogeneity (r = -0.24). PET tumour delineation by COA showed a good correlation with pathological findings. Tumour localization had an influence on PET delineation results. The impact of tracer uptake heterogeneity on PET delineation

  13. Review of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in coastal zones of the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions of the United States with management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, C A; Corbett, D R

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater serves as the primary drinking water source for over half of the coastal populations of the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions, two of the fastest growing regions in the United States. Increased demand for this resource has exceeded sustainable yields in many areas and induced saltwater intrusion of coastal aquifers. A process associated with coastal groundwater, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), has been documented as a source of subsurface fluids to coastal ocean environments throughout the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions and is potentially a significant contributor to nearshore water and geochemical budgets (i.e., nutrients, carbon, trace metals) in many coastal regions. The importance of groundwater as a drinking water source for coastal populations and the influences of submarine groundwater discharge to the coastal ocean warrant increased research and management of this resource. This paper highlights findings from recent SGD studies on three hydrogeologically different continental margins (Onslow Bay, NC, southern Florida, and the Louisiana margin), provides background on the common methods of assessing SGD, and suggests a regional management plan for coastal groundwater resources. Suggested strategies call for assessments of SGD in areas of potentially significant discharge, development of new monitoring networks, and the incorporation of a regional coastal groundwater resources council.

  14. Impacts of Different Management Practices on Physico-Chemical Properties of Soil in Mid-Hill, Sub-Humid Zone-II of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Kapoor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted at Hill Agricultural Research and Extension centre Bajaura of CSK HP Krishi Vishvavidayalaya, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh to investigate the Impacts of different management practices on physical as well as chemical properties of the soil. Sample analysis of three management practices i.e. organic, inorganic and integrated revealed that, water holding capacity was found to be highest in organic treatment (50.8%, followed by integrated (44.9% and least in inorganic (40.2% whereas field capacity of the three farming systems followed an order as integrated > organic> inorganic treatment. The bulk density of the soil was in the range of 1.36-1.58 Mg cm-2 in the three farming systems and the value was highest in inorganic treatment and lowest in organic treatment. The organic carbon content of soil was highest (1.8 Kg g-1 in organic treatment followed by integrated and lowest (0.75 Kg g-1 in inorganic treatment. The available nitrogen was found to be lowest in integrated treatment followed by organic and inorganic. Cation exchange capacity was found to be highest (16.58 c mol (+ kg‑1 in organic and lowest (10.82 c mol(+ kg‑1 in inorganic practice. Hence organic agriculture practice is best for the restoration of agricultural lands and an environmentally sound and inexpensive way to sustainably intensify crop production on marginal land as well as improving the ecology of the soil environment.

  15. Soil and dasometric characterization of a Eucalyptus globulus Labill plantation and management proposal in the lower montane thorny steppe zone, Riobamba, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guallpa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on the growth and yield of the Tasmanian blue gum plantation in Tunshi-ESPOCH homestead in varying physiographic conditions, soil properties and management; for this reason it was decided to assess its forest mass. Circular plots were installed with 12.62 m radius at an intensity of 5-6% ha-1. Through systematic unaligned sampling for lifting dasometric information and digging three pits stand-1, using stratified sampling for variables of the place. The application of statistical estimators, determined at an altitude of 2755 amsl, a total average tree volume estimated-1 of 2.32 m3 compared with 0.25 m3 at an altitude of 2929 amsl. Two areas of conservation and other forest use were defined. There are significant associations between total unit volume of T. blue against altitude, organic matter content, cationic exchange capacity at surface level and level of boron underlying level, generating a management strategy for each defined area.

  16. Las unidades de planificación y gestión territorial como directriz para la zonificación urbana (planning units and land management as guidelines for urban zoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Villegas Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente artículo, derivado de investigación, presenta el marco conceptual y metodológico resultados del estudio de las Unidades de Planificación Territorial y de Gestión como Instrumento Operativo para la toma de Decisiones Urbano Rural, los POTs y PDM, instrumentos de planteamiento en el corto, mediano y largo plazo, en este orden la zonificación del territorio se convierte en la alternativa para plantear y fortalecer las Unidades de Gestión y Planificación Territorial donde se debe fortalecer la institucionalidad a partir de la incorporación de los actores y sectores público, privado y sociedad civil. ABSTRACT: This current article, derived from a piece of research, introduces in the theoretical and methodological frameworks, the results of a study of the Land Planning Units and of Management as an Operational Instrument for the Rural-Urban decisionmaking, the Territorial Ordering Plan –TOP– and Municipal Development Plan – MDP–, instruments of approach in the short, medium and long terms; in this order, the zoning of the territory becomes an alternative to raise and to strengthen the Management Units and the Territorial Planning, where the institutional framework must be consolidated from the incorporation of public, private actors and sectors, and the civil society.

  17. Hydrologic Modeling and Flood Frequency Analysis for Ordinary High Water Mark Delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 2 Wetland Regulatory Assistance Program (WRAP) Hydrologic Modeling and Flood Frequency Analysis for Ordinary...Program (WRAP) ERDC/CRREL TR-16-2 February 2016 Hydrologic Modeling and Flood Frequency Analysis for Ordinary High Water Mark Delineation John...Abstract This document explores hydrologic modeling and flood frequency analysis for ordinary high water mark (OHWM) delineation performed for Clean

  18. A wavelet-based ECG delineation algorithm for 32-bit integer online processing

    OpenAIRE

    Chiari Lorenzo; Di Marco Luigi Y

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the first well-known electrocardiogram (ECG) delineator based on Wavelet Transform (WT) presented by Li et al. in 1995, a significant research effort has been devoted to the exploitation of this promising method. Its ability to reliably delineate the major waveform components (mono- or bi-phasic P wave, QRS, and mono- or bi-phasic T wave) would make it a suitable candidate for efficient online processing of ambulatory ECG signals. Unfortunately, previous implementati...

  19. A modular low-complexity ECG delineation algorithm for real-time embedded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bote, Jose Manuel; Recas, Joaquin; Rincon, Francisco; Atienza, David; Hermida, Roman

    2017-02-17

    This work presents a new modular and lowcomplexity algorithm for the delineation of the different ECG waves (QRS, P and T peaks, onsets and end). Involving a reduced number of operations per second and having a small memory footprint, this algorithm is intended to perform realtime delineation on resource-constrained embedded systems. The modular design allows the algorithm to automatically adjust the delineation quality in run time to a wide range of modes and sampling rates, from a Ultra-low power mode when no arrhythmia is detected, in which the ECG is sampled at low frequency, to a complete High-accuracy delineation mode in which the ECG is sampled at high frequency and all the ECG fiducial points are detected, in case of arrhythmia. The delineation algorithm has been adjusted using the QT database, providing very high sensitivity and positive predictivity, and validated with the MIT database. The errors in the delineation of all the fiducial points are below the tolerances given by the Common Standards for Electrocardiography (CSE) committee in the High-accuracy mode, except for the P wave onset, for which the algorithm is above the agreed tolerances by only a fraction of the sample duration. The computational load for the ultra-low-power 8-MHz TI MSP430 series microcontroller ranges from 0.2 to 8.5% according to the mode used.

  20. Urban planning as a trading zone

    CERN Document Server

    Mäntysalo, Raine

    2013-01-01

    'Trading zone' is a concept introduced by Peter Galison in his social scientific research on how scientists representing different sub-cultures and paradigms have been able to coordinate their interaction locally. In this book, Italian and Finnish planning researchers extend the use of the concept to different contexts of urban planning and management, where there is a need for new ideas and tools in managing the interaction of different stakeholders. The trading zone concept is approached as a tool in organizing local platforms and support systems for planning participation, knowledge production, decision making and local conflict management. In relation to the former theses of communicative planning theory that stress the ideals of consensus, mutual understanding and universal reason, the 'trading zone approach', outlined in this book, offers a different perspective. It focuses on the potentiality to coordinate locally the interaction of different stakeholders without requiring the deeper sharing of underst...

  1. Groundwater Hydrology and Chemistry in and near an Emulsified Vegetable-Oil Injection Zone, Solid Waste Management Unit 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2004-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated the hydrology and groundwater chemistry in the vicinity of an emulsified vegetable-oil injection zone at Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. In May 2004, Solutions-IES initiated a Phase-I pilot-scale treatability study at SWMU17 involving the injection of an edible oil emulsion into the aquifer near wells 17PS-01, 17PS-02, and 17PS-03 to treat chlorinated solvents. The Phase-I injection of emulsified vegetable oil resulted in dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), but the dechlorination activity appeared to stall at cDCE, with little further dechlorination of cDCE to vinyl chloride (VC) or to ethene. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the groundwater hydrology and chemistry in and near the injection zone to gain a better understanding of the apparent remediation stall. It is unlikely that the remediation stall was due to the lack of an appropriate microbial community because groundwater samples showed the presence of Dehalococcoides species (sp.) and suitable enyzmes. The probable causes of the stall were heterogeneous distribution of the injectate and development of low-pH conditions in the injection area. Because groundwater pH values in the injection area were below the range considered optimum for dechlorination activity, a series of tests was done to examine the effect on dechlorination of increasing the pH within well 17PS-02. During and following the in-well pH-adjustment tests, VC concentrations gradually increased in some wells in the injection zone that were not part of the in-well pH-adjustment tests. These data possibly reflect a gradual microbial acclimation to the low-pH conditions produced by the injection. In contrast, a distinct increase in VC concentration was observed in well 17PS-02 following the in-well pH increase. Adjustment

  2. 3D Groundwater flow model at the Upper Rhine Graben scale to delineate preferential target areas for geothermal projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armandine Les Landes, Antoine; Guillon, Théophile; Peter-Borie, Mariane; Rachez, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Any deep unconventional geothermal project remains risky because of the uncertainty regarding the presence of the geothermal resource at depth and the drilling costs increasing accordingly. That's why this resource must be located as precisely as possible to increase the chances of successful projects and their economic viability. To minimize the risk, as much information as possible should be gathered prior to any drilling. Usually, the position of the exploration wells of geothermal energy systems is chosen based on structural geology observations, geophysics measurements and geochemical analyses. Confronting these observations to results from additional disciplines should bring more objectivity in locating the region to explore and where to implant the geothermal system. The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is a tectonically active rift system that corresponds to one branch of the European Cenozoic Rift System where the basin hosts a significant potential for geothermal energy. The large fault network inherited from a complex tectonic history and settled under the sedimentary deposits hosts fluid circulation patterns. Geothermal anomalies are strongly influenced by fluid circulations within permeable structures such as fault zones. In order to better predict the location of the geothermal resource, it is necessary to understand how it is influenced by heat transport mechanisms such as groundwater flow. The understanding of fluid circulation in hot fractured media at large scale can help in the identification of preferential zones at a finer scale where additional exploration can be carried out. Numerical simulations is a useful tool to deal with the issue of fluid circulations through large fault networks that enable the uplift of deep and hot fluids. Therefore, we build a numerical model to study groundwater flow at the URG scale (150 x 130km), which aims to delineate preferential zones. The numerical model is based on a hybrid method using a Discrete Fracture Network

  3. The impacts of drainage, nutrient status and management practice on the full carbon balance of grasslands on organic soils in a maritime temperate zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Renou-Wilson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Temperate grasslands on organic soils are diverse due to edaphic properties but also to regional management practices and this heterogeneity is reflected in the wide range of greenhouse gas flux values reported in the literature. In Ireland, most grasslands on organic soils were drained several decades ago and are managed as extensive pastures with little or no fertilisation. This study describes a two-year study of the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB of two such sites. We determined greenhouse gas (GHG fluxes and waterborne carbon emissions in a nutrient rich grassland and compared it with values measured from two nutrient poor organic soils: a deep drained and a shallow drained site. GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O were determined using the chamber technique, and fluvial C fluxes were estimated by combining drainage water concentrations and flows. The nutrient rich site was an annual source of CO2 (NEE 233 g C m−2yr−1, CH4 neutral, and a small source of nitrous oxide (1.6 kg N2O-N ha−1yr−1. NEE at the shallow drained site was −89 and −99 g C m−2yr−1 in Years 1 and 2 respectively, and NEE at the deep drained site was +85 and −26 g C m−2yr−1 respectively. Low CH4 emissions (1.3 g C m−2yr−1 were recorded at the shallow drained nutrient poor site. Fluvial exports from the nutrient rich site totalled 69.8 g C m−2yr−1 with 54% as dissolved organic C (DOC. Waterborne C losses from the nutrient poor site reflected differences in annual runoff totalling 44 g C m−2yr−1 in Year 1 and 30.8 g C m−2yr−1 in Year 2. The NECB of the nutrient rich grassland was 663 g C m−2yr−1 with biomass exports being the major component accounting for 53%. The NECB of the nutrient poor deep drained site was less than half of the nutrient rich site (2 year mean 267 g C m−2yr−1. Although NEE at the nutrient poor shallow drained site was negative in both years, high biomass export meant it was a net C source (2 year mean NECB 103 g

  4. Novel Approaches for Delineating and Studying "Hotspots" and "Hot Moments" in Fluvial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K. H.; Bücker, M.; Flores Orozco, A.; Hobson, C.; Robbins, M.

    2014-12-01

    Experiments at the Department of Energy's Rifle, CO (USA) field site have long focused on stimulated biogeochemical pathways arising from organic carbon injection. While reductive pathways and their relation to uranium immobilization have been a focus since 2002, ongoing studies are exploring oxidative pathways and their role in mediating fluxes of C, N, S, and aqueous metals. Insights gained from 'stimulation' experiments are providing insight into analogous natural biogeochemical pathways that mediate elemental cycling in the absence of exogenous carbon. Such reactions are instead mediated by endogenous pools of natural organic matter (NOM) deposited during aggradation of aquifer sediments associated with fluvial processes within the Colorado River floodplain. Discrete lenses of fine-grained, organic-rich sediments enriched in reduced species, such as Fe(II) and iron sulfides have been identified along the active margin of the floodplain. Referred to as "naturally reduced zones" (NRZs), these localities constitute a distinct facies type within an otherwise gravel-dominated, largely NOM-deficient matrix. NRZs represent 'hotspots' of seasonally intense C, N, S, and U cycling during excursions in groundwater elevation. Air bubble imbibition within the capillary fringe is inferred to contribute to seasonally oxic groundwater, with its puntuated, 'hot moment' like impact on redox-mediated reactions exhibiting close correspondence to those induced through the intentional introduction of oxidants. Reactions induce sharp gradients in nitrate and sulfate resulting from elevated rates of nitrification and oxidation of reduced sulfur as dissolved oxygen becomes non-limiting. Given their outsized role in constraining the location and timing of critcal element cycling pathways, delineating the distribution of NRZs across scales of relevance to natural field systems is of great importance. Novel mapping approaches borrowed from the field of exploration geophysics provide one

  5. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  6. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  7. Shanghai's Development Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since the early 1980s,development zones began appearing in China.Their Success largely stems from the preferential policies they offer and the safe investment environment they work hard to create.As zones have personalities themselves,it is essential to look beyond the pamphlets and published information and get down to the nittygritty.Shanghai has more State designated Economic and Technology Development Zones than any other city in China.In the following article,we have chosen development zones located around Shanghai and conducted a comparison.

  8. Origin and Propagation of Epileptic Spasms Delineated on Electrocorticography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Eishi; Juhász, Csaba; Shah, Aashit; Muzik, Otto; Chugani, Diane C.; Shah, Jagdish; Sood, Sandeep; Chugani, Harry T.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Purpose Ictal electrographic changes were analyzed on intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) in children with medically refractory epileptic spasms to assess the dynamic changes of ictal discharges associated with spasms and their relation to interictal epileptiform activity and neuroimaging findings. Methods We studied a consecutive series of 15 children (age 0.4 to 13 years; nine girls) with clusters of epileptic spasms recorded on prolonged intracranial subdural ECoG recordings, which were being performed for subsequent cortical resection, and in total, 62 spasms were analyzed by using quantitative methods. Results Spasms were associated with either a “leading” spike followed by fast-wave bursts (type I: 42 events analyzed quantitatively) or fast-wave bursts without a “leading” spike (type II: 20 events analyzed quantitatively). Twenty-three of the 42 type I spasms but none of the 20 type II spasms were preceded by a focal seizure. A “leading” spike had a focal origin in all 42 type I spasms and involved the pre- or postcentral gyrus within 0.1 s in 37 of these spasms. A leading spike was associated with interictal spike activity >1/min in 40 of 42 type I spasms and originated within 2 cm from a positron emission tomography glucose hypometabolic region in all but two type I spasms. Failure to resect the cortex showing a leading spike was associated with poor surgical outcome (p = 0.01; Fisher’s exact probability test). Fast-wave bursts associated with spasms involved neocortical regions extensively at least in two lobes within 1.28 s in all 62 spasms and involved the pre- or postcentral gyrus in 53 of 62 spasms. Conclusions Epileptic spasms may be triggered by a focal neocortical impulse in a subset of patients, and a leading spike, if present, might be used as a marker of the trigger zone for epileptic spasms. Rapidly emerging widespread fast-wave bursts might explain the clinical semiology of epileptic spasms. PMID:16026561

  9. Fuzzy spectral clustering for automated delineation of chronic wound region using digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar Dhane, Dhiraj; Maity, Maitreya; Mungle, Tushar; Bar, Chittaranjan; Achar, Arun; Kolekar, Maheshkumar; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2017-04-23

    Chronic wound is an abnormal disease condition of localized injury to the skin and its underlying tissues having physiological impaired healing response. Assessment and management of such wound is a significant burden on the healthcare system. Currently, precise wound bed estimation depends on the clinical judgment and remains a difficult task. The paper introduces a novel method for ulcer boundary demarcation and estimation, using optical images captured by a hand-held digital camera. The proposed approach involves gray based fuzzy similarity measure using spatial knowledge of an image. The fuzzy measure is used to construct similarity matrix. The best color channel was chosen by calculating the mean contrast for 26 different color channels of 14 color spaces. It was found that Db color channel has highest mean contrast which provide best segmentation result in comparison with other color channels. The fuzzy spectral clustering (FSC) method was applied on Db color channel for effective delineation of wound region. The segmented wound regions were effectively post-processed using various morphological operations. The performance of proposed segmentation technique was validated by ground-truth images labeled by two experienced dermatologists and a surgeon. The FSC approach was tested on 70 images. FSC effectively segmented targeted ulcer boundary yielding 91.5% segmentation accuracy, 86.7%, Dice index and 79.0%. Jaccard score. The sensitivity and specificity was found to be 87.3% and 95.7% respectively. The performance evaluation shows the robustness of the proposed method of wound area segmentation and its potential to be used for designing patient comfort centric wound care system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Control of penetration zone GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Iванов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of the base metal, shielding medium and the nature of the electrode metal transfer to a great extent determine the penetration area formation in gas-arc welding. It is not always possible to take into account the influence of these factors on penetration front forming within the existing models. The aim of the work was to research the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding. The research of the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding of CrNi austenitic steels was made. The parameters of the regime as well as the kind of the gaseous medium influence on the formation of the penetration zone were studied. The article shows a linear proportional relationship between the electrode feed rate and the size of the base metal plate. The penetration area formation mode for welding in argon and carbon dioxide have been worked out. Diameter, feed rate and the speed of the electrode movement have been chosen as the main input parameters. Multiple regression analysis method was used to make up the modes. The relations of the third order that make it possible to take into account the electrode metal transfer and thermal properties change of the materials to be welded were used. These relationships show quite good agreement with the experimental measurements in the calculation of the fusion zone shape with consumable electrode in argon and carbon dioxide. It was determined that the shape of the melting front curve can be shown as a generalized function in which the front motion parameters depend on feed rate and the diameter of the electrode. Penetration zone growth time is determined by the welding speed and is calculated as a discrete function of the distance from the electrode with the spacing along the movement coordinate. The influence of the mode parameters on the formation of the fusion zone has been investigated and the ways to manage and stabilize the weld pool formation have been identified. The modes can be used to develop

  11. Simple indicator kriging for estimating the probability of incorrectly delineating hazardous areas in a contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juang, K.W.; Lee, D.Y. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Graduate Inst. of Agricultural Chemistry

    1998-09-01

    The probability of incorrectly delineating hazardous areas in a contaminated site is very important for decision-makers because it indicates the magnitude of confidence that decision-makers have in determining areas in need of remediation. In this study, simple indicator kriging (SIK) was used to estimate the probability of incorrectly delineating hazardous areas in a heavy metal-contaminated site, which is located at Taoyuan, Taiwan, and is about 10 ha in area. In the procedure, the values 0 and 1 were assigned to be the stationary means of the indicator codes in the SIK model to represent two hypotheses, hazardous and safe, respectively. The spatial distribution of the conditional probability of heavy metal concentrations lower than a threshold, given each hypothesis, was estimated using SIK. Then, the probabilities of false positives ({alpha}) (i.e., the probability of declaring a location hazardous when it is not) and false negatives ({beta}) (i.e., the probability of declaring a location safe when it is not) in delineating hazardous areas for the heavy metal-contaminated site could be obtained. The spatial distribution of the probabilities of false positives and false negatives could help in delineating hazardous areas based on a tolerable probability level of incorrect delineation. In addition, delineation complicated by the cost of remediation, hazards in the environment, and hazards to human health could be made based on the minimum values of {alpha} and {beta}. The results suggest that the proposed SIK procedure is useful for decision-makers who need to delineate hazardous areas in a heavy metal-contaminated site.

  12. Emergent Properties Delineate Marine Ecosystem Perturbation and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jason S; Pranovi, Fabio; Libralato, Simone; Coll, Marta; Christensen, Villy; Solidoro, Cosimo; Fulton, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Whether there are common and emergent patterns from marine ecosystems remains an important question because marine ecosystems provide billions of dollars of ecosystem services to the global community, but face many perturbations with significant consequences. Here, we develop cumulative trophic patterns for marine ecosystems, featuring sigmoidal cumulative biomass (cumB)-trophic level (TL) and 'hockey-stick' production (cumP)-cumB curves. The patterns have a trophodynamic theoretical basis and capitalize on emergent, fundamental, and invariant features of marine ecosystems. These patterns have strong global support, being observed in over 120 marine ecosystems. Parameters from these curves elucidate the direction and magnitude of marine ecosystem perturbation or recovery; if biomass and productivity can be monitored effectively over time, such relations may prove to be broadly useful. Curve parameters are proposed as possible ecosystem thresholds, perhaps to better manage the marine ecosystems of the world. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M.; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  14. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  15. Participatory approach for integrated development and management of North African marginal zones: demonstrative plan to fight desertification in Morocco and Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mulas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A demonstrative and participatory development project on desertification mitigation and rural development has been launched in Northern Africa under SMAP Programme (Short and Medium-term priority environmental Action Programme financed by the European Union. The project, which title is Demonstration Project on Strategies to Combat Desertification in Arid Lands with Direct Involvement of Local Agro-pastoral Communities in North Africa, is carried out in sensitive regions of Morocco and Tunisia with the coordination of the Nucleo Ricerca sulla Desertificazione (NRD, Desertification Research Center of the University of Sassari (Italy and the partnership of Morocco and Tunisia Agriculture Ministries. The areas concerned are located in regions characterised by rural poverty, food dependency and land abandoning where urgent measures are needed to promote optimisation of resource availability and management for a sustainable development. The project involves direct desertification mitigation by vegetation cover restoration, with drought resistant perennial forage species (Opuntia ficus-indica, Atriplex nummularia and Acacia saligna in highly degraded rangelands in order to mitigate desertification processes while improving rangelands productivity; and adopts measures for local population technical capacities building through training sessions related to all project activities, and making it a concrete demonstration supported by the direct involvement of local communities. Successful actions already carried out in this field by the participants of the project as well as by other Mediterranean countries, has been taken into account, re-elaborated and exploited, thus promoting south/south co-operation and exchange of knowledge. Participation of all actors and especially of local communities is the key point in all phases of the project and is strengthened by means of dissemination and sensitisation campaigns and by training courses. At the end of the

  16. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castello Lagoon, NE Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ejarque

    Full Text Available We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain, an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1 the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2 fluctuations in salinity; and 3 natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the

  17. Remote sensing and aerial photography for delineation and management of coastal ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    of , marine environment depends, primarily on survey and mapping of coastal features. Present conventional methods require . exhaustive field sampling, manpower and cost. It is very necessary to have a low cost, precise and a rapid tool for the survey...-red aerial photographs are quite suitable for studying of various coastal vegetation including seaweed and coral environments. However, the small coverage, cost, manpower and time factors limit the use of aerial photographs compared to satellite data...

  18. Modeling Flood Hazard Zones at the Sub-District Level with the Rational Model Integrated with GIS and Remote Sensing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Asare-Kyei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Robust risk assessment requires accurate flood intensity area mapping to allow for the identification of populations and elements at risk. However, available flood maps in West Africa lack spatial variability while global datasets have resolutions too coarse to be relevant for local scale risk assessment. Consequently, local disaster managers are forced to use traditional methods such as watermarks on buildings and media reports to identify flood hazard areas. In this study, remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques were combined with hydrological and statistical models to delineate the spatial limits of flood hazard zones in selected communities in Ghana, Burkina Faso and Benin. The approach involves estimating peak runoff concentrations at different elevations and then applying statistical methods to develop a Flood Hazard Index (FHI. Results show that about half of the study areas fall into high intensity flood zones. Empirical validation using statistical confusion matrix and the principles of Participatory GIS show that flood hazard areas could be mapped at an accuracy ranging from 77% to 81%. This was supported with local expert knowledge which accurately classified 79% of communities deemed to be highly susceptible to flood hazard. The results will assist disaster managers to reduce the risk to flood disasters at the community level where risk outcomes are first materialized.

  19. Decisionmaking under risk in invasive species management: risk management theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali V. Mehta; Robert G. Haight; Frances R. Homans

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species management is closely entwined with the assessment and management of risk that arises from the inherently random nature of the invasion process. The theory and application of risk management for invasive species with an economic perspective is reviewed in this synthesis. Invasive species management can be delineated into three general categories:...

  20. Using Multispectral and Elevation Data to Predict Soil Properties for a Better Management of Fertilizers at Field Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Ariane; Michaud, Aubert; Sylvain, Jean-Daniel; N'Dayegamiye, Adrien; Gasser, Marc-Olivier; Nolin, Michel; Perron, Isabelle; Grenon, Lucie; Beaudin, Isabelle; Desjardins, Jacques; Côté, Noémi

    2013-04-01

    This project aims at developing and validating an operational integrated management and localized approach at field scale using remote sensing data. It is realized in order to support the competitiveness of agricultural businesses, to ensure soil productivity in the long term and prevent diffuse contamination of surface waters. Our intention is to help agrienvironmental advisors and farmers in the consideration of spatial variability of soil properties in the management of fields. The proposed approach of soil properties recognition is based on the combination of elevation data and multispectral satellite imagery (Landsat) within statistical models. The method is based on the use of the largest possible number of satellite images to cover the widest range of soil moisture variability. Several spectral indices are calculated for each image (normalized brightness index, soil color index, organic matter index, etc.). The assignation of soils is based on a calibration procedure making use of the spatial soil database available in Canada. It includes soil profile point data associated to a database containing the information collected in the field. Three soil properties are predicted and mapped: A horizon texture, B horizon texture and drainage class. All the spectral indices, elevation data and soil data are combined in a discriminant analysis that produces discriminant functions. These are then used to produce maps of soil properties. In addition, from mapping soil properties, management zones are delineated within the field. The delineation of management zones with relatively similar soil properties is created to enable farmers to manage their fertilizers by taking greater account of their soils. This localized or precision management aims to adjust the application of fertilizer according to the real needs of soils and to reduce costs for farmers and the exports of nutrients to the stream. Mapping of soil properties will be validated in three agricultural regions in

  1. Subduction of fracture zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William

    2013-04-01

    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  2. Delineating Individual Trees from Lidar Data: A Comparison of Vector- and Raster-based Segmentation Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggi Kelly

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Light detection and ranging (lidar data is increasingly being used for ecosystem monitoring across geographic scales. This work concentrates on delineating individual trees in topographically-complex, mixed conifer forest across the California’s Sierra Nevada. We delineated individual trees using vector data and a 3D lidar point cloud segmentation algorithm, and using raster data with an object-based image analysis (OBIA of a canopy height model (CHM. The two approaches are compared to each other and to ground reference data. We used high density (9 pulses/m2, discreet lidar data and WorldView-2 imagery to delineate individual trees, and to classify them by species or species types. We also identified a new method to correct artifacts in a high-resolution CHM. Our main focus was to determine the difference between the two types of approaches and to identify the one that produces more realistic results. We compared the delineations via tree detection, tree heights, and the shape of the generated polygons. The tree height agreement was high between the two approaches and the ground data (r2: 0.93–0.96. Tree detection rates increased for more dominant trees (8–100 percent. The two approaches delineated tree boundaries that differed in shape: the lidar-approach produced fewer, more complex, and larger polygons that more closely resembled real forest structure.

  3. Tumor delineation: The weakest link in the search for accuracy in radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njeh C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is one of the most effective modalities for the treatment of cancer. However, there is a high degree of uncertainty associated with the target volume of most cancer sites. The sources of these uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the motion of the target, patient setup errors, patient movements, and the delineation of the target volume. Recently, many imaging techniques have been introduced to track the motion of tumors. The treatment delivery using these techniques is collectively called image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT. Ultimately, IGRT is only as good as the accuracy with which the target is known. There are reports of interobserver variability in tumor delineation across anatomical sites, but the widest ranges of variations have been reported for the delineation of head and neck tumors as well as esophageal and lung carcinomas. Significant interobserver variability in target delineation can be attributed to many factors including the impact of imaging and the influence of the observer (specialty, training, and personal bias. The visibility of the target can be greatly improved with the use of multimodality imaging by co-registration of CT with a second modality such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and/or positron emission tomography. Also, continuous education, training, and cross-collaboration of the radiation oncologist with other specialties can reduce the degree of variability in tumor delineation.

  4. Multitracer: a Java-based tool for anatomic delineation of grayscale volumetric images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Roger P

    2003-08-01

    A Java-based tool for delineating anatomic boundaries in 8- and 16- bit grayscale volumetric images is described. Modern features implemented by the tool include the ability to simultaneously view the current cursor position and the previously delineated boundaries on three orthogonal planes, the ability to magnify images during delineation using high-quality interpolation, the ability to encode and save boundaries with subvoxel resolution, and the ability to utilize coregistered images interchangeably during delineation. Additional features facilitate use of the tool in a multiuser, multiplatform environment and provide support for the documentation of anatomic delineation protocols. In addition to providing direct estimates of structure volumes, areas, and lengths, the tool allows contoured boundaries to be exported for more sophisticated analyses. The tool also provides support for manual editing of image volumes to remove confounding structures and for manual correction of image volumes that have been inaccurately edited. In addition to its research utility, the tool also has potential value in education, allowing students to interact with volumetric data and structural boundaries in three dimensions.

  5. Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.; Arkhipov, A.N. [Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chornobyl Catastrophe (Ukraine)

    2001-03-01

    The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)

  6. Satellite tracking of sympatric marine megafauna can inform the biological basis for species co-management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gredzens

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Systematic conservation planning is increasingly used to identify priority areas for protection in marine systems. However, ecosystem-based approaches typically use density estimates as surrogates for animal presence and spatial modeling to identify areas for protection and may not take into account daily or seasonal movements of animals. Additionally, sympatric and inter-related species are often managed separately, which may not be cost-effective. This study aims to demonstrate an evidence-based method to inform the biological basis for co-management of two sympatric species, dugongs and green sea turtles. This approach can then be used in conservation planning to delineate areas to maximize species protection. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry was used to track eleven dugongs and ten green turtles at two geographically distinct foraging locations in Queensland, Australia to evaluate the inter- and intra-species spatial relationships and assess the efficacy of existing protection zones. Home-range analysis and bathymetric modeling were used to determine spatial use and compared with existing protection areas using GIS. Dugong and green turtle home-ranges significantly overlapped in both locations. However, both species used different core areas and differences existed between regions in depth zone use and home-range size, especially for dugongs. Both species used existing protection areas in Shoalwater Bay, but only a single tracked dugong used the existing protection area in Torres Strait. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry can provide evidence-based information on individual animal movements to delineate relationships between dugongs and green turtles in regions where they co-occur. This information can be used to increase the efficacy of conservation planning and complement more broadly based survey information. These species also use similar habitats, making complimentary co-management

  7. Results of an Oncology Clinical Trial Nurse Role Delineation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdom, Michelle A; Petersen, Sandra; Haas, Barbara K

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the relevance of a five-dimensional model of clinical trial nursing practice in an oncology clinical trial nurse population. 
. Web-based cross-sectional survey.
. Online via Qualtrics.
. 167 oncology nurses throughout the United States, including 41 study coordinators, 35 direct care providers, and 91 dual-role nurses who provide direct patient care and trial coordination.
. Principal components analysis was used to determine the dimensions of oncology clinical trial nursing practice.
. Self-reported frequency of 59 activities.
. The results did not support the original five-dimensional model of nursing care but revealed a more multidimensional model.
. An analysis of frequency data revealed an eight-dimensional model of oncology research nursing, including care, manage study, expert, lead, prepare, data, advance science, and ethics.
. This evidence-based model expands understanding of the multidimensional roles of oncology nurses caring for patients with cancer enrolled in clinical trials.

  8. A systems approach framework for coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Tom Sawyer; Bailly, Denis; Støttrup, Josianne

    2011-01-01

    This Special Feature Volume examines the potential value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF) as a methodological framework for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zones. This article provides insight on the Systems Approach, the theory behind it, and how its practical...... application to coastal zone systems (CZSs) was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to render this information more useful to end users through a participatory suite of communication methods...... of this Volume synthesizes these results in the context of the SAF as a higher level instrument for integrated coastal zone management...

  9. Aftershocks illuminate the 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake causative fault zone and nearby active faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Jr., J. Wright; Shah, Anjana K.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Snyder, Stephen L.; Carter, Aina M

    2015-01-01

    Deployment of temporary seismic stations after the 2011 Mineral, Virginia (USA), earthquake produced a well-recorded aftershock sequence. The majority of aftershocks are in a tabular cluster that delineates the previously unknown Quail fault zone. Quail fault zone aftershocks range from ~3 to 8 km in depth and are in a 1-km-thick zone striking ~036° and dipping ~50°SE, consistent with a 028°, 50°SE main-shock nodal plane having mostly reverse slip. This cluster extends ~10 km along strike. The Quail fault zone projects to the surface in gneiss of the Ordovician Chopawamsic Formation just southeast of the Ordovician–Silurian Ellisville Granodiorite pluton tail. The following three clusters of shallow (illuminate other faults. (1) An elongate cluster of early aftershocks, ~10 km east of the Quail fault zone, extends 8 km from Fredericks Hall, strikes ~035°–039°, and appears to be roughly vertical. The Fredericks Hall fault may be a strand or splay of the older Lakeside fault zone, which to the south spans a width of several kilometers. (2) A cluster of later aftershocks ~3 km northeast of Cuckoo delineates a fault near the eastern contact of the Ordovician Quantico Formation. (3) An elongate cluster of late aftershocks ~1 km northwest of the Quail fault zone aftershock cluster delineates the northwest fault (described herein), which is temporally distinct, dips more steeply, and has a more northeastward strike. Some aftershock-illuminated faults coincide with preexisting units or structures evident from radiometric anomalies, suggesting tectonic inheritance or reactivation.

  10. 77 FR 23425 - Revisions of Boundaries, Regulations and Zoning Scheme for Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Morkill, Refuge Manager, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 28950 Watson Blvd., Big Pine Key, FL 33043... conservation strategies, expressed during and subsequent to management plan reviews; Periodic evaluation of..., zoning scheme, backcountry management agreement, environmental evaluation, and, if...

  11. OCSLA Sec. 8(g) Revenue Zone Boundary - Alaska Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the Limit of "8(g) Zone" boundary in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Alaska Region. The "8(g) Zone" lies between the Submerged Lands Act...

  12. OCSLA Sec. 8(g) Revenue Zone Boundary - Atlantic Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the Limit of '8(g) Zone' line in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The '8(g) Zone' lies between the Submerged Lands Act...

  13. A Preliminary Study of Automatic Delineation of Eyes on CT Images Using Ant Colony Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-jie; XIE Wei-fu; YAO De-zhong

    2007-01-01

    Eyes are important organs-at-risk (OARs) that should be protected during the radiation treatment of those head tumors. Correct delineation of the eyes on CT images is one of important issues for treatment planning to protect the eyes as much as possible. In this paper, we propose a new method, named ant colony optimization (ACO), to delineate the eyes automatically.In the proposed algorithm, each ant tries to find a closed path, and some pheromone is deposited on the visited path when the ant finds a path. After all ants finish a circle, the best ant will lay some pheromone to enforce the best path. The proposed algorithm is verified on several CT images, and the preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of ACO for the delineation problem.

  14. Geographic object-based delineation of neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana using QuickBird satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Douglas A; Lippitt, Christopher D; Weeks, John R

    2010-08-01

    The objective was to test GEographic Object-based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) techniques for delineating neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana using QuickBird multispectral imagery. Two approaches to aggregating census enumeration areas (EAs) based on image-derived measures of vegetation objects were tested: (1) merging adjacent EAs according to vegetation measures and (2) image segmentation. Both approaches exploit readily available functions within commercial GEOBIA software. Image-derived neighborhood maps were compared to a reference map derived by spatial clustering of slum index values (from census data), to provide a relative assessment of potential map utility. A size-constrained iterative segmentation approach to aggregation was more successful than standard image segmentation or feature merge techniques. The segmentation approaches account for size and shape characteristics, enabling more realistic neighborhood boundaries to be delineated. The percentage of vegetation patches within each EA yielded more realistic delineation of potential neighborhoods than mean vegetation patch size per EA.

  15. Statistic analysis of the delineation of organs at risk for the treatment on the ENT area in conformational radiotherapy; Analyse statistique de la delineation des organes a risque pour les traitements de la sphere ORL en radiotherapie conformationnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majdoub, M.; Diaz, J.C.; Kafrouni, H. [Societe DOSIsoft, Cachan (France); Graff, P.; Herlevin, K.; Peiffert, D. [Service de radiophysique medicale, centre Alexis-Vautrin, Vandceuvre-les-Nancy (France); Noel, A. [UMR 7039, centre de recherche en automatique de Nancy (Cran), universite CNRS, Vandceuvre-les-Nancy (France); Wolf, D. [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Alexis-Vautrin, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the definition of relevant quantitative indicators for the characterization of the delineation of organs at risk in the ENT area. Based on the analysis of more than hundred medical files of patients treated by conformational irradiation for an upper aero-digestive tract cancer, the authors aim at developing a delineation standard by descriptive analysis of these indicators, and then at developing of automatic delineation error detection tool. Short communication

  16. Unsupervised boundary delineation of spinal neural foramina using a multi-feature and adaptive spectral segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Heye; Landis, Mark; Sharma, Manas; Warrington, James; Li, Shuo

    2017-02-01

    As a common disease in the elderly, neural foramina stenosis (NFS) brings a significantly negative impact on the quality of life due to its symptoms including pain, disability, fall risk and depression. Accurate boundary delineation is essential to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of NFS. However, existing clinical routine is extremely tedious and inefficient due to the requirement of physicians' intensively manual delineation. Automated delineation is highly needed but faces big challenges from the complexity and variability in neural foramina images. In this paper, we propose a pure image-driven unsupervised boundary delineation framework for the automated neural foramina boundary delineation. This framework is based on a novel multi-feature and adaptive spectral segmentation (MFASS) algorithm. MFASS firstly utilizes the combination of region and edge features to generate reliable spectral features with a good separation between neural foramina and its surroundings, then estimates an optimal separation threshold for each individual image to separate neural foramina from its surroundings. This self-adjusted optimal separation threshold, estimated from spectral features, successfully overcome the diverse appearance and shape variations. With the robustness from the multi-feature fusion and the flexibility from the adaptively optimal separation threshold estimation, the proposed framework, based on MFASS, provides an automated and accurate boundary delineation. Validation was performed in 280 neural foramina MR images from 56 clinical subjects. Our method was benchmarked with manual boundary obtained by experienced physicians. Results demonstrate that the proposed method enjoys a high and stable consistency with experienced physicians (Dice: 90.58% ± 2.79%; SMAD: 0.5657 ± 0.1544 mm). Therefore, the proposed framework enables an efficient and accurate clinical tool in the diagnosis of neural foramina stenosis.

  17. Breast ultrasound lesions classification: a performance evaluation between manual delineation and computer segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Moi Hoon; Yap, Chuin Hong

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a threat to women worldwide. Manual delineation on breast ultrasound lesions is time-consuming and operator dependent. Computer segmentation of ultrasound breast lesions can be a challenging task due to the ill-defined lesions boundaries and issues related to the speckle noise in ultrasound images. The main contribution of this paper is to compare the performance of the computer classifier on the manual delineation and computer segmentation in malignant and benign lesions classification. This paper we implement computer segmentation using multifractal approach on a database consists of 120 images (50 malignant lesions and 70 benign lesions). The computer segmentation result is compared with the manual delineation using Jaccard Similarity Index (JSI). The result shows that the average JSI of 0.5010 (+/-0.2088) for malignant lesions and the average JSI of 0.6787 (+/-0.1290) for benign lesions. These results indicate lower agreement in malignant lesions due to the irregular shape while the higher agreement in benign lesions with regular shape. Further, we extract the shape descriptors for the lesions. By using logistic regression with 10 fold cross validation, the classification rates of manual delineation and computer segmentation are computed. The computer segmentation produced results with sensitivity 0.780 and specificity 0.871. However, the manual delineation produced sensitivity of 0.520 and specificity of 0.800. The results show that there are no clear differences between the delineation in MD and CS in benign lesions but the computer segmentation on malignant lesions shows better accuracy for computer classifier.

  18. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dGEMRIC) of Hip Joint Cartilage: Better Cartilage Delineation after Intra-Articular than Intravenous Gadolinium Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesen, M.; Jensen, K. E.; Qvistgaard, E.; Danneskiold-Samsoe, B.; Thomsen, C.; Oestergaard, M.; Bliddal, H. [Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Parker Inst.

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate and compare delayed gadolinium (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) in the hip joint using intravenous (i.v.) or ultrasound-guided intra-articular (i.a.) Gd-DTPA injection. Material and Methods: In 10 patients (50% males, mean age 58 years) with clinical and radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA; Kellgren score II-III), MRI of the hip was performed twice on a clinical 1.5T MR scanner: On day 1, before and 90-180 min after 0.3 mmol/kg body weight i.v. Gd-DTPA and, on day 8, 90-180 min after ultrasound-guided i.a. injection of a 4 mmol/l Gd-DTPA solution. Coronal STIR, coronal T1 fat-saturated spin-echo, and a cartilage-sensitive gradient-echo sequence (3D T1 SPGR) in the sagittal plane were applied. Results: Both the post-i.v. and post-i.a. Gd-DTPA images showed significantly higher signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) in the joint cartilage compared to the non-enhanced images ( P <0.002). I.a. Gd-DTPA provided significantly higher SNR and CNR compared to i.v. Gd-DTPA ( P <0.01). Furthermore, a better delineation of the cartilage in the synovial/cartilage zone and of the chondral/subchondral border was observed. Conclusion: The dGEMRIC MRI method markedly improved delineation of hip joint cartilage compared to non-enhanced MRI. The i.a. Gd-DTPA provided the best cartilage delineation. dGEMRIC is a clinically applicable MRI method that may improve identification of early subtle cartilage damage and the accuracy of volume measurements of hip joint cartilage.

  19. Automatic Delineation of Sea-Cliff Limits Using Lidar-Derived High-Resolution DEMs in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaseanu, M.; Danielson, J.; Foxgrover, A. C.; Barnard, P.; Thatcher, C.; Brock, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Seacliff erosion is a serious hazard with implications for coastal management, and is often estimated using successive hand digitized cliff tops or bases (toe) to assess cliff retreat. Traditionally the recession of the cliff top or cliff base is obtained from aerial photographs, topographic maps, or in situ surveys. Irrespective of how or what is measured to categorize cliff erosion, the position of the cliff top and cliff base is important. Habitually, the cliff top and base are hand digitized even when using high resolution lidar derived DEMs. Even if efforts were made to standardize and eliminate as much as possible any digitizing subjectivity, the delineation of cliffs is time consuming, and depends on the analyst's interpretation. We propose an automatic procedure to delineate the cliff top and base from high resolution bare-earth DEMs. The method is based on bare-earth high-resolution DEMs, generalized coastal shorelines and approximate measurements of distance between the shoreline and the cliff top. The method generates orthogonal transects and profiles with a minimum spacing equal to the DEM resolution and extracts for each profile xyz coordinates for cliff's top and toe, as well as second major positive and negative inflections (second top and toe) along the profile. The difference between the automated and digitized top and toe, respectively, is smaller than the DEM error margin for over 82% of the top points and 86% of the toe points along a stretch of coast in Del Mar, CA. The larger errors were due either to the failure to remove all vegetation from the bare-earth DEM or errors of interpretation during hand digitizing. The automatic method was further applied between Point Conception and Los Angeles Harbor, CA. This automatic method is repeatable, takes advantage of the bare-earth high-resolution, and is more efficient.

  20. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.