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Sample records for delhi india 4-10

  1. Air pollution and public health: the challenges for Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun Kumar; Baliyan, Palak; Kumar, Prashant

    2018-03-28

    Mitigating the impact of pollution on human health worldwide is important to limit the morbidity and mortality arising from exposure to its effect. The level and type of pollutants vary in different urban and rural settings. Here, we explored the extent of air pollution and its impacts on human health in the megacity of Delhi (India) through a review of the published literature. The study aims at describing the extent of air pollution in Delhi, the magnitude of health problems due to air pollution and the risk relationship between air pollution and associated health effects. We found 234 published articles in the PubMed search. The search showed that the extent of air pollution in Delhi has been described by various researchers from about 1986 onwards. We synthesized the findings and discuss them at length with respect to reported values, their possible interpretations and any limitations of the methodology. The chemical composition of ambient air pollution is also discussed. Further, we discuss the magnitude of health problem with respect to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), bronchial asthma and other illnesses. The results of the literature search showed that data has been collected in last 28 years on ambient air quality in Delhi, though it lacks a scientific continuity, consistency of locations and variations in parameters chosen for reporting. As a result, it is difficult to construct a spatiotemporal picture of the air pollution status in Delhi over time. The number of sites from where data have been collected varied widely across studies and methods used for data collection is also non-uniform. Even the parameters studied are varied, as some studies focused on particulate matter ≤10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and those ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), and others on suspended particulate matter (SPM) and respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM). Similarly, the locations of data collection have varied widely. Some of the

  2. Quantifying the influence of agricultural fires in northwest India on urban air pollution in Delhi, India

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    Cusworth, Daniel H.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; Liu, Tianjia; Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Gupta, Pawan

    2018-04-01

    Since at least the 1980s, many farmers in northwest India have switched to mechanized combine harvesting to boost efficiency. This harvesting technique leaves abundant crop residue on the fields, which farmers typically burn to prepare their fields for subsequent planting. A key question is to what extent the large quantity of smoke emitted by these fires contributes to the already severe pollution in Delhi and across other parts of the heavily populated Indo-Gangetic Plain located downwind of the fires. Using a combination of observed and modeled variables, including surface measurements of PM2.5, we quantify the magnitude of the influence of agricultural fire emissions on surface air pollution in Delhi. With surface measurements, we first derive the signal of regional PM2.5 enhancements (i.e. the pollution above an anthropogenic baseline) during each post-monsoon burning season for 2012–2016. We next use the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (STILT) to simulate surface PM2.5 using five fire emission inventories. We reproduce up to 25% of the weekly variability in total observed PM2.5 using STILT. Depending on year and emission inventory, our method attributes 7.0%–78% of the maximum observed PM2.5 enhancements in Delhi to fires. The large range in these attribution estimates points to the uncertainties in fire emission parameterizations, especially in regions where thick smoke may interfere with hotspots of fire radiative power. Although our model can generally reproduce the largest PM2.5 enhancements in Delhi air quality for 1–3 consecutive days each fire season, it fails to capture many smaller daily enhancements, which we attribute to the challenge of detecting small fires in the satellite retrieval. By quantifying the influence of upwind agricultural fire emissions on Delhi air pollution, our work underscores the potential health benefits of changes in farming practices to reduce fires.

  3. Chemical analysis of fogwater at Delhi, North India

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    Kapoor, R. K.; Tiwari, S.; Ali, K.; Singh, G.

    Fogwater collected at Delhi (28° 35'N, 77°12'E, 217 m a.s.l.) during winter 1989-1990 was found to be acidic compared to pure water pH of 7. This was attributed to highway widening work in progress and an increase in vehicular traffic on the nearby road, apart from construction work in a residential complex and an increase in industrial activity within 6 km to the southwest. Results are compared with the earlier studies at Delhi and those with highly acidic fog data published for some regions of California in the United States of America.

  4. Pepsi and Coca Cola in Delhi, India: availability, price and sales.

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    Taylor, Fiona C; Satija, Ambika; Khurana, Swati; Singh, Gurpreet; Ebrahim, Shah

    2011-04-01

    India is experiencing increased consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks, consumption that may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. The aim of the study was to determine the availability, price and quantity sold of 'Pepsi' and 'Coca Cola' in their 'regular' and 'diet' forms in Delhi and London. A questionnaire about the availability, price and quantity sold per day of both regular and diet Pepsi and Coca Cola was devised and piloted. Using this, a survey of food and drink outlets within a 100 m radius of randomly selected Metro stations was conducted in both cities. Store vendors, owners and staff of food and drink outlets. Delhi, India; London, United Kingdom. In Delhi, of the outlets stocking regular Pepsi and Coca Cola, only 34% sold diet versions and these were more readily available in the most affluent areas than in the poorest areas (34% v. 6%, Z=3.67, PCoca Cola was observed in Delhi; however, profit margins were better for regular, relative to diet, Coca Cola. Sales of regular products were significantly greater than those of diet products (PCoca Cola in less affluent areas of Delhi is likely to exacerbate the obesity and diabetes trends. Price differentials to promote diet versions and other healthier or traditional low-energy drinks may be beneficial.

  5. Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India

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    Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini

    2014-10-01

    A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (Φ) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO ( 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.

  6. State of municipal solid waste management in Delhi, the capital of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talyan, Vikash; Dahiya, R.P.; Sreekrishnan, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the most densely populated and urbanized city of India. The annual growth rate in population during the last decade (1991-2001) was 3.85%, almost double the national average. Delhi is also a commercial hub, providing employment opportunities and accelerating the pace of urbanization, resulting in a corresponding increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Presently the inhabitants of Delhi generate about 7000 tonnes/day of MSW, which is projected to rise to 17,000-25,000 tonnes/day by the year 2021. MSW management has remained one of the most neglected areas of the municipal system in Delhi. About 70-80% of generated MSW is collected and the rest remains unattended on streets or in small open dumps. Only 9% of the collected MSW is treated through composting, the only treatment option, and rest is disposed in uncontrolled open landfills at the outskirts of the city. The existing composting plants are unable to operate to their intended treatment capacity due to several operational problems. Therefore, along with residue from the composting process, the majority of MSW is disposed in landfills. In absence of leachate and landfill gas collection systems, these landfills are a major source of groundwater contamination and air pollution (including generation of greenhouse gases). This study describes and evaluates the present state of municipal solid waste management in Delhi. The paper also summarizes the proposed policies and initiatives of the Government of Delhi and the Municipal Corporation of Delhi to improve the existing MSW management system

  7. Challenges constraining access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi, India.

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    Sharma, Abhishek; Kaplan, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    India's majority of patients-including those living with diabetes-seek healthcare in the private sector through out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. We studied access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi state, India. A modified World Health Organization/Health Action International (WHO/HAI) standard survey to assess insulin availability and prices, and qualitative interviews with insulin retailers (pharmacists) and wholesalers to understand insulin market dynamics. In 40 pharmacy outlets analysed, mean availability of the human and analogue insulins on the 2013 Delhi essential medicine list was 44.4% and 13.1%, respectively. 82% of pharmacies had domestically manufactured human insulin phials, primarily was made in India under licence to overseas pharmaceutical companies. Analogue insulin was only in cartridge and pen forms that were 4.42 and 5.81 times, respectively, the price of human insulin phials. Domestically manufactured human phial and cartridge insulin (produced for foreign and Indian companies) was less expensive than their imported counterparts. The lowest paid unskilled government worker in Delhi would work about 1.5 and 8.6 days, respectively, to be able to pay OOP for a monthly supply of human phial and analogue cartridge insulin. Interviews suggest that the Delhi insulin market is dominated by a few multinational companies that import and/or license in-country production. Several factors influence insulin uptake by patients, including doctor's prescribing preference. Wholesalers have negative perceptions about domestic insulin manufacturing. The Delhi insulin market is an oligopoly with limited market competition. Increasing competition from Indian companies is going to require some additional policies, not presently in place. As more Indian companies produce biosimilars, brand substitution policies are needed to be able to benefit from market competition.

  8. Challenges constraining access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    Objective India's majority of patients—including those living with diabetes—seek healthcare in the private sector through out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. We studied access to insulin in the private-sector market of Delhi state, India. Methods A modified World Health Organization/Health Action International (WHO/HAI) standard survey to assess insulin availability and prices, and qualitative interviews with insulin retailers (pharmacists) and wholesalers to understand insulin market dynamics. Results In 40 pharmacy outlets analysed, mean availability of the human and analogue insulins on the 2013 Delhi essential medicine list was 44.4% and 13.1%, respectively. 82% of pharmacies had domestically manufactured human insulin phials, primarily was made in India under licence to overseas pharmaceutical companies. Analogue insulin was only in cartridge and pen forms that were 4.42 and 5.81 times, respectively, the price of human insulin phials. Domestically manufactured human phial and cartridge insulin (produced for foreign and Indian companies) was less expensive than their imported counterparts. The lowest paid unskilled government worker in Delhi would work about 1.5 and 8.6 days, respectively, to be able to pay OOP for a monthly supply of human phial and analogue cartridge insulin. Interviews suggest that the Delhi insulin market is dominated by a few multinational companies that import and/or license in-country production. Several factors influence insulin uptake by patients, including doctor's prescribing preference. Wholesalers have negative perceptions about domestic insulin manufacturing. Conclusions The Delhi insulin market is an oligopoly with limited market competition. Increasing competition from Indian companies is going to require some additional policies, not presently in place. As more Indian companies produce biosimilars, brand substitution policies are needed to be able to benefit from market competition. PMID:28588966

  9. Forecasting malaria cases using climatic factors in delhi, India: a time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varun; Mangal, Abha; Panesar, Sanjeet; Yadav, Geeta; Talwar, Richa; Raut, Deepak; Singh, Saudan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malaria still remains a public health problem in developing countries and changing environmental and climatic factors pose the biggest challenge in fighting against the scourge of malaria. Therefore, the study was designed to forecast malaria cases using climatic factors as predictors in Delhi, India. Methods. The total number of monthly cases of malaria slide positives occurring from January 2006 to December 2013 was taken from the register maintained at the malaria clinic at Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC), Najafgarh, Delhi. Climatic data of monthly mean rainfall, relative humidity, and mean maximum temperature were taken from Regional Meteorological Centre, Delhi. Expert modeler of SPSS ver. 21 was used for analyzing the time series data. Results. Autoregressive integrated moving average, ARIMA (0,1,1) (0,1,0)(12), was the best fit model and it could explain 72.5% variability in the time series data. Rainfall (P value = 0.004) and relative humidity (P value = 0.001) were found to be significant predictors for malaria transmission in the study area. Seasonal adjusted factor (SAF) for malaria cases shows peak during the months of August and September. Conclusion. ARIMA models of time series analysis is a simple and reliable tool for producing reliable forecasts for malaria in Delhi, India.

  10. Status and Evolution of Environmental Education at School Level in Delhi, India

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    Sudarshana Kalita

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for imparting environmental education in school students has been well understood in Delhi, India and efforts have been made to incorporate environmental education (EE in the curriculum. At the same time, increasing interest in the protection and conservation of environment, nature and natural resources has led to the initiation and adoption of several campaigns, programmes and projects by various schools. Consequently, the integration of EE in the curriculum as well as through extra-curricular activities is exposing the school students to contemporary environmental challenges and their solutions. This research work is an attempt at exploring the various measures being taken to promote environmental awareness and create better attitude towards the environment in the schools in Delhi, India.

  11. Health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, India

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    Foster, Andrew; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-03-01

    This, the first systematic study, quantifies the health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, which adopted radical measures to improve air quality, including, for example, the conversion of all commercial vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG), and the closure of polluting industries in residential areas from 2000 to 2002. Air pollution data, collected at 113 sites (spread across Delhi and its neighboring areas) from July-December 2003, were used to compute exposure at the place of residence of 3989 subjects. A socio-economic and respiratory health survey was administered in 1576 households. This survey collected time-use, residence histories, demographic information, and direct measurements of lung function with subjects. The optimal interpolation methods were used to link air pollution and respiratory health data at the place of their residence. Resident histories, in combination with secondary data, were used to impute cumulative exposure prior to the air-quality interventions, and the effects of recent air quality measures on lung function were then evaluated. Three important findings emerge from the analysis. First, the interventions were associated with a significant improvement in respiratory health. Second, the effect of these interventions varied significantly by gender and income. Third, consistent with a causal interpretation of these results, effects were the strongest among those individuals who spend a disproportionate share of their time out-of-doors.

  12. Pepsi and Coca Cola in Delhi, India: availability, price and sales.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, FC; Satija, A; Khurana, S; Singh, G; Ebrahim, S

    2010-01-01

    : India is experiencing increased consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks, consumption that may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. The aim of the study was to determine the availability, price and quantity sold of 'Pepsi' and 'Coca Cola' in their 'regular' and 'diet' forms in Delhi and London. : A questionnaire about the availability, price and quantity sold per day of both regular and diet Pepsi and Coca Cola was devised and piloted. Using this, a surv...

  13. Psychosocial Determinants of Tobacco Use among School Going Adolescents in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varun; Talwar, Richa; Roy, Neelam; Raut, Deepak; Singh, Saudan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. Many psychosocial factors were found to influence tobacco use. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the role of psychosocial factors associated with tobacco use among school going adolescents in Delhi, India. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2013 to September 2013 in four government schools in South district of Delhi, India. The questionnaire contains questions adapted from GYTS (Global Youth Tobacco Survey) to find the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results. The prevalence of ever and current tobacco use was found in 16.4% and 13.1%. Current smoking and current tobacco chewing were found in 10.2% and 9.4% students, respectively. The risk of current tobacco use was found to be higher among males (P value = 0.000) and in those who got higher pocket money (P value = 0.000). Psychosocial factors like lower general self-efficacy and maladjustments with peers, teachers, and schools were also found to be significant predictors of current tobacco use. Conclusion. The study has revealed higher prevalence of ever and current tobacco use among adolescent students in Delhi, India.

  14. Psychosocial Determinants of Tobacco Use among School Going Adolescents in Delhi, India

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    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. Many psychosocial factors were found to influence tobacco use. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the role of psychosocial factors associated with tobacco use among school going adolescents in Delhi, India. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2013 to September 2013 in four government schools in South district of Delhi, India. The questionnaire contains questions adapted from GYTS (Global Youth Tobacco Survey to find the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results. The prevalence of ever and current tobacco use was found in 16.4% and 13.1%. Current smoking and current tobacco chewing were found in 10.2% and 9.4% students, respectively. The risk of current tobacco use was found to be higher among males (P value = 0.000 and in those who got higher pocket money (P value = 0.000. Psychosocial factors like lower general self-efficacy and maladjustments with peers, teachers, and schools were also found to be significant predictors of current tobacco use. Conclusion. The study has revealed higher prevalence of ever and current tobacco use among adolescent students in Delhi, India.

  15. Evolutionary Analysis of Dengue Serotype 2 Viruses Using Phylogenetic and Bayesian Methods from New Delhi, India.

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    Nazia Afreen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is the most important arboviral disease in the tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Delhi, the metropolitan capital state of India, has reported many dengue outbreaks, with the last outbreak occurring in 2013. We have recently reported predominance of dengue virus serotype 2 during 2011-2014 in Delhi. In the present study, we report molecular characterization and evolutionary analysis of dengue serotype 2 viruses which were detected in 2011-2014 in Delhi. Envelope genes of 42 DENV-2 strains were sequenced in the study. All DENV-2 strains grouped within the Cosmopolitan genotype and further clustered into three lineages; Lineage I, II and III. Lineage III replaced lineage I during dengue fever outbreak of 2013. Further, a novel mutation Thr404Ile was detected in the stem region of the envelope protein of a single DENV-2 strain in 2014. Nucleotide substitution rate and time to the most recent common ancestor were determined by molecular clock analysis using Bayesian methods. A change in effective population size of Indian DENV-2 viruses was investigated through Bayesian skyline plot. The study will be a vital road map for investigation of epidemiology and evolutionary pattern of dengue viruses in India.

  16. Access to antibiotics in New Delhi, India: implications for antibiotic policy.

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    Kotwani, Anita; Holloway, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The present survey was conducted to investigate the price and availability of a basket of 24 essential antibiotics and eight high-end antibiotics at various levels of health care in public and private sector in National Capital Territory of Delhi, India using standardized WHO/HAI methodology. DATA ON PROCUREMENT PRICE AND AVAILABILITY WAS COLLECTED FROM THREE PUBLIC HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS IN THE STATE: the federal (central) government, state government and Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD). Overall a total of 83 public facilities, 68 primary care, 10 secondary cares and 5 tertiary care facilities were surveyed. Data was also collected from private retail (n = 40) and chain pharmacies (n = 40) of a leading corporate house. Prices were compared to an international reference price (expressed as median price ratio-MPR). PUBLIC SECTOR: Delhi state government has its essential medicine list (Delhi state EML) and was using Delhi state EML 2007 for procurement; the other two agencies had their own procurement list. All the antibiotics procured including second and third generation antibiotics except for injections were available at primary care facilities. Antibiotic available were on the basis of supply rather than rationality or the Delhi state EML and none was 100% available. There was sub-optimal availability of some essential antibiotics while other non-essential ones were freely available. Availability of antibiotics at tertiary care facilities was also sub-optimal. Private sector: Availability of antibiotics was good. For most of the antibiotics the most expensive and popular trade names were often available. High-end antibiotics, meropenam, gemifloxacin, and moxifloxacin were commonly available. In retail pharmacies some newer generation non-essential antibiotics like gemifloxacin were priced lower than the highest-priced generic of amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, azithromycin, and cefuroxime aexitl. Inappropriate availability and pricing of newer

  17. Attitude of doctors toward euthanasia in Delhi, India

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    Sheetal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Deliberation over euthanasia has been enduring for an extended period of time. On one end, there are populaces talking for the sacrosanctity of life and on the other end, there are those, who promote individual independence. All over the world professionals from different areas have already spent mammoth period over the subject. A large number of cases around the world have explored the boundaries of current legal distinctions, drawn between legitimate and nonlegitimate instances of ending the life. The term euthanasia was derived from the Greek words "eu" and "thanatos" which means "good death" or "easy death." It is also known as mercy killing. Euthanasia literally means putting a person to painless death especially in case of incurable suffering or when life becomes purposeless as a result of mental or physical handicap. Objective: To study the attitude of doctors toward euthanasia in Delhi. Methodology: It was a questionnaire based descriptive cross-sectional study carried out between July 2014 and December 2014. The study population included Doctors from 28 hospitals in Delhi both public and private. Equal numbers of doctors from four specialties were included in this study (50 oncologists, 50 hematologists, 50 psychiatrists, and 50 intensivists. Demographic questionnaire, as well as the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS, a 30 items Likert-scale questionnaire developed by (Holloway, Hayslip and Murdock, 1995 was used to measure attitude toward Euthanasia. The scale uses both positively (16 items and negatively (14 items worded statements to control the effect of acquiescence. The scale also has four response categories, namely "definitely agree," "agree," "disagree," and "definitely disagree." The total score for the EAS was generated by adding all the sub-scales (question′s responses. The demographic questionnaire and EAS, a 30 items Likert-scale questionnaire developed by (Holloway, Hayslip and Murdock, 1995 was distributed

  18. Carbonaceous aerosol characteristics over Delhi in Northern India: Seasonal variability and possible sources

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    Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Bisht, Ds; Tiwari, S.

    Carbonaceous aerosols have been the focus of extensive studies during the last decade due to its significant impacts on human health, visibility and climate change. As per Asian regions are concerned, aerosols in south-Asia are gaining considerable importance because of their potential impacts on regional climate, yet their possible sources are poorly understood. Semi-continuous measurements of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) and continuous measurements of black carbon (BC) aerosols were conducted simultaneously at Delhi during the period from January 2011 to May 2012. Delhi is the capital city of India and one of the densely populated and industrialized urban megacities in Asia, located at the Ganga basin in the northern part of India. Being highly polluted region, mass concentrations of OC, EC and BC over Delhi were found to vary from about 6-92 mug m (-3) (mean: 23±16 mug m (-3) ), 3-38 mug m (-3) (mean: 11±7 mug m (-3) ) and 1-24 mug m (-3) (mean: 7±5 mug m (-3) ), respectively during the entire measurement period, with about two times higher concentration during winter as compared to summer. A significant correlation between OC and EC (R=0.95, n=232) and relatively lower OC/EC ratio (range: 1.0-3.6; mean: 2.2±0.5) suggest fossil fuel emission as a dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols over the station. The average mass concentration of EC was found about 38% higher than BC during the study period, which is interestingly different as reported at other locations over Ganga basin. We also determined the associated optical properties of carbonaceous species (e.g. absorption coefficient and mass absorption efficiency) over the station. Significant loading of carbonaceous species over such regions emphasize an urgent need to focus on air quality management and proper impact assessment on health perspective.

  19. Regular School Teachers’ Concerns and Perceived Barriers to Implement Inclusive Education in New Delhi, India

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    Nisha Bhatnagar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the passage of The Persons with Disabilities (PWD Act in 1995 and subsequent implementation of various policies and programs by the Indian government to enhance the participation of students with disabilities in regular schools, there has been a steady growth of inclusive education. Such initiatives, however, have placed new demands on schools, especially on teachers who have the major responsibility for implementing inclusion at the classroom level. Literature from other countries indicates that for inclusion to be successful, it is essential that classroom teachers’ concerns about implementing such programs be identified and systematically addressed. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research about teacher concerns regarding inclusive education in India. This study was undertaken to identify the concerns and perceived barriers of regular school teachers in Delhi, India about the inclusion of students with disabilities. Respondents were secondary school teachers working in schools in Delhi that were involved in teaching special needs children. Two focus group interviews and 20 individual semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data from the participants. The flexible qualitative analysis program QRS NVivo was utilized for data analysis. Three concerns and eleven barrier themes emerged

  20. The Challenges of Spanish Language Teaching in Multilingual India: A Case Study of Delhi

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    Dhiraj Kumar Rai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The multilingual surrounding of Spanish Language Teaching (SLT in India has presented a unique linguistic principle. This principle relies upon the application of English language instructions (as FL1 to combine several methods for teaching-learning Spanish language (as FL2. However, the effectiveness and appropriateness of this linguistic principle, whereby English language instructions are used for SLT, remain undiagnosed. In fact, the technique of SLT in India needs to take into account the local linguistic or dialectical make-up of the actual or potential learners. As such, the process of Spanish Language acquisition in India as inspired by an exposure to local languages/dialects needs to be creatively explored. Furthermore, the recently increasing entries of specific Spanish words/terms in the Indian ‘popular language usage’, and their implications for SLT in India require to be sufficiently investigated. This article aims at filling in the above-mentioned lacunae by conducting a case study of the status of Spanish Language Teaching in Delhi. It draws the conclusion that the maximum flexibility in the process of eclectically mixing various pedagogical methods of SLT could go a long way in motivating and benefitting both the teachers as well as the students, thereby enhancing the overall efficiency of SLT in multilingual India.

  1. 78 FR 66336 - U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India, January 27...

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    2013-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New... U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India to revise the date... to allow for additional recruitment and marketing in support of the mission. Applications will now be...

  2. 78 FR 68030 - U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India, January 27...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New... U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India to revise the... above, the Contact Information section of the Notice of the U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New...

  3. The problem of the pillion rider: India's helmet law and New Delhi's exemption.

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    Swaroop, Mamta; Marie Siddiqui, Selma; Sagar, Sushma; Crandall, Marie L

    2014-05-01

    In India, motorized two-wheeler (MTW) road traffic accidents injure or kill 72,000 women annually. Before the Motor Vehicle Act of 1988, which required mandatory helmet use for MTW riders, a study found 0.6% of all MTW pillions (backseat passengers) were helmeted. Citing religious protests to the legislation, Delhi's high court exempted the city's 12 million women from the law. We hypothesize that currently male pillions use helmets more frequently than females, and that overall pillion helmet usage has increased over the last 20 y. Continuous video was recorded in half-hour blocks at four locations in Delhi on separate days, totaling 8 hours of high- and low-volume traffic. Videos were reviewed with at least two reviewers extracting the number of MTW pillions, as well as their gender, approximate age, and helmet usage. Of 4010 pillions identified, 63.8% were male, 32.4% female, and 3.3% children. Among males, there were significantly more helmeted pillions (88.4%, P < 0.001); among females, there were significantly more unhelmeted pillions (99.4%, P < 0.001). Among unhelmeted pillions, significantly more were female (81.4%) than male (P < 0.001). Current overall pillion helmet use is significantly higher than historical rate (P < 0.001). The significantly higher male pillion helmet usage compared with females indicates Delhi's helmet law is associated with increased compliance among those who fall under its jurisdiction. This augments the growing body of evidence that mandatory helmet laws are efficacious, thus repealing the exemption of women is an important step in increasing female pillion helmet usage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality of life, depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation among men who inject drugs in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental disorders such as depression, anxiety and suicide represent an important public health problem in India. Elsewhere in the world a high prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders have been found among people who inject drugs (PWID). Research in India has largely overlooked symptoms of common mental disorders among this high risk group. This paper reports on the results of a survey examining quality of life, depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation among adult males who inject drugs living in Delhi. Methods Participants (n = 420) were recruited from needle and syringe programs using time location sampling and were interviewed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Self-report symptom scales were used to measure the severity of symptoms of depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-2) within the preceding 2 weeks. We assessed the presence of suicidal thoughts and attempts within the past 12 months. Results The mean length of injecting career was 20.9 years indicating a sample of chronic injecting drug users, of whom only one-third (38%) were born in Delhi. The level of illiteracy was very high (62%), and just 2% had completed class 12. Scavenging / rag picking was the main form of income for 48%, and many were homeless (69%). One-third (33%) had been beaten up at least twice during the preceding 6 months, and many either never (45%) or rarely (27%) attended family events. We found a high prevalence of depressive (84%, cut-off ≥10) and anxiety (71%, cut-off score of ≥3) symptoms. Fifty-three percent thought about killing themselves in the past 12 months, and 36% had attempted to kill themselves. Conclusions Our findings revealed a socially excluded population of PWID in Delhi who have minimal education and are often homeless, leaving them vulnerable to physical violence, poverty, poor health, imprisonment and disconnection from family. The high prevalence of psychological distress found in this study has implications for

  5. Uranium exploration in albitised rocks of North Delhi Fold Belt in Rajasthan and Haryana, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, P.; Khandelwal, M.; Bhairam, C.; Parihar, P.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium deposits in Na-metasomatised granites and metasediments are reported from several places in the world. In India, uranium mineralization associated with soda metasomatic activity has been recognized at a number of places in North Delhi Fold Belt (NDFB) in Rajasthan and adjoining Haryana. Exploration activities for uranium in Khetri Sub Basin (KSB) of North Delhi Fold Belt (NDFB) in last six decades have resulted in locating number of uranium occurrences in the albitites and albitised metasediments at Sior, Siswali, Maonda, Hurra ki Dhani, Diara, Saladipura, Khandela, Rohil, Ghateshwar, Bichun, Sakhun, Ladera and Chota Udaipur in parts of Rajasthan and Dhancholi, Raghunathpura, Rambas and Gorir, in parts of Haryana. Incidentally, the occurrences fall along a NNE-SSW trending “Albitite line”, which comprises a 170 km long, structurally weak zone/lineament and axial trace of major folds in the KSB extending from Raghunathpura in Mahendragarh district of southern Haryana to Ladera-Sakun-Bichun in Rajasthan. Lithounits of KSB comprise lower Alwar Group consisting quartzite, amphibole quartzite, subordinate phyllite and schist and upper Ajabgarh Group consisting schist, phyllite, marble, quartzite and carbon phyllite. The post-Delhi magmatic activity in NDFB is represented by alkali granites, pegmatites, aplites and albitites. The rocks of Delhi supergroup have undergone low to medium grade metamorphism (amphibolite facies) and polyphase deformation. First two deformations with N-S to NNE-SSW axial plane are coaxial while the third phase have E-W axial plane. Prominent shear zones are developed along the N-S to NNE-SSW axial planes, characterized by intense silicification, brecciation and ferruginisation. The NE-SW trending disposition of albitised granites indicate that the metasomatic fluids originated during reactivation of the NE-SW trending Khetri lineament, caused pervasive albitisation of the preexisting rocks, the deformed lithounits providing conduits

  6. Molecular characterization of Fasciola gigantica in Delhi, India and its phylogenetic relation to the species from South Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kei; Mohanta, Uday K; Neeraja, Tambireddy; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to phylogenetically analyze Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) from mainland India and to reveal the expansion history of F. gigantica in the Indian subcontinent. We analyzed 40 Fasciola flukes that were collected from Delhi, in the Indian mainland, and identified them as F. gigantica by using nucleotide analyses of the nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold) genes. Based on the nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene, the flukes had 18 haplotypes. The haplotypes were classified under haplogroup A, which is predominant in the F. gigantica of South Asia. The population genetics of haplogroup A revealed that Delhi population showed higher π value than eastern India population. These results suggest that F. gigantica of haplogroup A might have spread from the west to the east in India along with the artificial migration of the domestic Zebu cattle, Bos indicus.

  7. Characterization, genetic diversity, and evolutionary link of Cucumber mosaic virus strain New Delhi from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundal, Vikas; Haq, Qazi Mohd Rizwanul; Praveen, Shelly

    2011-02-01

    The genome of Cucumber mosaic virus New Delhi strain (CMV-ND) from India, obtained from tomato, was completely sequenced and compared with full genome sequences of 14 known CMV strains from subgroups I and II, for their genetic diversity. Sequence analysis suggests CMV-ND shares maximum sequence identity at the nucleotide level with a CMV strain from Taiwan. Among all 15 strains of CMV, the encoded protein 2b is least conserved, whereas the coat protein (CP) is most conserved. Sequence identity values and phylogram results indicate that CMV-ND belongs to subgroup I. Based on the recombination detection program result, it appears that CMV is prone to recombination, and different RNA components of CMV-ND have evolved differently. Recombinational analysis of all 15 CMV strains detected maximum recombination breakpoints in RNA2; CP showed the least recombination sites.

  8. An evaluation of prosthetic status and treatment needs among institutionalized elderly individuals of Delhi, India

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    Nisha Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oral health is essential for elderly person's general health and well-being. The most common oral problem in elderly is tooth loss which results due to periodontal diseases and caries. Prosthetic status is very important as it is related to dietary intake and maintaining nutritional status. Hence, to promote the oral health of the elderly, we need to know their prosthetic status and need. Aims: The aim of this study is to find the prosthetic status and need of 65–74 years old elderly residing in old age homes of Delhi, India. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 464 residents of 20 old age homes of Delhi, India. Material and Methods: Residents with age group of 64–75 were included in the study. The prosthetic status with treatment need was recorded using the World Health Organization Oral Health Assessment Form (1997. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test and t-test were used to find significance of variables. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Full removable dentures were worn by 7.30% of participants with predominance in upper arch, and one bridge was seen in 9.10% of participants with predominance in lower arch. Full removable denture was required in 25.20% of participants. Most of participants required multiunit prosthesis in both upper as well as lower arch (42.20% and 36.20%, respectively. Conclusion: The present study underlines a considerable need for dental treatment in elderly as the prosthetic status of participants was poor, and prosthetic needs were high.

  9. Social Security Measures for Elderly Population in Delhi, India: Awareness, Utilization and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Charu; Gupta, Kalika; Banerjee, Bratati; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2017-05-01

    World population of elderly is increasing at a fast pace. The number of elderly in India has increased by 54.77% in the last 15 years. A number of social security measures have been taken by Indian government. To assess awareness, utilization and barriers faced while utilizing social security schemes by elderly in a secondary care hospital situated in a rural area in Delhi, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 individuals aged 60 years and above in a secondary care hospital situated in a rural area in Delhi. A pre-tested, semi-structured schedule prepared in local language was used. Data was analysed using SPSS software (version 17.0). Chi-square test was used to observe any statistical association between categorical variables. The results were considered statistically significant if p-value was less than 0.05. A majority of study subjects were females (54.2%), Hindu (89.7%), married (60.3%) and were not engaged in any occupation (82.8%). Awareness about Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS) was present among 286 (79.4%) and Annapurna scheme in 193 (53.6%) subjects. Among 223 subjects who were below poverty line, 179 (80.3%) were aware of IGNOAPS; while, 112 (50.2%) were utilizing the scheme. There was no association of awareness with education status, occupation, religion, family type, marital status and caste (p>0.05). Corruption and tedious administrative formalities were major barriers reported. Awareness generation, provision of information on how to approach the concerned authority for utilizing the scheme and ease of administrative procedures should be an integral part of any social security scheme or measure. In the present study, about 79.4% of elderly were aware and 45% of the eligible subjects were utilizing pension scheme. Major barriers reported in utilization of schemes were corruption and tedious administrative procedures.

  10. Most probable mixing state of aerosols in Delhi NCR, northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Parul; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Singh, Sachchidanand; Tiwari, Suresh

    2018-02-01

    Unknown mixing state is one of the major sources of uncertainty in estimating aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF). Aerosol DRF in India is usually reported for external mixing and any deviation from this would lead to high bias and error. Limited information on aerosol composition hinders in resolving this issue in India. Here we use two years of aerosol chemical composition data measured at megacity Delhi to examine the most probable aerosol mixing state by comparing the simulated clear-sky downward surface flux with the measured flux. We consider external, internal, and four combinations of core-shell (black carbon, BC over dust; water-soluble, WS over dust; WS over water-insoluble, WINS and BC over WINS) mixing. Our analysis reveals that choice of external mixing (usually considered in satellite retrievals and climate models) seems reasonable in Delhi only in the pre-monsoon (Mar-Jun) season. During the winter (Dec-Feb) and monsoon (Jul-Sep) seasons, 'WS coating over dust' externally mixed with BC and WINS appears to be the most probable mixing state; while 'WS coating over WINS' externally mixed with BC and dust seems to be the most probable mixing state in the post-monsoon (Oct-Nov) season. Mean seasonal TOA (surface) aerosol DRF for the most probable mixing states are 4.4 ± 3.9 (- 25.9 ± 3.9), - 16.3 ± 5.7 (- 42.4 ± 10.5), 13.6 ± 11.4 (- 76.6 ± 16.6) and - 5.4 ± 7.7 (- 80.0 ± 7.2) W m- 2 respectively in the pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. Our results highlight the importance of realistic mixing state treatment in estimating aerosol DRF to aid in policy making to combat climate change.

  11. Stage at diagnosis and delay in seeking medical care among women with breast cancer, delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakseresht, Sedigheh; Ingle, Gopal Krishna; Garg, Suneela; Sarafraz, Nahid

    2014-12-01

    Patients with cancer often delay seeking medical advice in developing countries. It can adversely influence the outcome of disease. The present study was performed to determine the stage at diagnosis and delay in seeking medical care among women with breast cancer in Delhi, India. This was a cross-sectional study based on a census (case series) approach to reach all women (172) diagnosed with primary breast cancer "detected in surgery Out Patient Department (OPD) from January 2007 to December 2009" at Lok Nayak Hospital, Delhi, India. Patients were interviewed using a self-structure questionnaire. Seeking behavior variables were awareness of problem, first consultation, followed physician's advice, detection of problem, system of medicine and gap between knowing the problem and consultation (patient delay). Statistical Analysis was performed using the Microsoft SPSS-pc version 14.0 statistical program. The analytic methods were used (mean, standard deviation, X(2), Fisher's Exact Test, K-S, Kruskal-Wallis) for variables. All statistical tests were performed at a significance level of 5% (P cancer at the time of diagnosis. The mean duration of gap between knowing the problem and consulting a physician (patients delay) was 10.90 months. There was no significant association between stage of cancer and consultation gap. A significant association was found between the stage of breast cancer and income; women with lower income had a higher stage of breast cancer (P breast cancer. It seems necessary to design educating programs for women in both clinical and community settings, about breast cancer and early detection practices.

  12. Patient safety in maternal healthcare at secondary and tertiary level facilities in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is insufficient information on causes of unsafe care at facility levels in India. This study was conducted to understand the challenges in government hospitals in ensuring patient safety and to propose solutions to improve patient care. Materials and Methods: Desk review, in-depth interviews, and focused group discussions were conducted between January and March 2014. Healthcare providers and nodal persons for patient safety in Gynecology and Obstetrics Departments of government health facilities from Delhi state of India were included. Data were analyzed using qualitative research methods and presented adopting the "health system approach." Results: The patient safety was a major concern among healthcare providers. The key challenges identified were scarcity of resources, overcrowding at health facilities, poor communications, patient handovers, delay in referrals, and the limited continuity of care. Systematic attention on the training of care providers involved in service delivery, prescription audits, peer reviews, facility level capacity building plan, additional financial resources, leadership by institutional heads and policy makers were suggested as possible solutions. Conclusions: There is increasing awareness and understanding about challenges in patient safety. The available local information could be used for selection, designing, and implementation of measures to improve patient safety at facility levels. A systematic and sustained approach with attention on all functions of health systems could be beneficial. Patient safety could be used as an entry point to improve the quality of health care services in India.

  13. Poverty indicators and mental health functioning among adults living with HIV in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ezer; Delzell, Darcie A P; McNamara, Paul E; Cuffey, Joel; Cherian, Anil; Matthew, Saira

    2016-01-01

    Poor mental health functioning among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) has gained considerable attention particularly in low-income countries that disproportionately carry the global HIV/AIDS burden. Fewer studies, however, have examined the relationship between poverty indicators and mental health among PHLIV in India. Based on this cross-sectional study of 196 HIV-seropositive adults who received medical services at Shalom AIDS Project in Delhi, India, structural equation modeling and mediation analysis were employed to estimate the associations between poverty indices (household asset index, food security, unemployment, water treatment, sanitation), HIV-health factors (illness in the past 3 months, co-morbid medical conditions), and psychological distress. In the final model, ownership of fewer household assets was associated with higher levels of food insecurity, which in turn was associated with higher psychological distress. Also, the household asset index, food insecurity, and unemployment had a larger effect on psychological distress than new opportunistic infections. These findings build on increasing evidence that support concerted efforts to design, evaluate, and refine HIV mental health interventions that are mainstreamed with livelihood programming in high poverty regions in India.

  14. Accelerating TB notification from the private health sector in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Debashish; Chopra, Kamal; Khanna, Ashwani; Babbar, Neeti; Padmini, T J

    2016-01-01

    In India, almost half of all patients with tuberculosis (TB) seek care in the private sector as the first point of care. The national programme is unable to support such TB patients and facilitate effective treatment, as there is no information on TB and Multi or Extensively Drug Resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) diagnosis and treatment in private sector. To improve this situation, Government of India declared TB a notifiable disease for establishing TB surveillance system, to extend supportive mechanism for TB treatment adherence and standardised practices in the private sector. But TB notification from the private sector is a challenge and still a lot needs to be done to accelerate TB notification. Delhi State TB Control Programme had taken initiatives for improving notification of TB cases from the private sector in 2014. Key steps taken were to constitute a state level TB notification committee to oversee the progress of TB notification efforts in the state and direct 'one to one' sensitisation of private practitioners (PPs) (in single PP's clinic, corporate hospitals and laboratories) by the state notification teams with the help of available tools for sensitising the PP on TB notification - TB Notification Government Order, Guidance Tool for TB Notification and Standards of TB Care in India. As a result of focussed state level interventions, without much external support, there was an accelerated notification of TB cases from the private sector. TB notification cases from the private sector rose from 341 (in 2013) to 4049 (by the end of March 2015). Active state level initiatives have led to increase in TB case notification. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. "I am witness to": a profile of Sakshi Violence Intervention Centre in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, A

    1998-11-01

    Sakshi, a group formed in New Delhi, India, in 1992, seeks to create awareness of violence against women and promote justice for its victims. Its creation was spurred by the gang rape by police officers of a girl in custody and the subsequent minimization on the part of the Supreme Court of India of the seriousness of the crime. Program activities have included informational workshops for governmental and nongovernmental organizations, feminist legal research into violations of women's human rights, counseling for victims of violence, and sensitization programs for police and the judiciary. As a result of Sakshi's lobbying, the Supreme Court passed a set of Guidelines on Sexual Harassment at the Workplace in 1997. An ongoing problem has been Sakshi's dependence on donor funding and the related requirement of adopting development agencies' agendas rather than allowing development to be a demand-driven, needs-based process. Sakshi's experience has led to the awareness that violence cannot be countered by intervention measures alone; rather, program activities must be linked with other forms of gender development. The group has adopted use of the term "substantive equality" to form links between different systems in society and to empower women.

  16. Rapid assessment of visual impairment in urban population of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Malhotra, Sumit; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, causes and associated demographic factors related to visual impairment amongst the urban population of New Delhi, India. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in East Delhi district using cluster random sampling methodology. This Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) survey involved examination of all individuals aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of the district. Visual acuity (VA) assessment and comprehensive ocular examination were done during the door-to-door survey. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information of the study population. Blindness and Visual Impairment was defined as presenting VA visual impairment. Of 2421 subjects enumerated, 2331 (96.3%) were available for ophthalmic examination. Among those examined, 49.3% were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VI) in the study population, was 11.4% (95% C.I. 10.1, 12.7) and that of blindness was 1.2% (95% C.I. 0.8, 1.6). Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of VI accounting for 53.4% of all VI followed by cataract (33.8%). With multivariable logistic regression, the odds of having VI increased with age (OR = 24.6[95% C.I.: 14.9, 40.7]; p visual impairment is considerable in this region despite availability of adequate eye care facilities. Awareness generation and simple interventions like cataract surgery and provision of spectacles will help to eliminate the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in this region.

  17. Heavy metal levels and solid phase speciation in street dusts of Delhi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Anju D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Although the street dusts of Delhi contain considerably high levels of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb, solid phase speciation results indicate comparatively limited environmental mobility and bioavailability of Ni and Cr. - Street dust samples were collected from three different localities (industrial, heavy traffic and rural) situated in the greater Delhi area of India. The samples analyzed for Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cr indicated remarkably high levels of Cr, Ni, and Cu in the industrial area, whilst Pb and Cd did not show any discernible variations between the three localities. A multivariate statistical approach (Principal Component Analysis) was used to define the possible origin of metals in dusts. The street dusts were sequentially extracted so that the solid pools of Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr could be partitioned into five operationally defined fractions viz. exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe-Mn oxides, bound to organic matter and residual. Metal recoveries in sequential extractions were ±10% of the independently measured total metal concentrations. Cd was the only metal present appreciably (27.16%) in the exchangeable fraction and Cu was the only metal predominantly associated (44.26%) with organic fraction. Zn (45.64%) and Pb (28.26%) were present mainly in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction and the residual fraction was the most dominant solid phase pool of Cr (88.12%) and Ni (70.94%). Assuming that the mobility and bioavailability are related to the solubility of geochemical forms of the metals and decrease in order of extraction, the apparent mobility and potential metal bioavailability for these highly contaminated street dust samples is: Cd>Zn congruent with Pb>Ni>Cu>Cr

  18. Prevalence and pattern of self-medication practices in an urban area of Delhi, India

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    Varun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is one of the major health concerns worldwide and World Health Organization has laid emphasis on correctly investigating and controlling it. There is much public and professional concern regarding self-medication practices, which has dramatically increased in the last few decades, especially in the developing countries. Hence, this study was designed to study the prevalence and practice of self-medication practices in an urban area of Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2013 and data were collected by personal interviews using pretested questionnaires. An urban colony in the south district of Delhi was chosen and the eldest member of the family, present at the time of the visit was interviewed. Data were collected from 236 persons and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was 92.8% (95 confidence interval: 66.5-79.4. 74.9% preferred allopathic medicines. Self-medication was found to be practiced more among younger persons than older age group persons (P = 0.000. Graduates and postgraduates practiced self-medication more than others (P = 0.002. Common cold (61.6% and fever (51.8% were the most common ailments for which self-medication were practiced. Paracetamol and cough syrups were the most commonly used class of drugs. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication in this study was high. Drugs especially antimicrobials were not taken for the proper length of time. Awareness regarding self-medication practices to help patients decide on the appropriateness of self-medication is required.

  19. Health risks of NO 2, SPM and SO 2 in Delhi (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Jai Shanker; Kumar, Rakesh; Devotta, Sukumar

    There is increasingly growing evidence linking urban air pollution to acute and chronic illnesses amongst all age groups. Therefore, monitoring of ambient concentrations of various air pollutants as well as quantification of the dose inhaled becomes quite important, specially in view of the fact that in many countries, policy decisions for reducing pollutant concentrations are mainly taken on the basis of their health impacts. The dose when gets combined with the likely responses, indicates the ultimate health risk (HR). Thus, as an extension of our earlier studies, HR has been estimated for three pollutants, namely, suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) for Delhi City in India. For estimation and analyses, three zones have been considered, namely, residential, industrial and commercial. The total population has been divided into three age classes (infants, children and adults) with different body weights and breathing rates. The exercise takes into account age-specific breathing rates, body weights for different age categories and occupancy factors for different zones. Results indicate that health risks due to air pollution in Delhi are highest for children. For all age categories, health risks due to SO 2 (HR_SO 2) are the lowest. Hence, HR_SO 2 has been taken as the reference with respect to which HR values due to SPM and NO 2 have been compared. Taking into account all the age categories and their occupancy in different zones, average HR values for NO 2 and SPM turn out to be respectively 22.11 and 16.13 times more than that for SO 2. The present study can be useful in generating public awareness as well as in averting and mitigating the health risks.

  20. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    MR Pradhan; FC Taylor; S Agrawal; D Prabhakaran; S Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance...

  1. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    MR Pradhan .; F C Taylor; S Agrawal; D Prabhakaran; S Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance...

  2. Reproductive Ethics in Commercial Surrogacy: Decision-Making in IVF Clinics in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun

    2015-09-01

    As a neo-liberal economy, India has become one of the new health tourism destinations, with commercial gestational surrogacy as an expanding market. Yet the Indian Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Bill has been pending for five years, and the guidelines issued by the Indian Council of Medical Research are somewhat vague and contradictory, resulting in self-regulated practices of fertility clinics. This paper broadly looks at clinical ethics in reproduction in the practice of surrogacy and decision-making in various procedures. Through empirical research in New Delhi, the capital of India, from December 2011 to November 2012, issues of decision-making on embryo transfer, fetal reduction, and mode of delivery were identified. Interviews were carried out with doctors in eighteen ART clinics, agents from four agencies, and fourteen surrogates. In aiming to fulfil the commissioning parents' demands, doctors were willing to go to the greatest extent possible in their medical practice. Autonomy and decision-making regarding choice of the number of embryos to transfer and the mode of delivery lay neither with commissioning parents nor surrogate mothers but mostly with doctors. In order to ensure higher success rates, surrogates faced the risk of multiple pregnancy and fetal reduction with little information regarding the risks involved. In the globalized market of commercial surrogacy in India, and with clinics compromising on ethics, there is an urgent need for formulation of regulative law for the clinical practice and maintenance of principles of reproductive ethics in order to ensure that the interests of surrogate mothers are safeguarded.

  3. Molecular epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of dengue virus type 2, circulating in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Mittal, Veena; Chhabra, Mala; Kumari, Roop; Singh, Priyanka; Venkatesh, Srinivas

    2016-12-01

    Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) has been associated with severe dengue outbreaks in many countries including India. Its predominance was recorded nearly after a decade in the capital city, Delhi in 2013. The present study characterizes DENV-2 circulated during 2013-2014. Analysis based on envelope (E) gene showed the presence of two clades (I and II) of DENV-2, within the Cosmopolitan genotype. Analysis of time of most recent common ancestor revealed the existence of clade I for more than a decade (95 % HPD 13-16 years) however, clade II showed comparatively recent emergence (95 % HPD 5-13 years). Presence of different clades is of high significance as this may result in increased virus transmission and major outbreaks. Further, the presence of a unique amino acid substitution, Q325H was also observed in an isolate; 14/D2/Del/2013 (KT717981). This substitution falls in immune epitope (epitope id: 150268) and may have important role in host immune response.

  4. Chemical characteristics of ambient aerosols contributed by cooking process at Noorpur village near Delhi (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudha; Kumar, Bablu; Gupta, Gyan Prakash; Kulshrestha, U. C.

    2013-05-01

    Combustion of fuels such as wood, crop residue and dung cakes etc. is one of the major sources of air pollution in developing countries. These fuels are still used commonly for cooking purpose in rural India. This study investigates the chemical composition of the ambient aerosols during cooking hours at a village called Noorpur (28.470 N, 77.030 E) which lies near Delhi city. Aerosol sampling was carried out during August 2011-May 2012 by using handy sampler (Envirotech model APM 821) installed at the terrace of a building (˜6m). The samples were collected on 8 hourly basis using Teflon filters. The water extract of these filters was analyzed for major anions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-) and major cations (Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+ Mg2+) by ion chromatography (Metrohm 883 Basic IC Plus). Results highlighted that cooking process contributed significant amount of SO42- and K+ṡ. Biomass burning is considered as a potential source of K+ in air. The high concentration of SO42- might be due to oxidation of SO2 contributed by the combustion of dung cakes. Further, the detailed results will be discussed during the conference.

  5. Effectiveness of Awareness Package on Occupational Health Hazards among Ragpickers of New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwalla, Rashmi; Pathak, Rambha; Singh, Mitasha; Islam, Farzana; Parashar, Mamta

    2017-01-01

    Ragpickers are informal workers who collect recyclable materials to earn a small wage on daily basis. They work in vulnerable conditions and awareness regarding occupational and environmental hazard is essential for them. To study the effectiveness of awareness program on various occupational health hazards among the ragpickers. This interventional study was conducted from May through October 2016 among the ragpickers living near field practice area of Department of Community Medicine and those living in slum areas around HAHC Hospital, New Delhi, India. The awareness regarding occupational and environmental health hazards was assessed using a pretested and predesigned pro forma. Snowball sampling technique was used to select the ragpickers from the various areas. Health awareness and education package was designed for the ragpickers. The package was delivered by medical officers and health workers. A posttest assessment was done 2 weeks after the awareness activity. Among 150 ragpickers, there was significant improvement in knowledge immediate post training on knowledge of occupational hazard and hygiene. Efforts should be put to develop training materials on occupation and environmental health and injury issue relating to waste management.

  6. Assessment of Oral Health Related Quality of Life Among the Institutionalised Elderly in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhi, Amit; Marya, Charu Mohan; Nagpal, Ruchi; Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh

    To assess the oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) among older people residing in old-age homes in Delhi, India. Oral health related quality of life was measured by using the Hindi version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) which was tested for its reliability and validity. Sociodemographic data were collected and questions regarding the self-perception of general health, oral health and perceived need for dental treatment were put forward. Clinical assessment was also performed. The mean additive-GOHAI score of the study population was found to be 41.57 ± 6.07. Statistically significant associations were found between GOHAI and perceived measures. GOHAI scores decreased with a decrease in the number of teeth present and a decrease in the number of teeth having coronal and root caries. Those subjects who were in need of multi-unit prostheses or full prostheses had significantly poorer OHRQoL compared to those without any prosthetic need or need of single-unit prostheses. This study revealed the extent of dental problems in old-age home residents and may help to plan appropriate preventive measures.

  7. Adherence to diabetes care processes at general practices in the National Capital Region-Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa Shivashankar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the level of adherence to diabetes care processes, and associated clinic and patient factors at general practices in Delhi, India. Methods: We interviewed physicians (n = 23 and patients with diabetes (n = 406, and reviewed patient charts at general practices (government = 5; private = 18. We examined diabetes care processes, specifically measurement of weight, blood pressure (BP, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, lipids, electrocardiogram, dilated eye, and a foot examination in the last one year. We analyzed clinic and patient factors associated with a number of care processes achieved using multilevel Poisson regression model. Results: The average number of clinic visits per patient was 8.8/year (standard deviation = 5.7, and physicians had access to patient's previous records in only 19.7% of patients. Dilated eye exam, foot exam, and electrocardiogram were completed in 7.4%, 15.1%, and 29.1% of patients, respectively. An estimated 51.7%, 88.4%, and 28.1% had ≥1 measurement of HbA1c, BP, and lipids, respectively. Private clinics, physician access to patient's previous records, use of nonphysicians, patient education, and the presence of diabetes complication were positively associated with a number of care processes in the multivariable model. Conclusion: Adherence to diabetes care processes was suboptimal. Encouraging implementation of quality improvement strategies like Chronic Care Model elements at general practices may improve diabetes care.

  8. Source Apportionment of PM2.5 in Delhi, India Using PMF Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S K; Mandal, T K; Jain, Srishti; Saraswati; Sharma, A; Saxena, Mohit

    2016-08-01

    Chemical characterization of PM2.5 [organic carbon, elemental carbon, water soluble inorganic ionic components, and major and trace elements] was carried out for a source apportionment study of PM2.5 at an urban site of Delhi, India from January, 2013, to December, 2014. The annual average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 122 ± 94.1 µg m(-3). Strong seasonal variation was observed in PM2.5 mass concentration and its chemical composition with maxima during winter and minima during monsoon. A receptor model, positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied for source apportionment of PM2.5 mass concentration. The PMF model resolved the major sources of PM2.5 as secondary aerosols (21.3 %), followed by soil dust (20.5 %), vehicle emissions (19.7 %), biomass burning (14.3 %), fossil fuel combustion (13.7 %), industrial emissions (6.2 %) and sea salt (4.3 %).

  9. Traffic Related Aerosol Exposure And Their Risk Assessment Of Associated Metals In Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kushwaha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study was carried out in New Delhi, India, to assess the level of traffic related aerosol exposure, individually and associated metals. These investigations also try to formulate their risk assessment using different modes of transport on a typical journey to work route and compared Bus, Auto-rickshaws and Bike (Two Wheelers during the journey. The inhalable particulate matter monitored in winter period and also evaluated the potential health risk due to inhalation in the study. The exposure of Particulate matter was observed maximum in the Bike (502 ± 176.38 μgm-3 and minimum in the Auto-rickshaw (208.15 ± 61.38 μgm-3. In case of human exposure to metals (viz. Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, Zn, it was mostly exposed by Fe, Zn and Co and least exposed by Cd, Cr and Pb. Human health risk was estimated based on exposure and dosage response. The assessment of particulate-bound elements was calculated by assuming exposure of 6 h. The findings indicated that the exposure to particulate bound elements have relatively more adverse health effects. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 26-36 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9205

  10. Knowledge and Practices Related to Screening for Breast Cancer among Women in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Neha; Basu, Saurav; Singh, Megha Chandra; Garg, Suneela; Kumar, Rajesh; Kohli, Charu

    2018-01-27

    Background: Breast cancer is a major public health problem globally. The ongoing epidemiological, socio-cultural and demographic transition by accentuating the associated risk factors has disproportionately increased the incidence of breast cancer cases and resulting mortality in developing countries like India. Early diagnosis with rapid initiation of treatment reduces breast cancer mortality. Therefore awareness of breast cancer risk and a willingness to undergo screening are essential. The objective of the present study was to assess the knowledge and practices relating to screening for breast cancer among women in Delhi. Methods: Data were obtained from 222 adult women using a pretested selfadministered questionnaire. Results: Rates for knowledge of known risk factors of breast cancer were: family history of breast cancer, 59.5%; smoking, 57.7%; old age, 56.3%; lack of physical exercise, 51.9%; lack of breastfeeding, 48.2%; late menopause, 37.4%; and early menarche, 34.7%. Women who were aged awareness generation among adult women regarding risk factors and methods for early detection of breast cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  11. Sleep Quality of Call Handlers Employed in International Call Centers in National Capital Region of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, J D; Bhasin, S K

    2016-10-01

    Call center sector in India is a relatively new and fast growing industry driving employment and growth in modern India today. Most international call centers in National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi operate at odd work hours corresponding to a time suitable fortheir international customers. The sleep quality of call handlers employed in these call centers is in jeopardy owing to their altered sleep schedule. To assess the sleep quality and determine its independent predictors among call handlers employed in international call centers in NCR of Delhi. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted on 375 call handlers aged 18-39 years employed in international call centers in NCR of Delhi. Sleep quality was assessed using Athens Insomnia scale along with a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. The mean age of respondents was 24.6 (SD 2.4) years. 78% of participants were male. 83.5% of respondents were unmarried. 44.3% of call handlers were cigarette smokers. Physical ailments were reported by 37% call handlers. 77.6% of call handlers had somesuspicion of insomnia or suspected insomnia; the rest had no sleep problem. Smoking, poor social support, heavy workload, lack of relaxation facility at office, and prolonged travel time to office were independent predictors of sleep quality (pSafeguarding their health becomes an occupational health challenge to public health specialists.

  12. Weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors among overweight adolescents in Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study

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    Shrivastav Radhika

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is emerging as a public health problem among adolescents in India. The aim of this study was to describe specific weight-related concerns among school-going youth in Delhi, India and to assess the prevalence of weight control behaviors, including healthy and unhealthy ones. Differences by weight status, gender, grade level, and school-type (a proxy for SES in this setting are considered. Methods This study is cross-sectional by design. A sample of eighth and tenth graders (n = 1818 enrolled in Private (middle-high SES and Government (low SES schools (n = 8 in Delhi, India participated. All students' height and weight were measured. Students participated in a survey of weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors, as well. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test for differences in weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors across key factors of interest (i.e., weight status, gender, grade level, and SES. Results The combined prevalence of obesity and overweight was 16.6%, overall. Controlling one's weight was important to overweight and non-overweight youth, alike (94.2% v. 84.8%, p p Conclusions Interventions to promote healthy weight control should be pertinent to and well-received by school-going youth in India. Healthy weight control practices need to be explicitly encouraged and unhealthy practices reduced. Future interventions should address issues specific to body image, too, as body dissatisfaction was not uncommon among youth.

  13. Attitudes of Secondary School Teachers towards Inclusive Education in New Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Nisha; Das, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the attitudes of secondary regular schoolteachers towards the inclusion of students with disabilities in New Delhi. A total of 470 teachers, working in schools managed by a private organisation in Delhi, returned the completed survey. A two-part questionnaire was used in this study. Part one gathered…

  14. Mechanical characterization of municipal solid waste from two waste dumps at Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, B J; Ramana, G V; Datta, Manoj

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the physical and mechanical properties of the emplaced municipal solid waste (MSW) recovered from different locations of the Ghazipur and Okhla dumps both located at Delhi, India. Mechanical compressibility and shear strength of the collected MSW were evaluated using a 300×300mm direct shear (DS) shear box. Compression ratio (C c ') of MSW at these two dumps varied between 0.11 and 0.17 and is falling on the lower bound of the range (0.1-0.5) of the data reported in the literature for MSW. Low C c ' of MSW is attributed to the relatively low percentages of compressible elements such as textiles, plastics and paper, coupled with relatively high percentages of inert materials such as soil-like and gravel sized fractions. Shear strength of MSW tested is observed to be displacement dependent. The mobilized shear strength parameters i.e., the apparent cohesion intercept (c') and friction angle (ϕ') of MSW at these two dumps are best characterized by c'=13kPa and ϕ'=23° at 25mm displacement and c'=17kPa and ϕ'=34° at 55mm displacement and are in the range reported for MSW in the literature. A large database on the shear strength of MSW from 18 countries that includes: the experimental data from 277 large-scale DS tests (in-situ and laboratory) and the data from back analysis of 11 failed landfill slopes is statistically analyzed. Based on the analysis, a simple linear shear strength envelope, characterized by c'=17kPa and ϕ'=32°, is proposed for MSW for preliminary use in the absence of site-specific data for stability evaluation of the solid waste landfill under drained conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbiological evaluation of drinking water sold by roadside vendors of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Abhishek; Goyal, Pankaj; Varma, Ajit; Jindal, Tanu

    2017-07-01

    Delhi has emerged as one of the greenest capital city of the world. Microbiological assessment of drinking water emphasizes estimation of the hygienic quality of the water sold with reference to community health significance. This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors in east, west, north and south zones of capital of India. A total number of 36 samples (nine from each zone) were collected as per national guidelines and studied for microbiological assessment. All the drinking water samples were collected in gamma-sterilized bottles and were kept in an ice pack to prevent any significant change in the microbial flora of the samples during the transportation. The water samples were transported to the laboratory in vertical position maintaining the temperature 1-4 °C with ice pack enveloped conditions. Samples were analyzed for total MPN coliform per 100 ml and for the presence and absence of common human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the samples were found to be contaminated with coliform organisms in the range of 14 to >1600 per 100 ml of sample. Out of 36 water samples, the occurrence of E. coli was 61 %, Salmonella 25 % S. aureus 14 % and P. aeruginosa 53 % as 22, 9, 5 and 19 samples were found contaminated, respectively. The numbers of coliform bacteria and presence of some common pathogenic bacteria suggested that the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors is not within the Indian standard and WHO guidelines laid down for drinking water quality. Hence, there is a vital need to study the root cause in terms of hygiene, sanitation of vendors and source of contamination to prevent waterborne diseases.

  16. Numerical simulation of a rare winter hailstorm event over Delhi, India on 17 January 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevuturi, A.; Dimri, A. P.; Gunturu, U. B.

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzes the cause of the rare occurrence of a winter hailstorm over New Delhi/NCR (National Capital Region), India. The absence of increased surface temperature or low level of moisture incursion during winter cannot generate the deep convection required for sustaining a hailstorm. Consequently, NCR shows very few cases of hailstorms in the months of December-January-February, making the winter hail formation a question of interest. For this study, a recent winter hailstorm event on 17 January 2013 (16:00-18:00 UTC) occurring over NCR is investigated. The storm is simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) microphysics scheme with two different options: hail and graupel. The aim of the study is to understand and describe the cause of hailstorm event during over NCR with a comparative analysis of the two options of GCE microphysics. Upon evaluating the model simulations, it is observed that the hail option shows a more similar precipitation intensity with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observation than the graupel option does, and it is able to simulate hail precipitation. Using the model-simulated output with the hail option; detailed investigation on understanding the dynamics of hailstorm is performed. The analysis based on a numerical simulation suggests that the deep instability in the atmospheric column led to the formation of hailstones as the cloud formation reached up to the glaciated zone promoting ice nucleation. In winters, such instability conditions rarely form due to low level available potential energy and moisture incursion along with upper level baroclinic instability due to the presence of a western disturbance (WD). Such rare positioning is found to be lowering the tropopause with increased temperature gradient, leading to winter hailstorm formation.

  17. Numerical simulation of a winter hailstorm event over Delhi, India on 17 January 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevuturi, A.; Dimri, A. P.; Gunturu, U. B.

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzes the cause of rare occurrence of winter hailstorm over New Delhi/NCR (National Capital Region), India. The absence of increased surface temperature or low level of moisture incursion during winter cannot generate the deep convection required for sustaining a hailstorm. Consequently, NCR shows very few cases of hailstorms in the months of December-January-February, making the winter hail formation a question of interest. For this study, recent winter hailstorm event on 17 January 2013 (16:00-18:00 UTC) occurring over NCR is investigated. The storm is simulated using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) microphysics scheme with two different options, hail or graupel. The aim of the study is to understand and describe the cause of hailstorm event during over NCR with comparative analysis of the two options of GCE microphysics. On evaluating the model simulations, it is observed that hail option shows similar precipitation intensity with TRMM observation than the graupel option and is able to simulate hail precipitation. Using the model simulated output with hail option; detailed investigation on understanding the dynamics of hailstorm is performed. The analysis based on numerical simulation suggests that the deep instability in the atmospheric column led to the formation of hailstones as the cloud formation reached upto the glaciated zone promoting ice nucleation. In winters, such instability conditions rarely form due to low level available potential energy and moisture incursion along with upper level baroclinic instability due to the presence of WD. Such rare positioning is found to be lowering the tropopause with increased temperature gradient, leading to winter hailstorm formation.

  18. Numerical simulation of a rare winter hailstorm event over Delhi, India on 17 January 2013

    KAUST Repository

    Chevuturi, A.

    2014-12-19

    This study analyzes the cause of the rare occurrence of a winter hailstorm over New Delhi/NCR (National Capital Region), India. The absence of increased surface temperature or low level of moisture incursion during winter cannot generate the deep convection required for sustaining a hailstorm. Consequently, NCR shows very few cases of hailstorms in the months of December-January-February, making the winter hail formation a question of interest. For this study, a recent winter hailstorm event on 17 January 2013 (16:00–18:00 UTC) occurring over NCR is investigated. The storm is simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) microphysics scheme with two different options: hail and graupel. The aim of the study is to understand and describe the cause of hailstorm event during over NCR with a comparative analysis of the two options of GCE microphysics. Upon evaluating the model simulations, it is observed that the hail option shows a more similar precipitation intensity with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observation than the graupel option does, and it is able to simulate hail precipitation. Using the model-simulated output with the hail option; detailed investigation on understanding the dynamics of hailstorm is performed. The analysis based on a numerical simulation suggests that the deep instability in the atmospheric column led to the formation of hailstones as the cloud formation reached up to the glaciated zone promoting ice nucleation. In winters, such instability conditions rarely form due to low level available potential energy and moisture incursion along with upper level baroclinic instability due to the presence of a western disturbance (WD). Such rare positioning is found to be lowering the tropopause with increased temperature gradient, leading to winter hailstorm formation.

  19. Assessment of air quality after the implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel in public transport in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Khaiwal; Wauters, Eric; Tyagi, Sushil K; Mor, Suman; Van Grieken, René

    2006-04-01

    Public transport in Delhi was amended by the Supreme Court of India to use Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) instead of diesel or petrol. After the implementation of CNG since April 2001, Delhi has the highest fraction of CNG-run public vehicles in the world and most of them were introduced within 20 months. In the present study, the concentrations of various criteria air pollutants (SPM, PM(10), CO, SO(2) and NO(x)) and organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed before and after the implementation of CNG. A decreasing trend was found for PAHs, SO(2) and CO concentrations, while the NO(x) level was increased in comparison to those before the implementation of CNG. Further, SPM, PM(10), and BTX concentrations showed no significant change after the implementation of CNG. However, the BTX concentration demonstrated a clear relation with the benzene content of gasoline. In addition to the impact of the introduction of CNG the daily variation in PAHs levels was also studied and the PAHs concentrations were observed to be relatively high between 10 pm to 6 am, which gives a proof of a relation with the limited day entry and movement of heavy vehicles in Delhi.

  20. Influence of ozone precursors and particulate matter on the variation of surface ozone at an urban site of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of surface O3 and its precursors (NO, NO2, CO, CH4 and NMHCs at an urban site of Delhi, India during January 2012 to December 2013 are presented. In the present study, the annual average mixing ratios of surface O3, NO, NO2, CO, CH4 and NMHC were 30 ± 6 ppb, 24 ± 6 ppb, 15 ± 4 ppb, 1.5 ± 0.4 ppm, 2.4 ± 0.4 ppm and 0.4 ± 0.1 ppm, respectively. The maximum average mixing ratios of surface O3, NO and NO2 were observed during the summer, whereas, the minimum average mixing ratios of ambient NO and NO2 were during monsoon seasons. The surface O3, NO and NO2 have shown the prominent diurnal variations during all the seasons at the observational site of Delhi. The result reveals that the surface O3 was negatively correlated with NOx and CO during the study. The linear scatter plot analysis shows that the PM2.5 and PM10 present in the ambient air of Delhi influence the production of surface O3 at observational site.

  1. Learning to Be Gendered: Gender Socialization in Early Adolescence Among Urban Poor in Delhi, India, and Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sharmistha; Zuo, Xiayun; Lou, Chaohua; Acharya, Rajib; Lundgren, Rebecka

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to understand the gender socialization process in early adolescence. The study was located in two disadvantaged urban communities in Delhi, India and Shanghai, China and was part of the multicountry (15) Global Early Adolescent Study. Qualitative methodologies were used with boys and girls aged 11-13 years, including 16 group-based timeline exercises and 65 narrative interviews. In addition, 58 parents of participating adolescents were interviewed. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and uploaded into Atlas.ti for coding and thematic analysis. Boys and girls growing up in the same community were directed onto different pathways during their transition from early to late adolescence. Adolescents and parents in both sites identified mothers as the primary actor, socializing adolescents into how to dress and behave and what gender roles to play, although fathers were also mentioned as influential. Opposite-sex interactions were restricted, and violations enforced by physical violence. In Delhi, gender roles and mobility were more strictly enforced for girls than boys. Restrictions on opposite-sex interactions were rigid for both boys and girls in Delhi and Shanghai. Sanctions, including beating, for violating norms about boy-girl relationships were more punitive than those related to dress and demeanor, especially in Delhi. Education and career expectations were notably more equitable in Shanghai. Parents teach their children to adhere to inequitable gender norms in both Delhi and Shanghai. However, education and career expectations for boys and girls in the two sites differed. Although gender norms varied by site according to the particular cultural and historical context, similar patterns of gender inequity reflect the underlying patriarchal system in both settings. The tendency of parents to pass on the norms they grew up with is evident, yet these results illustrate the social construction of gender through children

  2. Reducing Tobacco Use among Low Socio-Economic Status Youth in Delhi, India: Outcomes from Project ACTIVITY, a Cluster Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Melissa B.; Arora, Monika; Bassi, Shalini; Gupta, Vinay K.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2016-01-01

    To test the efficacy of an intervention to reduce tobacco use among youth (10-19 years old) in slum communities in Delhi, India. This community-based cluster-randomized trial included 14 slums composed of purposely built resettlement colonies and adjacent inhabitant-built Jhuggi Jhopris. Youth in the intervention received a 2 year…

  3. Chemical Composition and Source Apportionment of high temporal resolution PM1 data for January-August 2017 in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, S.; Wang, D. S.; Gani, S.; Seraj, S.; Arub, Z.; Habib, G.; Apte, J.; Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) poses significant health risks, especially to residents in heavily populated areas. The current understanding of the sources and dynamics of PM pollution in developing countries like India is limited. Delhi, India is the second most populated city in the world that has extremely high winter PM concentrations and frequent severe pollution episodes. This study reports on composition measurements of submicron aerosol at 1 minute time resolution from January to August of 2017, collected at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi using an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and black carbon (BC) measurements using an Aethalometer. Source apportionment was conducted on organic and inorganic mass spectra measured by the ACSM and black carbon data measured using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). High concentrations of particulate matter were observed with total PM1 at times exceeding 200 µg m-3 in winter. A significant drop in PM1 concentrations was observed in the winter-spring transition. As observed elsewhere, organic species dominated the submicron mass, contributing 60% of the total mass over the duration of the campaign. However, this fractional contribution varied substantially over the day: from 48% early in the morning to 73% late at night. Along with diurnal variation in total PM1 mass loadings, particulate chloride levels also exhibited a strong diurnal cycle, with concentrations as high as 50 µg m-3 observed in the early mornings of January 2017. Literature review on identification of winter chloride sources in Delhi points to local and regional sources such as biomass/open-waste burning and coal combustion. PMF receptor modeling identified several factors with distinct diurnal patterns. While hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) factor has the largest mass fraction contribution, PMF results consistently suggest chloride presence as attributable to ammonium chloride. Interestingly, aerosol

  4. On the occurrence of Common Baron (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidinae: Euthalia aconthea Cramer, 1777 in the Delhi area and analysis of abiotic factors affecting its distribution in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajv K. Singh Bais

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives details of the occurrence of Euthalia aconthea from Delhi area situated in the Indo-Gangetic plains.  Occurrence records of this species suggest that it is most frequent in five zones of India, despite the fact that its main larval food plant Mango Mangifera indica is abundantly available almost throughout India.  Possible abiotic factors are hypothesized for this distribution. 

  5. Resident Knowledge and Willingness to Engage in Waste Management in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Bhawal Mukherji

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Delhi generates about 8360 tons of municipal solid waste per day, and there is low compliance to rules regarding waste management. The objective of this paper was to understand the situation in Delhi with respect to the segregation, storage, collection, and disposal of household waste, and to assess the knowledge of the residents of Delhi, and their willingness to engage in solid-waste management. A stratified random sample, comprising 3047 respondents, was chosen for a questionnaire survey, covering all municipalities of Delhi, with socio-economic classification as the stratifying variable. Survey results indicate that 60% of residents do not know the difference between biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste, and only 2% of them segregate waste. Fifty-eight percent of respondents reported that the waste collector mixes the segregated waste, 97% of respondents reported that they sold items to an itinerant waste buyer, and 87% of households are covered by doorstep waste collection services. Abstract knowledge (general knowledge about waste management is seen to have a significant correlation with willingness to engage in waste management. Differences between the socio-economic groups indicate that the highest (most educated and wealthy, as well as the lowest socio-economic category (least educated and poor, older age-groups, and women, have greater abstract knowledge. Socio-economic categories having higher abstract knowledge can be active participants in decentralized models of waste management.

  6. Awareness About Anti-Smoking Related Laws and Legislation Among General Population in Slums of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nandini; Anand, Tanu; Grover, Shekhar; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Mongjam M; Ingle, Gopal K

    2018-04-02

    Almost 40% of Delhi's population lives in slums and is vulnerable to tobacco use. It is therefore important to assess their opinion and ensure compliance to antismoking legislation. The present study was undertaken to assess the awareness of the general public residing in slums in Delhi regarding the smoke-free initiative of 2009, 3 years after intensive implementation. It was a cross-sectional study conducted among participants selected by cluster sampling from the slums in six districts of Delhi using a pretested semistructured questionnaire. A total of 708 slum dwellers were interviewed. Out of the total, only 16.1% (n = 114) of the participants had heard of The Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003 (COTPA), though, they were aware about some of the provisions of the COTPA. Majority (n = 529; 74.7%) perceived the smoke-free zones as the places where smoking forms of tobacco are banned. Regarding the awareness about the places designated as smoke-free zones, 82.1% (n = 581) of the respondents named educational institutions. About 61% of the people interviewed reported to have seen people smoking at public places on the day of interview while only 21.5% reported to have seen any one getting punished for smoking. Awareness about COTPA was low. The study respondents perceived that no action was being taken against persons acting in violation of the law. Thus, there is a need for stricter implementation of COTPA and increased spreading of awareness among the general public. While awareness about antismoking legislation among general population (particularly slums) has been studied world over, this has not been the case in India. The study depicts opinion of one of the susceptible populations regarding tobacco control legislation, which has hitherto not been studied in the Indian context. This study has an important implication as it highlights the need

  7. Land-Air Interactions over Urban-Rural Transects Using Satellite Observations: Analysis over Delhi, India from 1991–2016

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    Madhavi Jain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past four decades Delhi, India, has witnessed rapid urbanization and change in land use land cover (LULC pattern, with most of the cultivable areas and wasteland being converted into built-up areas. Presently around 40% land is under built-up area, a drastic rise of 30% from 1977. The effect of changing LULC, at a local scale, on various variables-land surface temperature (LST, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, emissivity, albedo, evaporation, Bowen ratio, and planetary boundary layer (PBL height, from 1991–2016, is investigated. To assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of land-air interactions, we select two different 100 km transects covering the NE-SW and NW-SE expanse of Delhi and its adjoining areas. High NDVI and emissivity is found for regions with green cover and drastic reduction is noted in built-up area clusters. In both of the transects, land surface variations manifest itself in patterns of LST variation. Parametric and non-parametric correlations are able to statistically establish the land-air interactions in the city. NDVI, an indirect indicator for LULC classes, significantly helps in understanding the modifications in LST and ultimately air temperature. Significant, strong positive relationships exist between skin temperature and evaporation, skin temperature and PBL height, and PBL height and evaporation, providing insights into the meteorological changes that are associated with urbanization.

  8. Measurement of radon activity, exhalation rate and radiation dose in fly ash and coal samples from NTPC, Badarpur, Delhi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mamta; Verma, K.D.; Mahur, A.K.; Prasad, R.; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study radon activities and exhalation rates from fly ash and coal samples from NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation) situated at Badarpur, Delhi, India, have been measured. 'Sealed Can Technique' using LR-115 type II track detectors was employed. In fly ash samples, radon activity has been found to vary from 400.0 ± 34.7 to 483.9 ± 38.1Bqm -3 with an average value of 447.1 ± 36.6 Bqm -3 and in coal samples, radon activity has been found to vary from 504.0 ± 39.0 to 932.1 ± 52.9 Bqm -3 with an average value of 687.2 ± 45.2 Bqm -3 . Radon exhalation rate from coal is found to be higher than radon exhalation rate from its ash products, whereas the opposite is expected. Indoor inhalation exposure (radon) effective dose has also been estimated. (author)

  9. Headline violence and silenced pleasure: contested framings of consensual sex, power and rape in Delhi, India 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Emme; Gupta, Ankit

    2016-05-01

    Though coercion and rape have cast a persistent shadow over prospects of sexual health and consent in contemporary India, other narratives, agency and tools are quietly emerging to transform collective claims of power and bodily dignity. In these narratives from collectives, NGOs, on social media and among friends, dialogues about consent and pleasure feature prominently. This paper analyses statements in the news made by highly visible political and public figures regarding the subject of rape in the context of themes emerging from ethnography and semi-structured interviews with middle class people in Delhi. Using the device of social frameworks, contested framings of rape and consent are examined in order to interrogate essentialist gender norms, compare putative "causes" of rape, and highlight local efforts promoting sexual consent, health and well-being. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimation of vehicular emissions using dynamic emission factors: A case study of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dhirendra; Goyal, P.

    2014-12-01

    The estimation of vehicular emissions depends mainly on the values of emission factors, which are used for the development of a comprehensive emission inventory of vehicles. In this study the variations of emission factors as well as the emission rates have been studied in Delhi. The implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG), in the diesel and petrol, public vehicles in the year 2001 has changed the complete air quality scenario of Delhi. The dynamic emission factors of criteria pollutants viz. carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10) for all types of vehicles have been developed after, which are based on the several factors such as regulated emission limits, number of vehicle deterioration, vehicle increment, vehicle age etc. These emission factors are found to be decreased continuously throughout the study years 2003-2012. The International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model is used to estimate the emissions of criteria pollutants by utilizing a dataset available from field observations at different traffic intersections in Delhi. Thus the vehicular emissions, based on dynamic emission factors have been estimated for the years 2003-2012, which are found to be comparable with the monitored concentrations at different locations in Delhi. It is noticed that the total emissions of CO, NOx, and PM10 are increased by 45.63%, 68.88% and 17.92%, respectively up to the year 2012 and the emissions of NOx and PM10 are grown continuously with an annual average growth rate of 5.4% and 1.7% respectively.

  11. Awareness and Attitude of Select Professionals toward Euthanasia in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sheetal; Gupta, Shakti; Singh, IB; Madaan, Nirupam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The topic of euthanasia has induced differences not only among professionals in the medical fraternity but also in other fields as well. The dying process is being lengthened by the new state of art technologies erupting as such higher pace, and it is at the expense of standard quality of life and of a gracious death. Aim: To study the awareness and attitude toward euthanasia among select professionals in Delhi. Methodology: It was a questionnaire-based descriptive cross-section...

  12. Awareness and Attitude of Select Professionals toward Euthanasia in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sheetal; Gupta, Shakti; Singh, I B; Madaan, Nirupam

    2016-01-01

    The topic of euthanasia has induced differences not only among professionals in the medical fraternity but also in other fields as well. The dying process is being lengthened by the new state of art technologies erupting as such higher pace, and it is at the expense of standard quality of life and of a gracious death. To study the awareness and attitude toward euthanasia among select professionals in Delhi. It was a questionnaire-based descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population included doctors, nurses, judges, lawyers, journalist, and social activists of Delhi. Tool included a sociodemographic questionnaire, two questions to know awareness regarding euthanasia and a modified euthanasia attitude scale used to measure attitude toward euthanasia. Data were analyzed using Stata 11.2. Through our study, it is evident that professionals who participated in the study (judges, advocates, doctors, nurses, journalists, and social activists) in Delhi were familiar with the term euthanasia. No significant difference was seen in the attitude of professionals of different age group and sex toward euthanasia. Through this study, it is found that judiciary group most strongly endorsed euthanasia. The attitude of doctors was elicited from mixed group with doctors belonging to different specialties. Oncologists are not in favor of any form of euthanasia. However, doctors from other specialties did support euthanasia.

  13. Transport scenarios in two metropolitan cities in India: Delhi and Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Anjana; Parikh, Jyoti

    2004-01-01

    With rising population and increasing migration to the cities, it is expected that the urban population will increase and many more metropolitan cities will arise. Urban transport will also increase due to the high growth in population, travel demand and vehicles. In this paper, we look at the growth in vehicles and travel demand up to 2020, assuming business as usual, high GDP growth and low GDP growth scenarios for Mumbai and Delhi assuming a certain population growth. The consequent energy needs and local and global environment implications are studied. The case studies demonstrate that despite similar population and higher per capita GDP, due to the higher share of public bus transport and suburban railway system, the Mumbai transport results in 60% less energy and emissions compared to Delhi. This picture may change in the future with the introduction of metro in Delhi, but basic differences remain even in 2020, perhaps also due to the different urban design. The vehicle stock increases nearly three times in both cities in 23 years due to the increase in population, migration and economic growth. However, the vehicle ownership per 1000 persons only doubles and is far lower in 2020, even compared to the present world average ownership. Emissions, however, do not rise as much due to the introduction of more efficient vehicles and fuels, such as CNG or battery operated vehicles. The high share of public transport also helps. The effects of various policies, such as urban design, suburban railway system, transport management, control practices, etc. are very important

  14. Association between full service and fast food restaurant density, dietary intake and overweight/obesity among adults in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Opal; Shahulhameed, Safraj; Shivashankar, Roopa; Tayyab, Mohammad; Rahman, Atiqur; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tandon, Nikhil; Jaacks, Lindsay M

    2017-07-19

    The food environment has been implicated as an underlying contributor to the global obesity epidemic. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between the food environment, dietary intake, and overweight/obesity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study was to assess the association of full service and fast food restaurant density with dietary intake and overweight/obesity in Delhi, India. Data are from a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in Delhi. Using multilevel cluster random sampling, 5364 participants were selected from 134 census enumeration blocks (CEBs). Geographic information system data were available for 131 CEBs (n = 5264) from a field survey conducted using hand-held global positioning system devices. The number of full service and fast food restaurants within a 1-km buffer of CEBs was recorded by trained staff using ArcGIS software, and participants were assigned to tertiles of full service and fast food restaurant density based on their resident CEB. Height and weight were measured using standardized procedures and overweight/obesity was defined as a BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 . The most common full service and fast food restaurants were Indian savory restaurants (57.2%) and Indian sweet shops (25.8%). Only 14.1% of full service and fast food restaurants were Western style. After adjustment for age, household income, education, and tobacco and alcohol use, participants in the highest tertile of full service and fast food restaurant density were less likely to consume fruit and more likely to consume refined grains compared to participants in the lowest tertile (both p restaurant density were significantly more likely to be overweight/obese: odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.44 (1.24, 1.67). After adjustment for age, household income, and education, the effect was attenuated: 1.08 (0.92, 1.26). Results were consistent with further adjustment for tobacco and alcohol use, moderate physical activity

  15. The Spread of Dengue in an Endemic Urban Milieu--The Case of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telle, Olivier; Vaguet, Alain; Yadav, N K; Lefebvre, B; Cebeillac, A; Nagpal, B N; Daudé, Eric; Paul, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major international public health concern, one of the most important arthropod-borne diseases. More than 3.5 billion people are at risk of dengue infection and there are an estimated 390 million dengue infections annually. This prolific increase has been connected to societal changes such as population growth and increasing urbanization generating intense agglomeration leading to proliferation of synanthropic mosquito species. Quantifying the spatio-temporal epidemiology of dengue in large cities within the context of a Geographic Information System is a first step in the identification of socio-economic risk factors. This Project has been approved by the ethical committee of Institut Pasteur. Data has been anonymized and de-identified prior to geolocalisation and analysis. A GIS was developed for Delhi, enabling typological characterization of the urban environment. Dengue cases identified in the Delhi surveillance system from 2008 to 2010 were collated, localised and embedded within this GIS. The spatio-temporal distribution of dengue cases and extent of clustering were analyzed. Increasing distance from the forest in Delhi reduced the risk of occurrence of a dengue case. Proximity to a hospital did not increase risk of a notified dengue case. Overall, there was high heterogeneity in incidence rate within areas with the same socio-economical profiles and substantial inter-annual variability. Dengue affected the poorest areas with high density of humans, but rich areas were also found to be infected, potentially because of their central location with respect to the daily mobility network of Delhi. Dengue cases were highly clustered in space and there was a strong relationship between the time of introduction of the virus and subsequent cluster size. At a larger scale, earlier introduction predicted the total number of cases. DENV epidemiology within Delhi has a forest fire signature. The stochastic nature of this invasion process likely smothers any

  16. The Spread of Dengue in an Endemic Urban Milieu--The Case of Delhi, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Telle

    Full Text Available Dengue is a major international public health concern, one of the most important arthropod-borne diseases. More than 3.5 billion people are at risk of dengue infection and there are an estimated 390 million dengue infections annually. This prolific increase has been connected to societal changes such as population growth and increasing urbanization generating intense agglomeration leading to proliferation of synanthropic mosquito species. Quantifying the spatio-temporal epidemiology of dengue in large cities within the context of a Geographic Information System is a first step in the identification of socio-economic risk factors.This Project has been approved by the ethical committee of Institut Pasteur. Data has been anonymized and de-identified prior to geolocalisation and analysis. A GIS was developed for Delhi, enabling typological characterization of the urban environment. Dengue cases identified in the Delhi surveillance system from 2008 to 2010 were collated, localised and embedded within this GIS. The spatio-temporal distribution of dengue cases and extent of clustering were analyzed. Increasing distance from the forest in Delhi reduced the risk of occurrence of a dengue case. Proximity to a hospital did not increase risk of a notified dengue case. Overall, there was high heterogeneity in incidence rate within areas with the same socio-economical profiles and substantial inter-annual variability. Dengue affected the poorest areas with high density of humans, but rich areas were also found to be infected, potentially because of their central location with respect to the daily mobility network of Delhi. Dengue cases were highly clustered in space and there was a strong relationship between the time of introduction of the virus and subsequent cluster size. At a larger scale, earlier introduction predicted the total number of cases.DENV epidemiology within Delhi has a forest fire signature. The stochastic nature of this invasion process

  17. Health care expenditure associated with overweight/obesity: a study among urban married women in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a multifaceted problem with wide-reaching medical, social and economic consequences. While health consequences are much known, but due to paucity of data, economic consequences are less known in India. The prevalence for excessive weight particularly among women population has been increasing dramatically in India in the last decades. We examined the economic burden on individual and households due to overweight and obesity among women in the national capital territory of India, Delhi. We particularly examined the health expenditure pattern in absolute amount as well as a proportion to their household expenditure among women according to their level of body mass index (BMI). A population based follow-up survey of 325 ever-married women aged 20-54 years residing in the national capital territory of Delhi in India, systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. Women's expenditure on health has been seen as a gross and as a ratio of total household expenditure. Anthropometric measurements were obtained from women to compute their current body mass index. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios adjusting for various socio demographic confounders. A significantly (peconomic burden which accounts for more than 5% of their total household expenditure on their health compared to only 10% normal weight women. Significantly, obese and morbidly obese women were more than two times more likely to spend higher amount on their health (OR 2.29 95% CI: 1.07-4.90; p=0.033) than normal weight women. Also overweight women were significantly two times more likely to spend high proportion on their health with respect to total household expenditure (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.03-4.35; p=0.042) than normal weight women. There is substantial economic burden of obesity for individuals as well as for the households which calls for urgent

  18. 78 FR 70278 - Automotive Trade Mission to New Delhi, Pune and Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... expanding automotive market. Many global automotive manufacturing companies such as Ford, GM, BMW, AUDI... India for over five decades. Also known as the Detroit of India, Pune today is one of India's largest... and finished goods, and ease of setting up business have been key drivers of the growth of the auto...

  19. Multi drug resistance and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases in clinical isolates of Shigella: A study from New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Prabhav; Uppal, Beena; Ghosh, Roumi; Krishna Prakash, S; Chakravarti, Anita; Jha, Arun Kumar; Rajeshwari, Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is an important cause of gastroenteritis in local Indian population, as well as of traveler's diarrhea in the international visitors to India. These patients often require appropriate antimicrobial therapy; however, rapid development of antimicrobial resistance poses a major hurdle in achieving this goal. A prospective study was conducted during 2009-12 in New Delhi, India, including 6339 stool samples from gastroenteritis patients. 121 Shigella strains were identified on the basis of colony morphology, biochemical reactions, serotyping and ipaH gene based PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disc diffusion, MIC determination by Vitek(®) 2 and phenotypic tests for ESBL/AmpC production were done. Nineteen percent strains (23/121) were found to be resistant to third generation cephalosporins and all were phenotypically confirmed to be ESBL producers; one strain was positive for AmpC. ESBL producing strains were also found to be significantly more resistant (p Shigella is a matter of concern for the local population as well as international travelers. Therefore, better national level antimicrobial management programs are the priority needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on air pollution trends (2010-2015 due to fireworks during Diwali festival in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Pandey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The burning of massive amount of fire crackers on the evening(s of a nation-wide celebrated festival called ‘Diwali’ in India, gives rise to a remarkably high concentration of criteria air pollutants and it is of utmost importance to investigate the impact of such high loads originated during a relatively shorter time span in a mega-city like Delhi where the situation of ambient air quality has already been alarming almost through-out the year. In view of the same, the present study analyzes available concentration data during this festival’s night for five criteria pollutants namely PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO (Particulate Matter, Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide respectively along with NH3 at six key locations of Delhi. Following the analysis, PM10 concentration in Anand Vihar during nighttime of Diwali was reported to be ~8 times higher than the 24 hours values prescribed by National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS. On the other hand, the same at IGI airport was recorded lowest even though about 3.5 times that of the guiding standard. PM2.5 concentrations were reported as highest and lowest at RK Puram and Civil lines respectively, in both the cases quite exceeding the comparable standard values. Interestingly, remaining criteria pollutants, namely, SO2, NO2 and CO along with NH3 measured in 2015 showed no values in excess of corresponding 24-hrs guidelines, thereby reporting a better scenario compared to previous years. Further, the extensive use of firecrackers during Diwali festival leads to substantial increase in air pollutants necessitating special measures to control.

  1. Size distributions of n-alkanes, fatty acids and fatty alcohols in springtime aerosols from New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mingjie; Fu, Pingqing; Aggarwal, Shankar G; Kumar, Sudhanshu; Zhao, Ye; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa

    2016-12-01

    Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in New Delhi, India from March 6 to April 6, 2012. Homologous series of n-alkanes (C 19 C 33 ), n-fatty acids (C 12 C 30 ) and n-alcohols (C 16 C 32 ) were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results showed a high-variation in the concentrations and size distributions of these chemicals during non-haze, haze, and dust storm days. In general, n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and n-alcohols presented a bimodal distribution, peaking at 0.7-1.1 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm for fine modes and coarse modes, respectively. Overall, the particulate matter mainly existed in the coarse mode (≥2.1 μm), accounting for 64.8-68.5% of total aerosol mass. During the haze period, large-scale biomass burning emitted substantial fine hydrophilic smoke particles into the atmosphere, which leads to relatively larger GMDs (geometric mean diameter) of n-alkanes in the fine mode than those during the dust storms and non-haze periods. Additionally, the springtime dust storms transported a large quantity of coarse particles from surrounding or local areas into the atmosphere, enhancing organic aerosol concentration and inducing a remarkable size shift towards the coarse mode, which are consistent with the larger GMDs of most organic compounds especially in total and coarse modes. Our results suggest that fossil fuel combustion (e.g., vehicular and industrial exhaust), biomass burning, residential cooking, and microbial activities could be the major sources of lipid compounds in the urban atmosphere in New Delhi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. THE DECISION MAKING OF BUSINESS TRAVELLERS IN SELECTING ONLINE TRAVEL PORTALS FOR TRAVEL BOOKING: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF DELHI NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bivek DATTA; Manohar SAJNANI; Joby THOMAS

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand the decision making pattern of the Business Travellers in Delhi National Capital Region in India while booking their trips through Online Travel Portals. The study revolves around purchase decision pattern of Business Travellers by investigating their travel decision making style in selecting online travel portals for their trip booking. The authors have adopted the quantitative methodology to achieve the objective of the study. The study is confi...

  3. Dietary practices and nutritional profile of female nurses from Government Hospitals in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing is a demanding profession and nurses face a considerable degree of stress at work that can adversely influence their dietary practices and nutritional status. The current study was designed to conduct a preliminary investigation of the dietary practices and nutritional profile of nurses from government hospitals in Delhi. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 80 female nurses aged between 25 and 39 years from government hospitals. Data on demographic profile and dietary practices were gathered using a questionnaire-cum-interview schedule. Nutrient intake of the participants was determined using a 2-day 24-hour diet recall method, and adequacy of intake of nutrients was assessed using the Nutrient Adequacy Ratio approach. Weight, height, and waist circumference were recorded and the body mass index (BMI and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR were computed. Results: Findings revealed that though majority of nurses were involved in rotating shift duties in their hospitals, more than two-thirds of them had more or less appropriate dietary practices. Intake of most nutrients, except iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, dietary folate, and riboflavin ranged from fairly adequate to adequate among nearly 85% of the nurses. Approximately 70% of the nurses were categorized as overweight and obese and had a WHtR above 0.52. Conclusions: The study indicated that most female nurses in government hospitals in Delhi had appropriate dietary practices and nutrient intakes but still had high BMI and WHtR, which increased their vulnerability to health problems.

  4. Growing stock and woody biomass assessment in Asola-Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary, Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, S P S; Nandy, S; Gupta, Mohini

    2014-09-01

    Biomass is an important entity to understand the capacity of an ecosystem to sequester and accumulate carbon over time. The present study, done in collaboration with the Delhi Forest Department, focused on the estimation of growing stock and the woody biomass in the so-called lungs of Delhi--the Asola-Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary in northern Aravalli hills. The satellite-derived vegetation strata were field-inventoried using stratified random sampling procedure. Growing stock was calculated for the individual sample plots using field data and species-specific volume equations. Biomass was estimated from the growing stock and the specific gravity of the wood. Among the four vegetation types, viz. Prosopis juliflora, Anogeissus pendula, forest plantation and the scrub, the P. juliflora was found to be the dominant vegetation in the area, covering 23.43 km(2) of the total area. The study revealed that P. juliflora forest with moderate density had the highest (10.7 m(3)/ha) while A. pendula forest with moderate density had the lowest (3.6 m(3)/ha) mean volume. The mean woody biomass was also found to be maximum in P. juliflora forest with moderate density (10.3 t/ha) and lowest in A. pendula forest with moderate density (3.48 t/ha). The total growing stock was estimated to be 20,772.95 m(3) while total biomass worked out to be 19,366.83 t. A strong correlation was noticed between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the growing stock (R(2) = 0.84)/biomass (R(2) = 0.88). The study demonstrated that growing stock and the biomass of the woody vegetation in Asola-Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary could be estimated with high accuracy using optical remote sensing data.

  5. Role of meteorology in seasonality of air pollution in megacity Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K; Gurjar, Bhola R

    2012-05-01

    The winters in megacity Delhi are harsh, smoggy, foggy, and highly polluted. The pollution levels are approximately two to three times those monitored in the summer months, and the severity is felt not only in the health department but also in the transportation department, with regular delays at airport operations and series of minor and major accidents across the road corridors. The impacts felt across the city are both manmade (due to the fuel burning) and natural (due to the meteorological setting), and it is hard to distinguish their respective proportions. Over the last decade, the city has gained from timely interventions to control pollution, and yet, the pollution levels are as bad as the previous year, especially for the fine particulates, the most harmful of the criteria pollutants, with a daily 2009 average of 80 to 100 μg/m(3). In this paper, the role of meteorology is studied using a Lagrangian model called Atmospheric Transport Modeling System in tracer mode to better understand the seasonality of pollution in Delhi. A clear conclusion is that irrespective of constant emissions over each month, the estimated tracer concentrations are invariably 40% to 80% higher in the winter months (November, December, and January) and 10% to 60% lower in the summer months (May, June, and July), when compared to annual average for that year. Along with monitoring and source apportionment studies, this paper presents a way to communicate complex physical characteristics of atmospheric modeling in simplistic manner and to further elaborate linkages between local meteorology and pollution.

  6. Association between full service and fast food restaurant density, dietary intake and overweight/obesity among adults in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opal Patel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The food environment has been implicated as an underlying contributor to the global obesity epidemic. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between the food environment, dietary intake, and overweight/obesity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The aim of this study was to assess the association of full service and fast food restaurant density with dietary intake and overweight/obesity in Delhi, India. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in Delhi. Using multilevel cluster random sampling, 5364 participants were selected from 134 census enumeration blocks (CEBs. Geographic information system data were available for 131 CEBs (n = 5264 from a field survey conducted using hand-held global positioning system devices. The number of full service and fast food restaurants within a 1-km buffer of CEBs was recorded by trained staff using ArcGIS software, and participants were assigned to tertiles of full service and fast food restaurant density based on their resident CEB. Height and weight were measured using standardized procedures and overweight/obesity was defined as a BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Results The most common full service and fast food restaurants were Indian savory restaurants (57.2% and Indian sweet shops (25.8%. Only 14.1% of full service and fast food restaurants were Western style. After adjustment for age, household income, education, and tobacco and alcohol use, participants in the highest tertile of full service and fast food restaurant density were less likely to consume fruit and more likely to consume refined grains compared to participants in the lowest tertile (both p < 0.05. In unadjusted logistic regression models, participants in the highest versus lowest tertile of full service and fast food restaurant density were significantly more likely to be overweight/obese: odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 1.44 (1.24, 1.67. After adjustment for age

  7. Determination of wood burning and fossil fuel contribution of black carbon at Delhi, India using aerosol light absorption technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S; Pipal, A S; Srivastava, A K; Bisht, D S; Pandithurai, G

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive measurement program of effective black carbon (eBC), fine particle (PM2.5), and carbon monoxide (CO) was undertaken during 1 December 2011 to 31 March 2012 (winter period) in Delhi, India. The mean mass concentrations of eBC, PM2.5, and CO were recorded as 12.1 ± 8.7 μg/m(3), 182.75 ± 114.5 μg/m(3), and 3.41 ± 1.6 ppm, respectively, during the study period. Also, the absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE) was estimated from eBC and varied from 0.38 to 1.29 with a mean value of 1.09 ± 0.11. The frequency of occurrence of AAE was ~17 % less than unity whereas ~83 % greater than unity was observed during the winter period in Delhi. The mass concentrations of eBC were found to be higher by ~34 % of the average value of eBC (12.1 μg/m(3)) during the study period. Sources of eBC were estimated, and they were ~94 % from fossil fuel (eBCff) combustion whereas only 6 % was from wood burning (eBCwb). The ratio between eBCff and eBCwb was 15, which indicates a higher impact from fossil fuels compared to biomass burning. When comparing eBCff during day and night, a factor of three higher concentrations was observed in nighttime than daytime, and it is due to combustion of fossil fuel (diesel vehicle emission) and shallow boundary layer conditions. The contribution of eBCwb in eBC was higher between 1800 and 2100 hours due to burning of wood/biomass. A significant correlation between eBC and PM2.5 (r = 0.78) and eBC and CO (r = 0.46) indicates the similarity in location sources. The mass concentration of eBC was highest (23.4 μg/m(3)) during the month of December when the mean visibility (VIS) was lowest (1.31 km). Regression analysis among wind speed (WS), VIS, soot particles, and CO was studied, and significant negative relationships were seen between VIS and eBC (-0.65), eBCff (-0.66), eBCwb (-0.34), and CO (-0.65); however, between WS and eBC (-0.68), eBCff (-0.67), eBCwb (-0.28), and CO (-0.53). The regression analysis indicated

  8. Fatal carbon monoxide poisoning: A lesson from a retrospective study at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Kumar Sikary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon monoxide (CO is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nonirritating gas which makes it difficult for those who are exposed, to detect it, leading to unexpected death. This study was undertaken to see the pattern of fatal CO poisoning and to discuss preventive aspect. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective descriptive study of fatal CO cases which were autopsied at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, from the year 2010 to the year 2015. The cases were analyzed as per age groups, circumstances of death, season of death, and sources of CO formation. Results and Discussion: The study involved 40 cases of fatal CO poisoning. About 80% of cases were reported in winter months. The maximum cases were reported in the month of January followed by November and December. All the cases except one, died with a source of CO nearby and the person was inside a room or some closed space without ventilation. Source of CO was firepot and electric room heater in most of the cases. Some cases were of CO build inside the car with a running engine. Most of the cases occurred accidentally. Conclusion: Clustering of cases is seen in winters. Poisoning can occur in different ways. The study documents the various possibilities of CO poisoning and advocates community education targeting the high-risk groups and masses, especially during the winter season.

  9. Public-Private roundtables at the fourth Clean Energy Ministerial, 17-18 April 2013, New Delhi, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, Tracey [Energetics, Incorporated, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-06-30

    The Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) is a high-level global forum to share best practices and promote policies and programs that advance clean energy technologies and accelerate the transition to a global clean energy economy. The CEM works to increase energy efficiency, expand clean energy supply, and enhance clean energy access worldwide. To achieve these goals, the CEM pursues a three-part strategy that includes high-level policy dialogue, technical cooperation, and engagement with the private sector and other stakeholders. Each year, energy ministers and other high-level delegates from the 23 participating CEM governments come together to discuss clean energy, review clean energy progress, and identify tangible next steps to accelerate the clean energy transition. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a crucial role in launching the CEM, hosted the first annual meeting of energy ministers in Washington, DC, in June 2010. The United Arab Emirates hosted the second Clean Energy Ministerial in 2011, and the United Kingdom hosted the third Clean Energy Ministerial in 2012. In April 2013, India hosted the fourth Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM4) in New Delhi. Key insights from CEM4 are summarized in the report. It captures the ideas and recommendations of the government and private sector leaders who participated in the discussions on six discussion topics: reducing soft costs of solar PV; energy management systems; renewables policy and finance; clean vehicle adoption; mini-grid development; and power systems in emerging economies.

  10. FOOD ACQUISITION AND INTRA-HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: A STUDY OF LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN DELHI, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Mr; Taylor, Fc; Agrawal, S; Prabhakaran, D; Ebrahim, S

    2013-12-01

    Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure), milk and milk products (16%), and cereal and related products (15%). Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Women's key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs.

  11. Perceptions of nonsurgical permanent contraception among potential users, providers, and influencers in Wardha district and New Delhi, India: Exploratory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengst, Jennifer C; Harrington, Elizabeth K; Bahulekar, Pramod; Shivkumar, Poonam; Jensen, Jeffrey T; Garg, B S

    2017-01-01

    New permanent contraceptive methods are in development, including nonsurgical permanent contraception (NSPC). In the present study, perceptions of NSPC in India among married women, married men, mothers-in-law, providers, and health advocates in Eastern Maharashtra (Wardha district) and New Delhi were examined. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 married women and 20 mothers-in-law; surveys with 150 married men; and focus group discussions with obstetrics/gynecology providers and advocates. Transcripts were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach, where emerging themes are analyzed during the data collection period. The majority of female respondents expressed support of permanent contraception and interest in NSPC, stating the importance of avoiding surgery and minimizing recovery time. They expressed concerns about safety and efficacy; many felt that a confirmation test would be necessary regardless of the failure rate. Most male respondents were supportive of female permanent contraception (PC) and preferred NSPC to a surgical method, as long as it was safe and effective. Providers were interested in NSPC yet had specific concerns about safety, efficacy, cost, uptake, and government pressure. They also had concerns that a nonsurgical approach could undermine the inherent seriousness of choosing PC. Advocates were interested in NSPC but had concerns about safety and potential misuse in the Indian context. Although perceptions of NSPC were varied, all study populations indicated interest in NSPC. Concerns about safety, efficacy, appropriate patient counseling, and ethics emerged from the present study and should be considered as NSPC methods continue to be developed.

  12. Seeding Social Innovation in Private Schools: A Case Study of St. Mary’s School, Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niket Sagar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Education has an important role in creating new learning opportunities and driving social progress. As social institutions, schools form a fundamental block to understand about life and society. While schools have done a good job in preparing students for life and society, newer challenges facing humanity have now emerged. How can schools meaningfully engage students on various pressing social issues and empower their students to take action on issues like environmental crisis, social injustice and developmental challenges? Current school curriculum does not provide adequate opportunities where students can experiment and explore these issues and look for solutions. Problem identifications and their solutions can be explored by creating an interface between community and school. This would create an open space for creativity and innovation amongst students to explore, develop and understand social issues. Such practices would further fuel the students to think and act to address social and environmental challenges. Such approach will pave the way for students to implement and share innovative solutions rather than simply limiting their knowledge to the classroom. This paper is an attempt to highlight the initiatives taken by St. Mary’s School (Delhi, India under its social footprint projects and social innovation in the context of community engagement and emerging environmental issues.

  13. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus on chayote (Sechium edule) in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, K; Mohankumar, S; Mohammed Faisal, P; Bagewadi, B; Karthikeyan, G

    2017-12-01

    During 2012-2014, mosaic disease on chayote in the farmers field of Kodaikanal region (high altitude zone) of Tamil Nadu was observed. The disease was characterized with severe mosaic, cupping and enation on leaves with reduced fruit size. Disease was found to causes an yield loss of more than 60% with the maximum disease incidence of 100% for the past 5 years consecutively. Preliminary serological and molecular screening indicated the association of begomovirus with the disease. Complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of DNA A revealed the identity of the virus as tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). In recombination analysis study, the major parent was identified as ToLCNDV from Pakistan infecting tomato. Thus the present finding confirms expansion of new geographical region and host for ToLCNDV causing mosaic disease on chayote from Tamil Nadu. To our knowledge this is the first confirmed report for the occurrence of ToLCNDV on chayote in southern India.

  14. Using heronry birds to monitor urbanization impacts: a case study of painted stork Mycteria leucocephala nesting in the Delhi Zoo, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfi, Abdul Jamil

    2010-03-01

    Although urbanization is a frequently cited cause of biodiversity loss (Czech and Krausman 1997) our understanding about urban ecology is severely limited (Marzluff et al. 2001). Birds are popular bio-indicators of environmental change because they are ecologically versatile, their populations as well as select fitness parameters can be conveniently monitored, often with the voluntary involvement of local nature enthusiasts across large geographical scales, and their presence/absence in a particular area is consequential (Bibby et al. 1992; Urfi 2004). In India, while several studies have focused on changes in bird populations and distributions in natural habitats (Urfi et al. 2005), very few have actually attempted to study either the impacts of urbanization on birds or how different species have adjusted to environmental change. However, many Indian cities offer foraging and nesting habitat for birds, especially colonial waterbirds such as stork, ibis, spoonbill, heron, egret, cormorant, and spoonbill. Some notable examples in this regard are Piele Gardens in Bhavnagar city (Parasharya and Naik 1990), Karanji Tank in Mysore (Jamgaonkar et al. 1994) and the National Zoological Park (hence forth Delhi Zoo) in India's capital city New Delhi (Urfi 1997). In this article, I focus on the opportunities for meaningful ecological research offered by the wild waterbirds nesting in the Delhi Zoo premises and discuss the significance for initiating novel, long term conservation monitoring programs, involving volunteers and bird watchers, to create data bases that will be useful for understanding urbanization and climate change impacts on biodiversity.

  15. Evaluation of heavy metal contamination using environmetrics and indexing approach for River Yamuna, Delhi stretch, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Bhardwaj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to investigate the current status of heavy metal pollution in River Yamuna, Delhi stretch. The concentrations of Nickel, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Lead, and Zinc in water samples have been studied during December 2013–August 2015. The overall mean concentration of heavy metals was observed in the following order Fe > Cu > Zn > Ni > Cr > Pb > Cd. Correlation analysis formed two distinct groups of heavy metals highlighting similar sources. This was further corroborated by results from principal components analysis that showed similar grouping of heavy metals (Ni, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd into PC1 having one common source for these heavy metals and PC2 (Cu, Cr having another common source. Further, our study pointed out two sites i.e. Najafgarh drain and Shahdara drain outlet in river Yamuna as the two potential sources responsible for the heavy metal contamination. Based on heavy metal pollution index value (1491.15, we concluded that our study area as a whole is critically polluted with heavy metals under study due to pollutant load from various anthropogenic activities.

  16. Evaluation of pharmacists' services for dispensing emergency contraceptive pills in Delhi, India: A mystery shopper study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI, has not been well documented. Objective: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. Results: None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57% or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%; 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. Conclusion: There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter.

  17. Effect of Diwali Firecrackers on Air Quality and Aerosol Optical Properties over Mega City (Delhi) in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sateesh, M.; Soni, V. K.; Raju, P. V. S.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, the variations of aerosol properties due to crackers burning during Diwali event (11th-18th 2012) over mega city Delhi were investigated. The sky radiometer POM-2 aerosol optical property data from Skynet-India along with ambient air pollution data were critically analyzed. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm was 1.60 on 13th November, the Diwali day, and its value a maximum of 1.84 on 16th November. Due to stable atmosphere over Delhi during post Diwali, aerosols accumulate and remain in the atmosphere for longer time, which leads to higher AOD on 16th November. A lower value of single-scattering albedo (SSA) was observed at a longer wavelength (1020 nm) during the entire period that clearly indicates the dominance of absorbing-type black carbon aerosol. SSA showed a steep decrease after 16th November. Asymmetry parameter decreased to a maximum of 0.79 for the shorter wavelength at 340 nm and 0.632 is reported at the higher wavelength 1020 nm. Asymmetry parameter showed a decrease in value just after Diwali on 14th November, this suggesting the dominance of fine-mode aerosol from anthropogenic activities. The lowest value of the refractive index (1.4527) on 14th and 15th November indicates the higher loading of absorbing-type aerosol which may be associated with firecracker burning of Diwali festival. The significant correlation with the value of r = 0.9 was observed between sky radiometer and MODIS AOD with a standard deviation of 0.31 and an RMSE of 0.17 during the event. Radiative forcing and heating rate were estimated using SBDART. The maximum average concentrations 2641 and 1876 μg/m3 of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively, were observed on the Diwali night. A highest of 109 ppb surface ozone was reported in the night at 23:00 IST, which can be attributed to burning of the firecrackers.

  18. Quantifying enhancement in aerosol radiative forcing during 'extreme aerosol days' in summer at Delhi National Capital Region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumant; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Arun

    2016-04-15

    Changes in aerosol characteristics (spectral aerosol optical depth, AOD and composition) are examined during the transition from 'relatively clean' to 'extreme' aerosol days in the summer of 2012 at Delhi National Capital Region (NCR), India. AOD smaller than 0.54 (i.e. 12-year mean AOD-1σ) represents 'relatively clean' days in Delhi during the summer. 'Extreme' days are defined by the condition when AOD0.5 exceeds 12-year mean AOD+1 standard deviation (σ). Mean (±1σ) AOD increases to 1.2±0.12 along with a decrease of Angstrom Exponent from 0.54±0.09 to 0.22±0.12 during the 'extreme' days. Aerosol composition is inferred by fixing the number concentrations of various individual species through iterative tweaking when simulated (following Mie theory) AOD spectrum matches with the measured one. Contribution of coarse mode dust to aerosol mass increased from 76.8% (relatively clean) to 96.8% (extreme events), while the corresponding contributions to AOD0.5 increased from 35.0% to 70.8%. Spectrally increasing single scattering albedo (SSA) and CALIPSO aerosol sub-type information support the dominant presence of dust during the 'extreme' aerosol days. Aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) at the top-of-the-atmosphere increases from 21.2Wm(-2) (relatively clean) to 56.6Wm(-2) (extreme), while the corresponding change in surface ADRF is from -99.5Wm(-2) to -153.5Wm(-2). Coarse mode dust contributes 60.3% of the observed surface ADRF during the 'extreme' days. On the contrary, 0.4% mass fraction of black carbon (BC) translates into 13.1% contribution to AOD0.5 and 33.5% to surface ADRF during the 'extreme' days. The atmospheric heating rate increased by 75.1% from 1.7K/day to 2.96K/day during the 'extreme' days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Male-to-male sex among men who inject drugs in Delhi, India: overlapping HIV risk behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Jorm, Anthony F; Samson, Luke; Joubert, Lynette; Singh, Shalini; Kermode, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health challenge in India. This paper examines PWID in Delhi who also have male-to-male sex with a focus on overlapping HIV risk behaviours and the psychosocial correlates of a history of male-to-male anal sex. We analysed data collected in April-May of 2012 from a community-based sample of 420 male PWID in Delhi obtained using time location sampling. One third (37%) of the men reported a history of anal sex with men, among whom just 16% used a condom at last anal sex. Almost all (93%) participants who had a history of anal sex with men also had sex with women. Chi-square tests revealed that a history of anal sex with men was associated with a higher number of female sexual partners and sharing of needles and syringes. Additionally, unprotected sex at last sex with a male partner was significantly associated with unprotected sex at last sex with regular and paid female partners. Multivariate binary logistic regression revealed that the psychosocial correlates of a history of anal sex with other men were: being aged 18-24 (OR = 2.4, p = 0.014), illiteracy (OR = 1.9, p = 0.033), having never been married (OR = 2.6, p = 0.007), a main source of income of crime/begging (OR = 3.1, p = 0.019), a duration of injecting drug use greater than 20 years (OR = 3.4, p = 0.035) and suicidal ideation (OR = 1.7, p = 0.048). Male-to-male sex was associated with psychosocial vulnerability, including a longer history of injecting drug use, suicidal ideation and socio-economic disadvantage. Given the extent of overlapping HIV risk behaviours, HIV programs for PWID would benefit from a strong focus on prevention of sexual HIV transmission, especially among male injectors who also have sex with other men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 78 FR 42505 - U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India, January 27...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ..., student interactions and networking opportunities in New Delhi, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad, three of the top cities for recruiting Indian students to the United States. These cities have been top of the list of the... three cities of New Delhi, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad; (2) To provide an opportunity for participants to...

  1. FTA mission to India : Delhi, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, September 20 - 30, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes the activities associated with the FTA Mission to India conducted in September 2007. The mission provided the U.S. delegation with the opportunity to meet with senior Indian transportation officials, and to gain first-hand know...

  2. 75 FR 58361 - U.S. Franchise Trade Mission to India Mumbai, Hyderabad, and New Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Hut fast-food chains, plans to add 40-60 restaurants in the next 12-18 months. Dominos Pizza India has... to meet certain conditions and best satisfy the selection criteria as outlined below. This mission is...-one percent U.S. content. Selection Criteria for Participation Suitability of the company's products...

  3. FTA mission to India : Delhi, Visakhapatnam, Hyderabad, Mumbai September 20-30, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    This report summarizes the activities that occurred as part of the FTA Mission to India conducted in September 2008. The mission provided the opportunity to members of the U.S. delegation to meet with senior Indian transportation officials, and to le...

  4. The Challenges of Spanish Language Teaching in Multilingual India: A Case Study of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Dhiraj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The multilingual surrounding of Spanish Language Teaching (SLT) in India has presented a unique linguistic principle. This principle relies upon the application of English language instructions (as FL1) to combine several methods for teaching-learning Spanish language (as FL2). However, the effectiveness and appropriateness of this linguistic…

  5. Reproductive Ethics in Commercial Surrogacy: Decision-Making in IVF Clinics in New Delhi, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi

    2015-01-01

    As a neo-liberal economy, India has become one of the new health tourism destinations, with Commercial gestational surrogacy as an expanding market. Yet the Indian Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Bill has been pending for five years, and the guidelines issued by the Indian Council of Medic...

  6. Epidemiological study of ocular trauma in an urban slum population in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, S; Chandra, M; Gupta, S K; Vashist, P; Gogoi, M

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To study the epidemiology and clinical profile of victims of ocular trauma in an urban slum population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted on 500 families each in three randomly selected urban slums in Delhi, collected demographic data for all members of these families, and clinical data for all those who suffered ocular trauma at any time, that required medical attention. Data was managed on SPSS 11.0. Results: Of 6704 participants interviewed, 163 episodes of ocular trauma were reported by 158 participants (prevalence = 2.4%, confidence interval = 2.0 to 2.7) Mean age at trauma was 24.2 years. The association between the age of participants and the history of ocular trauma was significant (P < 0.001), when adjusted for sex, education and occupation. Males were significantly more affected. Blunt trauma was the commonest mode of injury (41.7%). Blindness resulted in 11.4% of injured eyes ( P = 0.028). Of 6704 participants, 1567 (23.4%) were illiterate, and no association was seen between education status and trauma, when adjusted for sex and age at injury. A significant association was noted between ocular trauma and workplace (Chi-square = 43.80, P < 0.001), and between blindness and place (Chi-square = 9.98, P = 0.041) and source (Chi-square = 10.88, P = 0.028) of ocular trauma. No association was found between visual outcome and the time interval between trauma and first consultation (Chi-square = 0.50, P = 0.78), between receiving treatment and the best corrected visual acuity (Chi-square = 0.81, P = 0.81), and between the person consulted and blinding ocular trauma (Chi-square = 1.88, P = 0.170). Conclusion: A significant burden of ocular trauma in the community requires that its prevention and early management be a public health priority. PMID:18579991

  7. Epidemiological study of ocular trauma in an urban slum population in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vats S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the epidemiology and clinical profile of victims of ocular trauma in an urban slum population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted on 500 families each in three randomly selected urban slums in Delhi, collected demographic data for all members of these families, and clinical data for all those who suffered ocular trauma at any time, that required medical attention. Data was managed on SPSS 11.0. Results: Of 6704 participants interviewed, 163 episodes of ocular trauma were reported by 158 participants (prevalence = 2.4%, confidence interval = 2.0 to 2.7 Mean age at trauma was 24.2 years. The association between the age of participants and the history of ocular trauma was significant ( P < 0.001, when adjusted for sex, education and occupation. Males were significantly more affected. Blunt trauma was the commonest mode of injury (41.7%. Blindness resulted in 11.4% of injured eyes ( P = 0.028. Of 6704 participants, 1567 (23.4% were illiterate, and no association was seen between education status and trauma, when adjusted for sex and age at injury. A significant association was noted between ocular trauma and workplace (Chi-square = 43.80, P < 0.001, and between blindness and place (Chi-square = 9.98, P = 0.041 and source (Chi-square = 10.88, P = 0.028 of ocular trauma. No association was found between visual outcome and the time interval between trauma and first consultation (Chi-square = 0.50, P = 0.78, between receiving treatment and the best corrected visual acuity (Chi-square = 0.81, P = 0.81, and between the person consulted and blinding ocular trauma (Chi-square = 1.88, P = 0.170. Conclusion: A significant burden of ocular trauma in the community requires that its prevention and early management be a public health priority.

  8. Uterine rupture: A seven year review at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the obstetric risk factors, incidence, and causes of uterine rupture, management modalities, and the associated maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in one of the largest tertiary level women care hospital in Delhi. Materials and Methods: A 7-year retrospective analysis of 47 cases of uterine rupture was done. The charts of these patients were analyzed and the data regarding demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, risk factors, management, operative findings, maternal and fetal outcomes, and postoperative complications was studied. Results: The incidence of rupture was one in 1,633 deliveries (0.061%. The vast majority of patients had prior low transverse cesarean section (84.8%. The clinical presentation of the patients with rupture of the unscarred uterus was more dramatic with extensive tears compared to rupture with scarred uterus. The estimated blood loss ranged from 1,200 to 1,500 cc. Hemoperitoneum was identified in 95.7% of the patient and 83% of the patient underwent repair of rent with or without simultaneous tubal ligation. Subtotal hysterectomy was performed in five cases. There were no maternal deaths in our series. However, there were 32 cases of intrauterine fetal demise and five cases of stillbirths. Conclusions: Uterine rupture is a major contributor to maternal morbidity and neonatal mortality. Four major easily identifiable risk factors including history of prior cesarean section, grand multiparity, obstructed labor, and fetal malpresentations constitute 90% of cases of uterine rupture. Identification of these high risk women, prompt diagnosis, immediate transfer, and optimal management needs to be overemphasized to avoid adverse fetomaternal complications.

  9. Antenatal care and morbidity profile of pregnant women in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, N; Prasuna, J G; Vibha, M D

    2011-06-01

    The burden of antenatal morbidities and health care services utilization during antenatal period serve an important role in defining service needs and to assess reproductive health status of women. To evaluate the burden of antenatal morbidities in women and to assess the health care utilization by study subjects during antenatal period. A community based follow up study was carried out in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi. All pregnant women in the study area were enrolled and followed for two more visits to collect information about morbidities suffered and health care services utilized during pregnancy. Appropriate tests of significance were applied. Of 358 women enrolled, three hundred could be followed for two more visits. Majority of women (80.3%) suffered one or more morbidities during their current pregnancy but overall care sought for illness during pregnancy was poor. Visits for routine preventive check up was made by most of women (95% and above) but recommended three antenatal visits was significantly low among women of age more than thirty (OR=16.6; 2.2-125.9), of lower middle socio economic status (OR=2.84; 1.16-6.93) and parity three or more (OR=4.37; 1.07-17.83). Women with education status of high school and above had significantly lower odd ratio (OR=0.33; 0.11-0.99) for having less than three antenatal visits. Care sought for antenatal morbidities is still poor among women of urban resettlement colonies and age, parity and education of women has a significant bearing on antenatal visits.

  10. PM2.5 exposure in highly polluted cities: A case study from New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Pallavi; Habib, Gazala; Marshall, Julian D; Peltier, Richard E

    2017-07-01

    Personal exposure (PE) to air pollutants is driven by a combination of pollutant concentrations in indoor and outdoor environments, and time-activity pattern of individuals. The objectives of this study were to estimate personal exposure to PM 2.5 and black carbon (BC), and assess the representability of ambient air quality monitoring stations to serve as surrogates for PE in New Delhi. Personal exposure to air pollutants (PM 2.5-PE and BC PE ) was measured using portable, battery-operated instruments (PM 2.5 - pDR1500 and BC- microAethalometer AE51) in a small cohort of healthy adults (n=12 in summer, n=6 in winter) with no occupational exposure. Average PM 2.5-PE and BC PE (µg/m 3 ) were 53.9±136 and 3.71±4.29 respectively, in summer and 489.2±209.2 and 23.3±14.9 respectively, in winter. Activities associated with highest exposure levels were cooking and indoor cleaning for PM 2.5 , and commuting for BC. Within transport microenvironments, autorickshaws were found to be the most polluted, and lowest BC exposure was registered in public buses. Comparison of fixed-site ambient monitoring data showed a higher correlation with personal exposure dataset in winter compared to summer (r 2 of 0.51 (winter) and 0.21 (summer); 51% (winter) and 20% (summer)). This study highlights the need for detailed assessment of PE to air pollutants in Indian cities, and calls for a denser network of monitoring stations for better exposure assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantifying enhancement in aerosol radiative forcing during ‘extreme aerosol days’ in summer at Delhi National Capital Region, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sumant [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Dey, Sagnik [Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, IIT Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Srivastava, Arun [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Changes in aerosol characteristics (spectral aerosol optical depth, AOD and composition) are examined during the transition from ‘relatively clean’ to ‘extreme’ aerosol days in the summer of 2012 at Delhi National Capital Region (NCR), India. AOD smaller than 0.54 (i.e. 12-year mean AOD − 1σ) represents ‘relatively clean’ days in Delhi during the summer. ‘Extreme’ days are defined by the condition when AOD{sub 0.5} exceeds 12-year mean AOD + 1 standard deviation (σ). Mean (± 1σ) AOD increases to 1.2 ± 0.12 along with a decrease of Angstrom Exponent from 0.54 ± 0.09 to 0.22 ± 0.12 during the ‘extreme’ days. Aerosol composition is inferred by fixing the number concentrations of various individual species through iterative tweaking when simulated (following Mie theory) AOD spectrum matches with the measured one. Contribution of coarse mode dust to aerosol mass increased from 76.8% (relatively clean) to 96.8% (extreme events), while the corresponding contributions to AOD{sub 0.5} increased from 35.0% to 70.8%. Spectrally increasing single scattering albedo (SSA) and CALIPSO aerosol sub-type information support the dominant presence of dust during the ‘extreme’ aerosol days. Aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) at the top-of-the-atmosphere increases from 21.2 W m{sup −2} (relatively clean) to 56.6 W m{sup −2} (extreme), while the corresponding change in surface ADRF is from − 99.5 W m{sup −2} to − 153.5 W m{sup −2}. Coarse mode dust contributes 60.3% of the observed surface ADRF during the ‘extreme’ days. On the contrary, 0.4% mass fraction of black carbon (BC) translates into 13.1% contribution to AOD{sub 0.5} and 33.5% to surface ADRF during the ‘extreme’ days. The atmospheric heating rate increased by 75.1% from 1.7 K/day to 2.96 K/day during the ‘extreme’ days. - Graphical abstract: Deviation (in %) of aerosol properties from ‘relatively clean’ days to ‘extreme’ aerosol days. - Highlights:

  12. Persistence of lindane in model cattle dips in sub-tropical climate of Delhi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Menon, P.; Agarwal, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Persistence of lindane in model cattle dips under field conditions in the sub-tropical climate of Delhi was studied. In one set of experiments two model dips were utilized and filled with 200 L of water and treated with 2.37 MBq of 14 C-labelled and 4 g unlabelled lindane each. The radioactivity in water samples at zero time was estimated and considered to be 100 % (744 dpm/mL) which declined to 17.5 % (132 dpm/mL) 180 d after the treatment in Dip 1 (control dip). In the second dip 50 g of cowdung and soil were added 28 d after treatment and subsequently every time before sampling. The results in both the dips were similar indicating no effect of soil and cowdung on the persistence of lindane in the dips. The half life of lindane in water was 101 days. Lindane was extracted from water by hexane in the presence of methanol. The efficiency of this procedure was 99+ %. The main metabolises of lindane in water, identified by HPLC, were 1, 2, 4- trichlorobenzene, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and an unknown compound. In another experiment, 50 L of water was added to one dip which was treated with 2.90 MBq of 14 C-labelled and 1 g unlabelled lindane in 25 ml acetone. The cattle dip was recharged at monthly intervals with about 10 % of the initially applied lindane (290 kBq of 14 C labelled and 100 mg unlabelled lindane in 25 mL acetone). Soil and cow dung were added as in the first experiment. The concentration of lindane declined rapidly to 11.69 % (1.9 μg/mL, 425 dpm/mL) after the third recharge. The main metabolite was 1,2,4- trichlorobenzene which accounted for about 21 % after first and second recharge. The effect of pH ranging from 5 to 9 was also investigated. The dissipation appeared to be faster at pH 8 and comparatively slower at pH 6. (author)

  13. Resurrecting social infrastructure as a determinant of urban tuberculosis control in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Shivani; Sharma, Nandini; Joshi, Kulanand; Aggarwal, Nishi; Kannan, Anjur Tupil

    2014-01-17

    The key to universal coverage in tuberculosis (TB) management lies in community participation and empowerment of the population. Social infrastructure development generates social capital and addresses the crucial social determinants of TB, thereby improving program performance. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the concept of social infrastructure development for TB control in developing countries. This study aims to revive this concept and highlight the fact that documentation on ways to operationalize urban TB control is required from a holistic development perspective. Further, it explains how development of social infrastructure impacts health and development outcomes, especially with respect to TB in urban settings. A wide range of published Government records pertaining to social development parameters and TB program surveillance, between 2001 and 2011 in Delhi, were studied. Social infrastructure development parameters like human development index along with other indicators reflecting patient profile and habitation in urban settings were selected as social determinants of TB. These include adult literacy rates, per capita income, net migration rates, percentage growth in slum population, and percentage of urban population living in one-room dwelling units. The impact of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program on TB incidence was assessed as an annual decline in new TB cases notified under the program. Univariate linear regression was employed to examine the interrelationship between social development parameters and TB program outcomes. The decade saw a significant growth in most of the social development parameters in the State. TB program performance showed 46% increment in lives saved among all types of TB cases per 100,000 population. The 7% reduction in new TB case notifications from the year 2001 to 2011, translates to a logarithmic decline of 5.4 new TB cases per 100,000 population. Except per capita income, literacy, and net

  14. Informed consent in medical decision-making in commercial gestational surrogacy: a mixed methods study in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun

    2015-05-01

    To investigate ethical issues in informed consent for decisions regarding embryo transfer and fetal reduction in commercial gestational surrogacy. Mixed methods study employing observations, an interview-guide and semi-structured interviews. Fertility clinics and agencies in Delhi, India, between December 2011 and December 2012. Doctors providing conceptive technologies to commissioning couples and carrying out surrogacy procedures; surrogate mothers; agents functioning as links for surrogacy. Interviews using semi-structured interview guides were carried out among 20 doctors in 18 fertility clinics, five agents from four agencies and 14 surrogate mothers. Surrogate mothers were interviewed both individually and in the presence of doctors and agents. Data on socio-economic context and experiences among and between various actors in the surrogacy process were coded to identify categories of ethical concern. Numerical and grounded theory-oriented analyses were used. Informed consent, number of embryos transferred, fetal reduction, conflict of interest among the involved parties. None of the 14 surrogate mothers were able to explain the risks involved in embryo transfer and fetal reduction. The majority of the doctors took unilateral decisions about embryo transfer and fetal reduction. The commissioning parents were usually only indirectly involved. In the qualitative analysis, difficulties in explaining procedures, autonomy, self-payment of fertility treatment and conflicts of interest were the main themes. Clinical procedural decisions were primarily made by the doctors. Surrogate mothers were not adequately informed. There is a need for regulation on decision-making procedures to safeguard the interests of surrogate mothers. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Antibody screening & identification in the general patient population at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Hegde, Vikas; Chowdhry, Mohit; Thakur, Uday Kumar; Rosamma, N L

    2014-09-01

    The development of alloantibodies can significantly complicate transfusion therapy and results in difficulties in cross-matching of blood. Most literature on alloimmunization is limited to multitransfused individuals, with very few studies on the general hospital patients. This study was aimed at assessing the frequency and type of unexpected red cell antibodies in the general patient population at a multispecialty tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India. The results of 49,077 antibody screening tests carried out on patients, from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. The clinical and transfusion records were reviewed. The data were compiled and statistically analysed. A total of 49,077 (29,917; 60.96% males and 19,160; 39.04% females) patient samples were screened for the presence of unexpected antibodies. Antibody screening was positive in 403 patients (0.82%). In the serum samples of 164 patients only autoantibodies were identified, 27 revealed autoantibodies with one or more underlying alloantibodies, while 212 patients had only alloantibody/ies in their serum. The overall alloimmunization rate was 0.49 per cent. Antibodies against the Rh system were the most frequent (64.1%), the most common alloantibody identified being anti E (37.2%), followed by anti D (19.2%). Since clinically significant antibodies are frequently detected in our patient population, antibody screening and if required, identification is the need of the hour. Since antibodies against the common Rh and Kell blood group antigens are the most frequent, provision of Rh and Kell matched red cells may be of protective value.

  16. High terbinafine resistance in Trichophyton interdigitale isolates in Delhi, India harbouring mutations in the squalene epoxidase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh; Masih, Aradhana; Khurana, Ananta; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Gupta, Meenakshi; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2018-03-25

    In the last few years, infections caused by dermatophytes along with a concomitant increase in the number of difficult to treat cases have increasingly been recognised, indicating that dermatophytosis remains a challenging public health problem. The majority of infections are caused by Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex. Terbinafine, an allylamine antifungal used orally and topically is considered to be a first-line drug in the therapy of dermatophyte infections. Terbinafine resistance has been predominately attributed to point mutations in the squalene epoxidase (SQLE) target gene a key enzyme in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway leading to single amino acid substitutions. Here, we report the largest series of 20 terbinafine-resistant Trichophyton interdigitale isolates obtained predominately from cases of tinea corporis/cruris in three hospitals in Delhi, India exhibiting elevated MICs (4 to ≥32 μg/mL) to terbinafine and all harbouring single-point mutations Leu393Phe or Phe397Leu in the SQLE gene. In 12 (60%) T. interdigitale isolates, the Phe397Leu substitution was observed, whereas in the remaining 8 (40%) isolates the substitution Leu393Phe was reported for the first time in T. interdigitale. Furthermore, 10 susceptible T. interdigitale isolates (0.125-2 μg/mL) had a wild-type genotype. Remarkably, considerably high terbinafine resistance rate of 32% was observed among 63 T. interdigitale isolates identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. This high level of terbinafine resistance of Indian dermatophyte isolates is worrisome warranting antifungal susceptibility testing and mutation analysis for monitoring this emerging resistance. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Sleep Pattern of Adolescents in a School in Delhi, India: Impact on their Mood and Academic Performance.

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    Singh, Ruchi; Suri, Jagdish C; Sharma, Renuka; Suri, Tejas; Adhikari, Tulsi

    2018-03-16

    To examine the sleep pattern and observe differences in sleep routines, phase preferences, mood, attendance, and academic performance among different adolescent age students. Secondly, to observe the age at which sleep phase transition and changes in sleep requirement become evident. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 501 students (aged 11-15 y) of a school in Delhi, India. Students were evaluated for their sleep patterns, sleep duration, habits of napping, quality of sleep, sleepiness, depression, phase preferences by self-reported school sleep habits survey questionnaire along with school performance and attendance. Significant differences were found in sleep pattern of students aged 11-12 y and 13-15 y. Bedtime shifted to a later time with increasing age but early morning schools kept the wake time same, leading to a decline in total sleep duration of older adolescents. Older adolescents had higher depression but poor attendance and academic performance. Prevalence of sleep deprivation increased with age, from 83.7% to 87.1% in 11-12 y to 90.5% to 92.5% in 13-15 y. The study clearly identifies 12-13 y as age of transition of sleep pattern among adolescents. Though significant differences were found in the academic performance, mood and attendance among preteens and teens but no direct association was seen between academic performances and sleep pattern. A complex multifactorial association between sleep patterns, attendance, mood and academic performance which may change over days, months, or years should be explored further in a longitudinal follow up study.

  18. Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.

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    Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites.

  19. Motivating and demotivating factors for community health workers: A qualitative study in urban slums of Delhi, India.

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    George, Mathew Sunil; Pant, Shradha; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2017-04-01

    Background Community health workers play an important role in delivering health-care services, especially to underserved populations in low- and middle-income countries. They have been shown to be successful in providing a range of preventive, promotive and curative services. This qualitative study investigated the factors motivating or demotivating community health workers in urban settings in Delhi, India. Methods In this sub-study of the ANCHUL (Ante Natal and Child Healthcare in Urban Slums) implementation research project, four focus-group discussions and nine in-depth interviews were conducted with community health workers and medical officers. Utilizing a reflexive and inductive qualitative methodology, the data set was coded, to allow categories of motivating and demotivating factors to emerge. Results Motivating factors identified were: support from family members for their work, improved self-identity, job satisfaction and a sense of social responsibility, prior experiences of ill health, the opportunity to acquire new skills and knowledge, social recognition and status conferred by the community, and flexible work and timings. Negative experiences in the community and at health centres, constraints in the local health system in response to the demand generated by the community health workers, and poor pay demotivated community health workers in this study, even causing some to quit their jobs. Conclusion Community-health-worker programmes that focus on ensuring the technical capacity of their staff may not give adequate attention to the factors that motivate or discourage these workers. As efforts get under way to ensure universal access to health care, it is important that these issues are recognized and addressed, to ensure that community health worker programmes are effective and sustainable.

  20. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

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    MR Pradhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs. 

  1. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

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    MR Pradhan .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs.  

  2. Performance of skylight illuminance inside a dome shaped adobe house under composite climate at New Delhi (India: A typical zero energy passive house

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    Arvind Chel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents annual experimental performance of pyramid shaped skylight for daylighting of a dome shaped adobe house located at solar energy park in New Delhi (India. This approach of single story dome shaped building with skylight is more useful for rural and semi-urban sectors for both office and residential buildings reducing artificial lighting energy consumption. The hourly measured data of inside and outside illuminance for three different working surface levels inside the existing rooms are presented for each month of the year. The embodied energy payback time of the skylight is also determined on the basis of lighting energy saving potential.

  3. Five-year measurements of ambient ammonia and its relationships with other trace gases at an urban site of Delhi, India

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    Saraswati; Sharma, S. K.; Mandal, T. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we present the 5-year measurements of ambient ammonia (NH3), oxides of nitrogen (NO and NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) along with the meteorological parameters at an urban site of Delhi, India from January 2011 to December 2015. The average mixing ratios of ambient NH3, NO, NO2 and CO over the entire period of observations were recorded as 19.3 ± 4.4 (ppb), 20.1 ± 5.9 (ppb), 18.6 ± 4.6 (ppb) and 1.8 ± 0.5 (ppm), respectively. The mixing ratios of NH3, NO, NO2 and CO were recorded highest during winter season, followed by summer and monsoon season. In the present case, a substantial seasonal variation of NH3 was observed during all the seasons except NO, NO2 and CO. The results emphasized that the traffic could be one of the significant sources of ambient NH3 at the urban site of Delhi as illustrated by positive correlations of NH3 with traffic related pollutants (NO x and CO). Surface wind as well as back trajectory analysis also supports the road side traffic and agricultural activities at the nearby area indicating possible major sources of ambient NH3 at observational site. Trajectory analysis, potential source contribution function and concentration weighted trajectory analysis indicated the surrounding nearby areas (NCR, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh) as a significant source region of ambient NH3 at the observational site of Delhi.

  4. Awareness about HIV infection among the paramedical staff in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India

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    Nikhil Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is a growing epidemic involving all sections of the society. Health care personnel are at increased risk of acquiring blood borne diseases like AIDS, hepatitis, etc. We aimed to assess the level of awareness of HIV infection among the paramedical staff working in a tertiary care hospital. A total number of 207 paramedical staff were asked to complete a questionnaire covering the various aspects of HIV and AIDS which was then critically reviewed. We observed that 57.54% of the staff was aware of the different aspects of HIV infection. Our results highlighted that awareness regarding the different facets of HIV varied among the nurses, lab technicians and support staff. Transmission of blood borne infections through needle stick injury is a harsh reality involving health care personnel. There is an urgent need to teach basic knowledge about HIV infection among high-risk populations.

  5. Environmental and comfort upgrading through lean technologies in informal settlements: Case study in Nairobi, Kenia and New Delhi, India

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    De Angelis, Enrico; Tagliabue, Lavinia Chiara; Zecchini, Paolo; Milanesi, Mattia

    2016-07-01

    Informal settlements, namely slums (or bidonville or favelas) are one of the stronger challenge for urban context in developing countries. The increase of urban population leads to a widespread poverty and critical life conditions for a large segment of population, in particular in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a high percentage of people lives in informal settlements. The problems in slums are multiple: people suffer malnutrition and poor sanitation, flooding or drought, and live in shelters providing no thermal comfort in many days of the year, furthermore scarce and highly polluting energy sources are available. Climate change and an unavoidable heat island effect make these living conditions nearly catastrophic. This paper focuses on the main characters of these slums and on how to what promote the improvement of living conditions with a lean, low cost, low impact, feasible upgrading of the housing or more properly shelters. The subject of the analysis is the Mathare 4A Upgrading Programme in the city of Nairobi, Kenya, one of the highest slum-dwellers growing rate. The technological solutions applied in this context have been verified in a different climate condition such as the city of New Delhi, India where the phenomenon of the slums is significantly burdensome. The analysis of the comfort conditions inside a type housing has been carried out using hourly weather data and dynamic heat transfer simulation, without any HVAC system and striving only natural ventilation. Data about internal temperature and relative humidity conditions have been applied to evaluate the comfort hours using the Predicted Mean Vote method, the adaptive thermal comfort principles and the bioclimatic charts for the two climates in Nairobi and New Delhi. The percentage of hours within the comfort range and the amount of degree-hours exceeding comfort values showed for different upgrading strategies, how it is possible to deeply influence the living conditions by technological and

  6. Clinical profile and quality of life of patients with occupational contact dermatitis from New Delhi, India.

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    Bhatia, Riti; Sharma, Vinod K; Ramam, M; Sethuraman, Gomathy; Yadav, Chander P

    2015-09-01

    Data regarding occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) and its effect on quality of life (QOL) in India are limited. To evaluate patients with OCD and record the outcome of treatment. All patients with OCD were evaluated for severity of disease (by the use of physician global assessment) and its effect on QOL (by use of the Dermatology Life Quality Index) questionnaire) at the first visit and after 3 months of treatment. Among 117 patients with OCD, hand eczema was present in 81.2%. Positive patch test reactions were found in 76%. The most common allergens were Parthenium hysterophorus and potassium dichromate. The most frequent diagnosis was occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) (57%), caused by farming and construction work, followed by occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD) (24%), caused by wet work. Severe psychosocial distress was recorded in 62.5% of patients. After 3 months of treatment, 83% improved significantly, and 54% had improvement in QOL. Farmers were most frequently affected, followed by construction workers and housewives. OACD was found at a higher frequency than OICD. The most frequent allergens were Parthenium hysterophorus in farmers, potassium dichromate in construction workers, and vegetables in housewives. OCD has a significant impact on QOL. Patch testing, in addition to standard treatment, improves the outcome considerably. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Evaluating awareness and practices pertaining to radioactive waste management among scrap dealers in Delhi, India.

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    Makkar, Nayani; Chandra, Tany; Agrawal, Prachi; Bansal, Harshit; Singh, Simranjeet; Anand, Tanu; Gupta, Mannan Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    With nuclear technology rapidly taking the spotlight in the last 50 years, radiation accidents seem to be a harsh reality of the modern world. The Mayapuri Radiation accident of 2010 was the worst radiation accident India has yet dealt with. Two years thereafter, we designed a study to assess the awareness and practices regarding radioactive waste among scrap dealers aiming to assess deficiencies in radiation disaster preparedness. A community based cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of 209 volunteers (from 108 scrap dealerships) including 108 shop-owners and 101 workers segregated as Group A consisting of 54 dealerships in Mayapuri and Group B of 54 dealerships from the rest of the city. Subjects were then interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Awareness about radioactive waste varied significantly with level of education (p = 0.024), Kuppuswamy's socio-economic scale (p = 0.005), age of the scrap dealer (p = 0.049) and his work experience (p = 0.045). The larger dealerships in Mayapuri were more aware about radioactive waste (p = 0.0004), the accident in 2010 (p = 0.0002), the symbol for radiation hazard (p = 0.016), as well as the emergency guidelines and the agencies to contact in the event of a radiation accident. Our findings seem to signify that while governmental and non-governmental agencies were successful in implementing prompt disaster response and awareness programs, the community continues to be inadequately prepared. These go on to suggest that though concerted awareness and training programs do benefit the affected community, economic and social development is the key to disaster prevention and mitigation.

  8. Alineando uso energético, calidad del aire y cambio climático vía desarrollo sostenible: El caso de Delhi en India

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    Amit Garg

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available La rápida industrialización y urbanización en India en la última década ha resultado en un alto consumo de combustibles fósiles, incremento en la emisión de gases de invernadero y deterioro de la calidad del aire. India ha emprendido varias iniciativas para resolver estos problemas como son nuevas políticas de combustibles de automóviles, medidas de uso eficiente de la energía, promoción del uso de recursos renovables, relocalización de industrias altamente contaminantes, uso de combustibles bajos en emisiones como el CNG en ciudades grandes, e introducción de redes de metro-ferrocarriles en mega-ciudades. El presente artículo resume los resultados de políticas adoptadas en Delhi que muestran los nexos entre calidad del aire y cambio climático teniendo como fuerza impulsora el desarrollo sostenible con énfasis en las dimensiones ambientales y sociales./ High consumption of fossil fuels, increased greenhouse gas emissions and deterioration of local air quality have resulted from rapid industrialization and urbanization in India in the last decade. India has taken many initiatives to address these problems such as new automobile fuel policies, energy efficiency measures, promotion of renewable energy use, relocation of highly polluting industries, enforcing use of low emission fuels like CNG for public transport in large cities, and introducing metro rail networks in megacities. This paper highlights results of adopted policies in Delhi showing relationships between air quality and climate change and having sustainable development as the driving force with focus on environmental and social dimensions.

  9. A passage from India: Association between air traffic and reported cases of New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase 1 from 2007 to 2012.

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    MacFadden, Derek R; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brownstein, John S; Daneman, Nick; Fisman, David; German, Matthew; Khan, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Highly transmissible genes encoding resistance to carbapenems have demonstrated global spread. The New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase 1 gene is hypothesized to have originated in India, with subsequent dissemination by colonized or infected travelers. We conducted an ecological study evaluating the association between the cumulative air traffic departing India between 2007 and 2012 and published cases of NDM-1. Receiver operator characteristic curves were generated as well as multivariate logistic regression models. 193 countries with complete flight and World Bank data were included in the analysis. Receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC) of the dichotomous outcome of a published case of NDM-1 were generated, yielding an unadjusted area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 and adjusted AUC of 0.85. The unadjusted odds ratio of having a reported case of NDM-1, for every percentage increase in cumulative air traffic departing India, was 2.3 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.7) and adjusted was 2.0 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.4). We demonstrate that flows of international travelers departing India by air is associated with published NDM-1 cases, globally. Countries with high passenger flight traffic from India with no reported cases of NDM-1 may be at increased risk of having unreported transmission of NDM-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determinants of childhood immunisation coverage in urban poor settlements of Delhi, India: a cross-sectional study

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    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Sharma, Saket; Allen, Elizabeth; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aggregate data on childhood immunisation from urban settings may not reflect the coverage among the urban poor. This study provides information on complete childhood immunisation coverage among the urban poor, and explores its household and neighbourhood-level determinants. Setting Urban poor community in the Southeast district of Delhi, India. Participants We randomly sampled 1849 children aged 1–3.5 years from 13 451 households in 39 clusters (cluster defined as area covered by a community health worker) in 2 large urban poor settlements. Of these, 1343 completed the survey. We collected information regarding childhood immunisation (BCG, oral polio vaccine, diphtheria–pertussis–tetanus vaccine, hepatitis B and measles) from vaccination cards or mothers’ recall. We used random intercept logistic regression to explore the sociodemographic determinants of complete immunisation. Results Complete immunisation coverage was 46.7% and 7.5% were not immunised. The odds of complete vaccination (OR, 95% CI) were lower in female children (0.70 (0.55 to 0.89)) and Muslim households (0.65 (0.45 to 0.94)). The odds of complete vaccination were higher if the mother was literate (1.6 (1.15 to 2.16)), if the child was born within the city (2.7 (1.97 to 3.65)), in a health facility ( 1.5 (1.19 to 2.02)), belonged to the highest wealth quintile (compared with the poorest; 2.46 (1.5 to 4.02)) or possessed a birth certificate (1.40 (1.03 to 1.91)). Cluster effect due to unmeasured neighbourhood factors expressed as median OR was 1.32. Conclusions Immunisation coverage in this urban poor area was much lower than that of regional surveys reporting overall urban data. Socioeconomic status of the household, female illiteracy, health awareness and gender inequality were important determinants of coverage in this population. Hence, in addition to enhancing the infrastructure for providing mother and child services, efforts are also needed to address these issues in

  11. Diurnal and seasonal variations of black carbon and PM2.5 over New Delhi, India: Influence of meteorology

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    Tiwari, S.; Srivastava, A. K.; Bisht, D. S.; Parmita, P.; Srivastava, Manoj K.; Attri, S. D.

    2013-05-01

    Black carbon (BC), which is one of the highly absorbing capacities of solar radiation, reduces albedo of atmospheric aerosol. BC along with fine particulate matters (PM2.5), which play crucial role in climate and health, was monitored online for an entire year of 2011 at an urban megacity of Delhi, situated in the northern part of India. Daily mass concentration of BC varies from 0.9 to 25.5 μg m- 3, with an annual mean of 6.7 ± 5.7 μg m- 3 displayed clear monsoon minima and winter maxima; however, PM2.5 concentration was ranging from 54.3 to 338.7 μg m- 3, with an annual mean of 122.3 ± 90.7 μg m- 3. BC typically peaked between 0800 and 1000 LST and again between 2100 and 2300 LST, corresponding to the morning and evening traffic combined with the ambient meteorological effect. During summer and monsoon, the BC concentrations were found less than 5 μg m- 3; however, the highest concentrations occurred during winter in segments from 10 μg m- 3. In over all study, the BC mass concentration was accounted for ~ 6% of the total PM2.5 mass, with a range from 1.0% to 14.3%. The relationship between meteorological parameters and BC mass concentrations was studied and a clear inverse relationship (r = - 0.53) between BC and wind speed was observed. Relation between visibility and BC mass concentrations was also significantly negative (- 0.81), having relatively higher correlation during post-monsoon (- 0.85) and winter (- 0.78) periods and lower during summer (- 0.45) and monsoon (- 0.54) periods. The mixed layer depths (MLDs) were found to be shallower during post monsoon (379 m) and winter (335 m) as compared during summer (1023 m) and monsoon (603 m). The study indicated that during post-monsoon season, the impact of biomass burning is higher as compared to combustion of fossil fuels. Results are well associated with the rapid growth of anthropogenic emissions and ambient meteorological conditions over the station.

  12. Determinants of childhood immunisation coverage in urban poor settlements of Delhi, India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Sharma, Saket; Allen, Elizabeth; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2016-08-26

    Aggregate data on childhood immunisation from urban settings may not reflect the coverage among the urban poor. This study provides information on complete childhood immunisation coverage among the urban poor, and explores its household and neighbourhood-level determinants. Urban poor community in the Southeast district of Delhi, India. We randomly sampled 1849 children aged 1-3.5 years from 13 451 households in 39 clusters (cluster defined as area covered by a community health worker) in 2 large urban poor settlements. Of these, 1343 completed the survey. We collected information regarding childhood immunisation (BCG, oral polio vaccine, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine, hepatitis B and measles) from vaccination cards or mothers' recall. We used random intercept logistic regression to explore the sociodemographic determinants of complete immunisation. Complete immunisation coverage was 46.7% and 7.5% were not immunised. The odds of complete vaccination (OR, 95% CI) were lower in female children (0.70 (0.55 to 0.89)) and Muslim households (0.65 (0.45 to 0.94)). The odds of complete vaccination were higher if the mother was literate (1.6 (1.15 to 2.16)), if the child was born within the city (2.7 (1.97 to 3.65)), in a health facility ( 1.5 (1.19 to 2.02)), belonged to the highest wealth quintile (compared with the poorest; 2.46 (1.5 to 4.02)) or possessed a birth certificate (1.40 (1.03 to 1.91)). Cluster effect due to unmeasured neighbourhood factors expressed as median OR was 1.32. Immunisation coverage in this urban poor area was much lower than that of regional surveys reporting overall urban data. Socioeconomic status of the household, female illiteracy, health awareness and gender inequality were important determinants of coverage in this population. Hence, in addition to enhancing the infrastructure for providing mother and child services, efforts are also needed to address these issues in order to improve immunisation coverage in deprived urban

  13. Women and substance use: a qualitative study on sexual and reproductive health of women who use drugs in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vartika; Sarna, Avina; Tun, Waimar; Saraswati, Lopamudra Ray; Thior, Ibou; Madan, Ira; Luchters, Stanley

    2017-11-19

    To explore contextual factors that increase vulnerabilities to negative sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes and possible differences in SRH-related behaviours and the needs of women who use drugs (WUD) through non-injecting and injecting routes. Qualitative study design using semi-structured in-depth interviews. Twenty women who injected drugs in the past 3 months and 28 women who reported using drugs through non-injecting routes in the past 1 month. Interviews were conducted at community-based, drop-in centres in Delhi, India. Study findings illustrate that WUD were sexually active and had multiple sex partners including clients of sex work. Transient relationships were reported and many participants engaged in unsafe sex. Factors which affected safe sex behaviours included: gender power imbalance, limited agency for decision-making, lack of accurate information for correct self-risk assessment, and being under the influence of drugs. Despite high awareness, low and inconsistent contraceptive use was reported. Some participants were coerced to conceive while a few others reported their inability to conceive. Violence was a key determinant for SRH outcomes. Perception of certain adverse health outcomes (such as infertility) to be 'common and expected among WUD' influenced access to healthcare. Further, healthcare providers' stigmatising attitudes and lack of women-centric services deterred women from uptake of healthcare services. Findings highlight that SRH-related behaviours and needs of this group are a complex interplay of multiple determinants which need to be addressed at all levels: individual, family, community and institutional. It is imperative to roll out a 'one-stop-shop' for a comprehensive package of health services. Expansion of existing drop-in-centres could be considered for setting-up community-based women-centric services with appropriate linkage to drug dependence treatment and reproductive health services. © Article author(s) (or

  14. Characterisation and antimicrobial resistance of sepsis pathogens in neonates born in tertiary care centres in Delhi, India: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Sepsis is one of the most common causes of neonatal deaths globally. Most sepsis-related deaths occur in low-income and middle-income countries, where the epidemiology of neonatal sepsis remains poorly understood. Most of these countries lack proper surveillance networks, hampering accurate assessment of the burden of sepsis, implementation of preventive measures, and investment in research. We report results of neonates born in hospital from a multicentre collaboration on neonatal sepsis. In this cohort study, dedicated research teams prospectively followed up neonates born in one of three tertiary care centres in Delhi, India (Vardhaman Mahavir Medical College, Maulana Azad Medical College, and All India Institute of Medical Sciences [coordinating centre]) and subsequently admitted to the intensive care unit. Neonates were followed up daily until discharge or death. On clinical suspicion, neonates underwent sepsis work-up including blood cultures. The isolated organisms were identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. We defined Gram-negative isolates resistant to any three of five antibiotic classes (extended-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and piperacillin-tazobactam) as multidrug resistant. 13 530 neonates of 88 636 livebirths were enrolled between July 18, 2011, and Feb 28, 2014. The incidence of total sepsis was 14·3% (95% CI 13·8-14·9) and of culture-positive sepsis was 6·2% (5·8-6·6). Nearly two-thirds of total episodes occurred at or before 72 h of life (defined as early onset; 1351 [83%] of 1980). Two-thirds (645 [64%]) of 1005 isolates were Gram-negative including, Acinetobacter spp (22%), Klebsiella spp (17%), and Escherichia coli (14%). The pathogen mix in early-onset sepsis did not differ from that of late-onset sepsis (ie, after 72 h). High rates of multidrug resistance were observed in Acinetobacter spp (181/222, 82%), Klebsiella spp (91/169, 54%), and Escherichia coli (52/137, 38

  15. Molecular Evidence for Occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Ash Gourd (Benincasa hispida) Germplasm Showing a Severe Yellow Stunt Disease in India.

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    Roy, Anirban; Spoorthi, P; Panwar, G; Bag, Manas Kumar; Prasad, T V; Kumar, Gunjeet; Gangopadhyay, K K; Dutta, M

    2013-06-01

    An evaluation of 70 accessions of ash gourd germplasm grown at National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, India during Kharif season (2010) showed natural occurrence of a yellow stunt disease in three accessions (IC554690, IC036330 and Pusa Ujjwal). A set of begomovirus specific primers used in PCR gave expected amplicon from all the symptomatic plants; however no betasatellite was detected. Complete genome of the begomovirus (DNA-A and DNA-B), amplified through rolling circle amplification, was cloned and sequenced. The begomovirus under study shared high sequence identities to different isolates of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and clustered with them. Among those isolates, the DNA-A and DNA-B of the present begomovirus isolate showed highest 99.6 and 96.8 % sequence identities, respectively with an isolate reported on pumpkin from India (DNA-A: AM286433, DNA-B: AM286435). Based on the sequence analysis, the begomovirus obtained from ash gourd was considered as an isolate of ToLCNDV. Thus, the present findings constitute the first report of occurrence of a new yellow stunt disease in ash gourd from India and demonstrated the association of ToLCNDV with the symptomatic samples. Occurrence of ToLCNDV in ash gourd germplasm not only adds up a new cucurbitaceous host of this virus but also raises the concern about the perpetuation of this virus in absence of its main host tomato and thus has an epidemiological relevance for understanding the rapid spread of this virus in tomato and other hosts in Indian sub-continent.

  16. Meteorologically-adjusted trend analysis of surface observed ozone at three monitoring sites in Delhi, India: 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, J.; Farooqui, Z.; Guttikunda, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that meteorological parameters have significant impact on surface ozone concentrations. Therefore it is important to remove the effects of meteorology on ozone concentrations to correctly estimate long-term trends in ozone levels due to the alterations in precursor emissions. This is important for the development of effectual control strategies. In this study surface observed ozone trends in New Delhi are analyzed using Komogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter, US EPA ozone adjustment due to weather approach and the classification and regression tree method. The statistical models are applied to the ozone data at three observational sites in New Delhi metropolitan areas, 1) Income Tax Office (ITO) 2) Sirifort and 3) Delhi College of Engineering (DCE). The ITO site is located adjacent to a traffic crossing, Sirifort is an urban site and the DCE site is located in a residential area. The ITO site is also influenced by local industrial emissions. DCE has higher ozone levels than the other two sites. It was found that ITO has lowest ozone concentrations amongst the three sites due to ozone titrating due to industrial and on-road mobile NOx emissions. The statistical methods employed can assess ozone trends at these sites with a high degree of confidence and the results can be used to gauge the effectiveness of control strategies on surface ozone levels in New Delhi.

  17. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMCs) from rainfall runoff on mixed agricultural land use in the shoreline zone of the Yamuna River in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepshikha; Gupta, Ruchi; Singh, Ram Karan; Kansal, Arun

    2012-03-01

    This paper is focused on the monitoring of the diffuse pollution characteristics from the agricultural land confining the River Yamuna in Delhi (capital of India). Agricultural fields surrounding the Yamuna river are direct nonpoint source of pollution impacting the river quality. The study includes watershed delineation for the River Yamuna using SWAT (2005) and land use classification for the city using GIS and remote sensing. Thereafter, the rainfall-runoff pollutant concentrations from the mixed agricultural land use were assessed for the 2006 and 2007 monsoon period (July-September). Runoff was measured using SCS method and grab samples of rainfall runoff were collected at three stations namely Old Delhi Railway Bridge (ODRB), Nizamuddin and Okhla bridge in Delhi. The samples were analysed for physico-chemical and biological parameters. Rainfall runoff and event mean concentrations (EMCs) for different water quality parameters were characterized and the effect of land use was analyzed. The average EMCs for BOD, COD, ammonia, nitrate, TKN, hardness, TDS, TSS, chlorides, sulfates, phosphate, fluorides and TC were 21.82 mg/L, 73.48 mg/L, 72.68 μg/L, 229.87 μg/L, 15.32 μg/L, 11.36 mg/L, 117.44 mg/L, 77.60 mg/L, 117.64 mg/L, 135.82 mg/L, 0.08 mg/L, 0.85 mg/L and 2,827.47 MPN/100 mL, respectively. The EMCs of TSS, nitrogen and its compounds, phosphate and BOD were high.

  18. A GIS based emissions inventory at 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution for air pollution analysis in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Calori, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    In Delhi, between 2008 and 2011, at seven monitoring stations, the daily average of particulates with diameter generation, and construction activities. In this paper, we present a multi-pollutant emissions inventory for the National Capital Territory of Delhi, covering the main district and its satellite cities - Gurgaon, Noida, Faridabad, and Ghaziabad. For the base year 2010, we estimate emissions (to the nearest 000's) of 63,000 tons of PM2.5, 114,000 tons of PM10, 37,000 tons of sulfur dioxide, 376,000 tons of nitrogen oxides, 1.42 million tons of carbon monoxide, and 261,000 tons of volatile organic compounds. The inventory is further spatially disaggregated into 80 × 80 grids at 0.01° resolution for each of the contributing sectors, which include vehicle exhaust, road dust re-suspension, domestic cooking and heating, power plants, industries (including brick kilns), diesel generator sets and waste burning. The GIS based spatial inventory coupled with temporal resolution of 1 h, was utilized for chemical transport modeling using the ATMoS dispersion model. The modeled annual average PM2.5 concentrations were 122 ± 10 μg m-3 for South Delhi; 90 ± 20 μg m-3 for Gurgaon and Dwarka; 93 ± 26 μg m-3 for North-West Delhi; 93 ± 23 μg m-3 for North-East Delhi; 42 ± 10 μg m-3 for Greater Noida; 77 ± 11 μg m-3 for Faridabad industrial area. The results have been compared to measured ambient PM pollution to validate the emissions inventory.

  19. THE DECISION MAKING OF BUSINESS TRAVELLERS IN SELECTING ONLINE TRAVEL PORTALS FOR TRAVEL BOOKING: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF DELHI NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION, INDIA

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    Bivek DATTA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to understand the decision making pattern of the Business Travellers in Delhi National Capital Region in India while booking their trips through Online Travel Portals. The study revolves around purchase decision pattern of Business Travellers by investigating their travel decision making style in selecting online travel portals for their trip booking. The authors have adopted the quantitative methodology to achieve the objective of the study. The study is confined purely to the Business Travellers who book their travel through online travel portals. The data was collected through a structured questionnaire. 300 Business Travellers were interviewed at the departure lounge of Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi, India out of which 150 questionnaires were incomplete in many respects and could not be used and only 150 questionnaires were usable resulting in the response rate of 50%. The Analytical Hierarchy process method was adopted to analyze the relative weights assigned by Business Travellers. The present study identifies through literature review the nine fundamental values of internet purchase i.e. product quality, cost, time to receive the product, convenience, time spent, confidentiality, shopping enjoyment, security and environmental impact. The research findings indicate that business travellers value confidentiality, security and product quality the most while choosing the Online Travel Portal to book their trip. The study is primarily centered on the consumer typology approach to study the decision making patterns of business travellers whereas there are other variables such as lifestyle, personality, attitude which can also be investigated. The study is only restricted to Business Travellers decision making pattern pertaining to their travel booking whereas a study can also be undertaken on leisure travellers decision making pattern. The study is restricted to only Delhi National Capital Region

  20. Providers' knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of e-pills in government dispensaries of South district in delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Vertika; Misro, Man M; Nandan, Deoki

    2010-01-01

    South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills) were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. A descriptive epidemiological study. Both medical and paramedical (n = 428) providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively (P pills.

  1. Artificial intelligence based approach to forecast PM2.5 during haze episodes: A case study of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dhirendra; Goyal, P.; Upadhyay, Abhishek

    2015-02-01

    Delhi has been listed as the worst performer across the world with respect to the presence of alarmingly high level of haze episodes, exposing the residents here to a host of diseases including respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and lung cancer. This study aimed to analyze the haze episodes in a year and to develop the forecasting methodologies for it. The air pollutants, e.g., CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 as well as meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, wind speed, wind direction index, relative humidity, visibility, dew point temperature, etc.) have been used in the present study to analyze the haze episodes in Delhi urban area. The nature of these episodes, their possible causes, and their major features are discussed in terms of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and relative humidity. The correlation matrix shows that temperature, pressure, wind speed, O3, and dew point temperature are the dominating variables for PM2.5 concentrations in Delhi. The hour-by-hour analysis of past data pattern at different monitoring stations suggest that the haze hours were occurred approximately 48% of the total observed hours in the year, 2012 over Delhi urban area. The haze hour forecasting models in terms of PM2.5 concentrations (more than 50 μg/m3) and relative humidity (less than 90%) have been developed through artificial intelligence based Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) techniques and compared with the other modeling techniques e.g., multiple linear regression (MLR), and artificial neural network (ANN). The haze hour's data for nine months, i.e. from January to September have been chosen for training and remaining three months, i.e., October to December in the year 2012 are chosen for validation of the developed models. The forecasted results are compared with the observed values with different statistical measures, e.g., correlation coefficients (R), normalized mean square error (NMSE), fractional bias (FB) and index of agreement (IOA). The performed

  2. Parent dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors associated with child behaviors and weight status among private school children in Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study

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    Blanche Greene-Cramer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Family can be an important socializing agent that strongly influences child and adolescent behavior. While studies have found associations between parent modeling of healthy behaviors and these behaviors in children in the US and other western countries, there is a dearth of research examining these associations among low and middle-income countries like India. This study examines the association between parent dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors and child behaviors and weight status in Delhi, India. Methods The study was cross-sectional by design. The target population was comprised of a convenience sample of 6th and 8th grade children enrolled at 6 private schools in Delhi, India and their parents. A total of 551 child-parent dyads were used in analysis. Measures included parent and child BMI; physical activity and sedentary behavior; and dietary intake, such as weekly breakfast consumption, daily fruit and vegetable (FV consumption, daily low-fat dairy consumption, daily energy-dense (ED food consumption, daily sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to test for the association between parent dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors (independent variables and child dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors (dependent variables while controlling for parent and child demographics. Results Significant, positive associations were observed between all parent and child dietary behaviors (weekly breakfast consumption, daily FV consumption, daily low-fat dairy consumption, daily ED food consumption, daily SSB consumption after adjusting for child sex and grade, parent sex, and parent weight status (p<0.05, all. Parent moderate/vigorous physical activity was positively associated with child moderate/vigorous physical activity (p=0.000, however there was no significant association between parent and child light physical activity levels (p=0.310. Parent

  3. Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS among women of reproductive age in the slums of Delhi and Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jayati; Wadhwa, Vandana; Kalipeni, Ezekiel

    2009-02-01

    This report explores how vulnerability to HIV/AIDS applies to women in the reproductive age range living in the slum areas of Delhi and Hyderabad. The paper is based on a qualitative study of AIDS awareness levels conducted during the summer of 2006. It offers insightful narratives from a sample of 32 women, providing an in depth view of their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS due to their precarious socioeconomic conditions and low AIDS awareness. The women cited lack of education, low empowerment in expressing and accessing information related to sexual matters, and poverty as key factors to vulnerability.

  4. Prevalence of myopia and its risk factors in urban school children in Delhi: the North India Myopia Study (NIM Study.

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    Rohit Saxena

    Full Text Available Assess prevalence of myopia and identify associated risk factors in urban school children.This was a cross-sectional study screening children for sub-normal vision and refractive errors in Delhi. Vision was tested by trained health workers using ETDRS charts. Risk factor questionnaire was filled for children with vision 11 years children (p 5 hours per day (p 2 hours / day (p 2 hours in a day.Myopia is a major health problem in Indian school children. It is important to identify modifiable risk factors associated with its development and try to develop cost effective intervention strategies.

  5. Prevalence of myopia and its risk factors in urban school children in Delhi: the North India Myopia Study (NIM Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Rohit; Vashist, Praveen; Tandon, Radhika; Pandey, R M; Bhardawaj, Amit; Menon, Vimala; Mani, Kalaivani

    2015-01-01

    Assess prevalence of myopia and identify associated risk factors in urban school children. This was a cross-sectional study screening children for sub-normal vision and refractive errors in Delhi. Vision was tested by trained health workers using ETDRS charts. Risk factor questionnaire was filled for children with vision 11 years) children (phistory (p 5 hours per day (p 2 hours / day (p video/mobile games (p 2 hours in a day. Myopia is a major health problem in Indian school children. It is important to identify modifiable risk factors associated with its development and try to develop cost effective intervention strategies.

  6. Effect of mHealth on modifying behavioural risk-factors of non-communicable diseases in an adult, rural population in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Malvika; Banerjee, Bratati; Ingle, G K; Garg, Suneela

    2017-01-01

    The rising trend of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has led to a "dual burden" in low and middle-income (LAMI) countries like India which are still battling with high prevalence of communicable diseases. The incorporation of a target specially dedicated to NCDs within the goal 3 of the newly adopted Sustainable Development Goals indicates the importance the world now accords to prevention and control of these diseases. Mobile phone technology is increasingly viewed as a promising communication channel that can be utilized for primary prevention of NCDs by promoting behaviour change and risk factor modification. A "Before and After" Intervention study was conducted on 400 subjects, over a period of one year, in Barwala village, Delhi, India. An mHealth intervention package consisting of weekly text messages and monthly telephone calls addressing lifestyle modification for risk factors of NCDs was given to the intervention group, compared to no intervention package in control group. After Intervention Phase, significant reduction was seen in behavioural risk factors (unhealthy diet and insufficient physical activity) in the intervention group compared to control group. Body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure and fasting blood sugar level also showed significant difference in the intervention group as compared to controls. Our study has demonstrated the usefulness of mHealth for health promotion and lifestyle modification at community level in a LAMI country. With the growing burden of NCDs in the community, such cost effective and innovative measures will be needed that can easily reach the masses.

  7. Theory and social practice of agency in combining breastfeeding and employment: A qualitative study among health workers in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer-Salim, Amal; Suri, Shobha; Dadhich, Jai Prakash; Faridi, Mohammad Moonis Akbar; Olsson, Pia

    2014-12-01

    Women's agency, or intentional actions, in combining breastfeeding and employment is significant for health and labour productivity. Previous research in India showed that mothers use various collaborative strategies to ensure a "good enough" combination of breastfeeding and employment. Bandura's theoretical agency constructs previously applied in various realms could facilitate the exploration of agency in an Indian context. To explore manifestations of agency in combining breastfeeding and employment amongst Indian health workers using Bandura's theoretical constructs of agency and women's experiences. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten women employees within the governmental health sector in New Delhi, India. Both deductive and inductive qualitative content analyses were used. Bandura's features and modes of agency revealed that intentionality is underpinned by knowledge, forethought means being prepared, self-reactiveness includes collaboration and that self-reflectiveness gives perspective. Women's interviews revealed four approaches to agency entitled: 'All within my stride or the knowledgeable navigator'; 'Much harder than expected, but ok overall'; This is a very lonely job'; and 'Out of my control'. Agency features and their elements are complex, dynamic and involve family members. Bandura's theoretical agency constructs are partially useful in this context, but additional social practice constructs of family structure and relationship quality are needed for better correspondence with women's experiences of agency. The variation in individual approaches to agency has implications for supportive health and workplace services. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Disability-adjusted life years and economic cost assessment of the health effects related to PM2.5 and PM10 pollution in Mumbai and Delhi, in India from 1991 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Kamal Jyoti; Dikshit, Anil Kumar; Deshpande, Ashok

    2017-02-01

    Particulate air pollution is becoming a serious public health concern in urban cities in India due to air pollution-related health effects associated with disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and economic loss. To obtain the quantitative result of health impact of particulate matter (PM) in most populated Mumbai City and most polluted Delhi City in India, an epidemiology-based exposure-response function has been used to calculate the attributable number of mortality and morbidity cases from 1991 to 2015 in a 5-year interval and the subsequent DALYs, and economic cost is estimated of the health damage based on unit values of the health outcomes. Here, we report the attributable number of mortality due to PM 10 in Mumbai and Delhi increased to 32,014 and 48,651 in 2015 compared with 19,291 and 19,716 in year 1995. And annual average mortality due to PM 2.5 in Mumbai and Delhi was 10,880 and 10,900. Premature cerebrovascular disease (CEV), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes are about 35.3, 33.3, and 22.9% of PM 2.5 -attributable mortalities. Total DALYs due to PM10 increased from 0.34 million to 0.51 million in Mumbai and 0.34 million to 0.75 million in Delhi from average year 1995 to 2015. Among all health outcomes, mortality and chronic bronchitis shared about 95% of the total DALYs. Due to PM 10 , the estimated total economic cost at constant price year 2005 US$ increased from 2680.87 million to 4269.60 million for Mumbai City and 2714.10 million to 6394.74 million for Delhi City, from 1995 to 2015, and the total amount accounting about 1.01% of India's gross domestic product (GDP). A crucial presumption is that in 2030, PM 10 levels would have to decline by 44% (Mumbai) and 67% (Delhi) absolutely to maintain the same health outcomes in year 2015 levels. The results will help policy makers from pollution control board for further cost-benefit analyses of air pollution management programs in Mumbai and Delhi.

  9. Five-year study of unidentified/unclaimed and unknown deaths brought for medicolegal autopsy at Premier Hospital in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Abhishek; Kumar, Adarsh; Swain, Rajanikanta; Gupta, Sudhir Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest city of the world both in terms of population and area, as well as being the capital of India. Every year, thousands of people from different states throng to the capital in search of a job in order to earn a living. When these people die and their bodies are found without any identifying documentation, it is very difficult for the police to establish their identities. These bodies are labelled as unidentified/unclaimed or unknown, and are sent for usually sent for medicolegal autopsy. Invariably, skeletonised bodies are also recovered, which are also subjected to medicolegal autopsy. Female foeticide is another social problem, and whenever such foetuses are disposed of illegally, they are also grouped under this category and brought for medicolegal autopsy. We undertook a five-year retrospective analysis (for the period 2010-2014) of all such cases brought for medicolegal autopsy at our centre, which caters only for the south and south-east districts of Delhi. A total of 7964 cases were brought for medicolegal autopsy, of which unknown cases accounted for about 16%. About 25-30 foetuses and skeletonised bodies were brought each year that was studied. The manner of death was certified as natural in about 71% of cases, with predominant pathology in the lungs. There was a clear predominance of males over females, with the 31- to 50-year age group accounting for half of all cases. There was an increase in the number of deaths during months of extreme temperatures. The average time between the recovery of a body by the police and the post-mortem was about seven days. These findings raise many questions, including the failure of governmental policies, police investigating agencies and social menace. The creation of a national missing-persons database as well as a DNA databank is needed to aid in the identification of unidentified/unclaimed and unknown bodies.

  10. Prevalence of induced abortions and contraceptive use among married women in an urban slum of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhilwar, Meenakshi; Lal, Panna; Sharma, Nandini; Bhalla, Preena; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    To document abortion practices and contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in an urban slum of Delhi. Data were collected as part of a cross-sectional study conducted in an urban resettlement colony in the North East District of Delhi between November 2010 and December 2011. Systematic random sampling was used to enroll 200 married women aged 15-49 years from each of the four blocks of the colony. Participants were interviewed and data were entered into a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Among 802 participants, 284 (35.4%) reported at least one spontaneous or induced abortion, and 196 (24.4%) reported induced abortions. Unsupervised medical termination was reported by 78 (27.5%) of the 284 women. Overall, only 207 (25.8%) women practiced any type of contraception. The predominant decision maker regarding contraception was the husband for 95 (45.9%) women and the mother-in-law for 78 (37.7%). There is a need for focused community-based education to address specific issues, particularly regarding the dangers of unsafe abortion and choosing a method of contraception in consultation with a healthcare practitioner. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  11. Providers′ knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of E-Pills in government dispensaries of south district in Delhi, India

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    Kishore Vertika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. Study Design: A descriptive epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Both medical and paramedical (n = 428 providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively ( P < 0.05 correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant ( P < 0.05 improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R 2 = 0.35. Conclusion: Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills.

  12. Suicidal ideation and HIV risk behaviors among a cohort of injecting drug users in New Delhi, India

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    Sarin Enisha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on mental health among injecting drug users in South Asia is scarce yet poor mental health among users has significant implications for the success of HIV prevention and treatment programmes. A cohort of 449 injecting drug users in Delhi was examined on the following issues (1 examine trends in suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicidal attempts over a 12-month period, (2 examine association between injecting practices (receive and give used syringes and suicidal ideation over a 12 month study period. Methods An observational study was conducted providing phased interventions with follow up interviews every 3 months to 449 injecting drug users (IDUs, from August 2004 to November 2005. The study was conducted in Yamuna Bazaar, a known hub of drug peddling in Delhi. Interventions included nutrition, basic medical services, needle exchange, health education, HIV voluntary counseling and testing, STI diagnosis and treatment, oral buprenorphine substitution, and detoxification, each introduced sequentially. Results Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, did not significantly change over 12 months of observation, while suicide plans actually increased over the time period. Keeping other factors constant, IDUs with suicidal ideation reported more giving and receiving of used syringes in the recent past. Conclusions: Mental health services are warranted within harm reduction programmes. Special attention must be paid to suicidal IDUs given their higher risk behaviours for acquiring HIV and other blood borne infections. IDU intervention programmes should assess and address suicide risk through brief screening and enhanced counseling.

  13. Prevalence of reproductive tract infections and their determinants in married women residing in an urban slum of North-East Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhilwar, Meenakshi; Lal, Panna; Sharma, Nandini; Bhalla, Preena; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-08-01

    Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) have adverse implications on the health of the women. Community-based studies in India have shown a high prevalence of RTIs but here is a lack of sizeable literature from urban slums and resettlement areas. The objective was to document the prevalence and determinants of RTIs in married women (15-49 years) residing in an urban slum in Delhi, India. The study was conducted in an urban resettlement colony of Gokulpuri in the North-East district of Delhi. Systematic random sampling method was adopted to choose the study subjects, that is, married and non-pregnant women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) residing in the study area. Data were collected using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire, through the house to house visits. The diagnosis of RTIs was made as per the World Health Organization syndromic approach. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 16 (Chicago, IL, USA). A total of 802 women were interviewed. The mean age of study subjects was 30.79 ± 7 years. A total of 352 (43.9%) women currently had symptoms of RTIs. The most frequently reported symptoms included abdominal pain (68.2%), back pain (69.6%), and vaginal discharge (59.3%). Older women (≥25 years) (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.4-3.5), those belonging to the lower socioeconomic status (OR 2.1, 95% CI; 1.5-2.9), those using cloth during menses (OR 2.6, 95% CI; 1.6-4.3), those having more than three pregnancies (OR 1.8, 95% CI; 1.2-2.6) and those using an intrauterine contraceptive device (OR 11.8, 95% CI; 4.3-32.0) had higher odds of having RTIs. A high case load was found based on the syndromic approach. Generating community awareness, ensuring proper menstrual hygiene, and improving the socioeconomic status would help in reducing the cases of RTI.

  14. Migration and access to maternal healthcare: determinants of adequate antenatal care and institutional delivery among socio-economically disadvantaged migrants in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Yadlapalli S; Kumari, Rita; Kaushal, Sonia

    2013-10-01

    To identify the determinants of adequate antenatal care (ANC) utilisation and institutional deliveries among socio-economically disadvantaged migrants living in Delhi, India. In a cross-sectional survey, 809 rural-urban migrant mothers with a child aged below 2 years were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Data on receiving antenatal, delivery and post-natal services, migration history and other social, demographic and income were collected. Recent migrants used the services significantly less than settled migrants. ANC was adequate only among 37% (35% of recent migrant women and 39% of settled migrants). Multinomial regression revealed that being a recent migrant, multiparous, illiterate and married to an unskilled worker were significant risk factors for receiving inadequate ANC. Around 53% of deliveries took place at home. ANC seeking has a strong influence on place of delivery: 70% of births to women who received inadequate ANC were at home. Women who are educated, had their first delivery after the age of 20 years and received adequate ANC were more likely to deliver their child in hospital. Post-natal care is grossly neglected among these groups. Migrant women, particularly recent migrants, are at the risk of not receiving adequate maternal healthcare. Because migration is a continuing phenomenon, measures to mitigate disadvantage due to migration need to be taken in the healthcare system. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of tobacco smoking, awareness of hazards, and quitting behavior among persons aged 30 years or above in a resettlement colony of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ankur; Singh, Mongjam Meghachandra; Gupta, Vimal Kishore; Garg, Suneela; Daga, Mradul Kumar; Saha, Renuka

    2012-10-01

    To assess the prevalence and correlates of current smoking, awareness of hazards, and quitting behavior among smokers 30 years and above. Cross-sectional; Gokulpuri, a resettlement colony in East Delhi, India; 911, persons aged 30 years and above using systematic random sampling; Study tools: Semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence of current smoking was found to be 24.6% (95% CI 21.90 - 27.49). Majority 198 (88.4%) of current smokers smoked bidi exclusively, and on an average 13.5 bidi/cigarette were smoked per day. Multivariate analysis showed the factors associated with current smoking as male sex, advancing age, illiteracy, skilled occupation, low socio-economic status, and low BMI (P < 0.001). 64.2% were aware of the hazards of smoking. 63 (21.9%) had quit smoking in the past, majority due to the health problems. Low educational status was associated with poor hazard awareness and quitting behavior. Smoking is a significant problem among poor and illiterate males, shows an increasing trend with an advancing age and is directly associated with skilled occupation and low BMI. There are significant gaps in knowledge regarding hazards of smoking.

  16. A case study of a typical 2.32 kW{sub P} stand-alone photovoltaic (SAPV) in composite climate of New Delhi (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chel, Arvind; Tiwari, G.N. [Center for Energy Studies (CES), Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2011-04-15

    This paper presents rigorous experimental outdoor performance of a 2.32 kW{sub P} stand-alone photovoltaic (SAPV) system in New Delhi (India) for four weather types in each month such as clear, hazy, partially cloudy/foggy and fully cloudy/foggy weather conditions respectively. The daily power generated from the existing SAPV system was experimentally found in the range of 4-6 kW h/day depending on the prevailing sky conditions. The number of days and daily power generated corresponding to four weather types in each month were used to determine monthly and subsequently annual power generation from the existing SAPV system. There are three daily load profiles with and without earth to air heat exchanger suitable for three seasons like summer (3.75-6.15 kW h/day), winter (2.79-5.19 kW h/day) and rainy (3.75 kW h/day). The hourly efficiency of the SAPV system components are determined and presented in this paper. The life cycle cost (LCC) analysis for the existing typical SAPV system is carried out to determine unit cost of electricity. The effect of annual degradation rate of PV system efficiency is also presented in this paper. The energy production factor (EPF) and the energy payback time (EPBT) of the SAPV system was also determined and presented in this paper. (author)

  17. 'Women at risk': the health and social vulnerabilities of the regular female partners of men who inject drugs in Delhi, India.

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    Sharma, Vartika; Sarna, Avina; Luchters, Stanley; Sebastian, Mary; Degomme, Olivier; Saraswati, Lopamudra Ray; Madan, Ira; Thior, Ibou; Tun, Waimar

    2015-01-01

    Needle and syringe sharing is common among people who inject drugs and so is unprotected sex, which consequently puts their sex partners at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV and other blood-borne infections, like hepatitis. We undertook a nested study with the regular female partners of men who inject drugs participating in a longitudinal HIV incidence study in Delhi, India. In-depth interviews were conducted with female partners of 32 men. The interviews aimed to gather focused and contextual knowledge of determinants of safe sex and reproductive health needs of these women. Information obtained through interviews was triangulated and linked to the baseline behavioural data of their partner (index men who injected drugs). The study findings illustrate that women in monogamous relationships have a low perception of STI- and HIV-related risk. Additionally, lack of awareness about hepatitis B and C is a cause of concern. Findings also suggest impact of male drug use on the fertility of the female partner. It is critical to empower regular female partners to build their self-risk assessment skills and self-efficacy to negotiate condom use. Future work must explore the role of drug abuse among men who inject drugs in predicting fertility and reproductive morbidity among their female partners.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of tobacco smoking, awareness of hazards, and quitting behavior among persons aged 30 years or above in a resettlement colony of Delhi, India

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    Ankur Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the prevalence and correlates of current smoking, awareness of hazards, and quitting behavior among smokers 30 years and above. Materials and Methods: Study design: Cross-sectional; Setting: Gokulpuri, a resettlement colony in East Delhi, India; Sample size: 911, persons aged 30 years and above using systematic random sampling; Study tools: Semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of current smoking was found to be 24.6% (95% CI 21.90 - 27.49. Majority 198 (88.4% of current smokers smoked bidi exclusively, and on an average 13.5 bidi/cigarette were smoked per day. Multivariate analysis showed the factors associated with current smoking as male sex, advancing age, illiteracy, skilled occupation, low socio-economic status, and low BMI (P < 0.001. 64.2% were aware of the hazards of smoking. 63 (21.9% had quit smoking in the past, majority due to the health problems. Low educational status was associated with poor hazard awareness and quitting behavior. Conclusion: Smoking is a significant problem among poor and illiterate males, shows an increasing trend with an advancing age and is directly associated with skilled occupation and low BMI. There are significant gaps in knowledge regarding hazards of smoking.

  19. Incidence and progression of myopia and associated factors in urban school children in Delhi: The North India Myopia Study (NIM Study.

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    Rohit Saxena

    Full Text Available To evaluate the incidence and progression of myopia and factors associated with progression of myopia in school going children in Delhi.Prospective longitudinal study of 10,000 school children aged 5 to 15 years screened after an interval of 1 year to identify new myopes (Spherical Equivalent≤ -0.5D and progression of myopia in previously diagnosed myopic children. Association between risk factors and progression was analyzed using adjusted odds ratio.Of the 9,616 children re-screened (97.3% coverage, annual incidence of myopia was 3.4%with mean dioptric change of -1.09 ± 0.55. There was a significant higher incidence of myopia in younger children compared to older children (P = 0.012 and among girls compared to boys (P = 0.002. Progression was observed in 49.2%children with mean dioptric change of -0.27 ± 0.42 diopters. The demographic and behavioral risk factors were analyzed for children with progression (n = 629 and adjusted odds ratio values were estimated. Hours of reading-writing/week (p 2 hours in a day were protective with an inverse association with progression of myopia (P< 0.001.Myopia is an important health issue in India and is associated with long hours of reading and screen time with use of computers and video games. An annual eye vision screening should be conducted, and outdoor activities be promoted to prevent the increase of myopia among school children.

  20. Spatial molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant and New Delhi metallo beta-lactamase (blaNDM)-producing Escherichia coli in the piglets of organized farms in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthvishree, B S; Vinodh Kumar, O R; Sinha, D K; Malik, Y P S; Dubal, Z B; Desingu, P A; Shivakumar, M; Krishnaswamy, N; Singh, B R

    2017-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 government-organized pig farms between 2014 and 2016 representing seven states of India to understand the epidemiology of carbapenem resistance in the Escherichia coli. In this study, fecal sample (n = 673) from non-diarrheic (n = 501) and diarrheic (n = 172) piglets were processed for isolation of carbapenem resistant E. coli. Of 673, E. coli isolate (n = 112) was genotyped for confirming the carbapenem resistance and associated virulence factors. Of the 112 isolates, 23 were phenotypically resistant to carbapenem and 8 were carrying the New Delhi metallo beta-lactamase (blaNDM) gene. The carbapenem-resistant isolates also produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases and were multidrug resistant. The PCR-based pathotyping revealed the presence of stx1, stx2, eae and hlyA genes. The enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR dendrogram analysis of the isolates yielded three distinct clusters. The statistical analysis revealed no association between carriages of carbapenem-resistant E. coli in different breed of piglets however, location, sex, health status of piglets and age showed significant difference. The spatial analysis with SaTScan helped in identification of carbapenem-resistant clusters. The presence of carbapenem resistant E. coli isolates with virulence genes in the piglet poses a potential public health risk through possible access and spread via the food chain and environment. Efflux pump may also play an important role in carbapenem resistance in piglet E. coli isolates. Furthermore, identification of risk factors in relation to spatial clusters will help in designing preventive strategies for reducing the risk of spread of carbapenem resistant bacteria. 1. Piglets harbor carbapenem resistant E. coli and have great public health significance. 2. Apart from carbapenemase, efflux pump is also important for carbapenem resistance. 3. This is the first report of blaNDM in the piglets from India. © 2017

  1. 'Negotiating the tensions of having to attach and detach concurrently': a qualitative study on combining breastfeeding and employment in public education and health sectors in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer-Salim, Amal; Suri, Shoba; Dadhich, Jai Prakash; Faridi, Mohammad Moonis Akbar; Olsson, Pia

    2015-04-01

    the aim of this study was to explore the factors involved in combining breastfeeding and employment in the context of six months of maternity leave in India. qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using a Grounded Theory approach. Health and Education sectors in New Delhi, India. 20 first-time mothers with one 8-12 month-old infant and who had returned to work after six months׳ maternity leave. the interviews followed a pre-tested guide with a vignette, one key question and six thematic areas; intentions, strategies, barriers, facilitators, actual experiences and appraisal of combining breastfeeding and employment. Probing covered pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, maternity leave, the transition and return to work. This study revealed a model of how employed women negotiate the tensions of concurrently having to attach and detach from their infant, work, and family. Women managed competing interests to ensure trusted care and nutrition at home; facing workplace conditions; and meeting roles and responsibilities in the family. In order to navigate these tensions, they used various satisficing actions of both an anticipatory and troubleshooting nature. in spite of a relatively generous maternity leave of six months available to these women, several individual, familial and workplace factors interacted to both hinder and facilitate the process of combining breastfeeding and employment. Tension, negotiation and compromise are inherent to the process. antenatal and postnatal interventions providing information and support for working mothers need to address factors at the individual, family and workplace levels in addition to the provision of paid maternity leave to enable the successful combination of breastfeeding and employment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. TB Notification from Private Health Sector in Delhi, India: Challenges Encountered by Programme Personnel and Private Health Care Providers

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    Mahasweta Satpati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the challenges encountered by private health care providers (PHCP to notify tuberculosis cases through a programme developed web-based portal mechanism called “NIKSHAY.” Study Design. It is a descriptive qualitative study conducted at two revised national tuberculosis control programme (RNTCP districts of New Delhi. The study included in-depth interviews of PHCP registered with “NIKSHAY” and RNTCP programme personnel. Grounded theory was used to conceptualise the latent social patterns in implementation of tuberculosis case notification process and promptly identifying their challenges. Results. The analysis resulted in identification of three broad themes: (a system implementation by RNTCP: it emphasizes the TB notification process by the RNTCP programme personnel; (b challenges faced by PHCP for TB notification with five different subthemes; and (c perceived gaps and suggestions: to improvise the TB notification process for the private health sector. The challenges encountered by PHCP were mainly related to unsystematic planning and suboptimal implementation by programme personnel at the state and district level. The PHCP lacked clarity on the need for TB notification. Conclusion. Implementation of TB notification among private health care providers requires systematic planning by the programme personnel. The process should be user-friendly with additional benefits to the patients.

  3. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

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    Arora Monika

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES. Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; p. More 8th graders consumed breakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; p. A dose–response relationship was observed such that overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents who consumed breakfast daily (14.6% was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2% or never (22.9% consumed breakfast (p. This relationship was statistically significant for boys (15.4 % vs. 16.5% vs. 26.0; p but not for girls. Intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables was 5.5 (95% CI 2.4-12.5, 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 and 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.5 times higher among those who consumed breakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image satisfaction; and positive

  4. Widespread fear of dengue transmission but poor practices of dengue prevention: A study in the slums of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudé, Éric; Mazumdar, Sumit; Solanki, Vandana

    2017-01-01

    This study has been conducted to throw light on the knowledge and practices related to dengue fever among the poor population living in Delhi's slums. A household survey was conducted in 2013 among 3,350 households. The households were stratified by a number of variables related to socio-economic status and health events such as hospitalisation. The data collection was completed through face-to-face interviews conducted with the help of 25 field investigators. About 8% of the households had at least one diagnosed dengue case. In comparison to the population surveyed, teenagers (15-19 years) and adults (30-34 years) were more affected whereas children under four years of age were underrepresented. Housewives are more affected by dengue (24%) compared to their share of the population surveyed (17%). Despite the fact that 77% of the respondents are worried about mosquitoes, only 43% of them monitor environment to avoid the presence of breeding sites. One cannot exclude the possibility that though young children under the age of four years are exposed to the virus, either their cases were asymptomatic or family members infected during this period had potentially more serious symptoms leading to hospitalisation. This result could thus be explained by budget-related health choices made by this population which do not favour small children. Educational programs should target housewives to improve their impact, as they are the ones mostly responsible for water storage and cleanliness of the house and its neighbourhood. Even with a dengue experience and potentially an acute perception of the risk and its factors, a proper management of environmental conditions is lacking. This along with the fact that word-of-mouth is the main source of information quoted should be a message for municipality health workers to give door-to-door information on how to prevent breeding sites and dengue infection.

  5. Factors and sources influencing ionic composition of atmospheric condensate during winter season in lower troposphere over Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Yadav, Sudesh

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric condensate (AC) and rainwater samples were collected during 2010-2011 winter season from Delhi and characterized for major cations and anions. The observed order of abundance of cations and anions in AC samples was NH (4) (+)  > Ca(2+) > Na(+) > K(+) > Mg(2+) and HCO (3) (-)  > SO (4) (2-)  > Cl(-) > NO (2) (-)  > NO (3) (-)  > F(-), respectively. All samples were alkaline in nature and Σ (cation)/Σ (anion) ratio was found to be close to one. NH (4) (+) emissions followed by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were largely responsible for neutralization of acidity caused by high NO( x ) and SO(2) emissions from vehicles and thermal power plants in the region. Interestingly, AC samples show low nitrate content compared with its precursor nitrite, which is commonly reversed in case of rainwater. It could be due to (1) slow light-mediated oxidation of HONO; (2) larger emission of NO(2) and temperature inversion conditions entrapping them; and (3) formation and dissociation of ammonium nitrite, which seems to be possible as both carry close correlation in our data set. Principal component analysis indicated three factors (marine mixed with biomass burning, anthropogenic and terrestrial, and carbonates) for all ionic species. Significantly higher sulfate/nitrate ratio indicates greater anthropogenic contributions in AC samples compared with rainwater. Compared with rainwater, AC samples show higher abundance of all ionic species except SO(4), NO(3), and Ca suggesting inclusion of these ions by wash out process during rain events. Ionic composition and related variations in AC and rainwater samples indicate that two represent different processes in time and space coordinates. AC represents the near-surface interaction whereas rainwater chemistry is indicative of regional patterns. AC could be a suitable way to understand atmospheric water interactions with gas and solid particle species in the lower atmosphere.

  6. Genetic signatures coupled with lineage shift characterise endemic evolution of Dengue virus serotype 2 during 2015 outbreak in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Manish Chandra; Gupta, Ekta; Sharma, Shvetank; Hasnain, Nadeem; Agarwala, Pragya

    2017-07-01

    In 2015, New Delhi witnessed a massive outbreak of Dengue virus (DENV) resulting in high morbidity and mortality. We report the molecular characterisation of the dominant circulating DENV strain to understand its evolution and dispersal. DENV infections were diagnosed by detection of IgM/NS1 antigen, and serotyping was performed by C-PrM PCR. Envelope gene was amplified, and variation(s) in envelope gene were analysed. Phylogenetic tree construction, time-based phylogeny and origin of DENV were analysed. Site-specific selection pressure of envelope gene variants was analysed. Confirmed DENV infection was observed in 11.34% (32 of 282) cases, while PCR positivity for C-PrM region was observed in 54.16% (13 of 24) of NS1 antigen-positive cases. All samples belonged to serotype 2 and cosmopolitan genotype. Phylogenetic analysis using envelope gene revealed segregation of cosmopolitan genotype strains into specific lineages. The Indian strains clustered separately forming a distinct monophyletic lineage (lineage III) with a signature amino acid substitution viz., I162V and R288K. Selection pressure analysis revealed that 215D, 288R and 304K were positively selected sites. The rate of nucleotide substitution was 6.93 × 10 -4 substitutions site-1 year-1 with time to most common ancestor was around 10 years with JX475906 (Hyderabad strain) and JN030345 (Singapore strain) as its most probable ancestor. We observed evolution of a distinct lineage of DENV-2 strains on the Indian subcontinent with possible changes in endemic circulating dengue strains that might give rise to more pathogenic strains. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. First study conducted in Northern India that identifies group C rotavirus as the etiological agent of severe diarrhea in children in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiku, Vasundhara Razdan; Jiang, Baoming; Kumar, Praveen; Aneja, Satender; Bagga, Arvind; Bhan, Maharaj Kishen; Ray, Pratima

    2017-05-30

    Group C Rotavirus (RVC) is an enteric pathogen responsible for acute gastroenteritis in children and adults globally. At present there are no surveillance studies on group C Rotaviruses in India and therefore their prevalence in India remains unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate group C rotavirus infection among rotavirus (N = 180) by Enzyme immunoassay were screened for group C rotavirus by RT-PCR with VP6, VP7 and VP4 gene specific primers. The PCR products were further sequenced (VP6, VP7, VP4) and analyzed to ascertain their origin and G and P genotypes. Six out of 180 (group A rotavirus negative) samples were found positive for group C rotavirus by VP6 gene specific RT-PCR, of which 3 were also found positive for VP7 and VP4 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of VP7 and VP4 genes of these showed them to be G4 and P[2] genotypes. Overall, the nucleotide sequence data (VP6, VP7 and VP4) revealed a close relationship with the human group C rotavirus with no evidence of animal ancestry. Interestingly, the nucleotide sequence analysis of various genes also indicated differences in their origin. While the identity matrix of VP4 gene (n = 3) showed high amino acid sequence identity (97.60 to 98.20%) with Korean strain, the VP6 gene (n = 6) showed maximum identity with Nigerian strain (96.40 to 97.60%) and VP7 gene (n = 3) with Bangladeshi and USA strains. This is true for all analyzed samples. Our study demonstrated the group C rotavirus as the cause of severe diarrhea in young children in Delhi and provides insights on the origin of group C rotavirus genes among the local strains indicating their source of transmission. Our study also highlights the need for a simple and reliable diagnostic test that can be utilized to determine the disease burden due to group C rotavirus in India.

  8. Impacts of Bus-stops on the Speed of Motorized Vehicles under Heterogeneous Traffic Conditions: A Case-Study of Delhi, India

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    Prateek Bansal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of friction generators1 such as bus-stops, intersections, petrol pumps and pedestrian crossings, etc. significantly influences the speed of traffic stream. Among all the friction generators, understanding the impact of bus-stops is particularly important from planning and modeling perspective in the Indian context. Therefore, this study presents a methodology to quantify the impact of bus-stops on the speed of other motorized vehicles (the total motorized vehicle fleet minus the buses under heterogeneous traffic conditions. The methodology was validated on the typical urban arterials in Delhi, India. Two types of data, location of bus-stops and speed profiles of motorized vehicles, were collected by GPS and V-box respectively. These two data sets were mapped and merged using ArcGIS. To understand the nature of traffic stream near bus-stops, ‘influence regions’ of bus-stops were extracted. Later, characteristic parameters such as lengths of the influence regions and average speeds in the influence regions were computed. Finally, 95% confidence intervals of these characteristic parameters were obtained and regression analysis was performed to quantify the impact of bus-stops on the speed of motorized vehicles. The results of study suggest that the influence region of bus-stops on the corridors investigated varies from 140–170 meters and average speed of motorized vehicles in the influence region is reduced by 26–38% of the free flow speed. These findings can better inform planners about the speeds used in traffic flow and travel demand modeling under heterogeneous conditions by helping them in accounting for the speed-reducing impacts of bus-stops. Moreover, transit planners may also consider the magnitudes and characteristics of the influence regions of bus-stops while determining their locations along the corridor to minimize their adverse impacts on the speed of other motorized vehicles.

  9. Ante natal care (ANC) utilization, dietary practices and nutritional outcomes in pregnant and recently delivered women in urban slums of Delhi, India: an exploratory cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Singh, Archna; Shankar, Anuraj; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-03-20

    Antenatal Care (ANC) is one of the crucial factors in ensuring healthy outcomes in women and newborns. Nutrition education and counselling is an integral part of ANC that influences maternal and child health outcomes. A cross sectional study was conducted in Pregnant Women (PW) and mothers who had delivered in the past three months; Recently Delivered Women (RDW) in urban slums of North-east district of Delhi, India, to explore ANC utilization, dietary practices and nutritional outcomes. A household survey was conducted in three urban slums to identify PW and RDW. Socio-economic and demographic profile, various components of ANC received including nutrition counselling, dietary intake and nutritional outcomes based on anthropometric indices and anaemia status were assessed. Socio-demographic characteristics, nutrient intake and nutritional status were compared between those who availed ANC versus those who did not using logistic regression. Descriptive summary for services and counselling received; dietary and nutrient intake during ANC were presented. Almost 80% (274 out of 344) women received some form of ANC but the package was inadequate. Determinants for non-utilization of ANC were poverty, literacy, migration, duration of stay in the locality and high parity. Counselling on nutrition was reported by a fourth of the population. Nutrient intake showed suboptimal consumption of protein and micronutrients like iron, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin niacin, zinc and vitamin B12 by more than half of women. A high prevalence of anaemia among PW (85%) and RDW (97.1%) was observed. There was no difference in micronutrient intake and anaemia prevalence among women who received ANC versus who did not. Pregnant women living in urban poor settlements have poor nutritional status. This may be improved by strengthening the nutrition counselling component of ANC which was inadequate in the ANC package received. Empowering community based health workers in

  10. A comparative study of job satisfaction among regular and staff on contract in the primary health care system in Delhi, India

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    Pawan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job satisfaction is a pleasant emotional state associated with the appreciation of one′s work and contributes immensely to performance in an organization. The purpose of this study was to assess the comparative job satisfaction among regular and staff on contract in Government Primary Urban Health Centers in Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 2013, on a sample of 333 health care providers who were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. The sample included medical officers (MOs, auxiliary nurses and midwives (ANMs, pharmacists and laboratory technicians (LTs/laboratory assistants (LAs among regular and staff on contract. Analysis was done using SPSS version 18, and appropriate statistical tests were applied. Results: The job satisfaction for all the regular staff that is, MOs, ANMs, pharmacists, LAs, and LTs were relatively higher (3.3 ± 0.44 than the contract staff (2.7 ± 0.45 with ′t′value 10.54 (P < 0.01. The mean score for regular and contract MOs was 3.2 ± 0.46 and 2.7 ± 0.56, respectively, and the same trends were found between regular and ANMs on the contract which was 3.4 ± 0.30 and 2.7 ± 0.38, regular and pharmacists on the contract was 3.3 ± 0.50 and 2.8 ± 0.41, respectively. The differences between groups were significant with a P < 0.01. Conclusion: Overall job satisfaction level was relatively low in both regular and contract staff. The factors contributing to satisfaction level were privileges, interpersonal relations, working-environment, patient relationship, the organization′s facilities, career development, and the scarcity of human resources (HRs. Therefore, specific recommendations are suggested to policy makers to take cognizance of the scarcity of HRs and the on-going experimentation with different models under primary health care system.

  11. Water-soluble ions and carbon content of size-segregated aerosols in New Delhi, India: direct and indirect influences of firework displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Kumar, Rakesh; Yadav, Sudesh

    2016-10-01

    The particle size distribution and water-soluble inorganic ion (WSII) and carbonaceous species in size-segregated aerosols, Dp firework displays in New Delhi, India. The firework activity had the maximum contribution to the mass loading of PM 0.95 (786 μg/m 3 ) followed by PM 0.95-1.5 (216 μg/m 3 ) with all other three fractions accounting to a total of 214 μg/m 3 . The percentage contributions of WSII to the total mass of aerosols were highest in first two size fractions (39 and 40 %, respectively), compared to other fractions. The firework marker ion (Mg 2+ , Cl - , and K + ) mass concentration shows higher values in PM 0.95 during Diwali compared to before Diwali period. The mass size distribution of particles, NH 4 + , K + , Cl - , SO 4 2- , Mg 2+ , and NO 3 - , also showed changes on the Diwali night compared to previous and after days. The high Cl - /Na + (5.6) and OC/EC (3.4) ratio of PM 0.95 can be used as the indicators of firework displays. The lowering of mixing height on Diwali night to 50 m compared to before (277 mts) and after (269 mts) Diwali period further concentrated the aerosols in ambient atmosphere. Therefore, the firework display not only released the gaseous or elemental constituent but also influenced the temperature profile and both put together result in high aerosol concentrations, WSII, OC, and BC contents in ambient atmosphere. The alveolar, respirable, and inhalable fractions accounted for 64.6, 90.8, and 97.8 %, respectively, of the total PM 10 mass. People stay exposed to such high pollution level in short span of 6-8 h and experience adverse health impacts due to high mass concentrations and the chemical components of fine aerosols.

  12. Performance of a community-based health and nutrition-education intervention in the management of diarrhoea in a slum of Delhi, India.

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    Pahwa, Smriti; Kumar, Geeta Trilok; Toteja, G S

    2010-12-01

    Diarrhoeal infections are the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and continue to take a high toll on child health. Mushrooming of slums due to continuous urbanization has made diarrhoea one of the biggest public-health challenges in metropolitan cities in India. The objective of the study was to carry out a community-based health and nutrition-education intervention, focusing on several factors influencing child health with special emphasis on diarrhoea, in a slum of Delhi, India. Mothers (n=370) of children, aged >12-71 months, identified by a door-to-door survey from a large urban slum, were enrolled in the study in two groups, i.e. control and intervention. To ensure minimal group interaction, enrollment for the control and intervention groups was done purposively from two extreme ends of the slum cluster. Baseline assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices on diarrhoea-related issues, such as oral rehydration therapy (ORT), oral rehydration salt (ORS), and continuation of breastfeeding during diarrhoea, was carried out using a pretested questionnaire. Thereafter, mothers (n=195) from the intervention area were provided health and nutrition education through fortnightly contacts achieved by two approaches developed for the study--'personal discussion sessions' and 'lane approach'. The mothers (n=175) from the control area were not contacted. After the intervention, there was a significant (p=0.000) improvement in acquaintance to the term 'ORS' (65-98%), along with its method of reconstitution from packets (13-69%); preparation of home-made sugar-salt solution (10-74%); role of both in the prevention of dehydration (30-74%) and importance of their daily preparation (74-96%); and continuation of breastfeeding during diarrhoea (47-90%) in the intervention area. Sensitivity about age-specific feeding of ORS also improved significantly (p=0.000) from 13% to 88%. The reported usage of ORS packets and sugar-salt solution improved significantly from 12% to 65

  13. Spectrum of Perforation Peritonitis in Delhi: 77 Cases Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Dinesh; Garg, Puneet K.

    2012-01-01

    Perforation peritonitis is the most common surgical emergency encountered by surgeons all over the world as well in India. The spectrum of etiology of perforation peritonitis in tropical countries continues to differ from its western counterpart. This study was conducted at Hindu Rao Hospital, Municipal Corporation of Delhi, New Delhi, India, designed to highlight the spectrum of perforation peritonitis in the eastern countries and to improve its outcome. This prospective study included 77 co...

  14. Searching for Sexual Revolutions in India: Non-Governmental Organisation-Designed Sex Education Programmes as a Means towards Gender Equality and Sexual Empowerment in New Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler, Mette

    2012-01-01

    At the foundation of most inequalities in expression of sexuality lie social constructions of gender. In this paper, sex education is considered as a possibility to challenge sexism and promote healthy and self-affirmative sex lives. In the past decade, the discourse of sex education in India has become a "battle of morality" where…

  15. Candida Species Prevalence Profile in HIV Seropositive Patients from a Major Tertiary Care Hospital in New Delhi, India

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    Monika Maheshwari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a common opportunistic pathogen during the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease progression. Changes in the clinical severity of candidiasis and the Candida species prevalence profile may be a reflection of immunological changes in HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to document the changing pattern of Candida species prevalence profile in HIV seropositive patients from a tertiary care hospital in North India. One hundred and twenty HIV seropositive subjects were recruited for Candida microbial screening. Clinical specimens including blood, oral swabs, expectorated or induced sputum/bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and urine were collected depending on the patient’s symptoms. A total of 128 Candida isolates were obtained from 88 cases and 7 different Candida species were identified. C. albicans (50% was the most common species isolated followed by C. glabrata (17% and C. dubliniensis (12.5%. Other species isolated were C. parapsilosis (7.8%, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (4.6% each, and C. kefyr (3%. Strong clinical suspicion along with optimal sampling of an accurate diagnosis of Candida species involved would go a long way in decreasing the morbidity associated with non-albicans Candida species.

  16. Active and passive measurements of radon/thoron exhalation from coal and flyash samples collected from various thermal power plants of Delhi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Lalit Mohan; Kumar, Rajesh; Sahoo, B.K.; Sapra, B.K.; Rajendra Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of radon ( 222 Rn) exhalation from coal, flyash and soil samples was carried out using active (Scintillation based Smart Radon Monitor) as well as passive technique (SSNTD based Can technique). In addition, thoron ( 220 Rn) exhalation measurements were also made for the above samples using Scintillation based Smart Thoron Monitor. To the best of our knowledge, thoron exhalation measurement is first of its kind in India. In this study, a total of 26 samples collected from Badarpur Thermal Power Station, Badarpur and Rajghat Power Station, Rajghat, Delhi were analysed. Thoron surface exhalation rate measured by Scintillation based Thoron Monitor for Badarpur Thermal Power Station varied from 327.8 Bq/m 2 /h to 874.2 Bq/m 2 /h and for Rajghat Thermal Power Station it varied from 176.0 Bq/m 2 /h to 781.1 Bq/m 2 /h. Similarly, the radon mass exhalation rate measured by active technique varied from 12.13 mBq/Kg/h to 118.08 mBq/Kg/h for the samples collected from Badarpur Thermal Power Station; while it varied from 15.00 Bq/Kg/h to 168.07 mBq/Kg/h for the samples collected from Rajghat Thermal Power station. On the other hand, result of measurements made by the conventional Can technique were significantly lower varying from 0.44 mBq/Kg/h to 2.34 mBq/Kg/h for Rajghat Thermal Power Station and from 0.78 mBq/Kg/h to 2.88 mBq/Kg/h for Badarpur Thermal Power Station. This vast variation in the results obtained by active and passive techniques is due to the fact that the active technique accounts for the effect of back-diffusion and possible leakage from the chamber in the process of least square fitting of exponential model while it is not so in the case of SSNTD based Can technique. In view of this, results of active technique are more reliable as compared to the passive technique. More importantly, there was no thoron interference in the radon measurement by the active technique. Further experiments are being carried out using controlled radon and thoron

  17. Prospective surveillance of device-associated health care-associated infection in an intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shilpee; Sen, Poornima; Gaind, Rajni; Verma, Pardeep Kumar; Gupta, Poonam; Suri, Prem Rose; Nagpal, Sunita; Rai, Anil Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Surveillance of health care-associated infections (HAIs) plays a key role in the hospital infection control program and reduction of HAIs. In India, most of the surveillance of HAIs is reported from private sector hospitals that do not depict the situation of government sector hospitals. Other studies do not confirm with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance criterion, or deal with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) instead of ventilator-associated event (VAE). The aim of this study was to identify the incidences of 3 device-associated HAIs (DA-HAIs) (VAE, central line-associated bloodstream infection [CLABSI], and catheter-associated urinary tract infection [CAUTI]) by active surveillance using CDC's NHSN surveillance criteria and to identify the pathogens associated with these DA-HAIs. This was a prospective surveillance study (January 2015-December 2016) conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a large, tertiary care, government hospital situated in Delhi, India. Targeted surveillance was done as per the CDC's NHSN 2016 surveillance criteria. There were 343 patients admitted to the ICU that were included in the study. The surveillance data was reported over 3,755 patient days. A DA-HAIs attack rate of 20.1 per 100 admissions and incidence of 18.3 per 1,000 patient days was observed. The duration of use for each device for patients with DA-HAIs was significantly longer than for patients without DA-HAIs. The device utilization ratios of central line, ventilator, and urinary catheters were 0.57, 0.85, and 0.72, respectively. The crude excess length of stay for patients with DA-HAI was 13 days, and crude excess mortality rate was 11.8%. VAE, CLABSI, and CAUTI rates were 11.8, 7.4, and 9.7 per 1,000 device days, respectively. Among 69 DA-HAIs reported, pathogens could be identified for 49 DA-HAI cases. Klebsiella spp was the most common organism isolated, accounting 28.5% for all DA

  18. Modulation of aerosol radiative forcing due to mixing state in clear and cloudy-sky: A case study from Delhi National Capital Region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Parul; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Atul K.; Singh, Sachchidanand; Tiwari, Suresh; Agarwal, Poornima

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol properties change with the change in mixing state of aerosols and therefore it is a source of uncertainty in estimated aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) from observations or by models assuming a specific mixing state. The problem is important in the Indo-Gangetic Basin, Northern India, where various aerosol types mix and show strong seasonal variations. Quantifying the modulation of ARF by mixing state is hindered by lack of knowledge about proper aerosol composition. Hence, first a detailed chemical composition analysis of aerosols for Delhi National capital region (NCR) is carried out. Aerosol composition is arranged quantitatively into five major aerosol types - accumulation dust, coarse dust, water soluble (WS), water insoluble (WINS), and black carbon (BC) (directly measured by Athelometer). Eight different mixing cases - external mixing, internal mixing, and six combinations of core- shell mixing (BC over dust, WS over dust, WS over BC, BC over WS, WS over WINS, and BC over WINS; each of the combinations externally mixed with other species) have been considered. The spectral aerosol optical properties - extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (g) for each of the mixing cases are calculated and finally 'clear-sky' and 'cloudy-sky' ARF at the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) and surface are estimated using a radiative transfer model. Comparison of surface-reaching flux for each of the cases with MERRA downward shortwave surface flux reveals the most likely mixing state. 'BC-WINS+WS+Dust' show least deviation relative to MERRA during the pre-monsoon (MAMJ) and monsoon (JAS) seasons and hence is the most probable mixing states. During the winter season (DJF), 'BC-Dust+WS+WINS' case shows the closest match with MERRA, while external mixing is the most probable mixing state in the post-monsoon season (ON). Lowest values for both TOA and surface 'clear-sky' ARF is observed for 'BC-WINS+WS+ Dust' mixing case. TOA ARF is 0.28±2

  19. Genetic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Assam, India: Dominance of Beijing Family and Discovery of Two New Clades Related to CAS1_Delhi and EAI Family Based on Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Bhutia, Rinchenla; Bhowmick, Shovonlal; Mukherjee, Kaustab; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health concerns in Assam, a remote state located in the northeastern (NE) region of India. The present study was undertaken to explore the circulating genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in this region. A total of 189 MTBC strains were collected from smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases from different designated microscopy centres (DMC) from various localities of Assam. All MTBC isolates were cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media and subsequently genotyped using spoligotyping and 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spoligotyping of MTBC isolates revealed 89 distinct spoligo patterns. The most dominant MTBC strain belonged to Beijing lineage and was represented by 35.45% (n = 67) of total isolates, followed by MTBC strains belonging to Central Asian-Delhi (CAS/Delhi) lineage and East African Indian (EAI5) lineage. In addition, in the present study 43 unknown spoligo patterns were detected. The discriminatory power of spoligotyping was found to be 0.8637 based on Hunter Gaston Discriminatory Index (HGDI). On the other hand, 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed that out of total 189 MTBC isolates from Assam 185 (97.9%) isolates had unique MIRU-VNTR profiles and 4 isolates grouped into 2 clusters. Phylogenetic analysis of 67 Beijing isolates based on 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed that Beijing isolates from Assam represent two major groups, each comprising of several subgroups. Neighbour-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree analysis based on combined spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR data of 78 Non-Beijing isolates was carried out for strain lineage identification as implemented by MIRU-VNTRplus database. The important lineages of MTBC identified were CAS/CAS1_Delhi (41.02%, n = 78) and East-African-Indian (EAI, 33.33%). Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis of orphan (23.28%) MTBC spoligotypes revealed that majority of these orphan

  20. Occurrences and fate of selected human antibiotics in influents and effluents of sewage treatment plant and effluent-receiving river Yamuna in Delhi (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiyar, Pravin K; Mittal, Atul K

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics consumption has increased worldwide, and their residues are frequently reported in aquatic environments. It is believed that antibiotics reach aquatic water bodies through sewage. Medicine consumed for healthcare practices are often released into sewage, and after sewage treatment plant, it reaches the receiving water bodies of lakes or rivers. In the present study, we determined the fate of some commonly used antibiotics in a sewage treatment plant (STP) located in Delhi and the environmental concentration of these antibiotics in the Yamuna River, which receives the sewage and industrial effluent of Delhi. There are many reports on antibiotics occurrences in STP and river water worldwide, but monitoring data from the Indian subcontinent is sparse. Samples were taken from a STP and from six sampling sites on the Yamuna River. Several antibiotics were tested for using offline solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with photodiode array analysis. Recoveries varied from 25.5-108.8 %. Ampicillin had the maximum concentration in wastewater influents (104.2 ± 98.11 μg l(-1)) and effluents (12.68 ± 8.38 μg l(-1)). The fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins had the lower concentrations. Treatment efficiencies varied between 55 and 99 %. Significant amounts of antibiotics were discharged in effluents and were detected in the receiving water body. The concentration of antibiotics in the Yamuna River varied from not detected to 13.75 μg l(-1) (ampicillin) for the compounds investigated.

  1. Awareness and eye health-seeking practices for cataract among urban slum population of Delhi: The North India eye disease awareness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vasundhra; Vashist, Praveen; Singh, Senjam Suraj; Malhotra, Sumit; Gupta, Vivek; Dwivedi, S N; Gupta, Sanjeev K

    2017-12-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the awareness and health-seeking practices related to cataract in urban slums of Delhi. This study design was a population-based cross-sectional study. Participants aged 18-60 years were recruited from randomly selected five slums of South Delhi. They were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule on awareness and eye health-seeking practices related to cataract. The practices were recorded if the respondents themselves or any other member of the family was diagnosed with cataract in previous 2 years. A total of 1552 respondents participated in the study, of which, 89.9% had heard of cataract but only (42%) were aware of any symptom of cataract. The common symptoms of cataract reported by the participants were white opacity in eyes (25.9%) and loss of vision (20.6%). Surgery as a treatment of cataract was known to only 559 (40.1%) participants. Awareness about surgery as treatment of cataract was significantly higher among people aged 45-60 years (adjusted odds ratio = 2.89, 95% confidence interval = 2.11-3.97) and in educated people (adjusted OR = 3.69 95% CI = 2.37-5.73). Out of 84 respondents who had been diagnosed with cataract, the health-seeking practices were observed by 70 (83.3%) participants. Among them, 51 (72.9%) had undergone surgery and another 19 (27.1%) had been advised to wait for surgery. Most of the operated patients 48 (94.1%) attended the postoperative follow-up. The study findings suggest the majority of participants have heard of cataract, but there is low awareness of its symptoms and treatment, and good eye health-seeking practices observed for cataract in urban slum population. Gaps in awareness observed can be filled up by implementing proper eye health education programs.

  2. Control of Aedes aegypti Breeding: A Novel Intervention for Prevention and Control of Dengue in an Endemic Zone of Delhi, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Nagpal

    Full Text Available The study is based on hypothesis that whether continuous entomological surveillance of Ae. aegypti and simultaneous appropriate interventions in key containers during non-transmission (December-May months would have any impact on breeding of Aedes and dengue cases during the following transmission months (June-November. The impact of the surveillance and intervention measures undertaken during non-transmission months were assessed by entomological indicators namely container index (CI, house index (HI, pupal index (PI and breteau index (BI.A total of 28 localities of West Zone of Delhi with persistent dengue endemicity were selected for the study. Out of these localities, 20 were included in study group while other 8 localities were in control group. IEC and various Aedes breeding control activities were carried out in study group in both non-transmission and transmission season whereas control group did not have any such interventions during non-transmission months as per guidelines of MCD. These activities were undertaken by a team of investigators from NIMR and SDMC, Delhi. In control group, investigators from NIMR carried out surveillance activity to monitor the breeding of Aedes mosquito in localities.Comparison of baseline data revealed that all indices in control and study group of localities were comparable and statistically non-significant (p>0.05. In both study and control groups, indices were calculated after pooling data on seasonal basis, i.e., transmission and non-transmission months for both years. The test of significance conducted on all the four indices, i.e., HI, PI, CI, and BI, revealed a significant difference (p<0.05 between the study group and control group during transmission and non-transmission months except in HI. Due to consistent intervention measures undertaken in non-transmission months in study group, reduction in CI, HI, BI and PI was observed 63%, 62%, 64% and 99% respectively during transmission months as

  3. Control of Aedes aegypti Breeding: A Novel Intervention for Prevention and Control of Dengue in an Endemic Zone of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, B N; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Shamim, Arshad; Vikram, Kumar; Srivastava, Aruna; Tuli, N R; Saxena, Rekha; Singh, Himmat; Singh, V P; Bhagat, V N; Yadav, N K; Valecha, Neena

    2016-01-01

    The study is based on hypothesis that whether continuous entomological surveillance of Ae. aegypti and simultaneous appropriate interventions in key containers during non-transmission (December-May) months would have any impact on breeding of Aedes and dengue cases during the following transmission months (June-November). The impact of the surveillance and intervention measures undertaken during non-transmission months were assessed by entomological indicators namely container index (CI), house index (HI), pupal index (PI) and breteau index (BI). A total of 28 localities of West Zone of Delhi with persistent dengue endemicity were selected for the study. Out of these localities, 20 were included in study group while other 8 localities were in control group. IEC and various Aedes breeding control activities were carried out in study group in both non-transmission and transmission season whereas control group did not have any such interventions during non-transmission months as per guidelines of MCD. These activities were undertaken by a team of investigators from NIMR and SDMC, Delhi. In control group, investigators from NIMR carried out surveillance activity to monitor the breeding of Aedes mosquito in localities. Comparison of baseline data revealed that all indices in control and study group of localities were comparable and statistically non-significant (p>0.05). In both study and control groups, indices were calculated after pooling data on seasonal basis, i.e., transmission and non-transmission months for both years. The test of significance conducted on all the four indices, i.e., HI, PI, CI, and BI, revealed a significant difference (pcontrol group during transmission and non-transmission months except in HI. Due to consistent intervention measures undertaken in non-transmission months in study group, reduction in CI, HI, BI and PI was observed 63%, 62%, 64% and 99% respectively during transmission months as compared to control group where increase of 59

  4. Travelling Child Care for New Delhi's "Nomad' Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Sindu

    1974-01-01

    Highlighted is a new UNICEF all-purpose mobile facility called the "Mobile Creche" which provides a variety of social services including schooling, a health center, adult literacy and vocational training, and social and athletic activities for tens of thousands of unskilled laborers who live and work on the construction sites in New Delhi, India.…

  5. The willingness for using mobile phone for health education among women caregivers of under 5 children in an urban resettlement colony in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Basu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The delivery of health education through mobile phones either through voice calls or text messages (mHealth provide valuable opportunities for bridging gaps in maternal and child healthcare in resource constrained settings. Aims & Objectives: The objective of the present study was to assess willingness to receive m-Health services among women caregivers of under-5 children. Material & Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study in an urban resettlement colony of North East District of Delhi during the period from September’ 2016 to Feb’ 2017.  We enrolled 201 adult women up to 35 years of age who were active caregiver of at-least one under 5 child in their familial household. Results: The mean age of the women was 26.4 and mean years of schooling was 10.1 years. Nearly three-fourth (73.2% could read text messages (SMS while more than a third (36.8% were using mobile internet services. The willingness to receive mHealth services for health promotion was affirmed by 157 (78.2% subjects but it was significantly lower in women with low educational attainment. Conclusion: There exists a strong unmet need for mHealth services among young women caregivers of under 5 children. However, bridging the digital divide is a key challenge towards advancing mHealth for all.

  6. Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis and Ranking Tool (SMART in earthquake risk assessment: a case study of Delhi region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Sinha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at earthquake hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment as a case study to demonstrate the applicability of Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis and Ranking Tool (SMART, which is based on Saaty's multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA technique. The three specific study sites of Delhi were chosen for research as it corresponds to a typical patch of the urban environs, completely engrossed with residential, commercial and industrial units. The earthquake hazard affecting components are established in the form of geographic information system data-set layers including seismic zone, peak ground acceleration (PGA, soil characteristics, liquefaction potential, geological characteristics, land use, proximity to fault and epicentre. The physical vulnerability layers comprising building information, namely number of stories, year-built range, area, occupancy and construction type, derived from remote sensing imagery, were only considered for the current research. SMART was developed for earthquake risk assessment, and weights were derived both at component and its element level. Based on weighted overlay techniques, the earthquake hazard and vulnerability layers were created from which the risk maps were derived through multiplicative analysis. The developed risk maps may prove useful in decision-making process and formulating risk mitigation measures.

  7. Prevalence and predictors of hypertension among residents aged 20-59 years of a slum-resettlement colony in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesar, Sanjeet; Chaturvedi, Sanjay; Saini, N K; Avasthi, Rajnish; Singh, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    Slum-resettlement communities are increasingly adopting urban lifestyles. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and identify correlates of hypertension among residents aged 20-59 years of a slum-resettlement colony. A community-based cross-sectional study was done from 2010 to 2012 in NandNagri, a slum-resettlement area in east Delhi. 310 participants aged 20-59 years were enrolled through multistage systematic random sampling. Each study subject was interviewed and examined for raised blood pressure; data on risk factors including smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity and salt consumption were also collected. Data were analysed by use of univariate and multivariate regression. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 17.4% and 35% participants were prehypertensive. On multiple logistic regression, age 40-49 years (P = 0.020) and 50-59 years (P = 0.012), clerical/professional occupation (P = 0.004), abnormal waist circumference (≥90 cm in males and ≥ 80 cm in females; P = 0.001), positive family history of hypertension in both parents (P = 0.013) and above-average daily salt intake (P = 0.000) were significantly associated with hypertension. These findings indicate that hypertension is a significant health problem in the study population. Many study participants diagnosed with prehypertension are at risk of developing hypertension, thus immediate public-health interventions are indicated.

  8. Knowledge and perceptions on antibiotic use and resistance among high school students and teachers in New Delhi, India: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwani, Anita; Wattal, Chand; Joshi, P C; Holloway, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    To explore the perceptions and knowledge of school teachers and students about antibiotic use, resistance, and suggestions for practical interventions for the rational use of antibiotics. Five focus group discussions (FGDs) with high school students (Class: 9-11) and five with teachers were conducted in two private and three public schools (one teacher and one student FGD per school) in five municipal wards of Delhi. Qualitative data on antibiotic knowledge, resistance, and behaviors with respect to antibiotics use were collected. There were 4-8 persons per teacher FGD and 15-20 persons per student FGD. FGDs were analyzed using "thematic analyses." Students had poor knowledge regarding antibiotics and antibiotic resistance, while only some teachers had a basic understanding. Four broad themes needing attention emerged: definition of antibiotic and antibiotic resistance, antibiotic use behavior, doctor-patient relationship, and interventional strategies suggested to curtail the misuse of antibiotics and to spread awareness. In order to tackle these problems, both groups suggested a multipronged approach including robust public awareness campaigns also involving schools, better doctor-patient relationships, and stronger regulations. Although students and teachers exhibited poor knowledge about antibiotic use and resistance, they were keen to learn about these issues. School education programs and public education could be used to shape correct perceptions about antibiotic use among all stakeholders including children. This may help in the containment of antibiotic resistance and thus preservation of antibiotics for future generations.

  9. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) integrated with earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE) for space heating/cooling of adobe house in New Delhi (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chel, Arvind; Tiwari, G.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with an experimental outdoor annual performance evaluation of 2.32 kW P photovoltaic (PV) power system located at solar energy park in New Delhi composite climatic conditions. This PV system operates the daily electrical load nearly 10 kW h/day which comprises of various applications such as electric air blower of an earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE) used for heating/cooling of adobe house, ceiling fan, fluorescent tube-light, computer, submersible water pump, etc. The outdoor efficiencies, power generated and lost in PV system components were determined using hourly experimental measured data for 1 year on typical clear day in each month. These realistic data are useful for design engineers for outdoor assessment of PV system components. The energy conservation, mitigation of CO 2 emission and carbon credit potential of the existing PV integrated EAHE system is presented in this paper. Also, the energy payback time (EPBT) and unit cost of electricity were determined for both stand-alone PV (SAPV) and building roof integrated PV (BIPV) systems.

  10. Chemical characterization and quantitativ e assessment of source-specific health risk of trace metals in PM1.0 at a road site of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jai; Lohia, Tarachand; Mandariya, Anil K; Habib, Gazala; Gupta, Tarun; Gupta, Sanjay K

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the concentration of submicron aerosol (PM 1.0 ) collected during November, 2009 to March, 2010 at two road sites near the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi campus. In winter, PM 1.0 composed 83% of PM 2.5 indicating the dominance of combustion activity-generated particles. Principal component analysis (PCA) proved secondary aerosol formation as a dominant process in enhancing aerosol concentration at a receptor site along with biomass burning, vehicle exhaust, road dust, engine and tire tear wear, and secondary ammonia. The non-carcinogenic and excess cancer risk for adults and children were estimated for trace element data set available for road site and at elevated site from another parallel work. The decrease in average hazard quotient (HQ) for children and adults was estimated in following order: Mn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Zn > Cu both at road and elevated site. For children, the mean HQs were observed in safe level for Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb; however, values exceeded safe limit for Cr and Mn at road site. The average highest hazard index values for children and adults were estimated as 22 and 10, respectively, for road site and 7 and 3 for elevated site. The road site average excess cancer risk (ECR) risk of Cr and Ni was close to tolerable limit (10 -4 ) for adults and it was 13-16 times higher than the safe limit (10 -6 ) for children. The ECR of Ni for adults and children was 102 and 14 times higher at road site compared to elevated site. Overall, the observed ECR values far exceed the acceptable level.

  11. Delimiting the Boundary of Delhi for Effective Urban Political Ecology Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Singh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Delhi, capital of the world’s largest democracy, is witnessing large-scale increase in population since the beginning of the twentieth century. Two prominent factors that have contributed to this include the shifting of capital of the British Raj from Calcutta (now Kolkata to Delhi in 1911 and the partition of India that accompanied its independence in 1947. Delhi continued to witness high rate of migration in post-independent India due to uneven implementation of development policies. Rising population led to spatial expansion and the largest connotation of Delhi today (National Capital Region is an area 36 times its size in 1947. Rising population has also had an adverse impact on Delhi’s natural resources. Consequently, clean air, water and land availability have become limited and Delhi today is undergoing a severe sustainability crisis. The latter requires urgent intervention for restoring Delhi’s urban ecosystem. Since urban areas are highly contested ecological spaces, urban ecological interventions are incomplete without political overtones. Thus, the success of urban ecological interventions lies in identifying politically correct boundaries which encompasses true ‘urban Delhi’ despite the political boundaries. This research contribution attempts to identify the geographical expanse of ‘urban Delhi’ amidst the various political terminologies that define Delhi. An understanding of various divisions and definitions of Delhi is also presented from the perspective of appreciating the challenges in urban planning. We conclude that urban ecology investigations in Delhi should be embedded within the ‘Delhi conurbation’, which represents a geographical area greater than the Delhi city-state but much smaller than Delhi NCR.

  12. Parent dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors associated with child behaviors and weight status among private school children in Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Blanche Greene-Cramer

    2016-01-01

    Background Family can be an important socializing agent that strongly influences child and adolescent behavior. While studies have found associations between parent modeling of healthy behaviors and these behaviors in children in the US and other western countries, there is a dearth of research examining these associations among low and middle-income countries like India. This study examines the association between parent dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors and child behavi...

  13. Towards Learning for Employment: A Study of Effect of Different Variables on Employment Readiness of Students Enrolled in Professional Programmes Delhi-NCR, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Khatri, Puja; Raina, Khushboo

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Indian Higher Education system has got 70 million students enrolled in different technical and professional courses, which is highest in world. Being the fastest growing economy, India has got global attention also. Despite such strong foundation, the nation lacks a skilled workforce. The expectations of the industry don’t match with what they receive as a workforce. There has been a continuous effort in instilling technical, communication, spiritual, leadership skills ...

  14. New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. New Delhi Birth Cohort. In childhood Less than 1% were obese (IOTF 30 kg/m2). Mean BMI SD ranged from –0.4 to –1.0 (CDC). At 26-32 years 10% were obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). ~50% overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2);. ~65% overweight (BMI > 23 kg/m2). 10% had IGT.

  15. A modified model for estimation of daylight factor for skylight integrated with dome roof structure of mud-house in New Delhi (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chel, Arvind; Tiwari, G.N.; Singh, H.N. [Centre for Energy Studies (CES), Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2010-10-15

    The daylight factor model given by Charted Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) was modified in this paper to incorporate time variations with respect to zenith angle ({theta}{sub z}) and vertical height (h) of working surface above ground surface which was normalized with central height (H) of skylight dome. The modified model contains constant exponents which are determined using linear regression analysis based on hourly experimental data of inside and outside illuminance for each month of the year 2007-2008. The prediction of modified model is found in good agreement with experimental observed inside illuminance data on the basis of values of root mean square percentage error (e) and correlation coefficient (r). The annual average daylight factor values for big and small dome skylight rooms are determined as 2.3% and 4.4% respectively. The energy saving potential of skylight rooms for selected climatic locations in India is also presented in this paper. (author)

  16. Extending professional education to health workers at grass root level: An experience from All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, the opportunities for professional education of the grass root level health workers are grossly inadequate. Capacity building of all categories of health workers is needed for enhancing health outcomes. Objectives: To plan and implement a professional development training program for all categories of allied health workers and to assess its outcomes in terms of knowledge and skills Materials and Method: We planned and organized a ′one week′(15 h training program for 10 categories of allied health workers (1260 working in our hospital. The program included nine generic skills/topics: the prestige of AIIMS, sterilization & infection control, universal precaution, biomedical waste management, public health, life style & healthy nutrition, fire safety, communication skills and office procedure besides subject specific skills. Trainers were drawn from 12 departments. Training methodology included interactive lectures, narratives, demonstrations, videos, PPT slides, and informal discussions with participants. The effectiveness of the program was judged on the basis of participants′ feedback, feedback from the supervisors, and our own observations post training. Results: Feedback from the participants and their supervisors after training was encouraging. The participants described training as a "life time experience". The supervisors reported improvement in confidence, communication skills, and awareness of workers. Conclusion: The success of the program was due to the use of interactive methods, involvement of multidisciplinary team, and commitment from leadership. We recommend that professional education should be linked with career advancement. Academic institutions can play a key role in taking such initiatives.

  17. Reseña de «Lo divino y lo humano: poetas místicos de India y de España en la modernidad temprana», ed. Meenakshi Sundriyal y Juan Manuel Escudero Baztán, New Delhi/Pamplona, CSPILAS-Jawaharlal Nehru University/GRISO-Universidad de Navarra (Friends Digital Color Solutions, 2017, 168 pp., ISBN 181-901849-9-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Mishra

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de Lo divino y lo humano: poe­tas místicos de India y de España en la modernidad temprana, ed. Meenakshi Sundriyal y Juan Manuel Escudero Baztán, New Delhi/Pamplona, CSPILAS-Jawaharlal Nehru University/GRISO-Universidad de Navarra (Friends Digital Color Solutions, 2017, 168 pp., ISBN 181-901849-9-7.

  18. Litigation as TB Rights Advocacy: A New Delhi Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBroom, Kerry

    2016-06-01

    One thousand people die every day in India as a result of TB, a preventable and treatable disease, even though the Constitution of India, government schemes, and international law guarantee available, accessible, acceptable, quality health care. Failure to address the spread of TB and to provide quality treatment to all affected populations constitutes a public health and human rights emergency that demands action and accountability. As part of a broader strategy, health activists in India employ Public Interest Litigation (PIL) to hold the state accountable for rights violations and to demand new legislation, standards for patient care, accountability for under-spending, improvements in services at individual facilities, and access to government entitlements in marginalized communities. Taking inspiration from right to health PIL cases (PILs), lawyers in a New Delhi-based rights organization used desk research, fact-findings, and the Right To Information Act to build a TB PIL for the Delhi High Court, Sanjai Sharma v. NCT of Delhi and Others (2015). The case argues that inadequate implementation of government TB schemes violates the Constitutional rights to life, health, food, and equality. Although PILs face substantial challenges, this paper concludes that litigation can be a crucial advocacy and accountability tool for people living with TB and their allies.

  19. Smart City for a Sustainable Future: Is Delhi Ready?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindita Roy Saha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cities are the geographic nodes around which people gather for their livelihood activities. Various factors like resources, technology, education, medical innovations and environmental developments have shaped modern cities. However, with rapid urbanization and population growth, many cities are facing the problems of degradation, pollution, diseases and a poor quality of life. The major challenges before the urban growth centers have necessitated the formation of smart cities. Sustainable future of a city lies in the development of transport, infrastructure, environment, energy, ICT and people with a sustainability approach. The Government of India has launched a scheme to create hundred smart cities across the country, among which the National Capital of Delhi is a frontrunner. This paper attempts to study the existing infrastructure and facilities in Delhi in order to assess its readiness to be a smart city. It also attempts to analyze the citizens’ perception about Delhi as a smart city through a primary survey. Although there are limitations in the current scenario of economic and environmental performances and people’s perceptions, Delhi makes a strong case for becoming a smart city.

  20. Fatal occupational injuries in the South Delhi construction industry: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautji, R; Lalwani, S; Dogra, T D

    2005-04-01

    One hundred and forty-five unselected autopsy cases of construction site accidents received from South Delhi were studied during the period from 1996--2002. Data for the study was gathered from autopsy reports and hospital records. The cases represented approximately 1.61% of all autopsy cases received from South Delhi at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India). Data was analysed with regard to the age and sex of the victim, the part of the body involved, the manner of accident, the cause of death and the pattern of injuries in different body regions. Death occurred at the scene of the fatal event in thirty-four cases; forty-three cases were dead on arrival at the hospital; sixty-eight cases died after being admitted to the hospital. Ethanol was detected in the blood of 16% of the cases.

  1. Source attribution and mitigation strategies for air pollution in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Gregor; Purohit, Pallav; Schoepp, Wolfgang; Liu, Jun; Amann, Markus; Bhanarkar, Anil

    2017-04-01

    Indian cities, and the megacity of Delhi in particular, have suffered from high air pollution for years. Recent observations show that ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Delhi strongly exceed the Indian national ambient air quality standards as well as the World Health Organization's interim target levels. At the same time, India is experiencing strong urbanization, and both Delhi's emissions as well as the exposed population are growing. Therefore the question arises how PM2.5 concentrations will evolve in the future, and how they can be improved efficiently. In the past, typical responses of the Delhi government to high pollution episodes have been restrictions on motorized road traffic, on power plant operations and on construction activities. However, to design sustainable and efficient pollution mitigation measures, the contribution of different source sectors and spatial scales needs to be quantified. Here we combine the established emission calculation scheme of the Greenhouse Gas - Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model with regional chemistry-transport model simulations (0.5° resolution) as well as local particle dispersion (2 × 2 km resolution) to arrive at a source attribution of ambient PM2.5 in Delhi. Calculated concentrations compare well to observations. We find that roughly 60% of total population-weighted PM2.5 originates from sources outside the national capital territory of Delhi itself. Consequently, mitigation strategies need to involve neighboring states and address the typical sources there. We discuss the likely evolution of ambient concentrations under different scenarios which assume either current emission control legislation, or application of a Clean Air Scenario foreseeing additional regulations in non-industrial sectors which are often overlooked, such as phase-out of solid fuel cookstoves, and road paving. Only in the case where the Clean Air Scenario is applied both in Delhi as well as in

  2. A Passion for Success: Beating the Odds in a New Delhi Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Penny

    2002-01-01

    A private alternative school in the slums of New Delhi (India) is committed to ending female child labor and ensuring that its students don't grow up poor. The school was able to enroll girls in its all-female afternoon classes by getting their mothers involved in income-generating cooperatives. The students often outperform their peers in state…

  3. Connecting Activists and Journalists: Twitter communication in the aftermath of the 2012 Delhi rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, T.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how feminist activists, women's organizations, and journalists in India connected with each other through Twitter following the gang rape incident in New Delhi in December 2012. First, the investigation draws on a set of +15 million tweets specifically focused on rape and gang

  4. CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort. Crossing BMI centiles and early adiposity rebound associated with adult metabolic syndrome. BMI gain in infancy and early childhood – associated more with adult lean mass. BMI gain in later childhood / adolescence – associated more with adult fat mass and constituents of ...

  5. 38 CFR 4.10 - Functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Functional impairment. 4.10 Section 4.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.10 Functional impairment. The basis of disability...

  6. Radiation accident at Mayapuri scrap market, Delhi, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, A. B.; Mohanan, S.; Damodaran, D.; Soneja, M.; Jain, N.; Mohan, A.; Vikram, N. K.; Sood, R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the accidental public radiation exposure in a scrap market in Delhi (India)), on March 2010. The source, a gamma unit containing Cobalt-60 pencils, was improperly disposed of by a research institution in violation of national regulations for radiation protection and safety of radioactive sources. The unit was sold off to unsuspecting scrap dealers who dismantled the equipment. This event subsequently caused the most severe radiation accident reported in India to date, resulting in seven radiation injuries and one death. The clinical course of five of the patients treated at the All India Inst. of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi, is summarised in this report. All five patients suffered from the haematological form of the acute radiation syndrome and local cutaneous radiation injury as well. While four patients exposed to doses between 0.6 and 2.8 Gy survived with intensive or supportive treatment, the patient with the highest exposure of 3.1 Gy died due to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure on Day 16 after hospitalisation. The incident highlights the current gaps in the knowledge, infrastructure and legislation in handling radioactive materials. Medical institutions need to formulate individualised triage and management guidelines to immediately respond to future public radiological accidents. (authors)

  7. Spectrum of perforation peritonitis in delhi: 77 cases experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dinesh; Garg, Puneet K

    2013-04-01

    Perforation peritonitis is the most common surgical emergency encountered by surgeons all over the world as well in India. The spectrum of etiology of perforation peritonitis in tropical countries continues to differ from its western counterpart. This study was conducted at Hindu Rao Hospital, Municipal Corporation of Delhi, New Delhi, India, designed to highlight the spectrum of perforation peritonitis in the eastern countries and to improve its outcome. This prospective study included 77 consecutive patients of perforation peritonitis studied in terms of clinical presentations, causes, site of perforation, surgical treatment, postoperative complications, and mortality at Hindu Rao Hospital, Delhi, from March 1, 2011 to December 1, 2011, over a period of 8 months. All patients were resuscitated and underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy. On laparotomy cause of perforation peritonitis was found and controlled. The most common cause of perforation peritonitis noticed in our series was perforated duodenal ulcer (26.4 %) and ileal typhoid perforation (26.4 %), each followed by small bowel tuberculosis (10.3 %) and stomach perforation (9.2 %), perforation due to acute appendicitis (5 %). The highest number of perforations was seen in ileum (39.1 %), duodenum (26.4 %), stomach (11.5 %), appendix (3.5 %), jejunum (4.6 %), and colon (3.5 %). Overall mortality was 13 %. The spectrum of perforation peritonitis in India continuously differs from western countries. The highest number of perforations was noticed in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract as compared to the western countries where the perforations seen mostly in the distal part. The most common cause of perforation peritonitis was perforated duodenal ulcer and small bowel typhoid perforation followed by typhoid perforation. Large bowel perforations and malignant perforations were least common in our setup.

  8. The "Paradox" of Being Young in New Delhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg, Elizabeth Williams

    This thesis attempts to understand the ways in which popular film is integrated into the everyday lives of urban middle class youth in India. Approaching the study of film through an audience reception approach, I engaged in participant observation and interviews during a fieldwork period in New...... Delhi in order to better understand how a young audience might negotiate the fantasy of filmic images into the reality of their own lives. The two movies, Salaam Namaste and Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna (KANK), provided the platform for discussing sensitive or taboo topics in the interviews as well...

  9. New directions: Air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Khare, Mukesh; Harrison, Roy M.; Bloss, William J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Coe, Hugh; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Most major cities around the world experience periods of elevated air pollution levels, which exceed international health-based air quality standards (Kumar et al., 2013). Although it is a global problem, some of the highest air pollution levels are found in rapidly expanding cities in India and China. The sources, emissions, transformations and broad effects of meteorology on air pollution are reasonably well accounted in air quality control strategies in many developed cities; however these key factors remain poorly constrained in the growing cities of countries with emerging economies. We focus here on Delhi, one of the largest global population centres, which faces particular air pollution challenges, now and in the future.

  10. Worldwide WANO biennial in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrubelova, A.

    2010-01-01

    At the turn of January and February 2010, there was an annual general conference of the World Association of Nuclear Operators - WANO held in Delhi, India. One of the representatives, participating on behalf of Slovenske elektrarne, was also Mr. Robert Guns, a former Director of Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant. After his return from India, he was approached by Anna Vrubelova. (author)

  11. Effect of modelling slum populations on influenza spread in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangzhuo; Chu, Shuyu; Chungbaek, Youngyun; Khan, Maleq; Kuhlman, Christopher; Marathe, Achla; Mortveit, Henning; Vullikanti, Anil; Xie, Dawen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This research studies the impact of influenza epidemic in the slum and non-slum areas of Delhi, the National Capital Territory of India, by taking proper account of slum demographics and residents’ activities, using a highly resolved social contact network of the 13.8 million residents of Delhi. Methods An SEIR model is used to simulate the spread of influenza on two different synthetic social contact networks of Delhi, one where slums and non-slums are treated the same in terms of their demographics and daily sets of activities and the other, where slum and non-slum regions have different attributes. Results Differences between the epidemic outcomes on the two networks are large. Time-to-peak infection is overestimated by several weeks, and the cumulative infection rate and peak infection rate are underestimated by 10–50%, when slum attributes are ignored. Conclusions Slum populations have a significant effect on influenza transmission in urban areas. Improper specification of slums in large urban regions results in underestimation of infections in the entire population and hence will lead to misguided interventions by policy planners. PMID:27687898

  12. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  13. 9 CFR 4.10 - Summary action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Summary action. 4.10 Section 4.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT Supplemental Rules of...

  14. INVENTORY OF GREEN HOUSE GASES AND OTHER POLLUTANTS FROM THE TRANSPORT SECTOR: DELHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SHARMA, R. PUNDIR

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Delhi is the most urbanized city in India. Inventory estimates for the emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants like CO2, CO, NOx, and volatile organic compound from transport sector in Delhi, has been developed using bottom up approach provided by Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC-1996. The impacts of policy option in transport sector like introduction of Compressed Natural Gas for public transport in Delhi and introduction of Euro-1 norms for vehicles have also been estimated. The emission inventory reveals that total emission of pollutants from different categories vehicles have increased during the period 1990-2000. For example, the CO2 emission (1000, tones from gasoline driven vehicle (MC/SC in Delhi has increased from 766 in 1990-91 to 1187 in 1999-00. The diesel driven vehicles Light commercial vehicles in Delhi has contributed to 577 CO2 in 1990-91, which increased to 9779 in 1999-00. For other pollutants also, which have been estimated here, an increase in total emission from gasoline and diesel driven vehicles has been observed during this 1990-2000 periods. This study shows that the over all contribution of pollutants in the total emissions from gasoline and diesel driven vehicles have increased in Delhi during this period. The present study also shows that the implementation of Euro-1 in 2000 in Delhi has resulted in the decrease of total emission of CO, HC, NOx, and volatile organic compound for all the classes of vehicle for which the revised vehicle emissions norms were implemented. However this decrease in emission has become inefficient due to increase in vehicle population.

  15. India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Interest has grown recently in the issues of third tier or emerging nuclear suppliers. These are states that could export nuclear equipment, services, or technology but are outside the export control framework of the London Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG). The concern is that they may conduct nuclear trade without adequate safeguards, thus weakening the nonproliferation regime or even contributing to nuclear proliferation. The volume of nuclear sales by emerging suppliers is still minuscule, and it is unclear how far their export practices will diverge from the NSG framework. This case study of Indian nuclear supplier capability and practice is an effort to discern the type of path India is likely to adopt. This paper examines four aspects of India's nuclear activity for clues to India's potential role as an emerging nuclear supplier: foreign transactions; nuclear decision making; policy norms; and nuclear industrial capabilities

  16. A failure of the Red Pierrot Talicada nyseus Guérin-Méneville, 1843 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae butterfly to colonize Delhi area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv K. Singh Bais

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Red Pierrot Talicada nyseus Guérin-Méneville, 1843 is a butterfly of the semi-arid plains. Its historical distribution range includes Sri Lanka, southern India, northeastern India and Myanmar. It was recently reported from a few places in northern India far away from its known range boundaries in India. Dehradun, Kumaon Himalaya, Delhi and Kalatop are the places from where it has been reported in the recent past. Talicada nyseus nyseus appeared in the Delhi area in 2008, survived and bred for more than a year and then suddenly disappeared in the summer of 2009. The appearance of T.n. nyseus in Dehradun has been linked to the introduction of Kalanchoe ornamental plants in the newly developed residential areas. This paper examines the likely reasons for its disappearance from the Delhi area.

  17. 18 CFR 4.10 - Valuation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROJECT COSTS Determination of Fair Value of Constructed Projects, Under Section 23(a) of the Act § 4.10... Power Act that requires the determination of the fair value of a project already constructed, the...

  18. Service Evaluation in a Special Library: Supporting Development Research at the Institute of Social Sciences Library, New Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sharmila

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the development of special libraries to meet demands of interdisciplinary information and describes the library at The Institute of Social Sciences, New Delhi (India) which establishes a synergy between research and information derived from research through a computerized information management system. Considers evaluation of special…

  19. Restoration of mangroves along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    of various measures taken by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. New Delhi, conservation and management policies were initiated between 1985-1995. During this period it was observed, with remote sensing techniques, that vast...

  20. Dalit Women's Rights and Citizenship in India - Phase I | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dalit Women's Rights and Citizenship in India - Phase I ... little occupational diversification, and little voice in the domestic or public sphere. ... Delhi; organised by Indian Institute of Dalit Studies and International Development Research Centre.

  1. Desirable factors for maintaining normal BMI of urban affluent women of Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Anu Taneja Gupta; Anupa Siddhu

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify desirable social, familial, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle factors for maintaining normal body mass index (BMI) of urban affluent women (25-45 years) in Delhi, India. A total of 387 urban affluent women with at least one living child participated in this cross-sectional study conducted from March 2008 to April 2010. Women were classified into four BMI categories on the basis of World Health Organization (WHO; 2004) classification for Asians. Significant facto...

  2. Deformation behavior of migmatites: insights from microstructural analysis of a garnet-sillimanite-mullite-quartz-feldspar-bearing anatectic migmatite at Rampura-Agucha, Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt, NW India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Abhishek; Piazolo, Sandra; Saha, Lopamudra; Bhattacharya, Abhijit; Pal, Durgesh Kumar; Sarkar, Saheli

    2018-03-01

    In the present study we investigate the microstructural development in mullite, quartz and garnet in an anatectic migmatite hosted within a Grenvillian-age shear zone in the Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt. The migmatite exhibits three main deformation structures and fabrics (S1, S2, S3). Elongated garnet porphyroblasts are aligned parallel to the metatexite S2 layers and contain crenulation hinges defined by biotite-sillimanite-mullite-quartz (with S1 axial planar foliation). Microstructural evidence and phase equilibrium relations establish the garnet as a peritectic phase of incongruent melting by breakdown of biotite, sillimanite ± mullite and quartz at peak P-T of 8 kbar, 730 °C along a tight-loop, clockwise P-T path. Monazite dating establishes that the partial melting occurred between 1000 and 870 Ma. The absence of subgrains and systematic crystal lattice distortions in these garnets despite their elongation suggests growth pseudomorphing pre-existing 3-D networks of S1 biotite aggregates rather than high-temperature crystal plastic deformation which is noted in the S1 quartz grains that exhibit strong crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), undulatory extinction and subgrains. Mode-I fractures in these garnet porphyroblasts induced by high melt pressure during late stage of partial melt crystallization are filled by retrograde biotite-sillimanite. Weak CPO and non-systematic crystal lattice distortions in the coarse quartz grains within the S2 leucosome domains indicate these crystallized during melt solidification without later crystal plastic deformation overprint. In the later stages of deformation (D3), strain was mostly accommodated in the mullite-biotite-sillimanite-rich restite domains forming S3 which warps around garnet and leucosome domains; consequently, fine-grained S3 quartz does not exhibit strong CPOs.

  3. Evolution of on-road vehicle exhaust emissions in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rahul; Guttikunda, Sarath K.

    2015-03-01

    For a 40-year horizon (1990-2030), on-road vehicle exhaust emissions were evaluated, retrospectively and prospectively, for the largest urban agglomeration in India - the Greater Delhi region with a combined population of 22 million in 2011 (Delhi along with Ghaziabad, Noida, Greater Noida, Faridabad and Gurgaon). Emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) reached their peak during late 1990s through early 2000s after which they reduced significantly through year 2012. On the other hand, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon dioxide show an increasing trend. The most reduction in emissions between 1998 and 2012 occurred as a result of implementation of four sets of vehicular emission standards, removal of lead, reduction of sulfur content, mandatory retirement of older commercial vehicles, and conversion of diesel and petrol run public transport vehicles to compressed natural gas. In addition, changes in the vehicular technology have also contributed to controlling emissions especially in case of auto-rickshaws and motorized two-wheelers, which changed from two-stroke to four-stroke. The rising trend of NOx along with the presence of VOCs indicates increasing tendency to form ground-level ozone and as a result, smog in the region. We predict that the current regime of vehicle technology, fuel standards, and high growth rate of private vehicles, is likely to nullify all the past emission reductions by the end of 2020s.

  4. Sewage-Borne Ammonium at a River Bank Filtration Site in Central Delhi, India: Simplified Flow and Reactive Transport Modeling to Support Decision-Making about Water Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Groeschke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian metropolis of Delhi, the Yamuna River is highly influenced by sewage water, which has led to elevated ammonium (NH4+ concentrations up to 20 mg/L in the river water during 2012–2013. Large drinking water production wells located in the alluvial aquifer draw high shares of bank filtrate. Due to the infiltrating river water, the raw water NH4+ concentrations in some wells exceed the threshold value of 0.5 mg/L ammonia-N of the Indian drinking water specifications, making the water unfit for human consumption without prior treatment. However, to meet the city’s growing water demand, it might be advantageous to consider the long-term use of the well field. This requires the development of an adapted post-treatment unit in concert with an adjusted well field management. To better understand the groundwater dynamics and contamination and decontamination times at the well field, a theoretical modeling study has been conducted. The results of 2D numerical modeling reveal that the groundwater flux beneath the river is negligible because of the aquifer and river geometry, indicating that infiltrating river water is not diluted by the ambient groundwater. Increasing the water abstraction in the wells closest to the river would result in a larger share of bank filtrate and a decreasing groundwater table decline. Simplified 1D reactive transport models set up for a distance of 500 m (transect from the riverbank to the first production well showed that the NH4+ contamination will prevail for the coming decades. Different lithological units of the aquifer (sand and kankar—a sediment containing calcareous nodules have a strong influence on the respective contamination and decontamination periods, as the retardation of NH4+ is higher in the kankar than in the sand layer. Although this simplified approach does not allow for a quantification of processes, it can support decision-making about a possible future use of the well field and point to

  5. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    This discussion of India focuses on the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population with development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. India's government views the population problem in the country as extremely serious particularly in relation to the alleviation of poverty. It was the 1st country to introduce a family planning program at the national level. Development plans have consistently treated the population situation as a priority issue. A relatively comprehensive system of data collection for demographic purposes has existed in India for a long time. The 1st census was conducted in 1872. The government has continually worked to maintain the integration of population concerns within overall development planning. The government regards population growth as an impediment to development and views the slow growth in per capita income as being due largely to the rapid population increase which continues to outpace the increases in the gross national product. The government perceives the current rate of population growth as unsatisfactory because it is too high. Mortality levels have dropped considerably, but the government still considers the situation with regard to mortality as unacceptable. In 1980 the UN estimated the infant mortality rate was 128.9 infant deaths/1000 live births for the 1975-80 period. The total fertility rate, as estimated by the UN, is reported to have dropped from 6.3 births per woman in 1960 to 6.0 in 1970 and 5.0 in 1980. The government has continuously indicated concern with fertility levels, perceiving the situation as unsatisfactory because its

  6. Transport and land-use policies in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Geetam

    2003-01-01

    Current transportation policies in mega-cities worldwide lead to major threats to health through traffic injuries, air pollution, noise, reduction in physical activities, and adverse impact on urban quality of life. In addition, a large section of the population in cities in low-income countries has to live in informal-sector, substandard housing. Many transportation policies fail to take enough account of their impacts on poverty and social exclusion, and they neglect the access and transportation demands of the more economically disadvantaged groups of society, who rely mostly on public transportation, walking, and cycling. Delhi, the capital city of India, is an interesting case because failure to consider the broad spectrum of health effects that may result from transport and land-use policies and investments has resulted in decisions that penalize the least affluent groups of the population and make it more difficult for them to get to jobs, education, health care, amenities, and services.

  7. Deepak Pental, Univ. Delhi South Campus, New Delhi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    admin

    Oilseed mustard is grown in around 6-7 million hectares of land, mostly in the north- western dryland regions of India during the winter season. In 1993 our group made a major observation that hybrids between mustard lines of Indian gene pool and lines of east European gene pool are heterotic for yield. It took about 10 ...

  8. Air quality assessment in Delhi: before and after CNG as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelani, Asha B; Devotta, Sukumar

    2007-02-01

    A number of policy measures have been activated in India in order to control the levels of air pollutants such as particulate matter, sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Delhi, which is one of the most polluted cities in the world, is also going through the implementation phase of the control policies. Ambient air quality data monitored during 2000 to 2003, at 10 sites in Delhi, were analyzed to assess the impact of implementation of these measures, specifically fuel change in vehicles. This paper presents the impact of policy measures on ambient air quality levels and also the source apportionment. CO and NO(2) concentration levels in ambient air are found to be associated with the mobile sources. The temporal variation of air quality data shows the significant effect of shift to CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) in vehicles.

  9. Quality medicines for the poor: experience of the Delhi programme on rational use of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, R Roy; Parameswar, R; Gupta, U; Sharma, S; Tekur, U; Bapna, J S

    2005-03-01

    Prior to 1994, most Delhi hospitals and dispensaries experienced constant shortages of essential medicines. There was erratic prescribing of expensive branded products, frequent complaints about poor drug quality and low patient satisfaction. Delhi took the lead in developing a comprehensive Drug Policy in 1994 and was the only Indian state to have such a comprehensive policy. The policy's main objective is to improve the availability and accessibility of quality essential drugs for all those in need. The Delhi Society for the Promotion of Rational Use of Drugs (DSPRUD), a non-governmental organization, worked in close collaboration with the Delhi Government and with universities to implement various components of the policy. The first Essential Drugs List (EDL) was developed, a centralized pooled procurement system was set up and activities promoting rational use of drugs were initiated. In 1997, the Delhi Programme was designated the INDIA-WHO Essential Drugs Programme by the World Health Organization. The EDL was developed by a committee consisting of a multidisciplinary group of experts using balanced criteria of efficacy, safety, suitability and cost. The first list contained 250 drugs for hospitals and 100 drugs for dispensaries; the list is revised every 2 years. The pooled procurement system, including the rigorous selection of suppliers with a minimum annual threshold turnover and the introduction of Good Manufacturing Practice inspections, resulted in the supply of good quality drugs and in holding down the procurement costs of many drugs. Bulk purchasing of carefully selected essential drugs was estimated to save nearly 30% of the annual drugs bill for the Government of Delhi, savings which were mobilized for procuring more drugs, which in turn improved availability of drugs (more than 80%) at health facilities. Further, training programmes for prescribers led to a positive change in prescribing behaviour, with more than 80% of prescriptions being from

  10. Identification by Molecular Methods and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of Clinically Significant Rare Aspergillus Species in a Referral Chest Hospital in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masih, Aradhana; Singh, Pradeep K; Kathuria, Shallu; Agarwal, Kshitij; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus species cause a wide spectrum of clinical infections. Although Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus remain the most commonly isolated species in aspergillosis, in the last decade, rare and cryptic Aspergillus species have emerged in diverse clinical settings. The present study analyzed the distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of rare Aspergillus species in clinical samples from patients with suspected aspergillosis in 8 medical centers in India. Further, a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in-house database was developed to identify these clinically relevant Aspergillus species. β-Tubulin and calmodulin gene sequencing identified 45 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level, except for a solitary isolate. They included 23 less common Aspergillus species belonging to 12 sections, mainly in Circumdati, Nidulantes, Flavi, Terrei, Versicolores, Aspergillus, and Nigri Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identified only 8 (38%) of the 23 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level. Following the creation of an in-house database with the remaining 14 species not available in the Bruker database, the MALDI-TOF MS identification rate increased to 95%. Overall, high MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were noted for amphotericin B in 29% of the rare Aspergillus species, followed by voriconazole in 20% and isavuconazole in 7%, whereas MICs of >0.5 μg/ml for posaconazole were observed in 15% of the isolates. Regarding the clinical diagnoses in 45 patients with positive rare Aspergillus species cultures, 19 (42%) were regarded to represent colonization. In the remaining 26 patients, rare Aspergillus species were the etiologic agent of invasive, chronic, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, keratitis, and mycetoma. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Identification by Molecular Methods and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of Clinically Significant Rare Aspergillus Species in a Referral Chest Hospital in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masih, Aradhana; Singh, Pradeep K.; Kathuria, Shallu; Agarwal, Kshitij

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus species cause a wide spectrum of clinical infections. Although Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus remain the most commonly isolated species in aspergillosis, in the last decade, rare and cryptic Aspergillus species have emerged in diverse clinical settings. The present study analyzed the distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of rare Aspergillus species in clinical samples from patients with suspected aspergillosis in 8 medical centers in India. Further, a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry in-house database was developed to identify these clinically relevant Aspergillus species. β-Tubulin and calmodulin gene sequencing identified 45 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level, except for a solitary isolate. They included 23 less common Aspergillus species belonging to 12 sections, mainly in Circumdati, Nidulantes, Flavi, Terrei, Versicolores, Aspergillus, and Nigri. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identified only 8 (38%) of the 23 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level. Following the creation of an in-house database with the remaining 14 species not available in the Bruker database, the MALDI-TOF MS identification rate increased to 95%. Overall, high MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were noted for amphotericin B in 29% of the rare Aspergillus species, followed by voriconazole in 20% and isavuconazole in 7%, whereas MICs of >0.5 μg/ml for posaconazole were observed in 15% of the isolates. Regarding the clinical diagnoses in 45 patients with positive rare Aspergillus species cultures, 19 (42%) were regarded to represent colonization. In the remaining 26 patients, rare Aspergillus species were the etiologic agent of invasive, chronic, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, keratitis, and mycetoma. PMID:27413188

  12. How can power discourses be changed? : Contrasting the ‘daughter deficit’ policy of the Delhi government with Gandhi and King’s transformational reframing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Sinha (Manisha); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSocial policy impact is partly determined by how policy is articulated and advocated, including which values are highlighted and how. We examine the influence of policy framing and reframing on outcomes, with particular reference to policies of the Delhi state government in India that

  13. A new genus and species Mangalaus krishianusandhanus (Acari: Eriophyidae) from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalaus ikrishianusandhanus n. gen., n. sp., (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea), collected from erineum on the underside of leaves of Cordia dichotoma (Boraginaceae) is described and illustrated from specimens collected at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) in New Delhi, India....

  14. Local and regional interactions between air quality and climate in New Delhi- A sector based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrapu, Pallavi

    Deteriorating air quality is one of the major problems faced worldwide and in particular in Asia. The world's most polluted megacities are located in Asia highlighting the urgent need for efforts to improve the air quality. New Delhi (India), one of the world's most polluted cities, was the host of the Common Wealth Games during the period of 4-14 October 2010. This high profile event provided a good opportunity to accelerate efforts to improve air quality. Computational advances now allow air quality forecast models to fully couple the meteorology with chemical constituents within a unified modeling system that allows two-way interactions. The WRF-Chem model is used to simulate air quality in New Delhi. The thesis focuses on evaluating air quality and meteorology feedbacks. Four nested domains ranging from South Asia, Northern India, NCR Delhi and Delhi city at 45km, 15km, 5km and 1.67km resolution for a period of 20 day (26th Sep--15th Oct, 2010) are used in the study. The predicted mean surface concentrations of various pollutants show similar spatial distributions with peak values in the middle of the domain reflecting the traffic and population patterns in the city. Along with these activities, construction dust and industrial emissions contribute to high levels of criteria pollutants. The study evaluates the WRF-Chem capabilities using a new emission inventory developed over Delhi at a fine resolution of 1.67km and evaluating the results with observational data from 11 monitoring sties placed at various Game venues. The contribution of emission sectors including transportation, power, industry, and domestic to pollutant concentrations at targeted regions are studied and the results show that transportation and domestic sector are the major contributors to the pollution levels in Delhi, followed by industry. Apart from these sectors, emissions outside of Delhi contribute 20-50% to surface concentrations depending on the species. This indicates that pollution

  15. Sterilisation: characteristics of vasectomy acceptors in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, N N

    1993-01-01

    The place of vasectomy within the sterilisation programme in Delhi over the period 1983-88 is reviewed and data on vasectomy acceptance and characteristics of acceptors are analysed. Findings suggest a need to improve the strategy for the promotion of vasectomy within the metropolis.

  16. The "paradox" of being young in New Delhi : urban middle class youth negotiations with popular Indian film

    OpenAIRE

    Williams-Ørberg, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This thesis attempts to understand the ways in which popular film is integrated into the everyday lives of urban middle class youth in India. Approaching the study of film through an audience reception approach, I engaged in participant observation and interviews during a fieldwork period in New Delhi in order to better understand how a young audience might negotiate the fantasy of filmic images into the reality of their own lives. The two movies, Salaam Namaste and Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna (KA...

  17. Differences in Influenza Seasonality by Latitude, Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broor, Shobha; Saha, Siddhartha; Barnes, John; Smith, Catherine; Shaw, Michael; Chadha, Mandeep; Lal, Renu B.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonality of influenza in the tropics complicates vaccination timing. We investigated influenza seasonality in northern India and found influenza positivity peaked in Srinagar (34.09°N) in January–March but peaked in New Delhi (28.66°N) in July–September. Srinagar should consider influenza vaccination in October–November, but New Delhi should vaccinate in May–June. PMID:25279651

  18. An Experiment with Air Purifiers in Delhi during Winter 2015-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Sangita; Srivastav, Nikhil; Spears, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Particulate pollution has important consequences for human health, and is an issue of global concern. Outdoor air pollution has become a cause for alarm in India in particular because recent data suggest that ambient pollution levels in Indian cities are some of the highest in the world. We study the number of particles between 0.5μm and 2.5μm indoors while using affordable air purifiers in the highly polluted city of Delhi. Though substantial reductions in indoor number concentrations are ob...

  19. Caffeine intake among adolescents in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridul Gera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Availability and advertising of caffeinated drinks is on the rise in Indian market. Excess caffeine intake may have deleterious effects on health. Objective: To estimate the daily consumption of caffeine among urban school-going adolescents from Delhi. Materials and Methods: A school-based survey was conducted to determine the amount and pattern of caffeine consumption among students of classes 9-12, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of 300 participants (median age 15 year, 174 boys, 291 (97% were consuming caffeine [mean (SD: 121.0 (98.2 mg/day]. Nineteen (6% students were consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day. Tea/coffee contributed to more than 50% of the caffeine intake. The rest was derived from cola beverages, chocolates, and energy drinks. Conclusion: Average caffeine consumption among school-going adolescents from Delhi is high. The findings of this preliminary survey need to be confirmed in larger data sets.

  20. Dynamic soil properties for microzonation of Delhi, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    present study, shear wave velocity profiles measured in the field at more than ... methods is the best method for measuring the low ..... The authors greatly acknowledge the financial sup- .... of liquefaction potential using field performance data;.

  1. Challenges of mainstreaming: Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government health institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmistha Mallick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to understand the project of mainstreaming in India's health care system that has started with an aim to bring marginalized and alternative systems of medicine in mainstream. The project has gained much attention with the establishment of Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH in the year 2003, which is now a ministry. It has ushered some positive results in terms of growth of AYUSH hospitals and dispensaries. However, it has also raised challenges around the theory and practice of mainstreaming. With an emphasis on Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government Health Institutions, this article has tried to analyze some of those challenges and intricacies. Drawing on Weber's theory of bureaucratization and Giddens's theory of structuration, the paper asks what happens to an alternative medical system when it becomes part of the bureaucratic set-up. Along with the questions of structures, it also tries to combine the question of the agency of both patients and doctors considered to be the cornerstone of the Ayurvedic medical system. Although our study recognizes some of the successes of the mainstreaming project, it also underlines the challenges and problems it faces by analyzing three points of view (institutions, doctors, and patients.

  2. Challenges of mainstreaming: Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Sharmistha

    2016-03-01

    This paper is an attempt to understand the project of mainstreaming in India's health care system that has started with an aim to bring marginalized and alternative systems of medicine in mainstream. The project has gained much attention with the establishment of Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) in the year 2003, which is now a ministry. It has ushered some positive results in terms of growth of AYUSH hospitals and dispensaries. However, it has also raised challenges around the theory and practice of mainstreaming. With an emphasis on Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government Health Institutions, this article has tried to analyze some of those challenges and intricacies. Drawing on Weber's theory of bureaucratization and Giddens's theory of structuration, the paper asks what happens to an alternative medical system when it becomes part of the bureaucratic set-up. Along with the questions of structures, it also tries to combine the question of the agency of both patients and doctors considered to be the cornerstone of the Ayurvedic medical system. Although our study recognizes some of the successes of the mainstreaming project, it also underlines the challenges and problems it faces by analyzing three points of view (institutions, doctors, and patients). Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aural hygiene practices among underprivileged children of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A; Ray, T K; Sahni, J K

    2015-01-01

    Though ear hygiene is important for proper hearing, it is usually neglected. Improper ear care practices may have serious consequences such as loss of hearing. In childhood, loss of hearing may affect learning and development. There is scarcity of information on ear care practices in the community in India. We aimed to ascertain the magnitude of problems related to aural hygiene and assess ear care practices among children of schoolgoing age in a resettlement colony of Delhi. A cross-sectional community-based survey was done among 1398 children 5-14 years of age. The houses were selected by systematic random sampling and all eligible children in the selected house were interviewed and examined. The data were analysed using SPSS version 12 and chi-square test was used to ascertain significance between two variables. Almost two-thirds (60%; 834) of the children gave a history of themselves or an elder cleaning the ear using unhealthy methods. Earbuds were used by 21.7% (304) of children. Match and broomsticks were used for cleaning by 18.3% (256) and 3% (43) of children, respectively. One hundred and fifty-nine children (11.3%) were applying oil to clean the ear canal. Ear cleaning with unhealthy means was significantly higher (56% v. 44%, pmiddle ear infection (p<0.001). A majority of children practised unhealthy/ not recommended methods for cleaning their ear. There is a need to raise awareness about healthy ear cleaning practices in the community. Copyright 2015, NMJI.

  4. Predictors of caregivers’ burden of Parkinson’s disease in India: experience of a tertiary care center in India

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal V; Goyal V; Shukla G; Behari M

    2012-01-01

    Vikas Agrawal,1 Vinay Goyal,2 Garima Shukla,2 Madhuri Behari21Department of Neurology, Yashoda Hospital, Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India; 2Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaIntroduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by increasing dependence on caregivers for activities of daily living that imposes a major burden upon the patients’ caregiver. Caregiver burden (CB) refers to the...

  5. Near Real Time Flood Warning System for National Capital Territory of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, A.; Yadav, H.; Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme floods are common phenomena during Indian Monsoons. The National Capital Territory area of India, Delhi, frequently experiences fluvial as well as pluvial inundation due to its proximity to river Yamuna and poor functioning of its stormwater drainage system. The urban floods result in severe waterlogging and heavy traffic snarls, bringing life in this megapolis to a halt. The city has witnessed six major floods since 1900 and thus its residents are well conscious of potential flood risks but the city still lacks a flood warning system. The flood related risks can be considerably reduced, if not eliminated, by issuing timely warnings and implementing adaptive measures. Therefore, the present study attempts to develop a web based platform that integrates Web-GIS technology and mathematical simulation modelling to provide an effective and reliable early flood warning service for Delhi. The study makes use of India Metorological Department's Doppler radar-derived near real time rainfall estimates of 15 minutes time step. The developed SWMM model has been validated using information from gauges, monitoring sensors and crowd sourcing techniques and utilises capabilities of cloud computing on server side for fast processing. This study also recommends safe evacuation policy and remedial measures for flooding hotspots as part of flood risk management plan. With heightened risk of floods in fast urbanizing areas, this work becomes highly pertinent as flood warning system with adequate lead time can not only save precious lives but can also substantially reduce flood damages.

  6. Long term ionospheric electron content variations over Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Gupta

    Full Text Available Ionospheric electron content (IEC observed at Delhi (geographic co-ordinates: 28.63°N, 77.22°E; geomagnetic co-ordinates: 19.08°N, 148.91°E; dip Latitude 24.8°N, India, for the period 1975–80 and 1986–89 belonging to an ascending phase of solar activity during first halves of solar cycles 21 and 22 respectively have been used to study the diurnal, seasonal, solar and magnetic activity variations. The diurnal variation of seasonal mean of IEC on quiet days shows a secondary peak comparable to the daytime peak in equinox and winter in high solar activity. IECmax (daytime maximum value of IEC, one per day shows winter anomaly only during high solar activity at Delhi. Further, IECmax shows positive correlation with F10.7 up to about 200 flux units at equinox and 240 units both in winter and summer; for greater F10.7 values, IECmax is substantially constant in all the seasons. IECmax and magnetic activity (Ap are found to be positively correlated in summer in high solar activity. Winter IECmax shows positive correlation with Ap in low solar activity and negative correlation in high solar activity in both the solar cycles. In equinox IECmax is independent of Ap in both solar cycles in low solar activity. A study of day-to-day variations in IECmax shows single day and alternate day abnormalities, semi-annual and annual variations controlled by the equatorial electrojet strength, and 27-day periodicity attributable to the solar rotation.

    Key words: Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere · Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere · ionosphere interactions · Radio science (ionospheric physics

  7. Implementation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme through private hospitals of Delhi--policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Garg, C R; Joshi, B C; Rawat, N; Dabla, V; Gupta, A

    2015-01-01

    In India, programme for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is primarily implemented through public health system. State AIDS Control Societies (SACSs) encourage private hospitals to set up integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTCs). However, private hospitals of Delhi did not set up ICTCs. Consequently, there is no information on PMTCT interventions in private hospitals of Delhi. This study was undertaken by Delhi SACS during March 2013 through September 2013 to assess status of implementation of PMTCT programme in various private hospitals of Delhi to assist programme managers in framing national policy to facilitate uniform implementation of National PMTCT guidelines. Out of total 575 private hospitals registered with Government of Delhi, 336 (58.4%) catering to pregnant women were identified. About 100 private hospitals with facility of antenatal care, vaginal/caesarean delivery and postnatal care and minimum 10 indoor beds were selected for study. Study sample comprised of large corporate hospitals (≥100 beds; n = 29), medium-sized hospitals (25 to women tested, 52 (0.14%) were detected HIV-positive. However, against National Policy, HIV testing was done without pre/post-test counselling/or consent of women, no PMTCT protocol existed, delivery of HIV-positive women was not undertaken and no efforts were made to link HIV-positive women to antiretroviral treatment. Major intervention observed was medical termination of pregnancy, which indicates lack of awareness in private hospitals about available interventions under national programme. The role of private hospitals in management of HIV in pregnant women must be recognized and mainstreamed in HIV control efforts. There is an urgent need for capacity building of private health care providers to improve standards of practice. National AIDS Control Organization may consider establishing linkages or adopting model developed by some countries with generalized epidemic for delivering

  8. Seasonal impact of regional outdoor biomass burning on air pollution in three Indian cities: Delhi, Bengaluru, and Pune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianjia; Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Westervelt, Daniel M.; Xia, Karen R.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Cusworth, Daniel H.; Milly, George

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution in many of India's cities exceeds national and international standards, and effective pollution control strategies require knowledge of the sources that contribute to air pollution and their spatiotemporal variability. In this study, we examine the influence of a single pollution source, outdoor biomass burning, on particulate matter (PM) concentrations, surface visibility, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from 2007 to 2013 in three of the most populous Indian cities. We define the upwind regions, or ;airsheds,; for the cities by using atmospheric back trajectories from the HYSPLIT model. Using satellite fire radiative power (FRP) observations as a measure of fire activity, we target pre-monsoon and post-monsoon fires upwind of the Delhi National Capital Region and pre-monsoon fires surrounding Bengaluru and Pune. We find varying contributions of outdoor fires to different air quality metrics. For the post-monsoon burning season, we find that a subset of local meteorological variables (air temperature, humidity, sea level pressure, wind speed and direction) and FRP as the only pollution source explained 39% of variance in Delhi station PM10 anomalies, 77% in visibility, and 30% in satellite AOD; additionally, per unit increase in FRP within the daily airshed (1000 MW), PM10 increases by 16.34 μg m-3, visibility decreases by 0.155 km, and satellite AOD increases by 0.07. In contrast, for the pre-monsoon burning season, we find less significant contributions from FRP to air quality in all three cities. Further, we attribute 99% of FRP from post-monsoon outdoor fires within Delhi's average airshed to agricultural burning. Our work suggests that although outdoor fires are not the dominant air pollution source in India throughout the year, post-monsoon fires contribute substantially to regional air pollution and high levels of population exposure around Delhi. During 3-day blocks of extreme PM2.5 in the 2013 post-monsoon burning season, which coincided

  9. Incredible India: the inconvenient truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundkur, Bal

    2011-01-01

    The author's objective is to correct many of the misconceptions about India and to combat mistaken analysis. He highlights the hundreds of millions who live in poverty, the rampant corruption and the incompetence of the administration. He asserts that comparisons with China are always to the disadvantage of India, except in the field of democracy, and suggests that the Indian Space Programme is symptomatic of a wide-spread misallocation of resources. And to suggest that the traffic problems in Delhi and Mumbai are being caused by more motor vehicles is a misdiagnosis. The real cause is an increase in the number of bullock carts.

  10. "My body breaks. I take solution." Inhalant use in Delhi as pleasure seeking at a cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigengack, Roy

    2014-07-01

    Inhalant use has existed in India since the 1970s and has increased significantly over the last decades, especially among street-oriented young people. The latter constitute a heterogeneous category: children from street families, children 'of' the street, rag pickers, and part-time street children. There are also inhalant-using schoolchildren and young people in slums. Fieldwork was conducted for 1 year. Team ethnography, multi-sited and comparative research, flexibility of methods and writing field notes were explicit parts of the research design. Most research was undertaken with six groups in four areas of Delhi, exemplifying six generic categories of inhalant-using street-oriented young people. Inhalants in India are branded: Eraz-Ex diluter and whitener, manufactured by Kores, are used throughout Delhi; Omni glue in one specific area. There is a general lack of awareness and societal indifference towards inhalant use, with the exception of the inhalant users themselves, who possess practical knowledge. They conceive of inhalants as nasha, encapsulating the materiality of the substances and the experiential aspects of intoxication and addiction. Fragments of group interviews narrate the sensory appeal of inhalants, and an ethnographic vignette the dynamics of a sniffing session. These inhalant-using street children seek intoxication in a pursuit of pleasure, despite the harm that befalls them as a result. Some find nasha beautiful, notwithstanding the stigmatization, violence and bodily deterioration; others experience it as an overpowering force. A source of attraction and pleasure, inhalants ravage street children's lives. In this mysterious space of lived experience, their self-organization evolves. Distinguishing between hedonic and side effects, addiction helps to understand inhalant use as at once neurobiological, cultural, and involving agency. The implications are that India needs to develop a policy of treatment and employment to deal with the

  11. Uptake of Elements From Aerosols by Humans ~ A Case Study From Delhi & Bangalore Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S.; Yadav, S.; Jain, V. K.

    2006-05-01

    Aerosol research has gained tremendous importance globally due to the cumulative effects of increasing industrialization and urbanization on aerosol production which can have an alarming impact on the climate of the planet as well as the health of its inhabitants. Therefore, there is an increasing need to study aerosols for all of their physicochemical and biological aspects on both local and global scales. World over extensive research has gone into studying the physical and the chemical aspects of aerosols. However, little information is yet available on the health impacts of aerosols particularly in the Asian context. Here we report uptake of various elements that are concentrated in aerosols by the human body in Delhi and Bangalore cities and their possible health effects. In many urban areas, for example in Delhi, inhalable fractions of aerosols are known to have high concentrations of elements such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Ba, Ni and Cr (Yadav and Rajamani 2004). Also aerosols in the North West part of India seem to be particularly enriched in these elements. If so, there is a high possibility of these elements getting into the human system either directly or indirectly through water and food. To determine the concentrations of these elements that are present in significant concentrations in the inhalable fractions of aerosols, human hair and blood samples are used as proxies. Both these regions have contrasting geographic and climatic conditions. Delhi (altitude : 213-305m above MSL) located on the fringes of the Thar desert which supplies considerable amount of dust, is semi-arid with annual rainfall of 60-80 cms & temperatures varying between 1° - 45°. Bangalore (altitude of 900m above MSL) receives a high annual rainfall of 80-100 cms and being located on the fringes of tropical forests of the Sahyadri Mountains (Western Ghats) receives little crustal contribution to the aerosols. Samples from least polluted mountainous areas of Himalayas (Gangothri) and Sahyadri

  12. An Experiment with Air Purifiers in Delhi during Winter 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Sangita; Srivastav, Nikhil; Spears, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Particulate pollution has important consequences for human health, and is an issue of global concern. Outdoor air pollution has become a cause for alarm in India in particular because recent data suggest that ambient pollution levels in Indian cities are some of the highest in the world. We study the number of particles between 0.5μm and 2.5μm indoors while using affordable air purifiers in the highly polluted city of Delhi. Though substantial reductions in indoor number concentrations are observed during air purifier use, indoor air quality while using an air purifier is frequently worse than in cities with moderate pollution, and often worse than levels observed even in polluted cities. When outdoor pollution levels are higher, on average, indoor pollution levels while using an air purifier are also higher. Moreover, the ratio of indoor air quality during air purifier use to two comparison measures of air quality without an air purifier are also positively correlated with outdoor pollution levels, suggesting that as ambient air quality worsens there are diminishing returns to improvements in indoor air quality during air purifier use. The findings of this study indicate that although the most affordable air purifiers currently available are associated with significant improvements in the indoor environment, they are not a replacement for public action in regions like Delhi. Although private solutions may serve as a stopgap, reducing ambient air pollution must be a public health and policy priority in any region where air pollution is as high as Delhi's during the winter.

  13. New Delhi Metallo – beta lactamase – 1 containing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-02-13

    Feb 13, 2012 ... Diagnosis, Treatment and Public health concern ... resistance is because of a carbapenemase enzyme called NDM- 1 (New Delhi Metallo-betalactamase - .... The activity of these enzymes can be inhibited by Zinc chelating.

  14. Awareness and practices regarding bio-medical waste management among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagawati, G; Nandwani, S; Singhal, S

    2015-01-01

    Health care institutions are generating large amount of Bio-Medical Waste (BMW), which needs to be properly segregated and treated. With this concern, a questionnaire based cross-sectional study was done to determine the current status of awareness and practices regarding BMW Management (BMWM) and areas of deficit amongst the HCWs in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. The correct responses were graded as satisfactory (more than 80%), intermediate (50-80%) and unsatisfactory (less than 50%). Some major areas of deficit found were about knowledge regarding number of BMW categories (17%), mercury waste disposal (37.56%) and definition of BMW (47%).

  15. Awareness and practices regarding bio-medical waste management among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bhagawati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Health care institutions are generating large amount of Bio-Medical Waste (BMW, which needs to be properly segregated and treated. With this concern, a questionnaire based cross-sectional study was done to determine the current status of awareness and practices regarding BMW Management (BMWM and areas of deficit amongst the HCWs in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. The correct responses were graded as satisfactory (more than 80%, intermediate (50–80% and unsatisfactory (less than 50%. Some major areas of deficit found were about knowledge regarding number of BMW categories (17%, mercury waste disposal (37.56% and definition of BMW (47%.

  16. Effect of dietary habits on prevalence of anemia in pregnant women of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jai Bhagwan; Soni, Dimple; Murthy, Nandagudi Srinivasa; Malhotra, Monika

    2003-04-01

    To see the effect of various dietary habits, such as a vegetarian diet or various types of meat, on the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women. A study was carried out in Delhi to determine the effect of different dietary habits on prevalence of anemia during pregnancy by questioning the women during pregnancy regarding their dietary habits (vegetarian diet, jhatka or halal meat) and assessing their hemoglobin levels. The data was compiled and chi2 test was employed for understanding the associations between the effect of food habits on prevalence of anemia. Mean age was 26.5 years. Most women were in the second (26%) or third trimester (63.2%) of pregnancy. Prevalence of anemia was found to be very high. Of 1150 women, 96% were anemic (89.8% mildly anemic, 5.3% severely anemic). Anemia was seen in 96.18% cases in vegetarian women, 95.3% in halal meat eaters, and 96.2% in jhatka meat eaters (not significant). Although the percentage of women with halal meat eaters and vegetarians, the difference was not statistically significant. There is very high prevalence of anemia during pregnancy in Delhi, probably due to very low frequency of meat eating in India. Different types of dietary habits had no effect on the prevalence of anemia in pregnant Indian women.

  17. Firecracker injuries during Diwali festival: The epidemiology and impact of legislation in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Tandon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting and Design: A hospital-based retrospective study of firecracker-related injuries was carried out at a government sponsored hospital in Delhi. Materials and Methods: 1373 patients attended the emergency burn care out-patients clinic during 2002-2010 pre-Diwali, Diwali and post-Diwali days. Every year, a disaster management protocol is revoked during these 3 days under the direct supervision of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Results: There was an increase in the number of patients of firecracker-related injuries in Delhi national capital region from the year 2002 to 2010, based on the hospital statistics. During the study period, the hospital received approximately one patient with firecracker-related injury per 100,000 population of the city. 73.02% of the victims were 5-30 years old. Majority (90.87% of them sustained <5% total body surface area burn. Conclusions: In spite of legislations and court orders, the number of patients is on the rise. The implementation agencies have to analyse the situation to find a way to control this preventable manmade accident. Websites, emails, SMS, social sites, etc. should be used for public education, apart from conventional methods of public awareness.

  18. Perception of stigma towards TB among patients on DOTS & patients attending general OPD in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Tanu; Kumar, D Arun; Sharma, Nandini; Saha, Renuka; Krishnamurthy, Laxmi; Singh, S V; Ingle, G K

    2014-01-01

    In India, Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a public health problem. One of the key reasons for it is the stigma associated with the disease which affects the treatment seeking behaviour and hence the outcome. To assess the perceived and enacted stigma among TB patients and perceptions of other patients related to TB in Central Delhi. A cross-sectional study conducted in urban field practice area of a medical college of Delhi, using a pre-designed questionnaire containing items for assessment of stigma being faced by a TB patient in family, social life and workplace. It also contained questions pertaining to reaction of patients from general OPD to a family member who develops TB. A total of 100 patients on DOTS and 200 patients from general OPD were interviewed. There were 21 patients who reported to have delayed treatment seeking due to stigma. Nearly one third patients (n=34; 34%) noted negative changes in the behaviour of their family members towards them while 40% were isolated on being diagnosed with the disease. Out of the 36 employed TB patients, 65.5% (n=23) experienced negative change in the behaviour of their colleagues. In general OPD patients, significantly higher proportion of female patients said that they would not disclose the disease status of a family member suffering from TB to their neighbours (pstigma like delayed treatment seeking.

  19. Cardiovascular risk behavior among students of a Medical College in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rustagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life style related behavioural risk factors are mainly implicated for increased burden of cardio- vascular diseases. Research related to these risk behaviours especially among medical students is essential, considering their role as future physicians and role models in public health intervention programmes. Objective: To evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk behaviours among students of a medical college of Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among undergraduate medical students of a medical college in Delhi. Self administered questionnaire was used to collect information on identification data and risk behaviours in relation to cardiovascular diseases. Binary logistic regression analysis was done to calculate adjusted odds ratio to assess association between risk behaviours and covariates. Results: The minimum recommendation of taking at least five servings per day of fruits and vegetables was complied only by 12% of students. Consumption of carbonated soft drinks either once or more on daily basis was present in 23.7% students and 32.0% reported frequent consumption of fast foods in past week. Consumption of alcohol was present in 28.8% students but only small proportion of students (7% was current tobacco users. Large proportions of students (42.6% were either not carrying out or were involved in only occasional physical activity in past week. Conclusions: Unhealthy behavioural practises are present and may progress as student advance through medical college. Developing strategies targeting at these risk behaviours and determining factors is necessary to promote healthy life style among medical students.

  20. Military Strategy Of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Zaitsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of military strategy of the Republic of India and key factors that influences its development. New Delhi keeps an eye on the balance of power in South Asia to create favorable conditions for its economic and social development, yet the remaining threats and new challenges still undermine the security and stability in India. The ambitions of China aspiring to power in Asia-Pacific region, combined with its immense military build-up and territorial disputes, cause disturbance in New Delhi. The remaining tensions between India and Pakistan also cause often border skirmishes and medium-scale conflicts. Close relations between China and Pakistan, labeled as “all-weather friendship”, are a source of major concern for India. The fact that both Beijing and Islamabad wield nuclear weapons means that without effective mechanisms of nuclear deterrence any military conflict may turn into a full-scale nuclear war. Terrorist activities and insurgency in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and in the North-Eastern regions of the country, along with maritime piracy and illicit drug trafficking contribute to the complicated nature of the challenges to the Indian security. Indian military strategy is considered as a combination of the army doctrine, maritime doctrine and nuclear doctrine. The Indian political and military leadership wants to meet the challenges of changing geopolitical environment and thus continuously adapts its strategy. However, there is still a gap between theory and practice: Indian armed forces lack the capacity to implement the declared goals because of bulky bureaucratic system, outdated military equipment and insufficient level of command and control. The government needs to mobilize political will and administrative resources to upgrade its defense sector to counter its security threats and challenges.

  1. Poverty, inequality and violence in urban India: Towards more ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Yet, as populations increasingly urbanize, Indian cities are experiencing high levels of tension over limited resources such as land, water, and finance. Traditional urban planning ... Symposium on Making Cities Safe and Inclusive : Perspectives from South Asia, 21st November 2015, India Islamic Centre, New Delhi. Articles.

  2. 76 FR 17622 - U.S. Education Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... include one-on-one appointments with potential partners, embassy briefings, student fairs and networking events in New Delhi, Chennai and Mumbai, three of the top cities for recruiting Indian students to the... capital city of India. This visit would give the delegates an opportunity to directly interact with...

  3. Clock synchronisation experiment in India using symphonie satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somayajulu, Y. V.; Mathur, B. S.; Banerjee, P.; Garg, S. C.; Singh, L.; Sood, P. C.; Tyagi, T. R.; Jain, C. L.; Kumar, K.

    1979-01-01

    A recent clock synchronization experiment between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), New Delhi and Space Applications Center (SAC), Ahemedabad, in India via geostationary satellite symphonie 2, stationed at 49 E longitude, is reported. A two-way transmission using a microwave transponder considered to provide the greatest precision in synchronization of two remote clocks is described.

  4. Why women choose to give birth at home: a situational analysis from urban slums of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; George, Mathew Sunil; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Negandhi, Himanshu; Alagh, Gursimran; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increasing institutional births is an important strategy for attaining Millennium Development Goal -5. However, rapid growth of low income and migrant populations in urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, including India, presents unique challenges for programmes to improve utilisation of institutional care. Better understanding of the factors influencing home or institutional birth among the urban poor is urgently needed to enhance programme impact. To measure the prevalence of home and institutional births in an urban slum population and identify factors influencing these events. Design Cross-sectional survey using quantitative and qualitative methods. Setting Urban poor settlements in Delhi, India. Participants A house-to-house survey was conducted of all households in three slum clusters in north-east Delhi (n=32 034 individuals). Data on birthing place and sociodemographic characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires (n=6092 households). Detailed information on pregnancy and postnatal care was obtained from women who gave birth in the past 3 months (n=160). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from the community and healthcare facilities. Results Of the 824 women who gave birth in the previous year, 53% (95% CI 49.7 to 56.6) had given birth at home. In adjusted analyses, multiparity, low literacy and migrant status were independently predictive of home births. Fear of hospitals (36%), comfort of home (20.7%) and lack of social support for child care (12.2%) emerged as the primary reasons for home births. Conclusions Home births are frequent among the urban poor. This study highlights the urgent need for improvements in the quality and hospitality of client services and need for family support as the key modifiable factors affecting over two-thirds of this population. These findings should inform the design of strategies to promote institutional births. PMID:24852297

  5. A Mediation Analysis of a Tobacco Prevention Program for Adolescents in India: How Did Project MYTRI Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, Melissa Harrell; Perry, Cheryl L.; Smolenski, Derek; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of a mediation analysis of Project MYTRI (Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives in India), a randomized, controlled trial of a multiple-component, school-based tobacco prevention program for sixth- to ninth-graders (n = 14,085) in Delhi and Chennai, India. A mediation analysis identifies "how"…

  6. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in adults: An epidemiological study in eight cities of India

    OpenAIRE

    Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Kalra, Sanjay; Sahay, Rakesh Kumar; Bantwal, Ganapathi; John, Mathew; Tewari, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hypothyroidism is believed to be a common health issue in India, as it is worldwide. However, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of hypothyroidism in adult population of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, multi-centre, epidemiological study was conducted in eight major cities (Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Goa, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Kolkata) of India to study the prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult population. Thyroid abnormalities were diagnos...

  7. General morbidity prevalence in the Delhi slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the sickness prevalence in the slums of a metropolitan city? Objectives: To estimate the morbidity prevalence with reference to a socio-economic and demographic perspective of the slum population of Delhi. Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted and data were collected by a two-stage random sampling method. In the first stage, slum locations were selected and in the second stage households were selected. Participants: Data were collected from 1049 households consisting of 5358 individuals′ information. Results: The overall morbidity prevalence is 15.4%. It is 14.7 and 16.3% for males and females, respectively but the differences are not statistically significant. The reported higher morbidity prevalence and the illiteracy status are significantly associated. Diseases of the respiratory system appear to be very high among slum dwellers. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the number of years of staying in the slum area, presence of a separate kitchen, type of house, it being Pucca or Kuccha, types of toilet pits or open defecation are the important environmental factors for the reports of higher morbidity patterns from the slum area.

  8. Passive air sampling of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai: Levels, homologous profiling and source apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Cheng, Hairong; Balasubramanian, Prithiviraj; Li, Jun; Jones, Kevin C

    2017-12-01

    Several studies in the recent past reported new sources for industrial persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from metropolitan cities of India. To fill the data gap for atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polyurethane foam disk passive air sampling (PUF-PAS) was conducted along urban-suburban-rural transects in four quadrilateral cities viz., New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai from northern, eastern, western and southern India respectively. Average concentration of Σ 8 PBDEs in pg/m 3 for New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai were 198, 135, 264 and 144 respectively. We observed a distinct urban > suburban > rural trend for atmospheric PBDEs in Mumbai. Principal component analysis (PCA) attributed three different source types. BDE-47, -99, -100, -153 and -154 loaded in the first component were relatively high in the sites where industrial and informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities were prevalent. Penta congener, BDE-99 and tetra congener, BDE-47 contributed 50%-75% of total PBDEs. Ratio of BDE-47 and -99 in Indian cities reflected the usage of penta formulations like Bromkal -70DE and DE-71 in the commercial and electrical products. PC-2 was loaded with BDE-28 and -35. Percentage of BDE-28 and BDE-35 (>10%) were comparatively much higher than commercial penta products. Abundance of BDE-28 in majority sites can be primarily due to re-emission from surface soil. PC-3 was loaded with BDE-183 and elevated levels were observed mostly in the industrial corridor of Indian cities. BDE-183 was notably high in the urban industrial sites of New Delhi. We suspect this octa-BDE congener resulted from recycling process of plastic products containing octa-BDE formulation used as flame retardants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antigen sequence typing of outer membrane protein (fetA gene of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A from Delhi & adjoining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dwivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a fatal disease. Meningococcal meningitis is an endemic disease in Delhi and irregular pattern of outbreaks has been reported in India. All these outbreaks were associated with serogroup A. Detailed molecular characterization of N. meningitidis is required for the management of this fatal disease. In this study, we characterized antigenic diversity of surface exposed outer membrane protein (OMP FetA antigen of N. meningitidis serogroup A isolates obtained from cases of invasive meningococcal meningitis in Delhi, India. Methods: Eight isolates of N. meningitidis were collected from cerebrospinal fluid during October 2008 to May 2011 from occasional cases of meningococcal meningitis. Seven isolates were from outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis in 2005-2006 in Delhi and its adjoining areas. These were subjected to molecular typing of fetA gene, an outer membrane protein gene. Results: All 15 N. meningitides isolates studied were serogroup A. This surface exposed porin is putatively under immune pressure. Hence as a part of molecular characterization, genotyping was carried out to find out the diversity in outer membrane protein (FetA gene among the circulating isolates of N. meningitidis. All 15 isolates proved to be of the same existing allele type of FetA variable region (VR when matched with global database. The allele found was F3-1 for all the isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: There was no diversity reported in the outer membrane protein FetA in the present study and hence this protein appeared to be a stable molecule. More studies on molecular characterization of FetA antigen are required from different serogroups circulating in different parts of the world.

  10. Naseema S Beegum, NPL, New Delhi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    accurate representation of aerosol characteristics and forcing in climate models. In this backdrop, the aerosol microphysical properties have been characterized using a synergy of experimental observations from various ground based network observatories and cruise measurements over the oceanic regions around India.

  11. India-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-30

    Trident—along with the main railway terminal, a Jewish cultural center, a café frequented by foreigners, a cinema house, and two hospitals. Six...seats. A mid-2007 visit to New Delhi by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, who was effusive in his praise of India as a “partner and friend,” was...seen by many as part of a long- term Japanese effort to hedge against China’s growing regional influence. Abe and Prime Minister Singh issued a

  12. Prevalence of dental caries among adults and elderly in an urban resettlement colony of New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patro Binod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries remains the most important dental health problem in developing countries. In India the prevalence of dental caries is reported to be about 50-60%. Most of the Indian studies have been carried out in school children and very few in adults. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dental caries in the adult population (aged 35-44 years and in the elderly (60 years and above in an urban resettlement colony in New Delhi. Methodology: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Dakshinpuri, New Delhi, from January to February 2007. A local adaptation of the WHO questionnaire was used. Oral examination was done and dentition status was recorded by trained investigators and according to the standard procedures. Results: A total of 452 participants were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of dental caries in the 35-44 years age-group was 82.4% and it was 91.9% in those ≥60 years. The DMF index was 5.7 ± 4.7 in the 35-44 years age-group and 13.8 ± 9.6 in the ≥60 years age-group. Of the participants, 27.9% were currently using tobacco. A statistically significant association was found between tobacco consumption and dental caries ( P = 0.026. The awareness about good and bad dental practices was found to be low among the study participants. One-fifth of the individuals with dental problems relied on home remedies. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries among adults is high in this population. There is a need to generate awareness about oral health and the prevention of dental caries and to institute measures for the provision of dental care services at the primary level.

  13. Dust storm events over Delhi: verification of dust AOD forecasts with satellite and surface observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditi; Iyengar, Gopal R.; George, John P.

    2016-05-01

    Thar desert located in northwest part of India is considered as one of the major dust source. Dust storms originate in Thar desert during pre-monsoon season, affects large part of Indo-Gangetic plains. High dust loading causes the deterioration of the ambient air quality and degradation in visibility. Present study focuses on the identification of dust events and verification of the forecast of dust events over Delhi and western part of IG Plains, during the pre-monsoon season of 2015. Three dust events have been identified over Delhi during the study period. For all the selected days, Terra-MODIS AOD at 550 nm are found close to 1.0, while AURA-OMI AI shows high values. Dust AOD forecasts from NCMRWF Unified Model (NCUM) for the three selected dust events are verified against satellite (MODIS) and ground based observations (AERONET). Comparison of observed AODs at 550 nm from MODIS with NCUM predicted AODs reveals that NCUM is able to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of dust AOD, in these cases. Good correlation (~0.67) is obtained between the NCUM predicted dust AODs and location specific observations available from AERONET. Model under-predicted the AODs as compared to the AERONET observations. This may be mainly because the model account for only dust and no anthropogenic activities are considered. The results of the present study emphasize the requirement of more realistic representation of local dust emission in the model both of natural and anthropogenic origin, to improve the forecast of dust from NCUM during the dust events.

  14. Microzonation and site-specific ground motion modelling for Delhi city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2002-11-01

    Delhi - the capital of India - lies on a severe earthquake hazard threats not only from the local earthquakes but also from Himalayan events just 200-250 km apart. The seismic ground motion in a part of Delhi City is computed with a hybrid technique based (on the based) on the modal summation and the finite difference scheme for site-specific strong ground motion modelling. Complete realistic SH and P-SV wave seismograms are computed along two geological cross-sections, (1) North-South, from Inter State Bus Terminal (ISBT) to Sewanagar and (2) East- West, from Tilak Bridge to Punjabi Bagh. Two real earthquake sources of July 15, 1720 (MMI=IX, M=7.4) and August 27, 1960 (M=6.0) have been used in the modelling. The response spectra ratio (RSR), i.e. the response spectra computed from the signals synthesized along the laterally varying section normalized by the response spectra computed from the corresponding signals, synthesized for the bedrock reference regional model, have been determined. As expected, the sedimentary cover causes an increase of the signal amplitude particularly in the radial and transverse components. To further check the site-effects, we reversed the source location to the other side of the cross-section and re-computed the site amplifications. There are only a few sites where a large amplification is invariant with respect to the two source locations considered. The RSR ranges between 5 to 10 in the frequency range from 2.8 to 3.7 Hz, for the radial and transverse components of motion along the NS cross-section. Along the EW cross-section RSR varies between 3.5 to 7.5 in the frequency range from 3.5 to 4.1 Hz. The amplification of the vertical component is large at high frequency (>4 Hz) whereas it is negligible in lower frequency range. (author)

  15. An epidemiological profile of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A community-based study in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different definitions used for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD preclude getting reliable prevalence estimates. Study objective was to find the prevalence of COPD as per standard Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, risk factors associated, and treatment seeking in adults >30 years. Methodology: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Delhi, among 1200 adults, selected by systematic random sampling. Pretested questionnaire was used to interview all subjects and screen for symptoms of COPD. Postbronchodilator spirometry was done to confirm COPD. Statistical Analysis: Adjusted odds ratio (aOR was calculated by multivariable analysis to examine the association of risk factors with COPD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was developed to assess predictability. Results: The prevalence of COPD was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.5, 11.9%. Tobacco smoking was the strongest risk factor associated (aOR 9.48; 95% CI 4.22, 14.13 followed by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, occupational exposure, age, and biomass fuel. Each pack-year of smoking increased 15% risk of COPD. Ex-smokers had 63% lesser risk compared to current smokers. Clinical allergy seems to preclude COPD (aOR 0.06; 95% CI 0.02, 0.37. ROC analysis showed 94.38% of the COPD variability can be assessed by this model (sensitivity 57.4%; positive predictive value 93.3%. Only 48% patients were on treatment. Treatment continuation was impeded by its cost. Conclusion: COPD prevalence in the region of Delhi, India, is high, and our case-finding population study identified a high rate of patients who were not on any treatment. Our study adds to creating awareness on the importance of smoking cessation, early diagnosis of COPD, and the need for regular treatment.

  16. Commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Gupta, N C

    2016-01-15

    A public health concern is to understand the linkages between specific pollution sources and adverse health impacts. Commuting can be viewed as one of the significant-exposure activity in high-vehicle density areas. This paper investigates the commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi, India. Air pollution levels are significantly contributed by automobile exhaust and also in-vehicle exposure can be higher sometime than ambient levels. Motorcycle, auto rickshaw, car and bus were selected to study particles concentration along two routes in Delhi between Kashmere Gate and Dwarka. The bus and auto rickshaw were running on compressed natural gas (CNG) while the car and motorcycle were operated on gasoline fuel. Aerosol spectrometer was employed to measure inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles during morning and evening rush hours for five weekdays. From the study, we observed that the concentration levels of these particles were greatly influenced by transportation modes. Concentrations of inhalable particles were found higher during morning in auto rickshaw (332.81 ± 90.97 μg/m(3)) while the commuter of bus exhibited higher exposure of thoracic particles (292.23 ± 110.45 μg/m(3)) and car commuters were exposed to maximum concentrations of alveolic particles (222.37 ± 26.56 μg/m(3)). We observed that in evening car commuters experienced maximum concentrations of all sizes of particles among the four commuting modes. Interestingly, motorcycle commuters were exposed to lower levels of inhalable and thoracic particles during morning and evening hours as compared to other modes of transport. The mean values were found greater than the median values for all the modes of transport suggesting that positive skewed distributions are characteristics of naturally occurring phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. RFID Technology Implementation in Two Libraries in New Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhan, Margam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the use and implementation of RFID technology at the Indian Law Institute Library and National Social Science Documentation Centre Library, New Delhi. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted at the two libraries, using a structured questionnaire comprising 20 questions. Findings: It was…

  18. Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2015-10-14

    The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample ( n =130) were also conducted. Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India.

  19. Nuclear energy in the service of development and peace: the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency. New Delhi, 19 February 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at a meeting held at the India Habitat Centre, New Delhi, 19 February 1999. The following aspects from the Agency's activity are presented to emphasize its role in the use of nuclear energy for development and peace: nuclear power for electricity production, nuclear safety, transfer of nuclear technologies through the technical co-operation programme, safeguards and verification including the strengthened safeguards system, present verification activities and future prospects of verification, illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources

  20. Treatment seeking and health financing in selected poor urban neighbourhoods in India, Indonesia and Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Pannarunothai, Supasit; Padmawati, Retna S

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of socio-economic disparities in relation to treatment-seeking strategies and healthcare expenditures in poor neighbourhoods within larger health systems in four cities in India, Indonesia and Thailand. About 200 households in New Delhi, Bhubaneswar...

  1. Social Justice in India: Perspectives from School Leaders in Diverse Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson W.; Sauers, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on social justice from the perspective of five school leaders in Delhi, India. Four of the schools in the study are affluent. One school serves primarily students who live in extreme poverty. Through interviewing these leaders, two major themes were identified. First, these leaders tended to view human rights as a driver of a…

  2. Fission track dating and uranium estimation in pegmatitic minerals of Rajasthan state (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S; Virk, H S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1978-12-01

    Fission track geochronology of muscovite samples collected from some pegmatitic mines of Bhilwara and Ajmer districts of Rajasthan state (India) has been discussed. The ages obtained suggest the occurrence of Delhi Orogenic Cycle as the last major metamorphic activity in the region. The atomic fraction of uranium in muscovite samples is less than 1 p.p.b.

  3. Found in translation: the correct interpretation of 'Secret Formula or Process' in India's tax treaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanghavi, Dhruv

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the critically reviews of the Delhi High Court in Director of Income Tax v New Skies Satellite BV to interpreting the phrase "secret formula or process" in the India-Netherlands Tax Treaty 1989. It argues that the court's sole reliance on the English version of the text of the

  4. Temporal variability of benzene concentration in the ambient air of Delhi: a comparative assessment of pre- and post-CNG periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khillare, P S; Hoque, Raza Rafiqul; Shridhar, Vijay; Agarwal, Tripti; Balachandran, S

    2008-06-15

    CNG (compressed natural gas) was fully implemented in public transport system in Delhi in December 2002. The study assesses the benzene concentration trends at two busy traffic intersections and a background site in Delhi, India. Monitoring was done for two different time periods viz; in the year 2001-2002 (pre-CNG) and two winter months (January and February) of the year 2007 (post-CNG) to assess the impact of various policy measures adopted by the government of Delhi to improve the air quality in the city. Annual average benzene concentration for the pre-CNG period was found to be 86.47+/-53.24 microg m(-3). Average benzene concentrations for the winter months (January-February) of pre- and post-CNG periods were 116.32+/-51.65 microg m(-3) and 187.49+/-22.50 microg m(-3), respectively. Enhanced values could be solely attributed to the increase in the vehicular population from 3.5 million in the year 2001-2002 to approximately 5.1 millions in the year 2007.

  5. Carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants over Delhi urban environment: Temporal evolution, source apportionment and radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisht, D.S. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India); Dumka, U.C., E-mail: dumka@aries.res.in [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Nainital (India); Kaskaoutis, D.G. [School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Tehsil Dadri (India); Pipal, A.S. [Department of Chemistry, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India); Soni, V.K.; Attri, S.D.; Sateesh, M. [India Meteorology Department, Lodhi Road, New Delhi (India); Tiwari, S. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India)

    2015-07-15

    Particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) samples were collected over Delhi, India during January to December 2012 and analysed for carbonaceous aerosols and inorganic ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}) in order to examine variations in atmospheric chemistry, combustion sources and influence of long-range transport. The PM{sub 2.5} samples are measured (offline) via medium volume air samplers and analysed gravimetrically for carbonaceous (organic carbon, OC; elemental carbon, EC) aerosols and inorganic ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}). Furthermore, continuous (online) measurements of PM{sub 2.5} (via Beta-attenuation analyser), black carbon (BC) mass concentration (via Magee scientific Aethalometer) and carbon monoxide (via CO-analyser) are carried out. PM{sub 2.5} (online) range from 18.2 to 500.6 μg m{sup −3} (annual mean of 124.6 ± 87.9 μg m{sup −3}) exhibiting higher night-time (129.4 μg m{sup −3}) than daytime (103.8 μg m{sup −3}) concentrations. The online concentrations are 38% and 28% lower than the offline during night and day, respectively. In general, larger night-time concentrations are found for the BC, OC, NO{sub 3}{sup −}and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, which are seasonally dependent with larger differences during late post-monsoon and winter. The high correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.74) between OC and EC along with the OC/EC of 7.09 (day time) and 4.55 (night-time), suggest significant influence of biomass-burning emissions (burning of wood and agricultural waste) as well as secondary organic aerosol formation during daytime. Concentrated weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis reveals that the potential sources for the carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants are local emissions within the urban environment and transported smoke from agricultural burning in northwest India during post-monsoon. BC radiative forcing estimates result in very high atmospheric heating rates (~ 1.8–2.0 K day{sup −1}) due to agricultural burning effects

  6. Carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants over Delhi urban environment: Temporal evolution, source apportionment and radiative forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisht, D.S.; Dumka, U.C.; Kaskaoutis, D.G.; Pipal, A.S.; Srivastava, A.K.; Soni, V.K.; Attri, S.D.; Sateesh, M.; Tiwari, S.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) samples were collected over Delhi, India during January to December 2012 and analysed for carbonaceous aerosols and inorganic ions (SO 4 2− and NO 3 − ) in order to examine variations in atmospheric chemistry, combustion sources and influence of long-range transport. The PM 2.5 samples are measured (offline) via medium volume air samplers and analysed gravimetrically for carbonaceous (organic carbon, OC; elemental carbon, EC) aerosols and inorganic ions (SO 4 2− and NO 3 − ). Furthermore, continuous (online) measurements of PM 2.5 (via Beta-attenuation analyser), black carbon (BC) mass concentration (via Magee scientific Aethalometer) and carbon monoxide (via CO-analyser) are carried out. PM 2.5 (online) range from 18.2 to 500.6 μg m −3 (annual mean of 124.6 ± 87.9 μg m −3 ) exhibiting higher night-time (129.4 μg m −3 ) than daytime (103.8 μg m −3 ) concentrations. The online concentrations are 38% and 28% lower than the offline during night and day, respectively. In general, larger night-time concentrations are found for the BC, OC, NO 3 − and SO 4 2− , which are seasonally dependent with larger differences during late post-monsoon and winter. The high correlation (R 2 = 0.74) between OC and EC along with the OC/EC of 7.09 (day time) and 4.55 (night-time), suggest significant influence of biomass-burning emissions (burning of wood and agricultural waste) as well as secondary organic aerosol formation during daytime. Concentrated weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis reveals that the potential sources for the carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants are local emissions within the urban environment and transported smoke from agricultural burning in northwest India during post-monsoon. BC radiative forcing estimates result in very high atmospheric heating rates (~ 1.8–2.0 K day −1 ) due to agricultural burning effects during the 2012 post-monsoon season. - Highlights: • Very high PM 2.5 (> 200 µg m −3 ) levels

  7. Why women choose to give birth at home: a situational analysis from urban slums of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; George, Mathew Sunil; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Negandhi, Himanshu; Alagh, Gursimran; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2014-05-22

    Increasing institutional births is an important strategy for attaining Millennium Development Goal -5. However, rapid growth of low income and migrant populations in urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, including India, presents unique challenges for programmes to improve utilisation of institutional care. Better understanding of the factors influencing home or institutional birth among the urban poor is urgently needed to enhance programme impact. To measure the prevalence of home and institutional births in an urban slum population and identify factors influencing these events. Cross-sectional survey using quantitative and qualitative methods. Urban poor settlements in Delhi, India. A house-to-house survey was conducted of all households in three slum clusters in north-east Delhi (n=32 034 individuals). Data on birthing place and sociodemographic characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires (n=6092 households). Detailed information on pregnancy and postnatal care was obtained from women who gave birth in the past 3 months (n=160). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from the community and healthcare facilities. Of the 824 women who gave birth in the previous year, 53% (95% CI 49.7 to 56.6) had given birth at home. In adjusted analyses, multiparity, low literacy and migrant status were independently predictive of home births. Fear of hospitals (36%), comfort of home (20.7%) and lack of social support for child care (12.2%) emerged as the primary reasons for home births. Home births are frequent among the urban poor. This study highlights the urgent need for improvements in the quality and hospitality of client services and need for family support as the key modifiable factors affecting over two-thirds of this population. These findings should inform the design of strategies to promote institutional births. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  8. Propagation of tides in the Cochin estuarine system, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, K.; Revichandran, C.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Asharaf, T.T.M.; Murukesh, N.

    analysis, (Heritage Publishers, New Delhi) 1988, pp. 400. 10 Srinivas K, Seasonal and interannual variability of sea level and associated surface meteorological parameters at Cochin, Ph.D. thesis, Cochin University of Science and Technology, India, 1999.... 11 Joseph K A, Strait dynamics of tropical tidal inlets, Ph.D. thesis, Cochin University of Science and Technology, India, 1996. 12 Unnikrishnan A S, Shetye S R & Gouveia A D, Tidal propa- gation in the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine network, west coast...

  9. Arikamedu: Its place in the Ancient Rome - India contacts by S. Suresh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    & Environment, 2008. Vol. 33 (2): 113 Arikamedu: Its Place in the Ancient Rome - India Contacts S. Suresh 2007. Delhi: Embassy of Italy, Pages 126. In this book, Sethuraman Suresh has compiled available data on Arikamedu and other equally significant... scattered in various museums and institutes in India and abroad and some are even in private collections. Investigating the antiquity of Arikamedu, the author concludes that trade contacts with the Mediterranean region began in the late 3rd century B...

  10. Anthropometric and Nutritional Profile of People Living with HIV and AIDS in India: an Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, Deepika; Puri, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Background: Importance of nutrition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well-established; however, the information regarding the diet quality of people living with HIV (PLHIV) especially in India is lacking. Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometric and nutritional profile of Indian PLHIV. Material and Methods: The study was performed on 400 adult PLHIV registered at the Antiretroviral Center (ART) center in New Delhi, India. Anthropometric data including he...

  11. New Developments in India–Myanmar Bilateral Relations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gottschlich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with bilateral relations between India and Myanmar. It argues that the current transformation processes offer a unique opportunity for a major readjustment of India’s foreign policy towards Myanmar. In taking on India’s perspective, it assesses the history, current state of and prospects for the relationship between New Delhi and Naypyidaw in six policy areas: democratization and stability; security in India’s Northeast region and illegal migration; trade and infrastructure; energy security; development cooperation; and the role of China.

  12. Knowledge and use of personal protective measures against mosquito borne diseases in a resettlement colony of delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, T; Kumar, R; Saini, V; Meena, Gs; Ingle, Gk

    2014-03-01

    Mosquito borne diseases (MBDs) are major public health problem in India. State of Delhi is endemic for dengue and other MBDs. The increasing incidence of MBDs in Delhi in recent years warrants a pro-active approach for their prevention. Knowledge and use of personal protective measures (PPMs) presents an effective strategy for prevention and control of MBDs. The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and use of PPMs against MBDs in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi. It was a cross-sectional study carried out in a resettlement colony of Delhi. A total of 100 families were selected by systematic random sampling. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaire and supplemented by spot survey by the investigator in the community. The results were analyzed in SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago Illinios, USA). Out of the 100 respondents, 65% (65/100), 58%(58/100) and 13% (13/100) had heard about dengue, malaria and chikungunya, respectively. Nearly, one-fifth (20/100; 20%) of the participants reported incorrect breeding sites for mosquitoes. The knowledge regarding PPMs was very high (93/100; 93%) and about (90/100; 90%) families were actually using at least one of the PPMs. However, very few families were using them correctly (1/90; 1.1%) and adequately (5/90; 5.6%). The most common PPM being used by the study population was liquid vaporizers (54/90; 60%). Nearly one-third (29/90; 32.2%) of the participants reported side-effects due to PPMs with irritation to smell being the most common reported side-effect. On house visit, adult mosquitoes were seen in 67% (67/100) of the houses, while potential mosquito breeding sites were found in and around 56% (56/100) houses. There were crucial gaps in knowledge and practices of participants with regard to prevention and control of MBDs. Thus, there is a need to intensify efforts toward creating public knowledge and mobilizing community about correct use of preventive measures against MBDs.

  13. The fractured history of the mental hospital in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanjeev; Sarin, Alok

    2018-02-01

    The history of the mental hospital in Delhi is a fascinating story. Set up in colonial times, the asylum in Delhi seems to reflect the tumultuous and chaotic history of the city itself. It was perhaps established in the early 19 th century, and functions till 1857, when it is ransacked in the Mutiny. It is subsequently merged with the asylum at Lahore in 1861, set up again, and incredibly, closed again at the turn of the century. Subject to the whims of administrators and policy makers, the asylum then ceases to exist till the 1960s when a new avatar appears. In it's non continuity is the story of the neglect of mental illness.

  14. Studies on victims of bite by a dog in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, S; Bhattacharya, D; Bhardwaj, M; Parsi, V

    1994-01-01

    Ninety persons were bitten by a single rabid dog on 23rd January, 1992 in Central Delhi area. All patients were given immediate first-aid, prophylactic tetanus toxoid injection and post-exposure antirabies treatment i.e., hyperimmune antirabies serum (ARS) and antirabies vaccination in different Hospitals of Delhi. Fifteen (15) patients received tissue culture antirabies vaccine (Rabipur or Verorab) and rest 75 patients were given nervous tissue vaccine. ARS was given to all patients as all had severe (Class-III) bite. Altogether there were 76 male and 14 female and 80 adult and 10 children bitten by the dog. All patients well tolerated the vaccines excepting a few, who developed very minor side-effects. Investigation regarding post-exposure antirabies antibody assessment were carried out in twenty-four patients at WHO Collaborative Centre for Rabies. Epidemiology for South-east Asia at National Institute of Communicable Diseases, Delhi. Paired blood samples were obtained from these patients and all of them had protective antibody titre (0.5 IU/ml) with mean titre of 1.81 IU/ml and 2.11 IU/ml in first and second samples, respectively. All patients were followed after six months and there were no death or vaccine failure reported.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN TO ATTITUDE TOWARDS GREEN PRODUCTS: EVIDENCES FROM INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Danish Kirmani; Mohammed Naved Khan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship of environmental concern of consumers with their attitude towards green products and also to identify the predictors of environmental concern. The data was generated from a researcher controlled sample of graduate and post-graduate students enrolled in educational institutions located in the national capital of India (New Delhi) and surrounding areas popularly known as National Capital Region (NCR). The data generated was analysed em...

  16. History of pediatric cardiology in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Saxena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, the discipline of cardiology started in the late 1950s and at that time pediatric cardiology was practiced as a part of cardiology specialty. This article traces the history of pediatric cardiology in India. Dr. S. Padmawati and Dr. Kamala Vytilingam underwent training in pediatric cardiology at international centers in the early 1950s and early 1960s. Dr. N. Gopinath successfully closed a ventricular septal defect using a pump oxygenator at Christian Medical College, Vellore. Open heart surgery program kicked off in the 1960s with the tireless efforts of many other surgeons. Dr. Rajendra Tandon, trained for 2 years at Boston Children Hospital under Dr. Alexander Nadas, joined the Department of Cardiology at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi in 1963. This and many other stories are described.

  17. Kerala Pioneering Pediatric Surgery in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TP Joseph

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric surgeons of Kerala are very proud to have led the development of superspeciality in any branch of medicine in Kerala and also superspeciality of Pediatric surgery in whole of India. Late Prof. Raman Nair returned in 1954 after training under Dr. Everett Koop in US. Same year, in his far-sighted vision for future development of the speciality, he moved to SATH, Medical College, Trivandrum and started Pediatric surgery as a speciality attached to Paediatrics department; this was the beginning of Pediatric surgery in India. He opted for Pediatric surgery as a full time job and did not do any general surgery work in adults. He was the first full time Pediatric surgeon of India; during the next few years, 2 surgeons, one in Calcutta, Prof. UC Chakraboty and Prof. D Anjaneyulu in Hyderabad started working as full time Pediatric surgeons. In Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai, Pediatric surgery developed much later and then all over the country.

  18. Desirable factors for maintaining normal BMI of urban affluent women of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anu Taneja; Siddhu, Anupa

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify desirable social, familial, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle factors for maintaining normal body mass index (BMI) of urban affluent women (25-45 years) in Delhi, India. A total of 387 urban affluent women with at least one living child participated in this cross-sectional study conducted from March 2008 to April 2010. Women were classified into four BMI categories on the basis of World Health Organization (WHO; 2004) classification for Asians. Significant factors for maintaining normal BMI were: Younger age, less parity, nuclear family, normal weight status of parents, postpartum weight gain between 2 and 3 kg, regularity in taking meals, fixed meal size, self-perceived normal weight, and shorter sitting time and television viewing time. Multivariate regression analysis identified five determining factors for maintaining BMI, which are normal weight of father, self-perceived normal weight, fixed meal size, sitting time less than 6 h/day, and television viewing time less than 1 h/day. By small lifestyle modifications, normal BMI can be maintained.

  19. Urban Heat Island Over Delhi Punches Holes in Widespread Fog in the Indo-Gangetic Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ritesh; Singh, Manoj K.

    2018-01-01

    Persistent and widespread fog affects several densely populated and agriculturally fertile basins around the world. Dense and polluted fog is especially known to impact transportation, air quality, and public health. Here we report a striking observation of holes in fog over urban areas in satellite imagery. The extent of fog holes appear highly correlated with city populations in fog-prevalent regions of Asia, Europe, and the United States. We find the highest frequency and largest extent of fog holes over Delhi along with suppressed fog fraction, amidst increased fog occurrence over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, based on 17 years of satellite data (2000-2016). This apparent urban heat impact is characterized in sharp urban-rural gradients in surface temperatures and fog thickness. Urban heating seems to have already amplified the long-term fog decline in Europe and the United States and should be assessed over regions undergoing urban expansion including India, where no previous linkages are reported between urban heating and fog.

  20. Monitoring variation in greenhouse gases concentration in urban environment of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Samraj; Ghosh, Chirashree

    2013-01-01

    Cities across the globe are considered as major anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), yet very few efforts has been made to monitor ambient concentration of GHG in cities, especially in a developing country like India. Here, variations in the ambient concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) in residential, commercial, and industrial areas of Delhi are determined from fortnightly daytime observations from July, 2008 to March, 2009. Results indicate that the average daytime ambient concentration of CO(2) varied from 495 to 554 ppm in authorized residential areas, 503 to 621 ppm in the slums or jhuggies in the unauthorized residential areas, 489 to 582 ppm in commercial areas, and 512 to 568 ppm in industrial areas with an average of 541 ± 27 ppm. CH(4) concentration varied from 652 to 5,356 ppbv in authorized residential areas, 500 to 15,220 ppbv in the unauthorized residential areas, 921 to 11,000 ppbv in the commercial areas, and 250 to 2,550 ppbv in the industrial areas with an average of 3,226 ± 1,090 ppbv. A low mid-afternoon CO(2) concentration was observed at most of the sites, primarily due to strong biospheric photosynthesis coupled with strong vertical mixing.

  1. New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1-producing Enterobacteriaceae: emergence and response in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struelens, M J; Monnet, D L; Magiorakos, A P; Santos O'Connor, F; Giesecke, J

    2010-11-18

    Acquired carbapenemases confer extensive antibiotic resistance to Enterobacteriaceae and represent a public health threat. A novel acquired carbapenemase, New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1), has recently been described in the United Kingdom and Sweden, mostly in patients who had received care on the Indian subcontinent. We conducted a survey among 29 European countries (the European Union Member States, Iceland and Norway) to gather information on the spread of NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe, on public health responses and on available national guidance on detection, surveillance and control. A total of 77 cases were reported from 13 countries from 2008 to 2010. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequently reported species with 54%. Among 55 cases with recorded travel history, 31 had previously travelled or been admitted to a hospital in India or Pakistan and five had been hospitalised in the Balkan region. Possible nosocomial acquisition accounted for 13 of 77 cases. National guidance on NDM-1 detection was available in 14 countries and on NDM-1 control in 11 countries. In conclusion, NDM-1 is spreading across Europe, where it is frequently linked to a history of healthcare abroad, but also to emerging nosocomial transmission. National guidance in response to the threat of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is available in approximately half of the surveyed European countries. Surveillance of carbapenemase- producing Enterobacteriaceae must be enhanced in Europe and effective control measures identified and implemented.

  2. Girl prostitution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  3. International nurse recruitment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadria, Binod

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes the practice of international recruitment of Indian nurses in the model of a "business process outsourcing" of comprehensive training-cum-recruitment-cum-placement for popular destinations like the United Kingdom and United States through an agency system that has acquired growing intensity in India. Despite the extremely low nurse to population ratio in India, hospital managers in India are not concerned about the growing exodus of nurses to other countries. In fact, they are actively joining forces with profitable commercial ventures that operate as both training and recruiting agencies. Most of this activity is concentrated in Delhi, Bangalore, and Kochi. Gaps in data on nursing education, employment, and migration, as well as nonstandardization of definitions of "registered nurse," impair the analysis of international migration of nurses from India, making it difficult to assess the impact of migration on vacancy rates. One thing is clear, however, the chain of commercial interests that facilitate nurse migration is increasingly well organized and profitable, making the future growth of this business a certainty.

  4. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-03

    Delhi, 28 Aug-The first high-level contacts LTTE is "essentially India’s creation" and that in Tamil [et] new D el 2 ue ft hgleve l contactsb tween the...mindedness about police forces have become useless. The separatist ele - philosophy, ments have, of course, divided the Hindus and the Muslims and now are...old Ramayana has stopped. The Manusmirity is referred to Saudi Arabian "once again raises the issue of a modern only in antihuman contexts. The West

  5. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-06

    macroeconomic unbal - the Government. Much will depend on how far India is ances. The team will leave as soon as New Delhi concurs, prepared to tighten its belt...Dr. Singh said "commitments should be hon- justice? Mr. Singh saw no contractions. The real growth oured." of an economy could not be assessed only by...system to WEEK something to this effect: "We are not able to increase the scope of export growth . To this effect we will bring down prices because the

  6. India and the ARF: the post-Pokhran II phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Udai Bhanu

    1999-01-01

    India and Southeast Asia have re-emerged on the global and regional scene in a way that cannot be ignored. India began to mark its presence felt with its Look East Policy and its policy of liberalisation. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) too began acknowledging India's new status and was accommodated as a dialogue partner in the charmed circle of miracle economics. The magic of the miracle began to wear off as the currency crisis began to strike each of the economies one by one. Even before these states could recover from the shock of the economic crisis, New Delhi tested its bombs in Pokhran. Quite imperceptibly, the dynamics of security and economics had begun to unfold. What impact these developments have had on India's links with the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and its participation in it is discussed

  7. Arabian Sea oceanography and fisheries of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Nair, K.N.V.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Haridas, P.; Nair, K.K.C.; Venugopal, P.; Gauns, M.

    of poten tial fishery resources from the E x- clusive Economic Zone of India (EEZ) are about 3.5 to 4.7 mt (million tonnes) 1 ? 4 . The recent estimates on a n- nual marine landings from the I n dian coast show that they fluctuate between 2.2 and 2...., John, S. and Somavanshi, V. S., Bull. Fish. Surv. India , 1990, 20 , 1 ? 37. 2. Bhargava, R. M. S., in India's Exclusive Economic Zone ( eds Qasim, S. Z. and Roonal, G. S.), Omega Scientific, New Delhi, 1996, pp. 122 ? 131. 3. Goswami, S...

  8. Pattern of Self Prescribed Analgesic Use in a Rural Area of Delhi: Exploring the Potential Role of Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Anjali; Gupta, Tanya

    2017-07-01

    Analgesics are the most common self prescribed drugs. Although considered to be relatively safe, side effects are often seen when these drugs are used for prolonged period, in high doses or used where contraindicated. Majority of the consumers are not aware of the side effects. These days ample amount of information is available on web, it is important to explore its role in educating the population regarding the safe use of self prescribed analgesics. To explore pattern of analgesic use, to identify population at risk of developing side effects related to analgesic use, awareness of side effects and potential role of internet to bring awareness about safe use of self prescribed analgesic drugs in a rural area of Delhi. A cross-sectional survey based study was done on 500 adults in the age group of 18-65 years of Madanpur Khadar area of South Delhi, India. Data collection was done by conducting visits to pharmacy shops from the people who were buying drugs without prescription and taking face to face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive tests with Microsoft office excel 2007. Results of our study showed that among all the self prescribed analgesics paracetamol (57%) was used most frequently followed by aspirin and other NSAIDs. It was found that 9.6% of the consumers were having associated co-morbid illness, 11.4% were simultaneously taking other drugs and 15.2% were alcoholics. Majority (65.4%) of the buyers were not aware about any kind of side effects of the analgesics. Internet friendly consumers were found to be 44%. Ability to use internet and education level were found to be directly related (r=0.802). The pattern of analgesic consumption in the rural population of Delhi shows that a large number of consumers may be at risk of developing side effects of self prescribed analgesics. The awareness about the side effects is limited. A significant number of consumers are internet friendly. Hence

  9. Disparities in spread and control of influenza in slums of Delhi: findings from an agent-based modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiga, Abhijin; Chu, Shuyu; Eubank, Stephen; Kuhlman, Christopher J; Lewis, Bryan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav; Nordberg, Eric K; Swarup, Samarth; Vullikanti, Anil; Wilson, Mandy L

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This research studies the role of slums in the spread and control of infectious diseases in the National Capital Territory of India, Delhi, using detailed social contact networks of its residents. Methods We use an agent-based model to study the spread of influenza in Delhi through person-to-person contact. Two different networks are used: one in which slum and non-slum regions are treated the same, and the other in which 298 slum zones are identified. In the second network, slum-specific demographics and activities are assigned to the individuals whose homes reside inside these zones. The main effects of integrating slums are that the network has more home-related contacts due to larger family sizes and more outside contacts due to more daily activities outside home. Various vaccination and social distancing interventions are applied to control the spread of influenza. Results Simulation-based results show that when slum attributes are ignored, the effectiveness of vaccination can be overestimated by 30%–55%, in terms of reducing the peak number of infections and the size of the epidemic, and in delaying the time to peak infection. The slum population sustains greater infection rates under all intervention scenarios in the network that treats slums differently. Vaccination strategy performs better than social distancing strategies in slums. Conclusions Unique characteristics of slums play a significant role in the spread of infectious diseases. Modelling slums and estimating their impact on epidemics will help policy makers and regulators more accurately prioritise allocation of scarce medical resources and implement public health policies. PMID:29358419

  10. Disparities in spread and control of influenza in slums of Delhi: findings from an agent-based modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiga, Abhijin; Chu, Shuyu; Eubank, Stephen; Kuhlman, Christopher J; Lewis, Bryan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav; Nordberg, Eric K; Swarup, Samarth; Vullikanti, Anil; Wilson, Mandy L

    2018-01-21

    This research studies the role of slums in the spread and control of infectious diseases in the National Capital Territory of India, Delhi, using detailed social contact networks of its residents. We use an agent-based model to study the spread of influenza in Delhi through person-to-person contact. Two different networks are used: one in which slum and non-slum regions are treated the same, and the other in which 298 slum zones are identified. In the second network, slum-specific demographics and activities are assigned to the individuals whose homes reside inside these zones. The main effects of integrating slums are that the network has more home-related contacts due to larger family sizes and more outside contacts due to more daily activities outside home. Various vaccination and social distancing interventions are applied to control the spread of influenza. Simulation-based results show that when slum attributes are ignored, the effectiveness of vaccination can be overestimated by 30%-55%, in terms of reducing the peak number of infections and the size of the epidemic, and in delaying the time to peak infection. The slum population sustains greater infection rates under all intervention scenarios in the network that treats slums differently. Vaccination strategy performs better than social distancing strategies in slums. Unique characteristics of slums play a significant role in the spread of infectious diseases. Modelling slums and estimating their impact on epidemics will help policy makers and regulators more accurately prioritise allocation of scarce medical resources and implement public health policies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Dyslipidemia and associated risk factors in a resettlement colony of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Urvi; Kishore, Jugal; Garg, Ankur; Anand, Tanu; Chakraborty, Montosh; Lali, Pramod

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in India, with dyslipidemia contributing significantly to the risk. There are few community-based studies that highlight the burden and risk factors associated with dyslipidemia in the Indian population. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with dyslipidemia among adults ages 18 years and older in a resettlement colony located in central Delhi. A cross-sectional study that included a random sample of 200 adults was designed. A study tool based on the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors (STEPS) questionnaire was used. Fasting venous blood sample was collected to assess the lipid profile and anthropometric measures of the participants were recorded. Criteria based on the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults were used to define the cut offs for dyslipidemia. Data were analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 17. Of a total of 200 study subjects, 34% had increased total cholesterol levels (≥200 mg %), 38% had increased low-density lipoprotein levels (≥130 mg %), 40% had increased triglyceride levels (≥150 mg %), and 42% had low high-density lipoprotein levels (<40 mg %). Using the logistic regression model, we found age, hypertension, alcohol consumption, and abdominal obesity to be associated with increased odds of dyslipidemia. A high proportion of individuals in the community have dyslipidemia, often associated with modifiable risk factors. The situation demands programs aimed at risk factor reduction. A focus on behavior change and health promotion targeting the younger age group is recommended. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Workplace violence against resident doctors in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Tanu; Grover, Shekhar; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Madhan; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare workers particularly doctors are at high risk of being victims of verbal and physical violence perpetrated by patients or their relatives. There is a paucity of studies on work-related violence against doctors in India. We aimed to assess the exposure of workplace violence among doctors, its consequences among those who experienced it and its perceived risk factors. This study was done among doctors working in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire containing items for assessment of workplace violence against doctors, its consequences among those who were assaulted, reporting mechanisms and perceived risk factors. Of the 169 respondents, 104 (61.4%) were men. The mean (SD) age of the study group was 28.6 (4.2) years. Sixty-nine doctors (40.8%) reported being exposed to violence at their workplace in the past 12 months. However, there was no gender-wise difference in the exposure to violence (p=0.86). The point of delivery of emergency services was reported as the most common place for experiencing violence. Verbal abuse was the most common form of violence reported (n=52; 75.4%). Anger, frustration and irritability were the most common symptoms experienced by the doctors who were subjected to violence at the workplace. Only 44.2% of doctors reported the event to the authorities. 'Poor communication skills' was considered to be the most common physician factor responsible for workplace violence against doctors. A large proportion of doctors are victims of violence by their patients or relatives. Violence is being under-reported. There is a need to encourage reporting of violence and prepare healthcare facilities to tackle this emerging issue for the safety of physicians.

  13. Chemical characteristics of ambient aerosols contributed by cooking process at Noorpur village near New Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudha

    Generally, industrial and transport sectors are considered as major contributors of air pollution but recently, biomass burning is also reported as a major source of atmospheric aerosols (1, 2) especially in the developing world where solid fuels such as dung cake, wood and crop residues are used in traditional cooking which are responsible for poor air quality, respiratory problems and radiative forcing etc .In India, most of the research has been focused on emission estimates from biomass burning and cooking. No effort has been made to understand the chemistry and sources of fine aerosols in rural areas during cooking hours. This study fills this knowledge gap and strengthens our understanding about abundance of various chemical constituents of atmospheric aerosols emitted during cooking hours.Aerosol samples were collected from village called Noorpur (28.470 N, 77.030 E) which lies near Delhi city. Sampling was carried out during August 2011-May 2012 by using handy sampler (Envirotech model APM 821) installed at the terrace of a building (~6m). The aerosol samples were collected on 8 hourly basis at a flow rate of 1 LPM. Water extracts of these filters were analyzed for major anions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-) and major cations (Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+ Mg2+) by ion chromatography (Metrohm 883 Basic IC Plus). During cooking period, the concentration of the major ions followed the order of Ca2+> SO42-> NO3-> Cl-> K+> NH4+> Mg2+> Na2+> F-. Among anion SO42 (5 µg/m3) showed highest value and in case of cations Ca2+ (7.32µg/m3) has highest value.

  14. Study of psychiatric morbidity among residents of government old age homes in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The increased demand on long-term old age care homes in urban India is a result of demographic transition together with the disintegration of joint family system and changing social values which make them increasingly vulnerable to mental health problems. Aims: This study attempted to find out an array of mental health problems and associated morbidity among inhabitant of government old age homes. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study which included government run old age homes (OAHs in Delhi. Subjects and Methods: The sample comprised a total of 148 elderly in four OAHs with a mean age of 72.81 years. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Scale (QOL, Mini-Mental State Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and Kesseler-10 Scale were administered. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 version. Frequency distribution and cross-tabulation used to create summary tables and compare items. Results: Female constituted two-third of study population whereas one-third of subjects were illiterate and two-third without income. The study demonstrated psychiatric morbidity profile among OAH inhabitants and exhibited mild-moderate anxiety symptoms in almost 95% followed by mild-severe depression reported by 85%, mild-moderate psychotic illnesses, psychological distress, cognitive impairments, and poor QOL. Low income and education, low social connections and loss of spouse were key risk factors. Conclusions and Recommendation: Psychiatric morbidity profile and QOL among OAH residents is influenced by various psychological, social, and economic factors. This emphasized the need for better management of the government-run OAHs to ensure better overall mental health of the residents.

  15. Studies on allergenic algae of Delhi area: botanical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, A; Agarwal, M K; Shivpuri, D N

    1979-04-01

    To study distribution of algae in and around Delhi aerobiological surveys were undertaken for two consecutive years (September, 1972, to August, 1974). The surveys were accomplished by (a) slide exposure method and (b) culture plate exposure method. A total of 850 slides were exposed using Durham's gravity sampling device. Of these, 560 slides were exposed during 1973 (272 slides at two meter and 288 at ten meter height) and the rest (290 slides) were exposed during 1974 at ten meter height. A total of 858 culture plates were exposed (276 for one hour and 282 for two hours) during 1973 and the rest (300 culture plates) were exposed during 1974 at ten meter height for two hours duration only. Air was found to be rich in algae flora during the months of September to November. The dominant forms of algae present were all blue greens. This might be due to the relative greater resistance of blue green algae to unfavorable conditions.

  16. Awareness about taeniasis and neurocysticercosis among municipal schoolteachers in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D; Kalra, V; Aggarwal, K

    2007-12-01

    Taenia solium is the commonest parasitic infection of CNS and an important cause of new-onset seizures and epilepsy in children and adults. Human activities impact on almost every one of the stages of the lifecycle of the worm as man is responsible for dispersion of the parasite's egg through outdoor defecation and indiscriminate disposal of feces. Health education to cause behavioral changes in these practices can therefore be an effective intervention strategy. We conducted a study to assess KAP regarding taeniasis and neurocysticercosis among municipal school teachers in Delhi. The findings are presented in this communication. The study revealed that, general information related to personal food hygiene was known to majority of the teachers but core information in the context of taeniasis/cysticercosis and seizure prevention was lacking.

  17. Transfusion transmittable infections - Seroprevalence among blood donors in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Pathak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Transfusion transmittable infections (TTI continue to be a major threat to safe transfusion practices. Blood is one of the major sources of transmission of infectious diseases viz. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, syphilis, malaria, and many other infections in India. Screening assays for the infectious diseases with excellent sensitivity and specificity helps to enhance the safety of the blood transfusions reducing the diagnostic window period as much as possible. Aims: The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of TTIs viz., HIV, HCV, and HBV, among the blood donors in Max Super Specialty Hospital, New Delhi, India based on dual testing strategy using high sensitive screening assays such as enhanced chemiluminescence assay and nucleic acid testing (NAT. Materials and Methods: A total of 41207 blood units collected from the donors (both voluntary and replacement donors were screened for the TTI s, viz., anti HIV 1 and 2 antibody, anti HCV antibody, anti HBcore antibody, and HBsAg by enhanced chemiluminescence assay on VITROS ® ECiQ immunodiagnostics system. NAT was performed using Roche Cobas ® TaqScreen MPX assay, which can detect simultaneously HIV 1 (groups M and O, HIV-2, HCV, and HBV on Roche Cobas ® s201 system. Results: The seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, anti HBcore antibody, and HCV based on enhanced chemiluminescence assay was found to be 0.25, 0.2, 7.06, and 0.7%, respectively. A total number of 6587 samples from July 2010 to December 2010 were tested on NAT, of which 3 samples were reactive for HBV in NAT; this was missed by enhanced chemiluminescence assay. Conclusions: Based on the seroprevalence study of infectious diseases viz., HIV, HBV, and HCV, we conclude that screening of blood and blood components by dual testing strategy using high sensitivity serological assay like enhanced chemiluminescence technology and NAT helps in detecting the

  18. Utility of Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and its detection in male patients with non gonococcal urethritis in New Delhi

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    Agrawal S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was assessment of prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and utility of Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA test for its detection in male patients with non gonococcal urethritis in New Delhi , India Thirty male patients with symptoms of dysuria showing polymorphs in their gram stained urethral smears with no evidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and negative for Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans by wet mount were subjected to DFA test for detection of C. trachomatis in urethral samples. Microscopic examination of gram stained urethral smears revealed 5-7 polymorphs / HPF in 90% of the patients. Evidence of C. trachomatis with DFA (MicroTrak was detected in 11 cases (36.67% when a cut off of 10 elementary bodies was considered essential. It is concluded that C. trachomatis is an important cause of non gonococcal urethritis in male patients in New Delhi and DFA test is a useful diagnostic tool in its detection. Where facilities are not available for its detection antichlamydial therapy should be recommended emperically.

  19. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Traditionally, India has had an extremely poor collection of direct taxes, not least due to ...... Economic Impact of Mobile in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Pakistan, Serbia, ...... in India owes its origin to Gandhian principles, philosophy and practices.

  20. Development of Geospatial Map Based Portal for New Delhi Municipal Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A. Kumar Chandra; Kumar, P.; Sharma, P. Kumar

    2017-09-01

    The Geospatial Delhi Limited (GSDL), a Govt. of NCT of Delhi Company formed in order to provide the geospatial information of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD) to the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) and its organs such as DDA, MCD, DJB, State Election Department, DMRC etc., for the benefit of all citizens of Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD). This paper describes the development of Geospatial Map based Portal (GMP) for New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) of NCT of Delhi. The GMP has been developed as a map based spatial decision support system (SDSS) for planning and development of NDMC area to the NDMC department and It's heaving the inbuilt information searching tools (identifying of location, nearest utilities locations, distance measurement etc.) for the citizens of NCTD. The GMP is based on Client-Server architecture model. It has been developed using Arc GIS Server 10.0 with .NET (pronounced dot net) technology. The GMP is scalable to enterprise SDSS with enterprise Geo Database & Virtual Private Network (VPN) connectivity. Spatial data to GMP includes Circle, Division, Sub-division boundaries of department pertaining to New Delhi Municipal Council, Parcels of residential, commercial, and government buildings, basic amenities (Police Stations, Hospitals, Schools, Banks, ATMs and Fire Stations etc.), Over-ground and Underground utility network lines, Roads, Railway features. GMP could help achieve not only the desired transparency and easiness in planning process but also facilitates through efficient & effective tools for development and management of MCD area. It enables a faster response to the changing ground realities in the development planning, owing to its in-built scientific approach and open-ended design.

  1. Ground water in Delhi area, problems and prospects under fast urbanisation- a nuclear aided study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, P.; Datta, P.S.; Chandrasekharan, H.; Tyagi, S.K.; Singh, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    The work presented in this paper constitutes a peep into the components of urbanization in the two decades which affected the quality and availability of ground water in the Delhi territory. The recharge studies conducted in Delhi villages employing oxygen 18 and tritium tagging have been described with a view to focus attention on the sustainability of the ground water potential. 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF GEOSPATIAL MAP BASED PORTAL FOR NEW DELHI MUNICIPAL COUNCIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kumar Chandra Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Geospatial Delhi Limited (GSDL, a Govt. of NCT of Delhi Company formed in order to provide the geospatial information of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD to the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD and its organs such as DDA, MCD, DJB, State Election Department, DMRC etc., for the benefit of all citizens of Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD. This paper describes the development of Geospatial Map based Portal (GMP for New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC of NCT of Delhi. The GMP has been developed as a map based spatial decision support system (SDSS for planning and development of NDMC area to the NDMC department and It’s heaving the inbuilt information searching tools (identifying of location, nearest utilities locations, distance measurement etc. for the citizens of NCTD. The GMP is based on Client-Server architecture model. It has been developed using Arc GIS Server 10.0 with .NET (pronounced dot net technology. The GMP is scalable to enterprise SDSS with enterprise Geo Database & Virtual Private Network (VPN connectivity. Spatial data to GMP includes Circle, Division, Sub-division boundaries of department pertaining to New Delhi Municipal Council, Parcels of residential, commercial, and government buildings, basic amenities (Police Stations, Hospitals, Schools, Banks, ATMs and Fire Stations etc., Over-ground and Underground utility network lines, Roads, Railway features. GMP could help achieve not only the desired transparency and easiness in planning process but also facilitates through efficient & effective tools for development and management of MCD area. It enables a faster response to the changing ground realities in the development planning, owing to its in-built scientific approach and open-ended design.

  3. Development of biotechnology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, T K; Bisaria, V S

    2000-01-01

    India has embarked upon a very ambitious program in biotechnology with a view to harnessing its available human and unlimited biodiversity resources. It has mainly been a government sponsored effort with very little private industry participation in investment. The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) established under the Ministry of Science and Technology in 1986 was the major instrument of action to bring together most talents, material resources, and budgetary provisions. It began sponsoring research in molecular biology, agricultural and medical sciences, plant and animal tissue culture, biofertilizers and biopesticides, environment, human genetics, microbial technology, and bioprocess engineering, etc. The establishment of a number of world class bioscience research institutes and provision of large research grants to some existing universities helped in developing specialized centres of biotechnology. Besides DBT, the Department of Science & Technology (DST), also under the Ministry of S&T, sponsors research at universities working in the basic areas of life sciences. Ministry of Education's most pioneering effort was instrumental in the creation of Biochemical Engineering Research Centre at IIT Delhi with substantial assistance from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland to make available state-of-the-art infrastructure for education, training, and research in biochemical engineering and biotechnology in 1974. This initiative catalysed biotechnology training and research at many institutions a few years later. With a brief introduction, the major thrust areas of biotechnology development in India have been reviewed in this India Paper which include education and training, agricultural biotechnology, biofertilizers and biopesticides, tissue culture for tree and woody species, medicinal and aromatic plants, biodiversity conservation and environment, vaccine development, animal, aquaculture, seri and food biotechnology, microbial

  4. Female condom acceptability in urban India: Examining the role of sexual pleasure

    OpenAIRE

    Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Bindra, Nyamat; Dave, Bhaktiben; Sharma, Ritika; Sundarraman, Vikram; Thirupathur Dharuman, Sivakumar; Herbenick, Debby

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the acceptability of female condoms in urban India, with a focus on sexual pleasure. We conducted focus group discussions with 50 women and 19 men, as well as a small number of individual interviews with women (n = 3), in Chennai and New Delhi. Perceived benefits of female condoms included protection against unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, increased sense of empowerment for women, and simple clean up. The most common drawback was reduc...

  5. An evaluation of prosthetic status and treatment needs among institutionalized elderly individuals of Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nisha Yadav; Roma Yadav; Meetika Pahuja; Sanchit Pardhan; Sahiba Miglani; Tamanna Malik

    2017-01-01

    Context: Oral health is essential for elderly person's general health and well-being. The most common oral problem in elderly is tooth loss which results due to periodontal diseases and caries. Prosthetic status is very important as it is related to dietary intake and maintaining nutritional status. Hence, to promote the oral health of the elderly, we need to know their prosthetic status and need. Aims: The aim of this study is to find the prosthetic status and need of 65–74 years old elderly...

  6. Access to childhood immunisation services and its determinants among recent and settled migrants in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Y S; Kaushal, S; Sundari, A B; Babu, B V

    2018-03-27

    Childhood immunisation is one of the important public health interventions, and poor migrants are vulnerable to forego these services. The objective of the study is to understand the access of childhood immunisation services to the socio-economically disadvantaged migrants and the determinants of full immunisation uptake up to the age of 1 year. In a cross-sectional survey, 458 migrant households with a child aged up to 2 years were identified. Data on sociodemographics, migration history, receipt of various vaccines and maternal healthcare services were collected through interviewer-administered pretested questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the determinants of full immunisation status. Childhood immunisation coverage rates were low as only 31% of recent-migrant children and 53% of settled-migrant children were fully immunised against seven vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) by 12 months of age. Lack of awareness of the immunisation schedule and location of health facilities, mobility, illness of the child, fear of vaccines and side-effects were the main reasons for incomplete or no immunisation. Mother's educational attainment, TV viewership, hospital birth and receipt of information on childhood immunisation from the health workers during postnatal visits increased chances of getting the child fully immunised against seven VPDs by 1 year of age. The migrants, particularly the recent migrants, are at the risk of foregoing immunisation services because of livelihood insecurity, mobility and non-familiarity of services in the new urban environment. There is a need to deliver services with a focus on recent migrants. Investing in education and socio-economic development and providing secured livelihoods and equitable services are important to improve and sustain access to healthcare services in the long run. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Short-term degradation of air quality during major firework events in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivani; Gadi, Ranu; Saxena, Mohit; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar; Mandal, Tuhin Kumar

    2018-04-01

    The effect of firework events on air quality was assessed from ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected during the Diwali period in two consecutive years, i.e., November 2015 and October 2016. The extensive firework activities led to the short-term degradation of air quality during the Diwali days. PM2.5 samples were chemically characterised for elements, water-soluble ionic species, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Ba, K, Sr, S, Mg and Na showed significant increases in concentration on Diwali days compared to pre-Diwali days which revealed their association with firecrackers. Concentration of SO4 2-, NO3 -, Cl-, K+ and NH4 + ions contributed to the increases in PM2.5 concentration on Diwali days. Higher OC/EC ratios indicated the formation of secondary organic carbon during the Diwali period. This study concludes that the high PM2.5 level during Diwali 2016 was a result of contribution from fireworks on the Diwali night, trans-regional movement of pollutants due to crop residue burning, low wind speed (0.15 m s-1), and high humidity. It was observed that short-term exposure to Diwali is plausible to generate 1.3% increase in non-carcinogenic hazard index due to elements Al and Ba during Diwali 2016, whereas no significant variation was observed for the carcinogenic risk due to Pb. However, in 2015, the increase in non-carcinogenic hazard index was appreciably lower as compared to 2016.

  8. Molecular Typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates by Opa-Typing and Ribotyping in New Delhi, India

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    Pejvak Khaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Control and preventive measures for gonococcal infections are based on precise epidemiological characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae isolates. In the present study the potential utility of opa-typing and ribotyping for molecular epidemiological study of consecutive gonococcal strains was determined. Sixty gonococcal isolates were subjected to ribotyping with two restriction enzymes, AvaII and HincII, and opa-typing with TaqI and HpaII for epidemiological characterization of gonococcal population. Ribotyping with AvaII yielded 6 ribotype patterns while twelve RFLP patterns were observed with HincII. Opa-typing of the 60 isolates revealed a total 54 opa-types, which 48 were unique and 6 formed clusters. Fifty-two opa-types were observed with TaqI-digested PCR product while opa-typing with HpaII demonstrated 54 opa-types. The opa-types from isolates that were epidemiologically unrelated were distinct, whereas those from the sexual contacts were identical. The results showed that opa-typing is highly useful for characterizing gonococcal strains from sexual contacts and has more discriminatory than ribotyping that could differentiate between gonococci of the same ribotype. The technique even with a single restriction enzyme has a high level of discrimination (99.9% between epidemiologically unrelated isolates. In conclusion, the molecular methods such as opa-typing and ribotyping can be used for epidemiological characterization of gonococcal strains.

  9. Limits of policy and planning in peri-urban waterscapes: the case of Ghaziabad, Delhi, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, L.; Karpouzoglou, T.D.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the waterscape has been proposed to capture the interconnectedness of economic, political, cultural and social processes embedded in water. More recently recognised, yet still relatively under-theorised are waterscapes that are ‘in-between’ the city and the periphery. This article

  10. Accelerator mass spectrometry and associated facilities at Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Bohra, Archna; Ojha, S.; Gargari, S.; Joshi, R.; Roonwal, G.S.; Chopra, S.; Pattanaik, J.K.; Balakrishnan, S.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) facility at Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) is developed by upgrading its existing 15UD Pelletron accelerator. Since last two decades Pelletron is mainly used for nuclear physics, materials science, atomic physics, radiation biology and accelerator mass spectrometry is recent development. In addition, a chemistry laboratory in clean room for the chemical processing of samples for AMS studies has also been established. At present the AMS facility is used for 10 Be, 26 Al measurements and soon other long lived radio-isotopes will also be used

  11. Numerical simulation of a rare winter hailstorm event over Delhi, India on 17 January 2013

    KAUST Repository

    Chevuturi, A.; Dimri, A. P.; Gunturu, Udaya

    2014-01-01

    January 2013 (16:00–18:00 UTC) occurring over NCR is investigated. The storm is simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) microphysics scheme with two different options: hail and graupel

  12. The clinical profile of musculoskeletal injuries in children attending a major hospital in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sural, Sumit; Verma, Anu

    2015-03-01

    Children are vulnerable to musculoskeletal injuries both at home and on the street for various reasons. Morbidity and disabilities resulting from these, mostly preventable, injuries, make them a burden to their families and society. The role of various factors associated with injuries is often not documented. This prospective study, done on 100 children aged up to 12 years with musculoskeletal trauma, analysed in details, the various modes of injuries. One in every five patient was a child below 12 years of age. Boys were injured more than girls. Injuries, especially fractures, were most common in the extremities, the upper limb more commonly injured than the lower limb. Most of the injuries occurred at home. The most common mode of injuries was falls that happened while playing both within and outside the home, followed by road traffic accidents. Most injuries occurred during daytime. Injuries in children were found to be preventable. Small interventions while constructing homes can contribute tremendously to injury prevention and control in children. Parental awareness about the various modes of injury, role of supervised playing and their responsibility towards injury prevention can play a key role in reducing the morbidity associated with childhood fractures.

  13. Status of Dietary Intake of Calcium in Women of Reproductive Age in Delhi, India

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    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca plays an important role in bone formation. Attaining optimal bone mass and peak bone densities is essential to prevent osteoporotic fractures in future life. In conditions of Ca deficiency, Ca from the bones maintains the blood levels of Ca leading to its depletion in bones. Calcium depletion leads to poor bone density and a higher risk of osteoporosis particularly in women who have repeated episodes of pregnancy and lactation.Aim & Objective: To assess the dietary intake of calcium.Material Methods: the study was conducted among 200 healthy women of reproductive age group of 20-49 years.Result: The dietary intake of calcium was less than the Recommended Dietary Allowances of 600mg/day. Women from upper socioeconomic class had a higher intake of dietary calcium 435±268 mg/day as compared to women from low socioeconomic class with a dietary intake of 295±163 mg/day.Conclusion: The dietary intake of calcium improved with an increase in socioeconomic class.

  14. Perceptions on hypertension among migrants in Delhi, India: a qualitative study

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    Kusuma Yadlapalli S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The developing countries are experiencing epidemiological transition and hypertension has emerged as a major threat to health in these countries. Understanding people's perceptions is important for any prevention and control activities and lay explanatory models (EMs provide an opportunity to gain insights into the people's perceptions. This qualitative study is taken up with an objective of understanding EMs of neo- and settled-migrants regarding hypertension. Methods Qualitative methods with grounded theory approach were used to elicit EMs of hypertension held by neo- and settled-migrants. In-depth interviews with key-informants and focus group discussions with community members were conducted. The data were subjected to thorough reading and analysed by segregating the text under different themes. Results Hypertension has been perceived as a common and serious problem in the community. Lay conceptions have identified hypertension as symptomatic with ambiguity over perceived symptoms. City life has been perceived as a major predisposing factor for developing hypertension. City life has been corroborated with pollution and adulteration of food, stress, high fat diet along with physical inactivity and certain attitudes. The concepts of hypertension were interconnected and linked to their day-to-day living in the city. Inadequacy of awareness has been acknowledged and there was a felt need for awareness campaigns and screening programmes in the community. The EMs of hypertension among the neo- and settled-migrants and men and women were broadly similar. However, there were slight variations by gender and migration status in the perceived pathways to hypertension. Conclusion Hypertension has been perceived as a common and serious problem in the community. Hypertension has been perceived as symptomatic; however, ambiguity prevails over perceived symptoms. Awareness and knowledge about hypertension and its consequences are inadequate in these communities. The felt need for awareness campaigns and mass screening programmes has emerged from the community and it provides enabling environment to successfully carry out public health interventions, by addressing the existing gaps, for prevention and control of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhojit Dey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Globally, breast cancer (BC has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. Methods A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18–70 years who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. Results Data were analyzed in three major themes: i knowledge and perception about BC; ii barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. Conclusions Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women's ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  16. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. Methods A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted ...

  17. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K

    2016-01-01

    Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013-March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18-70 years) who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. Data were analyzed in three major themes: i) knowledge and perception about BC; ii) barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii) healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women's ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  18. Molecular Typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates by Opa-Typing and Ribotyping in New Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaki, Pejvak; Bhalla, Preena; Fayaz, Ahmad Mir; Moradi Bidhendi, Sohiela; Esmailzadeh, Majid; Sharma, Pawan

    2009-01-01

    Control and preventive measures for gonococcal infections are based on precise epidemiological characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae isolates. In the present study the potential utility of opa-typing and ribotyping for molecular epidemiological study of consecutive gonococcal strains was determined. Sixty gonococcal isolates were subjected to ribotyping with two restriction enzymes, AvaII and HincII, and opa-typing with TaqI and HpaII for epidemiological characterization of gonococcal population. Ribotyping with AvaII yielded 6 ribotype patterns while twelve RFLP patterns were observed with HincII. Opa-typing of the 60 isolates revealed a total 54 opa-types, which 48 were unique and 6 formed clusters. Fifty-two opa-types were observed with TaqI-digested PCR product while opa-typing with HpaII demonstrated 54 opa-types. The opa-types from isolates that were epidemiologically unrelated were distinct, whereas those from the sexual contacts were identical. The results showed that opa-typing is highly useful for characterizing gonococcal strains from sexual contacts and has more discriminatory than ribotyping that could differentiate between gonococci of the same ribotype. The technique even with a single restriction enzyme has a high level of discrimination (99.9%) between epidemiologically unrelated isolates. In conclusion, the molecular methods such as opa-typing and ribotyping can be used for epidemiological characterization of gonococcal strains. PMID:20016674

  19. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. Objective: To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh, Bengaluru (Karnataka, Chennai (Tamil Nadu, Kolkata (West Bengal, Hyderabad (Telangana, Nasik (Maharashtra, Rohtak (Haryana, Pune (Maharashtra, New Delhi (Delhi, Srinagar (Kashmir, and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. Results: We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388, using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613, whereas 40% (n = 155 of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%, majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country.

  20. Current perspectives on the spread of dengue in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ekta Gupta, Neha Ballani Department of Clinical Virology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Dengue fever (DF and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF are important arthropod-borne viral diseases. Each year, there are ~50 million dengue infections and ~500,000 individuals are hospitalized with DHF, mainly in Southeast Asia. Dengue in India has dramatically expanded over the last few decades, with rapidly changing epidemiology. The first major DHF outbreak in the entire nation occurred in 1996 by dengue virus serotype 2, and after a gap of almost a decade, the country faced yet another DF outbreak in the year 2003 by dengue virus serotype 3. A dramatic increase in the number and frequency of outbreaks followed, and, at present, in most of the states of India, dengue is almost endemic. At present, all the four serotypes are seen in circulation, but the predominant serotype keeps changing. Despite this trend, surveillance, reporting, and diagnosis of dengue remain largely passive in India. More active community-based epidemiological studies with intensive vector control and initiatives for dengue vaccine development should be geared up to control the spread of dengue in India. We review here the factors that may have contributed to the changing epidemiology of dengue in India.Keywords: dengue, epidemiology, India, pathogenesis, vaccine

  1. Spatio-temporal variation in chemical characteristics of PM10 over Indo Gangetic Plain of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S K; Mandal, T K; Srivastava, M K; Chatterjee, A; Jain, Srishti; Saxena, M; Singh, B P; Saraswati; Sharma, A; Adak, A; K Ghosh, S

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the spatio-temporal variation of chemical compositions (organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water-soluble inorganic ionic components (WSIC)) of particulate matter (PM10) over three locations (Delhi, Varanasi, and Kolkata) of Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) of India for the year 2011. The observational sites are chosen to represent the characteristics of upper (Delhi), middle (Varanasi), and lower (Kolkata) IGP regions as converse to earlier single-station observation. Average mass concentration of PM10 was observed higher in the middle IGP (Varanasi 206.2 ± 77.4 μg m(-3)) as compared to upper IGP (Delhi 202.3 ± 74.3 μg m(-3)) and lower IGP (Kolkata 171.5 ± 38.5 μg m(-3)). Large variation in OC values from 23.57 μg m(-3) (Delhi) to 12.74 μg m(-3) (Kolkata) indicating role of formation of secondary aerosols, whereas EC have not shown much variation with maximum concentration over Delhi (10.07 μg m(-3)) and minimum over Varanasi (7.72 μg m(-3)). As expected, a strong seasonal variation was observed in the mass concentration of PM10 as well as in its chemical composition over the three locations. Principal component analysis (PCA) identifies the contribution of secondary aerosol, biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, vehicular emission, and sea salt to PM10 mass concentration at the observational sites of IGP, India. Backward trajectory analysis indicated the influence of continental type aerosols being transported from the Bay of Bengal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and surrounding areas to IGP region.

  2. Japan/India. Towards a nuclear cooperation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajon, Celine

    2011-10-01

    As diplomatic, economic and strategic relationships between Japan and India have been intensively developed for a decade, the author aims at discussing the very sensitive approach to a nuclear cooperation between these two countries as Japan, while taking benefit of the American nuclear umbrella, is a strong defender of nuclear disarmament and non proliferation, and India has been developing its own civilian and military nuclear programme outside of the international regime which it considers as discriminative. The author first discusses factors which incited Japan to build up a strategic partnership with India in front of the evolution of the political context, of the powerful upswing of China, and of the new American orientation with respect to Delhi. She comments the economic and political stakes of the currently negotiated Japan-India nuclear cooperation agreement which not only concerns the relationships between these both countries, but also French and American industrial groups which are present on the Indian market. She also notices that the Fukushima accident which has put Japan energy choices into question again, is a new deal which is to be taken into account

  3. SINTESIS 4,10,16,22-TETRAMETOKSIKALIKS[4] ARENA DARI MINYAK ADAS (SYNTHESIS OF 4,10,16,22-TETRAMETHOXYCALIX [4] ARENE FROM ANISE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Ningsih S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One kind of calixarenes, i.e. 4,10,16,22-tetramethoxycalix[4]arene (4, has been synthesized from anethole (1, which was isolated from anise oil. The synthesis of 4 was carried out via acid-catalyzed procedure. The reaction route consists of three stages, i.e. (i oxidation of 1 with KMnO4 at 40oC for 15 minutes, (ii reduction p-anisaldehyde (2 with NaBH4 at 76oC for 3 hours, and  (iii cyclotetramerization of p-anisilalcohol (3 with AlCl3 at 20oC for 2 hours. Oxidation of 1 produced 2 in 77%, whereas reduction of 2 gave 3 in 55 %. The cyclotetramerization of 3 yielded 4 in 95 %.  Key Words: 4,10,16,22-tetramethoxycalix[4]arene, Anise Oil, Anethole

  4. ASPIRE: An automated sample positioning and irradiation system for radiation biology experiments at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, Ashok; Barua, P.; Archunan, M.; Rani, Kusum; Subramanian, E.T.; Pujari, Geetanjali; Kaur, Harminder; Satyanarayanan, V.V.V.; Sarma, Asitikantha; Avasthi, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    An automated irradiation setup for biology samples has been built at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. It can automatically load and unload 20 biology samples in a run of experiment. It takes about 20 min [2% of the cell doubling time] to irradiate all the 20 samples. Cell doubling time is the time taken by the cells (kept in the medium) to grow double in numbers. The cells in the samples keep growing during entire of the experiment. The fluence irradiated to the samples is measured with two silicon surface barrier detectors. Tests show that the uniformity of fluence and dose of heavy ions reaches to 2% at the sample area in diameter of 40 mm. The accuracy of mean fluence at the center of the target area is within 1%. The irradiation setup can be used to the studies of radiation therapy, radiation dosimetry and molecular biology at the heavy ion accelerator. - Highlights: • Automated positioning and irradiation setup for biology samples at IUAC is built. • Loading and unloading of 20 biology samples can be automatically carried out. • Biologicals cells keep growing during entire experiment. • Fluence and dose of heavy ions are measured by two silicon barrier detectors. • Uniformity of fluence and dose of heavy ions at sample position reaches to 2%

  5. Lost in transition? Comparing strategies of electricity companies in Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Laure; Zérah, Marie-Hélène

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of energy transition when implemented by private utilities. In 2000, the Delhi government privatized electricity distribution to three private distribution companies. Most research was concerned with the impact of privatization on energy reliability, tariff settings and regulation issues. This paper looks at two under-researched themes: the expansion of services to poorer neighborhoods and the rollout of clean energy policies. This focus allows to unpack the materiality of socio-technical systems, to analyze how energy infrastructures are being technically deployed on the ground and to identify which social approach is used. To detail the specific practices of each company provides a more nuanced and accurate understanding of the reform. In-depth analysis of the three private utilities show that they interpret the reform mandate differently: they use a varied range of technical tools; they respond differently to social concerns in poorer neighborhoods; and they have distinctive internal management choices and corporate cultures. All these four factors can strengthen or undermine the transition towards increased access and clean energy. - Highlights: • Energy transition in an emerging cities aims at balancing environmental and social concerns. • Utilities have distinct transition paths despite similar privatization and regulation framework. • Utilities paths depend on spatial, social, managerial and corporate considerations. • Utilities' strategies are shaped by urban challenges rather than by energy policies

  6. Characterization of silicon detectors through TCT at Delhi University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, G., E-mail: geetikajain.hep@gmail.com; Lalwani, K.; Dalal, R.; Bhardwaj, A.; Ranjan, K.

    2016-07-11

    Transient Current Technique (TCT) is one of the important methods to characterize silicon detectors and is based on the time evolution of the charge carriers generated when a laser light is shone on it. For red laser, charge is injected only to a small distance from the surface of the detector. For such a system, one of the charge carriers is collected faster than the readout time of the electronics and therefore, the effective signal at the electrodes is decided by the charge carriers that traverse throughout the active volume of the detector, giving insight to the electric field profile, drift velocity, effective doping density, etc. of the detector. Delhi University is actively involved in the silicon detector R&D and has recently installed a TCT setup consisting of a red laser system, a Faraday cage, a SMU (Source Measuring Unit), a bias tee, and an amplifier. Measurements on a few silicon pad detectors have been performed using the developed system, and the results have been found in good agreement with the CERN setup.

  7. Gadget Dependency among Medical College Students in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gadget holds the great importance in everyday life. Mobile phone and internet usage have become universal practice especially among the student community. Gadgets usage has both pros and cons. Objective: To assess the magnitude of gadget utilization among medical college students in Delhi and to estimate the burden of gadget dependency. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted in three medical colleges. The participants were 957 medical students selected by systematic random sampling, interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. Result: The sample consisted of 485 (50.7% males and 472 (49.3% females, aged 17-25 years. Gadgets of at least one variety were uniformly used by all the students, 22.4% of the students surveyed were found to be gadget dependent.  Conclusion: Our study shows high prevalence of gadget dependency among medical students. There is need to create awareness regarding the problem of gadget dependency and its social and health effects.  

  8. Characterization of silicon detectors through TCT at Delhi University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, G.; Lalwani, K.; Dalal, R.; Bhardwaj, A.; Ranjan, K.

    2016-01-01

    Transient Current Technique (TCT) is one of the important methods to characterize silicon detectors and is based on the time evolution of the charge carriers generated when a laser light is shone on it. For red laser, charge is injected only to a small distance from the surface of the detector. For such a system, one of the charge carriers is collected faster than the readout time of the electronics and therefore, the effective signal at the electrodes is decided by the charge carriers that traverse throughout the active volume of the detector, giving insight to the electric field profile, drift velocity, effective doping density, etc. of the detector. Delhi University is actively involved in the silicon detector R&D and has recently installed a TCT setup consisting of a red laser system, a Faraday cage, a SMU (Source Measuring Unit), a bias tee, and an amplifier. Measurements on a few silicon pad detectors have been performed using the developed system, and the results have been found in good agreement with the CERN setup.

  9. Characterization of silicon detectors through TCT at Delhi University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, G.; Lalwani, K.; Dalal, R.; Bhardwaj, A.; Ranjan, K.

    2016-07-01

    Transient Current Technique (TCT) is one of the important methods to characterize silicon detectors and is based on the time evolution of the charge carriers generated when a laser light is shone on it. For red laser, charge is injected only to a small distance from the surface of the detector. For such a system, one of the charge carriers is collected faster than the readout time of the electronics and therefore, the effective signal at the electrodes is decided by the charge carriers that traverse throughout the active volume of the detector, giving insight to the electric field profile, drift velocity, effective doping density, etc. of the detector. Delhi University is actively involved in the silicon detector R&D and has recently installed a TCT setup consisting of a red laser system, a Faraday cage, a SMU (Source Measuring Unit), a bias tee, and an amplifier. Measurements on a few silicon pad detectors have been performed using the developed system, and the results have been found in good agreement with the CERN setup.

  10. Monitoring of Adverse Drug Reactions Associated with Antihypertensive Medicines at a University Teaching Hospital in New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowad Khurshid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim To monitor the adverse drug reactions (ADRs caused by antihypertensive medicines prescribed in a university teaching hospital.Methods:he present work was an open, non-comparative, observational study conducted on hypertensive patients attending the Medicine OPD of Majeedia Hospital, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India by conducting patient interviews and recording the data on ADR monitoring form as recommended by Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO, Government of India.Results:A total of 21 adverse drug reactions were observed in 192 hypertensive patients. Incidence of adverse drug reactions was found to be higher in patients more than 40 years in age, and females experienced more ADRs (n = 14, 7.29 % than males, 7 (3.64 %. Combination therapy was associated with more number of adverse drug reactions (66.7 % as against monotherapy (33.3 %. Calcium channel blockers were found to be the most frequently associated drugs with adverse drug reactions (n = 7, followed by diuretics (n = 5, and beta- blockers (n = 4. Among individual drugs, amlodipine was found to be the commonest drug associated with adverse drug reactions (n = 7, followed by torasemide (n = 3. Adverse drug reactions associated with central nervous system were found to be the most frequent (42.8 % followed by musculo-skeletal complaints (23.8 % and gastro-intestinal disorders (14.3 %. Conclusions:The present pharmacovigilance study represents the adverse drug reaction profile of the antihypertensive medicines prescribed in our university teaching hospital. The above findings would be useful for physicians in rational prescribing. Calcium channel blockers were found to be the most frequently associated drugs with adverse drug reactions.

  11. A maritime archaeological exploration along the Narmada estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    few antiquities of protohistoric period also found including a chart blade, a carnelian bead (Figure 5) and splinder wheel. The second period is identified as medieval period and majority of pottery is comprised of back ware and main shape.... Law, B.C. 1967. Historical Geography of Ancient India. Paris: Societe Asiatique De Paris. McCrindle, J.W. 1885. Ancient India as described by Ptolemy. New Delhi: Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Pub. Rao, S.R. 1962-63. Excavation at Rangpur...

  12. Where is the bride? Progressively declining sex ratio in India: an alarming signal for imbalanced society

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmala Sharma; Kana Ram; Anand Sharma; Shashi Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Female feticide is an extreme form of violence against women, the most active part is being played by the women themselves just for the mere want of a boy, mothers dont feel bad in strangulating their own daughters in their wombs. From decades of sex determination and female feticide is creating a statistical imbalance regarding the commonly expected and lsquo;male: female' birth ratio in India. This offense have been spreaded to the states in India like Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Gujarat and R...

  13. Implementation & Analysis of Integrated Utility System in Developing Nation like India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Public utility systems are prevalent around the world but are struggling in developing nations like India to work efficiently. Integration of different utilities can be a possible solution on the technology front, so that more requests can be handled with lesser problems. This study provides the implementation design and benefits of an already proposed integration system by the same authors. It is found that Data Storage, Access Time, Transaction Cost, security cost and server’s busy time can become more effective if the implementation of integration system can be put in place. The working prototype is based on three utilities (Gas, Power & Water of Delhi-NCR, India.

  14. Reactions to Receiving a Gift-Maternal Scaffolding and Cultural Learning in Berlin and Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärtner, Joscha; Crafa, Daina; Chaudhary, Nandita; Keller, Heidi

    2016-05-01

    This study shows how Berlin (n = 35) and Delhi (n = 28) mothers scaffold a common and highly scripted social situation, namely gift giving, and enable cultural learning in 19-month-olds. Using modeling and prompting to encourage appropriate responses, mothers took culture-specific directions during scaffolding that were in line with the broader cultural model as assessed by maternal socialization goals (SGs). Whereas Berlin mothers prioritized autonomous SGs, Delhi mothers emphasized autonomous and relational SGs to similar degrees. During scaffolding, Berlin mothers focused on maximizing positive affect and acknowledging the gift, whereas Delhi mothers prompted toddlers to acknowledge the giver more often. Furthermore, there were differences in toddlers' behavior in line with these culture-specific scripts guiding gift giving. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Pilot study of essential drug quality in two major cities in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Bate

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: India is an increasingly influential player in the global pharmaceutical market. Key parts of the drug regulatory system are controlled by the states, each of which applies its own standards for enforcement, not always consistent with others. A pilot study was conducted in two major cities in India, Delhi and Chennai, to explore the question/hypothesis/extent of substandard and counterfeit drugs available in the market and to discuss how the Indian state and federal governments could improve drug regulation and more importantly regulatory enforcement to combat these drugs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Random samples of antimalarial, antibiotic, and antimycobacterial drugs were collected from pharmacies in urban and peri-urban areas of Delhi and Chennai, India. Semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography and disintegration testing were used to measure the concentration of active ingredients against internationally acceptable standards. 12% of all samples tested from Delhi failed either one or both tests, and were substandard. 5% of all samples tested from Chennai failed either one or both tests, and were substandard. Spatial heterogeneity between pharmacies was observed, with some having more or less substandard drugs (30% and 0% respectively, as was product heterogeneity, with some drugs being more or less frequently substandard (12% and 7% respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In a study using basic field-deployable techniques of lesser sensitivity rather than the most advanced laboratory-based techniques, the prevalence of substandard drugs in Delhi and Chennai is confirmed to be roughly in accordance with the Indian government's current estimates. However, important spatial and product heterogeneity exists, which suggests that India's substandard drug problem is not ubiquitous, but driven by a subset of manufacturers and pharmacies which thrive in an inadequately regulated environment. It is likely that the drug regulatory

  16. Pilot Study of Essential Drug Quality in Two Major Cities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Roger; Tren, Richard; Mooney, Lorraine; Hess, Kimberly; Mitra, Barun; Debroy, Bibek; Attaran, Amir

    2009-01-01

    Background India is an increasingly influential player in the global pharmaceutical market. Key parts of the drug regulatory system are controlled by the states, each of which applies its own standards for enforcement, not always consistent with others. A pilot study was conducted in two major cities in India, Delhi and Chennai, to explore the question/hypothesis/extent of substandard and counterfeit drugs available in the market and to discuss how the Indian state and federal governments could improve drug regulation and more importantly regulatory enforcement to combat these drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings Random samples of antimalarial, antibiotic, and antimycobacterial drugs were collected from pharmacies in urban and peri-urban areas of Delhi and Chennai, India. Semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography and disintegration testing were used to measure the concentration of active ingredients against internationally acceptable standards. 12% of all samples tested from Delhi failed either one or both tests, and were substandard. 5% of all samples tested from Chennai failed either one or both tests, and were substandard. Spatial heterogeneity between pharmacies was observed, with some having more or less substandard drugs (30% and 0% respectively), as was product heterogeneity, with some drugs being more or less frequently substandard (12% and 7% respectively). Conclusions/Significance In a study using basic field-deployable techniques of lesser sensitivity rather than the most advanced laboratory-based techniques, the prevalence of substandard drugs in Delhi and Chennai is confirmed to be roughly in accordance with the Indian government's current estimates. However, important spatial and product heterogeneity exists, which suggests that India's substandard drug problem is not ubiquitous, but driven by a subset of manufacturers and pharmacies which thrive in an inadequately regulated environment. It is likely that the drug regulatory system in India needs

  17. Social Metabolism and Environmental Conflicts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Martinez-Alier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the methods for counting the energy and material flows in the economy, and gives the main results of the Material Flows for the economy of India between 1961 and 2008 as researched by Simron Singh et al (2012. Drawing on work done in the EJOLT project, some illustrations are given of the links between the changing social metabolism and ecological distribution conflicts, looking at responses in Odisha to bauxite mining, at conflicts on sand mining, at disputes on waste management options in Delhi and at ship dismantling in Alang, Gujarat. The aim is to show how a history of social metabolism, of socio-environmental conflicts, and of the changing valuation languages deployed by various social actors in such conflicts, could be written in a common framework.

  18. CSR as a Tool to Prevent Gender-Based Discrimination. A Case Study of the Textile Export Industry in India

    OpenAIRE

    Svedevall, Ida

    2015-01-01

    This thesis examines the ability of CSR as a tool in the efforts to reduce gender based discrimination in the textile industry in the Delhi area in India. This research focuses on the CSR work programs undertaken by foreign entities using the case study of the company Lindex. Given that discrimination occurs daily facilitated by embedded cultural structures this research questions how, and if, CSR interventions can be successful in address these underlying issues. This research draws on exist...

  19. Spread of Traditional Medicines in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R.; Sugumar, V. Raji

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we have a comprehensive database on usage of AYUSH (acronym for Ayurveda, naturopathy and Yoga, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy) in India at the household level. This article aims at exploring the spread of the traditional medical systems in India and the perceptions of people on the access and effectiveness of these medical systems using this database. The article uses the unit level data purchased from the National Sample Survey Organization, New Delhi. Household is the basic unit of survey and the data are the collective opinion of the household. This survey shows that less than 30% of Indian households use the traditional medical systems. There is also a regional pattern in the usage of particular type of traditional medicine, reflecting the regional aspects of the development of such medical systems. The strong faith in AYUSH is the main reason for its usage; lack of need for AYUSH and lack of awareness about AYUSH are the main reasons for not using it. With regard to source of medicines in the traditional medical systems, home is the main source in the Indian medical system and private sector is the main source in Homeopathy. This shows that there is need for creating awareness and improving access to traditional medical systems in India. By and large, the users of AYUSH are also convinced about the effectiveness of these traditional medicines. PMID:26438717

  20. Source apportionment of PM2.5 in North India using source-oriented air quality models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hao; Kota, Sri Harsha; Sahu, Shovan Kumar; Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Gao, Aifang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, severe pollution events were observed frequently in India especially at its capital, New Delhi. However, limited studies have been conducted to understand the sources to high pollutant concentrations for designing effective control strategies. In this work, source-oriented versions of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) were applied to quantify the contributions of eight source types (energy, industry, residential, on-road, off-road, agriculture, open burning and dust) to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and its components including primary PM (PPM) and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) i.e. sulfate, nitrate and ammonium ions, in Delhi and three surrounding cities, Chandigarh, Lucknow and Jaipur in 2015. PPM mass is dominated by industry and residential activities (>60%). Energy (∼39%) and industry (∼45%) sectors contribute significantly to PPM at south of Delhi, which reach a maximum of 200 μg/m 3 during winter. Unlike PPM, SIA concentrations from different sources are more heterogeneous. High SIA concentrations (∼25 μg/m 3 ) at south Delhi and central Uttar Pradesh were mainly attributed to energy, industry and residential sectors. Agriculture is more important for SIA than PPM and contributions of on-road and open burning to SIA are also higher than to PPM. Residential sector contributes highest to total PM 2.5 (∼80 μg/m 3 ), followed by industry (∼70 μg/m 3 ) in North India. Energy and agriculture contribute ∼25 μg/m 3 and ∼16 μg/m 3 to total PM 2.5 , while SOA contributes <5 μg/m 3 . In Delhi, industry and residential activities contribute to 80% of total PM 2.5 . - Highlights: • Sources of PM 2.5 in North India were quantified by source-oriented CMAQ. • Industrial/residential activities are the dominating sources (60–70%) for PPM. • Energy/agriculture are the most important sources (30–40%) for SIA. • Strong seasonal

  1. Dosje festivalei : "Raduga". 4-10 maja 2006 g. Tjuz im. A. Brjantseva / Jelena Gorfunkel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gorfunkel, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    4.-10. maini Peterburis toimunud VII rahvusvahelisest noorsooteatrite festivalist "Vikerkaar". Arvustatakse ka VAT Teatri lavastust "Pál-tänava poisid" (autor Ferenc Molnár, lavastaja Aare Toikka). Pälvis ühe peapreemiatest : auhinna parimale näitlejate ansamblile

  2. 36 CFR 4.10 - Travel on park roads and designated routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel on park roads and... THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.10 Travel on park roads and designated routes. (a) Operating a motor vehicle is prohibited except on park roads, in parking areas and on routes and areas...

  3. Mapping urban poverty for local governance in an Indian mega-city: The case of Delhi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baud, I.; Sridharan, N.; Pfeffer, K.

    2008-01-01

    The article maps urban poverty, using the `livelihoods assets framework' to develop a new index of multiple deprivation, examining the implications for area and sector targeting by policy-makers. This article deals with the index and the results for Delhi. The study maps: the spatial concentration

  4. Emergence of New Delhi metalo-β- lactamase (NDM-1) – producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The New Delhi metallo-beta- lactamase (NDM-1) gene is an emerging well acknowledged public health threats among human and animal pathogens worldwide. Since its first ... The Gram negative bacteria were. identified by conventional bacteriological procedures and with16s RNA PCR method. In all, 7.3% (4/55) of the ...

  5. A note on some behavioral aspects of radiation protection staff working in hospitals around Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to collect information concerning radiation protection staff working in hospitals in and around Delhi. The information included the organization of the department, the status and involvement of the radiation protection staff and their performance and job satisfaction. Answers received from departments of Radiotherapy, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine were used to assess the relationship between involvement, performance and job satisfaction. (author)

  6. Primary Education in Delhi, Hyderabad and Kolkata: Governance by Resignation, Privatisation by Default

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Mooij (Jos); J. Jalal (Jennifer)

    2009-01-01

    textabstract1. Introduction As described in the earlier chapters, one of the entry points in our study of urban governance was the supply and demand of services. Education is one important service that we studied in three of the four cities (Delhi, Hyderabad and Kolkata). Our focus was on primary

  7. Translating India

    CERN Document Server

    Kothari, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The cultural universe of urban, English-speaking middle class in India shows signs of growing inclusiveness as far as English is concerned. This phenomenon manifests itself in increasing forms of bilingualism (combination of English and one Indian language) in everyday forms of speech - advertisement jingles, bilingual movies, signboards, and of course conversations. It is also evident in the startling prominence of Indian Writing in English and somewhat less visibly, but steadily rising, activity of English translation from Indian languages. Since the eighties this has led to a frenetic activity around English translation in India's academic and literary circles. Kothari makes this very current phenomenon her chief concern in Translating India.   The study covers aspects such as the production, reception and marketability of English translation. Through an unusually multi-disciplinary approach, this study situates English translation in India amidst local and global debates on translation, representation an...

  8. A study of urban heat island and its association with particulate matter during winter months over Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Puneeta; Kumar, Dinesh; Prakash, Amit; Masih, Jamson; Singh, Manoj; Kumar, Surendra; Jain, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Krishan

    2012-01-01

    Day and night time thermal mapping of Delhi has been done with MODIS satellite data for the months of November and December for years 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. The study reveals the formation of day time “cool island” over central parts of Delhi which are found to be cooler by a maximum of 4–6 °C than the surrounding rural areas. During the night time, however, the central parts of Delhi are found to be warmer by a maximum of 4–7 °C or even more than the surrounding rural areas thus confirming the formation of nocturnal urban heat island over Delhi. Measurements of solar spectral irradiance over Delhi reveal significantly lower values as compared to a rural site located south-west of Delhi, during the low wind conditions in the months of November and December. Analysis of average monthly temporal data of surface wind speed and particulate matter concentration over Delhi reveals a strong anti-correlation between wind speed and particulate matter concentration. High values of particulate matter during low wind conditions seem to favor the so called “cool island” over Delhi. Analysis of radiosonde data of 975 hPa and 850 hPa temperatures over Delhi during November and December from 1973 to 2010 reveals a warming trend at the 850 hPa level and an overall declining trend of ∆T between 975 hPa temperatures and 850 hPa temperatures, thus indicating a weakening of vertical thermal gradients over Delhi during these months. The study suggests that urban areas behave more like moderators of diurnal temperature variation in low wind conditions. - Highlights: ► Daytime cool island forms over central parts of Delhi in November and December. ► Central parts of Delhi are cooler by a maximum of 4–6 °C during daytime and warmer by a maximum of 4–7 °C during night. ► Significant negative correlations exist between daytime surface temperatures and AOD levels. ► Land use parameters have significant correlations with surface temperatures. ► The day time

  9. Petrology and geochemistry of greywackes of Middle Aravalli supergroup, NW India: evidence for active margin processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absar, Nurul; Sreenivas, B.

    2013-01-01

    Aravalli Mountain Belt (AMB) of Northwestern, India represents one of the major Proterozoic accretionary orogens of the world, preserving two Wilson cycles; viz. Paleoproterozoic Aravalli Supergroup and Mesoproterozoic Delhi Supergroup. Although two gross Wilson cycles involving opening and closing of Paleoproterozoic Aravalli ocean and Mesoproterozoic Delhi ocean are recognized, the finer details of the evolution of the orogen are still poorly understood. We have carried out geochemical and petrological study of the well-preserved greywacke horizon of the 'Middle Aravalli Supergroup' in order to place constraints on early evolution of the Aravalli basin. These greywackes are enriched in Fe, Mg and K; and depleted in Na in comparison to normal greywackes and can be classified as ferroan potassic sandstone. Petrographic examination indicate that the greywacke samples contain about 30 to 50% matrix that is mainly composed of biotite/chlorite and interspersed with fine Fe-Ti rich opaque mineral phases

  10. Trend in BMI z-score among Private Schools’ Students in Delhi using Multiple Imputation for Growth Curve Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to assess the trend in mean BMI z-score among private schools’ students from their anthropometric records when there were missing values in the outcome. Methodology: The anthropometric measurements of student from class 1 to 12 were taken from the records of two private schools in Delhi, India from 2005 to 2010. These records comprise of an unbalanced longitudinal data that is not all the students had measurements recorded at each year. The trend in mean BMI z-score was estimated through growth curve model. Prior to that, missing values of BMI z-score were imputed through multiple imputation using the same model. A complete case analysis was also performed after excluding missing values to compare the results with those obtained from analysis of multiply imputed data. Results: The mean BMI z-score among school student significantly decreased over time in imputed data (β= -0.2030, se=0.0889, p=0.0232 after adjusting age, gender, class and school. Complete case analysis also shows a decrease in mean BMI z-score though it was not statistically significant (β= -0.2861, se=0.0987, p=0.065. Conclusions: The estimates obtained from multiple imputation analysis were better than those of complete data after excluding missing values in terms of lower standard errors. We showed that anthropometric measurements from schools records can be used to monitor the weight status of children and adolescents and multiple imputation using growth curve model can be useful while analyzing such data

  11. A Pilot Study to Understand the Variation in Indoor Air Quality in Different Economic Zones of Delhi University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Abhinav; Ghosh, Chirashree

    Today, one of the most grave environmental health problems being faced by the urban population is the poor air quality one breathes in. To testify the above statement, the recent survey report, World health statistics (WHO, 2012) reflects the fact that childhood mortality ratio from acute respiratory infection is one of the top leading causes of death in developing countries like India. Urban areas have a complex social stratification which ultimately results in forming different urban economic zones. This research attempts to understand the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) by taking into consideration different lifestyle of occupants inhabiting these economic zones. The Study tries to evaluate the outdoor and indoor air quality by understanding the variation of selected pollutants (SPM, SOx, NOx) for the duration of four months - from October, 2012-January, 2013. For this, three economic zones (EZ) of Delhi University’s North Campus, were selected - Urban Slum (EZ I), Clerical (EZ II) and Faculty residence (EZ III). The statistical study indicates that Urban Slum (EZ I) was the most polluted site reporting maximum concentration of outdoor pollutants, whereas no significant difference in pollution load was observed in EZ II and EZ III. Further, the indoor air quality was evaluated by quantifying the indoor and outdoor pollution concentration ratios that shows EZ III have most inferior indoor air quality, followed by EZ I and EZ II. Moreover, it was also observed that ratio (phenomenon of infiltration) was dominant at the EZ II but was low for the EZ I and EZ III. With the evidence of high Indoor air pollution, the risk of pulmonary diseases and respiratory infections also increases, calling for an urgent requisite for making reforms to improve IAQ. Key words: Urban Area, Slum, IAQ, SOx, NOx, SPM

  12. A cross-sectional study of QOL of diabetic patients at tertiary care hospitals in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Yogesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to WHO estimates India will be the global capital of diabetes by 2025, accounting for 57.2 million diabetics. Worsening the situation is the fact that diabetes affects the economically productive age-group (45-65 years in developing countries. Objective : To measure quality of life (QOL and study the clinical profiles and associated sociodemographic factors affecting diabetic patients aged 20 years and above. Materials and Methods: We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study using a generic instrument, Short-Form 36 (SF-36 of the Medical Outcome Study Group to measure QOL of diabetic subjects aged ≥20 years. Two hundred and sixty diabetics, including 91 males and 169 females, were selected from the clinics of SSK Hospital and Dr RML Hospital of New Delhi. Data was analysed using SPSS for Windows, version 12. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 years, with 80% of respondents being in the age-group of 40-69 years. The majority (52.1% of female respondents were illiterate and 91.1% were economically dependent. Of the male respondents, 65.9% were skilled workers. Substance abuse was present among 41.8% male subjects. Type 2 diabetes was the commonest, with 94.6% of the subjects having this form. The mean duration of diabetes was 6.96 ± 6.08 years. Oral hypoglycemic agents were being taken by 70.77% of the respondents. Among the diabetics the most common comorbidity was hypertension (30.8% and the commonest complication was neuropathy (26.2%. We calculated the body mass index (BMI of all subjects and found that, 46.2% of the male and 59.8% of the female respondents were either overweight or obese. As predicted by the waist/hip ratio (WHR, 53.8% of the male and 66.9% of the female respondents had high risk for CHD. Regular physical activity was undertaken by less than half of the subjects (46.5%. Out of eight domains of QOL in the SF-36, the two most affected were ′General Health′ and

  13. ECOHYDROLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES OF DEGRADING BAOLIS DURING MEDIEVAL PERIOD IN DELHI: traditional practices of water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Anand

    2017-03-01

    Baolis es el depósito de agua en los monumentos arquitectónicos que habían sido construidos por varios sultanato de Delhi en diferentes períodos de tiempo y la mayoría de Baolis fueron construidos durante el período de tiempo medieval. Los Baolis se encuentran en todo el país, pero todos son diferentes en lo que respecta al arte y la arquitectura. Los sultanatos de Delhi habían construido una serie de Baolis en Delhi para mostrar su control y prestigio en la sociedad. Hay alrededor de 12 Baolis existentes en Delhi y de ellos, cuatro Baolis están a punto de extinguirse y pocos Baolis como Nizamuddin, Firoz Shah y Rajon ki Baolis están siendo utilizados por la gente local. Este artículo comprende la información relacionada con Baolis que fue construida por sultanatos de Delhi durante el período de tiempo medieval en Delhi. El presente trabajo intenta describir el método tradicional de gestión del agua como Baolis en época medieval y su estado actual. El estudio se basa en fuentes primarias y secundarias de información y se realizó una encuesta primaria y personal y se han utilizado fuentes secundarias de datos e información en este documento. El artículo concluyó que Baolis no está teniendo buenas condiciones y estas están muy contaminadas y degradadas y su degradación también conduce a la pérdida ecológica hidrológica en sus áreas adyacentes. Los acercamientos descuidados de la gente hacia estos Baolis son causas principales detrás de la extinción y de la degradación de estos Baolis. La conciencia de la comunidad y la participación es la única manera de proteger a estos Baolis de la extinción. Palabras clave: Baolis; Arquitectónico; Monumento; Medieval; Degradación; Eco hidrología; Contaminación; Manejo.

  14. An integrated hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach to study groundwater Salinization in the overexploited aquifers of Indo-Gangetic Plain, a part of NCR Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, R.

    2017-12-01

    roundwater resources in arid and semi-arid areas are highly vulnerable to salinity problems. Inadequate availability of surface water supply, vagaries of mansoonal rainfall and overexploitation due to population pressure and rapid landuse change induced decline in groundwater levels and salinization has been observed in many Asian cities. After green revolution, large part of Indo-Gangetic plain groundwater salinization has been reported. One such region is National Capital Region, Delhi- India's largest and the world's second largest agglomeration of people and economic hub of Northern India. The present study includes National capital territory, Delhi, Gurgaon and Faridabad. In the present study, different graphical plots, Piper plot, saturation index values (using PHREEQC), stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) and GIS is used to create the database for analysis of spatial variation in respective water quality parameters as well as to decipher the hydrogeochemical process occurring in the area. Major ions are analysed to describe the composition and distribution of salinization and dissolution/precipitation dynamics. It was observed that groundwater weathering is governed by carbonate and silicate weathering and reverse ion-exchange, however due to semi-arid climate evaporation is also playing a major role in groundwater chemistry and salinity of the area. δ18O and δD regression line of groundwater samples of the study area is below the LMWL also suggest from non-equilibrium fractionation during evaporation. Large lateral variation in chloride concentration indicates impact of evapotranspiration rate during recharge. Most of water facies are of Na-Cl. Stable isotope (δ18O and δD) analysis helps to identify evaporation and to better understand recharge processes and mixing dynamics in the study region. Limited availability of surface water supply, no pricing exists for groundwater extraction has resulted in a widespread decline in the water table and intermixing of

  15. Accessibility information in New Delhi for "EasenAccess" Android-based app for persons with disability: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Yashovardhan

    2018-06-14

    The World Health Organization and the World Bank's "World Report on Disability" reported that over 1 billion people have various kinds of disability worldwide while Indian Census 2011 reported about 26 million in India. The United Nations Convention states, "The Rights of Persons with Disabilities (PwD) include accessibility to Information, Transportation, Environment, Communication Technology and Services". This article takes forward the reason of making the "EasenAccess" (EnA) Android-based app to empower PwD with wheelchair-accessibility information, communication sentences and sending SOS signals with location. A survey of 25 most frequented places in New Delhi by common people and tourist with chosen 12 parameters in comparison the Government of India's survey of 100 most important buildings nationally. A statistical analysis and recommendations about areas for improvement, for the Government of India. EasenAccess helps millions of PwD to enable them with freedom of movement for employment and socio-economic activities to lead an independent lifestyle. EasenAccess increases government's access to information about lacunae, gives them an easy way to tabulate the places where more accessibility needs updating, and helps the government in facilitating information flow to the PwD. Implication for Rehabilitation The Rights of Persons with Disability Act in 2016 covers both the concepts of Universal Design of products, environments and programs; and accessibility. We are exploring with them the ways technology can help bridge the gap between rehabilitation and accessibility. In the higher income countries such as the UK or USA, it is normal for a person to receive training when being given a wheelchair to prevent future injuries. Frequently, even with this, training people develop upper limb injuries, due in part to the high, repetitive loads needed to push a wheelchair. This training is given as part of a package of rehabilitation, which also normally includes

  16. L’amitié dans la relation ethnographique. Traitement de l’individu et rapport à l’autre dans les groupes locaux de Hijra (Delhi, Inde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Novello

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’amitié dans la relation ethnographique. Traitement de l’individu et rapport à l’autre dans les groupes locaux de Hijra (Delhi, Inde. « Tu es mon amie. Tu es la seule qui me comprenne. » Ces mots, toujours les mêmes, sont revenus sans cesse lors de l’enquête ethnographique que j’ai menée auprès des Hijra de Delhi. Les Hijra forment une catégorie sociale panindienne. Elles sont nées biologiquement hommes ou hermaphrodites, s’habillent et se parent continuellement comme des femmes et, parfois, sont émasculées. Les ethnologues parlent parfois de leur relation avec leurs informateurs en terme d’amitié sans que cette relation soit exprimée et pensée comme telle par ces derniers. Qu’en est-il lorsque la société étudiée désigne l’ethnologue en tant qu’ami et lorsque cette désignation transforme la nature des rapports qu’elle entretenait auparavant avec lui ? L’étude de l’amitié que les Hijra me proposèrent fournira, en premier lieu, un exemple de la façon dont l’ethnologue peut se trouver engagé dans ce rapport affectif. Il s’agira de qualifier cette relation ethnographique par la description du processus d’évolution de mon rôle d’une part, et par l’examen des comportements et des pratiques qui la sanctionnent et qui y sont engagés d’autre part. Cette réflexion sur les représentations et les valeurs auxquelles mes interlocutrices faisaient référence en me conférant la place d’amie, informera en second lieu sur le traitement de l’individu et de l’altérité prévalant dans la catégorie sociale « Hijra ».Friendship in ethnographical relations. Treatment of the individual and relation to the other in local groups of Hijra (Delhi, India. “You are my friend. You are the only person who understands me.” These words, always the same, were endlessly repeated during my ethnographical survey of the Hijra of Delhi. The Hijra form a pan-Indian social category. Born

  17. The Deployment of Clean Energy in Delhi in the Context of the Distrust of Urban Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerah, Marie-Helene; Kohler, Gautier

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the deployment of clean energy in Delhi and aims to understand how the interactions between technology, society and regulation promote or hinder an energy transition. Our assumption considers that the support or the resistance of urban society to this transition needs to be understood as a conflicting and democratic process toward the construction of new technical and social paradigms. The methodology of the article is based on an analysis of public policies as well as the practices of companies and users related to power sector reform in Delhi. Our analysis shows that the wait-and-see attitude of electricity companies and the resistance of households and even government institutions is explained as much by the lack of clarity of public policies and a desire to maintain low energy prices as it is in the deep diffidence in the legitimacy and competence of the political and bureaucratic elites defining the content of this transition

  18. Indian tick typhus presenting with gangrene: a case report from an urban slum of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Singh, Raghvendra; Yadav, Mukesh

    2014-01-01

    Indian Tick Typhus has been rarely reported in children from Delhi. A 10-y-old male child from Delhi presented with fever, non specific gastrointestinal symptoms, petechial rash and gangrene of all the toes. Possibility of rickettsial infection was entertained after the child failed to improve with best of the antibiotics. Sample for serology for rickettsial infection was sent and Doxycycline was started empirically. He became afebrile within 72 h of starting Doxycycline. Later, diagnosis of Indian Tick Typhus was confirmed on the basis of IgM positivity against Rickettsia conori. Possibility of rickettsial infection should be entertained in children with history of fever and skin rash, especially if the child fails to improve with a course of antibiotics and common infectious etiologies have been ruled out.

  19. A Study Of Universal Immunization Coverage During Last Five Years In Resettlement Colonies Of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salhotra V S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Is there any difference in immunization coverage in resettlement colonies of Delhi during past five years? Objectives: 1. To study the immunization coverage levels of children over a period of five years. 2. To observe changes in the coverage levels of different years, if any. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Khichripur, Kalyanpuri, Kalyanpuri, Trilokpuri and Himmatpuri- four resettlement colonies of trans-Yamuna area of Delhi. Participants: 1500 children belonging to five age-groups i.e. birth-1 yr., 1-2 yrs., 2-3 yrs, and 4-5 yrs. Methods: Verification of child’s immunization from immunization card and interview of mother if immunization car was not available. Study period: May1997 to March1998 Results: Immunization with individual vaccines and immunization status of the children peaked in 1995-96 but started falling thereafter due to fall in ICE activities.

  20. Point of sale tobacco advertisements in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, K

    2007-01-01

    The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India's comprehensive tobacco Control legislation in different parts of India. Boards over various shops showing advertisements of tobacco products were observed in the cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Trivandrum and Jaipur, between September 2005 and March 2006. The point of sale advertisements mushroomed after the implementation of 2004 tobacco control legislation. Tobacco advertisement boards fully satisfying the point of sale provision were practically non-existent. The most common violation of point of sale advertisements was the larger size of the board but with tobacco advertisement equal to the size indicated in the legislation and remaining area often showing a picture. Invariably two boards were placed together to provide the impression of a large single repetitive advertisement. More than two boards was not common. Tobacco advertisement boards were also observed on closed shops/ warehouses, shops not selling tobacco products and on several adjacent shops. The purpose of the point of sale advertisements seems to be surrogate advertisement of tobacco products, mainly cigarettes.

  1. Rusia, China, India y Asia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Blank

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La próxima entrada de India en la Organización de Cooperación de Shanghái puede ser importante para Delhi pero no puede deshacer el factor crítico de que China se está convirtiendo cada vez más en el actor extranjero más relevante en Asia Central y que Rusia está dependiendo de China hasta el punto de que su Ministerio de Defensa ha buscado formalmente una alianza con China en contra del terrorismo, «las revoluciones de colores» y los Estados Unidos. China está ganando en la competición por la influencia sobre Asia Central, India apenas es competitiva allí y Rusia está perdiendo terreno paulatinamente, principalmente debido a sus propios fracasos para acrecentar su capacidad económica-política, incluso antes de invadir Ucrania. Las consecuencias de esa jugada tan solo han acelerado el proceso de su creciente dependencia de China.

  2. Feasibility of seismic alert systems in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, P.K.S.; Pandey, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters like flood, earthquakes and cyclones are very frequent in India since historical times. As far as the casualties are concerned, globally earthquakes are second in the list after the flood. The loss of property due to these earthquakes is huge and enormous. In the light of the present knowledge base, earthquake prediction is far from being a reality. An early earthquake warning has potential to save the precious human lives. In the present day scenario seismic instrumentation and telecommunication permits the implementation of seismic alert system (SAS) based on the real-time measurement of ground motions near the source. SAS is capable of providing a warning of several seconds before the arrival of destructive seismic waves caused by a large earthquake. SAS is successfully operational in many countries of the world. In a country, like India where earthquakes are taking heavy toll on the human lives and property, seismic alert system may prove to be very important step in natural hazard mitigation strategy. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compute the available alarm time before the destructive earthquake waves reaches to the cities like Delhi, Lucknow, Patna and Kolkata taking Himalaya as the source and feasibility of seismic alert system in Indian scenario. (author)

  3. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-13

    Dec 13, 2017 ... It is telling that in a famous paper authored by the Nobel Prize winner, Robert ..... Examples are the steam engine, railroad, electricity, electronics, the ...... According to Gartner's Senior Research Analyst 'India's domestic IT services .... in new areas such as engineering services and product development.

  4. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Here Veena Jha surveys the history of philanthropic giving in India going back to the ...... claim that ICTs produced benefits go beyond those pertaining to investors and owners. ...... Anti-migration policies include restricted access to public services by below poverty ...... Which medicines and vaccinations are not available?

  5. Niobium quarter-wave cavity for the New Delhi booster linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Roy, A.; Potukuchi, P.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports the completion of development of a 97 Mhz niobium coaxial quarter-wave cavity to be used in a booster linac for the New Delhi 16UD pellatron electrostatic accelerator. A prototype cavity, which incorporates a niobium-bellows tuning device, has been completed and operated at 4.2 K at accelerating gradients above 4 MV/m for extended periods of time

  6. Substance use and criminality among juveniles-under-enquiry in New Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Shridhar; Sharma, Gautam; Barkataki, Bristi

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an intimate relationship between drugs and criminal behavior. The drug?violence relationship is further complicated by intoxicating doses and/or withdrawal effects of specific drugs. Understanding this relationship is important for both healthcare workers and policy makers. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Prayas observation home for boys, a short stay home for juveniles-under-enquiry in New Delhi. The present study aims to correlate substance use and cri...

  7. Niobium quarter-wave cavity for the New Delhi booster linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Roy, A.; Potukuchi, P.N. [Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi (India)

    1997-09-01

    This paper reports the completion of development of a 97 Mhz niobium coaxial quarter-wave cavity to be used in a booster linac for the New Delhi 16UD pellatron electrostatic accelerator. A prototype cavity, which incorporates a niobium-bellows tuning device, has been completed and operated at 4.2 K at accelerating gradients above 4 MV/m for extended periods of time.

  8. Patterns of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria underscore importance of data collection from private health care facilities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sangeeta; Gunter, James T; Novak, Robert J; Regens, James L

    2009-10-12

    This study describes patterns of falciparum and vivax malaria in a private comprehensive-care, multi-specialty hospital in New Delhi from July 2006 to July 2008. Malarial morbidity by Plasmodium species (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, or Plasmodium sp.) was confirmed using microscopy and antigen tests. The influence of seasonal factors and selected patient demographics on morbidity was evaluated. The proportions of malaria cases caused by P. falciparum at the private facility were compared to data from India's National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) during the same period for the Delhi region. In New Delhi, P. faciparum was the dominant cause of cases requiring treatment in the private hospital during the period examined. The national data reported a smaller proportion of malaria cases caused by P. falciparum in the national capital region than was observed in a private facility within the region. Plasmodium vivax also caused a large proportion of the cases presenting clinically at the private hospital during the summer and monsoon seasons. The proportion of P. falciparum malaria cases tends to be greatest during the post-monsoon season while the proportion of P. vivax malaria cases tends to be greatest in the monsoon season. Private hospital data demonstrate an under-reporting of malaria case incidences in the data from India's national surveillance programme during the same period for the national capital region.

  9. Improving access to medicines via the Health Impact Fund in India: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Patrick; Ajay, Vamadevan S; Srinivas, Ravi; Bhalla, Sandeep; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Banerjee, Amitava

    2018-01-01

    In India, 50-65% of the population face difficulties in accessing medicines. The Health Impact Fund (HIF) is a novel proposal whereby pharmaceutical companies would be paid based on the measured global health impact of their drugs. We conducted a key stakeholder analysis to explore access to medicines in India, acceptability of the HIF and potential barriers and facilitators at policy level. To conduct a stakeholder analysis of the HIF in India: to determine key stakeholder views regarding access to medicines in India; to evaluate acceptability of the HIF; and to assess potential barriers and facilitators to the HIF as a policy. In New Delhi, we conducted semi-structured interviews. There was purposive recruitment of participants with snowball sampling. Transcribed data were analysed using stakeholder analysis frameworks and directed content analysis. Participation rate was 29% (14/49). 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted among stakeholders in New Delhi. All participants highlighted access to medicines as a problem in India. There were mixed views about the HIF in terms of relevance and scaleability. Stakeholders felt it should focus on diseases with limited or no market and potentially incorporate direct investment in research. First, access to medicines is perceived to be a major problem in India by all stakeholders, but affordability is just one factor. Second, stakeholders despite considerable support for the idea of the HIF, there are major concerns about scaleability, generalisability and impact on access to medicines. Third, the HIF and other novel drug-related health policies can afford to be more radical, e.g. working outside the existing intellectual property rights regime, targeting generic as well as branded drugs, or extending to research and development. Further innovations in access to medicines must involve country-specific key stakeholders in order to increase the likelihood of their success.

  10. Local government finance: challenges in revenue-raising at the Municipal Corporation of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simanti Bandyopadhyay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the extent to which the capital city of Delhi has gained financial autonomy over the years. In order to better understand its progress, the paper compares the periods before and after the submission of the Third State Finance Commission Report of Delhi. The main findings suggest there have been some efforts to reduce reliance on transfers from upper tiers of government and to strengthen ‘own revenues’ atthe Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD. A greater diversification of tax and non-tax revenue sources is responsible for this improvement. In the second period, other tax sources such as corporation tax and electricity tax gained in importance.  Non-tax revenues were also strengthened by higher collection of certain components such as conversion charges. However, own revenues have been inadequate to meet growing expenditure requirements, resulting in high revenue expenditure gaps. Further, the growth in Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP has not led to a rise in own revenues for MCD.Rather, the paper finds that higher GSDP and its tertiary sector components are associated with higher expenditures in MCD. As far as local revenues are concerned, higher GSDP is associated with higher transfers, but has no discernible impact on own revenues. 

  11. Impact Of IEC Intervention On Knowledge Regarding AIDS Amongst Senior Secondary School Children Of East Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhasin S. K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: 1. What is the level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS amongst school children in East Delhi? 2. What is the impact of IEC intervention on the level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS in these children? Objective: To find out the impact of IEC intervention on awareness regarding HIV/AIDS amongst senior secondary boys and girls in schools of East Delhi. Study design: Pre and post IEC interventional study. Settings: In four randomly selected senior secondary schools in East Delhi. Participants: 294 boys and 333 girls of class XI and XII in pre IEC group and 239 boys and 203 girls in post IEC group. Intervention: An IEC package of exhibition of posters, videotapes and intra group open discussion. Outcome variables: Proportion (prevalence of school children having correct knowledge of various aspects of HIV/AIDS after IEC intervention. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test. Results: IEC intervention significantly generated an enhancing effect on most aspects of their awareness towards HIV/AIDS among both boys and girls. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to impart health education for dispelling misconceptions regarding this disease.

  12. Managing future air quality in megacities: A case study for Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Markus; Purohit, Pallav; Bhanarkar, Anil D.; Bertok, Imrich; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Cofala, Janusz; Heyes, Chris; Kiesewetter, Gregor; Klimont, Zbigniew; Liu, Jun; Majumdar, Dipanjali; Nguyen, Binh; Rafaj, Peter; Rao, Padma S.; Sander, Robert; Schöpp, Wolfgang; Srivastava, Anjali; Vardhan, B. Harsh

    2017-07-01

    Megacities in Asia rank high in air pollution at the global scale. In many cities, ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have been exceeding both the WHO interim targets as well as respective national air quality standards. This paper presents a systems analytical perspective on management options that could efficiently improve air quality at the urban scale, having Delhi as a case study. We employ the newly developed GAINS-City policy analysis framework, consisting of a bottom up emission calculation combined with atmospheric chemistry-transport calculation, to derive innovative insights into the current sources of pollution and their impacts on ambient PM2.5, both from emissions of primary PM as well as precursors of secondary inorganic and organic aerosols. We outline the likely future development of these sources, quantify the related ambient PM2.5 concentrations and health impacts, and explore potential policy interventions that could effectively reduce environmental pollution and resulting health impacts in the coming years. The analysis demonstrates that effective improvement of Delhi's air quality requires collaboration with neighboring States and must involve sources that are less relevant in industrialized countries. At the same time, many of the policy interventions will have multiple co-benefits on development targets in Delhi and its neighboring States. Outcomes of this study, as well as the modelling tools used herein, are applicable to other urban areas and fast growing metropolitan zones in the emerging Asian regions.

  13. Russia-India: New Horizons For Historical Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Ivashentsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia’s relations with India have been close to those of an alliance. However the changes that have taken place in Russia and in the general global situation as well as India’s mighty economic upswing and the rise of its geopolitical ambitions on that basis have introduced new accents and nuances to these relations. With the coming to power in 2014 of Bharatiya Janata or Indian People’s Party whose ideology is Hindutwa, the nationalism, based on Hindu religious traditions, India’s foreign policy has acquired a new assertiveness. The present Prime Minister N.Modi has declared his plan to make India a leading power on the international arena. An important feature of India’s foreign policy of recent years is its active building bridges with the US which it view first of all as a potential counterweight to China. The Indian diaspora in the US of 3Million has played its role in that process. However New Delhi maintains the line of the privileged strategic partnership with Russia. India’s global and regional interests coincide more often with those of Russia than witch othegreat powers. As for Russia, it never had any conflict with India in the past. Three main pillars of our partnership beyond the foreign affairs framework are those of cooperation in energy, including nuclear power, military technologies and space exploration. Russia-India partnership has proved its viability and efficiency. It helps to promote global peace and security.

  14. Measurement of spices and seasonings in India: opportunities for cancer epidemiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Leah M; Daniel, Carrie R; Kapur, Kavita; Chadha, Puneet; Shetty, Hemali; Graubard, Barry I; George, Preethi S; Osborne, Whitney; Yurgalevitch, Susan; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Gupta, Prakash C; Mathew, Aleyamma; Sinha, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive components of many foods added during cooking have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial and chemopreventive properties. However, epidemiologic studies generally do not collect detailed information on these items, which include spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and oils. Since India has some of the highest spice consumption in the world, we developed a computer-based food preparer questionnaire to estimate per capita consumption of 19 spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and 13 cooking oils among 3,625 participants in the India Health Study, a multicenter pilot study in three regions of India. We observed notable regional differences in consumption of spices, chilies, coconut, garlic, and onions. In Trivandrum, over 95 percent of the participants consumed 12 different spices, while in New Delhi and Mumbai, 95 percent of participants consumed only four and five spices, respectively. Cooking oil use also varied, as ghee was most common in New Delhi (96.8%) followed by mustard seed oil (78.0%), while in Trivandrum the primary oil was coconut (88.5%) and in Mumbai it was peanut (68.5%). There was some variation in consumption by education, income, and religion. Using a novel method for assessing food items primarly added during cooking, we successfully estimated per capita consumption within an epidemiologic study. Based on basic science research and suggestive ecologic level data on cancer incidence and spice consumption, improving epidemiologic assessment of these potentially chemopreventive food items may enhance our understanding of diet and cancer risk.

  15. Measurement of spices and seasonings in India: Opportunities for cancer epidemiology and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Daniel, Carrie R.; Kapur, Kavita; Chadha, Puneet; Shetty, Hemali; Graubard, Barry I.; George, Preethi S.; Osborne, Whitney; Yurgalevitch, Susan; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Gupta, Prakash C.; Mathew, Aleyamma; Sinha, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive components of many foods added during cooking have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial and chemopreventive properties. However, epidemiologic studies generally do not collect detailed information on these items which include spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and oils. Since India has some of the highest spice consumption in the world, we developed a computer-based food preparer questionnaire to estimate per capita consumption of 19 spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and 13 cooking oils among 3,625 participants in the India Health Study, a multicenter pilot study in three regions of India. We observed notable regional differences in consumption of spices, chilies, coconut, garlic, and onions. In Trivandrum, over 95 percent of the participants consumed 12 different spices, while in New Delhi and Mumbai, 95 percent of participants consumed only four and five spices, respectively. Cooking oil use also varied, as ghee was most common in New Delhi (96.8%) followed by mustard seed oil (78.0%), while in Trivandrum the primary oil was coconut (88.5%) and in Mumbai it was peanut (68.5%). There was some variation in consumption by education, income, and religion. Using a novel method for assessing food items primarily added during cooking, we successfully estimated per capita consumption within an epidemiologic study. Based on basic science research and suggestive ecologic level data on cancer incidence and spice consumption, improving epidemiologic assessment of these potentially chemopreventive food items may enhance our understanding of diet and cancer risk. PMID:21338207

  16. Cost analysis of a disaster facility at an apex tertiary care trauma center of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For the Commonwealth Games 2010, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre (JPNATC of India had been directed by the Director General Health Services and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, to set up a specialized unit for the definitive management of the injured/unwell athletes, officials, and related personnel coming for the Commonwealth Games in October 2010. The facility included a 20-bedded fully equipped ward, six ICU beds with ventilator capacity, one very very important person observation area, one perioperative management cubicle, and one fully modular and integrated operating room. Objective: The objective of this study was to calculate the cost of disaster facility at JPNATC, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Methodology: Traditional (average or gross costing methodology was used to arrive at the cost for the provisioning of these services by this facility. Results: The annual cost of providing services at disaster facility at JPNATC, New Delhi, was calculated to be INR 61,007,334.08 (US$ 983,989.258 while the per hour cost was calculated to be INR 7061.03 of the total cost toward the provisioning of services by disaster facility where 26% was the capital cost and 74% was the operating cost. Human resource caters to maximum chunk of the expenditures (47%. Conclusion: The results of this costing study will help in the future planning of resource allocation within the financial constraints (US$ 1 = INR 62 in the year 2013.

  17. Cost analysis of a disaster facility at an apex tertiary care trauma center of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sheetal; Gupta, Shakti; Daga, Anoop; Siddharth, Vijaydeep; Wundavalli, LaxmiTej

    2016-01-01

    For the Commonwealth Games 2010, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre (JPNATC) of India had been directed by the Director General Health Services and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, to set up a specialized unit for the definitive management of the injured/unwell athletes, officials, and related personnel coming for the Commonwealth Games in October 2010. The facility included a 20-bedded fully equipped ward, six ICU beds with ventilator capacity, one very very important person observation area, one perioperative management cubicle, and one fully modular and integrated operating room. The objective of this study was to calculate the cost of disaster facility at JPNATC, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Traditional (average or gross) costing methodology was used to arrive at the cost for the provisioning of these services by this facility. The annual cost of providing services at disaster facility at JPNATC, New Delhi, was calculated to be INR 61,007,334.08 (US$ 983,989.258) while the per hour cost was calculated to be INR 7061.03 of the total cost toward the provisioning of services by disaster facility where 26% was the capital cost and 74% was the operating cost. Human resource caters to maximum chunk of the expenditures (47%). The results of this costing study will help in the future planning of resource allocation within the financial constraints (US$ 1 = INR 62 in the year 2013).

  18. Geant4.10 simulation of geometric model for metaphase chromosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafat-Motavalli, L., E-mail: rafat@um.ac.ir; Miri-Hakimabad, H.; Bakhtiyari, E.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a geometric model of metaphase chromosome is explained. The model is constructed according to the packing ratio and dimension of the structure from nucleosome up to chromosome. A B-DNA base pair is used to construct 200 base pairs of nucleosomes. Each chromatin fiber loop, which is the unit of repeat, has 49,200 bp. This geometry is entered in Geant4.10 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit and can be extended to the whole metaphase chromosomes and any application in which a DNA geometrical model is needed. The chromosome base pairs, chromosome length, and relative length of chromosomes are calculated. The calculated relative length is compared to the relative length of human chromosomes.

  19. Geant4.10 simulation of geometric model for metaphase chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafat-Motavalli, L.; Miri-Hakimabad, H.; Bakhtiyari, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a geometric model of metaphase chromosome is explained. The model is constructed according to the packing ratio and dimension of the structure from nucleosome up to chromosome. A B-DNA base pair is used to construct 200 base pairs of nucleosomes. Each chromatin fiber loop, which is the unit of repeat, has 49,200 bp. This geometry is entered in Geant4.10 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit and can be extended to the whole metaphase chromosomes and any application in which a DNA geometrical model is needed. The chromosome base pairs, chromosome length, and relative length of chromosomes are calculated. The calculated relative length is compared to the relative length of human chromosomes.

  20. Estimating population salt intake in India using spot urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kristina S; Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A; Webster, Jacqui; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K; Reddy, K Srinath; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    To compare estimates of mean population salt intake in North and South India derived from spot urine samples versus 24-h urine collections. In a cross-sectional survey, participants were sampled from slum, urban and rural communities in North and in South India. Participants provided 24-h urine collections, and random morning spot urine samples. Salt intake was estimated from the spot urine samples using a series of established estimating equations. Salt intake data from the 24-h urine collections and spot urine equations were weighted to provide estimates of salt intake for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh. A total of 957 individuals provided a complete 24-h urine collection and a spot urine sample. Weighted mean salt intake based on the 24-h urine collection, was 8.59 (95% confidence interval 7.73-9.45) and 9.46 g/day (8.95-9.96) in Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively. Corresponding estimates based on the Tanaka equation [9.04 (8.63-9.45) and 9.79 g/day (9.62-9.96) for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively], the Mage equation [8.80 (7.67-9.94) and 10.19 g/day (95% CI 9.59-10.79)], the INTERSALT equation [7.99 (7.61-8.37) and 8.64 g/day (8.04-9.23)] and the INTERSALT equation with potassium [8.13 (7.74-8.52) and 8.81 g/day (8.16-9.46)] were all within 1 g/day of the estimate based upon 24-h collections. For the Toft equation, estimates were 1-2 g/day higher [9.94 (9.24-10.64) and 10.69 g/day (9.44-11.93)] and for the Kawasaki equation they were 3-4 g/day higher [12.14 (11.30-12.97) and 13.64 g/day (13.15-14.12)]. In urban and rural areas in North and South India, most spot urine-based equations provided reasonable estimates of mean population salt intake. Equations that did not provide good estimates may have failed because specimen collection was not aligned with the original method.

  1. Key drivers of the e-waste recycling system: Assessing and modelling e-waste processing in the informal sector in Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streicher-Porte, Martin; Widmer, Rolf; Jain, Amit; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth; Kytzia, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    The management and recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment WEEE was assessed in the city of Delhi, India. In order to do this, the personal computer was defined as the tracer for which a model was designed. The model depicts the entire life cycle of the tracer, from production through sale and consumption-including reuse and refurbishment-to the material recovery in the mainly informal recycling industry. The field work included interviews with the relevant stakeholders, transect walks and literature study, which was followed by a software-supported material flow analysis (MFA) of the whole life cycle chain of the tracer item. In addition to the MFA, several economic aspects of the recycling system were investigated. The study revealed that the life span of a personal computer has considerable influence upon the system, most notably in the following two aspects: (i) a prolonged life span creates value by means of refurbishing and upgrading activities, and (ii) it slows down the flow rate of the whole system. This is one of the simplest ways of preventing an uncontrolled increase in environmentally hazardous emissions by the recycling sector. The material recovery of the system is mainly driven by the precious metal content of personal computers. A first estimate showed that precious metal recovery contributes to over 80% of the personal computer materials' market value, despite the small quantity of them found in computers

  2. Implications of end-user behaviour in response to deficiencies in water supply for electricity consumption - A case study of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ruchira; Kansal, Arun; Aghi, Sakshi

    2016-05-01

    Over the past two decades, urban lifestyles have changed phenomenally. One aspect of this change is the increasing use of household appliances, which, in turn, influences water and electricity consumption in urban households. It is therefore necessary to revisit water supply norms in view of these behavioural changes. Increasing use of water-related appliances by the surveyed households in Delhi, India has lowered their water consumption but increased their electricity consumption (10-16 kW h a month). Also, longer working hours away from homes have shifted water demand from homes to commercial establishments and institutions. The per-capita water requirement to meet the basic needs for health and hygiene is approximately 76-78 L a day, of which bathing claims the largest share (32%). Nearly 70% of electricity consumption of a household is spent in coping with deficiencies in water supply. Strategies adopted by end users to save water were negatively correlated with those to save electricity. Household incomes have no influence on water consumption except in the case of those living in slums, who are forced to curtail their use of water even at the cost of health and hygiene; for the rest, coping with poor water supply amounts to spending nearly 50% more on electricity, defeating the purpose of subsidised water supply.

  3. Reproductive Tract infections and Premalignant Lesions of Cervix: Evidence from Women Presenting at the Cancer Detection Centre of the Indian Cancer Society, Delhi, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhojit; Pahwa, Parika; Mishra, Arti; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K

    2016-10-01

    Burden of cervical cancer (CC) is highest for women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Human papillomavirus (HPV) is implicated as the necessary cause of CC although a number of other factors aid the long process of CC development. One among them is the presence of reproductive tract infections (RTIs). This study investigated the associations between RTIs and CC from India. This study utilized secondary data from the Cancer Detection Centre of the ICS, Delhi. Data were accessed from MS access database and were analyzed using MS Excel and SPSS 16.0. Multivariate analysis using unconditional logistic regression produced odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). This study used data from 11,427 women over a period of 2000-2012. Women with RTIs had Candida, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) or coccoid infections with all having similar prevalence (~4-5 %). 9.4 % of women had premalignant lesions of cervix; ASCUS was most common (7.9 %) followed by LSIL (1.3 %). TV was significantly associated with ASCUS, LSIL and all premalignant lesions of cervix (P Lack of awareness and hygiene, and limited access to gynecologists in LMICs lead to frequent and persistent RTIs which aid and abet HPV infection and CC occurrence. These also need to be addressed to reduce CC and RTIs among women in LMICs.

  4. Vehicular pollution modeling using the operational street pollution model (OSPM) for Chembur, Mumbai (India)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Awkash; Ketzel, Matthias; Patil, Rashmi S.

    2016-01-01

    Megacities in India such as Mumbai and Delhi are among the most polluted places in the world. In the present study, the widely used operational street pollution model (OSPM) is applied for assessing pollutant loads in the street canyons of Chembur, a suburban area just outside Mumbai city. Chembur...... concentrations from the routine monitoring performed in Mumbai. NOx emissions originate mainly from vehicles which are ground-level sources and are emitting close to where people live. Therefore, those emissions are highly relevant. The modeled NOx concentration compared satisfactorily with observed data...

  5. Cost and cost-effectiveness of PPM-DOTS for tuberculosis control: evidence from India.

    OpenAIRE

    Floyd, Katherine; Arora, V. K.; Murthy, K. J. R.; Lonnroth, Knut; Singla, Neeta; Akbar, Y.; Zignol, Matteo; Uplekar, Mukund

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of the Public-Private Mix DOTS (PPM-DOTS) strategy for tuberculosis (TB) control in India. METHODS: We collected data on the costs and effects of pilot PPM-DOTS projects in Delhi and Hyderabad using documentary data and interviews. The cost of PPM-DOTS was compared with public sector DOTS (i.e. DOTS delivered through public sector facilities only) and non-DOTS treatment in the private sector. Costs for 2002 in US$ were assessed for the publ...

  6. Frequency of β-thalassemia trait and other hemoglobinopathies in northern and western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Nishi; Sharma, Satendra; Sood, S. K.; Colah, Roshan; Bhatia, (Late) H. M.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: India is an ethnically diverse country with an approximate population of 1.2 billion. The frequency of beta-thalassemia trait (βTT) has variously been reported from hemoglobinopathies in different regions and population groups in the country. A high frequency of Hb D has been reported from the North in the Punjabi population, Hb E in the eastern region of India and Hb S is mainly reported from populations of tribal origin from different parts of the country. OBJECTIVES: To study the gene frequency of βTT and other hemoglobinopathies in three regions East (Kolkata), West (Mumbai) and North (Delhi) in larghe population group (schoolchildren) for a more accurate assessment of gene frequency for planning of control programmes for haemoglobinopathies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 5408 children from 11 schools in Delhi, 5682 from 75 schools in Mumbai and 957 schoolchildren from Kolkata who were screened for βTT and haemoglobinopathies. These included 5684 children from 75 schools in Mumbai and 5408 children from 11 schools in Delhi. Children were 11-18 years of age of both sexes. The final report is, however, only on 11090 schoolchildren from Mumbai and Delhi as data from Kolkata was restricted both in numbers and objectives and could not be included for comparison. RESULTS: The overall gene frequency of βTT in Mumbai and Delhi was 4.05% being 2.68% and 5.47% in children of the two cities respectively. In Mumbai, the gene frequency was evenly distributed. Majority of the children with βTT from Mumbai were from Marathi (38.9%) and Gujarati (25%) speaking groups. Gene frequency was >5% in Bhatias, Khatris, Lohanas and Schedule Castes. In Delhi, a higher incidence was observed in schoolchildren of North and West Delhi (5.8-9.2%). The schoolchildren of North and West Delhi comprised predominantly of Punjabi origin compared to children in the South of the city (2.2%, 2.3%). When analyzed state-wise, the highest incidence was observed in

  7. An Overview of Uranium Exploration Strategy in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaki, A., E-mail: director.amd@gov.in [Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Hyderabad (India)

    2014-05-15

    Uranium exploration in India dates back from 1949 and the first mineralized area was located in the early 1950s in Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ), eastern India. Since then, a number of potential and promising uranium provinces have been established in India. The potential uranium provinces include SSZ, Dongargarh, Aravalli, Siwalik belt, Mahadek basin, south-western and northern parts of Cuddapah basin, North Delhi Fold Belt, Bhima and Kaladgi basins. The promising uranium provinces are Proterozoic Chhattisgarh, Indravati, Gwalior, Vindhyan, Shillong basins, Gondwana basins of Central India and semi-arid regions of western Rajasthan. With the establishment of large tonnage-high grade Lower-middle Proterozoic unconformity deposits in Canada and Australia, there was a paradigm shift in the exploration strategy towards the Proterozoic basins of India. The discovery of unconformity related uranium mineralisation in the northern part of Proterozoic Cuddapah basin in southern India in 1991 and discovery of few deposits in the province has opened the avenues for finding of similar deposits in Cuddapah and other 13 Proterozoic basins in India. As a sequel, Proterozoic Bhima basin in southern India has been recognized as a potential target for uranium mineralization, where a low tonnage medium grade deposit has been established and mine development works are in progress. Sustained exploration efforts in other Proterozoic basins have yielded success in a few basins such as Deshnur area in Kaladgi Basin of southern India. Considerable uranium resources have been established in Proterozoic Cuddapah and Bhima basins. Apart from northern parts of Cuddapah and Bhima basins, areas in the southwestern part of Cuddapah basin for stratabound type, where a mine is under construction; Proterozoic Kaladgi basin for vein type; Cretaceous Mahadek basin for sandstone type and the North Delhi Fold belt for vein type of mineralization have been prioritized as potential areas for exploration

  8. First systematic plant proteomics workshop in Botany Department, University of Delhi: transferring proteomics knowledge to next-generation researchers and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deswal, Renu; Abat, Jasmeet Kaur; Sehrawat, Ankita; Gupta, Ravi; Kashyap, Prakriti; Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Bhavana; Chaurasia, Satya Prakash; Chanu, Sougrakpam Yaiphabi; Masi, Antonio; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Agrawal, Raj; Dunn, Michael J; Renaut, Jenny; Rakwal, Randeep

    2014-07-01

    International Plant Proteomics Organization (INPPO) outlined ten initiatives to promote plant proteomics in each and every country. With greater emphasis in developing countries, one of those was to "organize workshops at national and international levels to train manpower and exchange information". This third INPPO highlights covers the workshop organized for the very first time in a developing country, India, at the Department of Botany in University of Delhi on December 26-30, 2013 titled - "1(st) Plant Proteomics Workshop / Training Program" under the umbrella of INPPO India-Nepal chapter. Selected 20 participants received on-hand training mainly on gel-based proteomics approach along with manual booklet and parallel lectures on this and associated topics. In house, as well as invited experts drawn from other Universities and Institutes (national and international), delivered talks on different aspects of gel-based and gel-free proteomics. Importance of gel-free proteomics approach, translational proteomics, and INPPO roles were presented and interactively discussed by a group of three invited speakers Drs. Ganesh Kumar Agrawal (Nepal), Randeep Rakwal (Japan), and Antonio Masi (Italy). Given the output of this systematic workshop, it was proposed and thereafter decided to be organized every alternate year; the next workshop will be held in 2015. Furthermore, possibilities on providing advanced training to those students / researchers / teachers with basic knowledge in proteomics theory and experiments at national and international levels were discussed. INPPO is committed to generating next-generation trained manpower in proteomics, and it would only happen by the firm determination of scientists to come forward and do it. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    positivity rates in these patients, accounting for nearly 24-. 28% of cases. .... Author. Punjab. Blood donors. 44,064. ELISA. 1.09%. Gupta et al 2004. Delhi. Voluntary blood ... contribution of hepatitis C in these disease conditions is summarized ...

  10. Effectiveness of peer-counseling for promoting optimal complementary feeding practices among infants belonging to urban slums of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabharwal Vandana, Passi Santosh Jain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Promotion of appropriate complementary feeding practices is important in reducing malnutrition in infants and young children. Yet, India has dismal rates of optimal complementary feeding practices which are not rising. Aim: This study aimed to find the impact of the educational intervention directed through peer counselors to promote optimal complementary feeding practices. Methods and materials: This is an Interventional study, which has been conducted in an urban slum of Delhi using multi-stage random sampling. From the study area two sectors were randomly selected. From one sector, 54 pregnant women were selected who were not given any counselling forming the non-intervention group. From the other sector, 159 pregnant women were selected to form the intervention group (Igr which were further divided into 3 sub-groups; one sub-group was imparted counselling by a nutrition professional (Igr A; n=53 and the other two (Igr B1;n=53 and Igr B2;n=53 by the peer counselors who where the local health workers trained for promoting optimal infant feeding practices. The infants were followed up till their first birthday and in order to study the impact of counseling, the complementary feeding practices of the intervention and the non-intervention groups have been compared Results: In the intervention groups, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was significantly higher as compared to the non-intervention group (67.5 % vs. 4.2 %. In the intervention groups, 2.6 per cent infants received semi-solid/ solid foods before the age of 6 months, 75.1 percent between 6 – 7 months and the rest by the age of 9 months. However, in the Non-Igr, the respective figures were 48.9, 19.4 and 25.4 per cent; and at the age of one year, 6.4 per cent infants were still being given predominantly mother’s milk. 99.3 per cent infants in the Igrs as compared to 82.3 per cent in the Non-Igr (P<0.05 continued to receive breast milk till the age of

  11. Seasonal variations in size distribution, water-soluble ions, and carbon content of size-segregated aerosols over New Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Kumar, Sushil; Yadav, Sudesh

    2018-02-01

    Size distribution, water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII), and organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in size-segregated aerosols were investigated during a year-long sampling in 2010 over New Delhi. Among different size fractions of PM 10 , PM 0.95 was the dominant fraction (45%) followed by PM 3-7.2 (20%), PM 7.2-10 (15%), PM 0.95-1.5 (10%), and PM 1.5-3 (10%). All size fractions exceeded the ambient air quality standards of India for PM 2.5 . Annual average mass size distributions of ions were specific to size and ion(s); Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , NO 3 - , and Cl - followed bimodal distribution while SO 4 2- and NH 4 + ions showed one mode in PM 0.95 . The concentrations of secondary WSII (NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , and NH 4 + ) increased in winters due to closed and moist atmosphere whereas open atmospheric conditions in summers lead to dispersal of pollutants. NH 4 + and Ca 2+ were dominant neutralization ions but in different size fractions. The summer-time dust transport from upwind region by S SW winds resulted in significantly high concentrations of PM 0.95 and PM 3-7.2 and PM 7.2-10 . This indicted influence of dust generation in Thar Desert and its transport is size selective in nature in downwind direction. The mixing of different sources (geogenic, coal combustions, biomass burning, plastic burning, incinerators, and vehicular emissions sources) for soluble ions in different size fractions was noticed in principle component analysis. Total carbon (TC = EC + OC) constituted 8-31% of the total PM 0.95 mass, and OC dominated over EC. Among EC, char (EC1) dominated over soot (EC2 + EC3). High SOC contribution (82%) to OC and OC/EC ratio of 2.7 suggested possible role of mineral dust and high photochemical activity in SOC production. Mass concentrations of aerosols and WSII and their contributions to each size fraction of PM 10 are governed by nature of sources, emission strength of source(s), and seasonality in meteorological parameters.

  12. The strong motion amplitudes from Himalayan earthquakes and a pilot study for the deterministic first order microzonation of Delhi City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Panza, G.F.; Gusev, A.A.; Vaccari, F.

    2001-09-01

    The interdependence among the strong-motion amplitude, earthquake magnitude and hypocentral distance has been established (Parvez et al. 2001) for the Himalayan region using the dataset of six earthquakes, two from Western and four from Eastern Himalayas (M w =5.2-7.2) recorded by strong-motion networks in the Himalayas. The level of the peak strong motion amplitudes in the Eastern Himalayas is three fold larger than that in the Western Himalayas, in terms of both peak acceleration and peak velocities. In the present study, we include the strong motion data of Chamoli earthquake (M w =6.5) of 1999 from the western sub-region to see whether this event supports the regional effects and we find that the new result fits well with our earlier prediction in the Western Himalayas. The minimum estimates of peak acceleration for the epicentral zone of M w =7.5-8.5 events is A peak =0.25-0.4 g for the Western Himalayas and as large as A peak =1.0-1.6 g for the Eastern Himalayas. Similarly, the expected minimum epicentral values of V peak for M w =8 are 35 cm/s for Western and 112 cm/s for Eastern Himalayas. The presence of unusually high levels of epicentral amplitudes for the eastern subregion also agrees well with the macroseismic evidence (Parvez et al. 2001). Therefore, these results represent systematic regional effects, and may be considered as a basis for future regionalized seismic hazard assessment in the Himalayan region. Many metropolitan and big cities of India are situated in the severe hazard zone just south of the Himalayas. A detailed microzonation study of these sprawling urban centres is therefore urgently required for gaining a better understanding of ground motion and site effects in these cities. An example of the study of site effects and microzonation of a part of metropolitan Delhi is presented based on a detailed modelling along a NS cross sections from the Inter State Bus Terminal (ISBT) to Sewanagar. Full synthetic strong motion waveforms have been

  13. A bibliometric analysis of the published road traffic injuries research in India, post-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neeraj; Bairwa, Mohan; Gowthamghosh, B; Gupta, S D; Mangal, D K

    2018-03-01

    Globally, road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among those aged 15-29 years. However, road traffic injury research has not received adequate attention from the scientific community in low- and middle-income countries, including India. The present study aims to provide a bibliometric overview of research assessing road traffic injuries in India. We used Scopus to extract relevant research in road traffic injuries published from 1991 to 2017. This study presented the key bibliometric indicators such as trends of annual publications and citations, top 10 authors, journals, institutions and highly cited articles, citation analysis of articles, co-occurrence of keywords, etc. Analysis was performed using Scopus, Microsoft Excel, and VOS-viewer. A total of 242 articles were retrieved with an h-index of 18, excluding self-citations. A steadfast growth of publications was documented in last decade, especially after the year 2010. The h-index of the top 10 authors, institutions, journals and highly cited articles did not surpass single digits. A network visualisation map showed that 'traffic accident', 'male', 'adolescent' and 'child' were the most commonly encountered key terms. The prominent authors were Gururaj G, Dandona R, and Hyder AA, whereas the top journals were the Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medico Legal Update, and the International Journal of Applied Engineering Research and top institutions were the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, and the Administrative Staff College of India. In India, road traffic injuries research is inadequate in quantity and quality, warranting greater attention from researchers and policy planners to address the burden of road traffic injuries.

  14. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Debajyoti Choudhury1 Mamta2. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India; S.G.T.B. Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India ...

  15. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Shashank Shekhar1 A M Bhola1 P S Saklani2. Department of Geology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Department of Geology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. (Retired) ...

  16. Rate of sedimentation in the Yamuna river around Delhi using the sup(226)Ra-sup(210)Pb method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, V.; Sitasaward, R.; Joshi, L.U.

    1985-01-01

    For six sediment cores collected from Yamuna river (tributary of Ganges) around Delhi, rate of sedimentation was determined by the sup(226)Ra-sup(210)Pb method. While an average rate of 42 mm/y is obtained, there are variations core to core. A clear-cut downstream increase in the rate from 5 mm/y when the river enters Delhi, to 80 mm/y when it leaves Delhi indicates solid waste contribution from the urban areas. The sediment flux of 4000 mg/cmsup(2)/y is not balanced by the calculated rate of erosion (40 tonnes/kmsup(2)/y) in the river. Thus, much of the sediment flux is of local origin. (author)

  17. Multi-center feasibility study evaluating recruitment, variability in risk factors and biomarkers for a diet and cancer cohort in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAdams Mary J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India's population exhibits diverse dietary habits and chronic disease patterns. Nutritional epidemiologic studies in India are primarily of cross-sectional or case-control design and subject to biases, including differential recall of past diet. The aim of this feasibility study was to evaluate whether a diet-focused cohort study of cancer could be established in India, providing insight into potentially unique diet and lifestyle exposures. Methods Field staff contacted 7,064 households within three regions of India (New Delhi, Mumbai, and Trivandrum and found 4,671 eligible adults aged 35-69 years. Participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires (demographic, diet history, physical activity, medical/reproductive history, tobacco/alcohol use, and occupational history, and staff collected biological samples (blood, urine, and toenail clippings, anthropometric measurements (weight, standing and sitting height; waist, hip, and thigh circumference; triceps, sub-scapula and supra-patella skin fold, and blood pressure measurements. Results Eighty-eight percent of eligible subjects completed all questionnaires and 67% provided biological samples. Unique protein sources by region were fish in Trivandrum, dairy in New Delhi, and pulses (legumes in Mumbai. Consumption of meat, alcohol, fast food, and soft drinks was scarce in all three regions. A large percentage of the participants were centrally obese and had elevated blood glucose levels. New Delhi participants were also the least physically active and had elevated lipids levels, suggesting a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions A high percentage of participants complied with study procedures including biological sample collection. Epidemiologic expertise and sufficient infrastructure exists at these three sites in India to successfully carry out a modest sized population-based study; however, we identified some potential problems in conducting a cohort

  18. Observation of phenotypic variation among Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) from Delhi and Srinagar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Marwaha, Raman Kumar; Dhingra, Atul; Nisar, Sobia; Mani, Kaliavani; Masoodi, Shariq; Chakraborty, Semanti; Rashid, Aafia

    2016-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder that demonstrates ethnic and regional differences. To assess the phenotypic variability among Indian PCOS women, we evaluated clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters of these women being followed in two tertiary care institutions located in Delhi and Srinagar. A total of 299 (210 PCOS diagnosed by Rotterdam 2003 criteria and 89 healthy) women underwent estimation of T4, TSH, LH, FSH, total testosterone, prolactin, cortisol, 17OHP, and lipid profile, in addition to post OGTT, C-peptide, insulin, and glucose measurements. Among women with PCOS, mean age, age of menarche, height, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and serum LH were comparable. PCOS women from Delhi had significantly higher BMI (26.99 ± 5.38 versus 24.77 ± 4.32 kg/m(2); P = 0.01), glucose intolerance (36 versus 10%), insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR (4.20 ± 3.39 versus 3.01 ± 2.6; P = 0.006) and QUICKI (0.140 ± 0.013 versus 0.147 ± 0.015; P = 0.03) while PCOS from Srinagar had higher FG score (12.12 ± 3.91 versus 10.32 ± 2.22; P = 0.01) and serum total testosterone levels (0.65 ± 0.69 versus 0.86 ± 0.41 ng/ml; P = 0.01. Two clear phenotypes, i.e. obese hyperinsulinaemic dysglycemic women from Delhi and lean hyperandrogenic women from Srinagar are emerging. This is the first report on North Indian women with PCOS showing phenotypic differences in clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters despite being in the same region.

  19. Marine archaeological explorations on the southwestern coast of Saurashtra, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.

    , International journal of Nautical Archaeology 35 (1). 117-127 Gaur, A.S. and Sundaresh 2005. A Late Harappan port at Kindar Kheda, Man and Environment 30 (2): 44-48 McCrindle, J.W 1885. Ancient India as Described by Ptolemy (R.C. Jain ed.). New Delhi. Merh, S... stream_size 19091 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_I.O_Archaeol_3_81.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_I.O_Archaeol_3_81.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Marine...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN TO ATTITUDE TOWARDS GREEN PRODUCTS: EVIDENCES FROM INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Danish Kirmani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship of environmental concern of consumers with their attitude towards green products and also to identify the predictors of environmental concern. The data was generated from a researcher controlled sample of graduate and post-graduate students enrolled in educational institutions located in the national capital of India (New Delhi and surrounding areas popularly known as National Capital Region (NCR. The data generated was analysed employing Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. The study findings indicate that environmental concern has a significant and positive influence on attitude towards green products. Collectivism and eco-literacy emerged as predictors of the environmental concern of consumers. The findings of this study are expected to enhance the understanding of marketers of the role played by variables such as religiosity, collectivism, eco-literacy, and environmental concern in formation of attitude of consumers towards green products.

  1. X-rays in medicine in India- the early days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, P.S.; Bhargava, S.

    1995-01-01

    This review highlights the fact that people from all corners of the country were the major players in the development and progress of the radiological sciences in India. While Bombay claimed the first machine installation, Calcutta claimed the establishment of the Indian Radiology Association (IRA), Delhi claimed the first chair in radiology and Madras ran the first academic and training program as well as started publication of the Indian Journal of Radiology (IJR). History has developed on these lines and even today, a century later, progress is on the same lines as far as one can judge. Physicians of the 21st century will see stalwarts and builders in all corners of the country, wherever they practice the art or science of imaging today. 6 refs

  2. Status of the first batch of niobium resonator production for the New Delhi booster linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potukuchi, P. N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the status and details of the costs of construction of niobium superconducting resonant cavities for a linear accelerator, presently being built as a booster for the 15 UD tandem Pelletron accelerator at the Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi. The linear accelerator will have three cryostat modules, each holding eight quarter-wave resonators. Construction of a batch of ten resonators for the linac started at Argonne National Laboratory in May 1997. For production, all fabrication and all electron beam welding is being done through commercial vendors. Details of construction and present status of the project are presented

  3. Water quality of the river yamuna in the Delhi stretch: Key determinants and management issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trisal, Chaman; Tabassum, Tanveera; Kumar, Ritesh [Wetlands International - South Asia, New Delhi (India)

    2008-03-15

    The assessment of water quality of the River Yamuna in the Delhi stretch was carried out by determining changes in the concentration levels of 19 physico-chemical parameters. It was observed that vegetation plays an important role in acting as a biological sink for mineral nutrients, thereby restoring the water quality. It is proposed that restoration of the inundation pattern of floodplains would greatly help in re-aeration of the overlying water and re-absorption of pollutants through mud/water exchanges. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Delaware River, Delhi, New York, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Breaker, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5-mile reach of the West Branch Delaware River through the Village and part of the Town of Delhi, New York, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Village of Delhi, the Delaware County Soil and Water Conservation District, and the Delaware County Planning Department. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the Federal Flood Inundation Mapper Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) referenced to the USGS streamgage at West Branch Delaware River upstream from Delhi, N.Y. (station number 01421900). In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model that had been used to produce the flood insurance rate maps for the most recent flood insurance study for the Town and Village of Delhi. This hydraulic model was used to compute 10 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft or near bankfull to 16 ft, which exceeds the stages that correspond to both the estimated 0.2-percent annual-exceedance-probability flood (500-year recurrence interval flood) and the maximum recorded peak flow. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model, which was derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with a 1.2-ft (0.61-ft root mean squared error) vertical accuracy and 3.3-ft (1-meter) horizontal resolution, to delineate the area flooded at each water level. A map that was produced using this method to delineate the inundated area for the flood that occurred on August 28, 2011, agreed well with highwater marks that had been located in the field using a

  5. PLACING INDIA IN THE EMERGING REGIONAL DYNAMICS OF CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Singh Roy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article tries to examine India’s initiatives in the region in the context of the emerging regional geo-strategic landscape. With an aim to enhance political, economic and strategic ties, India’s policy towards the region has moved from ‘Look North’ to ‘Connect North’. Notably, the full membership of SCO offers India greater synergies to play a more active role in the region. India is, thus, all set to build more meaningful partnerships with the region in the context of new geo-political changes shaping Central Asia. More importantly, the region is seeking India to play a more active role. It is argued that the beginning of a new era of cooperation initiated by PM Modi can only be sustained if New Delhi continues to implement its various agreements and commitments. While building stronger bilateral ties with the region is important, working closely in the regional groupings will also help address regional economic and security challenges

  6. FDI Climate in India

    OpenAIRE

    Khandelwal, Varun

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 1991, after the external payment crisis in India, there has been liberalization of various policies by the Government of India. Due to this there has been rapid surge of FDI inflows in India. The current investment climate has attracted many foreign investors to India in various sectors. India is considered as one of the favorable destination of FDI. However the country also suffers from few weaknesses and constraints in terms of policy and regulatory framework, which rest...

  7. Variations by Audience Social Class in Newspaper Content Relating to Development for Newspapers in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Kurt

    Based on the assumption that newspapers mirror the conceptions of economic development among major groups in society and that analysis of their content may aid in the clarification of group viewpoints, two dimensions along which groups might differ with respect to their conceptions of economic development issues were postulated: the need for…

  8. Assessment of the Impact of Industrial Effluents on Groundwater Quality in Okhla Industrial Area, New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wequar Ahmad Siddiqui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study physicochemical parameters like pH, hardness, TDS, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluoride, DO, COD and conductivity of some important heavy metals such as iron, cobalt, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, selenium and arsenic were first analyzed in effluent water of Okhla industrial area phase-II and then groundwater of near by areas. Obtained values of effluent water were compared with ISI standard for effluent water discharge and groundwater values were compared with ISI and WHO drinking water standards. The result shows that discharge of untreated effluents by the industries is leading to contamination of groundwater of the surrounding areas. Lead, mercury, fluoride, TDS, sulphate was above the desirable limit in effluent water (ISI standard for effluent water discharge. Subsequent analysis of groundwater of nearby areas was rated as unacceptable for drinking because of presence of fluoride in all the samples above the desirable limit. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chloride was also detected in many samples.

  9. Level of Motivation Amongst Health Personnel Working in A Tertiary Care Government Hospital of New Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Poonam; Singhal, Ashok K.; Gadpayle, Adesh K.; Sachdeva, Sandeep; Padaria, Rabindra

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To assess the level and factors of motivation amongst permanent government employees working in a tertiary health care institution. Material and Methods: A sample of 200 health personnel (50 in each category) i.e. doctors, nurses, technician, and support staff were contacted through face to face interview. Motivation was measured as the degree to which an individual possessed various identified motivation domains like Drive, Control, Challenge, Relationship and Rewards. Each domain was represented by 4 dimensions- accordingly a closed-ended statement represented each of these dimensions and responses were assessed on a Likert based scale. Data management was done using SPSS, ver. 19. Results: The average age for different health personnel were: Doctors 48.68 (±8.53), nurses 40.72 (±7.76), technician 38.4 (±10.65) and support staff 43.24 (±9.52) years. The average year of work experience was: Doctor 19.09 (±9.77), nurses 17.2 (±8.420), technician 14.84 (±10.45), support staff 18.24 (±10.28). A comparison of overall motivation index (mean score) revealed that nurse had highest level (3.47), followed by support staff (3.46), doctor (3.45) and technician (3.43). Based on their individual mean scores, the healthcare providers were categorised into three different levels of motivation and it was found that majority of the health personnel i.e.70% of support staff, 62% nurse, 56% doctor and technician, had high to very high level of motivation index. The mean scores for all the five factors as well as their respective ranks were also found out and it was deduced that “relationship” assumed first rank for doctors (mean score: 3.71) and technician (mean score: 3.75), whereas “control” assumed greatest significance for nurses (mean score, 3.62) and support staff (mean scores, 3.61). Based upon the mean scores, “reward” assumed third rank among all the four categories. Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to test if the different categories of health personnel varied with respect to five factors of motivation and it was found that their orientation towards the various motivational components differed significantly only with respect to Drive (P motivation. PMID:25364148

  10. Evaluating the utility of syndromic case management for three sexually transmitted infections in women visiting hospitals in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkar, Subash Chandra; Wasnik, Kirti; Kumar, Anita; Sharma, Vineeta; Mittal, Pratima; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Bharadwaj, Mausumi; Saluja, Daman

    2017-05-03

    Utility of syndromic case management (SCM) in women visiting obstetrics & gynecology department needs to be evaluated as it is subjective and imperfect. Consequently, antibiotic resistance has accelerated along with increased risk of infection to the partners. To understand the effectiveness and/or inadequacies of SCM, 11000 women were recruited and examined by clinicians for infection by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and others. Amongst these patients, 1797 (16.3%) reported vaginal discharge (VD). Other symptoms included: vaginitis (97%), cervicitis (75%), genital ulcers (60%), abnormal vaginal discharge (55%) and lower abdominal pain (48%). The patients were treated for single or co-infections using pre-packed National Aids Control Program III STI/RTI Kits. However, based on PCR diagnostics, 1453/1797 (81%) subjects were uninfected for NG/TV/CT. Amongst 344 (19%) infected patients, 257 (75%) carried infection with single pathogen (TV/NG/CT) while 87/344 (25%) were co-infected with multiple pathogens. Prevalence of TV, NG & CT was 4%, 7% and 8% respectively. Co-infection with CT + NG was highest, 51% (44/87), whereas, co-infection with CT + TV was 21% and NG + TV was 18% while co-infection with all three pathogens was 1.3%. We conclude that SCM is imprecise and successful intervention requires accurate and confirmatory diagnostic approach.

  11. A Governance Perspective on Net Zero Energy Building Niche Development in India: The Case of New Delhi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Mansi; Hoppe, T.; Bressers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The net zero-energy building (NZEB) concept has recently gained prominence worldwide. Large scale adoption and implementation of NZEBs would potentially contribute greatly to greening of the building sector. However, it is still at a nascent stage of niche formation. This paper aims to assess the

  12. A governance perspective on net zero energy building niche development in India : The case of New Delhi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Mansi; Hoppe, Thomas; Bressers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The net zero-energy building (NZEB) concept has recently gained prominence worldwide. Large scale adoption and implementation of NZEBs would potentially contribute greatly to greening of the building sector. However, it is still at a nascent stage of niche formation. This paper aims to assess the

  13. Clinical significance of isolated anti-HBc positivity in cases of chronic liver disease in New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of anti-HBc IgG in the absence of HBsAg is usually indicative of a past self-limiting HBV infection. But it is frequently associated with co-infection with HCV which can worsen the existing status of chronic liver disease (CLD. Objectives: The present study was planned to evaluate the significance of isolated HBc IgG positivity in patients of CLD and look for the presence of HCV co-infection in such patients. Methods: Clinical profiles and biochemical tests were done for all the 77 CLD cases included in the study. Blood samples were taken from these patients and tested by the commercially available EIA for the presence of HBsAg, anti-HBc IgG, anti-HBs and anti-HCV. HBV DNA was detected by amplifying the surface region in all the cases. Results: Isolated anti-HBc IgG positivity defined as the presence of anti-HBc IgG in absence of any other serological markers of HBV infection was detected in 28 patients . Out of 64 patients positive for anti-HBc IgG 36 had the markers of HBV, either HBsAg, HBV DNA or anti-HBs alone or in combination. There was a significant association between isolated anti-HBc IgG positivity and HCV co-infection. Conclusion: Anti-HBc IgG should be tested in all patients with CLD as it is frequently the only marker of HBV infection in such patients and they should be monitored closely as such patients can develop CLD. Presence of co-infection with HCV should be actively searched for in such patients.

  14. Sleep Quality of Call Handlers Employed in International Call Centers in National Capital Region of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JD Raja

    2016-10-01

    suspicion of insomnia or suspected insomnia; the rest had no sleep problem. Smoking, poor social support, heavy workload, lack of relaxation facility at office, and prolonged travel time to office were independent predictors of sleep quality (p<0.05. Conclusion: Call handlers have to compromise upon their sleep owing to the contemporary work settings in call centers. Safeguarding their health becomes an occupational health challenge to public health specialists.

  15. Informed Consent in Medical Decision-Making in Commercial Gestational Surrogacy: A Mixed Methods Study in New Delhi, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate ethical issues in informed consent for decisions regarding embryo transfer and fetal reduction in commercial gestational surrogacy. DESIGN: Mixed methods study employing observations, an interview-guide and semi-structured interviews. SETTING: Fertility clinics and agenc...

  16. 78 FR 76818 - U.S. Healthcare Education Trade Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India, January 27...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Education Trade Mission... published a document in the Federal Register of November 13, 2013 regarding the U.S. Healthcare Education..., note a top of page, correct the subject heading of the notice to read: U.S. Healthcare Education Trade...

  17. Impact of large-scale energy efficiency programs on utility finances and consumer tariffs in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect on utility finances and consumer tariffs of implementing utility-funded demand-side energy efficiency (EE) programs in India. We use the state of Delhi as a case study. We estimate that by 2015, the electric utilities in Delhi can potentially save nearly 14% of total sales. We examine the impacts on utility finances and consumer tariffs by developing scenarios that account for variations in the following factors: (a) incentive mechanisms for mitigating the financial risk of utilities, (b) whether utilities fund the EE programs only partially, (c) whether utilities sell the conserved electricity into spot markets and (d) the level of power shortages utilities are facing. We find that average consumer tariff would increase by 2.2% although consumers participating in EE programs benefit from reduction in their electricity consumption. While utility incentive mechanisms can mitigate utilities’ risk of losing long-run returns, they cannot address the risk of consistently negative cash flow. In case of power shortages, the cash flow risk is amplified (reaching up to 57% of utilities annual returns) and is very sensitive to marginal tariffs of consumers facing power shortages. We conclude by proposing solutions to mitigate utility risks. - Highlights: ► We model implementation of energy efficiency (EE) programs in Delhi, India. ► We examine the impact on utility finances and consumer tariffs from 2012 to 2015. ► We find that average consumer tariffs increase but participating consumers benefit. ► Existing regulatory mechanisms cannot address utilities’ risk of negative cash flow. ► Frequent true-ups or ex-ante revenue adjustment is required to address such risk.

  18. Evidence and consensus recommendations for the pharmacological management of pain in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dureja GP

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gur Prasad Dureja,1 Rajagopalan N Iyer,2 Gautam Das,3 Jaishid Ahdal,4 Prashant Narang4 On behalf of the Pain Working Group 1Delhi Pain Management Centre, New Delhi, Delhi, 2Department of Orthopaedics, Raja Rajeswari Medical College and Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, 3Daradia Pain Clinic, Kolkata, West Bengal, 4Department of Medical Affairs, Janssen India, Johnson & Johnson Pvt Ltd, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Abstract: Despite enormous progress in the field of pain management over the recent years, pain continues to be a highly prevalent medical condition worldwide. In the developing countries, pain is often an undertreated and neglected aspect of treatment. Awareness issues and several misconceptions associated with the use of analgesics, fear of adverse events – particularly with opioids and surgical methods of analgesia – are major factors contributing to suboptimal treatment of pain. Untreated pain, as a consequence, is associated with disability, loss of income, unemployment and considerable mortality; besides contributing majorly to the economic burden on the society and the health care system in general. Available guidelines suggest that a strategic treatment approach may be helpful for physicians in managing pain in real-world settings. The aim of this manuscript is to propose treatment recommendations for the management of different types of pain, based on the available evidence. Evidence search was performed by using MEDLINE (by PubMed and Cochrane databases. The types of articles included in this review were based on randomized control studies, case–control or cohort studies, prospective and retrospective studies, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, clinical practice guidelines and evidence-based consensus recommendations. Articles were reviewed by a multidisciplinary expert panel and recommendations were developed. A stepwise treatment algorithm-based approach based on a careful diagnosis and evaluation of the underlying disease

  19. Aspiring Pain Practitioners in India: Assessing Challenges and Building Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Sushma; Patel, Anuradha; Raja, Srinivasa N

    2018-01-01

    Background: Pain medicine is a developing specialty, aimed at relieving pain and suffering, enhancing function, and improving the quality of life of patients. Pain is often ignored, under-reported and mismanaged by health-care providers. Aspiring pain physicians in India face many challenges and barriers in advancing their specialty. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the challenges in establishing a pain practice in India and to discuss the opportunities and strategies to overcome these barriers. Subjects and Methods: Face-to-face interactive sessions were held with 60 aspiring pain physicians of India who were chosen as registrants to an International Association for the Study of Pain-Indian Society for Study of Pain multidisciplinary evidence-based pain management program conducted at Delhi and Mumbai. The available opportunities, practical issues and the hurdles in becoming a pain specialist were analyzed and summarized in this commentary. Results: The major barriers identified were: (1) Inadequate knowledge and absence of structured, educational and training courses, (2) bureaucratic hurdles, and (3) concerns of opioid misuse and addiction. The opportunities for personal growth and that of the specialty that could be utilized include the creation of a pain resource team, increasing community awareness, changing attitudes of other physicians toward pain specialty, and research and evidence building of the effectiveness of pain management strategies. Conclusion: India needs a structured teaching and training program in the area of pain medicine that is affiliated by the Medical Council of India or other reputed boards of medical education and certification. There is an urgent need to include pain management in the undergraduate and postgraduate medical curriculum. Enhancing community level awareness by public health education campaigns, developing networks of pain physicians, and appropriate marketing of the specialty is needed to make pain

  20. Aspiring Pain Practitioners in India: Assessing Challenges and Building Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Sushma; Patel, Anuradha; Raja, Srinivasa N

    2018-01-01

    Pain medicine is a developing specialty, aimed at relieving pain and suffering, enhancing function, and improving the quality of life of patients. Pain is often ignored, under-reported and mismanaged by health-care providers. Aspiring pain physicians in India face many challenges and barriers in advancing their specialty. The objective of this study is to determine the challenges in establishing a pain practice in India and to discuss the opportunities and strategies to overcome these barriers. Face-to-face interactive sessions were held with 60 aspiring pain physicians of India who were chosen as registrants to an International Association for the Study of Pain-Indian Society for Study of Pain multidisciplinary evidence-based pain management program conducted at Delhi and Mumbai. The available opportunities, practical issues and the hurdles in becoming a pain specialist were analyzed and summarized in this commentary. The major barriers identified were: (1) Inadequate knowledge and absence of structured, educational and training courses, (2) bureaucratic hurdles, and (3) concerns of opioid misuse and addiction. The opportunities for personal growth and that of the specialty that could be utilized include the creation of a pain resource team, increasing community awareness, changing attitudes of other physicians toward pain specialty, and research and evidence building of the effectiveness of pain management strategies. India needs a structured teaching and training program in the area of pain medicine that is affiliated by the Medical Council of India or other reputed boards of medical education and certification. There is an urgent need to include pain management in the undergraduate and postgraduate medical curriculum. Enhancing community level awareness by public health education campaigns, developing networks of pain physicians, and appropriate marketing of the specialty is needed to make pain medicine recognized and utilized as a valuable specialty.

  1. Aspiring pain practitioners in India: Assessing challenges and building opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Bhatnagar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain medicine is a developing specialty, aimed at relieving pain and suffering, enhancing function, and improving the quality of life of patients. Pain is often ignored, under-reported and mismanaged by health-care providers. Aspiring pain physicians in India face many challenges and barriers in advancing their specialty. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the challenges in establishing a pain practice in India and to discuss the opportunities and strategies to overcome these barriers. Subjects and Methods: Face-to-face interactive sessions were held with 60 aspiring pain physicians of India who were chosen as registrants to an International Association for the Study of Pain-Indian Society for Study of Pain multidisciplinary evidence-based pain management program conducted at Delhi and Mumbai. The available opportunities, practical issues and the hurdles in becoming a pain specialist were analyzed and summarized in this commentary. Results: The major barriers identified were: (1 Inadequate knowledge and absence of structured, educational and training courses, (2 bureaucratic hurdles, and (3 concerns of opioid misuse and addiction. The opportunities for personal growth and that of the specialty that could be utilized include the creation of a pain resource team, increasing community awareness, changing attitudes of other physicians toward pain specialty, and research and evidence building of the effectiveness of pain management strategies. Conclusion: India needs a structured teaching and training program in the area of pain medicine that is affiliated by the Medical Council of India or other reputed boards of medical education and certification. There is an urgent need to include pain management in the undergraduate and postgraduate medical curriculum. Enhancing community level awareness by public health education campaigns, developing networks of pain physicians, and appropriate marketing of the specialty is

  2. Prevalence of anemia amongst overweight and obese children in NCT of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kapil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anemia amongst children has been associated with impaired cognitive functions, developmental delays, behavioral and learning disturbances. Young children from high-income groups could be also being affected from anemia. Objective: To assess the prevalence of anemia amongst overweight and obese children in the age group of 5-18 years residing in National Capital Territory (NCT of Delhi. Material and Methods: Total of 413 children was included in the present study. The hemoglobin (Hb estimation was done by cyanmethemoglobin method. Results: In the age group of 5-11 years, the prevalence of anemia amongst overweight and obese children was found to be 38.4% and 29.2%. And in the age group of 12-18 years, the prevalence of anemia amongst overweight and obese children was found to be 33.3% and 21.7%; respectively. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed that there is a high prevalence of anemia amongst overweight and obese children in the age group of 5-18 years in NCT, Delhi.

  3. Justice in Urban Climate Change Adaptation: Criteria and Application to Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hughes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities around the world are increasingly developing plans to adapt to the consequences of climate change. These plans will have important consequences for urban populations because they are likely to reshape and reconfigure urban infrastructures, services, and decision making processes. It is critical that these adaptation plans are developed in a way that is just. Criteria was developed that can be used to assess justice in adaptation so that the processes, priorities, and impacts address the needs of the most vulnerable urban populations. Further, mechanisms are outlined that have been proposed as responsible for producing urban injustice. The justice criteria are applied to the case of adaptation planning in Delhi and the extent to which poor and informal populations are included and affected by this planning. The analysis shows that adaptation planning in Delhi does not meet the justice criteria in part because of a lack of capacity and the political economy of poverty in the city. The criteria for justice and mechanisms of injustice offer an important step toward developing a greater understanding of not only whether city-level adaptation planning is just, but also why it is or is not.

  4. Boys in India challenge gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses CEDPA's Better Life Options Program in India. The program was initiated in 1987 to challenge gender inequities. The program offers over 400,000 girls a chance to develop skills and self-confidence for increasing their options in education, social mobility, work, health, and family and community roles. CEDPA's partner, Prerana, offers an integrated program that provides literacy training, vocational skills, after-school tutoring, health education, and family life education for about 600 girls/year. Vocational training includes nontraditional skills, such as video production and electronics. Prerana established a parallel program in 1994 for boys and young men that aims to change attitudes about girls and women and traditional gender roles. The program offers vocational skills, such as cooking and candle-making. Family life education teaches gender awareness and provides counseling and services for reproductive health. The Prerana program emphasizes men's shared responsibility in parenthood and sexual behavior, shared contribution to family income, health and nutrition, and prevention of violence against women. Since 1994, the program has included 1200 boys in 6 villages in New Delhi. Boys' enrollment is increasing; several young men have volunteered to become depot holders of contraceptive supplies in their villages. For example, one young man who was part of the Prerana program went on to be a depot holder and then a family planning promoter and counselor. He interacts with both young and older men. His contributions were well received by his village.

  5. Differences in conventional cardiovascular risk factors in two ethnic groups in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Priyanka Rani; Kabita, Salam; Singh, Huidrom Suraj; Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Sinha, Ekata; Kalla, Aloke Kumar; Chongtham, Dhanaraj Singh

    2012-01-01

    Studies have been carried out at national and international levels to assess ethnic variations in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. However, ethnic variations in the contribution of various risk factors to complex diseases have been scarcely studied. Our study examined such variations in two ethnic groups in India, namely, Meiteis of Manipur (northeast India) and Aggarwals of Delhi (north India). Through random sampling, we selected 635 participants from the Meitei community and 181 Aggarwals from the Aggarwal Dharmarth Hospital, Delhi. Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension were identified based on their recent medical diagnostic history. Anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, waist and hip circumferences along with physiological parameters (blood pressures, both systolic and diastolic) and biochemical parameter (lipid profile) were measured for all study participants. Patient parameters were available from the medical reports recorded when patients were first diagnosed. Among CAD individuals, the Aggarwals showed higher mean values of weight, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) but had lower high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels than the Meiteis. The same trend for weight, BMI and lipid parameters could be seen among hypertensive individuals. In step-wise regression analysis, SBP, LDL and TG were found to significantly contribute to the risk for CAD in the Aggarwals; whereas in the Meiteis, SBP, VLDL, HDL, TC and LDL were found to significantly contribute to the risk for CAD. In hypertensive Aggarwal participants, SBP, DBP and waist-to-hip ratio were significant contributors for hypertension; whereas SBP, DBP, and height contributed significantly to risk for hypertension among the Meiteis. We found marked differences in conventional risk

  6. Seroprevalence of HIV in pregnant women in North India: a tertiary care hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sarman

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the seroprevalence of HIV in a low risk population such as pregnant women provides essential information for an effective implementation of AIDS control programmes, and also for the monitoring of HIV spread within a country. Very few studies are available from north India showing the current trend in HIV prevalence in the antenatal population;which led us to carry outthis study at a tertiary care hospital in north India Methods Blood samples from pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi were collected after informed consent and pre-test counseling. The samples were tested for HIV antibodies as per the WHO guidelines, over a period of four years from January 2003 to December 2006. Results Of the 3529 pregnant women tested in four years, 0.88% (CI 0.5 – 1.24 women were found to be HIV seroreactive. Majority of the seroreactive pregnant women (41.9% were in the age group of 20–24 years followed by the 30–34 yrs (25.8% and 25–29 years (22.6% age group. The mean age of the HIV positive women was 24.9 years (SD ± 1.49 yrs. The HIV seroprevalence rates showed an increasing trend from 0.7% (CI 0.14 – 2.04 in 2003–2004 to 0.9% (CI 0.49 – 1.5 in 2005–2006. This prevalence rate indicates concern, as Delhi and its adjoining states are otherwise considered as 'low prevalence states'. Conclusion Seroprevalence of HIV infection was found to be increasing in the last four years amongst pregnant women of North India. These findings are in contrast to the national projections.

  7. India-EU relations in health services: prospects and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background India and the EU are currently negotiating a Trade and Investment Agreement which also covers services. This paper examines the opportunities for and constraints to India-EU relations in health services in the context of this agreement, focusing on the EU as a market for India's health services exports and collaboration. The paper provides an overview of key features of health services in the EU and India and their bearing on bilateral relations in this sector. Methods Twenty six semi-structured, in-person, and telephonic interviews were conducted in 2007-2008 in four Indian cities. The respondents included management and practitioners in a variety of healthcare establishments, health sector representatives in Indian industry associations, health sector officials in the Indian government, and official representatives of selected EU countries and the European Commission based in New Delhi. Secondary sources were used to supplement and corroborate these findings. Results The interviews revealed that India-EU relations in health services are currently very limited. However, several opportunity segments exist, namely: (i) Telemedicine; (ii) Clinical trials and research in India for EU-based pharmaceutical companies; (iii) Medical transcriptions and back office support; (iv) Medical value travel; and (v) Collaborative ventures in medical education, research, training, staff deployment, and product development. However, various factors constrain India's exports to the EU. These include data protection regulations; recognition requirements; insurance portability restrictions; discriminatory conditions; and cultural, social, and perception-related barriers. The interviews also revealed several constraints in the Indian health care sector, including disparity in domestic standards and training, absence of clear guidelines and procedures, and inadequate infrastructure. Conclusions The paper concludes that although there are several promising areas for India

  8. India-EU relations in health services: prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanda Rupa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India and the EU are currently negotiating a Trade and Investment Agreement which also covers services. This paper examines the opportunities for and constraints to India-EU relations in health services in the context of this agreement, focusing on the EU as a market for India's health services exports and collaboration. The paper provides an overview of key features of health services in the EU and India and their bearing on bilateral relations in this sector. Methods Twenty six semi-structured, in-person, and telephonic interviews were conducted in 2007-2008 in four Indian cities. The respondents included management and practitioners in a variety of healthcare establishments, health sector representatives in Indian industry associations, health sector officials in the Indian government, and official representatives of selected EU countries and the European Commission based in New Delhi. Secondary sources were used to supplement and corroborate these findings. Results The interviews revealed that India-EU relations in health services are currently very limited. However, several opportunity segments exist, namely: (i Telemedicine; (ii Clinical trials and research in India for EU-based pharmaceutical companies; (iii Medical transcriptions and back office support; (iv Medical value travel; and (v Collaborative ventures in medical education, research, training, staff deployment, and product development. However, various factors constrain India's exports to the EU. These include data protection regulations; recognition requirements; insurance portability restrictions; discriminatory conditions; and cultural, social, and perception-related barriers. The interviews also revealed several constraints in the Indian health care sector, including disparity in domestic standards and training, absence of clear guidelines and procedures, and inadequate infrastructure. Conclusions The paper concludes that although there are several

  9. Surface ozone scenario at Pune and Delhi during the decade of 1990s

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the climate change as one of the green house gases. It comes into direct .... Pune is one of the highly polluted cities in India. The pollution in this ... cities in India. The pollution in this city is caused mainly by numerous industrial and vehicular activities in and around the city area. 3. Data and methodology. Surface ozone ...

  10. Orthogonal 4,10 and 6,12 substitution of dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene polycyclic aromatic small molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Koldemir, Unsal

    2017-07-14

    A series of new polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds based on (4,10-disubstituted-dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene-6,12-dione) and 4,10 di-substituted 6,12-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene are reported with tunable electronic properties through varied molecular architecture. Starting with an inexpensive commercially available textile dye known as Vat Orange #3, (4,10-dibromo-dibenzo[def,mno] chrysene-6,12-dione) we extended the conjugation at the 4- and 10-positions by the attachment of both electron rich and deficient hexylvinylphthalimide, thiophene, hexylthiophene, triphenylamine, and hexylbithiophene aromatic groups, and studied the resultant optoelectronic properties. By applying various synthetic metal-catalyzed reactions, soluble dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene and dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene-6,12-dione derivatives were achieved with optical edge band gaps between 2.30 eV and 1.65 eV.

  11. Orthogonal 4,10 and 6,12 substitution of dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene polycyclic aromatic small molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Koldemir, Unsal; Tinkham, Jonathan S.; Johnson, Robert; Lim, Bogyu; Yemam, Henok A.; Gagnon, Kevin J.; Parkin, Sean; Sellinger, Alan

    2017-01-01

    A series of new polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds based on (4,10-disubstituted-dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene-6,12-dione) and 4,10 di-substituted 6,12-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene are reported with tunable electronic properties through varied molecular architecture. Starting with an inexpensive commercially available textile dye known as Vat Orange #3, (4,10-dibromo-dibenzo[def,mno] chrysene-6,12-dione) we extended the conjugation at the 4- and 10-positions by the attachment of both electron rich and deficient hexylvinylphthalimide, thiophene, hexylthiophene, triphenylamine, and hexylbithiophene aromatic groups, and studied the resultant optoelectronic properties. By applying various synthetic metal-catalyzed reactions, soluble dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene and dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene-6,12-dione derivatives were achieved with optical edge band gaps between 2.30 eV and 1.65 eV.

  12. Contribution of anthropogenic aerosols in direct radiative forcing and atmospheric heating rate over Delhi in the Indo-Gangetic Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Atul K; Singh, Sachchidanand; Tiwari, S; Bisht, D S

    2012-05-01

    The present work is aimed to understand direct radiation effects due to aerosols over Delhi in the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) region, using detailed chemical analysis of surface measured aerosols during the year 2007. An optically equivalent aerosol model was formulated on the basis of measured aerosol chemical compositions along with the ambient meteorological parameters to derive radiatively important aerosol optical parameters. The derived aerosol parameters were then used to estimate the aerosol direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere, surface, and in the atmosphere. The anthropogenic components measured at Delhi were found to be contributing ∼ 72% to the composite aerosol optical depth (AOD(0.5) ∼ 0.84). The estimated mean surface and atmospheric forcing for composite aerosols over Delhi were found to be about -69, -85, and -78 W m(-2) and about +78, +98, and +79 W m(-2) during the winter, summer, and post-monsoon periods, respectively. The anthropogenic aerosols contribute ∼ 90%, 53%, and 84% to the total aerosol surface forcing and ∼ 93%, 54%, and 88% to the total aerosol atmospheric forcing during the above respective periods. The mean (± SD) surface and atmospheric forcing for composite aerosols was about -79 (± 15) and +87 (± 26) W m(-2) over Delhi with respective anthropogenic contributions of ∼ 71% and 75% during the overall period of observation. Aerosol induced large surface cooling, which was relatively higher during summer as compared to the winter suggesting an increase in dust loading over the station. The total atmospheric heating rate at Delhi averaged during the observation was found to be 2.42  ±  0.72 K day(-1), of which the anthropogenic fraction contributed as much as ∼ 73%.

  13. India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's Telecom Story is now well known · Indian Operators become an enviable force · At the same time · India Amongst the Leaders · Unfinished Tasks as Operators · LightGSM ON: Innovation for Rural Area from Midas · Broadband Access Options for India · Broadband driven by DSL: still too slow · Is Wireless the answer?

  14. Lunar and solar daily variations of ionospheric electron content at Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuyan, P.K.; Tyagi, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    Ionospheric electron content measurements obtained at Delhi during the period 1975-1980 have been analysed by the Chapman-Miller method to compute lunar and solar daily variations. The results show that the magnitude of the lunar harmonic components is about one-tenth that of the solar harmonic components. Significant seasonal and solar cycle variations were observed for both the lunar and the solar terms. The lunar semi-diurnal component, the most significant term, can be explained as due to the additional 'fountain' effect caused by the lunar semi-diurnal variation of the electric field at the equatorial region. The lunar semi-diurnal variations were found to have significant oceanic and ionospheric components. (author)

  15. Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis amongst perimenopausal women in an urban resettlement colony in South Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, Harshal; Gupta, Vivek; Palanivel, C; Yadav, Kapil; Singh, Bir

    2010-01-01

    A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in an urban resettlement colony in South Delhi to study the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in women aged ≥40 years and treatment seeking behavior of women suffering from osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis was diagnosed by using clinical criteria given by American College of Rheumatology for diagnosis of Idiopathic Osteoarthritis of knee joints. A total 260 women were interviewed out of which 123 (47.3%) women were found to be suffering from knee osteoarthritis. Prevalence of osteoarthritis found to be increased with age. Less than half of those with osteoarthritis underwent treatment. With this high prevalence of osteoarthritis, there is need to spread awareness about the disease, its prevention, and rehabilitation in the community.

  16. Comparison Of Irms Delhi Methodology With Who Methodology On Immunization Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Padam

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the merits of IRMS Model over WHO Model for Coverage Evaluation Survey? Which method is superior and appropriate for coverage evolution survey of immunization in our setting? Objective: To compare IRMS Delhi methodology with WHO methodology on Immunization Coverage. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Setting: Urban and Rural both. Participants: Mothers& Children Sample Size: 300 children between 1-2 years and 300 mothers in rural areas and 75 children and 75 mothers in urban areas. Study Variables: Rural, Urban, Cast-Group, Size of the stratum, Literacy, Sex and Cost effectiveness. Outcome Variables: Coverage level of immunization. Analysis: Routine Statistical Analysis. Results: IRMS developed methodology scores better rating over WHO methodology, especially when coverage evolution is attempted in medium size villages with existence of socio-economic seggregation-which remains the main characteristic of the Indian villages.

  17. New Delhi Metallo-Β-Lactamase-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriacae Isolated From Bronchial Washings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullivan, S

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of Carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriacae species is increasing and poses a potential major public health risk. In recent years, several new carbapenemases have been identified, including New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM). A 78-year-old non-smoking female with prior medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and prior coronary artery bypass grafting was referred to our respiratory outpatient service for evaluation of a chronic cough and dyspnoea in 2013. Clinical examination revealed bibasal pulmonary crepitations but was otherwise unremarkable. Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated atelectasis of the lingula and right middle lobe. She underwent bronchoscopy, which demonstrated laryngeal mucosa inflammation, consistent with her GERD. There was no growth on bacterial, fungal or mycobacterial bronchial washings cultures.

  18. Formation of mono- and multilayers of metal complexes of 4-(((10,12-pentacosadiynoyl)oxy)methyl)pyridine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, P J; Wilms, H; Wieringa, R H; Schouten, A J

    1998-01-01

    The monolayer properties of the amphiphile, 4-(((10,12-pentacosadiynoyl)oxy)methyl)pyridine have been studied by measuring the surface pressure-area isotherms. The amphiphile forms stable monolayers at the air-water interface and protonation of the monolayers occurs at pH values of 3.00 or lower.

  19. 17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial accounting and... of General Application § 210.4-10 Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing... section prescribes financial accounting and reporting standards for registrants with the Commission...

  20. On-road PM2.5 pollution exposure in multiple transport microenvironments in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rahul; Gani, Shahzad; Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Wilson, Daniel; Tiwari, Geetam

    2015-12-01

    PM2.5 pollution in Delhi averaged 150 μg/m3 from 2012 through 2014, which is 15 times higher than the World Health Organization's annual-average guideline. For this setting, we present on-road exposure of PM2.5 concentrations for 11 transport microenvironments along a fixed 8.3-km arterial route, during morning rush hour. The data collection was carried out using a portable TSI DustTrak DRX 8433 aerosol monitor, between January and May (2014). The monthly-average measured ambient concentrations varied from 130 μg/m3 to 250 μg/m3. The on-road PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the ambient measurements by an average of 40% for walking, 10% for cycle, 30% for motorised two wheeler (2W), 30% for open-windowed (OW) car, 30% for auto rickshaw, 20% for air-conditioned as well as for OW bus, 20% for bus stop, and 30% for underground metro station. On the other hand, concentrations were lower by 50% inside air-conditioned (AC) car and 20% inside the metro rail carriage. We find that the percent exceedance for open modes (cycle, auto rickshaw, 2W, OW car, and OW bus) reduces non-linearly with increasing ambient concentration. The reduction is steeper at concentrations lower than 150 μg/m3 than at higher concentrations. After accounting for air inhalation rate and speed of travel, PM2.5 mass uptake per kilometer during cycling is 9 times of AC car, the mode with the lowest exposure. At current level of concentrations, an hour of cycling in Delhi during morning rush-hour period results in PM2.5 dose which is 40% higher than an entire-day dose in cities like Tokyo, London, and New York, where ambient concentrations range from 10 to 20 μg/m3.

  1. Ion exchange and electrochemical evaluation of the microporous phosphate Li9Fe7(PO4)10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becht, Gregory A.; Vaughey, John T.; Britt, Robin L.; Eagle, Cassandra T.; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh

    2008-01-01

    A new lithium iron(III) phosphate, Li 9 Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 , has been synthesized and is currently under electrochemical evaluation as an anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion battery applications. The sample was prepared via the ion exchange reaction of Cs 5 K 4 Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 1 in the 1 M LiNO 3 solution under hydrothermal conditions at 200 deg. C. The fully Li + -exchanged sample Li 9 Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 2 cannot yet be synthesized by conventional high-temperature, solid-state methods. The parent compound 1 is a member of the Cs 9-x K x Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 series that was previously isolated from a high-temperature (750 deg. C) reaction employing the eutectic CsCl/KCl molten salt. The polycrystalline solid 1 was first prepared in a stoichiometric reaction via conventional solid-state method then followed by ion exchange giving rise to 2. Both compounds adopt three-dimensional structures that consist of orthogonally interconnected channels where electropositive ions reside. It has been demonstrated that the Cs 9-x K x Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 series possesses versatile ion exchange capabilities with all the monovalent alkali metal and silver cations due to its facile pathways for ion transport. 1 and 2 were subject to electrochemical analysis and preliminary results suggest that the latter can be considered as an anode material. Electrochemical results indicate that Li 9 Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 is reduced below 1 V (vs. Li) to most likely form a Fe(0)/Li 3 PO 4 composite material, which can subsequently be cycled reversibly at relatively low potential. An initial capacity of 250 mAh/g was measured, which is equivalent to the insertion of thirteen Li atoms per Li 9+x Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 10 (x = 13) during the charge/discharge process (Fe 2+ + 2e → Fe 0 ). Furthermore, 2 shows a lower reduction potential (0.9 V), by approximately 200 mV, and much better electrochemical reversibility than iron(III) phosphate, FePO 4 , highlighting the value of improving the ionic conductivity of the sample

  2. Broilers’ Supply Value Chain in the National Capital Region Delhi: A Case Study of Ghazipur Poultry Market

    OpenAIRE

    Gangwar, L.S.; Saran, Sandeep; Kumar, Sarvesh

    2010-01-01

    The marketing of broilers/chicken meat in the National Capital Region (NCR) Delhi has been compared in two distinct kinds of markets, viz. organized (shopping malls, organized multi-product retailers) and unorganized or primarily wet markets (exclusive chicken dressers, poultry meat retailers, etc.). Data have been collected from various functionaries involved in marketing of broilers/poultry meat in the NCR Delhi during the year 2008-09 through primary survey. The most prominent channel in t...

  3. Parental Stress in Raising a Child with Disabilities in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Mehrotra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available  Purpose: To determine the parenting stress and its determinants among parents of children with disabling conditions in India.Methods: The Parenting Stress Index – short form and a few open ended questions were administered to a convenience sample of sixty-six patient families in July, 2009 in the cities of New Delhi and Faridabad regions of Northern India through six non- governmental organizations (NGOs that serve children with disabling conditions. Results: Female sex of the child was associated with higher stress related to failure of the child to meet parent’s expectations and to satisfy the parents in their parenting role. Parents engaged in more lucrative and prestigious occupations had more stress than parents engaged in less prestigious and lucrative occupations irrespective of their income. Many parents reported receiving little support from their extended families in taking care of their child. Religion was found to be a common coping resource used by the parents.Conclusion and Implications: Higher parenting stress in parents of girls raises the possibility of abuse and neglect. Little support from informal family resources underscores the need for developing formal resources for supporting the parents. The specific resources of parenting stress among parents of different socioeconomic status should be explored in future studies so that appropriate interventions can be planned.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.119

  4. Physiotherapy students' perceptions of learning in clinical practice in Sweden and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Gunvor; Dagis, Daina

    2016-01-01

    It is reasonable to assume that conditions for learning differ between universities and countries. Increased understanding of similarities and differences of student's perceptions of learning environment can be useful in the development of the physiotherapy education as well as of the profession as such. Through international comparisons the benefits and challenges of educational programmes can be made transparent and serve as base for improvement. The objective of this study is to describe and compare physiotherapy students' perceptions of their learning environment in clinical practice in India and Sweden. A questionnaire study was performed, covering physiotherapy students' perceptions of their clinical learning environment, the physiotherapy supervisor within the clinical context, their supervisory relationship and the role of the clinical supervisor at two Universities, Luleå in Sweden and Amity in New Delhi, India. Undergraduate students at two physiotherapy programmes, in New Delhi, India and in Luleå, Sweden participated in the questionnaire study. In general, both groups had high rankings of their perceptions of the clinical learning environment. The Swedish students ranked individual supervision, participation in meetings, the supervisor as a resource, being a part of the team and giving them valuable feedback higher than the Indian group. The supervisory relationship was equally satisfying in groups, providing valuable feedback and acknowledging equality and mutuality in the relationship. The Indian group ranked the supervisor as a colleague, as a support in learning, and that he/she made them feel comfortable in meetings higher than the Swedish group. Both groups had high ratings of the supervisor and the clinical learning context Participation at meetings was higher rated in the Swedish and the supervisor as a support in learning higher rated of the Indian students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of GIS in public health in India: A literature-based review, analysis, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marilyn O'Hara; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of geospatial technologies and methods for improving health has become widespread in many nations, but India's adoption of these approaches has been fairly slow. With a large population, ongoing public health challenges, and a growing economy with an emphasis on innovative technologies, the adoption of spatial approaches to disease surveillance, spatial epidemiology, and implementation of health policies in India has great potential for both success and efficacy. Through our evaluation of scientific papers selected through a structured key phrase review of the National Center for Biotechnology Information on the database PubMed, we found that current spatial approaches to health research in India are fairly descriptive in nature, but the use of more complex models and statistics is increasing. The institutional home of the authors is skewed regionally, with Delhi and South India more likely to show evidence of use. The need for scientists engaged in spatial health analysis to first digitize basic data, such as maps of road networks, hydrological features, and land use, is a strong impediment to efficiency, and their work would certainly advance more quickly without this requirement.

  6. CO2 Emissions from Direct Energy Use of Urban Households in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sohail; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Creutzig, Felix

    2015-10-06

    India hosts the world's second largest population and offers the world's largest potential for urbanization. India's urbanization trajectory will have crucial implications on its future GHG emission levels. Using household microdata from India's 60 largest cities, this study maps GHG emissions patterns and its determinants. It also ranks the cities with respect to their household actual and "counter-factual" GHG emissions from direct energy use. We find that household GHG emissions from direct energy use correlate strongly with income and household size; population density, basic urban services (municipal water, electricity, and modern cooking-fuels access) and cultural, religious, and social factors explain more detailed emission patterns. We find that the "greenest" cities (on the basis of household GHG emissions) are Bareilly and Allahabad, while the "dirtiest" cities are Chennai and Delhi; however, when we control for socioeconomic variables, the ranking changes drastically. In the control case, we find that smaller lower-income cities emit more than expected, and larger high-income cities emit less than expected in terms of counter-factual emissions. Emissions from India's cities are similar in magnitude to China's cities but typically much lower than those of comparable U.S. cities. Our results indicate that reducing urban heat-island effects and the associated cooling degree days by greening, switching to modern nonsolid cooking fuels, and anticipatory transport infrastructure investments are key policies for the low-carbon and inclusive development of Indian cities.

  7. AHP 45: REVIEW: FOUNDING AN EMPIRE ON INDIA'S NORTH-EASTERN FRONTIERS 1790-1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Howes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This thoroughly researched and carefully constructed monograph focuses on what is now north-eastern India, an irregularly-shaped region joined only by a narrow neck of land to the remainder of the Indian subcontinent and jostled (or nestled, depending on one's point of view between Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, and Tibet. Crucially, author Gunnel Cederlöf argues, this representation of northeast India on modern maps - an island in constant danger of drifting away from mainland India, held in place only by the "Chicken's Neck" or Siliguri Corridor - bears no relation to the way in which this region was imagined by the British East India Company (EIC in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Having obtained revenuefarming rights and judicial duties over the North-Eastern Frontier, as it was then known, through a 1765 diwani grant from the Great Mughal in Delhi, the EIC aspired first and foremost to revive the administration of revenue in the region, adding a monopoly in territory to their existing monopolies in the eastern trade. Given these primarily commercial interests, it should come as no surprise that the EIC's map-makers, their eyes fixed on the web of lucrative trade routes crisscrossing the region, homed in on the North-Eastern Frontier as the central point in "a synoptic vision that connected Bengal to China" (72. ...

  8. Field tests of Sub-Synchronous Oscillation damping and frequency controllers of the Rihand-Delhi HVDC bipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Mata [ABB, New Delhi (India); Rao, L V; Chakravorty, S; Moni, R S; Dass, R [National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd., New Delhi (India); Mishra, R B; Tripathi, D B [Powergrid (India); Bjorklund, Hans; Duchen, Hugo; Westling, Soren [ABB Power Systems, Ludvika (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    The Rihand-Delhi Hvdc transmission system comprises of two poles in bipolar mode, each of 750 MW nominal capacity. The length of the transmission line is 814 km and the main objective of the link is the transmission of bulk power from the Singrauli/Rihand thermal generating complex to the major load centers near the National Capital region. As in all major Hvdc schemes, the Rihand-Delhi Hvdc project has also been provided with a SSO damping controller which was extensively tested in the simulator prior to installation. This paper describes some of the important field tests conducted to ascertain actual performance and compares the same with corresponding simulator cases. Also covered is the performance of the frequency controller. (author) 3 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Klebsiella pneumoniae nueva Delhi metalo-betalactamasa en el hospital nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Resurrección-Delgado, Cristhian; Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Tropicales, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú. Médico infectólogo; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Tropicales, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. médico residente de Infectología; Chiappe-Gonzalez, Alfredo; Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Tropicales, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú. Médico infectólogo; Vargas-Gonzales, Renzo; Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Tropicales, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. médico residente de Infectología; Cucho-Espinoza, Carolina; Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú. médico patólogo clínico; Mamani-Condori, Dick Henry; Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú. tecnólogo médico; Huaroto-Valdivia, Luz María; Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú. médico patólogo clínico

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of Enterobacteria producing carbapenemases of type New Delhi Metalo beta-lactamases (NDM), represent, today, a real problem of world public health. The presence of this resistance mechanism limits or nullifies the therapeutic options to combat these bacteria. In Latin America, the figures are getting higher, as they are reported in Guatemala, Colombia, Chile, Argentina, among others. Peru has not, to date, described the presence of this resistance pattern; however for several ye...

  10. First case of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Ecuador: An update for South America

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Romero-Alvarez; Jorge Reyes; Viviana Quezada; Carolina Satán; Nelson Cevallos; Sofía Barrera; Gabriel Trueba; Luis E. Escobar; José E. Villacís

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe a clinical case of Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) plasmid in Ecuador and to present a map of reports of NDM isolates in South America. Methods: The modified Hodge test, carbapenem inactivation method, imipenemâEDTA disk method (synergy), and Rapidec Carba NP test were used to identify antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The presence of resistance genes was explored with a conjugation assay, and molecular confirmation of NDM was per...

  11. Impact assessment of El Nino and La Nina episodes on local/regional monsoon rainfall in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sureuder; Rao, V.U.M.; Shigh, Diwan

    2002-08-01

    Large scale atmospheric circulation's and climatic anomalies have been shown to have a significant impact on seasonal weather over many parts of the world. In the present paper an attempt has been made to examine regional monsoon dynamics in relation with El Nino and La Nina episodes. The investigation was earned out for the meteorological sub- division's comprising the areas of Haryana, Delhi and Chandigarh in India. The monthly monsoon rainfall data of different locations in the region and corresponding data on El Nino and La Nina episodes for the period of 30 years (1970-99) were used for this investigation. During the El Nino episodes, various locations experienced excess rainfall in monsoon ranged between 11 and 22 percent. Under the influence of La Nina episodes, the probability of excess monsoon rainfall at different locations in the sub-division ranged between 13 and 25 percent. However, many locations viz., Hisar, Bhiwani, Gurgaon, Delhi and Chandigarh received deficient monsoon rainfall which was contrary to the global belief of the association between SST anomalies and rainfall distribution. No significant association was observed between El Nino and La Nina and monsoon rainfall at different locations in the entire sub-division. However, there was a strong relationship between these SST anomalies and all India monsoon rainfall over the period under study (1970-99). (author)

  12. Childhood Cancer Incidence in India Betweem 2012 and 2014: Report of a Population-based Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suman; Paul, Dilip Kumar; Anshu, Kumar; Bhakta, Subhajit

    2017-12-15

    To provide an overview of childhood cancer incidence in India between 2012-2014. Secondary data analysis on age-adjusted rates of cancer incidence for children (0-14 years) were collected from the report of the National Cancer Registry Programme in the year 2016. Age-adjusted rates of childhood cancer incidence ranged from 18.5 per million in the state of Nagaland to 235.3 per million in Delhi for boys. The rates were 11.4 per million in East Khasi Hill district and 152.3 per million in Delhi for girls. Leukemia was the most predominant cancer for both boys and girls. Lymphoma was the second most common cancer in boys, and brain tumors in girls. Childhood cancer incidence is increasing in India compared to population-based cancer registry survey of 2009-2011. Cancers are mostly affecting 0-4 years age group, and there is a rising trend of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  13. Monsoon rainfall behaviour in recent times on local/regional scale in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Surender; Rao, V.U.M.; Singh, Diwan

    2002-08-01

    An attempt has been made here to investigate the local/regional monsoon rainfall behaviour in the meteorological sub-division no. 13 comprising the areas of Haryana, Delhi and Chandigarh in India. The monthly monsoon rainfall data of 30 years (1970-99) of different locations in the region were used for the investigation. All locations except Delhi received more rainfall in monsoon season during the decade (1990-99) showing general increasing trend in the rainfall behaviour in recent times. The mean monsoon rainfall at various locations ranged between 324.8 mm at Sirsa and 974.9 mm at Chandigarh. The major amount of monsoon rainfall occurred during the month of July and August in the entire region. Monthly mean rainfall ranged between 37.5 to 144.9 mm (June), 130.6 to 298.2 mm (July), 92.6 to 313.6 mm (August) and 44.0 to 149.4mm (September) at different locations. All the locations in the region exhibited overall increasing trend in monsoon rainfall over the period under study. All locations in the region received their lowest monsoon rainfall in the year 1987 which was a drought year and the season's rainfall ranged between 56.1 mm (Sirsa) and 290.0 mm (Delhi) during this year. Many of the locations observed clusters of fluctuations in their respective monsoon rainfall. The statistical summaries of historical data series (1970-99) gave rainfall information on various time scale. Such information acquires value through its influence on the decision making of the ultimate users. (author)

  14. Comparative prevalence of otitis media in children living in urban slums, non-slum urban and rural areas of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Shelly K; Gulati, Kriti; Garg, Suneela; Agarwal, Arun K

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to determine the prevalence and profile of otitis media in different parts of a city, i.e. non-slum urban areas, urban slums and rural areas. A door to door survey was conducted in identified areas of Delhi. A total of 3000 children (0-15 years) were randomly selected and examined for presence of otitis media. These children were equally distributed in the three areas under consideration. Data was analyzed to establish the prevalence of different types of otitis media. Chi-square test was then applied to compare disease prevalence among the three areas. 7.1% of the study population was identified with otitis media, which includes CSOM (4.26%), OME (2.5%) and ASOM (0.4%). In the non-slum urban parts of the city, 4.6% children had otitis media. This was significantly lower compared to 7% children in rural parts of Delhi and 9.9% in urban slums of the city. The prevalence of CSOM was considerably higher in slum areas (7.2%) as compared with rural (3%) and non-slum urban areas (2.6%). Ear infections are significantly more common in urban slums as compared to non-slum city areas and rural parts of Delhi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Climate impacts of air quality policy: switching to a natural gas-fueled public transportation system in New Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Conor C O; Kandlikar, Milind

    2008-08-15

    Between 2001 and 2003, public transport vehicles in New Delhi were required to switch their fuel to natural gas in an attemptto reduce their air pollution impacts. This study examines the climatic impacts of New Delhi's fuel switching policy, and outlines implications for such efforts in rapidly industrializing countries. Natural gas is mostly composed of methane, an important greenhouse gas. Emitted aerosols (black carbon, particulate organic carbon, and sulfate) also cause radiative forcing. We find that methane and black carbon emissions are critical contributors to the change in carbon dioxide equivalent [CO2(e)] emissions. In New Delhi, the switch to natural gas results in a 30% increase in CO2(e) when the impact of aerosols is not considered. However, when aerosol emissions are taken into account in our model, the net effect of the switch is estimated to be a 10% reduction in CO2(e), and there may be as much as a 30% reduction in CO2(e). There is significant potential for emissions reductions through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Clean Development Mechanism for such fuel switching projects.

  16. Nuclear India. Vol. II. [India's nuclear policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, J P

    1974-01-01

    The book contains 186 documents on India's nuclear policy covering a period from November 1948 to May 1974. It thus forms a comprehensive documentary account of India's nuclear policy. They include: texts of India's agreements for cooperation on the peaceful uses of atomic energy with the USA and Canada, the summary conclusions of India's atomic energy program for the decade 1970-80, the resolutions and amendments moved by India, the communications sent and the statements made by Indian representatives in various international forums--the conference of the IAEA statute, the Annual General Conference of the IAEA and its committees and the Board of Governors, the UN General Assembly and its First Committee, the conference of the Committee on Disarmaments etc. It also contains texts or extracts from the papers presented, statements made, and addresses and talks delivered by H. J. Bhabha, V. A. Sarabhai, H. N. Sethna and other eminent scientists at the international conferences on the peaceful uses of atomic energy, IAEA discussions on PNE, etc. Policy statements by India's Prime Ministers Nehru, Shastri and (Mrs.) Gandhi, and Foreign Ministers Chagla and Swaran Singh, made from time to time in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha--the two houses of the Indian parliaments--are also included. The sources of these documents are listed at the end. (MCB)

  17. Foramgeographical affinities of the west and east coasts of India: An approach through cluster analysis and comparison of taxonomical, environmental and ecological parameters of Recent foraminiferal thanatotopes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Katha, P.K.; Bhalla, S.N.; Nigam, R.

    stream_size 32449 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name ONGC_Bull_37(2)_65.pdf.txt stream_source_info ONGC_Bull_37(2)_65.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...Department of Geology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 001. 3National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa One of us (PKK) is thankful to the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India, for a research grant. The authors are thankful...

  18. Identification of Variables and Factors Impacting Consumer Behavior in On-line Shopping in India: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, Sudesh

    On-line shopping is a recent phenomenon in the field of E-Business and is definitely going to be the future of shopping in the world. Most of the companies are running their on-line portals to sell their products/services. Though online shopping is very common outside India, its growth in Indian Market, which is a large and strategic consumer market, is still not in line with the global market. The potential growth of on-line shopping has triggered the idea of conducting a study on on-line shopping in India. The present research paper has used exploratory study to depict and highlight the various categories of factors and variables impacting the behavior of consumers towards on-line shopping in India. The data was collected through in-depth interviews on a sample of 41 respondents from Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Bangalore. The results of the study show that on-line shopping in India is basically impacted by five categories of factors like demographics factor, Psychographics factor, Online shopping feature and policies, Technological factor, Security factor. The results of the study are used to present a comprehensive model of on-line shopping which could be further used by the researchers and practitioners for conducting future studies in the similar area. A brief operational definition of all the factors and variables impacting on-line shopping in India is also described. And finally practical implications of the study are also elucidated.

  19. Hepatitis E epidemics in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The first well recorded epidemic was in 1955-56 here in Delhi with nearly 30000 cases. Large outbreaks occurred in 1978 in Kashmir. My interest in this disease began in 1991 during investigations into a large epidemic of hepatitis E in Kanpur that my mentor, later Prof SR Naik, and I undertook. I will use this epidemic as an ...

  20. Radioisotope programme in India: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major discoveries of the 20th century is the discovery of artificial radioactivity. This distinctive discovery in human history transformed atoms of one element to another. Until then, chemical reactions used to be concerned only with changes occurring outside the nucleus. The field of nuclear science came into existence with discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895, radioactivity emitted by Uranium salt by Henri Becquerel in 1896 and pioneering work carried out by Madame Curie and Pierre Curie. India's atomic energy programme was envisaged, founded and developed by the great visionary Dr. Homi Jehangir Bhabha. Since then Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of Government of India has been engaged in developing technologies for use of radiation in all possible fields for the benefit of society. The most common sources of radiation are radioisotopes. Radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors either by utilizing available excess neutrons for activation of stable elements or by separating useful fission products from the spent fuel. In India, the production of radioisotopes started with the commissioning of APSARA reactor in 1956. Initially, APSARA was operated at low power, and radioisotopes could be produced only on a small scale. All these operations had to be called out with remote handling or in the safe glove boxes keeping in view the radiation levels associated with the samples. In due course, the reactor reached full power and remotely operated processing equipment required for handling the radioisotopes were set up. Isotopes such as Iodine-131, Phosphorous-32, Gold-198 and Sodium-24 were produced and extracted in purified form in small quantities. These were given to KEM Hospital and Bombay Hospital at Mumbai, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute and Safdarjung Hospital in Delhi, mainly for exploratory experiments

  1. Prospects of inspection and maintenance of two-wheelers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S; Schmoyer, R; Harrison, G; Hausker, K

    2001-10-01

    Two-wheeler vehicles in Delhi, India--roughly 70% of the total vehicle fleet--are responsible for a significant portion of the city's vehicle emissions and petroleum consumption. An inspection and maintenance (I/M) program that ensures vehicle emission control systems are well maintained can complement other emission reduction strategies. This paper presents the initial findings of extensive data collected on vehicle characteristics and emissions for two-wheeler vehicles operating in Delhi in a series of I/M camps conducted by the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers and various partners in late 1999. The analysis shows idle HC and CO emissions [measured in terms of parts per million (ppm) and volume % (vol %), respectively] in a slow declining trend with subsequent model years, reflecting tighter emission standards and more advanced emission technologies. The I/M benefits--3 vol % and 39% reduction in idle and mass CO, respectively; 40 vol % and 22% reduction in idle and mass HC, respectively; and a 10-20% increase in fuel efficiency--were higher than those reported in the literature. Although these benefits are substantial, any implementation strategy needs to consider cost-effectiveness. In the present study, only 10% of vehicles--contributing 22% of the total vehicle emissions--failed the idle CO standard. Fleet emissions data variability necessitates a large sample size to develop a baseline for the vehicle fleet, but a smaller, scientifically designed sample and better data collection quality could periodically track the benefits at future camps.

  2. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarojini, Nadimpally; Marwah, Vrinda; Shenoi, Anjali

    2011-08-12

    The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality.This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy

  3. Meteorological features associated with unprecedented precipitation over India during 1st week of March 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Mohapatra, M.; Jaswal, A. K.

    2017-07-01

    Unprecedented precipitation along with heavy falls occurred over many parts of India from 28th February to 2nd March 2015. Many of the stations of northwest and central India received an all time high 24 hr cumulative precipitation of March during this period. Even the national capital, New Delhi, broke all the previous historical 24 hr rainfall records of the last 100 years to the rainfall record in March 2015. Due to this event, huge loss to agricultural and horticultural crops occurred in several parts of India. In the present study, an attempt is made to understand the various meteorological features associated with this unprecedented precipitation event over India. It occurred due to the presence of an intense western disturbance (WD) over Afghanistan and neighbouring areas in the form of north-south oriented deep trough in westerlies in middle and upper tropospheric levels with its southern end deep in the Arabian Sea, which pumped huge moisture feed over Indian region. Also, there was a jet stream with core wind speed up to 160 knots that generated high positive divergence at upper tropospheric level over Indian region; along with this there was high magnitude of negative vertical velocity and velocity convergence were there at middle tropospheric level. It caused intense upward motion and forced lower levels air to rise and strengthen the lower levels cyclonic circulations (CCs)/Lows. Moreover, the induced CCs/Lows at lower tropospheric levels associated with WD were more towards south of its normal position. Additionally, there was wind confluence over central parts of India due to westerlies in association with WD and easterlies from anticyclone over north Bay of Bengal. Thus, intense WD along with wind confluence between westerlies and easterlies caused unprecedented precipitation over India during the 1st week of March 2015.

  4. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarojini Nadimpally

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality. This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies

  5. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality. This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy

  6. Dietary regimens of athletes competing at the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, Fiona E; Burkhart, Sarah J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary regimens reported by athletes competing at a major international competition and report whether these were based on nutrient composition, religious beliefs, cultural eating style, food intolerance or avoidance of certain ingredients. A questionnaire was randomly distributed to 351 athletes in the main dining hall of the athletes' village over the three main meal periods during the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games (23rd Sept-14th Oct, 2010). The majority (n = 218, 62%) of athletes reported following one or more dietary regimens, with 50% (n = 174) following a diet based on the nutrient composition of the food. Significantly more athletes from weight category and aesthetic sports (28%, p = .005) and from power/sprint sports (41%, p = .004) followed low fat and high protein regimens respectively. Other specialized dietary regimens were followed by 33% of participants, with avoidance of red meat (13%), vegetarian (7%), Halal (6%), and low lactose regimens (5%) reported most frequently. Significantly more athletes from non-Western regions followed a vegetarian diet (p food items are available at similar events.

  7. Analysis of sexual assault survivours in a tertiary care hospital in delhi: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Sweta; Singh, Alpana; Vaid, Neelam Bala; Behera, Sanjeeta

    2014-09-01

    Rape and abuse of women are common occurrences, which, many a times go unspoken due to social stigma or fear of retribution. Rape is a crime not against a single human being but against the entire humanity. For granting justice to the rape survivor it becomes necessary that such matters are properly presented before the Courts of Law. Healthcare workers play an important role in this regard because they are the first person who examine the rape victims. They prepare a documented record of medical condition of rape victim and do relevant sample collection. The objective of this study is to analyse demographic and event characteristics of rape victims who presented to the Emergency Department in tertiary care, Delhi after sexual assault. Data was retrospectively collected from the medico legal register of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between June 2010 to December 2013. We noted a marked increase in the number of cases. Mean age of victims was 17 and most belonged to the lower socio-economic strata of the society. Use of sedatives and physical trauma was not common. Victims often knew the perpetrator of the event. Most (58%) of them reported within one day of the incident. Major degrees of perineal tears were seen in young victims. By understanding the demography of the sexual assault victims, we need to train our doctors for proper evidence collection not just in a government set up but also in private clinics, to help rape victims get justice and proper medical treatment.

  8. Cultivation of Azolla microphylla biomass on secondary-treated Delhi municipal effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, A.; Saxena, S. [Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (India). Centre for Conservation of Blue Green Algae

    2005-07-01

    Study was conducted on recycling municipal wastewaters for cultivation of Azolla microphylla biomass, which is used for inoculation into paddy fields as N biofertiliser and has other applications as green manure, animal feed and biofilter. Secondary-treated municipal wastewaters were collected from Wazirabad sewage treatment plant in New Delhi during all four seasons and tested for reactive P and heavy metal content. The reactive P levels in effluents ranged between 1-2 ppm and levels of heavy metals like Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn were well below permissible limits. A. microphylla was grown in sewage effluents and its dilutions prepared with tapwater. It showed good growth potential on sewage effluents. Doubling times during September and December months compared well with those on Espinase and Watanabe (E and W) medium and tapwater. Dried Azolla biomass produced on sewage waters did not show presence of toxic heavy metals Cd, Cr and Pb. However, levels of P in dried biomass cultivated on sewage effluents were lower as compared to those from E and W medium and tapwater. The biomass produced can be used for inoculating paddy fields or for other applications and polished wastewaters can be recycled for irrigation purposes. (author)

  9. Magnitude and Correlates of Anemia in Elderly Women of a Resettlement Colony of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tulika; Nagesh, S; Ray, T K

    2018-01-01

    Anemia of any degree contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality and has a significant effect on the quality of life of elderly women. Despite its clinical importance, anemia in the elderly women is underrecognized. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and correlates of anemia in elderly women of a resettlement colony of Delhi. A community-based, cross-sectional study for the duration of 1 year was conducted among 512 geriatric women (≥60 years). Demographic characteristics, dietary assessment, and behavioral risk factors were determined by interview, and the participants underwent physical examination followed by hemoglobin estimation b