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Sample records for delayed-type hypersensitivity skin

  1. Duration of postoperative immunosuppression assessed by repeated delayed type hypersensitivity skin tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J H; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Moesgaard, F;

    1992-01-01

    The duration of postoperative impairment in cell-mediated immunity was assessed by repeated skin testing with seven delayed type common antigens in 15 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery compared to a similar testing regimen in 10 healthy volunteers. All were skin tested four times......, with 72-hour intervals, and in the surgical patients the first test was applied 2 days before surgery, followed by tests on postoperative days 1, 4 and 7. The tests were read after 48 h. Postoperatively, the skin test area decreased on day 3 (p less than 0.01) and recurred to preoperative levels on day 9....... In contrast, the skin test area in the volunteers increased from test to test (p less than 0.001) during the study, confirming a previous finding of a vaccination effect. These results suggest that the postoperative immunosuppression is maintained for about 6-9 days....

  2. The efficacy of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity using a brucellin prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus to detect brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.; Muskens, J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Eight-hundred-and-ninety-six cattle belonging to herds officially designated Brucella-free, and 190 cattle belonging to infected herds were tested with the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity (SDTH) test, using brucellin (273) prepared from a rnucoid strain of Brucella abortus. An increase in

  3. The efficacy of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity using a brucellin prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus to detect brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.; Muskens, J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Eight-hundred-and-ninety-six cattle belonging to herds officially designated Brucella-free, and 190 cattle belonging to infected herds were tested with the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity (SDTH) test, using brucellin (273) prepared from a rnucoid strain of Brucella abortus. An increase in skinfol

  4. Delayed-type hypersensitivity, contact sensitivity, and phytohemagglutinin skin-test responses of heat- and cold-stressed calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K W; Greenfield, R E; Evermann, J F; Parish, S M; Perryman, L E

    1982-05-01

    Three-week-old Holstein bull calves were used to investigate the effect of a 2-week chronic heat (35 C) or cold (-5 C) exposure on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to purified protein derivative after sensitization with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis, contact sensitivity (CS) reactions to 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin tests. Heat exposure reduced expression of DTH reactions by 42% and CS reactions by 38% at 24 hours after elicitation of the responses. The PHA-induced skin tests were not affected after 1 week of heat exposure, but this reaction was reduced by 20% after 2 weeks of heat exposure. The immune response of calves exposed to cold air temperatures was more complex. Cold exposure suppressed CS reactions by 39% at the end of both the 1st and 2nd weeks. The PHA response was reduced by 39% after 2 weeks of cold exposure. The DTH response depended on duration of cold exposure. The DTH reaction was increased by 42% after 1 week, but was reduced by 14% after 2 weeks. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental stressors alter host resistance by affecting the immune system. Furthermore, these stress-induced changes in immune events depend on the type of immune response, the nature of the environmental stressor, and the length of time that calves are exposed to the stressor.

  5. Unique microRNAs appear at different times during the course of a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Nicholas; Løvendorf, Marianne B; Zibert, John R

    2015-01-01

    Diphencyprone (DPCP) is a hapten that induces delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression and have been implicated in various inflammatory skin diseases, but their role in DTH reactions is not well understood......, and therefore, may inform on the paradoxical ability of DPCP to treat both autoimmune conditions (alopecia areata) and conditions of ineffective immunity (melanoma)....

  6. Tuberculin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in a model of hu-PBMC-SCID mice grafted with autologous skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsicopoulos, A.; Pestel, J.; Fahy, O.; Vorng, H.; Vandenbusche, F.; Porte, H.; Eraldi, L.; Wurtz, A.; Akoum, H.; Hamid, Q.; Wallaert, B.; Tonnel, A. B.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed an animal model to study human delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Previous studies in humans have shown after tuberculin injection the presence of a mononuclear cell infiltration, with almost no eosinophils, associated with a preferential Th-1-type cytokine profile. Human skin graft obtained from tuberculin-reactive donors was grafted onto the back of severe combined immunodeficient mice. After healing, mice were reconstituted intraperitoneally with peripheral mononuclear cells. Tuberculin and diluent were injected intradermally, and skin biopsies were performed 72 hours later. Skin grafts were divided into two parts, one for immunohistochemistry and one for in situ hybridization studies. Immunohistochemistry was performed on cryostat sections using the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase technique. In the tuberculin-injected sites as compared with the diluent-injected sites, there were significant increases in the number of CD45+ pan leukocytes and CD4+, CD8+, CD45RO+ T cells but not in CD68+ monocytes/macrophages and EG2 or MBP+ eosinophils. The activation markers CD25 and HLA-DR were up-regulated in the tuberculin-injected sites. In situ hybridization was performed using 35S-labeled riboprobes for interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5. After tuberculin injection, a preferential Th-1-type cytokine profile was observed with significant increases in the numbers of IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA-expressing cells. These results are similar to those reported after tuberculin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity in humans, suggesting that this model might be useful to study cutaneous inflammatory reaction. Images Figure 4 PMID:9626072

  7. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to anthrax vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greidanus, Thomas G; Honl, Beth A

    2002-01-01

    The Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program is a Department of Defense initiative to protect military personnel against the threat of anthrax. Surveillance for adverse events associated with anthrax vaccination has shown that mild local reactions are not uncommon while systemic reactions are extremely rare. We present a case of 26-year-old male with delayed-type hypersensitivity after two doses of anthrax vaccine.

  8. Analysis of T-lymphocyte subtypes of the peripheral blood and skin delayed-type hypersensitivity in patients with hyper-IgE syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobing Lei; Shengshun Tan; Weihui Zeng; Junmin Wang; Panjian Zhang; Yuan Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the function of cellular immunity in patients with hyper-IgE syndrome (HIE). Methods:T-lymphocyte subtypes of the peripheral blood and cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to two recall antigens, tetanus toxoid (TT) and purified protein derivative(PPD), were measured in five patients with HIE and 15 healthy controls, respectively. Results: The CD4+ cell counts in HIE group were significantly lower than those in control group ( P < 0.01). In contrast, CD8 + cells were significantly higher than those in the control ( P < 0.01). The induration sizes of DTH response to two recall antigens were smaller in HIE group than those in the control group ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion: There was an immunologic dysfunction of T lymphocytes in the patients with HIE.

  9. Desensitization of delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice: suppressive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Katsura

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The systemic injection of high doses of antigen into a preimmunized animal results in transient unresponsiveness of cell-mediated immune responses. This phenomenon is known as desensitization. Serum interleukin 2 (IL-2 activity was found transiently in desensitized mice at 3 h after the antigen challenge. These mice could not reveal antigen nonspecific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH 1 d after the challenge. Specific suppression of DTH was observed at later stages. Sera from 3 h desensitized mice showed suppressive effects on DTH in preo immunized mice. Administration of recombinant IL-2 into preimmunized mice led to the failure of development of DTH to antigens. These observations suggest that IL-2 plays an important role in the suppressive environment.

  10. [Behavior of delayed-type hypersensitivity in parapsoriasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, L H; Trindade Filho, P E

    1987-01-01

    The authors present a study of behaviour of the late hypersensitivity in fourteen patients carrying parapsoriasis with age varying from 36 to 64 years being nine men and five women with time of the illness development from one to eleven years. There were thirteen white sick people and a yellow one. The parapsoriasis diagnosis was confirmed in all of them clinica and histopathologica. The patients were not getting any therapeutic with corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs at the time of study. They were studied immunological through methods in vivo. 1. Methods in vivo. a) Intradermoreactions with the infectious antigens: PPD, trichophytin, levedurin, E. coli. It was used as a control group of fourty normal fellows. b) Sensibility to DNCB. The results obtained allow the following thesis: 1. Low table of positivity to the intradermal reactions to the late reading only one of the antigens tested on the patients (E. coli) related to the others. According to these elements we cannot get at a conclusion for depression of the inespecific cellular immunity in our sick patients. 2. Significant statistics difference on the sensibility test to DNCB on the sick patients related to the controls, a fact which shows a certain degree of the depression of the inespecific cellular immunity. 3. The sick patients with parapsoriasis before taking some treatment should go through the study of a late hypersensitivity.

  11. Humoral immune response and delayed type hypersensitivity to influenza vaccine in patients with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.A. Diepersloot (Rob); K.P. Bouter (Karel Paul); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); N. Masurel (Nic); J.B. Hoekstra

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe antibody response and delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to commercially available trivalent influenza vaccine in 159 patients with diabetes mellitus was compared with response and reaction in 28 healthy volunteers. A correction for prevaccination titres was made. No differences

  12. Pathophysiological significance of a reaction in mouse gastrointestinal tract associated with delayed-type hypersensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Gui Yu; Ping Lin; Hui Pan; Lan Xiao; En-Cong Gong; Lin Mei

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the pathophysiological significance of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in mouse gastrointestinal tract induced by an allergen 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB).METHODS: BALB/c mice were randomly divided into control and DTH1-6 groups. After sensitized by DNCB smeared on the abdominal skin, the mice were challenged with DNCB by gavage or enema. The weight, stool viscosity and hematochezia were observed and accumulated as disease active index (DAI) score; the gastrointestinal motility was represented by active charcoal propulsion rate;the colon pathological score was achieved by macropathology and HE staining of section prepared for microscopy; and the leukocyte migration inhibitory factor (LMIF) activity was determined by indirect capillary assay of the absorbance (4) of migrated leukocytes.RESULTS: Active charcoal propulsion rates of small intestine in the DNCB gavages groups were significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). The DAI scores and pathological score in DNCB enema groups were also higher than that in the control group (P<0.05), and there were significant rises in LMIF activity in DNCB enema groups as compared with control groups (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Mouse gastrointestinal DTH reaction could be induced by DNCB, which might facilitate the mechanism underlying the ulcerative colitis.

  13. Fatal meningitis following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection reflects delayed-type hypersensitivity rather than cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Bro-Jørgensen, K; Volkert, M

    1983-01-01

    Fatal meningitis following intracerebral inoculation of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) reflects an immunopathological lesion believed to be mediated by cytotoxic T cells. The results presented here demonstrate that pretreatment with cyclophosphamide (Cy; 150 mg/kg body weight) 2 days...... before intracerebral infection significantly reduced the lethality of the infection. However, this treatment did not impair the antiviral cytotoxic response as measured in the spleen. On the other hand, virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) was significantly reduced. This reduction seems...... not solely represent T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vivo but that a fatal outcome of the infection critically involves not only effector T cells but also ancillary cells....

  14. Case Report of Subcutaneous Nodules and Sterile Abscesses Due to Delayed Type Hypersensitivity to Aluminum-Containing Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren, Christine T; Belsito, Donald V; Morel, Kimberly D; LaRussa, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Routine childhood immunizations have resulted in great reductions in vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. Vaccine-related adverse events, albeit rare, can be of significant consequence. Although anaphylaxis, or type I hypersensitivity, is recognized as a potential reaction after vaccination, delayed type hypersensitivity or type IV reactions are less so. We present a case of persistent subcutaneous nodules and sterile abscesses in the setting of delayed type hypersensitivity to aluminum, confirmed by patch testing and recurrence on re-exposure. We review sources of aluminum in common immunizations, principles for treatment, and strategies for management of future vaccinations for this patient. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. The effect of prophylaxis with chloroquine and proguanil on delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody production following vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyhrs, A; Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, I;

    1991-01-01

    (1,000 mg/week), or 4) proguanil hydrochloride (200 mg/day) for six weeks. Skin testing was performed on days 0 and 28. Vaccinations with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal polysaccharide antigen vaccines were performed on day 28, and the presence of specific antibodies was determined...... dosages, does not induce any detectable suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity or vaccination responses to diphtheria, tetanus, polio, or pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens....

  16. Relationship between systemic inflammation and delayed-type hypersensitivity response to Candida antigen in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt D Pence

    Full Text Available Research has shown that aging is associated with increased systemic inflammation as well as a reduction in the strength of immune responses. However, little evidence exists linking the decrease in cell-mediated immunity in older adults with other health parameters. We sought to examine the relationship between cell-mediated immunity as measured in vivo by the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to candida antigen and demographic and physiological variables in older (65-80 y.o. adults. Candida antigen response was not related to gender or obesity, or to a number of other physiological variables including fitness and body composition. However, positive responders had significantly lower serum C-reactive protein levels (CRP, p4.75 mg•L(-1. Therefore, positive responses to candida antigen in older adults appears to be related to lower levels of systemic inflammation.

  17. Fexofenadine Suppresses Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity in the Murine Model of Palladium Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Ryota; Kumagai, Kenichi; Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Nakasone, Yasunari; Suzuki, Satsuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2017-01-01

    Palladium is frequently used in dental materials, and sometimes causes metal allergy. It has been suggested that the immune response by palladium-specific T cells may be responsible for the pathogenesis of delayed-type hypersensitivity in study of palladium allergic model mice. In the clinical setting, glucocorticoids and antihistamine drugs are commonly used for treatment of contact dermatitis. However, the precise mechanism of immune suppression in palladium allergy remains unknown. We investigated inhibition of the immune response in palladium allergic mice by administration of prednisolone as a glucocorticoid and fexofenadine hydrochloride as an antihistamine. Compared with glucocorticoids, fexofenadine hydrochloride significantly suppressed the number of T cells by interfering with the development of antigen-presenting cells from the sensitization phase. Our results suggest that antihistamine has a beneficial effect on the treatment of palladium allergy compared to glucocorticoids. PMID:28672829

  18. Fexofenadine Suppresses Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity in the Murine Model of Palladium Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Matsubara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Palladium is frequently used in dental materials, and sometimes causes metal allergy. It has been suggested that the immune response by palladium-specific T cells may be responsible for the pathogenesis of delayed-type hypersensitivity in study of palladium allergic model mice. In the clinical setting, glucocorticoids and antihistamine drugs are commonly used for treatment of contact dermatitis. However, the precise mechanism of immune suppression in palladium allergy remains unknown. We investigated inhibition of the immune response in palladium allergic mice by administration of prednisolone as a glucocorticoid and fexofenadine hydrochloride as an antihistamine. Compared with glucocorticoids, fexofenadine hydrochloride significantly suppressed the number of T cells by interfering with the development of antigen-presenting cells from the sensitization phase. Our results suggest that antihistamine has a beneficial effect on the treatment of palladium allergy compared to glucocorticoids.

  19. Delayed type hypersensitivity reaction as indicator of cellular immune competence in broiler chickens exposed to dietary corticosterone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Gielkens, A.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments were performed to evaluate the delayed type hypersensitivity test against keyhole limpet haemocyanin as a parameter to measure stress-induced cellular immune suppression. The test was optimised for broiler chickens and evaluated in a stress model in which plasma corticosterone

  20. Delayed type hypersensitivity reaction as indicator of cellular immune competence in broiler chickens exposed to dietary corticosterone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Gielkens, A.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments were performed to evaluate the delayed type hypersensitivity test against keyhole limpet haemocyanin as a parameter to measure stress-induced cellular immune suppression. The test was optimised for broiler chickens and evaluated in a stress model in which plasma corticosterone leve

  1. Prevalence of delayed-type and immediate-type hypersensitivity in healthcare workers with hand eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibler, Kristina S; Jemec, Gregor B E; Garvey, Lene H; Agner, Tove

    2016-10-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is common in healthcare workers. Although irritant contact dermatitis resulting from wet work is the most frequently reported cause, healthcare workers also constitute high-risk group for the development of allergic contact dermatitis and contact urticaria. To evaluate the prevalence of delayed-type and immediate-type hypersensitivity in 120 healthcare workers with hand eczema. One hundred and twenty healthcare workers from three major hospitals in Denmark with self-reported hand eczema within the last year participated in the study. Patch tests included baseline series plus selected allergens, and prick tests included standard inhalational allergens plus natural rubber latex and chlorhexidine. Levels of IgE specific for latex, chlorhexidine and ethylene oxide were measured. Of the participants, 53% had positive patch test reactions. The most frequent positive patch test reactions were to nickel, thiomersal, fragrances, rubber chemicals, and colophonium. The prevalence of natural rubber latex allergy as diagnosed by prick testing was 2.5%, and chlorhexidine allergy (both contact allergy and IgE-mediated allergy) was found in Ethylene oxide allergy was not identified in any of the participants. Our results confirm previous reports on contact allergy patterns in healthcare workers. Testing for natural rubber latex allergy is still important, but increased risks of chlorhexidine and ethylene oxide allergy could not be confirmed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Role of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (CD138) in delayed-type hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharabi Masouleh, Behzad; Ten Dam, Gerdy B; Wild, Martin K; Seelige, Ruth; van der Vlag, Johan; Rops, Angelique L; Echtermeyer, Frank G; Vestweber, Dietmar; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Kiesel, Ludwig; Götte, Martin

    2009-04-15

    The cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (CD138) modulates the activity of chemokines, cytokines, integrins, and other adhesion molecules which play important roles in the regulation of inflammation. We have previously shown that syndecan-1-deficient murine leukocytes display increased interactions with endothelial cells and increased diapedesis in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we demonstrate that syndecan-1 has an important function as a negative modulator in the murine contact allergy model of oxazolone-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). Following elicitation of the DTH response, syndecan-1-deficient mice showed an increase in leukocyte recruitment, resulting in an increased and prolonged edema formation. Expression of the cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 of the chemokines CCL5/RANTES and CCL-3/MIP-1alpha and of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 were significantly increased in syndecan-1-deficient compared with wild-type mice. In wild-type mice, syndecan-1 mRNA and protein expression was reduced during the DTH response. The differentially increased adhesion of syndecan-1-deficient leukocytes to ICAM-1 was efficiently inhibited in vitro by CD18-blocking Abs, which emerges as one mechanistic explanation for the anti-inflammatory effects of syndecan-1. Collectively, our results show an important role of syndecan-1 in the contact DTH reaction, identifying syndecan-1 as a novel target in anti-inflammatory therapy.

  3. Gender differences in delayed-type hypersensitivity response: effects of stress and coping in first-year law students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Sarah McQueary; Schipper, Lindsey J; Roach, Abbey R; Segerstrom, Suzanne C

    2009-07-01

    Law students show significant deficits in emotional and physical well-being compared with groups of students in other areas of higher education. Furthermore, evidence suggests that these effects may be worse for women than for men. The use of active coping can positively affect immunity under stress, but this may be most true for men in the context of law school. The current study examined the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin responses of first-year law students (n=121) and a comparison group (n=30). Students' health behaviors, self-evaluative emotions, and coping strategies were also reported. Male law students had larger DTH responses than females, but this gender effect was not present in the comparison group. Endorsement of perseverance under stress (n=19), an active coping strategy, moderated the gender effect on immunity. Perseverance associated with larger DTH responses and more positive self-evaluative emotion, but only among men. These results indicate that active coping may be less efficacious for women than for men in law school, which in turn may limit women's opportunities to attenuate negative effects of law school.

  4. Leishmania tropica infection, in comparison to Leishmania major, induces lower delayed type hypersensitivity in BALB/c mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudzadeh-Niknam, Hamid; Kiaei, Simin Sadat; Iravani, Davood

    2007-01-01

    Leishmania tropica and L. major are etiologic agents of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) is an immunologic response that has been frequently used as a correlate for protection against or sensitization to leishmania antigen. In BALB/c mice, L. tropica infection results in non-ulcerating disease, whereas L. major infection results in destructive lesions. In order to clarify the immunologic mechanisms of these 2 different outcomes, we compared the ability of the...

  5. Drug hypersensitivity reactions involving skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Oliver; Schnyder, Benno; Pichler, Werner J

    2010-01-01

    Immune reactions to drugs can cause a variety of diseases involving the skin, liver, kidney, lungs, and other organs. Beside immediate, IgE-mediated reactions of varying degrees (urticaria to anaphylactic shock), many drug hypersensitivity reactions appear delayed, namely hours to days after starting drug treatment, showing a variety of clinical manifestations from solely skin involvement to fulminant systemic diseases which may be fatal. Immunohistochemical and functional studies of drug-specific T cells in patients with delayed reactions confirmed a predominant role for T cells in the onset and maintenance of immune-mediated delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions (type IV reactions). In these reactions, drug-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are stimulated by drugs through their T cell receptors (TCR). Drugs can stimulate T cells in two ways: they can act as haptens and bind covalently to larger protein structures (hapten-carrier model), inducing a specific immune response. In addition, they may accidentally bind in a labile, noncovalent way to a particular TCR of the whole TCR repertoire and possibly also major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-molecules - similar to their pharmacologic action. This seems to be sufficient to reactivate certain, probably in vivo preactivated T cells, if an additional interaction of the drug-stimulated TCR with MHC molecules occurs. The mechanism was named pharmacological interaction of a drug with (immune) receptor and thus termed the p-i concept. This new concept may explain the frequent skin symptoms in drug hypersensitivity to oral or parenteral drugs. Furthermore, the various clinical manifestations of T cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity may be explained by distinct T cell functions leading to different clinical phenotypes. These data allowed a subclassification of the delayed hypersensitivity reactions (type IV) into T cell reactions which, by releasing certain cytokines and chemokines, preferentially activate and recruit

  6. Hymenolepis nana: adoptive transfer of protective immunity and delayed type hypersensitivity response with mesenteric lymph node cells in mice.

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    Asano, K; Muramatsu, K; Okamoto, K

    1991-01-01

    A marked degree of footpad swelling was observed in BALB/c mice infected with Hymenolepis nana eggs, when soluble egg antigen was injected into their footpads 4 to 21 days after the egg infection, indicating delayed type hypersensitivity responses in infected mice. Adoptive transfer with mesenteric lymph node cells from donor mice (BALB/c strain; +/+) infected with eggs 4 days before cell collection could confer this hypersensitivity to recipient nude mice (BALB/c strain; nu/nu). These mesenteric lymph node cells were then divided into two fractions, blast-enriched and blast-depleted cells, by density gradient centrifugation with Percoll. The recipients intravenously injected with the blast-depleted cell fraction showed a marked increase in footpad thickness, whereas the intravenous transfer of the blast-enriched cell fraction resulted in an insignificant increase in footpad thickness. The transfer of the blast-enriched cell fraction, but not of the blast-depleted cell fraction, conferred a strong adoptive immunity on syngeneic recipient nude mice, when the immunity transferred was assessed by examining cysticercoids developed in the intestinal villi on Day 4 of challenge infection. The lack of delayed type hypersensitivity response in mice that received the blast-enriched cell population was not due to a lack of the capacity of the cells to induce the response, because the cells were capable of inducing a significant increase in thickness of footpads of normal mice when these cells were locally injected into the footpad together with soluble egg antigen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Artificial light at night alters delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in response to acute stress in Siberian hamsters.

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    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Kaugars, Katherine E; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-11-01

    Several physiological and behavioral processes rely on precisely timed light information derived from the natural solar cycle. Using this information, traits have adapted to allow individuals within specific niches to optimize survival and reproduction, but urbanization by humans has significantly altered natural habitats. Nighttime light exposure alters immune function in several species, which could lead to decreased fitness or survival, particularly in the face of an environmental challenge. We exposed male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) to five lux of light at night for four weeks, and then administered six hours of acute restraint stress. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response was assessed immediately following stress. Acute restraint increased the DTH reaction in dark nights, but exposure to nighttime light prevented this response. Exposure to light at night prolonged the DTH response in non-stressed control hamsters. These results suggest that light pollution may significantly alter physiological responses in Siberian hamsters, particularly in response to a salient environmental challenge such as stress.

  8. Functions of Exosomes and Microbial Extracellular Vesicles in Allergy and Contact and Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Askenase, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are newly recognized intercellular conveyors of functional molecular mechanisms. Notably, they transfer RNAs and proteins between different cells that can then participate in the complex pathogenesis of allergic and related hypersensitivity responses and disease mechanisms, as described herein. This review highlights this important new appreciation of the in vivo participation of such extracellular vesicles in the interactions between allergy-mediating cells. We take into account paracrine epigenetic exchanges mediated by surrounding stromal cells and the endocrine receipt of exosomes from distant cells via the circulation. Exosomes are natural ancient nanoparticles of life. They are made by all cells and in some form by all species down to fungi and bacteria, and are present in all fluids. Besides a new focus on their role in the transmission of genetic regulation, exosome transfer of allergens was recently shown to induce allergic inflammation. Importantly, regulatory and tolerogenic exosomes can potently inhibit allergy and hypersensitivity responses, usually acting nonspecifically, but can also proceed in an antigen-specific manner due to the coating of the exosome surface with antibodies. Deep analysis of processes mediated by exosomes should result in the development of early diagnostic biomarkers, as well as allergen-specific, preventive and therapeutic strategies. These will likely significantly diminish the risks of current allergen-specific parenteral desensitization procedures, and of the use of systemic immunosuppressive drugs. Since extracellular vesicles are physiological, they can be fashioned for the specific delivery of therapeutic molecular instructions through easily tolerated, noninvasive routes, such as oral ingestion, nasal administration, and perhaps even inhalation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Trans-epithelial immune cell transfer during suckling modulates delayed-type hypersensitivity in recipients as a function of gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J Ma

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Breast feeding has long term effects on the developing immune system which outlive passive immunization of the neonate. We have investigated the transfer of milk immune cells and examined the result of transfer once the recipients were adult. METHODS: Non-transgenic mouse pups were foster-nursed by green fluorescent protein (GFP transgenic dams for 3 weeks and the fate of GFP+ cells was followed by FACS analysis, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR for GFP and appropriate immune cell markers. Pups suckled by non-transgenic dams served as controls. RESULTS: Despite a preponderance of B cells and macrophages in the stomach contents of the pups, most cells undergoing trans-epithelial migration derived from the 3-4% of milk cells positive for T lymphocyte markers. These cells homed to the spleen and thymus, with maximal accumulation at 3-4 weeks. By sensitizing dams with an antigen which elicits a T cell-mediated delayed-type-hypersensitivity (DTH response, we determined that nursing by a sensitized dam (compared to a non-sensitized dam amplified a subsequent DTH response in females and yet suppressed one in males. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that clinical evaluation weighing the pros and cons of nursing male versus female children by mothers with genetically-linked hypersensitivity diseases, such as celiac disease and eczema, or those in regions of the world with endemic DTH-eliciting diseases, such as tuberculosis, may be warranted.

  10. Lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate in delayed type hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D;

    1988-01-01

    A skin window technique was used to study the morphology of leucocytes in upper dermis and exudate during nickel challenge in patients with contact allergy to nickel. Contact allergic patients and healthy volunteers tested with a skin widow without addition of nickel to the chamber medium served...... as controls. The morphology of the leucocytes in dermis was studied in biopsies taken 8, 24, or 48 h after skin window application, and in a parallel test the morphology of the exudate was examined by sequential collection of the chamber medium during a 48 h period. The infiltrate in dermis of contact...... in contact allergic patients exposed to nickel showed a dominance of polymorphonuclear granulocytes throughout the study period, while mononuclear cells, eosinophils and basophils were detected at a much lower quantity and with a considerable delay. Further, we studied the kinetics of the leucocyte granule...

  11. The Loss of Macrophages from Peritoneal Exudates following the Injection of Antigens into Guinea-Pigs with Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. S.; Boyden, S. V.

    1963-01-01

    Exudates were induced in the peritoneal cavities of guinea-pigs by the injection of glycogen. The cell content of these exudates was examined after 4 days in normal and hypersensitive animals. In animals uninjected with antigens, the exudates contained a high proportion of macrophages, together with lymphocytes and polymorphs. In BCG-vaccinated animals, with delayed-type hypersensitivity to tuberculin, subcutaneous, intravenous or intraperitoneal injection of tuberculin resulted in a profound fall in the macrophage content of the exudates. This effect was apparent within an hour of intraperitoneal injection and occurred with very small doses of tuberculin. No such effect occurred after the intraperitoneal injection of tuberculin into guinea-pigs with Arthus hypersensitivity to tuberculin. Ovalbumin injected intraperitoneally into guinea-pigs with mixed delayed-type and Arthus hypersensitivity to ovalbumin also resulted in a marked fall in the macrophage content of peritoneal exudates, but had no effect on the peritoneal macrophages of animals with pure Arthus hypersensitivity. Bacterial endotoxin injected intraperitoneally caused a similar fall in the macrophage content of exudates of both normal and BCG-vaccinated animals. It is concluded that this loss of macrophages from peritoneal exudates after the injection of antigen is the consequence of an immunological reaction which is a manifestation of a state of delayed-type hypersensitivity. PMID:13938030

  12. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to HIV Gag p24 relate to clinical outcome after peptide-based therapeutic immunization for chronic HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kran, Anne-Marte B; Sommerfelt, Maja A; Baksaas, Ingebjørg; Sørensen, Birger; Kvale, Dag

    2012-03-01

    Therapeutic immunization in chronic HIV infection aims to induce durable, HIV-specific immune responses capable of controlling disease progression, but immunological correlates of clinical efficacy are poorly defined. We have previously immunized 38 patients with a mixture of four short Gag p24-like conserved peptides (Vacc-4x) targeting skin dendritic cells. Antiretroviral treatment (ART) was initially stopped after completed immunizations and resumed post-protocol during regular clinical follow-up according to current guidelines. Four years after enrolment, Vacc-4x-specific cellular responses were evaluated in vivo by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test, and in vitro by a T-cell proliferation assay. Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimates were used to analyse time until ART was resumed. Peptide-specific cellular immune responses induced by Vacc-4x had persisted 4 years after the last immunization in terms of unchanged DTH independent of ART and detectable proliferative T-cell responses which correlated to the native peptides (R = 0.73, p = 0.01). Circulating bifunctional (IFN-γ and IL-10) Vacc-4x-specific T-cell clones were detected in 43% of patients. Subjects with the strongest post-immunization DTH responses appeared to start ART later compared with DTH low responders (p = 0.07). These data suggest that DTH responses should be further evaluated as a new and convenient tool for predicting clinical efficacy in trials testing therapeutic immunizations.

  13. Berberine Attenuates Inflammation Associated with Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity via Suppressing Th1 Response and Inhibiting Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Chen, Zhe; Chen, Tao; Yi, Tao; Zheng, Zhou; Fan, Hong; Chen, Zebin

    2017-02-01

    Berberine, one of the active alkaloids from Rhizoma Coptidis, has been indicated to have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. The aim of this study was to determine the role of berberine on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and its potential mechanisms. Berberine treatment significantly reduced footpad swelling, inflammatory cells infiltration, anti-OVA IgG levels, IgE concentration in serum, and the tetramer(+)CD8(+) cells. In homogenized footpad tissue, the production of Th1-mediated cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 were suppressed following the administration of berberine. Detailed studies revealed that berberine prevented differentiation into Th1 cells in the OVA-primed lymphocytes, resulting from suppressing the expression of T-bet and secretion of IFN-γ but not IL-4. Concanavalin A stimulation assay and MTT assay also indicated inhibiting effect of berberine treatment on IFN-γ production and decreased cytotoxicity in lymphocytes proliferation, respectively. Additionally, berberine obviously decreased the cell apoptosis and enzymatic activity of caspase-3, which was further confirmed by the facts that berberine clearly lowered Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein. On correlation analysis, the percentage of apoptotic cells showed a significant positive relationship with IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio of supernatant from footpad tissue in berberine-treated DTH mice. These results demonstrated that berberine attenuated Th1-mediated inflammation in OVA-induced DTH by curbing Th1 response and inhibiting cell apoptosis, suggesting a therapeutic potential for berberine for the treatment of type IV hypersensitivity.

  14. Tumor-derived exosomes confer antigen-specific immunosuppression in a murine delayed-type hypersensitivity model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenjie Yang

    Full Text Available Exosomes are endosome-derived small membrane vesicles that are secreted by most cell types including tumor cells. Tumor-derived exosomes usually contain tumor antigens and have been used as a source of tumor antigens to stimulate anti-tumor immune responses. However, many reports also suggest that tumor-derived exosomes can facilitate tumor immune evasion through different mechanisms, most of which are antigen-independent. In the present study we used a mouse model of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH and demonstrated that local administration of tumor-derived exosomes carrying the model antigen chicken ovalbumin (OVA resulted in the suppression of DTH response in an antigen-specific manner. Analysis of exosome trafficking demonstrated that following local injection, tumor-derived exosomes were internalized by CD11c+ cells and transported to the draining LN. Exosome-mediated DTH suppression is associated with increased mRNA levels of TGF-β1 and IL-4 in the draining LN. The tumor-derived exosomes examined were also found to inhibit DC maturation. Taken together, our results suggest a role for tumor-derived exosomes in inducing tumor antigen-specific immunosuppression, possibly by modulating the function of APCs.

  15. Study the Effect of Echinacea Purpurea Extract on Cellular Delayed Type Hypersensitivity and Splenocyte Proliferation in BALB/c Mice

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    Z.M. Hassan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Purple cone flower plant (Echinacea purpurea is one of the mostimportant Herbal products in many countries. Up to now a lot of experimentsdemonstrated the controversial effects of this herb on immune system . In thisresearch we study the in vivo and in vitro effect of Iranian E.purpurea extract oncellular immunity.Materials and Methods: At first we determined the lethal dose of E.purpurea extract after intraperitoneal injection in BALB/c mice. Then we made five groups of mice and treat them by four times intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml extract at different doses (0, 0.4, 2, 10 and 50 mg/ml during two weeks. Splenocyte proliferation response to extract was assessed by MTT method. Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTHresponse was evaluated by priming mice with 1×108 Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC injected subcutaneously in the back on day 7after treatment.Results: As a result no significant variation in weight and spleen index of test groups to control was observed. Splenocyte proliferation and DTH response of test groups to control increased significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: However these data confirmed the results of previous studies, inaddition presented the first results about significant increase in DTH response that could not be seen before. Scince the main reason of this difference refers to active compounds of herb extract, comparing effective component of this extract with that of E.purpurea cultivated in other geographical condition will consider as the next studies.

  16. Delayed-type hypersensitivity lesions in the central nervous system are prevented by inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyszak, M K; Perry, V H

    1996-09-01

    We have studied the effect of an inhibitor of matrix metalloproleinases, BB-1101, on a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in the CNS. We used a recently described model in which heat-killed bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) sequestered behind the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is targeted by a T-cell mediated response after subcutaneous injection of BCG (Matyszak and Perry, 1995). The DTH lesions are characterised by breakdown of the BBB, macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration and tissue damage including myelin loss. Treatment with BB-1101, which is not only a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases but also strongly inhibits TNF-alpha release, dramatically attenuated the CNS lesions. Breakdown of the BBB and the recruitment of T-cells into the site of the lesion were significantly reduced. There were many fewer inflammatory macrophages in DTH lesions than in comparable lesions from untreated animals. There was also significantly less myelin damage (assessed by staining with anti-MBP antibody). The DTH response in animals treated with dexamethasone was also reduced, but to a lesser degree. No significant effect was seen after administration of pentoxifylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor with effects including the inhibition of TNF-alpha production. Our results suggest that inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases may be of considerable therapeutic benefit in neuroinflammatory diseases.

  17. Leishmania tropica infection, in comparison to Leishmania major, induces lower delayed type hypersensitivity in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh-Niknam, Hamid; Kiaei, Simin Sadat; Iravani, Davood

    2007-06-01

    Leishmania tropica and L. major are etiologic agents of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) is an immunologic response that has been frequently used as a correlate for protection against or sensitization to leishmania antigen. In BALB/c mice, L. tropica infection results in non-ulcerating disease, whereas L. major infection results in destructive lesions. In order to clarify the immunologic mechanisms of these 2 different outcomes, we compared the ability of these 2 leishmania species in induction of DTH response in this murine model. BALB/c mice were infected with L. major or L. tropica, and disease evolution and DTH responses were determined. The results show that the primary L. major infection can exacerbate the secondary L. major infection and is associated with DTH response. Higher doses of the primary L. major infection result in more disease exacerbation of the secondary L. major infection as well as higher DTH response. L. tropica infection induces lower DTH responses than L. major. We have previously reported that the primary L. tropica infection induces partial protection against the secondary L. major infection in BALB/c mice. Induction of lower DTH response by L. tropica suggests that the protection induced against L. major by prior L. tropica infection may be due to suppression of DTH response.

  18. Expanding the Hygiene Hypothesis: Early Exposure to Infectious Agents Predicts Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity to Candida among Children in Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wander, Katherine; O'Connor, Kathleen; Shell-Duncan, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiple lines of evidence suggest that infections in early life prevent the development of pathological immune responses to allergens and autoantigens (the hygiene hypothesis). Early infections may also affect later immune responses to pathogen antigen. Methods To evaluate an association between early infections and immune responses to pathogen antigen, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to Candida albicans was evaluated among 283 2- to 7-year-old children in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. A questionnaire and physical examination were used to characterize variables reflecting early exposure to infectious agents (family size, house construction materials, BCG vaccination, hospitalization history). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between early exposure to infectious agents and DTH to C. albicans. Results Triceps skinfold thickness (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.22) and age (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.55) were positively associated with DTH to C. albicans. Adjusted for age and sex, large family size (OR: 2.81; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.61), BCG vaccination scar (OR: 3.10; 95% CI: 1.10, 8.71), and hospitalization during infancy with an infectious disease (OR: 4.67; 95% CI: 1.00, 21.74) were positively associated with DTH to C. albicans. Conclusions Early life infections were positively associated with later DTH to C. albicans. This result supports an expansion of the hygiene hypothesis to explain not only pathological immune responses to allergens, but also appropriate immune responses to pathogens. Immune system development may be responsive to early infections as an adaptive means to tailor reactivity to the local infectious disease ecology. PMID:22616000

  19. Tolerance and immunity in mice infected with herpes simplex virus: simultaneous induction of protective immunity and tolerance to delayed-type hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A A; Gell, P G; Wildy, P

    1981-01-01

    Unresponsiveness to delayed type hypersensitivity was induced in mice following an intravenous injection of herpes simplex virus. The principal tolerogens used were thymidine kinase-deficient virus mutants which grow poorly in vivo; u.v.-inactivated and to a lesser extent formalin-inactivated virus were also tolerogenic. The tolerance induced was specific for the virus type. Despite the tolerance to delayed hypersensitivity, anti-viral immunity is present as determined by the rapid inactivation of infectious virus. The mechanism of tolerance to herpes virus and the importance of these observations for the pathogenesis of viral disease is discussed. PMID:7251047

  20. Tolerance and immunity in mice infected with herpes simplex virus: studies on the mechanism of tolerance to delayed-type hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A A; Phelan, J; Gell, P G; Wildy, P

    1981-01-01

    Tolerance to delayed-type hypersensitivity is produced in mice following an intravenous injection of herpes simplex virus. This form of tolerance is produced early on, following simultaneous injections of virus subcutaneously and intravenously, and is long lasting (greater than 100 days). The early tolerance mechanism is resistant to high doses of cyclophosphamide and is not transferable by serum or spleen cells taken after 7 days. However, spleen cells taken at 14 days onwards inhibit the induction of delayed hypersensitivity when transferred to normal syngeneic recipients. These cells are T lymphocytes and are specific for the herpes type used in the induction. PMID:6265348

  1. Optimization of cell-wall skeleton derived from Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo 172 (SMP-105) emulsion in delayed-type hypersensitivity and antitumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, M; Murata, M; Fukushima, A; Sato, T; Nakagawa, M; Fujii, T; Koseki, N; Chiba, N; Kashiwazaki, Y

    2012-08-01

    Cell-wall skeleton prepared from Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG-CWS) is known as a potent adjuvant and has been shown to possess antitumor activity in many non-clinical and clinical studies. As there are no approved BCG-CWS formulations for cancer therapy, we investigated the potential for cancer immunotherapy of SMP-105, our originally produced BCG-CWS. For optimizing SMP-105 emulsion, we compared the effects of drakeoland squalane-based SMP-105 emulsions on IFN-γ production in rats and evaluated their ability to induce skin reaction in guinea pigs. Both emulsions had the same activity in both experiments. We selected squalane as base material and produced two types of squalane-based formulations (vialed emulsion and pumped emulsion) that can easily be prepared as oil-in-water emulsions. Although the vialed emulsion showed the same pattern of distribution as a usual homogenized emulsion, the pumped emulsion showed more uniform distribution than the other two emulsions. Whereas both emulsions enhanced strong delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in a mouse model, the pumped emulsion induced slightly smaller edema. Data on oil droplet size distribution suggest that few micrometer oil droplet size might be appropriate for oil-in-water microemulsion of SMP-105. The antitumor potency of SMP-105 emulsion was stronger than that of some of the launched toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists (Aldara cream, Picibanil, and Immunobladder). Aldara and Picibanil showed limited antitumor effectiveness, while Immunobladder had almost the same effect as SMP-105 at the highest dose, but needed about 10 times the amount of SMP-105. These findings first indicate that SMP-105 has great potential in cancer immunotherapy.

  2. Electro-acupuncture at Acupoint ST36 Ameliorates Inflammation and Regulates Th1/Th2 Balance in Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Chen, Tao; Long, Man; Chen, Longyun; Wang, Lei; Yin, Nina; Chen, Zebin

    2017-04-01

    Increasing evidence indicates anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) therapy. However, its underlying mechanism on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), a classic allergic inflammatory disease, still remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the immunomodulatory mechanism of EA intervention in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced DTH. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control, OVA-DTH, DTH + EA, DTH + Sham. "Zusanli" acupoint (ST36) was used for DTH + EA, whereas a non-acupoint (localized 5 mm below the "Zusanli" acupoint) was selected for DTH + Sham. Footpad thickness was checked, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells was estimated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Levels of IgG and IgE in serum of different groups and inflammatory cytokines in the supernatants from homogenized footpads, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5, were determined by ELISA. Cell proliferation of spleen lymphocytes was assayed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The frequency of CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) and CD4(+)IL-4(+) T cells was analyzed with flow cytometry. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression of T-bet and GATA-3 were evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Our data showed EA treatment at acupoint ST36 relieved the pathological progression of DTH responses via reduction in footpad swelling, infiltration of inflammatory cells, levels of IgG and IgE as well as decreased production of IFN-γ and TNF-α in homogenized footpad tissue. Moreover, detailed studies were performed revealing that EA attenuated the percentage of CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells and prevented Th cells differentiation into Th1 cells, and this results from inhibiting secretion of IFN-γ and suppressing expression of T-bet, an IFN-γ transcription factor. The results indicated that EA treatment improved Th1-mediated allergic skin inflammation via restoring Th1/Th2 balance by curbing Th1

  3. Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity to Metals of Environmental Burden in Patients with Takotsubo Syndrome – Is There a Clinical Relevance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousek, Jan; Stejskal, Vera; Kubena, Petr; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Nemec, Petr; Lokaj, Petr; Dostalova, Ludmila; Zadakova, Andrea; Pavlusova, Marie; Benesova, Klara; Kala, Petr; Miklik, Roman; Spinar, Jindrich; Parenica, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Objective Takotsubo syndrome (TS) is a heart condition characterised by a sudden transient left ventricular dysfunction; its pathophysiology is probably associated with elevated levels of catecholamines but the exact mechanism is not known as yet. Literature and clinical experience suggest that TS affects persons with various comorbidities. This pilot work aims to evaluate the frequency of comorbidities with potential pathological immune reactivity, and to evaluate the potential association between TS and hypersensitivity to metals assessed by LTT-MELISA®. Methodology, Results A total of 24 patients (23 women, 1 man) with a history of TS attack and 27 healthy controls were evaluated. Hypersensitivity was evaluated by a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT-MELISA®); a questionnaire of environmental burden was used to select evaluated metals. A total of 19 patients (79%) had at least one condition that might potentially be associated with pathological immune reactivity (autoimmune thyroid disease, drug allergy, bronchial asthma, cancer, contact dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis). Hypersensitivity to metals was identified significantly more frequently in TS patients than in healthy controls (positive reaction to at least one metal was identified in 95.8% of TS patients and in 59.3% of controls; p = 0.003); the difference was statistically significant for mercury (45.8% and 14.8%, respectively; p = 0.029). Conclusion Our work shows that conditions with pathological immune reactivity occur frequently in TS patients, and our data suggest a possible association between TS and hypersensitivity to metals (mercury in particular) evaluated by LTT-MELISA®. We also suggest that apart from the triggering stress factor, potential existence of other serious conditions should be considered when taking medical history of TS patients. PMID:27824862

  4. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH test anergy does not impact CD4 reconstitution or normalization of DTH responses during antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha M Minidis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH testing is an in vivo assessment of cell-mediated immunity. Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART improves immunologic parameters, the relationship between DTH responsiveness and CD4 gains on HAART is not completely understood. We investigated CD4 reconstitution and the change in DTH responses from treatment baseline through 24 months of viral load (VL-suppressive HAART in the U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study. Methods: Treatment-naïve subjects with VL <400 copies/mL after ≥24 months on HAART were included (n=302. DTH testing consisted of ≥3 recall antigens, and responses were classified by the number of positive skin tests: anergic (0–1 or non-anergic (≥2. Pre-HAART DTH results were compared for the outcome of CD4 reconstitution at 24 months of HAART. Improvement in DTH responses was also analyzed for those anergic before HAART initiation. Results: Non-anergic responses were observed in 216 (72% participants, while 86 (28% individuals were anergic prior to HAART initiation. Demographically there were similar distributions of age at HIV diagnosis and HAART initiation, as well as gender and race or ethnicity. There were no significant differences between non-anergic and anergic participants in pre-HAART CD4 count (409 cells/μL, interquartile range (IQR 315–517 vs. 373 cells/μL, IQR 228–487; p=0.104 and VL (4.3 log10 copies/mL, IQR 3.4–4.9 vs. 4.4 log10 copies/mL, IQR 3.6–5.0; p=0.292. Median CD4 gains 24 months after HAART initiation were similar between the non-anergic (220 cells/μL, IQR 115–358 and anergic groups (246 cells/μL, IQR 136–358; p=0.498. For individuals anergic before HAART initiation, DTH normalization occurred at 24 months post-HAART in the majority of participants (51 of 86, 59%. Normalization of DTH responses was not associated with CD4 count at HAART initiation (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.47, 1.09 per 100 cells; p=0.129 nor with AIDS diagnoses

  5. Protective immunity and delayed-type hypersensitivity in C57BL mice after immunization with live Mycobacterium lepraemurium and sonicated bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closs, O; Løvik, M

    1980-07-01

    The immunizing effects of live Mycobacterium lepraemurium (MLM) and bacillary sonic extract (MLMSon) were compared in C57BL mice. MLMSon-immunized mice developed a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction when tested in the footpad with diluted MLMSon. The ability to develop a DTH reaction was transferable with immune cells but not with serum. Footpad testing with live MLM and MLMSon indicated that the specificity of the DTH response induced by MLMSon was different from that induced by infection with live bacilli. Two weeks after footpad inoculation with live MLM, MLMSon-immunized mice developed a strong local reaction to the bacilli. No local reaction developed in these mice after injection of the same number of heat-killed MLM. Studies of bacillary growth after inoculation with live MLM indicated that the bacilli did not multiply in micr previously inoculated with live MLM, but that they multiplied for about 2 weeks in LMLSon-immunized mice versus 4 weeks in the controls. The results suggest that immunization with MLMSon does not by itself induce a protective immune response, but creates a state in which the development of protective immunity is accelerated.

  6. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) immune response related with EBV-DNA in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with autologous dendritic cell vaccination after radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Song, Dan; Lu, Yue; Zhu, Huanfeng; Chen, Zhenzhang; He, Xia

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the outcome of an autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in patients with stage II/III nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). From 38 patients with stage II/III Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated NPCs after a radiotherapy, 16 human leukocyte antigen-A2 (HLA-A2)-positive patients were enrolled and medicated with autologous DCs, which were pulsed with HLA-A2-restricted EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) peptides. The lymphocyte subsets, serum cytokines, and EBV-DNA levels as well as the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were determined after vaccination combined with a radiotherapy/chemotherapy. The serum levels of interleukin-2 and interferon-γ (PEBV LMP2A peptides in a DTH test. The serum EBV-DNA level decreased significantly from 1519 ± 384 to 1214 ± 211 copies/mL in the 9 DTH-positive patients (P=0.0310). No unanticipated or serious toxicity was observed and the vaccine was well tolerated. In conclusion, in NPC patients vaccinated after radiotherapy with autologous DCs, which were pulsed with EBV LMP2A peptides, Th1-specific immune responses were elicited particularly in DTH test positive individuals. The clinical results obtained are encouraging and the EBV-specific HLA-A2-restricted DC vaccination is a promising treatment for EBV-related NPCs.

  7. Effect of unilateral testicular rupture on histopathology and germ cell delayed-type hypersensitivity in C3H/He and A/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Munekazu; Sakamoto, Yasuki; Terayama, Hayato; Hirai, Shuichi; Ning, Qu; Aota, Yoichi; Itoh, Masahiro

    2009-07-01

    Contralateral orchitis induced by unilateral testicular injury has been reported as sympathetic orchitis in men and experimental animals. In mice, experimental sympathetic orchitis (ESO) was first demonstrated in the C3H/He strain after experimental testicular trauma. Delayed-typed hypersensitivity (DTH) to testicular germ cells is induced by testicular trauma and treatment with cyclophosphamide before the trauma further enhances anti-testicular germ cell DTH. In the present study we investigated ESO induction with or without cyclophosphamide pretreatment in two murine strains, C3H/He and A/J mice, that are susceptible to testicular autoimmunity. The results show that traumatized testes undergo early degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium followed by neutrophilic inflammation and later fibrosis with little lymphocytic infiltration, in both murine strains. In the contralateral testes, ESO characterized by both lymphocytic inflammation and spermatogenic disturbance was induced in both strains. However, the incidence and severity of ESO in A/J mice tended to be higher than in C3H/He mice. In contrast, cyclophosphamide pretreatment significantly augmented both pathological stages of ESO and anti-testicular germ cell DTH in C3H/He mice, while those in A/J mice were fully developed by testicular rupture alone and were not further augmented by cyclophosphamide pretreatment. We conclude that A/J mice are more sensitive to trauma-induced testicular autoimmunity than C3H/He mice.

  8. Anandamide attenuates Th-17 cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity response by triggering IL-10 production and consequent microRNA induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin R Jackson

    Full Text Available Endogenous cannabinoids [endocannabinoids] are lipid signaling molecules that have been shown to modulate immune functions. However, their role in the regulation of Th17 cells has not been studied previously. In the current study, we used methylated Bovine Serum Albumin [mBSA]-induced delayed type hypersensitivity [DTH] response in C57BL/6 mice, mediated by Th17 cells, as a model to test the anti-inflammatory effects of endocannabinoids. Administration of anandamide [AEA], a member of the endocannabinoid family, into mice resulted in significant mitigation of mBSA-induced inflammation, including foot pad swelling, cell infiltration, and cell proliferation in the draining lymph nodes [LN]. AEA treatment significantly reduced IL-17 and IFN-γ production, as well as decreased RORγt expression while causing significant induction of IL-10 in the draining LNs. IL-10 was critical for the AEA-induced mitigation of DTH response inasmuch as neutralization of IL-10 reversed the effects of AEA. We next analyzed miRNA from the LN cells and found that 100 out of 609 miRNA species were differentially regulated in AEA-treated mice when compared to controls. Several of these miRNAs targeted proinflammatory mediators. Interestingly, many of these miRNA were also upregulated upon in vitro treatment of LN cells with IL-10. Together, the current study demonstrates that AEA may suppress Th-17 cell-mediated DTH response by inducing IL-10 which in turn triggers miRNA that target proinflammatory pathways.

  9. 布鲁氏菌BP26蛋白迟发型变态反应的研究%Research on delayed- type hypersensitivity of Brucella BP26

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景福; 李恪梅; 王国治

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To research the delayed - type hypersensitivity of Brucella BP26 by skin tests in guinea pigs immunized with various Brucella antigens. Methods: Guinea pigs were immunized with BP26 and various brucella species respectively. The above - mentioned immunized guinea pigs were injected I. D. With purified protein derivative of Brucella,purified protein derivative of Br. Ml6,purified protein derivative of Br. RM6,purified protein derivative of Br. 5K/33. Results;The results of skin tests on BP26 allergen in BP26 immunized guinea pigs were positive , and those in the guinea pigs sensitized with Brucella species were negative. Nevertheless, the results of skin tests on PPD allergen was reversed. Conclusion; Brucella BP26 showed its high specific allergenicity.%目的:研究布氏菌(简称Br.)BP26蛋白在不同抗原免疫豚鼠模型上的迟发型变态反应.方法:分别用BP26重组蛋白、布氏菌纯蛋白衍生物(Br-PPD)、布氏菌M16种纯蛋白衍生物(Br.M16-PPD)、布氏菌RM6种纯蛋白衍生物(Br.RM6-PPD)、布氏菌5K/33种纯蛋白衍生物(Br.5K/33-PPD)5种变态反应原,在BP26和不同种布氏菌免疫豚鼠模型上分别进行皮肤试验.结果:变态反应原BP26蛋白在BP26免疫模型上能够形成明显的迟发型变态反应,在不同种布氏菌免疫的模型上均为阴性;各种布氏菌纯蛋白衍生物变态反应原在其相应菌种的免疫模型上形成明显的变态反应,在BP26免疫模型上均为阴性结果.结论:布氏菌BP26具有变态反应原性,其变应原性具有较强的特异性.

  10. Persistent Skin Reactions and Aluminium Hypersensitivity Induced by Childhood Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salik, Elaha; Løvik, Ida; Andersen, Klaus E; Bygum, Anette

    2016-11-02

    There is increasing awareness of reactions to vaccination that include persistent skin reactions. We present here a retrospective investigation of long-lasting skin reactions and aluminium hypersensitivity in children, based on medical records and questionnaires sent to the parents. In the 10-year period 2003 to 2013 we identified 47 children with persistent skin reactions caused by childhood vaccinations. Most patients had a typical presentation of persisting pruritic subcutaneous nodules. Five children had a complex diagnostic process involving paediatricians, orthopaedics and plastic surgeons. Two patients had skin biopsies performed from their skin lesions, and 2 patients had the nodules surgically removed. Forty-two children had a patch-test performed with 2% aluminium chloride hexahydrate in petrolatum and 39 of them (92%) had a positive reaction. The persistent skin reactions were treated with potent topical corticosteroids and disappeared slowly. Although we advised families to continue vaccination of their children, one-third of parents omitted or postponed further vaccinations.

  11. T-cell effector function and unresponsiveness in the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. II. Delayed-type hypersensitivity unresponsiveness reflects a defective differentiation from TD precursor to effector cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Marker, O

    1986-01-01

    An increase in the virus dose from 10(2) LD50 (low dose) to 10(4) LD50 (high dose) of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) results in markedly delayed virus clearance, in spite of a potent cytotoxic T-cell (TC) response. However, virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactivity...... is markedly depressed in high-dose mice, suggesting an association between DTH and virus clearance. When virus-primed memory cells are transferred, DTH reactivity as well as virus-clearing capacity is restored in high-dose mice, indicating that the virus is not present in a changed or concealed form. The role...

  12. T-cell effector function and unresponsiveness in the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. I. On the mechanism of a selective suppression of the virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    1986-01-01

    -cell response remains essentially unchanged. When low-dose spleen effectors were transferred intravenously into intracerebrally infected high-dose mice, fatal LCM disease occurred, which means that infected central nervous system target structures in these animals are sensitive to virus-specific T cells. When......When the virus dose is increased from 10(2) (low dose) to 10(4) LD50 (high dose) a fatal lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection is changed into a subclinical one, and a selective virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) unresponsiveness is induced, while the cytotoxic T...... low-dose cells were transferred to intravenously infected high-dose mice, these animals regained their TD function (the effect of T cells mediating DTH). Since this indicates that the survival of intracerebrally infected high-dose mice is intimately linked with the absence of virus-specific DTH...

  13. The use of skin delayed-type hypersensitivity as an adjunct test to diagnose brucellosis in cattle: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, is a contagious disease that causes economic loss to owners of domestic animals due to loss of progeny and milk yield. Because cattle, sheep, goats, and to a lesser extent pigs are considered to be the source of human brucellosis, serological te

  14. Natural Rubber Latex Hypersensitivity with Skin Prick Test in Operating Room Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hessamedin Nabavizadeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity reactions to natural rubber latex have increased recently, especially among people with high exposure to latex allergens. Hypersensitivity reactions to latex are related to many conditions like occupational asthma. Our study was performed to determine the prevalence of hypersensitivity to natural rubber latex and potential food cross reactions in operation room personnel in Shiraz hospitals. In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, 580 operation room personnel filled out our questionnaire which included data about their personal history, symptoms of latex hypersensitivity, and other related allergies such as food hypersensitivity. An informed consent was obtained and skin prick tests were performed for natural rubber latex and potential food cross reactions (kiwi, banana, and potato. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS and Chi-square test.Results: 104 (17.9% of the operating room personnel showed positive latex skin tests. We revealed a significant correlation between those with positive skin tests to latex with atopia, urthicaria, and food hypersensitivity. The prevalence did not vary by sex, age, education, surgical and non-surgical gloves users, or history of contact dermatitis. Latex hypersensitivity is common among operation room personnel. Evaluation of symptoms and prediction of future diseases necessitate screening tests in individuals at risk.

  15. Dietary Indoles Suppress Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity by Inducing a Switch from Proinflammatory Th17 Cells to Anti-Inflammatory Regulatory T Cells through Regulation of MicroRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra P; Singh, Udai P; Rouse, Michael; Zhang, Jiajia; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2016-02-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been shown to have profound influence on T cell differentiation, and use of distinct AhR ligands has shown that whereas some ligands induce regulatory T cells (Tregs), others induce Th17 cells. In the present study, we tested the ability of dietary AhR ligands (indole-3-carbinol [I3C] and 3,3'-diindolylmethane [DIM]) and an endogenous AhR ligand, 6-formylindolo(3,2-b)carbazole (FICZ), on the differentiation and functions of Tregs and Th17 cells. Treatment of C57BL/6 mice with indoles (I3C or DIM) attenuated delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to methylated BSA and generation of Th17 cells while promoting Tregs. In contrast, FICZ exacerbated the DTH response and promoted Th17 cells. Indoles decreased the induction of IL-17 but promoted IL-10 and Foxp3 expression. Also, indoles caused reciprocal induction of Tregs and Th17 cells only in wild-type (AhR(+/+)) but not in AhR knockout (AhR(-/-)) mice. Upon analysis of microRNA (miR) profile in draining lymph nodes of mice with DTH, treatment with I3C and DIM decreased the expression of several miRs (miR-31, miR-219, and miR-490) that targeted Foxp3, whereas it increased the expression of miR-495 and miR-1192 that were specific to IL-17. Interestingly, treatment with FICZ had precisely the opposite effects on these miRs. Transfection studies using mature miR mimics of miR-490 and miR-1192 that target Foxp3 and IL-17, respectively, or scrambled miR (mock) or inhibitors confirmed that these miRs specifically targeted Foxp3 and IL-17 genes. Our studies demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that the ability of AhR ligands to regulate the differentiation of Tregs versus Th17 cells may depend on miR signature profile.

  16. Depletion of regulatory T cells leads to an exacerbation of delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis in C57BL/6 mice that can be counteracted by IL-17 blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Marie Atkinson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodent models of arthritis have been extensively used in the elucidation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA pathogenesis and are instrumental in the development of therapeutic strategies. Here we utilise delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis (DTHA, a model in C57BL/6 mice affecting one paw with synchronised onset, 100% penetrance and low variation. We investigate the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs in DTHA through selective depletion of Tregs and the role of IL-17 in connection with Treg depletion. Given the relevance of Tregs in RA, and the possibility of developing Treg-directed therapies, this approach could be relevant for advancing the understanding of Tregs in inflammatory arthritis. Selective depletion of Tregs was achieved using a Foxp3-DTR-eGFP mouse, which expresses the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP under control of the Foxp3 gene. Anti-IL-17 monoclonal antibody (mAb was used for IL-17 blockade. Numbers and activation of Tregs increased in the paw and its draining lymph node in DTHA, and depletion of Tregs resulted in exacerbation of disease as shown by increased paw swelling, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, increased bone remodelling and increased production of inflammatory mediators, as well as increased production of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. Anti-IL-17 mAb treatment demonstrated that IL-17 is important for disease severity in both the presence and absence of Tregs, and that IL-17 blockade is able to rescue mice from the exacerbated disease caused by Treg depletion and caused a reduction in RANKL, IL-6 and the number of neutrophils. We show that Tregs are important for the containment of inflammation and bone remodelling in DTHA. To our knowledge, this is the first study using the Foxp3-DTR-eGFP mouse on a C57BL/6 background for Treg depletion in an arthritis model, and we here demonstrate the usefulness of the approach to study the role of Tregs and IL-17 in

  17. Persistent Skin Reactions and Aluminium Hypersensitivity Induced by Childhood Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salik, Elaha; Løvik, Ida; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    . Two patients had skin biopsies performed from their skin lesions, and 2 patients had the nodules surgically removed. Forty-two children had a patch-test performed with 2% aluminium chloride hexahydrate in petrolatum and 39 of them (92%) had a positive reaction. The persistent skin reactions were...

  18. Persistent Skin Reactions and Aluminium Hypersensitivity Induced by Childhood Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salik, Elaha; Løvik, Ida; Andersen, Klaus E;

    2016-01-01

    period 2003 to 2013 we identified 47 children with persistent skin reactions caused by childhood vaccinations. Most patients had a typical presentation of persisting pruritic subcutaneous nodules. Five children had a complex diagnostic process involving paediatricians, orthopaedics and plastic surgeons...

  19. Immediate hypersensitivity to penicillins with negative skin tests--the value of specific IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R; Cruz, L; Botelho, C; Castro, E; Cadinha, S; Castel-Branco, M G; Rodrigues, J

    2009-08-01

    The determination of specific IgE in patients with history of penicillins hypersensitivity is simple, safe and widely available. The positive and negative predictive values of this determination, however, are not yet established. In order to evaluate them, we performed specific IgE determination and diagnostic drug challenges in a group of 22 patients with a clear history of immediate penicillins hypersensitivity but negative skin tests. In this sample, the positive and negative predictive values were 29% and 87%, respectively. This seems to indicate that a positive specific IgE is not enough to confirm the diagnosis, and further study is necessary.

  20. Skin testing and drug challenge outcomes in antibiotic-allergic patients with immediate-type hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhirt, Stephanie L; Fonacier, Luz S; Calixte, Rose; Davis-Lorton, Mark; Aquino, Marcella R

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation of antibiotic immediate-type hypersensitivity is intricate because of nonstandardized skin testing and challenge method variability. To determine the safety outcomes and risk factors for antibiotic challenge reactions in patients reporting a history of antibiotic immediate-type hypersensitivity. A 5-year retrospective review of patients evaluated for immediate-type antibiotic allergy was conducted. Data analyzed included patient demographics, index reaction details, and outcomes of skin testing and challenges, classified as single-step or multistep. Antibiotic hypersensitivity history was identified in 211 patients: 78% to penicillins, 10% to fluoroquinolones, 7.6% to cephalosporins, and 3.8% to carbapenems. In total, 179 patients completed the challenges (median age 67 years, range 50-76 years, 56% women), and compared with nonchallenged patients, they reported nonanaphylactic (P antibiotic allergies (P = .005). No correlation was detected between the reported index and observed challenge reaction severities (κ = -0.05, 95% confidence interval -0.34 to 0.24). Anaphylactic rates were similar during single-step and multistep challenges (3.6% vs 3.3%). In the present population, younger women with multiple reported antibiotic allergies were at greatest risk for challenge reactions. Negative skin testing results did not exclude reactions, and index severity was not predictive of challenge outcome. The multistep and full-dose methods demonstrated a comparable reaction risk for anaphylaxis. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A histamine release assay to identify sensitization to Culicoides allergens in horses with skin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bettina; Childs, Bronwen A; Erb, Hollis N

    2008-12-15

    Skin hypersensitivity is an allergic disease induced in horses by allergens of Culicoides midges. The condition is typically diagnosed by clinical signs and in some horses in combination with allergy testing such as intradermal skin testing or serological allergen-specific IgE determination. Here, we describe an alternative method for allergy testing: a histamine release assay (HRA) that combines the functional aspects of skin testing with the convenience of submitting a blood sample. The assay is based on the principle that crosslinking of allergen-specific IgE bound via high-affinity IgE receptors to the surfaces of mast cells and basophils induces the release of inflammatory mediators. One of these mediators is histamine. The histamine was then detected by a colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The histamine assay was used to test 33 horses with skin hypersensitivity and 20 clinically healthy control animals for histamine release from their peripheral blood basophils after stimulation with Culicoides allergen extract or monoclonal anti-IgE antibody. An increased histamine release was observed in the horses with skin hypersensitivity compared to the control group after allergen-specific stimulation with Culicoides extract (p=0.023). In contrast, stimulation with anti-IgE induced similar amounts of released histamine in both groups (p=0.46). For further evaluation of the HRA, we prepared a receiver operating-characteristic (ROC) curve and performed a likelihood-ratio analysis for assay interpretation. Our results suggested that the assay is a valuable diagnostic tool to identify sensitization to Culicoides allergens in horses. Because some of the clinically healthy horses also showed sensitization to Culicoides extract, the assay cannot be used to distinguish allergic from non-allergic animals. The observation that sensitization is sometimes detectable in non-affected animals suggested that clinically healthy horses use immune mechanisms to control the

  2. A comparative study of the 'rhodochrous' complex and related taxa by delayed-type skin reactions on guinea pigs and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, I S; Chaparas, S D

    1977-06-01

    Cell extracts prepared by ultrasonic disruption of 17 strains of the 'rhodochrous' complex and related taxa were compared by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and for immunologic relatedness, by skin test reactions. Two organisms, Jensenia canicruria and Nocardia calcarea, gave similar gel patterns and skin test reactions, and are considered to be identical. Extracts of nocardia rubra showed a strong antigenic relationship with those of three Nocardia pellegrino organisms (N325, N324 and N420) previously assigned to the 'rhodochrous' complex. Two Gordona organisms appeared to be less antigenically related to the 'rhodochrous' complex. Extracts of three of four organisms designated Lspi (Rhodococcus coprophilus Rowbotham & Cross 1976) elicited skin test reactions similar to those of the 'rhodochrous' strains. One Lspi strain, N650, showed striking similarities to the 'rhodochrous' complex strain N420 (Nocardia pellegrino).

  3. Ranitidine for improvement of delayed hypersensitivity response in patients with sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Witt, K; Moesgaard, F

    1989-01-01

    than 48 hours despite comprehensive medical and/or surgical treatment. Cell-mediated immunity was assessed by skin testing with seven common delayed type hypersensitivity antigens applied on days 1, 4 and 7 and all tests were read at 48 hours, i.e. on days 3, 6 and 9. The ranitidine...

  4. [Assessment of hypersensitivity to honey-bee venom in beekeepers by skin tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Ángeles, Martín; Núñez-Velázquez, Marco; Marín-Martínez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Beekeepers are exposed to frequent honey-bee stings, and have the risk to develop hypersensitivity to bee venom, but long-term exposure can induce immune tolerance in them. Up to 30% of beekeepers show positive skin tests with honey-bee venom. The prevalence of systemic reactions to bee stings in beekeepers is from 14% to 42%. To know the prevalence of hypersensitivity to honeybee venom in Mexican beekeepers and non-beekeepers by the use of skin tests. A group of 139 beekeepers and a group of 60 non-beekeeper volunteers had a history and physical related to age, sex, family and personal atopic history and time of exposure to bee stings. Both groups received intradermal skin tests with honey-bee venom, 0.1 mcg/mL and 1 mcg/mL, and histamine sulphate 0.1 mg/mL and Evans solution as controls. The skin tests results of both groups were compared by chi-squared test. Of the group of beekeepers, 116 were men (83%) and 23 women, average age was 39.3 years, had atopic family history 28% and personal atopy 13%, average time of exposure to bee stings was 10.9 years, skin tests with honey-bee venom were positive in 16.5% and 11% at 1 mcg/mL and 0.1 mcg/mL, respectively. In the non-beekeepers group venom skin tests were positive in 13.3% and 6.7% at 1 mcg/mL and 0.1 mcg/mL. We did not find significant differences between the two venom concentrations tested in both groups, neither in the number of positive skin tests between the two groups. We found hypersensivity to honey-bee venom slightly higher in the beekeepers than in the group apparently not exposed. Both honey-bee venom concentrations used did not show difference in the results of the skin tests. The similarity of skin tests positivity between both groups could be explained by immune tolerance due to continued exposure of beekeepers.

  5. Transcription-coupled and global genome repair differentially influence Ultraviolet-B induced acute skin effects and systemic immunosuppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Garssen (Johan); H. van Steeg (Harry); F.R. de Gruijl (Frank); J. de Boer (Jan); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); H. van Kranen (Henk); H. van Loveren (Henk); M.E.A. van Dijk (Mariska); A. Fluitman; G. Weeda (Geert); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractExposure to UV-B radiation impairs immune responses in mammals by inhibiting especially Th1-mediated contact hypersensitivity and delayed-type hypersensitivity. Immunomodulation is not restricted to the exposed skin, but is also observed at distant sites, indicating the existence of medi

  6. Transcription-coupled and global genome repair differentially influence UV-B-induced acute skin effects and systemic immunosuppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Garssen (Johan); H. van Steeg (Harry); F.R. de Gruijl (Frank); J. de Boer (Jan); H. van Kranen (Henk); M. van Dijk (Mariska); H. van Loveren (Henk); A. Fluitman; G. Weeda (Geert); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractExposure to UV-B radiation impairs immune responses in mammals by inhibiting especially Th1-mediated contact hypersensitivity and delayed-type hypersensitivity. Immunomodulation is not restricted to the exposed skin, but is also observed at distant sites, indicating the

  7. Assessment of drug hypersensitivity with non-irritating concentrations of antibacterial agents for allergic skin tests: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritam Biswas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity reactions to antibiotics are common with a prevalence of 6-10% of all adverse reactions. There is a lack of guidelines and standardization of skin tests for the screening of hypersensitivity to all antibiotics, in terms of the methodology, dose and time of evaluation of the tests. Literature from Europe and America suggests the use of non-irritating concentration (NIC of antibiotics for skin testing such as intra dermal test (IDT, skin prick test (SPT. These are concentrations at which the drug is unlikely to produce irritation by virtue of its chemical nature resulting in false positive reactions. These concentrations have been validated by trials in their populations. Due to the increase of antibiotic resistance in our country, declaring a patient allergic to a specific class of antibiotics based on positive skin tests can further narrow the therapeutic armory. These individuals have an increased incidence of infections with resistant organisms as well as increased cost of hospitalization. This is due to the use of alternative broad spectrum antibiotics. Therefore, there is a need for a standardized protocol for the use of skin tests in screening of hypersensitivity, with validated NIC of all antibacterial agents. The aim of this article is to review literature of protocols for assessment of drug hypersensitivity with NIC of antibacterial drugs for SPT, IDT and also establish the need for research in this area in our country. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(4.000: 586-590

  8. Treatment with anti-C5aR mAb leads to early-onset clinical and mechanistic effects in the murine delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkinson, Sara Marie; Nansen, Anneline; Usher, Pernille A.;

    2015-01-01

    Blockade of the complement cascade at the C5a/C5a receptor (C5aR)-axis is believed to be an attractive treatment avenue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the effects of such interventions during the early phases of arthritis remain to be clarified. In this study we use the murine delayed...... lymph node is also reduced following a single dose of anti-C5aR, suggesting that modulation of the C5a/C5aR axis results in effects on the T cell compartment in inflammatory arthritis. In summary, these data demonstrate that blockade of C5aR leads to rapid and significant effects on arthritic disease......-type hypersensitivity arthritis (DTHA) model to study the very early effects of a blocking, non-depleting anti-C5aR mAb on joint inflammation with treatment synchronised with disease onset, an approach not previously described. The DTHA model is a single-paw inflammatory arthritis model characterised by synchronised...

  9. Penicillin hypersensitivity: value of clinical history and skin testing in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Gregoriou, Stamatios; Papaioannou, Dimitrios; Mousatou, Vassiliki; Katsarou-Katsari, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    Penicillin often is excluded as a treatment option based on patients' self-reported history of an adverse reaction to penicillin. The objective of this prospective study was to determine the likelihood of true penicillin allergy in patients with vague and convincing histories of penicillin allergy and to evaluate the diagnostic value added by appropriate skin testing. Six hundred thirty-eight patients with prior beta-lactam intake had a current indication for penicillin therapy and were referred for testing with the major (benzylpenicilloyl polylysine) and minor (minor determinant mixture) penicillin determinants from the inpatient and outpatient service of Athens University Dermatological hospital from January 2000 to December 2002. The prevalence of positive skin tests in the total group and in those patients with vague and convincing histories of penicillin allergy was determined. Positive skin tests were observed in 19/638 (3%) of the total group, 5 out of 542 (0.9%) patients without any history of penicillin allergy, 14 out of 96 (14.6%) patients with vague history (confidence interval [CI] 95% = 5.95-59.92), and 13 out of 18 (72.2%) patients with a convincing history of type I hypersensitivity reaction (chi2 = 286.3: odds ratio = 281.3: CI 95% = 62.19-1440.8). Patients with a vague history of penicillin allergy are 18 times more likely to have a positive penicillin skin test, and a convincing reaction history increases the likelihood by 281-fold compared with patients without a history of penicillin allergy. However, the fact that 5 of 18 (27.8%) patients with a convincing history were negative when skin tested points out that skin testing is helpful if the need for penicillin administration is compelling.

  10. Incidence of hypersensitivity skin reactions in patients on full-dose low-molecular-weight heparins during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultinge, L.; Knol, H. M.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Meijer, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) are the most commonly used anticoagulants for the treatment and prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. Hypersensitivity skin reactions associated with the use of LMWH are frequently seen, but are probably underreported. Objective: To eval

  11. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2014-02-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2013. Studies on food allergy suggest that (1) 7.6% of the US population is affected, (2) a "healthy" early diet might prevent food allergy, (3) the skin might be an important route of sensitization, (4) allergen component testing might aid diagnosis, (5) the prognosis of milk allergy might be predictable through early testing, (6) oral or sublingual immunotherapy show promise but also have caveats, and (7) preclinical studies show promising alternative modes of immunotherapy and desensitization. Studies on eosinophilic esophagitis show a relationship to connective tissue disorders and that dietary management is an effective treatment for adults. Markers of anaphylaxis severity have been determined and might inform potential diagnostics and therapeutic targets. Insights on serum tests for drug and insect sting allergy might result in improved diagnostics. Genetic and immune-mediated defects in skin epithelial differentiation contribute to the severity of atopic dermatitis. Novel management approaches to treatment of chronic urticaria, including use of omalizumab, are being identified. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The use of different concentrations of leishmanial antigen in skin testing to evaluate delayed hypersensitivity in american cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Cuba Cuba

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Three concentrations of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis sonicated whole promastigote antigen (30, 9.6 and 3 ug N in 0.1 ml wereprepared and 0.1 ml of each inoculated intradermally intopatients who live in one endemic leishmaniasis region in Brazil. Patients were divided into groups with active cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL, healed cutaneous leishmaniasis (HCL, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML, and Controls (C. Skin reactions were recorded by measuring induration 48 hours after inoculation. Skin tests using 9.6 ugN/0.1 mlyielded the best diagnostic resultssince 97% of 30 patients with active lesions (cutaneous or mucosal and 83% with HCL showed reactions of 5 mm orgreater as compared with 4% Controls. Tests using 30ug N/O. 1 ml causedan unacceptable levei of skin reactions with necrosis (10% of ACL patients tested and 17% of HCL, respectively. Tests using 3 ug N/O. 1 ml were less sensitive since only 87% of patients with active lesions and 68% with HCL had reactions of 5mm orgreater. The 3 ug N/O. 1 ml dose was utilized to ask the questions whether skin delayed hypersensitivity decreased with time after the initial lesion and whether mucosal involvement is associated with enhaced hypersensitivity to leishmanial antigen. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity was noted only in those patients who had an initial lesion more than 30 years ago. The mean induration of the reaction in 10 patients with ML was 11.3 mm ± 7.15, in 41 patients with HCL, 9.27 mm ± 6.78 and in 20patients with ACL 10. 7 mm ± 6.10 mm. The percent of patients with 5 mm orgreater induration was ML 80%, HCL 71%, ACL 90%. Thus, we could not confirm an association between enhanced delayed hypersensitivity and mucosal involvement in leishmaniasis.

  13. The use of different concentrations of leishmanial antigen in skin testing to evaluate delayed hypersensitivity in american cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Cuba Cuba

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Three concentrations of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis sonicated whole promastigote antigen (30, 9.6 and 3 ug N in 0.1 ml wereprepared and 0.1 ml of each inoculated intradermally intopatients who live in one endemic leishmaniasis region in Brazil. Patients were divided into groups with active cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL, healed cutaneous leishmaniasis (HCL, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML, and Controls (C. Skin reactions were recorded by measuring induration 48 hours after inoculation. Skin tests using 9.6 ugN/0.1 mlyielded the best diagnostic resultssince 97% of 30 patients with active lesions (cutaneous or mucosal and 83% with HCL showed reactions of 5 mm orgreater as compared with 4% Controls. Tests using 30ug N/O. 1 ml causedan unacceptable levei of skin reactions with necrosis (10% of ACL patients tested and 17% of HCL, respectively. Tests using 3 ug N/O. 1 ml were less sensitive since only 87% of patients with active lesions and 68% with HCL had reactions of 5mm orgreater. The 3 ug N/O. 1 ml dose was utilized to ask the questions whether skin delayed hypersensitivity decreased with time after the initial lesion and whether mucosal involvement is associated with enhaced hypersensitivity to leishmanial antigen. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity was noted only in those patients who had an initial lesion more than 30 years ago. The mean induration of the reaction in 10 patients with ML was 11.3 mm ± 7.15, in 41 patients with HCL, 9.27 mm ± 6.78 and in 20patients with ACL 10. 7 mm ± 6.10 mm. The percent of patients with 5 mm orgreater induration was ML 80%, HCL 71%, ACL 90%. Thus, we could not confirm an association between enhanced delayed hypersensitivity and mucosal involvement in leishmaniasis.

  14. Relationship between Sympathetic Skin Responses and Auditory Hypersensitivity to Different Auditory Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Fumi; Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Chono, Mami; Fujihara, Saori; Tokunaga, Akiko; Murata, Jun; Tanaka, Koji; Nakane, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Goro

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] Auditory hypersensitivity has been widely reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders. However, the neurological background of auditory hypersensitivity is currently not clear. The present study examined the relationship between sympathetic nervous system responses and auditory hypersensitivity induced by different types of auditory stimuli. [Methods] We exposed 20 healthy young adults to six different types of auditory stimuli. The amounts of palmar sweating resulting from the auditory stimuli were compared between groups with (hypersensitive) and without (non-hypersensitive) auditory hypersensitivity. [Results] Although no group × type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was observed for the extent of reaction, significant type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was noted for the extent of reaction. For an 80 dB-6,000 Hz stimulus, the trends for palmar sweating differed between the groups. For the first stimulus, the variance became larger in the hypersensitive group than in the non-hypersensitive group. [Conclusion] Subjects who regularly felt excessive reactions to auditory stimuli tended to have excessive sympathetic responses to repeated loud noises compared with subjects who did not feel excessive reactions. People with auditory hypersensitivity may be classified into several subtypes depending on their reaction patterns to auditory stimuli.

  15. Requirement of interaction between mast cells and skin dendritic cells to establish contact hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Otsuka

    Full Text Available The role of mast cells (MCs in contact hypersensitivity (CHS remains controversial. This is due in part to the use of the MC-deficient Kit (W/Wv mouse model, since Kit (W/Wv mice congenitally lack other types of cells as a result of a point mutation in c-kit. A recent study indicated that the intronic enhancer (IE for Il4 gene transcription is essential for MCs but not in other cell types. The aim of this study is to re-evaluate the roles of MCs in CHS using mice in which MCs can be conditionally and specifically depleted. Transgenic Mas-TRECK mice in which MCs are depleted conditionally were newly generated using cell-type specific gene regulation by IE. Using this mouse, CHS and FITC-induced cutaneous DC migration were analyzed. Chemotaxis assay and cytoplasmic Ca²⁺ imaging were performed by co-culture of bone marrow-derived MCs (BMMCs and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs. In Mas-TRECK mice, CHS was attenuated when MCs were depleted during the sensitization phase. In addition, both maturation and migration of skin DCs were abrogated by MC depletion. Consistently, BMMCs enhanced maturation and chemotaxis of BMDC in ICAM-1 and TNF-α dependent manners Furthermore, stimulated BMDCs increased intracellular Ca²⁺ of MC upon direct interaction and up-regulated membrane-bound TNF-α on BMMCs. These results suggest that MCs enhance DC functions by interacting with DCs in the skin to establish the sensitization phase of CHS.

  16. Efeito da suplementação com L-alanil-L-glutamina sobre a resposta de hipersensibilidade do tipo tardio em ratos submetidos ao treinamento intenso Effect of L-glutamine and L-alanyl-L-glutamine supplementation on the response to delayed-type hypersensitivity test (DTH in rats submitted to intense training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Macedo Rogero

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O treinamento intenso e o exercício exaustivo podem ocasionar imunossupressão em atletas por meio da diminuição da concentração plasmática de glutamina. O presente estudo verificou inicialmente o efeito da suplementação com L-glutamina e L-alanilL-glutamina sobre a resposta ao teste de hipersensibilidade do tipo tardio (HTT em ratos submetidos ao treinamento intenso em natação durante seis semanas. Posteriormente, foi avaliado o efeito dessas intervenções nutricionais sobre a contagem total e porcentual de leucócitos e concentração sérica de anticorpos IgG anti-albumina de soro bovino, em animais submetidos ao teste de exaustão e recuperados durante o período de 3 horas. Não houve efeito do treinamento e da suplementação sobre a resposta ao teste de HTT. Animais suplementados apresentaram maior concentração de glutamina no plasma (PIntense training and exhaustive exercise may cause immunesupression in athletes by reducing plasma glutamine concentration. Initially, this study verified the effect of L-glutamine and L-alanyl-L-glutamine supplementation on the response to delayed-type hypersensitivity test (DTH in rats submitted to intense swimming training for six weeks. Later on, we assessed the effect of these nutritional interventions on total and differential white blood cell counts and on concentration of anti-bovine serum albumin IgG antibodies, in animals submitted to exhaustion test and a three-hour recovery period. There was no effect of training and supplementation on the response to DTH. Supplemented animals presented greatest plasma glutamine concentration (p<0.05, though this increase in glutaminemia did not interfere on the serum IgG antibody concentration. The recovery period after intense exercise resulted in decreased glutaminemia as compared with the values obtained immediately after exhaustion test (p<0.05. Increase in corticosterone levels induced by strenuous exercises led to leukocytosis, neutrophilia

  17. Immediate hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Mi; Rajgopal Bala, Harini; Cahill, Jennifer; Toholka, Ryan; Nixon, Rosemary

    2017-06-07

    Chlorhexidine is a widely used and effective antiseptic agent. Although skin contact is usually well tolerated, it may cause both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of immediate hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine causing both skin and respiratory symptoms following occupational exposure to chlorhexidine in a health-care worker. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  18. Ranitidine prevents postoperative transfusion-induced depression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F;

    1989-01-01

    The influence of perioperative blood transfusion on postoperative depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and the effect of ranitidine on transfusion-induced changes in postoperative CMI were investigated. CMI was assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common...... delayed-type antigens in 83 consecutive patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery. Sixty-six of these patients were randomly divided into ranitidine or no-ranitidine-treatment groups, and the remaining 17 patients were operated on without ranitidine. Thus, 50 patients were operated on without.......0001). It is concluded that perioperative transfusion with whole blood amplifies the postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity and that transfusion-induced postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity may be prevented by perioperative ranitidine treatment....

  19. Copper hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-10-01

    The world production of copper is steadily increasing. Although humans are widely exposed to copper-containing items on the skin and mucosa, allergic reactions to copper are only infrequently reported. To review the chemistry, biology and accessible data to clarify the implications of copper hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common. As a metal, it possesses many of the same qualities as nickel, which is a known strong sensitizer. Cumulative data on subjects with presumed related symptoms and/or suspected exposure showed that a weighted average of 3.8% had a positive patch test reaction to copper. We conclude that copper is a very weak sensitizer as compared with other metal compounds. However, in a few and selected cases, copper can result in clinically relevant allergic reactions.

  20. Comparison of the effects of SAG-M and whole-blood transfusions on postoperative suppression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F;

    1991-01-01

    pre- and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) antigens. The postoperative skin-test response decreased more in the patients who received whole blood (15 patients) than in those who received SAG-M blood (16 patients) (60% versus 42%, p less than 0......The influence of perioperative whole-blood transfusion and transfusion with erythrocyte suspension (SAG-M blood) on postoperative depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was investigated in 67 patients who underwent elective resection for colorectal cancer. Cell-mediated immunity was assessed...

  1. A comparison of intradermal testing and detection of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in horses affected with skin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Erin E; Miller, William H; Wagner, Bettina

    2007-12-15

    Skin hypersensitivities (allergies) in horses are often diagnosed using clinical signs only. Intradermal testing or serological assays are diagnostic options to confirm the allergic nature of the disease and to identify the allergen(s). Our objective was to develop an allergen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a monoclonal antibody specific for horse IgE and to examine its potential for allergen detection in serum in comparison to intradermal testing. Intradermal testing with 61 allergen extracts was performed on 10 horses affected with skin hypersensitivity. Their sera were analyzed by ELISA for IgE antibodies to the same allergens. The kappa test of concordance was used for comparison of the results of both tests. Out of 61 allergen extracts, only two (Timothy and Quack) had kappa values greater than 0.60, suggesting a substantial agreement between skin testing and IgE ELISA. The statistical comparison of the remaining 59 allergens showed little or no concordance between the tests beyond chance. To identify parameters that may influence the sensitivity of the ELISA, the assay was modified to detect allergen-specific IgGb and IgG(T) in serum, and the protein content in all allergen extracts was determined by SDS-PAGE. The commercial allergen extracts revealed a high variation in detectable protein. High concentrations of allergen-specific IgG in horse serum were found to compete with IgE for binding to the plates. In conclusion, an ELISA using whole serum and crude allergen preparations provides limited diagnostic information in horses. The reliable diagnosis of allergens in equine skin hypersensitivity is essential to improve allergen-specific treatments, such as hyposensitization, or the development of allergy vaccines.

  2. Penicillin allergy: anti-penicillin IgE antibodies and immediate hypersensitivity skin reactions employing major and minor determinants of penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, R K; Joglekar, S A; Tomas, E

    1980-11-01

    300 children considered to have had adverse reactions to penicillin were examined. Informed consent was obtained from the parents. Skin tests were conducted by the scratch/prick and intradermal techniques, using benzylpenicilloyl polylysine conjugate and a mixture of minor determinants of penicillin. Specific anti-penicillin IgE antibodies were estimated by the radioallergosorbent test. There was a good correlation between the two methods. The overall frequency of positive tests was 19%. 11 children showed cutaneous reactivity only to the minor determinants mixture. Positive results were found more often in those with accelerated adverse reactions, particularly anaphylaxis, serum sickness, angio-oedema, or urticaria. The validity of penicillin-negative results was confirmed by drug challenge in 56 subjects, only 2 of whom showed a slight skin rash. Of 5 patients with positive tests, inadvertent administration of penicillin produced accelerated urticaria in all. 14 of 42 children with positive tests had lost hypersensitivity to penicillin one year later. In a separate group of 50 children with a history of adverse response to ampicillin, the overall frequency of positive tests was 12%; 38% showed evidence of recent E-B virus infection. It was concluded that penicillin allergy is often overdiagnosed. The diagnosis can be reliably confirmed by skin tests using major and minor determinants of benzylpenicillin and by the radioallergosorbent test; such hypersensitivity is not permanent.

  3. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  4. Detection of living Sarcoptes scabiei larvae by reflectance mode confocal microscopy in the skin of a patient with crusted scabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Assi; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Ingber, Arieh; Enk, Claes D.

    2012-06-01

    Scabies is an intensely pruritic disorder induced by a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The diagnosis of scabies is established clinically and confirmed by identifying mites or eggs by microscopic examination of scrapings from the skin or by surface microscopy using a dermatoscope. Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy is a novel technique used for noninvasive imaging of skin structures and lesions at a resolution compatible to that of conventional histology. Recently, the technique was employed for the confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of scabies. We demonstrate the first ever documentation of a larva moving freely inside the skin of a patient infected with scabies.

  5. Carmine hypersensitivity masquerading as azithromycin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhawt, Matthew; McMorris, Marc; Baldwin, James

    2009-01-01

    Macrolide hypersensitivity is a rarely reported event. However, carmine dye has become increasingly important as a provocative agent. We present a case of a woman with documented carmine hypersensitivity, who reported anaphylaxis 90 minutes after ingestion of a generic azithromycin. Our investigations revealed that this was an allergy to the carmine dye in the tablet's coating rather than to the antibiotic. Seven extracts were prepared including carmine dye, crushed dried female cochineal insects, crushed tablets of Zithromax (Pfizer Inc.) and generic azithromycin (Teva Pharmaceuticals), and the crushed colored coatings from both tablets. These were suspended in preservative-free normal saline, and then applied as a skin-prick test and read at 30 minutes. The skin-prick skin test results were 4+ to histamine and carmine dye, but negative to cochineal insect extract, Pfizer crushed tablets, and negative control. The patient was 1+ to the Teva crushed tablet, but was 4+ to the Teva brand coating and negative to the Pfizer brand coating, which did not contain carmine. The patient subsequently ingested Pfizer Zithromax without any sequelae. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of carmine anaphylaxis attributed to carmine-containing medication. Careful history and skin-prick testing to the appropriate agents allowed elucidation of the subtlety of the true offending agent without unnecessary avoidance of the medication class. Patients with a carmine hypersensitivity should actively check with their pharmacy or prescribing physician to verify their medications are free of this offending agent.

  6. Clinical evaluation of MPT-64 and MPT-59, two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for skin test reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T; Jensen, B N; Ravn, P

    1996-01-01

    : In a small scale clinical investigation, skin reactions to these antigens were compared to reactions to tuberculin PPD RT23 in 1) patients with active tuberculosis, 2) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects with close contact with tuberculous patients, and 3) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects without contact...... of the experimental skin test antigens had properties superior to tuberculin PPD RT23 in humans. The failure of MPT-64 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in the majority of tuberculosis patients is discussed, in view of the potent reactivity to MPT-64 in tuberculous guinea pigs.......SETTING: Department of Pulmonary Medicine P, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MPT-64 and MPT-59 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions following intradermal administration. DESIGN...

  7. Effect of ranitidine on postoperative suppression of natural killer cell activity and delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Pedersen, B K; Moesgaard, F

    1989-01-01

    hypersensitivity (DTH) antigens, and blood drawn immediately before and 24 hours after skin incision was analyzed for spontaneous and in vitro stimulated (IL-2, IFN-alpha or indomethacin) natural killer (NK) cell activity and PHA and PPD-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Lymphocyte subsets (helper......In a randomized study of patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery, 12 received i.v. ranitidine (50 mg every 6 hours for 72 hours from the skin incision) and 12 had no ranitidine. Cell-mediated immunity was assessed pre- and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common delayed type....../inducer-T cells, suppressor/cytotoxic-T cells, Pan-T cells and NK-cells) were counted by flow-cytometry. Perioperative ranitidine diminished the expected postoperative reduction in DTH responses (p less than 0.0001), as well as in spontaneous NK-cell activity (p less than 0.03) and in vitro IL-2 stimulated NK-cell...

  8. Production of TNF-alpha by skin explants of dinitrochlorobenzene-challenged ears in rats: A model for the evaluation of contact hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataranovski Milena

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Contact hypersensitivity (CHS is a local inflammatory response of the skin following challenge of hapten-sensitized animals. It is the consequence of cell infiltration of derm and the release of inflammation mediators, among which Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α is one of the most important factors. The intensity of the inflammation could be quantified by ear swelling which is the classical manifestation of the reaction. This study was testing the working hypothesis that levels of TNF-α in skin organ culture medium should correlate with the intensity of CHS reaction measured in vivo by ear swelling assay, and with the density of dermal infiltrate in ear skin samples. In order to test the working hypothesis, the intensity of inflammatory reaction following challenge was evaluated by classical measurements of ear swelling, by the determination of TNF-α levels in culture fluids of ear skin following epicutaneous application of dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB into the ears of sensitized animals. Methods. Animal model of CHS reaction to DNCB in Albino Oxford rats was used as described. Ear swelling was quantified in percentage terms as the difference in thickness between the challenged and nontreated ears of the same animal. Dermal infiltrate density in histopathologically analyzed samples of ear skin was evaluated by computer-assisted image analysis. Ear skin samples were cultured in standard medium for 24 h, and TNF-α concentration in the conditioned medium was subsequently determined with ELISA test. Results. Dose-dependent increase in the density of the dermal infiltrate and in TNF-α in CM were noted following the application of 0.65%, 1.3% and 2.6% of DNCB to the ears of previously sensitized rats. The correlation between ear swelling and the levels of TNF-α (r=0.933, p<0.001 in CM, and between ear swelling and dermal infiltrate density (r=0.916, p<0.001 was found. Correlation was also found between the density of the dermal

  9. Keratinocyte gene therapy for systemic diseases. Circulating interleukin 10 released from gene-transferred keratinocytes inhibits contact hypersensitivity at distant areas of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X; Sawamura, D; Tamai, K; Hanada, K; Ishida, H; Hashimoto, I

    1998-01-01

    This study has examined the systemic effects of a circulating gene product, human interleukin 10 (IL-10), released from transduced keratinocytes. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine which has an inhibitory effect on contact hypersensitivity (CHS). An expression vector (phIL-10) was constructed for human IL-10 and was injected into the dorsal skin of hairless rats. Local expression of IL-10 mRNA and protein was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the amount of IL-10 in the local keratinocytes and in the circulation increased with the dose of phIL-10 transferred. To determine whether circulating IL-10 could inhibit the effector phase of CHS at a distant area of the skin, various doses of phIL-10 were injected into the dorsal skin of sensitized rats before challenge on the ears. Our results showed that the degree of swelling of the ears of phIL-10- treated rats was significantly lower than that in the negative control animals. These results suggest that IL-10 released from transduced keratinocytes can enter the bloodstream and cause biological effects at distant areas of the skin. This study demonstrates that it may be possible to treat systemic disease using keratinocyte gene therapy. PMID:9502789

  10. Avocado hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, C; Carrillo, T; Castillo, R; Quiralte, J; Cuevas, M

    1994-07-01

    The avocado (Av) is a fruit that belongs to the Lauraceae family. We report 17 patients with immediate hypersensitivity to avocado. Clinical manifestations in relation to avocado ingestion were as follows: systemic anaphylaxis in seven patients, angioedema/urticaria in six, vomiting in two, bronchial asthma in one, and rhinoconjunctivitis in one. Skin prick test (SPT) with fresh avocado was positive in all patients with the Strong avocado variety (SAv) and in 14 patients with the Hass avocado variety (HAv). Our patient-associated sensitizations were as follows: 10 to latex, eight to chestnut, eight to banana, four to kiwi, and four to walnut. Avocado-sensitized patients with latex allergy were typically middle-aged women, professionally exposed to latex, who also exhibited frequent associated sensitizations to chestnut, banana, and other fruits. Specific IgE against avocado was demonstrated in 11 of our patients, by both commercial CAP and RAST with avocado extract coupled to nitrocellulose disks. Despite its lower protein content, SAv seems to be more allergenic than HAv, both in vivo and in vitro. On incubating a pool of sera from our patients with avocado, latex, chestnut, and banana extracts, a progressive RAST inhibition was obtained, with SAv- and chestnut-marked disks. This suggests the existence of common antigenic determinants among these allergens.

  11. Quantitative sensory testing response patterns to capsaicin- and ultraviolet-B-induced local skin hypersensitization in healthy subjects: a machine-learned analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Geisslinger, Gerd; Heinemann, Sarah; Lerch, Florian; Oertel, Bruno G; Ultsch, Alfred

    2017-08-16

    The comprehensive assessment of pain-related human phenotypes requires combinations of nociceptive measures that produce complex high-dimensional data, posing challenges to bioinformatic analysis. In this study, we assessed established experimental models of heat hyperalgesia of the skin, consisting of local ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation or capsaicin application, in 82 healthy subjects using a variety of noxious stimuli. We extended the original heat stimulation by applying cold and mechanical stimuli and assessing the hypersensitization effects with a clinically established quantitative sensory testing (QST) battery (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain). This study provided a 246 × 10-sized data matrix (82 subjects assessed at baseline, following UV-B application, and following capsaicin application) with respect to 10 QST parameters, which we analyzed using machine-learning techniques. We observed statistically significant effects of the hypersensitization treatments in 9 different QST parameters. Supervised machine-learned analysis implemented as random forests followed by ABC analysis pointed to heat pain thresholds as the most relevantly affected QST parameter. However, decision tree analysis indicated that UV-B additionally modulated sensitivity to cold. Unsupervised machine-learning techniques, implemented as emergent self-organizing maps, hinted at subgroups responding to topical application of capsaicin. The distinction among subgroups was based on sensitivity to pressure pain, which could be attributed to sex differences, with women being more sensitive than men. Thus, while UV-B and capsaicin share a major component of heat pain sensitization, they differ in their effects on QST parameter patterns in healthy subjects, suggesting a lack of redundancy between these models.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible

  12. Prevalence of delayed-type and immediate-type hypersensitivity in healthcare workers with hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, Kristina Sophie; Jemec, Gregor B E; Garvey, Lene H.

    2016-01-01

    ) was found in Ethylene oxide allergy was not identified in any of the participants. Conclusions: Our results confirm previous reports on contact allergy patterns in healthcare workers. Testing for natural rubber latex allergy is still important, but increased risks of chlorhexidine and ethylene oxide......Background: Occupational contact dermatitis is common in healthcare workers. Although irritant contact dermatitis resulting from wet work is the most frequently reported cause, healthcare workers also constitute high-risk group for the development of allergic contact dermatitis and contact...... in the study. Patch tests included baseline series plus selected allergens, and prick tests included standard inhalational allergens plus natural rubber latex and chlorhexidine. Levels of IgE specific for latex, chlorhexidine and ethylene oxide were measured. Results: Of the participants, 53% had positive...

  13. Selective inhibition of JNK with a peptide inhibitor attenuates pain hypersensitivity and tumor growth in a mouse skin cancer pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Jing; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Zeng, Qing; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Decosterd, Isabelle; Xu, Xiaoyin; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2009-09-01

    Cancer pain significantly affects the quality of cancer patients, and current treatments for this pain are limited. C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been implicated in tumor growth and neuropathic pain sensitization. We investigated the role of JNK in cancer pain and tumor growth in a skin cancer pain model. Injection of luciferase-transfected B16-Fluc melanoma cells into a hindpaw of mouse induced robust tumor growth, as indicated by increase in paw volume and fluorescence intensity. Pain hypersensitivity in this model developed rapidly (Tumor growth was associated with JNK activation in tumor mass, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and spinal cord and a peripheral neuropathy, such as loss of nerve fibers in the hindpaw skin and induction of ATF-3 expression in DRG neurons. Repeated systemic injections of D-JNKI-1 (6 mg/kg, i.p.), a selective and cell-permeable peptide inhibitor of JNK, produced an accumulative inhibition of mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. A bolus spinal injection of D-JNKI-1 also inhibited mechanical allodynia. Further, JNK inhibition suppressed tumor growth in vivo and melanoma cell proliferation in vitro. In contrast, repeated injections of morphine (5 mg/kg), a commonly used analgesic for terminal cancer, produced analgesic tolerance after 1 day and did not inhibit tumor growth. Our data reveal a marked peripheral neuropathy in this skin cancer model and important roles of the JNK pathway in cancer pain development and tumor growth. JNK inhibitors such as D-JNKI-1 may be used to treat cancer pain.

  14. DNA repair, immunosuppression, and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarosh, Daniel B

    2004-11-01

    UV radiation (UVR) produces erythema within the first 24 hours of exposure, suppression of the immune system within the first 10 days, and, for many people, over the course of decades, skin cancer. Although UVR damages many skin targets, DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) is an important mediator of these sequelae. The action spectrum for erythema parallels the action spectrum for CPD formation in skin, and in the absence of repair, as in the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), skin cancer rates are dramatically increased. DNA repair in skin can be enhanced by the delivery of DNA repair enzymes encapsulated in liposomes. Used in this way, photoreactivation of CPDs greatly diminishes erythema and the suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). UV endonucleases delivered by liposomes also prevent UV-induced suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity. In a clinical study of patients with XP, T4 endonuclease V (T4N5) liposome lotion applied for one year reduced the rates of actinic keratosis (AK) and skin cancer compared with placebo. These results showed that strategies to increase sun protection should include measures to reduce DNA damage and increase the rate of DNA repair.

  15. Comparison of the effects of SAG-M and whole-blood transfusions on postoperative suppression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F

    1991-01-01

    The influence of perioperative whole-blood transfusion and transfusion with erythrocyte suspension (SAG-M blood) on postoperative depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was investigated in 67 patients who underwent elective resection for colorectal cancer. Cell-mediated immunity was assessed...... pre- and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) antigens. The postoperative skin-test response decreased more in the patients who received whole blood (15 patients) than in those who received SAG-M blood (16 patients) (60% versus 42%, p less than 0.......001) and in those who did not receive a blood transfusion (36 patients) (60% versus 40%, p less than 0.001). The enhanced postoperative immunosuppression in patients who received whole-blood transfusions persisted after matching according to age, sex, height, weight, hemoglobin and serum albumin levels, duration...

  16. Ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu Ramineni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ofloxacin is a commonly used antimicrobial agent to combat various infections. The adverse profile of quinolones includes gastrointestinal symptoms, which are the most frequent, neuropsychiatric symptoms, hematologic abnormalities are less common. We report a rare case of ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction in a 57 year old female patient with complaints of rashes over the axilla, upper limb and back, abdomen, thorax associated with exfoliation of skin all over the axilla associated with severe itching. Based on history and clinical examination patient was diagnosed as ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction and was successfully treated with antihistamines and corticosteroids. Pharmacovigilance should be a part of patient care in order to reduce occurrence of adverse drug reaction and also encourage practitioners in reporting so as to gather more and more data regarding adverse drug reactions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 349-351

  17. Hypersensitive tourists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    This research note sets forth a new agendum for sensuous tourism scholarship. It departs in the neglected study of the embodied life of hypersensitive tourists, and argues that the ambiguousness of the sensuous be better understood. To contextualise this argument the following suggests that aller......This research note sets forth a new agendum for sensuous tourism scholarship. It departs in the neglected study of the embodied life of hypersensitive tourists, and argues that the ambiguousness of the sensuous be better understood. To contextualise this argument the following suggests...... that allergic tourists make up a contemporary and increasingly relevant empirical field through which to illuminate the dark sides of the sensuous. Finally, the note develops four analytical dimensions that structure critical sensuous scholarship....

  18. Sulphasalazine Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Şanlı

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS is one of the most dangerous drug reactions. Mortality and morbidity is increased by consequent systemic organ involvement. Maculopapular eruptions are the most common lesions accompanying DIHS, however, the morphology of skin lesions may vary. The most common cause of DIHS is the use of aromatic anticonvulsant drugs. However, one must not forget that other drugs may also cause DIHS. Early recognition of the condition is the most important step in the treatment. Herein, we present a case of DIHS triggered by sulphasalazine and associated with pustular eruption and maculopapular eruption.

  19. Reações de hipersensibilidade imediatas após uso intravenoso de soros antivenenos: valor prognóstico dos testes de sensibilidade intradérmicos Immediate hypersensitivity reactions following intravenous use of antivenom sera: predictive value of hypersensitivity skin test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Cupo

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram admitidos no Hospital das Clínicas da FMRPUSP, durante os anos de 1983 a 1988, 494 pacientes vítimas de acidentes ofídicos e escorpiônicos que receberam soro antiveneno (SAV e nos quais foi avaliada a freqüência e tipo das manifestações imediatas, bem como o valor prognóstico do teste de sensibilidade. Do total de pacientes vítimas de ofidismo, 82 (25,6% apresentaram reações imediatas, das quais as mais comuns foram as cutâneas, isoladas (40% ou associadas com sintomas respiratórios (19%, seguidas de manifestações gastrintestinais (17%. Choque anafilático foi detectado em 10 pacientes (12%. Em relação aos acidentes escorpiônicos, reações imediatas foram observadas em 13 pacientes (7,5%, também com predomínio de lesões cutâneas. Sintomatologia cardiocirculatória foi detectada em apenas 1 paciente. Devido ao baixo valor preditivo positivo (31,8% e à baixa sensibilidade (54,6%, propomos que o teste de sensibilidade intradérmico seja abolido da rotina de atendimento de urgência aos pacientes vítimas de acidentes por animais peçonhentos. Anti-histamínicos (bloqueadores dos receptores H1 e H2 e corticosteróides devem ser administrados por via parenteral anteriormente à soroterapia, no sentido de prevenir ou minimizar as reações de hipersensibilidade imediatas que podem ocorrer. O soro antiveneno deve ser sempre administrado por via intravenosa, de preferência sem diluição, gota a gota, durante 15 a 30 minutos, sob contínua supervisão da equipe médica.The frequency and class of immediate-type hypersensitivity manifestations were studied in 494 snakebitten and scorpion stung patients who were treated with intravenous injections of antivenom sera. These patients were admitted to HC-FMRPUSP from 1983 to 1988. The effectiveness of a hypersensitivity skin test was also investigated. Eighty two out of 320 patients admitted following snake bites (25.6% had immediate-type reactions consisting of isolated skin

  20. Dynamical optical imaging monocytes/macrophages migration and activation in contact hypersensitivity (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihong

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory monocytes/macrophages (Mon/Mφ) play an important role in cutaneous allergic inflammation. However, their migration and activation in dermatitis and how they accelerate the inflammatory reaction are largely unknown. Optical molecular imaging is the most promising tool for investigating the function and motility of immune cells in vivo. We have developed a multi-scale optical imaging approach to evaluate the spatio-temporal dynamic behavior and properties of immune cells from the whole field of organs to the cellular level at the inflammatory site in delayed type hypersensitivity reaction. Here, we developed some multi-color labeling mouse models based on the endogenous labeling with fluorescent proteins and the exogenous labeling with fluorescent dyes. We investigated the cell movement, cell interaction and function of immunocytes (e.g. Mon/Mφ, DC, T cells and neutrophils) in the skin allergy inflammation (e.g., contact hypersensitivity) by using intravital microscopy. The long-term imaging data showed that after inflammatory Mon/Mφ transendothelial migration in dermis, they migrating in interstitial space of dermis. Depletion of blood monocyte with clodronate liposome extremely reduced the inflammatory reaction. Our finding provided further insight into inflammatory Mon/Mφ mediating the inflammatory cascade through functional migration in allergic contact dermatitis.

  1. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kumari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS is an adverse drug reaction commonly associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, viz., phenytoin (PHT, carbamazepine (CBZ, phenobarbital (PB, lamotrigine, primidone, etc. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, gold derivatives, cyclosporine, captopril, diltiazem, terbinafine, azathioprine and allopurinol. Diagnosis of DHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities and manifestations and because the syndrome may mimic infectious, neoplastic or collagen vascular disorders. The risk for developing hypersensitivity within 60 days of the first or second prescription in new users of PHT or CBZ was estimated to be 2.3-4.5 per 10,000 and 1-4.1 per 10,000, respectively. The syndrome is defined by the fever, skin rash, lymphadenopathy and internal organ involvement within the first 2-8 weeks after initiation of therapy. Internal manifestations include, among others, agranulocytosis, hepatitis, nephritis and myositis. Insufficient detoxification may lead to cell death or contribute to the formation of antigen that triggers an immune reaction. Cross-reactivity among PHT, CBZ and PB is as high as 70%-80%. Management mainly includes immediate withdrawal of the culprit drug, symptomatic treatment and systemic steroids or immunoglobulins.

  2. Hypothesis on how to measure electromagnetic hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuengler, Andreas; von Klitzing, Lebrecht

    2013-09-01

    Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is an ill-defined term to describe the fact that people who experience health symptoms in the vicinity of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) regard them as causal for their complaints. Up to now most scientists assume a psychological cause for the suffering of electromagnetic hypersensitive individuals. This paper addresses reasons why most provocation studies could not find any association between EMF exposure and EHS and presents a hypothesis on diagnosis and differentiation of this condition. Simultaneous recordings of heart rate variability, microcirculation and electric skin potentials are used for classification of EHS. Thus, it could be possible to distinguish "genuine" electromagnetic hypersensitive individuals from those who suffer from other conditions.

  3. Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food, food additives, drugs, oral hygiene products, and dental materials. Q: Are there any specific foods that are ... dental treatment trigger a hypersensitivity reaction? A: Some dental materials used by the dentist can cause a hypersensitivity ...

  4. Rabies virus cross-reactive murine T cell clones: analysis of helper and delayed-type hypersensitivity function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bunschoten; B. Dietzschold; I.J.Th.M. Claassen (Ivo); R. Klapmuts; F. UytdeHaag; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThree T cell clones derived from rabies virus-immunized BALB/c mice were analysed for specificity and function. The clones proved to be broadly cross-reactive by responding to different rabies virus isolates (PM, ERA, CVS, HEP) and other representatives of the genus Lyssavirus, like the

  5. Virus elimination in acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Correlation with virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity rather than cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M; Bro-Jørgensen, K

    1983-01-01

    The immunological effector mechanism responsible for the elimination of virus in murine acute non-fatal extracranial lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection was studied. In this infection virus clearance is generally regarded as the result of a direct action of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells...

  6. The magnitude and kinetics of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in mice vaccinated with irradiated cercariae of Schistoma mansoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliffe, E.C.; Wilson, R.A. (York Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology)

    1991-08-01

    A footpad assay was used to measure the DTH of mice to soluble worm antigens (SWAP), and to living day 7 lung schistosomula, following vaccination and challenge infections with Schistosoma mansoni. DTH to SWAP was first observed on day 10, and reached its maximum on day 17 post-vaccination. Treatment of mice with anti-CD4 antibody on the 3 days prior to footpad challenge completely abrogated this response. Reactivity to living parasites was of a slower order than that to SWAP; it also peaked earlier, on day 10 post-vaccination. By day 35, responsiveness to both sets of antigens had declined almost to control levels. There was no correlation between the level of DTH to living schistosomula, at any time, and the degree of resistance subsequently developed. Percutaneous challenge of vaccinated mice was followed by a resurgence of reactivity to SWAP. This secondary response occurred more rapidly than the primary response, peaking on day 7 post-challenge, and was of a similar magnitude. We were unable to detect a similar recall of DTH to living schistosomula, possibly because the assay was insufficiently sensitive. We conclude that the intensity and kinetics of DTH responsiveness are crucial features of the irradiated vaccine model, and suggest that further investigation of cell-mediated immune reaction, particularly those occuring in the lungs, is vital to a better understanding of events underlying the development and expression of immunity. (author).

  7. The concept of "compartment allergy": prilocaine injected into different skin layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobser Marion

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We herein present a patient with delayed-type allergic hypersensitivity against prilocaine leading to spreading eczematous dermatitis after subcutaneous injections for local anesthesia with prilocaine. Prilocaine allergy was proven by positive skin testing and subcutaneous provocation, whereas the evaluation of other local anesthetics - among them lidocaine, articaine and mepivacaine - did not exhibit any evidence for cross-reactivity. Interestingly, our patient repeatedly tolerated strictly deep subcutaneous injection of prilocaine in provocation testing while patch and superficial subcutaneous application mounted strong allergic responses. We hypothesize, that lower DC density in deeper cutaneous compartments and/or different DC subsets exhibiting distinct functional immunomodulatory properties in the various layers of the skin may confer to the observed absence of clinical reactivity against prilocaine after deep subcutaneous injection. The term compartment allergy indicates that the route of allergen administration together with the targeted immunologic environment orchestrates on the immunologic outcome: overt T-cell mediated allergy or clinical tolerance.

  8. Penicillin allergy: anti-penicillin IgE antibodies and immediate hypersensitivity skin reactions employing major and minor determinants of penicillin.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, R K; Joglekar, S A; Tomas, E

    1980-01-01

    300 children considered to have had adverse reactions to penicillin were examined. Informed consent was obtained from the parents. Skin tests were conducted by the scratch/prick and intradermal techniques, using benzylpenicilloyl polylysine conjugate and a mixture of minor determinants of penicillin. Specific anti-penicillin IgE antibodies were estimated by the radioallergosorbent test. There was a good correlation between the two methods. The overall frequency of positive tests was 19%. 11 c...

  9. Radiocontrast media hypersensitivity in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suh-Young; Lim, Kyoung-Whan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-04-01

    Radiocontrast media (RCM) is a major cause of drug hypersensitivity reactions as the medical application of RCM is increasing recently. RCM induced hypersensitivity reactions are considered as unpredictable type B reactions. Underlying mechanism of RCM induced hypersensitivity was previously regarded as nonimmunological mechanisms but recent studies suggest that immunological mechanisms could also be involved. As a result, the roles of skin tests and premedication are revisiting. As there has been no report that comprehensively summarized and analyzed the results of the studies on RCM hypersensitivity in the Asia Pacific region, we aimed to review the literatures on hypersensitivity reactions to RCM in terms of prevalence clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and preventive measures in the Asia Pacific region.

  10. Platinum hypersensitivity and desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Shingo; Okada, Rika; Ando, Kazumichi

    2015-09-01

    Platinum agents are drugs used for various types of cancer. With increased frequency of administration of platinum agents, hypersensitivity reactions appear more frequently, occurring in over 25% of cases from the seventh cycle or second line onward. It then becomes difficult to conduct treatment using these agents. Various approaches have been investigated to address hypersensitivity reactions to platinum agents. Desensitization, which gradually increases the concentration of the anticancer drug considered to be the antigen until the target dosage, has been reported as being particularly effective, with a success rate of 80-100%. The aims of this paper are to present the current findings regarding hypersensitivity reactions to platinum agents and to discuss attempts of using desensitization against hypersensitivity reactions worldwide. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A Case of Occupational Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Associated with Trichloroethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Jae; Hwang, Eu Dong; Leem, Ah Young; Kang, Beo Deul; Chang, Soo Yun; Kim, Ho Keun; Park, In Kyu; Kim, Song Yee; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a toxic chemical commonly used as a degreasing agent, and it is usually found in a colorless or blue liquid form. TCE has a sweet, chloroform-like odor, and this volatile chlorinated organic chemical can cause toxic hepatitis, neurophysiological disorders, skin disorders, and hypersensitivity syndromes. However, the hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) attributed to TCE has rarely been reported. We hereby describe a case of HP associated with TCE in a 29-year-old man w...

  12. Lymphocyte transformation studies in drug hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, R J; Tse, K S

    1979-05-05

    In a group of patients with clinically diagnosed drug hypersensitivity the in vitro lymphocyte response to the suspected drug was assessed by the lymphocyte transformation test. The test gave positive results in all 15 patients with penicillin-induced immediate or accelerated allergic reactions and positive immediate skin-test reactivity to the major or the minor antigenic determinant of penicillin, or both, but in only 3 of the 12 patients with delayed-onset maculopapular rashes induced by penicillin, despite positive immediate reactivity to the skin-test reagents.Lymphocyte stimulation greater than five times the control level was demonstrated for five patients with penicillin-induced erythroderma, Stevens-Johnson syndrome or a serum-sickness-like illness, or with methicillin-induced interstitial nephritis, all of whom had negative reactions to the appropriate skin-test reagents. A low level of stimulation was seen in eight other skin-test-negative patients with possible allergic reactions induced by penicillins. However, in all subjects tested the stimulation was significantly greater than the mean for control subjects.For 9 of 11 patients with isoniazid-induced hepatitis or maculopapular rashes, but for only 8 of 31 patients with eruptions induced by a variety of drugs other than penicillins and isoniazid, significant stimulation occurred in the lymphocyte transformation test.It is concluded that the lymphocyte transformation test is useful in the detection of hypersensitivity to the penicillins (although in IgE-mediated reactions skin testing is clearly preferable) and isoniazid but is of limited value in the demonstration of hypersensitivity to other drugs.

  13. Ionizing radiation selectively reduces skin regulatory T cells and alters immune function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhou

    Full Text Available The skin serves multiple functions that are critical for life. The protection from pathogens is achieved by a complicated interaction between aggressive effectors and controlling functions that limit damage. Inhomogeneous radiation with limited penetration is used in certain types of therapeutics and is experienced with exposure to solar particle events outside the protection of the Earth's magnetic field. This study explores the effect of ionizing radiation on skin immune function. We demonstrate that radiation, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous, induces inflammation with resultant specific loss of regulatory T cells from the skin. This results in a hyper-responsive state with increased delayed type hypersensitivity in vivo and CD4+ T cell proliferation in vitro. The effects of inhomogeneous radiation to the skin of astronauts or as part of a therapeutic approach could result in an unexpected enhancement in skin immune function. The effects of this need to be considered in the design of radiation therapy protocols and in the development of countermeasures for extended space travel.

  14. Ionizing Radiation Selectively Reduces Skin Regulatory T Cells and Alters Immune Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Ni, Houping; Balint, Klara; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Dentchev, Tzvete; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Cengel, Keith A.; Weissman, Drew

    2014-01-01

    The skin serves multiple functions that are critical for life. The protection from pathogens is achieved by a complicated interaction between aggressive effectors and controlling functions that limit damage. Inhomogeneous radiation with limited penetration is used in certain types of therapeutics and is experienced with exposure to solar particle events outside the protection of the Earth’s magnetic field. This study explores the effect of ionizing radiation on skin immune function. We demonstrate that radiation, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous, induces inflammation with resultant specific loss of regulatory T cells from the skin. This results in a hyper-responsive state with increased delayed type hypersensitivity in vivo and CD4+ T cell proliferation in vitro. The effects of inhomogeneous radiation to the skin of astronauts or as part of a therapeutic approach could result in an unexpected enhancement in skin immune function. The effects of this need to be considered in the design of radiation therapy protocols and in the development of countermeasures for extended space travel. PMID:24959865

  15. ESAT-6/CFP10 skin test predicts disease in M. tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldingh, Karin; Andersen, Peter

    2008-04-23

    Targeted preventive chemotherapy of individuals with progressive subclinical (incipient) disease before it becomes contagious would break the chain of tuberculosis transmission in high endemic regions. We have studied the ability of a skin test response to ESAT-6 and CFP10 (E6/C10) to predict later development of tuberculosis disease in the guinea pig model. Guinea pigs, either vaccinated with BCG or unvaccinated, were infected with a low dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the aerosol route and the development of delayed type hypersensitivity responses to E6/C10 and to purified protein derivative (PPD) were followed until the onset of clinical disease. We demonstrated a negative correlation between the size of the skin test response and the time to the onset of clinical disease; a large E6/C10 skin test response correlated to a shorter survival time post skin testing, while a small E6/C10 skin test reaction correlated with a longer survival time (r = -0.6 and Pskin test based on E6/C10 that will allow the identification of individuals with incipient disease, who have the highest risk of developing active tuberculosis in the near future.

  16. Carboplatin hypersensitivity: evaluation and successful desensitization protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchim, Ilan; Goldberg, Arnon; Fishman, Ami; Confino-Cohen, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    Carboplatin-induced immediate hypersensitivity reactions are relatively common among patients with gynecological malignancies. Once this occurs, the patient might be at risk for future carboplatin-induced reactions. This study evaluated the efficacy of allergic consultation, carboplatin skin testing and desensitization as a single intervention strategy in this population. Patients with a well-documented immediate reaction to carboplatin were offered allergy consultation, carboplatin skin testing and a desensitization plan in a single visit between scheduled chemotherapy sessions. Fifty-five patients with an immediate reaction were evaluated. After allergist assessment, 44 (89%) of 49 patients skin tested had a positive result. A total of 207 carboplatin desensitization cycles were administered to 49 women. Among them, 10 patients had a mild immediate hypersensitivity reaction during desensitization. Five patients subsequently tolerated carboplatin administered in the prolonged desensitization protocol. In the data presented, we propose a strategy that is both cost effective and very convenient for the patient. The diagnostic procedure, including allergist consultation and skin test, can be completed in less than 2 h. In most cases where carboplatin is indispensable, desensitization can be administered without overnight hospitalization.

  17. Culicoides obsoletus allergens for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meide, van der N.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    AInsect Bite Hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common skin allergy in horses and involves a Type I (IgE mediated) hypersensitivity reaction against bites of insects, mainly of the Culicoides species. Welfare of affected horses is seriously reduced and no fully curative treatment is yet available. F

  18. Clinical evaluation of MPT-64 and MPT-59, two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for skin test reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T; Jensen, B N; Ravn, P;

    1996-01-01

    SETTING: Department of Pulmonary Medicine P, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MPT-64 and MPT-59 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions following intradermal administration. DESIGN......: In a small scale clinical investigation, skin reactions to these antigens were compared to reactions to tuberculin PPD RT23 in 1) patients with active tuberculosis, 2) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects with close contact with tuberculous patients, and 3) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects without contact...... with tuberculous patients. Tests for in vitro reactivity to these antigens were carried out in similar groups. RESULTS: All subjects gave positive reaction to tuberculin PPD RT23, whereas approximately half of the subjects in each of the three groups reacted to MPT-59. Two subjects (one patient with tuberculosis...

  19. Hypersensitivity to Suture Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity to suture anchor is extremely rare. Herein, we present a case in which hypersensitivity to suture anchor was strongly suspected. The right rotator cuff of a 50-year-old woman was repaired with a metal suture anchor. Three weeks after the surgery, she developed erythema around her face, trunk, and hands, accompanied by itching. Infection was unlikely because no abnormalities were detected by blood testing or by medical examination. Suspicious of a metallic allergy, a dermatologist performed a patch testing 6 months after the first surgery. The patient had negative reactions to tests for titanium, aluminum, and vanadium, which were the principal components of the suture anchor. The anchor was removed 7 months after the first surgery, and the erythema disappeared immediately. When allergic symptoms occur and persist after the use of a metal anchor, removal should be considered as a treatment option even if the patch test result is negative.

  20. Natural Rubber Latex Hypersensitivity: Incidence and Prevalence of Type I Allergy in the Dental Professional

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HAMANN, CURTIS P; TURJANMAA, KRISTIINA; RIETSCHEL, ROBERT; SIEW, CHAKWAN; OWENSBY, DAVID; GRUNINGER, STEPHEN E; SULLIVAN, KIM M

    1998-01-01

    The authors investigated the prevalence of immediate (Type I) hypersensitivity to gloves made from natural rubber latex, or NRL, by performing skin-prick tests on 2,166 dental workers over the course of a two-year period...

  1. Equine insect bite hypersensitivity : Pathogenesis, diagnosis and immunomodulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, C.

    2016-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a seasonal allergic dermatitis primarily caused by Culicoides midges like C. obsoletus. The welfare of IBH-affected horses is compromised due to severe itch with secondary dermatitis and skin infections. Similar to most allergies, IBH can only be controlled rath

  2. Experimental inhalation of fragrance allergens in predisposed subjects: effects on skin and airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnuch, A; Oppel, E; Oppel, T; Römmelt, H; Kramer, M; Riu, E; Darsow, U; Przybilla, B; Nowak, D; Jörres, R A

    2010-03-01

    Exposure to fragrances is increasingly encountered in the environment. Some fragrances are known to be important skin and potential airway sensitizers. We investigated whether patients with contact allergy to isoeugenol (ISO) or hydroxyisohexyl-3-carboxaldehyde (HICC) would react to inhalation exposure at the level of the airways and skin. Eleven patients sensitized to ISO and 10 patients sensitized to HICC were exposed for 60 min to 1000 microg m(-3) of these compounds in an exposure chamber at rest, and to geraniol 1000 microg m(-3) as a control. Patients wore protective clothing to prevent skin exposure. Assessments were performed prior to exposure, and immediately, 2, 5, 24 and 72 h afterwards. There were no significant changes in lung function but a tendency towards an increased bronchial hyper-responsiveness after exposure to any of the compounds. Laboratory parameters of inflammation did not indicate responses. Single patients reported respiratory symptoms unrelated to objective measures. In contrast, the observed skin symptoms corresponded to the patients' specific sensitization. Four patients reported symptoms compatible with delayed-type hypersensitivity, and two demonstrated a flare after ISO. On re-exposure they did not respond to a lower, more realistic level of ISO. Inhalation of high concentrations of fragrance contact allergens apparently poses a risk for some patients of developing manifest haematogenic contact dermatitis, while the changes in the respiratory tract are limited to symptoms in some subjects without objective changes.

  3. Laryngeal hypersensitivity in chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J H; Menon, A

    2015-12-01

    Patients with chronic cough often report symptoms arising in the throat, in response to non-specific stimuli. Accordingly, the concept of a 'hypersensitivity' of the larynx in chronic cough has evolved over the past ten years. Patients with cough and laryngeal hypersensitivity frequently report features that overlap other laryngeal dysfunction syndromes, including a tendency for the vocal cords to inappropriately adduct. The mechanisms underlying laryngeal hypersensitivity in chronic cough are currently unclear, however recent studies provide new clinical and physiological techniques to aid detection and monitoring of laryngeal hypersensitivity. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge in this field.

  4. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos AC; Gimenez, Andréa; Kuranishi, Lilian; Storrer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP) is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. PMID:27703382

  5. Hypersensitivity to antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouri, Alireza A; Bahna, Sami L

    2013-01-01

    Antihistamines are the cornerstone of allergy therapy and are not expected to cause hypersensitivity reactions. We describe two cases, one had urticaria to multiple anti-H1-preparations and the other had anaphylaxis to hydroxyzine. We also provide a review of the English literature on reported reactions regarding causative preparations and manifestations. The latter showed a wide range; most commonly urticaria/angioedema, contact dermatitis, anaphylaxis, and fixed drug eruption (FDE). Most reported cases were young to middle age adults, with apparent predilection to female subjects. The onset of reactions varied from a few minutes for anaphylaxis and urticaria/angioedema, several hours for maculopapular rashes, or longer for contact dermatitis and FDE. Almost all antihistamines have been reported as causing reactions; cetirizine was the most common oral preparation followed by its parent drug, hydroxyzine. Doxepin cream was the most commonly implicated topical preparation in causing contact dermatitis. A causal relationship is often difficult to recognize because the reaction may be similar to the disease being treated with that antihistamine preparation. Reactions to one preparation are likely to occur, but not always, to other members of the same class. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion and may be verified by challenge testing. Except for patch testing in contact dermatitis or fixed eruption, other tests have not shown optimal reliability. In most cases, challenge testing with multiple preparations would identify one or more preparations that can be tolerated. Although hypersensitivity to antihistamines seems to be very rare, awareness of the problem would reduce its misdiagnosis.

  6. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira CA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos AC Pereira,1 Andréa Gimenez,2 Lilian Kuranishi,2 Karin Storrer 2 1Interstitial Lung Diseases Program, 2Pulmonology Postgraduate, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. Keywords: interstitial lung diseases, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, diffuse lung disease, lung immune response, HRCT, farmers lung

  7. The effect of selenium supplementation on DTH skin responses in healthy North American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Wayne Chris; Hwang, Amie; Alkan, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    The trace element selenium (Se) is essential for immune system development and function in animals. However, the exact functions of Se in the human immune system and the achievable health benefits from Se supplementation remain unclear. To test whether an increased intake of dietary Se affects immune function, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial of Se supplementation in healthy free-living men. Forty-two men were administered 300microg of Se a day as high-Se Baker's yeast, or low-Se yeast for 48 weeks. Serum immunoglobulins, differential complete blood counts and lymphocyte sub-populations were measured every 6 weeks. Tests of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin responses to mumps, candida, trychophyton, tuberculin-purified protein, and tetanus were performed at baseline and at the end of 48 weeks of treatment. Supplementation increased blood Se concentration by 50%. Surprisingly, consumption of the low-Se yeast induced anergy in DTH skin responses and increased counts of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes expressing both subunits of the high affinity interleukin-2 receptor (IL2R). DTH skin responses and IL2R+ cells did not change in the high-Se group, suggesting Se supplementation blocked induction of DTH anergy. There were no differences between groups in quality of life indicators, number of days sick, other leukocyte phenotypes, serum immunoglobulins, or complement factors. These results suggest that Se plays a role in immunotolerization, a cell-mediated process involved in many aspects of immune function.

  8. STUDIES ON HYPERSENSITIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, P. G. H.; Benacerraf, B.

    1961-01-01

    In earlier observations with the picryl system, it was concluded that contact sensitivity was a form of delayed (cellular) hypersensitivity to conjugates of sensitizer with autologous proteins indistinguishable in its immunological mechanism from other classical forms of delayed hypersensitivity to proteins. This conclusion has been confirmed and extended with the picryl and chlorbenzoyl chloride systems. 1. It is shown that to induce a state of contact sensitivity, the minimal necessary amounts of hapten are of the same order of magnitude, whether this hapten is conjugated with protein or the free reactive chemical itself. From this, it is evident that contamination of conjugates with small amounts of unreacted sensitizer plays no part in the induction of contact reactivity by the conjugate. With the dinitrophenyl system, no contact sensitivity could be induced by the conjugates used; possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. 2. Animals sensitized to contact by homologous conjugate can be completely desensitized by injections of such a conjugate in large amount; a similar injection schedule has no effect on the contact sensitivity of animals sensitized with the free reactive sensitizer. 3. The capacity of heterologous (ovalbumin) conjugates to evoke anti-hapten antibodies is shown to be greater than that of homologous (guinea pig seralbumin) conjugates: the reverse is true of their capacity to induce delayed reactivity. 4. Evidence is brought forward to suggest that in animals sensitized with homologous albumin conjugates, the specificity of the delayed reaction involves more than the hapten alone, even though the carrier protein is non-antigenic on its own. The contrast with the apparent lesser specificity of the antibodies later produced is discussed. PMID:13704282

  9. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and skin inflammation by the aerial parts of Artemisia capillaris and its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Song; Choi, Jae Sue; Islam, Md Nurul; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2011-09-01

    The aerial parts of Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Compositae) have been used in Chinese medicine as a liver protective agent, diuretic, and for amelioration of skin inflammatory conditions. This study was conducted to establish the scientific rationale for treating skin inflammation and to find active principles from A. capillaris. To accomplish these goals, the 70% ethanol extract of the aerial parts of A. capillaris (AR) was prepared and its 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitory action was studied since 5-LOX products are known to be involved in several allergic and skin inflammatory disorders. AR showed potent inhibitory activity against 5-LOX-catalyzed leukotriene production by ionophore-induced rat basophilic leukemia-1 cells, with an IC(50) of scopolin, scoparone, esculetin, quercetin, capillarisin, isorhamnetin, 3-O-robinobioside, isorhamnetin 3-O-galactoside and chlorogenic acid, were isolated from A. capillaris, and their effects were examined to identify the active principle(s). Several coumarin and flavonoid derivatives were found to be 5-LOX inhibitors. In particular, esculetin and quercetin were potent inhibitors, with IC(50) values of 6.6 and 0.7 μM, respectively. Against arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in mice, AR, and esculetin strongly inhibited edematic response. AR and esculetin also inhibited delayed-type hypersensitivity response in mice. In conclusion, AR and some of their major constituents are 5-LOX inhibitors, and these in vitro and in vivo activities may contribute to the therapeutic potential of AR in skin inflammatory disorders in traditional medicine.

  10. Hypersensitive prostaglandin and thromboxane response to hormones in rabbit colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipser, R.D.; Patterson, J.B.; Kao, H.W.; Hauser, C.J.; Locke, R.

    1985-10-01

    Inflammation of the colon is associated with increased production of prostaglandins (PG) and thromboxanes (Tx), and these eicosanoids may contribute to the inflammatory, secretory, and motility dysfunctions in colitis. To evaluate the potential role of peptide hormones in the enhanced eicosanoid release, colitis was established in rabbits by a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to dinitrochlorobenzene and by an immune-complex-mediated reaction. PG and Tx were identified in the venous effluent of isolated perfused colons by radiochromatography after ( UC)arachidonic acid prelabeling, as well as by bioassay, and then quantitated by immunoassay. The two colitis models were morphologically similar. Basal release of PGE2, PGI2, and TxA2 was two- to threefold greater from colitis tissue than from control tissue. Bradykinin (BK) and angiotensin II (ANG II) increased release of UC-labeled eicosanoids, whereas several gastrointestinal hormones had no effect. In control colons, BK and ANG II increased PGE2 and PGI2 release (by about 2-fold) but did not alter TxA2. In contrast, BK and ANG II markedly exaggerated the release of eicosanoids in colitis. Since BK and possibly ANG II are increased at sites of inflammation, the hypersensitive eicosanoid response to these peptides may augment the eicosanoid-mediated manifestations of colitis.

  11. Anti-RANKL treatment inhibits erosive joint destruction and lowers inflammation but has no effect on bone formation in the delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis (DTHA) model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkinson, Sara Marie; Bleil, Janine; Maier, Rene;

    2016-01-01

    . Periarticular bone formation was observed from day 10. Induction of new bone formation indicated by enhanced Runx2, collagen X, osteocalcin, MMP2, MMP9, and MMP13 mRNA expression was observed only between days 8 and 11. Anti-RANKL treatment resulted in a modest reduction in paw and ankle swelling...

  12. MnSOD polymorphisms in sensitized patients with delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to the chemical allergen para-phenylene diamine : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickel, H; Bruckner, T; Coenraads, PJ; Heesen, M; Merka, HF; Blomeke, B

    2005-01-01

    Dyes such as para-phenylene diamine (PPD) or related para-compounds are very common contact sensitizers in man. The corresponding contact dermatitis in sensitized individuals is a complex and common illness associated with considerable morbidity and social cost. It has been found that oxidative

  13. MHC and non-MHC genes regulate elimination of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocyte and delayed-type hypersensitivity mediating T lymphocyte activity in parallel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Marker, O

    1989-01-01

    The course of systemic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was studied in mouse strains differing in the MHC or non-MHC background. Virus clearance rates differed significantly between H-2 identical strains as well as between congenic strains differing in the H-2L subregion, indicat......The course of systemic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was studied in mouse strains differing in the MHC or non-MHC background. Virus clearance rates differed significantly between H-2 identical strains as well as between congenic strains differing in the H-2L subregion...

  14. Contaminant-related suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody responses in harbor seals fed herring from the Baltic Sea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Ross (Peter); R.L. de Swart (Rik); P.J.H. Reijnders; H. van Loveren (Henk); J.G. Vos (Joseph); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractRecent mass mortalities among several marine mammal populations have led to speculation about increased susceptibility to viral infections as a result of contaminant-induced immunosuppression. In a 2.5-year study, we fed herring from either the relatively uncontaminated Atlantic Ocean or

  15. Clinical importance of carbapenem hypersensitivity in patients with self-reported and documented penicillin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, William A; Kusmierski, Kristen A

    2007-01-01

    The risk of carbapenem hypersensitivity in patients with self-reported or documented penicillin allergy needs to be determined so that practitioners can make better-informed decisions regarding antibiotic therapy for this patient population. The risk of cross-reactivity between penicillin and carbapenem antibiotics initially was reported to approach 50%. Recent retrospective studies have suggested that the clinical risk of cross-hypersensitivity between these two drug classes is 9.2-11%, which is significantly lower than initially reported. Patients whose history of penicillin allergy is self-reported and is not type 1 may be at moderate risk for hypersensitivity when treated with a carbapenem antibiotic. The risk of hypersensitivity appears to be higher in patients whose penicillin allergy was documented by a health care provider, those with several antibiotic allergies, and those with a positive penicillin skin test result or a history of type 1 penicillin hypersensitivity.

  16. Absolute eosinophilia as dapsone hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somani V

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of lepromatous leprosy (LL on multibacillary multidrug therapy (MBMDT presented with oedema of the acral parts and marked eosinophilia. The case is being reported because of this extremely rare manifestation of dapsone hypersensitivity.

  17. Metal Hypersensitivity in Orthodontic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Maheshwari Sanjeev K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment of individuals with metal hypersensitivity is a matter of concern for the orthodontist. Orthodontic appliances contain metals like Nickel, Cobalt and Chromium etc. Metals may cause allergic reactions and are known as allergens. Reaction to these metals is due to biodegradation of metals in the oral cavity. This may lead to the formation of corrosion products and their exposure to the patient. Nickel is the most common metal to cause hypersensitivity reaction. Chromium ranks second among the metals, known to trigger allergic reactions. The adverse biological reactions to these metals may include hypersensitivity, dermatitis and asthma. In addition, a significant carcinogenic and mutagenic potential has been demonstrated. The orthodontist must be familiar with the best possible alternative treatment modalities to provide the safest, most effective care possible in these cases. The present article focuses on the issue of metal hypersensitivity and its management in orthodontic

  18. Evaluation of delayed hypersensitivity: from PPD to poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstreich, D L

    1993-01-01

    Intact cell mediated immunity (CMI) requires a complex interaction between lymphocytes, macrophages, and cytokines. The presence of functional CMI can be easily tested in vivo by delayed hypersensitivity (DTH) skin testing. Delayed hypersensitivity skin testing has been commonly used in three ways; anergy screening, testing for infection with intracellular pathogens, and testing for sensitivity to contact allergens. Accurate anergy screening requires intradermal testing with four or more common recall antigens such as Candida albicans, tetanus toxoid, mumps, and purified protein derivative. Problems of antigen potency and availability can be overcome by using a multiple time test-like device that contains seven different recall antigens (Multitest CMI). Although testing for infection was once common, it is now only recommended for tuberculosis screening because most other antigens are either not predictive of infection or not commercially available. Accurate testing for contact allergy requires careful attention to technique, and limitation of allergens to the 20 antigens that are approved by the American Academy of Dermatology.

  19. Ranitidine prevents postoperative transfusion-induced depression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F;

    1989-01-01

    The influence of perioperative blood transfusion on postoperative depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and the effect of ranitidine on transfusion-induced changes in postoperative CMI were investigated. CMI was assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common...... ranitidine, 50 mg intravenously every 6 hours for 72 hours, received perioperative blood transfusion. Eleven of these patients could be matched to 11 transfused patients not receiving perioperative ranitidine. Ranitidine prevented postoperative reduction in skin test response (+6% vs -55%, p less than 0.......0001). It is concluded that perioperative transfusion with whole blood amplifies the postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity and that transfusion-induced postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity may be prevented by perioperative ranitidine treatment....

  20. Hypersensitivity Vasculitis with Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis Associated with Alpha-1-Proteinase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola W. Mwirigi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolastin is a commercially available form of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT that is derived from pooled human plasma and used for treatment of severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD. We describe a patient with AATD who developed presumed hypersensitivity vasculitis (HV following a Prolastin infusion. Hypersensitivity vasculitis (HV, or cutaneous vasculitis, is characterized by inflammation of the small vessels of the skin with resultant ischemia to the distally supplied areas. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of presumed hypersensitivity vasculitis following Prolastin infusion.

  1. Hypersensitivity to Parietaria officinalis pollen in newcomers to the area with the plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanović, S; Marusić, M; Juricić, M; Vrdoljak, E; Petrovecki, M; Rozga, A; Stavljenić-Rukavina, A

    1993-11-01

    Hypersensitivity to Parietaria officinalis (wall pellitory) pollen and other environmental allergens was studied in pollinosis patients allergic to P. officinalis pollen who were born in areas without P. officinalis and later moved to the city of Split, where P. officinalis is responsible for some 65% of pollinosis cases. Highly significant positive correlations were found for both the intensity of skin test reaction and concentration of specific serum IgE with the length of residence in the area. In contrast, the respective data on subjects hypersensitive to P. officinalis pollen allergen, but born and living in the area of Split, revealed a tendency to negative correlation between age and intensity of hypersensitivity to P. officinalis. A number of patients from both groups were tested for presence of serum IgE antibodies specific for 14 common environmental allergens. Hypersensitivity to P. officinalis pollen was associated with hypersensitivity to olive, mugwort, and birch pollen in newcomers; hypersensitivity to birch and, to some extent, olive pollen was significantly more frequent in newcomers than in autochthonous patients who were allergic to P. officinalis pollen. Regardless of whether the patients were autochthons or newcomers to the area with P. officinalis, hypersensitivity to P. officinalis mostly excluded hypersensitivity to Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus, and vice versa.

  2. Hypersensitivity reactions and contrast medium injection: Are they always related?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany); Alfke, Heiko [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Luedenscheid, Luedenscheid (Germany); Klose, Klaus Jochen [Department of Radiology, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Background: Hypersensitivity (allergic or non-allergic) reactions that occur after contrast medium (CM) injection are usually related to the CM. Recent studies, and case reports lack the analysis of alternate causes that could be also responsible in individual cases. Patients and methods: We investigated the individual relevant factor/causative agent of adult patients with hypersensitivity reactions that occurred in radiological units during CM-enhanced procedures (CT, angiography, urography, or MR-examinations). Both immediate and non-immediate (delayed) reactions were included. To find out the relevant agent a detailed patients' history was carefully analyzed. In addition, the records were retrospectively reviewed, and if indicated and possible laboratory (e.g. basophil activation test) and skin tests (e.g. prick) and/or provocations with CM-injections under routine conditions were performed. Results: 38 patients (men n = 21) suspected for CM-hypersensitivity reactions were identified. These reactions were in most cases mild (n = 21), moderate reactions occurred in 13 cases, and four patients had severe reactions. In 28 patients the reactions were induced by the CM (iodinated CM in 25 cases). Four patients had reactions that were not CM-related (latex allergy, adenosine reaction, vasovagal reaction, unknown cause) and in six cases the reaction was partly CM-related (immunological activation was present due to the patients' diseases). Conclusion: Our data support the hypothesis that in CM-enhanced procedures not only contrast materials but also a broad range of other factors may also induce hypersensitivity reactions. Therefore, the number of CM-induced hypersensitivity is smaller than initially suspected. The knowledge of the cause of a reaction is essential to effectively prevent its recurrence and to improve safety aspects in patients undergoing CM-injection. Larger trials should be performed to more specifically assess alternate causes in patients

  3. The diagnostic accuracy of the atopy patch test in diagnosing hypersensitivity to cow's milk and hen's egg in unselected children with and without atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, Morten; Andersen, Klaus E; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that the atopy patch test (APT) may make oral challenge superfluous in diagnosing children with food hypersensitivity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical relevance of APT in predicting hypersensitivity to cow's milk and hen's egg in 486 unselected...... children 3 years of age. METHOD: The children were examined by APT, skin prick (SPT), histamine release (HR), and specific IgE followed by oral challenge when hypersensitivity to cow's milk or hen's egg was suspected. RESULTS: Food hypersensitivity confirmed by oral challenge was 1.6% to hen's egg and 0.......6% to cow's milk. No hypersensitivity to cow's milk or hen's egg was predicted by APT alone. CONCLUSION: APT could not predict food hypersensitivity not predicted by SPT, HR, or specific IgE. Thus, APT cannot be recommended in daily practice for the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to cow's milk and hen's egg...

  4. Hypersensitivity reaction with deferasirox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemias comprise a group of hereditary blood disorders. Thalassemia major presents with anemia within the first 2 years of life requiring frequent blood transfusions for sustaining life. Regular blood transfusions lead to iron overload-related complications. Prognosis of thalassemia has improved because of the availability of iron-chelating agents. Oral iron chelators are the mainstay of chelation therapy. Deferasirox is a new-generation oral iron chelator for once daily usage. We herein describe a patient of beta thalassemia major who developed an allergic manifestation in the form of erythematous pruritic skin rashes to the oral iron chelator deferasirox. This is a rare adverse reaction reported with deferasirox that led to a therapeutic dilemma in this particular case.

  5. Hypersensitivity reaction with deferasirox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Atul; Arora, Ekta; Singh, Harmanjit

    2015-01-01

    Thalassemias comprise a group of hereditary blood disorders. Thalassemia major presents with anemia within the first 2 years of life requiring frequent blood transfusions for sustaining life. Regular blood transfusions lead to iron overload-related complications. Prognosis of thalassemia has improved because of the availability of iron-chelating agents. Oral iron chelators are the mainstay of chelation therapy. Deferasirox is a new-generation oral iron chelator for once daily usage. We herein describe a patient of beta thalassemia major who developed an allergic manifestation in the form of erythematous pruritic skin rashes to the oral iron chelator deferasirox. This is a rare adverse reaction reported with deferasirox that led to a therapeutic dilemma in this particular case.

  6. Linezolid desensitization for a patient with multiple medication hypersensitivity reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Autumn D; Stollings, Joanna L; White, Katie D; Fadugba, Olajumoke O; Choi, Jane J

    2013-01-01

    To describe a case in which a linezolid desensitization protocol was successfully used for a polymicrobial surgical wound infection in a patient with multiple drug hypersensitivity reactions. A 24-year-old woman with vocal cord dysfunction requiring tracheostomy was admitted for a surgical wound infection following a tracheostomy fistula closure procedure. The patient reported multiple antibiotic allergies including penicillins (rash), sulfonamides (rash), vancomycin (anaphylaxis), azithromycin (rash), cephalosporins (anaphylaxis), levofloxacin (unspecified), clindamycin (unspecified), and carbapenems (unspecified). Gram stain of the purulent wound drainage demonstrated mixed gram-negative and gram-positive flora, and bacterial cultures were overgrown with Proteus mirabilis, which precluded identification of other pathogens. Following failed test doses of linezolid, tigecycline, and daptomycin, all of which resulted in hypersensitivity reactions, a 16-step linezolid desensitization protocol was developed and successfully implemented without adverse reactions. The patient completed a 2-week course of antibiotic therapy that included linezolid upon finishing the desensitization protocol. Linezolid is useful in treating complicated and uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. With precautions, including premedication, a monitored nursing unit, and immediate availability of an emergency anaphylaxis kit, drug desensitization allows patients the ability to safely use medications to which they may have an immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Minimal data exist on linezolid desensitization protocols. Linezolid desensitization can be a viable option in patients requiring antimicrobial therapy for complicated gram-positive skin infections.

  7. Hypersensitivity and the Working Environment for Allergy Nurses in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Kalm-Stephens

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allergy nurses are exposed to allergens and respiratory irritants, and there are no national guidelines addressing personnel safety when working with these agents. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of allergies, asthma, and hypersensitivity symptoms among allergy nurses and the use of protective equipment and measures when working with allergen concentrates and respiratory irritants. Methods. A questionnaire survey was performed among the members of the Swedish Association of Allergy Nurses. Results. Diagnosed asthma was reported by 17%, while 18% had allergy to pets, 28% had allergy to pollens, and 26% reported nasal symptoms. Fifty-one percent reported a history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms in their family. Exhaust ventilation was used by 24% during skin prick tests, 17% during allergen specific immunotherapy, and 33% when performing methacholine challenge tests. Tightly closed containers for disposable waste were used by 58% during skin prick tests, by 60% during immunotherapy, and by 40% during Pc provocation tests. Conclusion. Allergy nurses had a tendency to increased prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms, asthma, and allergic rhinitis and more than half of the nurses had a family history of asthma, allergic diseases, or hypersensitivity symptoms. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the validity of these results.

  8. Nevirapine patch testing in Thai human immunodeficiency virus infected patients with nevirapine drug hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertvit, Piyatida; Chareonyingwattana, Angkana; Wattanakrai, Penpun

    2017-08-06

    Antiretroviral drug hypersensitivity in HIV patients is common. Publications have shown that Abacavir (ABC) patch testing is useful in confirming ABC hypersensitivity in 24-50% of cases with a 100% sensitivity of HLA-B*5701 in patch test positive cases. However, Nevirapine (NVP) patch testing has not been reported. (1) To evaluate the usefulness and safety of NVP patch testing in Thai HIV patients with NVP hypersensitivity. (2) To assess the correlation of positive patch tests with HLA-B*3505. Patients were classified into two groups: (1) study group of 20 HIV NVP hypersensitivity patients and (2) control group of 15 volunteers without NVP hypersensitivity. Both groups were patch tested with purified and commercialized form of NVP in various vehicles. Two HIV patients with NVP hypersensitivity were patch test positive. All controls tested negative. Three HIV patients were positive for HLA-B*3505 and the two patients with positive patch testing were both HLA-B*3505 positive. NVP patch testing in Thai HIV patients is safe and can be used to help confirm the association between NVP and hypersensitivity skin reactions. NVP patch test results significantly correlated with HLA-B*3505. The sensitivity of HLA-B*3505 for positive patch test was 100%. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Central hypersensitivity in chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-05-01

    Clinical research has consistently detected alteration in central pain processing leading to hypersensitivity. Most methods used in humans are reliable and have face validity to detect widespread central hypersensitivity. However, construct validity is difficult to investigate due to lack of gold standards. Reference values in the pain-free population have been generated, but need replication. Research on pain biomarkers that reflect specific central hypersensitivity processes is warranted. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic value of central hypersensitivity. Most medications acting at central level and some non-pharmacological approaches, including psychological interventions, are likely to attenuate central hypersensitivity.

  10. Central hypersensitivity in chronic musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Clinical research has consistently detected alteration in central pain processing leading to hypersensitivity. Most methods used in humans are reliable and have face validity to detect widespread central hypersensitivity. However, construct validity is difficult to investigate due to lack of gold...... standards. Reference values in the pain-free population have been generated, but need replication. Research on pain biomarkers that reflect specific central hypersensitivity processes is warranted. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic value of central hypersensitivity. Most medications acting at central...... level and some non-pharmacological approaches, including psychological interventions, are likely to attenuate central hypersensitivity....

  11. Food hypersensitivity in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medleau, L; Latimer, K S; Duncan, J R

    1986-09-15

    Food hypersensitivity was diagnosed in a 4-year-old Siamese cat. Clinical signs included intense erythema, with alopecia, excoriations, erosions, and crusts involving the ventral portion of the abdomen, inguinal region, medial aspect of each thigh, and cranial and lateral aspects of all 4 limbs. The cat was intensely pruritic. Histologically, there was cutaneous mast cell hyperplasia and diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the dermis. Blood eosinophilia also was found. Clinical signs resolved after exclusive feeding of a hypoallergenic diet.

  12. Carbamazepine induced anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shwetha Shivamurthy; Ravishankar Manchukonda

    2015-01-01

    Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) is a potentially fatal drug-induced, multi-organ syndrome. The syndrome has been reported with anticonvulsants such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbitone, and lamotrigine. A 17-year-old female who presented with papules and desquamation all over was diagnosed with AHS. She gave a history of fever, earache, peripheral edema, and erythematous papular eruptions 3 days prior. She gave a history of carbamazepine treatment since 15 days for gener...

  13. Ibuprofen-induced hypersensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanau, Radu M; Neuman, Manuela G

    2010-06-01

    Ibuprofen is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID). With the aging of the population, there will be a significant increase in the prevalence of painful degenerative and inflammatory rheumatic conditions. This increase likely will lead to a parallel increase in the use of NSAIDs, including ibuprofen. The primary effect of the NSAIDs is to inhibit cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin synthase), thereby impairing the ultimate transformation of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, prostacyclin, and thromboxanes. Although in the majority of cases it is safe, this NSAID, ibuprofen, can produce an unpredictable, idiosyncratic, type B reaction that may pose a major concern in clinical practice. Type B reactions are known to occur in susceptible individuals. The true hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) is a systemic disease defined by the triad of fever, rash, and internal organ involvement that starts 1 day to 12 weeks after the initiation of therapy. HSR has limited the therapeutic use of many drugs, including ibuprofen. Hypersensitivity syndrome associated with ibuprofen is a host-dependent drug reaction that is idiosyncratic in nature. This reaction likely is caused by a combination of metabolic and immunologic factors. Immune mediated components, such as T-cell and their products cytokines and chemokines, can exacerbate cellular responses and create complex pathways that lead to a variety of clinical manifestations. Our review presents an ibuprofen-induced clinical manifestation of hypersensitivity syndrome and the necessity of wisely monitoring the patients clinically and by laboratory investigations when prescribing this drug.

  14. Climate hypersensitivity to solar forcing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Soon

    Full Text Available We compare the equilibrium climate responses of a quasi-dynamical energy balance model to radiative forcing by equivalent changes in CO2, solar total irradiance (Stot and solar UV (SUV. The response is largest in the SUV case, in which the imposed UV radiative forcing is preferentially absorbed in the layer above 250 mb, in contrast to the weak response from global-columnar radiative loading by increases in CO2 or Stot. The hypersensitive response of the climate system to solar UV forcing is caused by strongly coupled feedback involving vertical static stability, tropical thick cirrus ice clouds and stratospheric ozone. This mechanism offers a plausible explanation of the apparent hypersensitivity of climate to solar forcing, as suggested by analyses of recent climatic records. The model hypersensitivity strongly depends on climate parameters, especially cloud radiative properties, but is effective for arguably realistic values of these parameters. The proposed solar forcing mechanism should be further confirmed using other models (e.g., general circulation models that may better capture radiative and dynamical couplings of the troposphere and stratosphere.

    Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology · general or miscellaneous · Solar physics · astrophysics · and astronomy (ultraviolet emissions

  15. Allergen-specific cytokine polarization protects shetland ponies against culicoides obsoletus-induced insect bite hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, C.; Lugt, van der J.J.; Meide, van der N.M.A.; Willemse, T.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Zaiss, D.M.W.

    2015-01-01

    The immunological mechanisms explaining development of an allergy in some individuals and not in others remain incompletely understood. Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a common, seasonal, IgE-mediated, pruritic skin disorder that affects considerable proportions of horses of different breeds,

  16. Risk factors for insect bite hypersensitivity in Friesian horses and Shetland ponies in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.; Podesta, S.C.; Ducro, B.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Frankena, K.

    2013-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an equine skin allergy caused by bites of Culicoides spp. and impacts on the welfare of affected horses. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify risk factors for IBH. Data from 3453 Friesian horse mares and 7074 Shetland pony mares scored for IBH by i

  17. Absence of cross-reactivity to carbapenems in patients with delayed hypersensitivity to penicillins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; Gaeta, F; Valluzzi, R L; Alonzi, C; Maggioletti, M; Zaffiro, A; Caruso, C; Quaratino, D

    2013-12-01

    Studies performed on subjects with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillins have demonstrated a 1% rate of cross-reactivity between penicillins and both imipenem and meropenem, while a single study found a 5.5% rate of cross-reactivity with imipenem/cilastatin in subjects with T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity to β-lactams, mostly penicillins. We studied 204 consecutive subjects with a well-demonstrated T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity to assess the cross-reactivity with carbapenems and the tolerability of such alternative β-lactams. All 204 subjects underwent skin tests with imipenem/cilastatin and meropenem; 130 of them were skin-tested also with ertapenem. Subjects with negative test results were challenged with these carbapenems. All subjects displayed negative skin tests to carbapenems and tolerated challenges. These data demonstrate the absence of clinically significant T-cell-mediated cross-reactivity between penicillins and carbapenems. Negative delayed-reading skin testing with carbapenems in individuals with documented T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillins correlates well with subsequent clinical tolerance of therapeutic doses of carbapenems.

  18. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin demonstrated in experimental leptospirosis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Johansen, K S; Bentzon, M W

    1976-01-01

    Skin reactivity to tuberculin has been studied during the course of experimental leptospirosis in guinea pigs. A depression of the delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin was demonstrated in the infected animals. The depression was most pronounced when icterus had developed. The depression...

  19. 柳叶洗眼液对豚鼠皮肤过敏性实验研究%Skin hypersensitivity experimental research of weeping willow leaf on cavia cobaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫; 邓淑凤; 齐丽荣; 秦葵; 孙晓丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 研制柳叶洗眼液并观察其对豚鼠的过敏反应,方法取新鲜柳叶,采用水提、醇沉、超滤、灭菌等工艺制成柳叶洗眼液;豚鼠30只随机分为3组,观察柳叶对豚鼠皮肤过敏实验.结果 柳叶洗眼液对豚鼠皮肤毒性实验观察期间,对豚鼠无任何皮肤过敏反应.结论 用柳叶洗眼液治疗流行性出血性结膜炎,安全无毒、效果好、易推广.%Objective To study weeping willow leaf eye lotion and observe cavia cobayas'allergic reaction. Method Taking fresh weeping willow leaf, adopting water extraction, alcohol precipitation, ultrafiltration and sterilization to made eye lotion. Selecting 30 cobayas, divided into 3 groups randomly and observed the cavia cobayas'allergic reaction. Results Willow leaves eye washing liquid showed no skin allergy to cavia cobaya by toxicity test Conclusions Willow leaves eye washing liquid can used for epidemic hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, it was safe and no toxicity, better medical, and easily extended application.

  20. Seven Steps to the Diagnosis of NSAIDs Hypersensitivity: How to Apply a New Classification in Real Practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalski, Marek L; Makowska, Joanna S

    2015-01-01

    Frequent use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been paralleled by increasing occurrence of adverse reactions, which vary from mild local skin rashes or gastric irritation to severe, generalized symptoms and even life-threatening anaphylaxis. NSAID-induced hypersensitivity reactions may involve both immunological and non-immunological mechanisms and should be differentiated from type A adverse reactions. Clinical diagnosis and effective management of a hypersensitive patien...

  1. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  2. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins and other betalactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, C; Martín, E; Cornejo-García, J A; Blanca-Lopez, N; R-Pena, R; Mayorga, C; Torres, M J; Blanca, M

    2006-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams are IgE mediated and constitute the most frequent allergic reactions mediated by specific immunological mechanisms. IgE responses to benzyl penicillin (BP), the first antibiotic producing the benzyl penicilloyl structure (BPO), are characterized by a quick release of inflammatory mediators, resulting in anaphylactic shock, urticaria and angioedema. With the progressive appearance of other structures, comprising cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams and clavulanic acid, IgE selective responses and cross-reactivity reactions were observed. The diagnosis of betalactam hypersensitivity, classically based on skin testing with major and minor determinants of benzyl penicillin or in vitro IgE antibodies to BP, has been modified by the inclusion of different determinants generated from these compounds, for which amoxicillin (AX) is the most relevant, followed by cephalosporins. Some subjects develop positive responses to several betalactams, mostly within the same family, but others develop a selective response. These are relevant for the appropriate selection of antimicrobial drugs in patients who have immediate hypersensitivity to betalactams.

  3. Immediate hypersensitivity responses in the immunopathogenesis of human onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottesen, E A

    1985-01-01

    It is not clear what role immediate hypersensitivity immune responses have in the pathogenesis of human onchocerciasis, but it is certain that these responses are prominent both in the course of natural infection and during the Mazzotti reactions that follow treatment with diethylcarbamazine. In humans, the levels of total serum IgE associated with onchocerciasis are as high or higher than those associated with almost any helminth infection, although specific IgE antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus appear to be a small and still poorly characterized fraction of the total serum IgE. Evidence about the relationship of these prominent IgE responses in patients with onchocerciasis to the onchocercal skin disease that manifests as pruritus and papular eruptions is conflicting, but in a guinea pig model of ocular pathology induced by onchocerca microfilariae evidence for the pathogenetic importance of IgE and immediate hypersensitivity is much less equivocal. The suggestive findings from this model make it imperative to carry out similar studies of Onchocerca-affected human eyes to determine whether immediate hypersensitivity responses play a similar critical role in the pathogenesis of the ocular lesions in humans.

  4. Desensitization in delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions -- an EAACI position paper of the Drug Allergy Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, K; Brockow, K; Aberer, W; Gooi, J H C; Demoly, P; Romano, A; Schnyder, B; Whitaker, P; Cernadas, J S R; Bircher, A J

    2013-07-01

    Drug hypersensitivity may deprive patients of drug therapy, and occasionally no effective alternative treatment is available. Successful desensitization has been well documented in delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions. In certain situations, such as sulfonamide hypersensitivity in HIV-positive patients or hypersensitivity to antibiotics in patients with cystic fibrosis, published success rates reach 80%, and this procedure appears helpful for the patient management. A state of clinical tolerance may be achieved by the administration of increasing doses of the previously offending drug. However, in most cases, a pre-existent sensitization has not been proven by positive skin tests. Successful re-administration may have occurred in nonsensitized patients. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of desensitization is needed. Currently, desensitization in delayed hypersensitivity reactions is restricted to mild, uncomplicated exanthems and fixed drug eruptions. The published success rates vary depending on clinical manifestations, drugs, and applied protocols. Slower protocols tend to be more effective than rush protocols; however, underreporting of unsuccessful procedures is very probable. The decision to desensitize a patient must always be made on an individual basis, balancing risks and benefits. This paper reviews the literature and presents the expert experience of the Drug Hypersensitivity Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Gelofen Induced Hypersensitivity: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nikkhah Rankohie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are drugs commonly pre-scribed in dental practice for the management of pain and swelling. But, rarely hypersensitiv-ity reactions are reported. Case Report: A 28 year old woman underwent periodontal plastic surgery (gingival graft. Postoperative analgesics (400 mg Gelofen ,oral and antibiotics were administrated for the patient. Three hours after discharge of patient, she complained of redness, itching , rapid swelling of her eyes in 10 minutes, and watery eye discharge 1 hour after taking the drugs. She was treated with 8mg/2ml mg Dexamethasone IM at the dental department and with Hy-drocortisone 100mg/ml IM and antihistamine drugs at the hospital. Conclusion: There are no published protocols and sensitivity and specifity of skin pick testing and patch testing for Gelofen. So avoidance of re-exposure is the best management strategy. The use of Cox-2 specific medications would be a proper alternative for pain relief. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:179-183

  6. Delayed type Ⅲb endoleak using AnacondaTM stent graft in abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zi-heng; Dieter Raithel; QU Le-feng

    2010-01-01

    @@ Endoleaks are defined as the persistence of blood flow outside the lumen of the endoluminal graft but within an aneurysm sac or the adjacent vascular segment being treated by the graft and classified into 5 categories.1,2 Although type Ⅲb endoleaks (fabric defect) have been reported to occur in some divices,3-6 it has never been previously reported with the AnacondaTM endograft (Vascutek, Terumo, Scotland) after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Here we report a delayed type Ⅲb endoleak of AnacondaTM endograft after EVAR for AAA.

  7. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genuis, Stephen J., E-mail: sgenuis@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta (Canada); Lipp, Christopher T. [Faculty of Medicine at the University of Calgary (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many people report symptoms when near devices emanating electromagnetic fields(EMF). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) research has generated conflicting outcomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recent evidence suggests pathophysiological change in some individuals with EHS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EHS patients consistently report profound social and personal challenges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clinicians need to be apprised of the EHS condition and potential interventions.

  8. Should patients with risk factors be tested for hypersensitivity to contrast media: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepetam, Fatma Merve; Çiftaslan, Nezihe; Oruç, Özlem; Duman, Dildar; Ağca, Meltem; Bulut, İsmet; Çolakoğlu, Bahattin

    2016-08-01

    Previous hypersensitivity reactions to contrast media (CM), atopy, atopic disease, drug allergy, and age (20-29 or >55) are risk factors for CM hypersensitivity reactions. Our aim was to evaluate whether these risk factors should prompt skin testing for diagnosing CM allergy. The study was conducted among patients referred for allergy testing with CM. Skin tests were performed with non ionic or gadolinium CM, recommended by a radiologist. After completion of tests patients were telephonically queried on their symptoms of reactions. 151 risk patients (53 men, 98 women; mean age 55.2) were included in the study. Only 13 (9 %) had a history of hypersensitivity reaction to CM. Compared with the other patients, atopy was significantly more common in patients with a history of CM hypersensitivity reactions. Female gender and mean age were also higher, but not significant. All of the tests with CMs were negative. Only one patient reported urticaria within 1-2 min after administration of CM (telephonically). Atopy can increase the risk of CM allergy. However, skin tests with CMs may be inefficient, unnecessary, and time-consuming, except in cases with a history of CM allergy. Premedication protocols appear to be beneficial in patients with a history of CM allergy and cannot be recommended for patients with well-controlled asthma, rhinitis, atopic dermatitis or history of drug allergy.

  9. Prevalence of latex hypersensitivity among health care workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnaz, M; Azizah, M R; Hasma, H; Mok, K L; Yip, E; Ganesapillai, T; Suraiya, H; Nasuruddin, B A

    1999-03-01

    Health care workers have been reported to constitute one of the few high-risk groups related to IgE-mediated hypersensitivity associated with the use of latex products. This paper describes the first ever study of prevalence carried out in Malaysia among these workers. One hundred and thirty health care personnel from Hospital Kuala Lumpur were skin tested. Extracts used were prepared from seven different brands of natural rubber latex gloves with varying levels of extractable protein (EPRRIM). Out of the 130 volunteers, 4 (3.1%) had positive skin test to latex with extracts with high levels of EPRRIM (> 0.7 mg/g). The prevalence among the Malaysian health care workers can be considered to be low in comparison to that of some consumer countries as the USA which reported a prevalence of as high as 16.9%.

  10. A delayed hypersensitivity reaction to a stainless steel crown: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, A; Ozdemir, C E; Yilmaz, Y

    2012-01-01

    Stainless steel crowns are commonly used to restore primary or permanent teeth in pediatric restorative dentistry. Here, we describe a case of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction, which manifested itself as perioral skin eruptions, after restoring the decayed first permanent molar tooth of a 13-year-old Caucasian girl with a preformed stainless steel crown. The eruptions completely healed within one week after removal of the stainless steel crown. The decayed tooth was then restored with a bis-acryl crown and bridge. Since no perioral skin eruptions occurred during the six-month follow-up, we presume that the cause of the perioral skin eruptions was a delayed hypersensitivity reaction, which was triggered by the nickel in the stainless steel crown.

  11. Dysmenorrhoea is associated with hypersensitivity in the sigmoid colon and rectum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkert, Willem; Dimcevski, Georg; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    if dysmenorrhoea is associated with hypersensitivity in the referred somatic skin area or in the large bowel, i.e., viscero-visceral hyperalgesia. We measured skin sensitivity in the referred area of the sigmoid colon as well as stimulus-response relationships in the sigmoid colon and rectum. The latter were...... measured using mechanical (balloon) distension applied via a Barostat in 11 dysmenorrhoea patients without gastro-intestinal complaints and 10 healthy and age matched women, again without gastrointestinal complaints. We found no skin hypersensitivity in the colonic referred area. In contrast, significantly...... lower distension volumes were seen at each threshold in dysmenorrhoea patients, particularly in the sigmoid colon. The mean reduction in colonic distension volume thresholds for dysmenorrhoea patients vs. controls was 57% at the detection threshold and 39% at the pain threshold. There were...

  12. Contact hypersensitivity after tongue piercing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananta Herachakri P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently tongue piercing has become increasingly popular in the society. Several case reports have presented various complications of tongue piercing. However, there is no scientific evidence about contact hypersensitivity to tongue piercing. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the contact hypersensitivity after using tongue piercing. Methods: Nineteen male Rattus norvegicus were divided into three groups: group A treated with vaseline on the back and dorsum tongue (control group, group B (I treated with HgCl2 10% cream on the tongue dorsum, group B (II treated with tongue piercing for 10 days and group C with HgCl 2 10% cream on the back, ear lobe, and tongue, then re-exposure with same materials on ear, back and tongue for 24 and 48 hours. Before and after 24 and 48 hours applications, ear width was measured with sliding caliper. At the end of treatments, the rats were sacrificed. All tissue specimens were made for Hematoylin Eosine (H&E staining examination. The number of mononuclear cells was counted under light microscope Data was analyzed with One-Way ANOVA followed by LSD (p<0.05. Results: The result of this study showed that there were a significant difference of the thickness of ear lobe and the number of mononuclear cells (lymphocyte and monocyte among all groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that tongue piercing induce contact hypersensitivity.Latar belakang: Saat ini pemakaian tongue piercing sangat popular di masyarakat. Beberapa laporan kasus menunjukkan bahwa tongue piercing menimbulkan beberapa komplikasi. Namun, belum ada bukti ilmiah mengenai reaksi hipesensitivitas tongue piercing. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui reaksi hipersensitivitas setelah menggunakan tongue piercing. Metode: Sembilan belas tikus jantan Rattus novergicus yang dibagi dalam tiga kemlompok yaitu: grup A diberi perlakuan dengan vaselin pada punggung dan dorsum lidah, grup B (I diberi perlakuan dengan krim HgCl2 10% pada dorsum lidah dan B

  13. Prevalence of hypersensitivity to dental local anesthetic drugs in patients referred to Tehran Allergy clinic (2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhlaghi F.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: According to controversies in the prevalence of hypersensitivity to dental local anesthetic drugs and patients who claim hypersensitivity to these drugs, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypersensitivity to dental amide local anesthetic drugs in patients referred to Tehran Allergy Clinic in 2005-2007. "nMaterials and Methods: In this Study (Review of existing data, records of 130 patients who were referred to "Tehran allergy Clinic" (2005-2007 were studied. "nResults: The average age of patients was 29.5±18.8 years. 34% of cases showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested Lidocain concentrations and 10% of cases showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested Prilocain concentrations. There was a statistically significant difference in hypersensitivity to Lidocain 0.01 and 0.001 (p=0.017 and also between Lidocain 0.001 and 0.0001 (p<0.01. There was no statistically significant difference between other tested drug concentrations (p>0.05. "nConclusion: Many patients with history of hypersensitivity, show positive reaction to local dental anesthetic drugs. Prilocain hypersensitivity reactions are less than Lidocain. So application of Prilocain accompanies with less risk but its application should not be considered completely safe.

  14. Leukemoid reaction secondary to hypersensitivity syndrome to phenobarbital: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qinghai; Wu, Yuanqiang; Zhan, Yi; Tang, Ling; Zhou, Yangmei; Yin, Jun; Fan, Fan; Zhang, Guiying; Lu, Qianjin; Xiao, Rong

    2013-01-01

    The most important adverse effects of phenobarbital, an anticonvulsant drug, are behavior and cognitive alterations. Hypersensitivity syndrome caused by phenobarbital presenting with a leukemoid reaction is a rare side effect, which is rarely ever reported and needs to be known. We report on a 27-year-old Chinese woman who experienced hypersensitivity syndrome three weeks after the initiation of phenobarbital. The patient developed fever, skin rash, face swelling, lymphadenopathy, myalgia, hepatitis, eosinophilia, atypical lymphocytes and leukocytosis. Along with the pathological progress of the disease, the patient noticed a gradual exacerbation of her symptoms. And the highest leukocyte count was up to 127.2 x 10(9)/L. After discontinuing of phenobarbital and administration of methylprednisolone combined with the intravenous immunoglobulin shock therapy, all initial symptoms improved and the leukocyte count normalized. This case is reported because of its rarity of the leukemoid reaction secondary to hypersensitivity syndrome to phenobarbital.

  15. [Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebollero, P; Echechipía, S; Echegoyen, A; Lorente, M P; Fanlo, P

    2005-01-01

    Farmer's lung was first described in 1932. We can define hypersensitivity pneumonitis as a pulmonary and systemic disease that is accompanied by dyspnoea and coughing; it is caused by an immunological type of inflammation of the alveolar walls and the terminal airways and it is secondary to the repeated inhalation of a variety of antigens by a susceptible host. It can be said that it is an underdiagnosed disease and only a high degree of clinical manifestations and a detailed history of exposure can lead to an early diagnosis and satisfactory treatment. A combination among clinical-radiological, functional, cytological or pathological findings leads in some cases to a diagnosis. Treatment is based on avoiding further exposure to the causal agent and in the more serious cases the administration of systemic corticoid treatment.

  16. Systemic corticosteroid hypersensitivity in children

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, NG; Santa Marta, C; Morais-Almeida, M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe 5 cases of immediate-type reactions to systemic corticosteroids observed during the last 2 decades in boys aged 2, 4, 8, 9, and 10 years. Symptoms ranged from generalized urticaria and angioedema to anaphylactic shock immediately after administration. Oral betamethasone was implicated in 2 cases, oral prednisolone in 2 cases, and intravenous prednisolone in 1 case. The parents of patient 5 refused the skin tests. The remaining patients underwent skin prick tests with the following...

  17. Anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory mechanisms prevent contact hypersensitivity to Arnica montana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Christian; Vocanson, Marc; Wagner, Steffen; Schempp, Christoph M; Nicolas, Jean-Francois; Merfort, Irmgard; Martin, Stefan F

    2008-10-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SL), secondary plant metabolites from flowerheads of Arnica, exert anti-inflammatory effects mainly by preventing nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation because of alkylation of the p65 subunit. Despite its known immunosuppressive action, Arnica has been classified as a plant with strong potency to induce allergic contact dermatitis. Here we examined the dual role of SL as anti-inflammatory compounds and contact allergens in vitro and in vivo. We tested the anti-inflammatory and allergenic potential of SL in the mouse contact hypersensitivity model. We also used dendritic cells to study the activation of NF-kappaB and the secretion of interleukin (IL)-12 in the presence of different doses of SL in vitro. Arnica tinctures and SL potently suppressed NF-kappaB activation and IL-12 production in dendritic cells at high concentrations, but had immunostimulatory effects at low concentrations. Contact hypersensitivity could not be induced in the mouse model, even when Arnica tinctures or SL were applied undiluted to inflamed skin. In contrast, Arnica tinctures suppressed contact hypersensitivity to the strong contact sensitizer trinitrochlorobenzene and activation of dendritic cells. However, contact hypersensitivity to Arnica tincture could be induced in acutely CD4-depleted MHC II knockout mice. These results suggest that induction of contact hypersensitivity by Arnica is prevented by its anti-inflammatory effect and immunosuppression as a result of immune regulation in immunocompetent mice.

  18. Cutaneous drug hypersensitivity : Immunological and genetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisalay Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity is an unpredictable, immunologically mediated adverse reaction, clustered in a genetically predisposed individual. The role of "hapten concept" in immune sensitization has recently been contested by the "pharmacological interaction" hypothesis. After completion of the "human genome project" and with the availability of high-resolution genotyping, genetic susceptibility to hypersensitivity for certain drugs has been proved beyond doubt though the trend is ethnicity and phenotype dependent. Application of this newly acquired knowledge may reduce or abolish the morbidity and mortality associated with cutaneous drug hypersensitivity.

  19. Re-visiting Hypersensitivity Reactions to Taxanes: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Matthieu; Castells, Mariana C

    2015-10-01

    Taxanes (a class of chemotherapeutic agents) are an important cause of hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) in cancer patients. During the last decade, the development of rapid drug desensitization has been key to allow patients with HSRs to taxanes to be safely re-treated although the mechanisms of these HSRs are not fully understood. Earlier studies suggested that solvents, such as Cremophor EL used to solubilize paclitaxel, were responsible for HSRs through complement activation, but recent findings have raised the possibility that some of these HSRs are IgE-mediated. Taxane skin testing, which identifies patients with an IgE-mediated sensitivity, appears as a promising diagnostic and risk stratification tool in the management of patients with HSRs to taxanes. The management of patients following a HSR involves risk stratification and re-exposure could be performed either through rapid drug desensitization or graded challenge based on the severity of the initial HSR and the skin test result. Rapid drug desensitization has been shown to be an effective and safe method to re-introduce taxanes in hundreds of patients, including those with life-threatening HSRs. Patients with non-severe delayed skin HSRs may benefit from rapid drug desensitization since they may be at increased risk for an immediate HSR upon re-exposure. This review focuses on the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and novel mechanisms of immediate HSRs to taxanes. A new management strategy for HSRs to taxanes based on skin testing and rapid drug desensitization is proposed.

  20. Use of cephalosporins in patients with immediate penicillin hypersensitivity: cross-reactivity revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Q U

    2014-10-01

    A 10% cross-reactivity rate is commonly cited between penicillins and cephalosporins. However, this figure originated from studies in the 1960s and 1970s which included first-generation cephalosporins with similar side-chains to penicillins. Cephalosporins were frequently contaminated by trace amount of penicillins at that time. The side-chain hypothesis for beta-lactam hypersensitivity is supported by abundant scientific evidence. Newer generations of cephalosporins possess side-chains that are dissimilar to those of penicillins, leading to low cross-reactivity. In the assessment of cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins, one has to take into account the background beta-lactam hypersensitivity, which occurs in up to 10% of patients. Cross-reactivity based on skin testing or in-vitro test occurs in up to 50% and 69% of cases, respectively. Clinical reactivity and drug challenge test suggest an average cross-reactivity rate of only 4.3%. For third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, the rate is probably less than 1%. Recent international guidelines are in keeping with a low cross-reactivity rate. Despite that, the medical community in Hong Kong remains unnecessarily skeptical. Use of cephalosporins in patients with penicillin hypersensitivity begins with detailed history and physical examination. Clinicians can choose a cephalosporin with a different side-chain. Skin test for penicillin is not predictive of cephalosporin hypersensitivity, while cephalosporin skin test is not sensitive. Drug provocation test by experienced personnel remains the best way to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity and to find a safe alternative for future use. A personalised approach to cross-reactivity is advocated.

  1. Impaired leukocyte trafficking and skin inflammatory responses in hamsters lacking a functional circadian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J; Cable, Erin J; Patel, Priyesh N; Pyter, Leah M; Onishi, Kenneth G; Stevenson, Tyler J; Ruby, Norman F; Bradley, Sean P

    2013-08-01

    The immune system is under strong circadian control, and circadian desynchrony is a risk factor for metabolic disorders, inflammatory responses and cancer. Signaling pathways that maintain circadian rhythms (CRs) in immune function in vivo, and the mechanisms by which circadian desynchrony impairs immune function, remain to be fully identified. These experiments tested the hypothesis that the hypothalamic circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) drives CRs in the immune system, using a non-invasive model of SCN circadian arrhythmia. Robust CRs in blood leukocyte trafficking, with a peak during the early light phase (ZT4) and nadir in the early dark phase (ZT18), were absent in arrhythmic hamsters, as were CRs in spleen clock gene (per1, bmal1) expression, indicating that a functional pacemaker in the SCN is required for the generation of CRs in leukocyte trafficking and for driving peripheral clocks in secondary lymphoid organs. Pinealectomy was without effect on CRs in leukocyte trafficking, but abolished CRs in spleen clock gene expression, indicating that nocturnal melatonin secretion is necessary for communicating circadian time information to the spleen. CRs in trafficking of antigen presenting cells (CD11c(+) dendritic cells) in the skin were abolished, and antigen-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity skin inflammatory responses were markedly impaired in arrhythmic hamsters. The SCN drives robust CRs in leukocyte trafficking and lymphoid clock gene expression; the latter of which is not expressed in the absence of melatonin. Robust entrainment of the circadian pacemaker provides a signal critical to diurnal rhythms in immunosurveilliance and optimal memory T-cell dependent immune responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Amalgam Contact Hypersensitivity Lesion: An Unusual Presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contact allergic reactions due to hypersensitivity to dental materials in professionals and .... it, incisional biopsy was done under local anesthesia and the specimen was sent ... minimal technique sensitivity, amalgam for long has been used for ...

  3. Intradermorreação de Montenegro em cães (Mammalia: Canidae experimentalmente inoculados por Leishmaniaguyanensis e Leishmania braziliensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae, principais agentes causadores de Leishmaniose Tegumentar na Amazônia Montenegro's skin test in dogs (Mammalia: Canidae experimentally inoculated with Leishmaniaguyanensis and Leishmania braziliensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae the main agents of Amazônia Tegumentary Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Rolim Reis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O teste de intradermorreação de Montenegro é utilizado para detectar infecção por Leishmania em humanos. A técnica se baseia numa reação de hipersensibilidade tardia. Os antígenos de Montenegro utilizados no experimento são soluções de antígenos homólogos brutos de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis e L.(Vguyanensis. Este experimento demonstrou que os animais inoculados com as espécies de Leishmania inoculadas desenvolveram enduração no local do teste mais acentuada que os animais controle. Os resultados sugerem que o teste cutâneo pode vir a ser indicado como método auxiliar de diagnóstico em cães infectados por Leishmania sp.Positive Montenegro's skin test is a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction widely used as indicative of infection with Leishmania. Montenegro's antigen consisted of a crude Leishmania homologous antigen solution that was used as a skin test in five dogs experimentally inoculated with Leishmania (Viannia spp. In this work it is shown that all animals infected presented an induration at the site of injection in contrast of the dogs non infected used as a control group. This demonstrated that the skin tests in dogs could be used to make an diagnosis of the Leishmania infection.

  4. Hypersensitivity reactions associated with endovascular devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honari, Golara; Ellis, Stephen G; Wilkoff, Bruce L; Aronica, Mark A; Svensson, Lars G; Taylor, James S

    2008-07-01

    Allergic reactions to endoprostheses are uncommon and reported in association with orthopaedic, dental, endovascular and other implanted devices. Hypersensitivity reactions to the biomaterials used in endovascular prostheses are among the infrequent reactions that may lead to local or systemic complications following cardiovascular therapeutic interventions. This article reviews potential immunotoxic effects of commonly used biomaterials. Reports of putative hypersensitivity reactions to endovascular devices, including coronary stents, perforated foramen occluders, pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators are also reviewed.

  5. Food hypersensitivity to lamb in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, L M

    1994-04-01

    Severe facial pruritus in a cat was caused by food hypersensitivity to lamb. The cat had been fed an exclusive diet of lamb for 2 years after it had been diagnosed to have food hypersensitivity to fish. Signs, including erythema, alopecia, and excoriations of the head and neck, were poorly responsive to corticosteroid administration, but resolved within a few weeks after removal of the suspected allergen.

  6. Multinational experience with hypersensitivity drug reactions in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jares, Edgardo José; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Cardona-Villa, Ricardo; Ensina, Luis Felipe; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Gómez, Maximiliano; Barayazarra, Susana; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Serrano, Carlos D; Cuello, Mabel Noemi; Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; De Falco, Alicia; Cherrez-Ojeda, Iván

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiologic drug allergy data from Latin America are scarce, and there are no studies on specific procedures focusing on this topic in Latin America. To assess the clinical characteristics and management of hypersensitivity drug reactions in different Latin American countries. An European Network of Drug Allergy questionnaire survey was implemented in 22 allergy units in 11 Latin American countries to report on consecutive patients who presented with a suspected hypersensitivity drug reaction. Each unit used its own protocols to investigate patients. Included were 868 hypersensitivity drug reactions in 862 patients (71% of adults and elderly patients were women and 51% of children were girls, P = .0001). Children presented with less severe reactions than adults and elderly patients (P < .0001). Urticaria and angioedema accounted for the most frequent clinical presentations (71%), whereas anaphylaxis was present in 27.3% of cases. There were no deaths reported. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (52.3%), β-lactam antibiotics (13.8%), and other antibiotics (10.1%) were the drugs used most frequently. Skin prick tests (16.7%) and provocation tests (34.2%) were the study procedures most commonly used. A large proportion of patients were treated in the emergency department (62%) with antihistamines (68%) and/or corticosteroids (53%). Only 22.8% of patients presenting with anaphylaxis received epinephrine. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics were the drugs used in at least 75% of patients. More than half the reactions were treated in the emergency department, whereas epinephrine was administered in fewer than 25% of patients with anaphylaxis. Dissemination of guidelines for anaphylaxis among primary and emergency department physicians should be encouraged. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Severe cutaneous hypersensitivity to icodextrin in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Park, Hyeong Cheon; Sim, Soung Rok; Chung, Soo Jin; Kim, Ki Joong; Park, Woo Il; Hong, Soon Won; Ha, Sung Kyu

    2006-01-01

    Icodextrin, a glucose polymer, is widely used as an alternative to glucose as the osmotic agent in peritoneal dialysis (PD). We describe a case of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient who developed severe cutaneous hypersensitivity after initiation of icodextrin PD solution. Erythematous skin lesions gradually disappeared after discontinuation of icodextrin PD solution. Although the safety and efficacy of icodextrin PD solution is well documented, clinicians should be mindful of the possibility of severe adverse cutaneous reactions to icodextrin PD solution.

  8. Skin protection in the prevention of skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Occupational skin diseases comprise a wide spectrum of conditions. Under epidemiological aspects, occupational contact dermatitis that is usually manifested on the hands is the most frequent occupational skin disease with an estimated average incidence rate of 0.7-1.5 cases per 1,000 workers per year. Irritant dermatitis is due to individual susceptibility and the exposure to irritants such as wet work combined with detergents or other hydrophilic irritants or solvents at the workplace. Chronic irritant dermatitis is a risk factor for delayed-type sensitization and subsequently allergic contact dermatitis. It is therefore the prevention of chronic or cumulative irritant dermatitis that is the decisive factor in the prevention of occupational skin disease. Within prevention programs at the workplace, skin protection plays an important, but limited role. Others are technical and organizational means to avoid or reduce skin exposure to irritants and allergens. Educational measures to increase the awareness of workers for workplace hazards and to motivate them to use skin protection measures appropriately are just as important as the careful selection of skin protection materials.

  9. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  10. Diagnosis and management of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Scott D; Salazar, Kimberly C

    2013-08-01

    Cephalosporins are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of antibiotics. Immediate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions have been reported with use of a specific cephalosporin, as a cross-reaction between different cephalosporins or as a cross-reaction to other β-lactam antibiotics, namely, penicillin. Historically, frequent reports of anaphylaxis following administration of first- and second-generation cephalosporins to patients with a history of penicillin allergy led to the belief of a high degree of allergic cross-reactivity. More recent evidence reveals a significantly lower risk of cross-reactivity between penicillins and the newer-generation cephalosporins. The current thought is that a shared side chain, rather than the β-lactam ring structure, is the determining factor in immunologic cross-reactivity. Understanding the chemical structure of these agents has allowed us to identify the allergenic determinants for penicillin; however, the exact allergenic determinants of cephalosporins are less well understood. For this reason, standardized diagnostic skin testing is not available for cephalosporins as it is for penicillin. Nevertheless, skin testing to the cephalosporin in question, using a nonirritating concentration, provides additional information, which can further guide the work-up of a patient suspected of having an allergy to that drug. Together, the history and the skin test results can assist the allergist in the decision to recommend continued drug avoidance or to perform a graded challenge versus an induction of tolerance procedure.

  11. Hypersensitivity to Aeroallergens in Patients with Nasobronchial Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Jagoda; Bijelic, Radojka; Milicevic, Snjezana

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Aeroallergens are the most common causes of allergy. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine hypersensitivity to aeroallergens in patients with nasobronchial allergy. Methods: This retrospective population study included 2254 patients with nasobronchial allergy, from late adolescents to adults. Their response to aeroallergens was assessed by skin prick tests. Results: More patients had rhinitis (72.7%), than asthma (27.6%). Although majority of patients were female, allergy is more common in men than in women (p<0.05). Both groups of patients had the greatest number of positive skin prick tests for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (27.5%) and weed pollens (21.9%), followed by grass (18.3%) and tree pollens (10.1%). Ragweed is the most common positive weed pollen in both groups, more in patients with rhinitis (p=0.022). The cocksfoot is the most common grass pollen in rhinitis group (15.3%), but meadow grass (12.6%) in asthma patients. Birch is the most common tree allergen in the both groups. Conclusions: More patients with nasobronchial allergy have rhinitis than asthma. Skin prick tests are usually positive for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and weed pollens, followed by grass and tree pollens, and they are more common positive in patients with rhinitis than asthma. PMID:24937928

  12. Chronic mouse model of TMA-induced contact hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Claudia; Döcke, Wolf-Dietrich F; Zollner, Thomas M; Röse, Lars

    2009-04-01

    Due to the steadily increasing incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD), especially in children, there is a high medical need for new therapies and improved animal models. In mice, trimellitic anhydride (TMA) is routinely used to trigger T-cell-dependent contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions. In this study, we compared the standard acute TMA-induced CHS in Balb/c mice with subacute and chronic models of TMA-induced ear inflammation. Compared to the acute model, the chronic CHS model more closely reflects characteristics of AD, such as typical morphological changes of the inflamed skin, strong infiltration with T cells, major histocompatibility complex II-positive cells, eosinophils, and mast cells, a T-helper cell-type (Th) 2 cytokine profile and a strong increase of serum IgE levels. Moreover, a strong lymph node involvement with T-helper cell dominance and a mixed Th1/Th2 T-cell differentiation and activation pattern was demonstrated. Importantly, as demonstrated by successful therapy with prednisolone, the chronic TMA-induced CHS model, in contrast to acute and subacute models, made prolonged therapeutic treatment of a pre-established skin inflammation possible. Altogether, we present an improved model of mouse T-cell-dependent skin inflammation for AD. We hope this model will enhance the predictive value of animal models for therapeutic treatment of atopic eczema.

  13. [Skin changes in workers in plywood manufacture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikov, E A; Anton'ev, A A; Kondinskaia, V E; Matusevich, S L; Diundiukova, V P

    1990-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to occupational allergens was detected in 45% of workers, allergic dermatoses and eczema in 8%, mycoses of the soles in 12%, premorbid changes of the skin in 30% of the examinees. Mycoses of the soles are more frequent in subjects with a history of, or suffering from dermatoses.

  14. Discrepancies in the diagnosis and classification of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug hypersensitivity reactions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikoglu, Tuğba; Aslan, Gulen; Yildirim, Didem Derici; Batmaz, Sehra Birgul; Kuyucu, Semanur

    2017-07-01

    Hypersensitivity to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently encountered in daily clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine the confirmation rates, risk factors of NSAID hypersensitivity in children and to try to classify them with a standardized diagnostic protocol. All patients with a suspicion of NSAID-induced hypersensitivity were evaluated with European Network for drug Allergy (ENDA) recommendations. The children were classified as selective responders (SRs) or cross-intolerant (CI) depending on the drug provocation test (DPT) results. We evaluated 106 children with a suspicion of NSAID hypersensitivity. NSAID hypersensitivity was confirmed with tests in 31 patients; 4 (12.9%) were diagnosed by skin tests and 27 (87.1%) by DPTs and two patients with a history of anaphylaxis by medical records. Eleven patients (33.3%) were classified as SRs, whereas twenty-two (66.6%) children as CIs. SRs and CIs were further classified as NSAID-induced urticaria/angioedema (n = 8), NSAID-exacerbated cutaneous disease (n = 6) and NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease (n = 1) and single NSAID-induced urticaria/angioedema and/or anaphylaxis (n = 11). Eight (24.2%) patients could not be categorized according to ENDA/GA(2)LEN classification; one CI patient could not be classified based on pathomechanisms, seven CIs could not be categorized based on the underlying disease and clinical manifestations. A reaction within an hour of drug intake (aOR:3.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-7.67, p = 0.021), a history with multiple NSAIDs hypersensitivity (aOR:2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.16-7.60, p = 0.022), and family history of atopy (aOR:4.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.50-10.82, p = 0.006) were found as the independent risk factors related to confirmed NSAID hypersensitivity. This study suggests the presence of different phenotypes which do not fit into the current classifications in children with NSAID hypersensitivity. Copyright

  15. Perception of Dentine Hypersensitivity and Its Management by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perception of Dentine Hypersensitivity and Its Management by a Group of Nigerian ... the hydrodynamic theory as the commonest theory of tooth hypersensitivity. ... The knowledge of Nigerian Dentists was found to be associated with the ...

  16. Hypersensitivity Reactions from Excipients in Systemic Glucocorticoid Formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calogiuri, Gianfranco; Garvey, Lene H; Romita, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most widely used drugs for the treatment of hypersensitivity, however these drugs themselves and the excipients contained in commercial corticosteroid formulations are able to induce severe immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions. Reactions involving excipients have been...

  17. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Skin KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Skin Print A A ... are really dead skin cells. continue Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  18. Flagellate erythema as manifestation of food hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaheersha Pakran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Food hypersensitivity can present in myriad forms leaving the physician baffled. Here we present a case of flagellate dermatitis in an elderly female with bronchial asthma on omalizumab injections, after ingestion of canned shiitake mushrooms. Knowledge about shiitake mushroom dermatitis is important due to increasing prevalence worldwide because of changing culinary preferences.

  19. Respiratory hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makowska, J S; Burney, P; Jarvis, D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most prevalent drugs inducing hypersensitivity reactions. The aim of this analysis was to estimate the prevalence of NSAID-induced respiratory symptoms in population across Europe and to assess its association with upper and ...

  20. Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome secondary to carbamazepine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shannon C.

    2017-01-01

    Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) is a potentially fatal multiorgan drug reaction that presents with various cutaneous eruptions. There is a genetic predisposition to such reactions. We present a young woman with AHS due to carbamazepine that presented as an atypical erythema multiforme with elevated liver enzymes. PMID:28127149

  1. Presentation and Diagnosis of Hypersensitivity to Platinum Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiado, Joana; Castells, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to platinum drugs are increasing due to their extensive use in a wide variety of malignancies and the repeated exposures in patients with increased life expectancy. Understanding the incidence of HSR to platinum drugs and associated risk factors can help with the diagnosis and may provide protection against severe HSRs. A thorough clinical history with identification of the typical and atypical symptoms, the relationship with the platin administration, and the number of previous exposures are the key to the diagnosis. An elevated serum tryptase at the time of the HSR indicates that IgE and/or mast cells/basophils were involved in the HSR. Skin testing to platinum drugs is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool, which helps provide risk stratification and management recommendations. Platinum specific IgE measurement and basophil activation test (BAT) are emerging as new diagnostic tools and in combination with skin testing can help support the diagnosis and the cross-reactivity between the three most commonly used platinum drugs, namely carboplatin, cisplatin, and oxaliplatin.

  2. An in vitro method for detecting chemical sensitization using human reconstructed skin models and its applicability to cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and medical device safety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, James M; Keller, Donald J; Gorski, Joel R

    2012-12-01

    Chemical sensitization is a serious condition caused by small reactive molecules and is characterized by a delayed type hypersensitivity known as allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Contact with these molecules via dermal exposure represent a significant concern for chemical manufacturers. Recent legislation in the EU has created the need to develop non-animal alternative methods for many routine safety studies including sensitization. Although most of the alternative research has focused on pure chemicals that possess reasonable solubility properties, it is important for any successful in vitro method to have the ability to test compounds with low aqueous solubility. This is especially true for the medical device industry where device extracts must be prepared in both polar and non-polar vehicles in order to evaluate chemical sensitization. The aim of this research was to demonstrate the functionality and applicability of the human reconstituted skin models (MatTek Epiderm(®) and SkinEthic RHE) as a test system for the evaluation of chemical sensitization and its potential use for medical device testing. In addition, the development of the human 3D skin model should allow the in vitro sensitization assay to be used for finished product testing in the personal care, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. This approach combines solubility, chemical reactivity, cytotoxicity, and activation of the Nrf2/ARE expression pathway to identify and categorize chemical sensitizers. Known chemical sensitizers representing extreme/strong-, moderate-, weak-, and non-sensitizing potency categories were first evaluated in the skin models at six exposure concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2500 µM for 24 h. The expression of eight Nrf2/ARE, one AhR/XRE and two Nrf1/MRE controlled gene were measured by qRT-PCR. The fold-induction at each exposure concentration was combined with reactivity and cytotoxicity data to determine the sensitization potential. The results demonstrated that

  3. Treatments for hypersensitive noncarious cervical lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitz-Keenan, Analia; Barna, Julie Ann; Strober, Brad; Matthews, Abigail G.; Collie, Damon; Vena, Donald; Curro, Frederick A.; Thompson, Van P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network conducted a three-armed randomized clinical study to determine the comparative effectiveness of three treatments for hypersensitive noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs): use of a potassium nitrate dentifrice for treatment of hypersensitivity, placement of a resin-based composite restoration and placement of a sealant. Methods Seventeen trained practitioner-investigators (P-Is) in the PEARL Network enrolled participants (N = 304) with hypersensitive posterior NCCLs who met enrollment criteria. Participants were assigned to treatments randomly. Evaluations were conducted at baseline and at one, three and six months thereafter. Primary outcomes were the reduction or elimination of hypersensitivity as measured clinically and by means of patient-reported outcomes. Results Lesion depth and pretreatment sensitivity (mean, 5.3 on a 0- to 10-point scale) were balanced across treatments, as was sleep bruxism (present in 42.2 percent of participants). The six-month participant recall rate was 99 percent. Treatments significantly reduced mean sensitivity (P dentifrice group. The dentifrice group’s mean (standard deviation) sensitivity at six months was 2.1 (2.1); those of the sealant and restoration groups were 1.0 (1.6) and 0.8 (1.4), respectively. Patient-reported sensitivity (to cold being most pronounced) paralleled clinical measurements at each evaluation. Conclusions Sealing and restoration treatments were effective overall in reducing NCCL hypersensitivity. The potassium nitrate dentifrice reduced sensitivity with increasing effectiveness through six months but not to the degree offered by the other treatments. Practical Implications Sealant or restoration placement is an effective method of immediately reducing NCCL sensitivity. Although a potassium nitrate dentifrice did reduce sensitivity slowly across six months, at no time was the reduction commensurate with that of sealants or

  4. Multi-factoriality of dentine hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojšin Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dentine hypersensitivity has been defined as a sharp, short pain arising from exposed dentin in response to stimuli typically thermal, evaporative tactile, osmoticor, chemical and which cannot be ascribed to any other form of dental defect or pathology. Prevalence. The most affected patients range in age from 20 to 40. The following teeth tend to be most sensitive: cuspids, premolars and incisors, location-concentrated on the facial surface. Morphological bases of dentine hypersensitivity Sensitive teeth have much greater numbers of open tubules per unit area and the average diameter of tubules is almost 2 times greater than tubules in nonsensitive teeth. Mechanisms of dentine hypersensitivity. The most widely accepted theory of how the pain occurs is Brannstroms theory. Etiology Dentine hypersensitivity represents a condition of presumable multifactorial pathology. Two processes are essential for its development: (1 dentin must be exposed through either genetic disturbance, enamel defect (lamellae, tufts and spindles, loss of enamel (erosion, abrasion, attrition, abfraction, gingival recession with rapid loss of cementum and (2 the dentin tubules must be open to both the oral cavity and the pulp. Diagnosis. Diagnostic protocol for this condition consisted of Medical, Dental Dietary, Oral Hygiene History and Intra-oral examinations with air indexing method. Differential Diagnosis: We must take into consideration a number of variables such as: dental caries, cracked tooth, restorative sensitivity, medication sensitivity, bleaching sensitivity and abscessed or non-vital tooth. Conclusion. Dentin hypersensitivity is a problem that bothes many patients. Many conditions share the symptoms of tooth sensitivity so differential diagnosis is essential for suitable treatment or preventive measures.

  5. Low Dose Radiation Hypersensitivity is Caused by p53-dependent Apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enns, L; Bogen, K; Wizniak, J; Murtha, A; Weinfeld, M

    2004-04-08

    Exposure to environmental radiation and the application of new clinical modalities, such as radioimmunotherapy, have heightened the need to understand cellular responses to low dose and low-dose rate ionizing radiation. Many tumor cell lines have been observed to exhibit a hypersensitivity to radiation doses below 50 cGy, which manifests as a significant deviation from the clonogenic survival response predicted by a linear-quadratic fit to higher doses. However, the underlying processes for this phenomenon remain unclear. Using a gel microdrop/flow cytometry assay to monitor single cell proliferation at early times post irradiation, we examined the response of human A549 lung carcinoma, T98G glioma and MCF7 breast carcinoma cell lines exposed to gamma radiation doses from 0 to 200 cGy delivered at 0.18 and 22 cGy/min. The A549 and T98G cells, but not MCF7 cells, showed the marked hypersensitivity at doses <50 cGy. To further characterize the low-dose hypersensitivity, we examined the influence of low-dose radiation on cell cycle status and apoptosis by assays for active caspase-3 and phosphatidylserine translocation (annexin-V binding). We observed that caspase-3 activation and annexin-V binding mirrored the proliferation curves for the cell lines. Furthermore, the low-dose hypersensitivity and annexin-V binding to irradiated A549 and T98G cells were eliminated by treating the cells with pifithrin, an inhibitor of p53. When p53-inactive cell lines (2800T skin fibroblasts and HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells) were examined for similar patterns, we found that there was no HRS and apoptosis was not detectable by annexin-V or caspase-3 assays. Our data therefore suggest that low-dose hypersensitivity is associated with p53-dependent apoptosis.

  6. [The study of profile of hypersensitivity to pollen and fungal allergens in the Moscow region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhapkina, I G; Krakhanenkova, S N; Dobronravova, E V; Shushpanova, E N

    2014-05-01

    The profile of hypersensitivity to pollen and fungal allergens is an important element of common pattern of immune diseases needed for development of effective pharmaceuticals. The purpose of the study was to analyze the rate of detection of combined forms of hypersensitivity to pollen and fungal allergens (pollen of birch, hazel, cocksfoot, wormwood, fungi A. alternata, C. herbarum, R. nigricans, P. notatum, C. albicans, A. fumigatus) in the Moscow region on the basis of data of scarification skin samples. The mono-sensibilization was established in 23.36% of all cases of hypersensitivity. At that, among leading allergens turned out A. alternata and cocksfoot pollen (6.54% and 4.67%), followed by allergens of wormwood pollen, P. notatum, R. nigricans, birch pollen and C. albicans (3.74%, 3.74%, 1.87%, 1.87% and 0.93% correspondingly). The polysensibilization was established in 51.40% of cases. Besides, the combined hypersensitivity to pollen allergens of plants (20.26%) and to pollen and fungal allergens (20.56%) occurred more frequently In the group of patients with polysensibilization predominated combined allergic reactions to pollen allergens and A. alternata allergens (36.36%). On the whole, most frequently occurred sensitization to allergens of birch, hazel, cocksfoot, wormwood and A. alternata allergen (76.14%, 69.32%, 57.95%, 55.68%, 39.77% and 56.82% correspondingly). In the Moscow region predominate combined forms of hypersensitivity to two and more pollen and fungal allergens. The polysensitization to pollen allergens and A. alternata allergen occurs more frequently.

  7. Severe drug hypersensitivity syndrome due to sulphasalazine in patient with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Grassi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome, also known as Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms is a severe adverse reaction characterized by clinical manifestations including fever, skin eruption, lymphoadenopathy, associated with eosinophilia, leukocytosis and multiple visceral involvement, with 10% of mortality due to development of multiple organ failure. This reaction usually occurs between two and six-eight weeks after the beginning of the treatment and may not resolve with interruption of the suspected drug. Sulfonamides, anticonvulsant, allopurinol are the most frequently involved molecules, but recently cases have been described also with gabapentin and strontium ranelate. In the present report we describe a case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis who presented severe drug hypersensitivity syndrome, with liver and kidney involvement due to sulphasalazine.

  8. Treatment with anti-C5aR mAb leads to early-onset clinical and mechanistic effects in the murine delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkinson, Sara Marie; Nansen, Anneline; Usher, Pernille A.

    2015-01-01

    Blockade of the complement cascade at the C5a/C5a receptor (C5aR)-axis is believed to be an attractive treatment avenue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the effects of such interventions during the early phases of arthritis remain to be clarified. In this study we use the murine delayed-typ...

  9. 儿茶素对环磷酰胺诱导小鼠迟发性超敏反应的影响%Effects of catechin on cyclophosphamide-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇清; 魏伟

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究儿茶素对环磷酰胺诱导小鼠迟发性超敏反应的影响.方法:以2,4-二硝基氯苯(DNCB)诱导小鼠迟发性超敏反应(DTH),致敏后立即腹腔注射(ip)环磷酰胺(Cy)125 mg·kg-1和致敏前3 d ip Cy 250 mg·kg-1分别诱导小鼠降低和增强的DTH反应,用耳肿胀度、胸腺指数和脾指数作为主要检测指标.以ConA诱导胸腺T淋巴细胞,观察不同剂量或浓度的儿茶素体内外对胸腺T淋巴细胞增殖和IL-2生成的影响.MTT法检测胸腺T淋巴细胞增殖,ConA诱导的胸腺T淋巴细胞培养上清中IL-2活性检测采用活化的小鼠胸腺细胞MTT比色法.结果:于致敏前3 d灌胃儿茶素30,60,120 mg·kg-1·d-1,连续7 d,在Cy诱导的DTH反应降低小鼠模型,儿茶素在60,120 mg·kg-1剂量可显著上调其低下的耳肿胀度、胸腺和脾指数,并上调胸腺T淋巴细胞增殖反应以及产生的IL-2水平;在Cy诱导的DTH反应增强小鼠模型,儿茶素60,120 mg·kg-1可显著下调其增高的耳肿胀、胸腺和脾指数,儿茶素30,60,120 mg·kg-1可显著抑制其增强的胸腺T淋巴细胞增殖反应以及产生的IL-2水平.儿茶素体外在25~200 mg·L-1浓度时能增强Cy诱导的DTH反应降低的小鼠胸腺T淋巴细胞增殖和IL-2水平;儿茶素在12.5~200 mg·L-1浓度时能降低Cy诱导的DTH反应增强的小鼠胸腺T淋巴细胞增殖和IL-2水平.结论:儿茶素对小鼠的细胞免疫具有调节作用.

  10. Systemic Immediate Hypersensitive Reactions after Treatment with Sweet Bee Venom: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaYoung Jo

    2015-12-01

    does not completely eliminate the possibility of hypersensitivity and that patients who received BV treatment before may also be sensitized to SBV. Thus, a skin test should be given prior to using SBV.

  11. Temporal effect of local hyperthermia on murine contact hypersensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lan; WANG Yi-ru; HONG Yu-xiao; XU Ya-qin; ZHANG Li; LI Xiao-dong; XIAO Ting

    2013-01-01

    Background The sensitization and elicitation phases are involved in the immunopathogenesis of contact hypersensitivity (CHS).Langerhans cells (LCs) are believed to play pivotal roles in the sensitization stage of CHS.Local hyperthermia on skin induces the migration as well as maturation of epidermal LCs.Although fever-range whole body hyperthermia and local hyperthermia at 43℃ prior to sensitization were reported to suppress CHS,the effects of different temperatures and the timing sequence of local hyperthermia on CHS have not been tackled.Methods Local hyperthermia was applied to murine dorsal skin 3 days prior to,concurrent with,or 2 days post sensitization with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in BALB/c mice.Local hyperthermia temperatures at 37℃,39℃,41℃ and 43℃ were applied to mouse dorsal skin and the severity of CHS was calculated by measuring the swelling response of the challenged ears.Results Local hyperthermia at 39℃,41℃ and 43℃ prior to sensitization reduced the severity of CHS,as compared with that at 37℃.The suppression of CHS was temperature dependant in that higher temperature had a stronger effect.On the contrary,the hyperthermia treatments,either concurrent with or post-sensitization,resulted in an enhanced temperature-dependant ear swelling response.Conclusions The severity of murine CHS could be influenced by local hyperthermia at the sensitization stage in a temperature dependant manner.The temporal effect of local hyperthermia suggested a novel factor in interpreting the severity of allergic contact dermatitis.

  12. Contact hypersensitivity to oxazolone provokes vulvar mechanical hyperalgesia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Martinov

    Full Text Available The interplay among pain, allergy and dysregulated inflammation promises to yield significant conceptual advances in immunology and chronic pain. Hapten-mediated contact hypersensitivity reactions are used to model skin allergies in rodents but have not been utilized to study associated changes in pain perception in the affected skin. Here we characterized changes in mechanical hyperalgesia in oxazolone-sensitized female mice challenged with single and repeated labiar skin exposure to oxazolone. Female mice were sensitized with topical oxazolone on their flanks and challenged 1-3 times on the labia. We then measured mechanical sensitivity of the vulvar region with an electronic pressure meter and evaluated expression of inflammatory genes, leukocyte influx and levels of innervation in the labiar tissue. Oxazolone-sensitized mice developed vulvar mechanical hyperalgesia after a single labiar oxazolone challenge. Hyperalgesia lasted up to 24 hours along with local influx of neutrophils, upregulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression, and increased density of cutaneous labiar nerve fibers. Three daily oxazolone challenges produced vulvar mechanical hyperalgesic responses and increases in nerve density that were detectable up to 5 days post-challenge even after overt inflammation resolved. This persistent vulvar hyperalgesia is resonant with vulvodynia, an understudied chronic pain condition that is remarkably prevalent in 18-60 year-old women. An elevated risk for vulvodynia has been associated with a history of environmental allergies. Our pre-clinical model can be readily adapted to regimens of chronic exposures and long-term assessment of vulvar pain with and without concurrent inflammation to improve our understanding of mechanisms underlying subsets of vulvodynia and to develop new therapeutics for this condition.

  13. Anaphylaxis and severe systemic reactions caused by skin contact with persulfates in hair-bleaching products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Margriet; van der Heide, Sicco; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marielouise

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persulfates have been reported to cause both delayed-type and immediate skin reactions. They may also cause immediate reactions of the mucous membranes of the bronchial system through inhalation, leading to asthma and rhinitis. Anaphylactic reactions caused by contact with persulfates ar

  14. Anaphylaxis and severe systemic reactions caused by skin contact with persulfates in hair-bleaching products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Margriet; van der Heide, Sicco; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marielouise

    BACKGROUND: Persulfates have been reported to cause both delayed-type and immediate skin reactions. They may also cause immediate reactions of the mucous membranes of the bronchial system through inhalation, leading to asthma and rhinitis. Anaphylactic reactions caused by contact with persulfates

  15. Immediate-type hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenande, E; Garvey, L H

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or macrogols are polyether compounds widely used in medical and household products. Although generally considered biologically inert, cases of mild to life-threatening immediate-type PEG hypersensitivity are reported with increasing frequency. Nevertheless, awareness...... of PEG's allergenic potential remains low, due to a general lack of suspicion towards excipients and insufficient product labelling. Information on immediate-type reactions to PEG is limited to anecdotal reports, and the potential for PEG sensitization and cross-sensitization to PEGylated drugs...... to a range of unrelated products in hospital and at home. Increased awareness of PEG prevalence, PEG hypersensitivity, and improved access to PEG allergy testing, should facilitate earlier diagnosis and reduce the risk of inadvertent re-exposure. This first comprehensive review provides practical information...

  16. An unexpected positive hypersensitive reaction to eugenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammannavar, Praveen; Pushpalatha, C; Jain, Shrenik; Sowmya, S V

    2013-09-18

    Eugenol is an active, principal aromatic liquid responsible for several pharmacological activities. It is widely used in dental practice to relieve pain arising from various sources, such as pulpitis and dentinal hypersensitivity. As a primary irritant and sensitiser, it is known to cause contact urticaria as well as chronic urticaria. However, eugenol causes allergic contact dermatitis, possibly because it can react directly with proteins to form conjugate and reactive haptens. It is found that eugenol in various dental preparations-especially in the case of some zinc oxide-contains preparations such as periodontal dressings and root canal cements. This can cause hypersensitivity when it comes in contact with gingiva or teeth. This article presents a case of immediate allergic contact urticaria to eugenol during dental treatment.

  17. Drug hypersensitivity in clonal mast cell disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonadonna, P; Pagani, M; Aberer, W

    2015-01-01

    tryptase determination, physical examination for cutaneous mastocytosis lesions, and clinical characteristics of anaphylactic reaction might be useful for differential diagnosis. In this position paper, the ENDA group performed a literature search on immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions in clonal MC...... disorders using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, reviewed and evaluated the literature in five languages using the GRADE system for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation....

  18. Multi-factoriality of dentine hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stojšin Ivana; Petrović Ljubomir; Stojanac Igor; Drobac Milan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Dentine hypersensitivity has been defined as a sharp, short pain arising from exposed dentin in response to stimuli typically thermal, evaporative tactile, osmoticor, chemical and which cannot be ascribed to any other form of dental defect or pathology. Prevalence. The most affected patients range in age from 20 to 40. The following teeth tend to be most sensitive: cuspids, premolars and incisors, location-concentrated on the facial surface. Morphological bases of dentine hypers...

  19. [Rare, severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsholm, Anne Sofie; Ebbehøj, Eva; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2014-07-07

    The literature reports a large variety of adverse reactions to potassium iodide. A severe hypersensitivity reaction to potassium iodide in a 51-year-old woman with Graves' thyrotoxicosis is described. Following administration the patient developed sialadenitis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis and acneiform iododerma that responded dramatically to withdrawal of the potassium iodide and administration with corticosteroids. Awareness of these adverse reactions may prevent prolonged hospitalization and unnecessary tests and treatments.

  20. Hypersensitivity manifestations to the fruit mango

    OpenAIRE

    Sareen, Richa; SHAH, ASHOK

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study are 1) To review the published data and document the current knowledge on allergic manifestations to the fruit mango 2) To highlight the two distinct clinical presentations of hypersensitivity reactions caused by mango 3) To discuss the role of cross-reactivity 4) To increase awareness of potentially life threatening complications that can be caused by allergy to mango. An extensive search of the literature was performed in Medline/PubMed with the key terms "mango...

  1. 7th drug hypersensitivity meeting: part one

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Daniel F.; Chung, Wen-Hung; Jenkiins, Rosalind E.; Chaponda, Mas; Nwikue, Gospel; Cornejo Castro, Elena M.; Antoine, Daniel J; Pirmohamed, Munir; Wuillemin, Natascha; Dina, Dolores; Eriksson, Klara K.; Yerly, Daniel; Mckinnin, Elizabeth; Ostrov, David; Peters, Bjoern

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents Oral Abstracts O1 Functionally distinct HMGB1 isoforms correlate with physiological processes in drug-induced SJS/TEN Daniel F. Carr, Wen-Hung Chung, Rosalind E. Jenkiins, Mas Chaponda, Gospel Nwikue, Elena M. Cornejo Castro, Daniel J. Antoine, Munir Pirmohamed O2 Hypersensitivity reactions to beta-lactams, does the t cell recognition pattern influence the clinical picture? Natascha Wuillemin, Dolores Dina, Klara K. Eriksson, Daniel Yerly O3 Specific binding characteristics ...

  2. [A misleading form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainet, M; Chaudemanche, H; Westeel, V; Lounici, A; Dubiez, A; Depierre, A; Dalphin, J C

    2000-11-01

    A 47-year-old woman, without significant past medical history, presented an acute dyspnea with hypoxia, marked pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and signs of right heart failure. Chest x-ray showed a moderate dilatation of the right heart cavities. Pulmonary embolism was suggested. After detailed questioning and complete explorations, a bird hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was demonstrated. This case illustrates a misleading presentation of an acute form of HP consisting of apparently isolated PAH.

  3. TRPA1 contributes to cold hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Camino, Donato; Murphy, Sarah; Heiry, Melissa; Barrett, Lee B; Earley, Taryn J; Cook, Colby A; Petrus, Matt J; Zhao, Michael; D'Amours, Marc; Deering, Nate; Brenner, Gary J; Costigan, Michael; Hayward, Neil J; Chong, Jayhong A; Fanger, Christopher M; Woolf, Clifford J; Patapoutian, Ardem; Moran, Magdalene M

    2010-11-10

    TRPA1 is a nonselective cation channel expressed by nociceptors. Although it is widely accepted that TRPA1 serves as a broad irritancy receptor for a variety of reactive chemicals, its role in cold sensation remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that mild cooling markedly increases agonist-evoked rat TRPA1 currents. In the absence of an agonist, even noxious cold only increases current amplitude slightly. These results suggest that TRPA1 is a key mediator of cold hypersensitivity in pathological conditions in which reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory activators of the channel are present, but likely plays a comparatively minor role in acute cold sensation. Supporting this, cold hypersensitivity can be induced in wild-type but not Trpa1(-/-) mice by subcutaneous administration of a TRPA1 agonist. Furthermore, the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 [2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopropylphenyl)acetamide] reduces cold hypersensitivity in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

  4. Hypersensitivity reactions to fluoroquinolones: analysis of the factors involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca-López, N; Ariza, A; Doña, I; Mayorga, C; Montañez, M I; Garcia-Campos, J; Gomez, F; Rondón, C; Blanca, M; Torres, M J

    2013-05-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to fluoroquinolones seem to be on the increase, especially immediate type reactions. The aim of this study was to determine whether several conditions, including gender, age, type of reaction, time interval between the reaction and the study, type of symptoms, the specific fluoroquinolone involved in the reaction and previous confirmed hypersensitivity to betalactams or to other drugs were factors contributing to the development of hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones. We analysed retrospectively all patients attending our allergy department between January 2005 and December 2010 because of a reaction associated with fluoroquinolone administration. The diagnosis was confirmed by basophil activation test or drug provocation tests. In accordance with the results, patients were then classified as having hypersensitivity or non-hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones. A group of 218 patients was evaluated; 69 were confirmed as having hypersensitivity, 146 as non-hypersensitivity and 3 were excluded. Comparisons between groups showed that the allergic patients more often had a previous confirmed hypersensitivity to betalactams (P = 0.029), immediate reactions (P = 0.001) and anaphylaxis (P = 0.000), and moxifloxacin was the fluoroquinolone most frequently involved (P = 0.027). The logistic regression analysis showed three factors associated with the diagnosis of hypersensitivity reactions to fluoroquinolones: previous hypersensitivity to betalactams (OR: 4.571; 95% CI: 0.987-21.171; adjusted OR: 23.654; 95% CI: 1.529-365.853), immediate reactions (OR: 17.333; 95% CI: 4.374-68.691; adjusted OR: 52.493; 95% CI: 6.621-416.200) and reactions induced by moxifloxacin (OR: 3.091; 95% CI: 1.160-8.239; adjusted OR: 13.610; 95% CI: 2.419-76.565). In patients who develop reactions to fluoroquinolones, hypersensitivity is more often confirmed in those with immediate reactions and when moxifloxacin is involved. Moreover, patients with hypersensitivity to

  5. Use of type I and type IV hypersensitivity responses to define the immunopharmacological profile of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, F; d'Atri, G; Marcucci, F; Leoni, F

    1997-03-01

    Administration of antigen suspended in incomplete Freund's adjuvant supplemented with either heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (complete Freund's adjuvant, CFA) or Bordetella pertussis toxin sensitizes animals so that subsequent antigen challenge leads to delayed-type (DTH) or immediate type hypersensitivity (ITH) responses, named type IV and type I, respectively. Appropriate timing of administration of drugs with respect to immunization or antigen challenge allowed to detect predominantly immunosuppressive, antiinflammatory or antianaphylactic activities. Among the reference drugs tested, only cyclosporin A (CsA) and dexamethasone (Dex) markedly inhibited DTH reaction, due to their immunosuppressive and antiinflammatory activities, respectively, whereas leflunomide and indomethacin resulted less potent. On the other hand, only dexchlorpheniramine, a histamine-receptor antagonist, afforded significant protection against anaphylactic shock, a form of ITH. Two new chemical entities were studied according to this protocol: ITF 1697, a chemically stabilized C-reactive protein-derived tetrapeptide, and ITF 2018, a leflunomide analogue. Data obtained with these new compounds showed that ITF 1697 has antianaphylactic activity, while ITF 2018 is endowed, mainly, with antiinflammatory activity. These results show that, through appropriate timing of administration, established in vivo models of immunologically mediated disease states allow an accurate profiling of the effects of pharmacologically active molecules and the detection of unsuspected activities for new drugs.

  6. Calcitonin gene-related peptide regulates type IV hypersensitivity through dendritic cell functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihisa Mikami

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, mutual regulation of the nervous system and immune system is well studied. One of neuropeptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, is a potent regulator in immune responses; in particular, it has anti-inflammatory effects in innate immunity. For instance, a deficiency of the CGRP receptor component RAMP 1 (receptor activity-modifying protein 1 results in higher cytokine production in response to LPS (lipopolysaccharide. On the other hand, how CGRP affects DCs in adaptive immunity is largely unknown. In this study, we show that CGRP suppressed Th1 cell differentiation via inhibition of IL-12 production in DCs using an in vitro co-culture system and an in vivo ovalbumin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH model. CGRP also down-regulated the expressions of chemokine receptor CCR2 and its ligands CCL2 and CCL12 in DCs. Intriguingly, the frequency of migrating CCR2(+ DCs in draining lymph nodes of RAMP1-deficient mice was higher after DTH immunization. Moreover, these CCR2(+ DCs highly expressed IL-12 and CD80, resulting in more effective induction of Th1 differentiation compared with CCR2(- DCs. These results indicate that CGRP regulates Th1 type reactions by regulating expression of cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in DCs.

  7. Immediate systemic hypersensitivity reaction associated with topical application of Australian tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozelsio, Nancy B; Harris, Kathleen E; McGrath, Kris G; Grammer, Leslie C

    2003-01-01

    Australian tea tree oil has been used as a veterinary antiseptic for many years and, more recently, has been extended into human use. There have been many reports of allergic contact dermatitis and toxicity reactions, but it has never been implicated in immediate systemic hypersensitivity reactions. A 38-year-old man experienced immediate flushing, pruritus, throat constriction, and lightheadedness after topical application of tea tree oil. Our purpose was to determine whether this represented an immunoglobulin E (IgE)--mediated reaction. Skin-prick and intradermal testing was performed, as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for specific IgG and IgE against tea tree oil. The patient had a positive wheal and flare reaction on intradermal testing with tea tree oil. All five patient controls were negative on skin testing. No specific IgG or IgE was detected. We present the first reported case of an immediate systemic hypersensitivity reaction occurring after topical application of Australian tea tree oil, confirmed by positive wheal and flare reaction on skin testing.

  8. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Skin Biopsy KidsHealth > For Teens > Skin Biopsy Print A A ... español Biopsia de piel What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would Need One? In a biopsy, ...

  9. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  10. Effect of ranitidine on postoperative suppression of natural killer cell activity and delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Pedersen, B K; Moesgaard, F

    1989-01-01

    hypersensitivity (DTH) antigens, and blood drawn immediately before and 24 hours after skin incision was analyzed for spontaneous and in vitro stimulated (IL-2, IFN-alpha or indomethacin) natural killer (NK) cell activity and PHA and PPD-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Lymphocyte subsets (helper......-cell activity (p less than 0.02). Postoperative decrease in helper/inducer-T cell numbers was not significantly lessened (p = 0.07), and ranitidine did not influence the levels of suppressor-T cells. PHA and PPD responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were unaltered. The results may suggest potential...

  11. Effect of ranitidine on postoperative suppression of natural killer cell activity and delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Pedersen, B K; Moesgaard, F;

    1989-01-01

    hypersensitivity (DTH) antigens, and blood drawn immediately before and 24 hours after skin incision was analyzed for spontaneous and in vitro stimulated (IL-2, IFN-alpha or indomethacin) natural killer (NK) cell activity and PHA and PPD-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Lymphocyte subsets (helper......-cell activity (p less than 0.02). Postoperative decrease in helper/inducer-T cell numbers was not significantly lessened (p = 0.07), and ranitidine did not influence the levels of suppressor-T cells. PHA and PPD responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were unaltered. The results may suggest potential...

  12. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  13. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Akitoshi; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence.

  14. Delayed Type IIIb endoleak secondary to graft fabric tear 7 years following implantation of a Medtronic Talent endovascular aortic device: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Vinay; Nagpal, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    To report a rare case of delayed Type IIIb endoleak secondary to fabric tear following implantation of a Medtronic Talent endovascular device. A 83-year old gentleman underwent elective endovascular aneurysm repair for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm with a Medtronic bifurcated stent graft in 2008. Seven years after the initial repair, imaging surveillance revealed significant endoleak and brisk aneurysm sac expansion due to Type IIIb endoleak secondary to endograft limb fabric tear. This case illustrates the imperative role of imaging surveillance in detection of long-term endovascular aneurysm repair complications. Furthermore, we discuss exclusion of the graft tear with aortouniiliac stent grafting as the treatment for this complication.

  15. Lymphatic Function Regulates Contact Hypersensitivity Dermatitis in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savetsky, Ira L; Albano, Nicholas J; Cuzzone, Daniel A; Gardenier, Jason C; Torrisi, Jeremy S; García Nores, Gabriela D; Nitti, Matthew D; Hespe, Geoffrey E; Nelson, Tyler S; Kataru, Raghu P; Dixon, J Brandon; Mehrara, Babak J

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for inflammatory dermatologic diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. In addition, recent studies have shown that obesity impairs lymphatic function. As the lymphatic system is a critical regulator of inflammatory reactions, we tested the hypothesis that obesity-induced lymphatic dysfunction is a key regulator of cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions in obese mice. We found that obese mice have impaired lymphatic function, characterized by leaky capillary lymphatics and decreased collecting vessel pumping capacity. In addition, obese mice displayed heightened dermatitis responses to inflammatory skin stimuli, resulting in both higher peak inflammation and a delayed clearance of inflammatory responses. Injection of recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor-C remarkably increased lymphangiogenesis, lymphatic function, and lymphatic endothelial cell expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21, while decreasing inflammation and expression of inducible nitrous oxide synthase. These changes resulted in considerably decreased dermatitis responses in both lean and obese mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that obesity-induced changes in the lymphatic system result in an amplified and a prolonged inflammatory response.

  16. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a green tea manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuko; Shirai, Toshihiro; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Asada, Kazuhiro; Oyama, Yoshiyuki; Suda, Takafumi

    2016-04-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is caused by numerous agents, and one of its histopathological features is poorly formed granulomas. We report here a rare case of occupational HP caused by green tea, showing well-formed granulomas. The patient, a 54-year-old woman who had worked for 15 years in a green tea factory, was referred for abnormal chest X-ray shadows with cough and breathlessness over a 2-month period. The chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities and poorly defined centrilobular nodules. Histopathological examination of the thoracoscopic lung biopsy specimens showed bronchiolocentric interstitial pneumonia with well-formed granulomas. Although the form of granulomas were atypical, laboratory data, CT findings, and intradermal skin testing suggested the diagnosis of subacute HP caused by green tea. After transfer to a different department, her condition improved markedly. Taking a precise medical history and avoidance of the suspected environmental agent proved useful in diagnosing this condition. © 2016 The Authors. Respirology Case Reports published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of The Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  17. Systemic hydrocortisone/cortisol induces allergic skin reactions in presensitized subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauerma, A I; Reitamo, S; Maibach, H I

    1991-02-01

    To determine whether systemic hydrocortisone can elicit allergic skin reactions in patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone, we studied four patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate and two patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone-17-butyrate but not to hydrocortisone. Open oral provocation with 100 or 250 mg hydrocortisone in patients with hydrocortisone contact hypersensitivity elicited cutaneous reactions at sites of previous allergic dermatitis caused by hydrocortisone in two patients and at sites of earlier allergic patch test reactions caused by hydrocortisone in the other two patients. Provocations in two patients with contact hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone-17-butyrate but not to hydrocortisone remained negative. To determine whether the adrenal cortical hormone cortisol, which is identical to hydrocortisone, could induce similar skin reactions, one patient with hydrocortisone contact hypersensitivity underwent adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests; as a control, one hydrocortisone-sensitive patient underwent analogous provocations with placebo. After an 8-hour infusion with the adrenocorticotropic hormone analog tetracosactide, a similar skin reaction to that seen with oral hydrocortisone was observed, whereas provocations with placebo remained negative. We conclude that both oral hydrocortisone and intrinsic cortisol are able to induce allergic skin reactions in presensitized subjects.

  18. Visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Motoyori; Hongo, Michio; Fukudo, Shin

    2011-04-01

    Altered central processing, abnormal gastrointestinal motility and visceral hypersensitivity may be possible major pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). These factors affect each other and are probably associated with development of IBS symptoms. It has been confirmed that lower pain threshold to colonic distention was observed in most of patients with IBS than healthy subjects. We have investigated pain perception of the descending colon among different subtypes of IBS. There was no difference in pain threshold to colonic distention between IBS with diarrhea and constipation. Some brain regions such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) may play a major role for generating pain and/or pain-related emotion in humans. IBS patients showed greater activation in the perigenual ACC during painful rectal distention compared with healthy subjects. Inflammation, stress and the combination of both stimuli can induce significant increase in visceral sensitivity in animal models. Serotonin (5-HT) can modulate visceral perception. It has been thought that 5-HT(3) receptors may play an important role for conveying visceral sensation from the gut. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) may also modulate visceral pain hypersensitivity in IBS. CRH receptor-1 antagonist significantly prevented an increase in gut sensitivity in rats. It has been demonstrated that non-specific CRH receptor antagonist α-helical CRH significantly reduced abdominal pain score during gut stimulus in patients with IBS. In conclusion, visceral hypersensitivity is common in IBS patients and probably plays a major role in development of the symptoms and both central and peripheral factors may enhance the pain sensitivity.

  19. Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Skin ... (bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin and tissues beneath) are typical childhood skin infections. The usual bacterial culprits in skin ...

  20. Anisakis hypersensitivity in Italy: prevalence and clinical features: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Anisakis simplex (As), a parasite in fish, is able to sensitize humans via the alimentary tract. The prevalence of hypersensitivity and allergy to As outside the Iberian peninsula has not been investigated so far. We investigated Anisakis hypersensitivity in different areas of Italy. Consecutive subjects seen at 34 Italian allergy centers from October to December 2010 were investigated both by specific interview and by skin prick test (SPT) with As extract. A total of 10 570 subjects were screened, of which 474 (4.5%) scored positive on Anisakis SPT and 66 of these (14% of those sensitized; 0.6% of the studied population) had a history of As allergy. Marinated anchovies were the most frequent cause of allergic reactions. Thirty-four (52%) patients were mono-sensitized to Anisakis. Sensitization rate showed marked geographic differences (range: 0.4-12.7%), being highest along the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coasts, where homemade marinated anchovies are an age-old tradition. In inland centers in northern Italy, the prevalence was directly related to the number of inhabitants. The analysis of the impact of immigration on the prevalence of Anisakis hypersensitivity showed that about 60% of sensitized subjects in Milano and Torino came from southern Italy or from non-European countries. Anisakis hypersensitivity and allergy are mainly a matter of dietary habits. Areas where marinated anchovies are popular can be considered as 'endemic' for this type of food allergy, whereas immigration and, possibly, new or imported trendy food styles, such as eating raw fish carpaccios or sushi, are a major causative factor in big cities of inland zones. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Oncostatin M induces heat hypersensitivity by gp130-dependent sensitization of TRPV1 in sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langeslag Michiel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oncostatin M (OSM is a member of the interleukin-6 cytokine family and regulates eg. gene activation, cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. OSM binds to a receptor complex consisting of the ubiquitously expressed signal transducer gp130 and the ligand binding OSM receptor subunit, which is expressed on a specific subset of primary afferent neurons. In the present study, the effect of OSM on heat nociception was investigated in nociceptor-specific gp130 knock-out (SNS-gp130-/- and gp130 floxed (gp130fl/fl mice. Subcutaneous injection of pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of OSM into the hind-paw of C57BL6J wild type mice significantly reduced paw withdrawal latencies to heat stimulation. In contrast to gp130fl/fl mice, OSM did not induce heat hypersensitivity in vivo in SNS-gp130-/- mice. OSM applied at the receptive fields of sensory neurons in in vitro skin-nerve preparations showed that OSM significantly increased the discharge rate during a standard ramp-shaped heat stimulus. The capsaicin- and heat-sensitive ion channel TRPV1, expressed on a subpopulation of nociceptive neurons, has been shown to play an important role in inflammation-induced heat hypersensitivity. Stimulation of cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons with OSM resulted in potentiation of capsaicin induced ionic currents. In line with these recordings, mice with a null mutation of the TRPV1 gene did not show any signs of OSM-induced heat hypersensitivity in vivo. The present data suggest that OSM induces thermal hypersensitivity by directly sensitizing nociceptors via OSMR-gp130 receptor mediated potentiation of TRPV1.

  2. STUDIES ON THE TUBERCULIN REACTION AND ON SPECIFIC HYPERSENSITIVENESS IN BACTERIAL INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, H

    1921-10-31

    The work reported in the preceding sections justifies, we think, a number of definite conclusions. In addition to this, some of the experiments indicate a line of thought which may lead to considerable alteration in our conceptions, both of phenomena of bacterial hypersensitiveness and of infection. 1. In guinea pigs two fundamentally different types of intradermal reactions may be observed. One of these is the immediate, transitory reaction which develops in animals sensitized against proteins (horse serum, etc.) and may be regarded as one of the manifestations of general protein hypersensitiveness, or anaphylaxis; the other is the tuberculin type of skin reaction which develops more slowly, leads to a more profound injury of the tissues and is independent of anaphylaxis as ordinarily conceived. 2. The tuberculin type of hypersensitiveness (as well as probably the typhoidin, mallein, abortin reactions, etc.) does not develop at all in guinea pigs sensitized with proteins, like horse serum, etc. While this form of hypersensitiveness may eventually be induced with materials not bacterial in origin, it has been observed up to date only as a reaction of bacterial infection. 3. Methods of treatment with protein material from bacterial cultures which sensitize guinea pigs to anaphylactic reactions with the bacterial extracts, do not sensitize them to the tuberculin type of reaction. Such sensitization is easily accomplished only by infecting the animals with living organisms. No reliable method of sensitizing guinea pigs to such reactions with dead bacterial material has as yet been worked out, though a few hopeful experiments have been obtained with massive injections of large amounts of the acid-precipitable substances (nucleoproteins?) from bacterial extracts. 4. In animals made hypersensitive to the tuberculin type of reaction by infection with living bacteria, the reaction may be elicited by intradermal injections of bacterial extracts from which all coagulable

  3. 7th Drug hypersensitivity meeting: part two

    OpenAIRE

    Elera, Javier Dionicio; Boteanu, Cosmin; Blanco, Maria Aranzazu Jimenez; Gonzalez-Mendiola, Rosario; García, Irene Carrasco; Alvarez, Antonio; Martinez, Jose Julio Laguna; Garrido, Jaume Martí; Barona, Carla Torán; Chorda, Carolina Perales; Salgueiro, Ramón López; Palacios, Miguel Díaz; de Rojas, Dolores Hernández Fernández; Acar, Emre Ali; Aktas, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents Poster walk 11: miscellaneous drug hypersensitivity 2 (P92–P94, P96–P101) P92 16 years of experience with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) Javier Dionicio Elera, Cosmin Boteanu, Maria Aranzazu Jimenez Blanco, Rosario Gonzalez-Mendiola, Irene Carrasco García, Antonio Alvarez, Jose Julio Laguna Martinez P93 Allergy evaluation of quinolone induced adverse reactions Jaume Martí Garrido, Carla Torán Barona, Carolina Perales Chorda, Ramón López Salgueiro, Miguel Díaz Palacios, Dolore...

  4. Skin Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  5. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Akitoshi, E-mail: akitoshi-tamura@ds-pharma.co.jp; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  6. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  7. Chronic Toxoplasmosis Modulates the Induction of Contact Hypersensitivity by TNCB in Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2015-12-01

    Mouse models of chronic toxoplasmosis and atopic dermatitis (AD) were combined to clarify the effect of opportunistic Toxoplasma gondii infection on the development of AD. AD was induced as a chronic contact hypersensitivity (CHS) with repeated challenge of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) on the dorsal skin of mice. TNCB induced skin thickness increases in both normal and toxoplasmic mice. The changing patterns were different from the sigmoidal which saturated at 20 days in normal mice to the convex saturated at 12 days in toxoplasmic mice with the crossing at 18 days. Compared to normal mice, toxoplasmic mice presented CHS more severely in earlier times and then moderately in later times. These data suggest that host immune modification by T. gondii infection enhances CHS in early times of atopic stimulation but soothes the reaction of CHS in later times in mouse model.

  8. Frequency, treatment, and functional outcome in children with hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Damgaard, Karen;

    2011-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a rare interstitial lung disease and very few data regarding frequency, treatment and outcome exist for children. Children identified with hypersensitivity pneumonia from a Danish national cohort with diffuse interstitial lung disease form the basis of this study...... focused on disease frequency, treatment, and functional outcome....

  9. Association between Severity of Tooth Wear and Dentinal Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Ayer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Tooth wear (attrition, abrasion, erosion, and abfraction is perceived globally as ever increasing problem. Several outcome of the tooth wear are hypersensitivity, esthetic problems, functional impairment, annoyance to the patient, and fracture of the tooth. Among these, the measurable and more commonly reported outcome is hypersensitivity to stimuli. Although dentin hypersensitivity is a common clinical condition and is generally reported by the patient after experiencing a sharp, short pain caused by one of the several different external stimuli, it is often inadequately understood. None of the scientific literature available till date attempted to establish the relationship between tooth wear and dentin hypersensitivity which could be a key factor in monitoring those patients.  The aim of the study was to estimate the association between severity of teeth wear and sensitivity in the patients with reported dentinal hypersensitivity.Materials & Methods: Fifty patients with dentin hypersensitivity were investigated for tooth wear. Tooth wear measured using exact tooth wear index and level of sensitivity to stimuli was recorded using a numerical rating scale. Results: Enamel wear at cervical region of teeth showed a positive correlation (p=.010, similarly, dentin wear at cervical region of teeth showed positive correlation and significant association (p<.001 with dentinal hypersensitivity.Conclusion: The observation supports a significant association between severities of tooth surface wear and dentinal hypersensitivity.

  10. [Sodium cromoglycate in the treatment of food hypersensitivity in children under 3 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, E; Kaczmarski, M

    2001-09-01

    Dietary elimination is a treatment of first choice in food hypersensitivity. Such therapy is not always enough to stop the disease and introduction of pharmacological treatment is necessary. In prevention and long term treatment antiallergic drugs are recommended. The aim of the study was to assess efficacy and safety of oral sodium cromoglycate in treatment of food hypersensitivity in the youngest children. In our study we examined: the group of 25 children aged 6 months-3 years treated with oral cromolyn sodium during the period 4-20 weeks and 29 children aged 6 months-3 years treated with ketotifen. Symptoms from skin, digestive and respiratory tract, behaviour status were evaluated for drugs efficacy. Cromolyn and ketotifen effected a significant decrease in total symptoms score. The treatment was well tolerated. No serious side effects were noted. The incidents of skin rash, disquiet during the night, diarrhoea and urticaria were only 8 percent. Sodium cromoglycate is safe and effective drug in treatment of food allergy in children; specially in symptoms from gastrointestinal tract and multi-organs allergy.

  11. Immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reaction after intraperitoneal administration of vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun-Ju Hwang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraperitoneal (IP vancomycin is widely used to treat Gram-positive peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis. There have been two cases of red man syndrome (RMS, a vancomycin-specific nonimmunologic reaction, associated with IP vancomycin. However, immune-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to IP vancomycin has not yet been reported. A 49 year old woman on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis developed her first peritonitis episode. The patient was treated with IP vancomycin once/wk for 4 weeks. She experienced mild itching and flushing throughout her body for 1 day after the second treatment. Whenever vancomycin was administered, generalized urticaria and a prickling sensation developed, and the intensity increased gradually; however, these symptoms improved after vancomycin was discontinued. An allergic skin test was performed 6 weeks after the previous urticarial episode, and an intradermal skin test revealed a positive response to vancomycin. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to IP vancomycin administration.

  12. Clinical efficacy of toothpaste containing potassium citrate in treating dentin hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ya Shen

    2009-12-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in this study was 38%. The use of desensitizing toothpaste containing potassium citrate with oral hygiene instruction can effectively reduce dentin hypersensitivity.

  13. Glucocorticoid hypersensitivity as a rare but potentially fatal side effect of paediatric asthma treatment: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann Sylvia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Immediate-type hypersensitivity to glucocorticosteroids is rare but well known among allergists. Surprisingly, very few reports of glucocorticosteroid hypersensitivity in children exist although glucocorticosteroid treatment is particularly common in this age group. Case presentation We report the case of a 2-year-old boy who developed generalized urticaria, facial angio-oedema, nausea and severe dyspnoea after intravenous application of prednisolone-21-hydrogen succinate. Skin prick testing with prednisolone-21-hydrogen succinate elicited a positive result; no reactions were observed to prednisone, betamethasone or dexamethasone. While fluorescence enzyme immunoassay analysis revealed no specific IgE antibodies against prednisolone-21-hydrogen succinate, CD63-based basophil activation testing with the culprit drug prednisolone-21-hydrogen succinate was positive. In contrast, additional incubation of basophils with prednisone, betamethasone and dexamethasone did not elicit any significant response. Hence, we performed an oral provocation test with betamethasone and a titrated intravenous dexamethasone challenge. As both drugs were tolerated without any complications they were recommended for future treatment. Conclusion In a child with confirmed immediate-type hypersensitivity to glucocorticosteroids, it is still not possible to predict which glucocorticosteroid might be tolerated by solely relying on clinical history or results of skin and in vitro testing. Therefore, incremental glucocorticosteroid challenges under standardized clinical conditions remain necessary in order to facilitate a patient-tailored emergency treatment and to avoid severe reactions to glucocorticosteroids in these patients.

  14. 浅谈延迟性肌肉酸痛的原因及预防%The Cause and Prevention of Delayed-type Muscle Soreness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于华荣

    2012-01-01

    超过习惯强度的运动练习会产生延迟性肌肉酸痛,其致痛原因有损伤假说、痉挛假说和自由基假说。根据以上假说,采取相应的预防和减轻肌肉酸痛的措施,对于学校体育教育来说,具有现实的意义。%The exercise of more than habit strength may produce delayed-type muscle soreness, the cause of its induced pain include damage hypothesis, spasm hypothesis and the free radical hypothesis. According to the above hypothesis, the corresponding preventive measures are taken and can reduce muscle soreness. For school physical education, it has very practical significance.

  15. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are round and lie directly under squamous cells. Melanocytes are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. It also protects the ...

  16. Skin turgor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arm or abdomen is checked. The skin is held for a few seconds then released. Skin with ... University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  17. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  18. Rapid desensitization for hypersensitivity reactions to medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Mariana

    2009-08-01

    Drug desensitization is the induction of temporary clinical unresponsiveness to drug antigens to which patients have presented severe hypersensitivity reactions. It is typically achieved by gradual reintroduction of small doses of drug antigens at fixed time intervals, and it is aimed at providing increased safety and protection from side effects, including anaphylaxis. Delivery of full therapeutic doses is achieved during desensitization, allowing patients to receive firstline chemotherapy, antibiotics, or monoclonal antibodies, as well as other drugs such as insulin, aspirin, and iron. Desensitizations are high-risk interventions. Inhibition of cellular activation mechanisms occurs during drug desensitization, allowing for the protective clinical outcomes and lack of side effects in the majority of cases, but the cellular and molecular inhibitory mechanisms are incompletely understood. The indication for desensitization protocols can only be done by trained allergists and immunologists and should be implemented as standard of care because of their high success rates and outcomes-demonstrated safety profile.

  19. Eosinophilic leukemoid reaction associated with carbamazepine hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laad Gaurish

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazepine is widely used in the treatment of epilepsy, neuralgic pain, and bipolar affective disorders. Several adverse drug reactions have been described during the course of carbamazepine administration, including exanthemata and hematological reactions. Carbamazepine is one of the common drugs that have been implicated in the etiology of drug hypersensitivity syndrome. A 50-year-old male presented with generalized erythroderma following 10 weeks of ingestion of carbamazepine 200 mg daily for idiopathic epilepsy. His systemic examination was within normal limits. Blood counts revealed marked eosinophilia of 52% (absolute eosinophil count of 10,400 per mm3. Bone marrow aspiration revealed a moderate increase in the eosinophilic series with cells showing normal morphology. The eosinophil counts returned to normal after 2 weeks of oral prednisolone therapy. This case is reported because of its rarity in the Indian medical literature.

  20. Selective immediate hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Maria Gabriela; Andreu, Isabel; Fernandez, Javier; Blanca, Miguel

    2009-08-01

    Selective immediate reactions to NSAIDs imply that patients develop a urticarial/anaphylactic response to a single drug with good tolerance to other compounds. No systematic review of these reactions has yet been made. With the increase in consumption of NSAIDs, these have become one of the most common drugs inducing hypersensitivity reactions. Although cross-intolerance reactions are the most common, a significant proportion is selective responses. As specific IgE antibodies are not always found, there is only indirect evidence supporting an IgE-mediated mechanism in selective NSAID reactors. Selective immediate reactions to NSAIDs must be considered when a patient develops urticaria or anaphylaxis after intake of one drug with good tolerance to drugs from other groups or even a drug from the same group with a slightly different chemical structure. Further research is required to identify the antigenic determinant structures recognized.

  1. Non-surgical management of tooth hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Danielle; Levin, Liran

    2016-10-01

    Tooth sensitivity is a common complaint of patients in dental practices. Studies have demonstrated dentinal hypersensitivity to affect 10-30% of the population. There are various potential causes of tooth sensitivity and a variety of available treatment options. This narrative review will discuss the possible aetiology of this condition, as well as the treatment modalities available. A tailor-made treatment plan that starts with the most non-invasive treatment options and escalates only when those options have proven insufficient in alleviating symptoms should be provided for each patient. Only after all non- and less-invasive methods have failed to reduce the symptoms should more invasive treatment options, such as root-coverage, be considered.

  2. Are Some Neurons Hypersensitive to Metallic Nanoparticles?

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Bobby R.

    2010-01-01

    Engineered metallic nanomaterial particles (MENAP) represent a significant breakthrough in developing new products for use by consumers and industry. Skin application (e.g., via creams and sprays containing nanoparticles) may provide a key route of potential intake of MENAP and can lead to retrograde transport from nerve endings in the skin to the somatosensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). This paper uses a novel theoretical model (stochastic threshold microdose [STM] model) to chara...

  3. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  4. Self-reported sulphonamide hypersensitivity reactions in adults living in Ibadan, Nigeria: Across-sectional, community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpan Richard Mary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Documentation of adverse drug reactions (ADRs is critical to a safe health delivery system. The aim of our study was to explore the prevalence of self-reported sulphonamide hypersensitivity reactions in a community-based sample of the general population in Ibadan, Nigeria. We also examined sociodemographic factors associated with ADRs in the sample. Patients and Methods: The study was cross-sectional in design with study sites in urban, semiurban, and rural settlement areas. Pretested questionnaires were administered on a one-on-one basis by trained interviewers. Frequency tables and percentages were computed for various levels of the variables. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between sulphonamide hypersensitivity and variables such as sociodemographic characteristics of respondents, respondents' knowledge of drugs, as well as drug sources. Variables found to be significantly associated with sulphonamide hypersensitivity were further investigated using multiple logistic regressions analysis. Results: Out of the 1062 respondents, 15.5% reported hypersensitivity to sulphonamides with skin reactions being the most prevalent. The proportion reporting ADRs was significantly higher among respondents with tertiary education (23.1% than any other level of education (P = 0.008. In addition, individuals who were very knowledgeable about drug use (odds ratio[OR]: 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–3.73 and persons who got drugs from hospitals (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.10–3.65 were more likely to report ADRs than those who were ignorant about drugs and those who purchased drugs from open markets, respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of sulphonamide hypersensitivity is high among respondents, and ADRs is likely to be reported by people who are knowledgeable about drug use.

  5. Pomalidomide desensitization in a patient hypersensitive to immunomodulating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, J.T.; Sakurai, N.; Lam, W.; Reece, D.E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite progressive treatments with tandem stem-cell transplantation, patients with incurable myeloma eventually succumb to relapsed or refractory disease if left untreated. Promising agents such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulating imide drugs (imids), including the newer-generation agent pomalidomide, in combination with lower-dose dexamethasone, have been shown to be effective and to significantly improve and prolong survival in pretreated patients. Although the incidence of pomalidomide hypersensitivity reaction (hsr) in this class of drugs is not as well known, we have documented cutaneous toxicity (grade 3 by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4) in 2 separate cases (not yet published). Because the imids are chemically, structurally, and pharmacologically similar, it is not unreasonable to consider possible cross-reactivity in pomalidomide recipients who developed hsr when receiving previous lines of imids. As a patient’s advocate, it is only prudent to provide a responsible, and yet practical, means to better address cross-sensitivity for patients. Intervention with the use of a rapid desensitization program (rdp) as a preventive measure should be introduced before initiating pomalidomide. Such a proactive measure for the patient’s safety will ensure a smooth transition into pomalidomide treatment. A hsr can be either related or non-related to immunoglobulin E. As imids become an essential treatment backbone for myeloma and other plasma-cell diseases, an increasing number of patients could experience skin and other life-threatening toxicities, resulting in unnecessary discontinuation of these life-prolonging agents. An extemporaneously prepared pomalidomide suspension developed at our centre enables patients to undergo rdp safely. Patients enjoy a good quality of life and clinical response after the rdp procedure. PMID:28874903

  6. Dilemma in the Diagnosis of Povidone-Iodine Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Povidone-iodine is a commonly used antiseptic solution in surgical practice. Almost every patient who needs a minor or a major surgical procedure (sometimes, a medical procedure too gets exposed to this antiseptic. Even though the use of this antiseptic is widespread, the number of cases reporting hypersensitivity to it is meagre. This case report highlights a case of povidone-iodine – induced hypersensitivity, which presented a great difficulty in diagnosis, due to the usage of other drugs that could have been more likely causes for this hypersensitivity.

  7. Outpatient desensitization in selected patients with platinum hypersensitivity reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, David M; Vetter, Monica Hagan; Cohn, David E; Khan, Ambar; Hays, John L

    2017-06-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapies are a standard treatment for both initial and recurrent gynecologic cancers. Given this widespread use, it is important to be aware of the features of platinum hypersensitivity reactions and the subsequent treatment of these reactions. There is also increasing interest in the development of desensitization protocols to allow patients with a history of platinum hypersensitivity to receive further platinum based therapy. In this review, we describe the management of platinum hypersensitivity reactions and the desensitization protocols utilized at our institution. We also describe the clinical categorizations utilized to triage patients to appropriate desensitization protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Immediate and delayed contact hypersensitivity to verbena plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potter, P C; Mather, S; Lockey, P

    1995-01-01

    , a common perennial in South African gardens. The other case was a 23-year-old female gardener who developed immediate and delayed-type contact dermatitis from Verbena elegans 'Cleopatra' produced in a Danish nursery. Prick tests to plant material were considered positive and of an allergic nature....

  9. A subset of AID-dependent B-1a cells initiates hypersensitivity and pneumococcal pneumonia resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenase, Phillip W.; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Paliwal, Vipin; Redegeld, Frank; Groot Kormelink, Thomas; Kerfoot, Steven; Hutchinson, Andrew T.; van Loveren, Henk; Campos, Regis; Itakura, Atsuko; Majewska-Szczepanik, Monika; Yamamoto, Natsuo; Nazimek, Katarzyn; Szczepanik, Marian; Ptak, Wold

    2015-01-01

    We propose that there is a special B-1a B cell subset (“sB-1a” cells) that mediates linked processes very early after immunization to initiate cutaneous contact sensitivity (CS), delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and immune resistance to pneumococcal pneumonia. Our published data indicate that in CS and DTH these initiating processes are required for elicitation of the delayed onset and late-occurring classical T cell–mediated responses. sB-1a cells resemble memory B2 cells, as they are stimulated within 1-hour of immunization and depend on T helper cytokines—uniquely IL-4 from hepatic iNKT cells–for activation and rapid migration from the peritoneal cavity to the spleen to secrete IgM antibody (Ab) and Ab-derived free light chains (FLC) by only one day after immunization. Unlike conventional B-1a (cB-1a) cell–produced IgM natural Ab, IgM Ab produced by sB-1a cells has high Ag affinity owing to immunoglobulin V-region mutations induced by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). The dominant cB-1a cells are increased in immunized AID-deficient mice but do not mediate initiation, CS, or pneumonia resistance because natural Ab has relatively low Ag-affinity because of unmutated germ line V-regions. In CS and DTH, sB-1a IgM Ag affinity is sufficiently high to mediate complement activation for generation of C5a that, together with vasoactive mediators such as TNF-α released by FLC-sensitized mast cells activate local endothelium for extravascular recruitment of effector T cells. We conclude by discussing the possibility of functional sB-1 cells in humans. PMID:26662721

  10. Pb exposure attenuates hypersensitivity in vivo by increasing regulatory T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Liang [Department of Immunology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhao, Fang; Shen, Xuefeng [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Ouyang, Weiming [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Division of Monoclonal Antibodies, Office of Biotechnology Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, United States Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Liu, Xinqin; Xu, Yan; Yu, Tao [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Jin, Boquan [Department of Immunology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Chen, Jingyuan, E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Luo, Wenjing, E-mail: luowenj@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Pb is a common environmental pollutant affecting various organs. Exposure of the immune system to Pb leads to immunosuppression or immunodysregulation. Although previous studies showed that Pb exposure can modulate the function of helper T cells, Pb immunotoxicity remains incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Pb exposure on T cell development, and the underlying mechanism of Pb-induced suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in vivo. Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to 300 ppm Pb-acetate solution via the drinking water for six weeks, and we found that Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in the blood by 4.2-fold (p < 0.05) as compared to those in the control rats. In Pb-exposed rats, the amount of thymic CD4{sup +}CD8{sup −} and peripheral CD4{sup +} T cells was significantly reduced, whereas, CD8{sup +} population was not affected. In contrast to conventional CD4{sup +} T cells, Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs) were increased in both the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs of Pb-exposed rats. In line with the increase of Tregs, the DTH response of Pb-exposed rats was markedly suppressed. Depletion of Tregs reversed the suppression of DTH response by Pb-exposed CD4{sup +} T cells in an adoptive transfer model, suggesting a critical role of the increased Tregs in suppressing the DTH response. Collectively, this study revealed that Pb-exposure may upregulate Tregs, thereby leading to immunosuppression. -- Highlights: ► Pb exposure impaired CD4{sup +} thymic T cell development. ► Peripheral T lymphocytes were reduced following Pb exposure. ► Pb exposure increases thymic and peripheral Treg cells in rats. ► Tregs played a critical role in Pb-exposure-induced immune suppression.

  11. Small-molecule inhibition of STOML3 oligomerization reverses pathological mechanical hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Christiane; Pifferi, Simone; Picci, Cristina; Gök, Caglar; Hoffmann, Diana; Bali, Kiran K; Lampe, André; Lapatsina, Liudmila; Fleischer, Raluca; Smith, Ewan St John; Bégay, Valérie; Moroni, Mirko; Estebanez, Luc; Kühnemund, Johannes; Walcher, Jan; Specker, Edgar; Neuenschwander, Martin; von Kries, Jens Peter; Haucke, Volker; Kuner, Rohini; Poulet, James F A; Schmoranzer, Jan; Poole, Kate; Lewin, Gary R

    2017-02-01

    The skin is equipped with specialized mechanoreceptors that allow the perception of the slightest brush. Indeed, some mechanoreceptors can detect even nanometer-scale movements. Movement is transformed into electrical signals via the gating of mechanically activated ion channels at sensory endings in the skin. The sensitivity of Piezo mechanically gated ion channels is controlled by stomatin-like protein-3 (STOML3), which is required for normal mechanoreceptor function. Here we identify small-molecule inhibitors of STOML3 oligomerization that reversibly reduce the sensitivity of mechanically gated currents in sensory neurons and silence mechanoreceptors in vivo. STOML3 inhibitors in the skin also reversibly attenuate fine touch perception in normal mice. Under pathophysiological conditions following nerve injury or diabetic neuropathy, the slightest touch can produce pain, and here STOML3 inhibitors can reverse mechanical hypersensitivity. Thus, small molecules applied locally to the skin can be used to modulate touch and may represent peripherally available drugs to treat tactile-driven pain following neuropathy.

  12. Mechanisms underlying visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Giovanni; Cremon, Cesare; De Giorgio, Roberto; Dothel, Giovanni; Zecchi, Lisa; Bellacosa, Lara; Carini, Giovanni; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2011-08-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is currently considered a key pathophysiological mechanism involved in pain perception in large subgroups of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In IBS, visceral hypersensitivity has been described in 20%-90% of patients. The contribution of the central nervous system and psychological factors to visceral hypersensitivity in patients with IBS may be significant, although still debated. Peripheral factors have gained increasing attention following the recognition that infectious enteritis may trigger the development of persistent IBS symptoms, and the identification of mucosal immune, neural, endocrine, microbiological, and intestinal permeability abnormalities. Growing evidence suggests that these factors play an important role in pain transmission from the periphery to the brain via sensory nerve pathways in large subsets of patients with IBS. In this review, we will report on recent data on mechanisms involved in visceral hypersensitivity in IBS, with particular attention paid to peripheral mechanisms.

  13. Hypersensitivity to biological agents-updated diagnosis, management, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Violeta Régnier; Castells, Mariana C

    2015-01-01

    Biological agents are used in the treatment of neoplastic, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases and their clinical applications are becoming broader. Following their increased utilization, hypersensitivity reactions linked to these drugs have become more frequent, sometimes preventing the use of first-line therapies. The clinical presentation of hypersensitivity reactions to biological agents ranges from mild cutaneous manifestations to life-threatening reactions. In this scenario, rapid desensitization is a groundbreaking procedure that enables selected patients to receive the full treatment dose in a safe way, in spite of their immediate hypersensitivity reaction to the drug, and protects them against anaphylaxis. The aim of this review is to update and discuss some of the main biological agents used in clinical practice (rituximab, trastuzumab, cetuximab, ofatumumab, tocilizumab, brentuximab, omalizumab, and tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor agents) and their associated hypersensitivity reactions, including clinical presentations, diagnosis, and treatment in the acute setting. In addition, novel management options with rapid desensitization are presented.

  14. Effectiveness of Lasers in the Treatment of Dentin Hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Mohammad; Moeini, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is a relatively common painful condition among dental problems. Although many studies have been performed regarding the diagnosis and treatment of DH, dental practitioners are still confused about the definite diagnosis and treatment.The use of lasers as a treatment for dentin hypersensitivity was first introduced in 1985.Laser treatment in dentin hypersensitivity is an interesting and controversial issue and many investigations have been done on its mechanism of action, advantages, and unclear points.The present literature review tries to go over the definition, diagnosis, etiology , predisposing factors, various laser types in the treatment of DH alone or in combination with topical desensitizing agents. Since a certain treatment has not yet introduced for dentin hypersensitivity, a combination of laser therapy and topical desensitizing factors ,can increase the success of the treatment compared with either treatments alone. PMID:25606300

  15. Type I immediate hypersensitivity reaction to cyanocobalamin but not hydroxycobalamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, F J; Hughes, R; O'Shea, D; Kirby, B

    2008-07-01

    We report a case of a 42-year-old woman with a background of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, who developed a type I immediate hypersensitivity reaction to intramuscular cyanocobalamin. Intradermal testing showed a positive reaction to cyanocobalamin. The patient was subsequently treated with intramuscular hydroxycobalamin after negative intradermal testing to this alternative B(12) compound. A review of previously described cases of hypersensitivity to either compound provides a rationale for the management of this rare but serious side-effect.

  16. A Rare Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy: Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carotid sinus hypersensitivity is a common cause of fainting and falls in the elderly, and can be diagnosed by carotid sinus massage. We present a 67-year-old diabetic man who was admitted with hyperglycemia. During thyroid examination, clouding of consciousness occurred with unilateral palpation. Asystole was documented for 4.8 seconds and suspected for 7 seconds upon carotid sinus massage. A cardioverter defibrillator was implanted. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity should be kept in mind when examining diabetic patients.

  17. Progressive anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome associated with change of drug product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabroe, T.P.; Sabers, A.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the laboratory and physical manifestations of lamotrigine-like toxicity in a young man with refractory epilepsy receiving lamotrigine presenting as anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) associated with an abrupt change of drug product Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6......This report describes the laboratory and physical manifestations of lamotrigine-like toxicity in a young man with refractory epilepsy receiving lamotrigine presenting as anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) associated with an abrupt change of drug product Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6...

  18. Auditory hypersensitivity in children and teenagers with autistic spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify if the clinical behavior of auditory hypersensitivity, reported in interviews with parents/caregivers and therapists/teachers of 46 children and teenagers suffering from autistic spectrum disorder, correspond to audiological findings. METHOD: The clinical diagnosis for auditory hypersensitivity was investigated by means of an interview. Subsequently, a test of the acoustic stapedial reflex was conducted, and responses to intense acoustic stimulus in open field were observ...

  19. Human telomeres are hypersensitive to UV-induced DNA Damage and refractory to repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Rochette

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Telomeric repeats preserve genome integrity by stabilizing chromosomes, a function that appears to be important for both cancer and aging. In view of this critical role in genomic integrity, the telomere's own integrity should be of paramount importance to the cell. Ultraviolet light (UV, the preeminent risk factor in skin cancer development, induces mainly cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD which are both mutagenic and lethal. The human telomeric repeat unit (5'TTAGGG/CCCTAA3' is nearly optimal for acquiring UV-induced CPD, which form at dipyrimidine sites. We developed a ChIP-based technique, immunoprecipitation of DNA damage (IPoD, to simultaneously study DNA damage and repair in the telomere and in the coding regions of p53, 28S rDNA, and mitochondrial DNA. We find that human telomeres in vivo are 7-fold hypersensitive to UV-induced DNA damage. In double-stranded oligonucleotides, this hypersensitivity is a property of both telomeric and non-telomeric repeats; in a series of telomeric repeat oligonucleotides, a phase change conferring UV-sensitivity occurs above 4 repeats. Furthermore, CPD removal in the telomere is almost absent, matching the rate in mitochondria known to lack nucleotide excision repair. Cells containing persistent high levels of telomeric CPDs nevertheless proliferate, and chronic UV irradiation of cells does not accelerate telomere shortening. Telomeres are therefore unique in at least three respects: their biophysical UV sensitivity, their prevention of excision repair, and their tolerance of unrepaired lesions. Utilizing a lesion-tolerance strategy rather than repair would prevent double-strand breaks at closely-opposed excision repair sites on opposite strands of a damage-hypersensitive repeat.

  20. Trichloroethylene Hypersensitivity Syndrome Is Potentially Mediated through Its Metabolite Chloral Hydrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshun Huang

    Full Text Available We documented previously the entity of trichloroethylene (TCE hypersensitivity syndrome (THS in occupational workers.To identify the culprit causative compound, determine the type of hypersensitivity of THS, and establish a screening test for subjects at risk of THS.TCE and its main metabolites chloral hydrate (CH, trichloroethanol (TCOH and trichloroacetic acid (TCA were used as allergens at different concentrations in skin patch tests. The study included 19 case subjects diagnosed with occupational THS, 22 control healthy workers exposed to TCE (exposure >12 weeks, and 20 validation new workers exposed to TCE for <12 weeks free of THS. All subjects were followed-up for 12 weeks after the patch test.The highest patch test positive rate in subjects with THS was for CH, followed by TCOH, TCA and TCE. The CH patch test positive rate was 100% irrespective of CH concentrations (15%, 10% and 5%. The TCOH patch test positive rate was concentration-dependent (89.5%, 73.7% and 52.6% for 5%, 0.5% and 0.05%, respectively. Lower patch test positive rates were noted for TCA and TCE. All patch tests (including four allergens were all negative in each of the 22 control subjects. None of the subjects of the validation group had a positive 15% CH patch test.Chloral hydrate seems to be the culprit causative compound of THS and type IV seems to be the major type of hypersensitivity of THS. The CH patch test could be potentially useful for screening workers at risk of THS.

  1. Visceral and Somatic Hypersensitivity in TNBS induced Colitis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, QiQi; Price, Donald D.; Caudle, Robert M.; Verne, G. Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation of visceral structures in rats has been shown to produce visceral/somatic hyperalgesia. Our objectives were to determine if trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in rats leads to visceral/somatic hypersensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200g–250g) were treated with 20 mg of TNBS in 50% ethanol (n=40) or an equivalent volume of ethanol (n=40) or saline (n=25) via the colon. Colonic distension, Von-Frey, Hargreaves, and tail reflex test were used to evaluate for visceral, mechanical, and thermal sensitivity. The rats demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity at 2–28 days following TNBS (p<0.0001). The ethanol treated rats also demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity that resolved after day 14. TNBS treated rats demonstrated somatic hypersensitivity at days 14–28 (p<0.0001) in response to somatic stimuli of the hind-paw. TNBS colitis is associated with visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in areas of somatotopic overlap. This model of colitis should allow further investigation into the mechanisms of visceral and somatic hypersensitivity. PMID:17703363

  2. Old, New and Hidden Causes of Perioperative Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Lene Heise

    2016-01-01

    Perioperative hypersensitivity reactions are rare, often life-threatening events, and subsequent investigations to identify the culprit are important to avoid re-exposure. All exposures in the perioperative setting may potentially be the cause of a hypersensitivity reaction, but drugs administered intravenously such as neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA), induction agents and antibiotics have traditionally been reported to be implicated most commonly. It has recently become apparent that there are geographical differences in sensitization patterns related to variation in exposures, referral patterns and performance and interpretation of investigations. Differences in sensitization to NMBAs are partly explained by cross sensitization to pholcodine, an ingredient in cough-medicines available in some countries. While NMBAs are the most common causes of perioperative hypersensitivity in some countries, this may not necessarily be the case in all countries. New and hidden allergens have emerged as causes of perioperative hypersensitivity such as blue dyes, chlorhexidine and excipients. Detailed knowledge of the events at the time of reaction is necessary to identify potential culprits including rare and hidden allergens. Cooperation between allergists and anaesthetists, or other staff present perioperatively, is often needed to identify hidden or even undocumented exposures. The objectives of this review are to provide an overview of the history of investigation of perioperative hypersensitivity, to describe the differences in causes of perioperative hypersensitivity emerging over time and to increase awareness about the "hidden allergens" in the perioperative setting. Some practical advice on how to approach the patient testing negative on all initial investigations is also included.

  3. Visceral pain hypersensitivity in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, A D; Aziz, Q

    2009-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are a highly prevalent group of heterogeneous disorders whose diagnostic criteria are symptom based in the absence of a demonstrable structural or biochemical abnormality. Chronic abdominal pain or discomfort is a defining characteristic of these disorders and a proportion of patients may display heightened pain sensitivity to experimental visceral stimulation, termed visceral pain hypersensitivity (VPH). We examined the most recent literature in order to concisely review the evidence for some of the most important recent advances in the putative mechanisms concerned in the pathophysiology of VPH. VPH may occur due to anomalies at any level of the visceral nociceptive neuraxis. Important peripheral and central mechanisms of sensitization that have been postulated include a wide range of ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors and trophic factors. Data from functional brain imaging studies have also provided evidence for aberrant central pain processing in cortical and subcortical regions. In addition, descending modulation of visceral nociceptive pathways by the autonomic nervous system, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and psychological factors have all been implicated in the generation of VPH. Particular areas of controversy have included the development of efficacious treatment of VPH. Therapies have been slow to emerge, mainly due to concerns regarding safety. The burgeoning field of genome wide association studies may provide further evidence for the pleiotropic genetic basis of VPH development. Tangible progress will only be made in the treatment of VPH when we begin to individually characterize patients with FGIDs based on their clinical phenotype, genetics and visceral nociceptive physiology.

  4. Delayed hypersensitivity and migration inhibition in two lines of mice genetically selected for high or low responsiveness to phytohemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Rahman, S; El Rouby, S; Liacopoulos-Briot, M; Stiffel, C; Decreusefond, C; Liacopoulos, P

    1983-04-15

    Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and cell migration inhibition (MI) were studied in two lines of mice genetically selected for the high (Hi/PHA) or low (Lo/PHA) in vitro response of their lymphoid cells to phytochemagglutinin (PHA). A rapid photoelectric procedure for reading cell migrations enabled the study of MI over a wide range (10 log) of antigen concentrations in vitro. Hi/PHA mice required immunization with a 10 times higher dose of ovalbumin (OVA) in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) than Lo/PHA mice for a comparable response in DTH (footpad swelling) and MI of their induced peritoneal exudate cells (PEC). Lo/PHA spleen showed marked bizonal MI on Day 5 after immunization with low doses (0.1 and 0.5 micrograms) of OVA in FCA, one peak being obtained in presence of in vitro concentrations of 10(-3) or 10(-2) micrograms/ml OVA and another peak at 1 or 10 micrograms/ml, whereas Hi/PHA spleen showed stimulation of migration. In contrast, MI in Lo/PHA spleen failed to persist beyond Day 19, whereas it appeared progressively in Hi/PHA spleen, being maximal by Day 27. Low-zone inhibition in Hi/PHA spleen and PEC was lacking or poor even after immunization with higher doses of OVA in FCA. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Hapten-Induced Contact Hypersensitivity, Autoimmune Reactions, and Tumor Regression: Plausibility of Mediating Antitumor Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan A. Erkes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptens are small molecule irritants that bind to proteins and elicit an immune response. Haptens have been commonly used to study allergic contact dermatitis (ACD using animal contact hypersensitivity (CHS models. However, extensive research into contact hypersensitivity has offered a confusing and intriguing mechanism of allergic reactions occurring in the skin. The abilities of haptens to induce such reactions have been frequently utilized to study the mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD to induce autoimmune-like responses such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia and to elicit viral wart and tumor regression. Hapten-induced tumor regression has been studied since the mid-1900s and relies on four major concepts: (1 ex vivo haptenation, (2 in situ haptenation, (3 epifocal hapten application, and (4 antigen-hapten conjugate injection. Each of these approaches elicits unique responses in mice and humans. The present review attempts to provide a critical appraisal of the hapten-mediated tumor treatments and offers insights for future development of the field.

  6. Comparison of Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Tests for Visceral Leishmaniasis in HIV-Infected Patients: A Cross-Sectional Delayed-Type Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; de Sousa, Marcos Roberto; de Freitas Nogueira, Betânia Mara; Gomes, Luciana Inácia; Oliveira, Edward; Assis, Tália Santana Machado; de Mendonça, Andréa Laender Pessoa; Pinto, Bruna Fernandes; Saliba, Juliana Wilke; Rabello, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of invasive and non-invasive tests for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in a large series of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. In this delayed-type cross-sectional study, 113 HIV-infected symptomatic patients were evaluated by an adjudication committee after clinical follow-up to establish the presence or absence of VL as the target condition (reference test). The index tests were recombinant K39 antigen-based immunochromatographic test (rK39), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), prototype kit of direct agglutination test (DAT-LPC), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in peripheral blood. Compared with parasitological test and adjudication committee diagnosis or latent class model analyses, IFAT and rk39 dipstick test presented the lowest sensitivity. DAT-LPC exhibited good overall performance, and there was no statistical difference between DAT-LPC and qPCR diagnosis accuracy. Real-time PCR emerges as a less invasive alternative to parasitological examination for confirmation of cases not identified by DAT. PMID:23836568

  7. Oily skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  8. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body. Without skin, people's muscles, bones, and organs would be hanging out all over the place. Skin holds everything together. It also: protects our bodies helps keep our bodies at just the right temperature allows us to have the sense of touch Don't Miss Your Epidermis The ...

  9. Lamotrigine-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with histologic features of cd30+ lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS is a severe adverse drug reaction. It can present with clinical, paraclinical, and histological findings mimicking skin and/or systemic lymphomas. We report the first case of a lamotrigine-induced DRESS with histologic features of a cutaneous CD30+ lymphoma. The patient responded well to a tapering course of oral steroids. This case highlights the atypical presentation of a lamotrigine-induced DRESS/DIHS in the presence of a cutaneous and a lymph node CD30 + lymphocytic infiltrate mimicking systemic lymphoma. Pathologists and clinicians must be aware of this “lymphomatous” presentation of drug reactions.

  10. Risk factors for insect bite hypersensitivity in Friesian horses and Shetland ponies in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurink, Anouk; Podesta, Sabrina C; Ducro, Bart J; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Frankena, Klaas

    2013-03-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an equine skin allergy caused by bites of Culicoides spp. and impacts on the welfare of affected horses. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify risk factors for IBH. Data from 3453 Friesian horse mares and 7074 Shetland pony mares scored for IBH by inspectors during obligatory foal inspections were analysed using breed-specific multivariable logistic regression models. The combined effect of month and year of scoring, Province and inspector were significantly associated with IBH in both breeds. In Shetland pony mares, withers height and coat colour were also significantly associated with IBH, while body condition had a nearly significant effect. The outcomes from this study on risk factors might contribute to the development of more efficient measures to reduce the prevalence of IBH.

  11. [Food and food additives hypersensitivity in adult asthmatics. III. Adverse reaction to sulfites in adult asthmatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Y; Muto, H; Sano, Y; Ito, K

    1998-11-01

    Many studies show that sulfites cause multiple atopic manifestations by oral challenge in USA and Europe, however, there are few reports of sulfites sensitivity in Japan. The aim of this study establishes the presence of sulfites hypersensitivities in asthmatic subjects in Japan. Twenty adult asthmatic patients, who were non-steroid-dependent and without a suggestive history of sulfite sensitivity, underwent challenge with oral solution of metabisulfite. Of 12 patients reacted to metabisulfite. They demonstrated airway obstruction 5 (41.7%), urticaria 4 (36.7%), skin manifestation 2 (16.7%) and nasal congestion 1 (8.3%). All patients who demonstrated airway obstruction, were sensitive to aspirin. Oral sulfite challenge should be made in patients with urticaria, that are not able to find out causative antigen, even though no suggestive history of sulfite sensitivity.

  12. Drug-Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome Caused by Carbamazepine Used for the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Ono

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An 88-year-old man was diagnosed with trigeminal neuralgia, and treatment of carbamazepine 200 mg/day was initiated. About 6 weeks later, the patient developed a skin rash accompanied by fever. He was admitted to hospital and diagnosed with drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS caused by carbamazepine. Oral carbamazepine treatment was stopped, but blood tests showed acute liver and acute renal failure. Drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST for carbamazepine, human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6 IgG, and CMV-HRP were negative. Oral prednisolone therapy was begun 18 days later. The titer of HHV-6 IgG antibodies was then detected (640 times. Following treatment, liver and renal function improved and the erythema disappeared.

  13. Ionic mechanisms of spinal neuronal cold hypersensitivity in ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ryan; Brice, Nicola L; Lewis, Richard J; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-12-01

    Cold hypersensitivity is evident in a range of neuropathies and can evoke sensations of paradoxical burning cold pain. Ciguatoxin poisoning is known to induce a pain syndrome caused by consumption of contaminated tropical fish that can persist for months and include pruritus and cold allodynia; at present no suitable treatment is available. This study examined, for the first time, the neural substrates and molecular components of Pacific ciguatoxin-2-induced cold hypersensitivity. Electrophysiological recordings of dorsal horn lamina V/VI wide dynamic range neurones were made in non-sentient rats. Subcutaneous injection of 10 nm ciguatoxin-2 into the receptive field increased neuronal responses to innocuous and noxious cooling. In addition, neuronal responses to low-threshold but not noxious punctate mechanical stimuli were also elevated. The resultant cold hypersensitivity was not reversed by 6-({2-[2-fluoro-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-methylpropyl}carbamoyl)pyridine-3-carboxylic acid, an antagonist of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8). Both mechanical and cold hypersensitivity were completely prevented by co-injection with the Nav 1.8 antagonist A803467, whereas the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) antagonist A967079 only prevented hypersensitivity to innocuous cooling and partially prevented hypersensitivity to noxious cooling. In naive rats, neither innocuous nor noxious cold-evoked neuronal responses were inhibited by antagonists of Nav 1.8, TRPA1 or TRPM8 alone. Ciguatoxins may confer cold sensitivity to a subpopulation of cold-insensitive Nav 1.8/TRPA1-positive primary afferents, which could underlie the cold allodynia reported in ciguatera. These data expand the understanding of central spinal cold sensitivity under normal conditions and the role of these ion channels in this translational rat model of ciguatoxin-induced hypersensitivity.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of mAMSA-hypersensitive Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogojina, Anna T.; Nitiss, John L.

    2008-01-01

    Topoisomerase II (Top2) is the primary target for active anti-cancer agents. We developed an efficient approach for identifying hypersensitive Top2 mutants and isolated a panel of mutants in yeast Top2 conferring hypersensitivity to the intercalator N-[4-(9-acridinylamino)-3-methoxyphenyl]methanesulphonanilide (mAMSA). Some mutants conferred hypersensitivity to etoposide as well as mAMSA, whereas other mutants exhibited hypersensitivity only to mAMSA. Two mutants in Top2, changing Pro473 to Leu and Gly737 to Val, conferred extraordinary hypersensitivity to mAMSA and were chosen for further characterization. The mutant proteins were purified, and their biochemical activities were assessed. Both mutants encode enzymes that are hypersensitive to inhibition by mAMSA and other intercalating agents and exhibited elevated levels of mAMSA-induced Top2:DNA covalent complexes. While Gly737 → Val Top2p generated elevated levels of Top2-mediated double strand breaks in vitro, the Pro473 → Leu mutant protein showed only a modest increase in Top2-mediated double strand breaks but much higher levels of Top2-mediated single strand breaks. In addition, the Pro473 → Leu mutant protein also generated high levels of mAMSA-stabilized covalent complexes in the absence of ATP. We tested the role of single strand cleavage in cell killing with alleles of Top2 that could generate single strand breaks, but not double strand breaks. Expression in yeast of a Pro473 → Leu mutant that could only generate single strand breaks conferred hypersensitivity to mAMSA. These results indicate that generation of single strand breaks by Top2-targeting agents can be an important component of cell killing by Top2-targeting drugs. PMID:18723844

  15. Distractibility and hypersensitivity. Two behavior factors in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, J B; Halverson, C F

    1975-01-01

    The present paper reports on the development of a modified problem checklist for use in normal samples of elementary school children. The two factors, Hypersensitivity and Distractibility, replicated over male and female samples. Hypersensitivity showed a significant grade effect, with a decrease between the first and second grade for both boys and girls. In contrast, boys scored higher than girls on Distractibility and there were no grade differences. Convergent validitiy data from peer judgments, in-class activity level, physical fitness measures, standardized achievement scores, and a comparison with another teacher judgment are presented. In addition, three Behavioral Problem Checklist (Quay & Peterson, 1967) dimensions, Conduct Problem, Personality Problem, and Inadequacy--Immaturity, were developed and their relationships to the independent measures, as well as to the new dimensions, are presented. The pattern of correlations of Distractibility was quite similar for boys and girls, with both being rated as Mean-Noisy by their peers. The findings for Hypersensitivity were somewhat weaker. Distractibility and Conduct Problem scores reflected a similar pattern of correlations with other variables; in a like manner, Hypersensitivity and Personality Problem scores reflected a similar pattern of correlations with other variables. Distractibility was related to an increased activity level and Hypersensitivity was related to a decreased activity level in young boys. The total number of behavior problems was related to a decrease in activity level for young girls. Older Distractible and Hypersensitive girls showed different patterns of activity level. It is proposed that problem behavior is more complex for older children and that Distractibility may be less influenced by the usual socialization process of school than is Hypersensitivity and may have some congenital antecedents.

  16. Hypersensitivity responses in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza eKhorooshi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Immune-mediated tissue damage or hypersensitivity can be mediated by autospecific IgG antibodies. Pathology results from activation of complement, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC, mediated by inflammatory effector leukocytes include macrophages, natural killer cells (NK cells and granulocytes. Antibodies and complement have been associated to demyelinating pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS lesions, where macrophages predominate amongst infiltrating myeloid cells. Serum-derived autoantibodies with predominant specificity for the astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4 are implicated as inducers of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO, a CNS demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS.The most widely-used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive animals with CD4+ T cells, but not with antibodies. By contrast NMO-like astrocyte and myelin pathology can be transferred to mice with AQP4-IgG from NMO patients. This is dependent on complement, and does not require T cells. Consistent with clinical observations that interferon-beta is ineffective as a therapy for NMO, NMO-like pathology is significantly reduced in mice lacking the Type I IFN receptor.In MS there is evidence for intrathecal synthesis of antibodies as well as blood-brain barrier (BBB breakdown, whereas in NMO, IgG accesses the CNS from blood. Transfer models involve either direct injection of antibody and complement to the CNS, or experimental manipulations to induce BBB breakdown. We here review studies in MS and NMO that elucidate roles for IgG and complement in the induction of BBB breakdown, astrocytopathy and demyelinating pathology. These studies point to significance of T-independent effector mechanisms in neuroinflammation.

  17. Establishment of diagnostic criteria for feline nonflea-induced hypersensitivity dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrot, Claude; Steffan, Jean; Seewald, Wolfgang; Hobi, Stefan; Linek, Monika; Marignac, Geneviève; Olivry, Thierry; Beco, Luc; Nett, Claudia; Fontaine, Jacques; Roosje, Petra; Bergvall, Kerstin; Belova, Svetlana; Koebrich, Stefanie; Pin, Didier; Kovalik, Marcel; Meury, Sabrina; Wilhelm, Sylvia

    2012-02-01

    Hypersensitivity dermatitides (HD) are commonly seen in cats, and they are usually caused by environmental, food and/or flea allergens. Affected cats normally present with one of the following clinical reaction patterns: head and neck excoriations, usually symmetrical self-induced alopecia, eosinophilic skin lesions or miliary dermatitis. Importantly, none of these clinical presentations is considered to be pathognomonic for HD skin diseases, and the diagnosis of HD is usually based on the exclusion of other pruritic diseases and on a positive response to therapy. The objectives of this study were to propose sets of criteria for the diagnosis of nonflea-induced HD (NFHD). We recruited 501 cats with pruritus and skin lesions and compared clinical parameters between cats with NFHD (encompassing those with nonflea, nonfood HD and those with food HD), flea HD and other pruritic conditions. Using simulated annealing techniques, we established two sets of proposed criteria for the following two different clinical situations: (i) the diagnosis of NFHD in a population of pruritic cats; and (ii) the diagnosis of NFHD after exclusion of cats with flea HD. These criteria sets were associated with good sensitivity and specificity and may be useful for homogeneity of enrolment in clinical trials and to evaluate the probability of diagnosis of NFHD in clinical practice. Finally, these criteria were not useful to differentiate cats with NFHD from those with food HD.

  18. Platinum desensitization in patients with carboplatin hypersensitivity: A single-institution retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwerger, Gary; Gressel, Gregory M; English, Diana P; Nelson, Wendelin K; Carusillo, Nina; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Santin, Alessandro; Schwartz, Peter E; Ratner, Elena S

    2017-01-01

    The carboplatin desensitization (CD) protocol presented here allows patients with either a positive skin test or a prior hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to safely, rapidly and effectively continue with carboplatin infusions. Newly described factors can identify patients at risk for developing adverse events during CD. A retrospective review was performed on patients with gynecologic cancer who underwent CD between 2005 and 2014. The CD protocol uses a four-step dilution process over 3.5h. 129 patients underwent CD and completed a total of 788cycles. The desensitization protocol prevented HSRs in 96% (753 out of 788) of these cycles. Patients achieved an average of 6.1cycles (SD±4.55, range 0-23) with CD. The CD protocol allowed 73% (94 of 129) of the patients to undergo carboplatin infusion without reaction. Patients with moderate to life-threatening HSRs (grade 2 through 4) were 10.5years younger at initial CD than patients with grades 0 or 1 HSRs (52.3 vs. 63, P = 0.0307). One patient death occurred during her thirteenth desensitization cycle. The HSR in this case was complicated by pre-exisiting pulmonary hypertension. This is the largest study of its kind showing a safe, effective and rapid (3.5h) CD protocol. The majority of patients with a history of either carboplatin hypersensitivity reaction or a positive skin test completed the CD protocol without HSRs. Age was identified as a risk factor for HSR severity during CD. Age can be employed along with pre-load dependent cardiac conditions as a way to help risk stratify patients undergoing CD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Arthritis as a hypersensitivity reaction in a case of sporotrichosis transmitted by a sick cat: clinical and serological follow up of 13 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orofino-Costa, R; Bóia, M N; Magalhães, G A P; Damasco, P S; Bernardes-Engemann, A R; Benvenuto, F; Silva, I C; Lopes-Bezerra, L M

    2010-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic fungal infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii, which is commonly acquired by traumatic inoculation of the fungus carried in a contaminated material into the skin. Joint involvement is the most frequent extracutaneous manifestation in immunosuppressed patients. We report the case of an immunocompetent woman who acquired sporotrichosis through the scratch of a sick cat. She presented skin lesions and arthritis possibly because of a hypersensitivity reaction. Treatment resulted in complete cure up to 13 months of clinical and serological follow-up.

  20. Hypersensitivity to local anaesthetics--update and proposal of evaluation algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Elberling, Jesper;

    2008-01-01

    of patients suspected with immediate- and delayed-type immune reactions. Literature was examined using PubMed-Medline, EMBASE, Biosis and Science Citation Index. Based on the literature, the proposed algorithm may safely and rapidly distinguish between immediate-type and delayed-type allergic immune reactions....

  1. Skin-lightening cosmetics: frequent, potentially severe adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Skin-lightening cosmetics are used by many women and men around the world. The products contain a variety of substances, which are often unknown to the users. Most of these products include topical corticosteroids, hydroquinone and mercury salts. Many other substances may be added. Several surveys and cohort studies, including several thousand individuals, have shown that regular application of skin-lightening cosmetics to large surface areas can have irreversible cutaneous adverse effects, such as patchy hyper- or hypopigmentation, skin atrophy, stretch marks and delayed wound healing, and can also mask or, on the contrary, promote or reactivate skin infections. Cases of skin cancer have been attributed to skin-lightening cosmetics. A Senegalese cohort study of 147 women showed a statistically significant increase in the risk of hypertension and diabetes linked to the use of skin-lightening agents. Other systemic adverse effects attributed to skin-lightening cosmetics include Cushing's syndrome, adrenal insufficiency, nephrotic syndrome, neurological disorders, and ocular disorders. Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have also been attributed to these products. Many skin-lightening cosmetics contain substances that can harm the unborn child. For example, tretinoin is teratogenic while salicylic acid is feto-toxic. In practice, users are often unaware of the risk of severe adverse effects associated with skin-lightening cosmetics. Users should be informed of these adverse effects and encouraged to stop using these products, especially when skin disorders appear.

  2. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  3. Aging skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L

    1995-01-16

    Aging of the skin is a composite of actinic damage, chronologic aging, and hormonal influences. The majority of changes associated with aging, such as wrinkles and solar lentigines ("liver spots"), are due to photoaging and reflect cumulative sun exposure as well as skin pigmentation. Classically, chronologic aging includes those cutaneous changes that occur in non-sun-exposed areas, such as the buttocks, and are observed in both men and women. A clinical example would be soft tissue sagging due to elastic fiber degeneration. In women, investigations into the effect of hormones on aging of the skin have concentrated on estrogens; in men, there have been a limited number of studies on the influence of testosterone. The latter have shown an age-dependent decrease in tissue androgens in pubic skin, but not scrotal or thigh skin. To date, age has not been shown to have an effect on androgen receptor binding, although a decrease in foreskin 5 alpha-reductase activity with increasing age has been described. In fibroblast cultures from foreskins, there have been conflicting results as to whether 5 alpha-reductase activity decreases in an age-dependent manner. Some of the skin changes that have been categorized as secondary to chronologic aging, such as decreased sebaceous gland activity and decreased hair growth, may actually represent a decline in the concentration of tissue androgens with increasing age. The influence of androgens on age-related changes in keratinocyte and fibroblast function remains speculative.

  4. Human leukocyte mobilization and morphology in nickel contact allergy using a skin chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D

    1981-01-01

    An improved skin chamber technique has been devised and used for quantitative evaluation of the leukocyte mobilization rate (LMR). The method was applied in 10 nickel-hypersensitive patients exposed to nickel sulphate. Each patient served as his own control and for additional control purpose, 5...... healthy individuals without nickel hypersensitivity were studied. The kinetics of the mobilized leukocytes were followed over a 48-hour period. After an initial lag phase of 2-4 hours, maximum migration was observed from the 24th to the 48th hour, with a wide interindividual variability in the number...... is a valuable means for quantitative evaluation of leukocyte mobilization and morphology in skin exudates during exposure to an allergen in delayed hypersensitivity reactions....

  5. [Adaptive desensitization for acetylsalicylic acid hypersensitivity: A success story?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlmeier, G; Hausch, R; Maier, H

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive desensitization still remains the only causative therapy for acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) hypersensitivity and is carried out nearly worldwide. To date there are hardly any data available on disease development under current desensitization therapy and longitudinal data in particular are missing. Out of a large collective of patients with proven hypersensitivity to ASA, 194 patients with initiated desensitization treatment were observed for periods up to 5 years (average 32 months). Patients with immediate reactions to systemic challenge tests revealed a response rate of 77% after 12 months of therapy. In this period 12% reached complete remission, 38% showed a clear reduction in symptoms, 32% reached partial remission, 13% remained unchanged and 5% suffered from disease progression. Adaptive desensitization therapy for hypersensitivity to ASA has been shown to be an effective causative therapy and chronic hyperplastic sinusitis as well as bronchial asthma could be improved. For the determination of maintenance dosages and required time periods more data are needed.

  6. Hypersensitivity to proton pump inhibitors: lansoprazole-induced Kounis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Nicholas P; Vavilis, George K; Giannelou, Ageliki G; Georgopoulou, Christina N; Kommata, Varvara J; Kougias, Constantinos T; Tsartsalis, Dimitrios N; Kounis, George N; Mazarakis, Andreas; Batsolaki, Maria; Gouvelou-Deligianni, Geogia V; Hahalis, George; Kounis, Nicholas G

    2009-05-29

    Proton pump inhibitors are commonly used in clinical practice for the treatment of peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux and are well tolerated by the patients. Their use is rarely associated with hypersensitivity and anaphylactic reactions. According to the reports in the Uppsala Monitoring Center database the frequency of hypersensitivity reactions out of all reported adverse reactions for proton pump inhibitors and H2-histamine receptor antagonists was between 0.2% and 0.7%. A few cases of hypersensitivity to lansoprazole have been reported. We report a patient who developed Kounis syndrome after taking 30 mg of lansoprazole. This is the first report of Kounis syndrome associated with lansoprazole administration in the world literature.

  7. Contact hypersensitivity response to isophorone diisocyanate in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.L.; Brown, T.A.; Brown, R.D.; Munson, A.E. (Virginial Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Isophorone diisocyanate was evaluated for its potential as a sensitizing agent for allergic contact hypersensitivity in mice. Female B6C3F1 mice were sensitized with 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0% isophorone diisocyanate and challenged with 3.0% isophorone diisocyanate. Doses of isophorone diisocyanate were selected from assays for primary irritancy. Mice received 20 microliters by direct dermal application, for 5 days, to sites prepared by shaving, dermabrading and, in some mice, with intra dermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. The rest period was 7 days. Measurement of the contact hypersensitivity response in mice was by radioisotopic assay two days after challenge and mouse ear swelling one and two days after challenge. Mice demonstrated statistically significant dose-dependent contact hypersensitivity responses to isophorone diisocyanate with or without adjuvant pretreatment.

  8. Metal hypersensitivity after knee arthroplasty: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Massimo; Vieri, Berti; Melani, Tommaso; Paoli, Tommaso; Carulli, Christian

    2017-06-07

    Hypersensitivity to metals in the general population has an incidence of about 15%, and in rising also for the higher number of joint replacements in the last decades. Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) represents the most performed orthopaedic procedure during last years, and it seems to be particularly associated with sensitization after surgery. On the other hand, there is a rising amount of patients with painful but well implanted and functioning TKAs: in certain cases, after the exclusion of the most frequent causes of failure, a condition of hypersensitivity may be found, and a revision with anallergic implants is mandatory. The present study is a review of the potential problems related to hypersensitivity in TKA, its possible diagnostic procedures, and the surgical options to date available. Medical history, patch testing, and other specific laboratory assays are useful to assess a status of metals hypersensitivity before surgery in subjects undergoing a knee replacement, or even after TKA in patients complaining pain in otherwise well implanted and aligned prostheses. However, few groups worlwide deal with such condition, and all proposed diagnostic protocols may be considered still today conjectural. On the other hand, these represent the most updated knowledge of this condition, and may be useful for both the patient and the orthopaedic surgeon. Once assessed a possible or ascertained allergy to metals, several options are available for primary andr revision knee surgery, in order to avoid the risk of hypersensitivity. A review of the recent publications on this topic and an overview of the related aspects has been made to understand a condition to date considered negligible. Hypersensitivity to metals has not to be nowadays considered a "fiction", but rather a possible preoperative risk or a postoperative cause of failure of TKA. Crucial is the information of patients and the medical history, associated in suspect cases to laboratory testings. Today in the

  9. Efficacy of two commercially available dentifrices in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad KVV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A parallel design clinical study evaluated reduction in hypersensitivity after brushing for 12 weeks with Anchor toothpaste (containing potassium citrate, zinc citrate, triclosan and sodium monofluorophosphate (test and Colgate Total (sodium fluoride, silica, triclosan and copolymer (control dentifrices. Materials and Methods: Sixty adults with sensitivity to hot and cold stimulus in at least two tooth surfaces were stratified at the baseline examination by tactile, hot and cold stimuli scores in two balanced groups. Subjects were randomly allocated the test and control dentifrices and evaluated after 6 and 12 weeks of dentifrice use for hypersensitivity. Results: The two teeth that were selected in each patient were designated as two different sets. The 12 th -week scores as compared to baseline scores for tactile, heat and cold tests in the test group showed a reduction in tooth hypersensitivity by 36.67% (P < 0.01, 20.35% (P < 0.01 and 53.64 % (P < 0.01, respectively, in the first set of teeth and 43.75% (P < 0.01, 24.48% (P < 0.01 and 59.78% (P < 0.01, respectively, in the second set of teeth. The 12 th -week scores as compared to baseline scores for tactile, heat and cold tests in the control group showed a reduction in tooth hypersensitivity by 42.86% (P < 0.01, 13.02% (P < 0.01 and 45.14% (P < 0.01, respectively, in the first set of teeth and 40% (P < 0.01, 16.59% (P < 0.01 and 44.16% (P < 0.01, respectively, in the second set of teeth. Conclusions: Both the products reduced dentinal hypersensitivity in the study subjects at the end of the 12-week period. However, there was no statistically significant difference in reduction in hypersensitivity between the two products.

  10. A Case of Sublingual Ranula That Responded Successfully to Localized Injection Treatment with OK-432 after Healing from Drug Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshizawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A ranula is a mucus retention cyst or pseudocyst caused by leakage of mucus from the sublingual gland and generally occurs in the oral floor. In addition, drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS is a rare but well-recognized serious adverse effect characterized by fever, skin rashes, generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, and hepatosplenomegaly and oral stomatitis. This paper presents the first case of successfully treated sublingual ranula with localized injection of OK-432 after healing from drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome, which has previously been unreported in the literature. We present the case of a 38-year-old Japanese woman with sublingual ranula that responded successfully to localized injection treatment with OK-432 after healing from drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome. She was affected with cutaneous myositis and interstitial lung disease when she was 26 years old. At the age 34 years, she received additional oral treatment of diaminodiphenyl-sulfone due to deterioration of the cutaneous myositis, which resulted in drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS with severe oral stomatitis. Local injection of OK-432 to the ranula may be a very safe and useful treatment method even if the patient has a history of drug allergy and has connective tissue disease such as cutaneous myositis.

  11. A Case of Sublingual Ranula That Responded Successfully to Localized Injection Treatment with OK-432 after Healing from Drug Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Kunio; Moroi, Akinori; Kawashiri, Shuichi; Ueki, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    A ranula is a mucus retention cyst or pseudocyst caused by leakage of mucus from the sublingual gland and generally occurs in the oral floor. In addition, drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) is a rare but well-recognized serious adverse effect characterized by fever, skin rashes, generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, and hepatosplenomegaly and oral stomatitis. This paper presents the first case of successfully treated sublingual ranula with localized injection of OK-432 after healing from drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome, which has previously been unreported in the literature. We present the case of a 38-year-old Japanese woman with sublingual ranula that responded successfully to localized injection treatment with OK-432 after healing from drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome. She was affected with cutaneous myositis and interstitial lung disease when she was 26 years old. At the age 34 years, she received additional oral treatment of diaminodiphenyl-sulfone due to deterioration of the cutaneous myositis, which resulted in drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) with severe oral stomatitis. Local injection of OK-432 to the ranula may be a very safe and useful treatment method even if the patient has a history of drug allergy and has connective tissue disease such as cutaneous myositis. PMID:27144039

  12. Functional dyspepsia: the role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists. It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process. The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review, we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD.

  13. Association of HLA genotypes with phenobarbital hypersensitivity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Mahasirimongkol, Surakameth; Likkasittipan, Plernpit; Kamchaisatian, Wasu; Wattanapokayakit, Sukanya; Inunchot, Wimala; Visudtibhan, Anannit; Wichukchinda, Nuanjun; Benjaponpitak, Suwat

    2016-10-01

    Phenobarbital hypersensitivity is one of the common drug hypersensitivity syndromes in children. Clinical symptoms of phenobarbital hypersensitivity vary from maculopapular rashes (MPs) to severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs) including drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Drug hypersensitivity has been demonstrated to be associated with variations in the HLA genotypes. This study was to investigate the association between the variations of HLA genotypes and phenobarbital hypersensitivity in Thai children. The cases were Thai children, between 0 and 18 years of age, who were diagnosed with phenobarbital hypersensitivity, which included SCARs and MPs. The control patients were Thai children of a corresponding age who had taken phenobarbital for at least 12 weeks without any hypersensitivity reaction. Blood samples were collected for HLA genotyping by using a reverse-sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probes method. The carrier rates of HLA alleles were compared between 47 cases (27 SCARs and 20 MPs) and 54 controls. The carrier rates of HLA-A*01:01 and HLA-B*13:01 were significantly higher in the phenobarbital-induced SCARs than in the tolerant controls (18.5% vs. 1.85%, p = 0.01, odds ratio [OR] 11.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-578.19; 37.04% vs. 11.11%, p = 0.009, OR 4.60, 95%CI 1.29-17.98). There was a trend of a higher carrier rate of HLA-C*06:02 in the phenobarbital-induced SCARs when compared with those in the tolerant controls (29.63% vs. 11.11%, p = 0.059, OR 3.31, 95% CI 0.88-13.31). In contrast to the phenobarbital-induced SCARs, only the HLA-A*01:01 carrier rate in the phenobarbital-induced MPs was significantly higher than those in the tolerant controls (20% vs. 1.85%, p = 0.017, OR 12.69, 95% CI 1.15-661.62). An association between phenobarbital hypersensitivity and HLA-A*01:01 and HLA-B*13:01 has been demonstrated in Thai children

  14. Functional dyspepsia: The role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Keohane; Eamonn M M Quigley

    2006-01-01

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists.It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process.The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review,we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD.

  15. Functional dyspepsia: the role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, John; Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2006-05-01

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists. It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process. The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review, we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD.

  16. Hypersensitivity to Perturbations in the Quantum baker's Map

    CERN Document Server

    Schack, R

    1999-01-01

    We analyze a randomly perturbed quantum version of the baker's transformation, a prototype of an area-conserving chaotic map. By numerically simulating the perturbed evolution, we estimate the information needed to follow a perturbed Hilbert-space vector in time. We find that the Landauer erasure cost associated with this information grows very rapidly and becomes much larger than the maximum statistical entropy given by the logarithm of the dimension of Hilbert space. The quantum baker's map thus displays a hypersensitivity to perturbations that is analogous to behavior found earlier in the classical case. This hypersensitivity characterizes ``quantum chaos'' in a way that is directly relevant to statistical physics.

  17. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  18. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  19. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy priorities AADA Health System Reform Principles Drug pricing and availability CVS dermatologic formulary restrictions Access to ... Skin care for men Skin care on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin of ...

  20. Oxytocin alleviates orofacial mechanical hypersensitivity associated with infraorbital nerve injury through vasopressin-1A receptors of the rat trigeminal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Asako; Shinoda, Masamichi; Katagiri, Ayano; Takeda, Mamoru; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Asaka, Junichi; Yeomans, David C; Iwata, Koichi

    2016-12-17

    Oxytocin (OXT) is a neuropeptide hormone synthesized and secreted by hypothalamic neurons and has been reported to play a significant role in pain modulation. However, the mechanisms underlying OXT's antinociceptive effect on neuropathic pain are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the peripheral effect of OXT on mechanical hypersensitivity induced by partial ligation of the infraorbital nerve (PNL) in rats. Mechanical hypersensitivity in the whisker pad skin after PNL was attenuated by the direct administration of OXT into the trigeminal ganglion (TG). The proportion of vasopressin-1A receptor (V1A-R)-immunoreactive, but not OXT-receptor-immunoreactive, neurons significantly increased among TG neurons innervating the whisker pad skin after PNL. In a patch-clamp recording from TG neurons isolated from PNL rats, the resting membrane potential of OXT-treated neurons was significantly decreased, and the current thresholds of OXT-treated neurons for spike generation (rheobases) were significantly greater than those of vehicle-treated neurons. In addition, OXT increased voltage-gated K channel currents in PNL animals. Furthermore, intra-TG administration of a selective V1A-R antagonist reversed the OXT-induced alleviation of mechanical hypersensitivity, and coapplication of the antagonist opposed OXT's effects on the resting membrane potential, rheobase, and K current. These findings suggest that OXT is effective at suppressing TG neuronal hyperexcitability after nerve injury, likely by modulation of voltage-gated K channels through V1A-R. This signaling mechanism represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of orofacial neuropathic pain.

  1. TRIMELLITIC ANHYDRIDE (TMA) HYPERSENSITIVITY IN MICE AFTER DERMAL AND INTRATRACHAEL (IT) EXPOSURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT for 2001 DMS213TRIMELLITIC ANHYDRIDE (TMA) HYPERSENSITIVITY INMICE AFTER DERMAL AND INTRATRACHEAL (IT) EXPOSURES. E Boykin, M Ward, MJ Selgrade, and D Sailstad. NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.TMA causes respiratory hypersensitivity (RH) responses. W...

  2. Paradoxical effect of pertussis toxin on the delayed hypersensitivity response to autoantigens in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajwahrdhan Yadav

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pertussis toxin (PTX, an exotoxin of Bordetella pertussis, enhances the development of experimental autoimmune diseases such as experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in rodent models. The mechanisms of the promotion of experimental autoimmune diseases by PTX may be based upon PTX-induced disruption of the blood eye/brain barriers facilitating the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the modulation of inflammatory cell migration and the enhancement of the activation of inflammatory cells. We hypothesized that the facilitation of experimental autoimmunity by PTX suggests that its influence on the in vivo immune response to auto-antigen may differ from its influence on non-self antigens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have evaluated the effect of PTX on the simultaneous generation of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH responses and autoimmune responses to uveitogenic interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein peptide (IRBP161-180, encephalitogenic myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55 or ovalbumin (OVA. PTX injection of mice immunized to IRBP peptide161-180 led to (i the development of EAU as shown by histopathology of the retina, (ii pro-inflammatory cytokine production by splenocytes in response to IRBP peptide161-180, and (iii symptomatic EAE in mice immunized with encephalitogenic MOG peptide35-55. However, mice that received PTX had a reduced DTH response to IRBP161-180 peptide or MOG peptide35-55 when challenged distal to the site affected by autoreactive T cells. Moreover, footpad challenge with MOG35-55 peptide reduced EAE in mice immunized with MOG peptide. In contrast, the use of PTX when immunizing with OVA protein or an OVA immunogenic peptide did not affect the DTH response to OVA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that that the reduced DTH response in mice receiving PTX may be specific for autoantigens and autoantigen-reactive T cells are

  3. Autophagic components contribute to hypersensitive cell death in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Schultz-Larsen, Torsten; Joensen, Jan;

    2009-01-01

    Autophagy has been implicated as a prosurvival mechanism to restrict programmed cell death (PCD) associated with the pathogen-triggered hypersensitive response (HR) during plant innate immunity. This model is based on the observation that HR lesions spread in plants with reduced autophagy gene ex...... contributes to HR PCD and can function in parallel with other prodeath pathways....

  4. Old, new and hidden causes of perioperative hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene Heise

    2016-01-01

    and performance and interpretation of investigations. Differences in sensitization to NMBAs are partly explained by cross sensitization to pholcodine, an ingredient in cough-medicines available in some countries. While NMBAs are the most common causes of perioperative hypersensitivity in some countries, this may...

  5. Increasing awareness of corticosteroid hypersensitivity reactions is important

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knarborg, Malene; Bendstrup, Elisabeth; Hilberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    the tolerability to other corticosteroid preparations and thus identify a safe treatment alternative. We report a case of corticosteroid hypersensitivity in a 65-year-old woman with a history of difficult-to-treat asthma and systemic corticosteroid allergy admitted with increasing dyspnea and dry cough...

  6. Trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome: a disease of fatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Gul; Kim, Hyung Hun; Song, Bong Gun; Kim, Eun Jin

    2012-01-01

    Trichloroethylene is commonly used as an industrial solvent and degreasing agent. The clinical features of acute and chronic intoxication with trichloroethylene are well-known and have been described in many reports, but hypersensitivity syndrome caused by trichloroethylene is rarely encountered. For managing patients with trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome, avoiding trichloroethylene and initiating glucocorticoid have been generally accepted. Generally, glucocorticoid had been tapered as trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome had ameliorated. However, we encountered a typical case of trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome refractory to high dose glucocorticoid treatment. A 54-year-old Korean man developed jaundice, fever, red sore eyes, and generalized erythematous maculopapular rashes. A detailed history revealed occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. After starting intravenous methylprednisolone, his clinical condition improved remarkably, but we could not reduce prednisolone because his liver enzyme and total bilirubin began to rise within 2 days after reducing prednisolone under 60 mg/day. We recommended an extended admission for complete recovery, but the patient decided to leave the hospital against medical advice. The patient visited the emergency department due to pneumonia and developed asystole, which did not respond to resuscitation.

  7. Culicoides species attracted to horses with and without insect hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijt, van der R.; Boom, van den R.; Jongema, Y.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (1) which species of Culicoides is most commonly attracted to horses, (2) whether horses suffering insect hypersensitivity attract more Culicoides spp. than unaffected horses, and (3) the times when Culicoides spp. are most active. Horses affected by insect h

  8. Safety and efficacy assessment of two new leprosy skin test antigens: randomized double blind clinical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky L Rivoire

    Full Text Available New tools are required for the diagnosis of pre-symptomatic leprosy towards further reduction of disease burden and its associated reactions. To address this need, two new skin test antigens were developed to assess safety and efficacy in human trials.A Phase I safety trial was first conducted in a non-endemic region for leprosy (U.S.A.. Healthy non-exposed subjects (n = 10 received three titrated doses (2.5 µg, 1.0 µg and 0.1 µg of MLSA-LAM (n = 5 or MLCwA (n = 5 and control antigens [Rees MLSA (1.0 µg and saline]. A randomized double blind Phase II safety and efficacy trial followed in an endemic region for leprosy (Nepal, but involved only the 1.0 µg (high dose and 0.1 µg (low dose of each antigen; Tuberculin PPD served as a control antigen. This Phase II safety and efficacy trial consisted of three Stages: Stage A and B studies were an expansion of Phase I involving 10 and 90 subjects respectively, and Stage C was then conducted in two parts (high dose and low dose, each enrolling 80 participants: 20 borderline lepromatous/lepromatous (BL/LL leprosy patients, 20 borderline tuberculoid/tuberculoid (BT/TT leprosy patients, 20 household contacts of leprosy patients (HC, and 20 tuberculosis (TB patients. The primary outcome measure for the skin test was delayed type hypersensitivity induration.In the small Phase I safety trial, reactions were primarily against the 2.5 µg dose of both antigens and Rees control antigen, which were then excluded from subsequent studies. In the Phase II, Stage A/B ramped-up safety study, 26% of subjects (13 of 50 showed induration against the high dose of each antigen, and 4% (2 of 50 reacted to the low dose of MLSA-LAM. Phase II, Stage C safety and initial efficacy trial showed that both antigens at the low dose exhibited low sensitivity at 20% and 25% in BT/TT leprosy patients, but high specificity at 100% and 95% compared to TB patients. The high dose of both antigens showed lower specificity (70% and 60

  9. Safety and Efficacy Assessment of Two New Leprosy Skin Test Antigens: Randomized Double Blind Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoire, Becky L.; Groathouse, Nathan A.; TerLouw, Stephen; Neupane, Kapil Dev; Ranjit, Chaman; Sapkota, Bishwa Raj; Khadge, Saraswoti; Kunwar, Chatra B.; Macdonald, Murdo; Hawksworth, Rachel; Thapa, Min B.; Hagge, Deanna A.; Tibbals, Melinda; Smith, Carol; Dube, Tina; She, Dewei; Wolff, Mark; Zhou, Eric; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Mason, Robin; Sizemore, Christine; Brennan, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Background New tools are required for the diagnosis of pre-symptomatic leprosy towards further reduction of disease burden and its associated reactions. To address this need, two new skin test antigens were developed to assess safety and efficacy in human trials. Methods A Phase I safety trial was first conducted in a non-endemic region for leprosy (U.S.A.). Healthy non-exposed subjects (n = 10) received three titrated doses (2.5 µg, 1.0 µg and 0.1 µg) of MLSA-LAM (n = 5) or MLCwA (n = 5) and control antigens [Rees MLSA (1.0 µg) and saline]. A randomized double blind Phase II safety and efficacy trial followed in an endemic region for leprosy (Nepal), but involved only the 1.0 µg (high dose) and 0.1 µg (low dose) of each antigen; Tuberculin PPD served as a control antigen. This Phase II safety and efficacy trial consisted of three Stages: Stage A and B studies were an expansion of Phase I involving 10 and 90 subjects respectively, and Stage C was then conducted in two parts (high dose and low dose), each enrolling 80 participants: 20 borderline lepromatous/lepromatous (BL/LL) leprosy patients, 20 borderline tuberculoid/tuberculoid (BT/TT) leprosy patients, 20 household contacts of leprosy patients (HC), and 20 tuberculosis (TB) patients. The primary outcome measure for the skin test was delayed type hypersensitivity induration. Findings In the small Phase I safety trial, reactions were primarily against the 2.5 µg dose of both antigens and Rees control antigen, which were then excluded from subsequent studies. In the Phase II, Stage A/B ramped-up safety study, 26% of subjects (13 of 50) showed induration against the high dose of each antigen, and 4% (2 of 50) reacted to the low dose of MLSA-LAM. Phase II, Stage C safety and initial efficacy trial showed that both antigens at the low dose exhibited low sensitivity at 20% and 25% in BT/TT leprosy patients, but high specificity at 100% and 95% compared to TB patients. The high dose of both antigens

  10. [The ulcerative form of skin sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionov, A N; Samtsov, A V

    1990-01-01

    A female patient suffering from the ulcerative form of skin sarcoidosis is described and the literature dealing with this problem is reviewed. Peculiar features of this case are described: ulceration of the nodes, which is an extremely rare phenomenon; no involvement of other organs, lungs included, was detectable, which is not typical of ulcerative sarcoidosis; small-nodular elements are parallelled by nodes (Boeck's small-nodular sarcoid and Darier-Roussy's subcutaneous sarcoids) in this patient, this evidencing an uniform pathologic process in the skin and subcutaneous fat. Ulceration in this patient is explained by the development of allergic vasculitis of the immediate hypersensitivity type (leukocytoclastic vasculitis and manifest increase of the level of circulating immune complexes). Prednisolone therapy has resulted in an excellent clinical effect.

  11. Application of Diode Laser in the Treatment of Dentine Hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Zukanovic, Amila; Pasic, Enes; Pavlic, Veriva

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dentine hypersensitivity is characterized by acute, sharp pain arising from the exposed dentine, most commonly in response to thermal, tactile, or chemical stimuli, and which cannot be linked to any other pathological changes in the tooth or the environment. Therapy uses various impregnating agents in the form of solutions or gels and, in more recent times, laser. Aim: The aim of this research was to examine the effects of treatment of hypersensitive dental cervix with diode laser. Materials and Methods: The study included 18 patients with 82 sensitive teeth. The degree of dentine hypersensitivity was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS), and the treatment was carried out by application of low-power diode laser over the span of three visits, which depended on the initial sensitivity. Results: There is a significant difference in VAS values measured at the onset of treatment (baseline) and immediately after the first laser treatment (t=9.275; p=0.000), after 7 days, after the second laser treatment (14 days) (t=7.085, p=0.000), as well as after 14 days and the third laser treatment (t=5.517, p=0.000), which confirms the effectiveness of this therapeutic procedure. The results showed a reduction of hypersensitivity in response to tactile stimulus with a probe after the third treatment, even with teeth whose value on the VAS was very high at the beginning of treatment (baseline). Conclusion: Within the scope of the conducted study, laser therapy has provided extremely safe and effective results in the treatment of cervical dentine hypersensitivity.

  12. Maternal Separation Induced Visceral Hypersensitivity from Childhood to Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lisha; Zhang, Haiqin; Sun, Huihui; Zhou, Lu; Chen, Ying; Xuan, Liqian; Jiang, Yuanxi; Xu, Shuchang

    2017-04-30

    Early adverse life events (EALs) are relevant to irritable bowel syndrome in adulthood. Maternal separation (MS), as one of the EALs, has proved to induce visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats. However, the effect of MS on visceral hypersensitvity from the post-weaning period to adulthood remains unknown. One hundred and ten neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: rats in the MS group were exposed to 3 hours daily MS on postnatal day (PND) 2-14; the normal control (NC) group remained undisturbed. Visceral sensitivity was determined by measuring the visceromotor response to colorectal distention on PND21, 35, and 56. Anxiety-like behaviors were measured by the open field test. Compared with NC rats, MS rats showed significant visceral hypersensitivity from the post-weaning period to adult. The proportion of visceral hypersensitive rats decreased with age from 87.5% to 70.0% in the female MS group and from 90.0% to 66.7% in the male MS group. The relative VMR ratio of MS and NC on PND21 was higher than PND35 and PND56. MS rats showed decreased ability of movement and exploration to the novel environment in the post-weaning period, obesity in the prepubertal period, and more anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood. MS can significantly affect visceral sensitivity and behaviors of rats in different age stages, especially in the post-weaning period. Visceral hypersensitivity of MS rats is more pronounced in the post-weaning period and slightly restored in adults. Thus, visceral hypersensitivity in the post-weaning period might play a more meaningful pathophysiologic role in the formation of adult irritable bowel syndrome.

  13. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  14. The environmental hypersensitivity symptom inventory: metric properties and normative data from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Steven; Palmquist, Eva; Claeson, Anna-Sara; Stenberg, Berndt

    2013-01-01

    High concomitant intolerance attributed to odorous/pungent chemicals, certain buildings, electromagnetic fields (EMF), and everyday sounds calls for a questionnaire instrument that can assess symptom prevalence in various environmental intolerances. The Environmental Hypersensitivity Symptom Inventory (EHSI) was therefore developed and metrically evaluated, and normative data were established. The EHSI consists of 34 symptom items, requires limited time to respond to, and provides a detailed and broad description of the individual's symptomology. Data from 3406 individuals who took part in the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study were used. The participants constitute a random sample of inhabitants in the county of Västerbotten in Sweden, aged 18 to 79 years, stratified for age and gender. EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS IDENTIFIED FIVE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS: airway symptoms (9 items; Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 coefficient, KR-20, of internal consistency = 0.74), skin and eye symptoms (6 items; KR-20 = 0.60), cardiac, dizziness and nausea symptoms (4 items; KR-20 = 0.55), head-related and gastrointestinal symptoms (5 items; KR-20 = 0.55), and cognitive and affective symptoms (10 items; KR-20 = 0.80). The KR-20 was 0.85 for the entire 34-item EHSI. Symptom prevalence rates in percentage for having the specific symptoms every week over the preceding three months constitute normative data. The EHSI can be recommended for assessment of symptom prevalence in various types of environmental hypersensitivity, and with the advantage of comparing prevalence rates with normality.

  15. The Dapsone Hypersensitivity Syndrome revisited: a potentially fatal multisystem disorder with prominent hepatopulmonary manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi David S

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 4,4'-Diaminodiphenylsulphone (Dapsone is widely used for a variety of infectious, immune and hypersensitivity disorders, with indications ranging from Hansen's disease, inflammatory disease and insect bites, all of which may be seen as manifestations in certain occupational diseases. However, the use of dapsone may be associated with a plethora of adverse effects, some of which may involve the pulmonary parenchyma. Methemoglobinemia with resultant cyanosis, bone marrow aplasia and/or hemolytic anemia, peripheral neuropathy and the potentially fatal dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS, the focus of this review, may all occur individually or in combination. DHS typically presents with a triad of fever, skin eruption, and internal organ (lung, liver, neurological and other systems involvement, occurring several weeks to as late as 6 months after the initial administration of the drug. In this sense, it may resemble a DRESS syndrome (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms. DHS must be promptly identified, as untreated, the disorder could be fatal. Moreover, the pulmonary/systemic manifestations may be mistaken for other disorders. Eosinophilic infiltrates, pneumonitis, pleural effusions and interstitial lung disease may be seen. This syndrome is best approached with the immediate discontinuation of the offending drug and prompt administration of oral or intravenous glucocorticoids. An immunological-inflammatory basis of the syndrome can be envisaged, based on the pathological picture and excellent response to antiinflammatory therapy. Since dapsone is used for various indications, physicians from all specialties may encounter DHS and need to familiarize themselves with the salient features about the syndrome and its management.

  16. Decision-making and addiction (part II): myopia for the future or hypersensitivity to reward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechara, Antoine; Dolan, Sara; Hindes, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    On a decision-making instrument known as the "gambling task" (GT), a subgroup of substance dependent individuals (SDI) opted for choices that yield high immediate gains in spite of higher future losses. This resembles the behavior of patients with ventromedial (VM) prefrontal cortex lesions. In this study, we addressed the possibility that hypersensitivity to reward may account for the "myopia" for the future in this subgroup of SDI. We used a variant version of the GT, in which the good decks yielded high immediate punishment but higher delayed reward. The bad decks yielded low immediate punishment and lower delayed reward. We measured the skin conductance response (SCR) of subjects after receiving reward (reward SCR) and during their pondering from which deck to choose (anticipatory SCR). A subgroup of SDI who was not impaired on the original GT performed normally on the variant GT. The subgroup of SDI who was impaired on the original GT showed two levels of performance on the variant GT. One subgroup (36% of the sample) performed poorly on the variant GT, and showed similar behavioral and physiological impairments to VM patients. The other subgroup of SDI (64% of the sample) performed normally on the variant task, but had abnormally large physiological responses to reward, i.e. large SCR after receiving reward (reward SCR) and large SCR in anticipation of outcomes that yield large reward. Thus, the combined cognitive and physiological approach of assessing decision-making characterizes three sub-populations of SDI. One sub-population is without impairments that can be detected by any measure of the GT paradigm. Another sub-population is similar to VM patients in that they are insensitive to the future, both positive and negative. A third sub-population is hypersensitive to reward, so that the presence or the prospect of receiving, reward dominates their behavior.

  17. Genetics of hypersensitivity to aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Sanak, Marek; Park, Hae-Sim

    2013-05-01

    Various hypersensitivity reactions have been reported with aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Hypersensitivity can occur regardless of a chemical drug structure or its therapeutic potency. Allergic conditions include aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD or aspirin-induced asthma), aspirin-induced urticaria/angioedema (AIU), and anaphylaxis. Several genetic studies on aspirin hypersensitivity have been performed to discover the genetic predisposition to aspirin hypersensitivity and to gain insight into the phenotypic diversity. This article updates data on the genetic mechanisms that govern AERD and AIU and summarizes recent findings on the molecular genetic mechanism of aspirin hypersensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Selective skin sensitivity changes and sensory reweighting following short-duration space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Catherine R; Perry, Stephen D; Strzalkowski, Nicholas D J; Williams, David R; Wood, Scott J; Bent, Leah R

    2014-03-15

    Skin sensory input from the foot soles is coupled with vestibular input to facilitate body orientation in a gravitational environment. Anecdotal observations suggest that foot sole skin becomes hypersensitive following space flight. The veritable level of skin sensitivity and its impact on postural disequilibrium observed post space flight have not been documented. Skin sensitivity of astronauts (n = 11) was measured as vibration perception at the great toe, fifth metatarsal and heel. Frequencies targeted four classes of receptors: 3 and 25 Hz for slow-adapting (SA) receptors and 60 and 250 Hz for fast-adapting (FA) receptors. Data were collected pre- and post-space flight. We hypothesized that skin sensitivity would increase post-space flight and correlate to balance measures. Decreased skin sensitivity was found on landing day at 3 and 25 Hz on the great toe. Hypersensitivity was found for a subset of astronauts (n = 6) with significantly increased sensitivity to 250 Hz at the heel. This subset displayed a greater reduction in computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) equilibrium (EQ) scores (-54%) on landing vs. non-hypersensitive participants (-11%). Observed hyposensitivity of SA (pressure) receptors may indicate a strategy to reduce pressure input during periods of unloading. Hypersensitivity of FAs coupled with reduced EQ scores may reflect targeted sensory reweighting. Altered gravito-inertial environments reduce vestibular function in balance control which may trigger increased weighting of FAs (that signal foot contact, slips). Understanding modulations to skin sensitivity has translational implications for mitigating postural disequilibrium following space flight and for on-Earth preventative strategies for imbalance in older adults.

  19. Differentiation between Acute Skin Rejection in Allotransplantation and T-Cell Mediated Skin Inflammation Based on Gene Expression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in microsurgical techniques and immunosuppressive medication have rendered transplantation of vascularized composite allografts possible, when autologous tissue is neither available nor sufficient for reconstruction. However, skin rejection and side effects of long-term immunosuppression still remain a major hurdle for wide adoption of this excellent reconstructive technique. Histopathologic changes during acute skin rejection in vascular composite allotransplantation often mimic inflammatory skin disorders and are hard to distinguish. Hence, the identification of diagnostic and therapeutic markers specific for skin rejection is of particular clinical need. Here we present novel markers allowing for early differentiation between rejection in hind limb allotransplantation and contact hypersensitivity. Assessment of Ccl7, Il18, and Il1b expression is most indicative of distinguishing skin rejection from skin inflammatory disorders. Gene expression levels varied significantly across skin types and regions, indicating localization specific mechanism of leukocyte migration and infiltration. Expression of Il12b, Il17a, and Il1b gene expression levels differed significantly between rejection and inflammation, independent of the skin type. In synopsis of the RNA expression profile and previously assessed protein expression, the Il1 family appears as a promising option for accurate skin rejection diagnosis and, as a following step, for development of novel rejection treatments.

  20. Latex Hypersensitivity among Allergic Egyptian Children: Relation to Parental/Self Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Zeinab A.; El-Sayed, Shereen S.; Zaki, Rehab M.; Salama, Mervat A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Latex allergy is one of the major health concerns and allergic reactions to latex may be serious and fatal. Purpose. In this study, we sought to determine the frequency of latex hypersensitivity in a group of allergic Egyptian infants and children and its relation to the history provided by the patients or caregivers. Methods. We consecutively enrolled 400 patients with physician diagnosed allergic diseases. The study measurements included clinical evaluation for the site and duration of allergy, history suggestive of latex allergy, family history of allergy, and skin prick testing (SPT) using a commercial latex extract. Results. The study revealed that 16/400 (4%) patients had positive SPT; 11 of them only had positive history of sensitivity to latex. Positive latex SPT was reported in 3.4% (11/326) of patients with bronchial asthma, 5.9% (7/118) of patients with skin allergy, and 4.5% (2/44) of patients with allergic rhinitis. SPT was positive in 7.4% (4/54) of patients with concomitant respiratory and skin allergy. Latex SPT was more specific than sensitive (97.69% and 77.77%, resp.) with a negative predictive value of 99.47%. Conclusion. Although underrecognized, latex is an important allergen in the pediatric age group with a sensitization frequency of 4% among allergic children. It was observed to be especially associated with multiple allergic diseases coexisting in the same patient. Pediatric allergologists should educate their patients on latex allergy and encourage the use of latex-free products. PMID:25505988

  1. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Skin Cancer ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  2. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  3. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures The ...

  4. Skin Bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Samira M.

    2015-01-01

    In this project, I aim to investigate the reasoning behind the practice of skin bleaching by analyzing the documentary ”Dark Girls”, to gain a better understanding of race and colorism issues. Also this project tries to see if there is a connection with history and if this has been a part of making the european beauty ideal determine the choices black’s make in regards to beauty.

  5. Cutaneous skin tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  6. A severe hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir following re-challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Sej; Emerson, C R

    2017-03-01

    We report this case to highlight the possibility of a severe hypersensitivity reaction as an important potential consequence of couples, living with HIV, sharing anti-retroviral treatment. An HIV-1 positive and carrier of HLA-B*57:01 allele, treatment experienced man was commenced one pill Regimen Stribild (tenofovir, emtricitabine, elvitegravir and cobicistat) in July 2015. On running short of medication, he admitted to sharing his partner's treatment (Triumeq; abacavir, lamivudine and dolutegravir). On the second occasion, re-introduction resulted in whole body rash 4 h post dose and was associated with fever, respiratory symptoms, headache and vomiting. On examination, he was pyrexic, tachyponeic, tachycardiac and hypotensive. Hypersensitivity to abacavir can cause significant morbidity. Re-challenge can result in a more rapid, severe and potentially life-threatening reaction. This potentially could become an increasing problem with more couples, living with HIV, sharing medication.

  7. Adrenergic receptors are a fallible index of adrenergic denervation hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, Anders; Liggett, S B; Christensen, N J

    1991-01-01

    by measuring these in a group of subjects with well-documented adrenergic denervation hypersensitivity, patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Mononuclear leukocyte beta 2-adrenergic receptor densities (and binding affinities), measured with 125I-labelled pindolol, and isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP...... accumulation, in samples from patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (n = 8), were no different from those in samples from patients with IDDM without neuropathy (n = 8), or from non-diabetic subjects (n = 8). In addition, platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptor...... to diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Regardless of the mechanism of adrenergic denervation hypersensitivity in such patients, these data provide further evidence that measurements of cellular adrenergic receptors (and adenylate cyclase) in vitro are a fallible index of sensitivity to catecholamines in vivo....

  8. Adrenergic receptors are a fallible index of adrenergic denervation hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, Anders; Liggett, S B; Christensen, N J

    1991-01-01

    by measuring these in a group of subjects with well-documented adrenergic denervation hypersensitivity, patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Mononuclear leukocyte beta 2-adrenergic receptor densities (and binding affinities), measured with 125I-labelled pindolol, and isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP...... accumulation, in samples from patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (n = 8), were no different from those in samples from patients with IDDM without neuropathy (n = 8), or from non-diabetic subjects (n = 8). In addition, platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptor...... to diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Regardless of the mechanism of adrenergic denervation hypersensitivity in such patients, these data provide further evidence that measurements of cellular adrenergic receptors (and adenylate cyclase) in vitro are a fallible index of sensitivity to catecholamines in vivo....

  9. Hypersensitivity and chaos signatures in the quantum baker's maps

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, A J; Caves, C M; Schack, R; Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Ruediger

    2006-01-01

    Classical chaotic systems are distinguished by their sensitive dependence on initial conditions. The absence of this property in quantum systems has lead to a number of different criteria being proposed for quantum chaos, including linear growth of entropy, exponential decay of fidelity, and hypersensitivity to perturbation. All of these accurately predict chaos in the classical limit, but it is not clear that they behave the same far from the classical realm. We investigate the dynamics of a family of quantizations of the baker's map, which range from a highly entangling unitary transformation to an essentially trivial shift map. Linear entropy growth and fidelity decay are exhibited by this entire family of maps, but hypersensitivity distinguishes between the simple dynamics of the trivial shift map and the more complicated dynamics of the other quantizations. This is supported by an analytical argument for short times and numerical evidence at later times.

  10. Ulcerative colitis flair induced by mesalamine suppositories hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Liu, Xiao-Chang; Mei, Qiao; Xu, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xiang-Yang; Hu, Jing

    2014-04-07

    Mesalamine suppositories have been used widely for the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis and considered to be safer than systemic administration for its limited systemic absorption. However, previous studies have shown that mesalamine suppository occasionally causes severe hypersensitivity reactions including fever, rashes, colitis exacerbation and acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Here we present a 25-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis with bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever which were aggravated after introduction of mesalamine suppositories. In light of symptom exacerbation of ulcerative colitis, increased inflammatory injury of colon mucosa shown by colonoscopy and elevated peripheral eosinophil count after mesalamine suppositories administration, and the Naranjo algorithm score of 10, the possibility of hypersensitivity reaction to mesalamine suppositories should be considered, warning us to be aware of this potential reaction after administration of mesalamine formulations even if it is the suppositories.

  11. Delving into cornerstones of hypersensitivity to antineoplastic and biological agents: value of diagnostic tools prior to desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Cuesta, E; Madrigal-Burgaleta, R; Angel-Pereira, D; Ureña-Tavera, A; Zamora-Verduga, M; Lopez-Gonzalez, P; Berges-Gimeno, M P

    2015-07-01

    Evidence regarding drug provocation test (DPT) with antineoplastic and biological agents is scarce. Our aim was to assess the usefulness of including DPT as a paramount gold standard diagnostic tool (prior to desensitization). Prospective, observational, longitudinal study with patients who, during a 3-year period, were referred to the Desensitization Program at Ramon y Cajal University Hospital. Patients underwent a structured diagnostic protocol by means of anamnesis, skin tests (ST), risk assessment, and DPT. Oxaliplatin-specific IgE was determined in oxaliplatin-reactive patients (who underwent DPT regardless of oxaliplatin-specific IgE results). Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis were used to identify predictors of the final diagnosis among several variables. A total of 186 patients were assessed. A total of 104 (56%) patients underwent DPT. Sixty-four percent of all DPTs were negative (i.e., hypersensitivity was excluded). Sensitivity for oxaliplatin-specific IgE (0.35 UI/l cutoff point) was 34%, specificity 90.3%, negative predictive value 45.9%, positive predictive value 85%, negative likelihood ratio 0.7, and positive likelihood ratio 3.5. These are the first reported data based on more than 100 DPTs with antineoplastic and biological agents (paclitaxel, oxaliplatin, rituximab, infliximab, irinotecan, and other drugs). Implementation of DPT in diagnostic protocols helps exclude hypersensitivity (in 36% of all referred patients), and avoids unnecessary desensitizations in nonhypersensitive patients (30-56% of patients, depending on culprit-drug). Drug provocation test is vital to validate diagnostic tools; consequently, quality data are shown on oxaliplatin-specific IgE and oxaliplatin-ST in the largest series of oxaliplatin-reactive patients reported to date (74 oxaliplatin-reactive patients). Identifying phenotypes and predictors of a diagnosis of hypersensitivity may be helpful for tailored plans. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by

  12. Spotlight on the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Xaver; Fischer, Axel; Budnik, Lygia T

    2015-01-01

    Repeated inhalative exposures to antigenic material from a variety of sources, mainly from moulds, thermophilic Actinomycetes, and avians, respectively, can induce immune responses with the clinical picture of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Delays of years or even decades till the diagnosis is made are not uncommon; frequent misdiagnoses include allergic asthma, COPD, recurrent flue and other infections. We provide here the state of the art references, a detailed case description and recommend a current diagnostics schema.

  13. Severe delayed-onset hypersensitivity reactions to amoxicillin in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Chopra, R; Roberts, J.; Warrington, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Amoxicillin, a semisynthetic aminopenicillin, has achieved widespread use in recent years for the treatment of respiratory tract and otic infections. Serious reactions have been relatively infrequent. From July 1986 to June 1987, 11 children aged 6 months to 10 years presented with delayed-onset hypersensitivity reactions. In 10 the symptoms were consistent with a serum-sickness-like illness, including urticaria, angioedema, arthritis and arthralgia. Radioallergosorbent testing for IgE antibo...

  14. Type I hypersensitivity reaction as a complication of lepa

    OpenAIRE

    Janthli, Deepa Manjunath; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Somashekar, Shruthi; Lohith, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reaction is defined as response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in man for the prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease, or for the modification of physiological functions. Type I hypersensitivity reaction is known as anaphylactic reaction which is due to immediate immunoglobulin E-mediated reaction. It is characterized by symptoms such as fever nausea, back pain, angiodema, rash, flushing, etc. Lepa generally refers to the a...

  15. Piperacillin plus Tazobactam induced Drug Hypersensitivity Reaction: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Modi RS; Sattigeri BM; Patel AH

    2015-01-01

    Penicillin alone or with combination should be used in hospitalized patients to treat bacterial infections with great precautions since penicillin is known to produce hypersensitivity reactions very commonly. A 53 year old hospitalized male patient having tibia fracture was initially given ceftriaxone plus salbactum and amikacin as an antibacterial therapeutics. Subsequently patient was treated with Pipzo (Inj. Piperacillin plus Tezobactum; 4.5 gm.) on the basis of anti- bacterial sensitivity...

  16. Sauna lung: hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to Exophiala jeanselmei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Chen; Lu, Yin-Hsiu; Lin, Zih-Gong; Su, Wen-Lin

    2010-04-01

    A 55-year-old man developed progressive cough and dyspnoea after regular attendance at a public steam bath. Hypoxaemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and a predominance of lymphocytes with an increased percentage of CD8+ T cells in his bronchoalveolar lavage fluid suggested hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Microbial cultures from the steam bath room and tank identified Exophiala jeanselmei. Immunoblotting assays from the patient's serum confirmed the major antigenic stimulus. The patient recovered fully after systemic corticosteroid treatment and cessation of further exposure.

  17. Working with argan cake: a new etiology for hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Christophe; Herin, Fabrice; Reboux, Gabriel; Penven, Emmanuelle; Barrera, Coralie; Guidat, Cécile; Thaon, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Argan is now used worldwide in numerous cosmetic products. Nine workers from a cosmetic factory were examined in our occupational medicine department, following the diagnosis of a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) related to handling of argan cakes. Methods Operators were exposed to three forms of argan (crude granulates, powder or liquid) depending on the step of the process. All workers systematically completed standardized questionnaires on occupational and medical histo...

  18. Hypersensitivity to Etoposide in Case of Metastatic Gestational Choriocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Lazović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Etoposide is commonly used in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms. Hypersensitivity reactions to etoposide are infrequently reported and include hypotension, hypertension, flushing, diaphoresis, chest discomfort, dyspnea, bronchospasm and loss of consciousness. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman who experienced acute bronchospasm, tachycardia, hypoxia and hypotension. The symptoms resolved within an hour after administration of intravenous fluids, methylprednisolone, diphenhydramine and oxygen. Subsequently, the patient was given etoposide phosphate without incident.

  19. Hypersensitivity to antineoplastic agents: mechanisms and treatment with rapid desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Mariana; Sancho-Serra, Maria del Carmen; Simarro, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to chemotherapy drugs, such as taxanes and platins, and to monoclonal antibodies limit their therapeutic use due to the severity of some reactions and the fear of inducing a potentially lethal reaction in highly sensitized patients. Patients who experience hypersensitivity reactions face the prospect of abandoning first-line treatment and switching to a second-line, less effective therapy. Some of these reactions are mast cell-mediated hypersensitivity reactions, a subset of which occur through an immunoglobulin (IgE)-dependent mechanism, and are thus true allergies. Others involve mast cells without a demonstrable IgE mechanism. Whether basophils can participate in these reactions has not been demonstrated. Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) is a procedure that induces temporary tolerance to a drug, allowing a medication allergic patient to receive the optimal agent for his or her disease. Through RDD, patients with IgE and non-IgE HSRs can safely be administered important medications while minimizing or completely inhibiting adverse reactions. Due to the clinical expansion and success of RDD, the molecular mechanisms inducing the temporary tolerization have been investigated and are partially understood, allowing for safer and more effective protocols. This article reviews the current literature on molecular mechanisms of RDD with an emphasis in our recent contributions to this field as well as the indications, methods and outcomes of RDD for taxanes, platins, and monoclonal antibodies.

  20. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Hypersensitivity in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidon Mona

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although extensively studied in adults, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID hypersensitivity in children, especially in young children, remains poorly defined. Pediatricians, prescribing antipyretics for children, rarely encounter significant problems, but the few epidemiologic studies performed show conflicting results. Although it is clear that some patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA-sensitive asthma have their clinical onset of disease in childhood and bronchoconstriction after ASA challenge is seen in 0 to 22% of asthmatic children so challenged, ibuprofen at antipyretic doses may cause acute respiratory problems only in a very small number of mild to moderate asthmatics. The recently elucidated mechanism of action of acetaminophen may explain some occurrences of adverse reactions in patients with cross-reactive NSAID hypersensitivity on the basis of its inhibitory activity on the newly described enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX-3. This nonspecific sensitivity to inhibition of COX is most likely genetically determined and shows a remarkable association with atopic disease even in the very young age group and possibly an increased predilection in specific ethnic groups. This review summarizes state-of-the-art published data on NSAID hypersensitivity in preschool children.

  1. The skin: target organ in immunotoxicology of small-molecular-weight compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, H F; Sachs, B; Baron, J

    2001-01-01

    Immunotoxicology studies two different effects of xenobiotics: immunosuppression and dysregulation of immune responses leading to hypersensitivity or autoimmunity. The skin is a major target organ of immunotoxicity which is provoked by small-molecular-weight compounds. Methods may be helpful for immunotoxicological investigations and screenings for adverse effects of xenobiotics which are used for diagnosis or studies on the pathophysiology of skin disorders such as allergic contact dermatitis, cutaneous drug-allergic reactions or autoimmune diseases of the skin. Examples include well-designed patch tests, assays involving antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, but also T lymphocytes, basophiles or keratinocytes.

  2. The in vitro photosensitivity of systemic lupus erythematosus skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamansky, G B; Minka, D F; Deal, C L; Hendricks, K

    1985-03-01

    To investigate the role of DNA damage in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we studied the ability of skin fibroblasts derived from SLE patients to recover from ultraviolet (UV) light radiation of varying wavelengths. Four of five SLE cell strains were more sensitive to UV-C (254 nm), sun lamp, and UV-A (320 to 400 nm) light than were normal cells. SLE cellular recovery was most sensitive to broad spectrum, long wavelength light. This hypersensitivity did not appear to result from the UV light activation of a clastogenic factor. Experiments which examined the DNA repair capacity of irradiated cells indicated that SLE fibroblasts may be able to excise certain DNA lesions as well as normal cells. The mechanisms responsible for the hypersensitivity of SLE cells remain under investigation.

  3. Skin Keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin.

  4. CD1d knockout mice exhibit aggravated contact hypersensitivity responses due to reduced interleukin-10 production predominantly by regulatory B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelbye, Jonas; Antvorskov, Julie C; Buschard, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Conflicting observations have been reported concerning the role of CD1d-dependent natural killer T (NKT) cells in contact hypersensitivity (CHS), supporting either a disease-promoting or downregulatory function. We studied the role of NKT cells in CHS by comparing the immune response in CD1d.......5% DNCB (w/v) on the ears fifteen days later. We demonstrate that CD1d KO mice, as compared with Wt littermates, have more pronounced infiltration of mononuclear cells in the skin (29.1% increase; P

  5. Visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, QiQi; Price, Donald D; Caudle, Robert M; Verne, G Nicholas

    2008-02-01

    Inflammation of visceral structures in rats has been shown to produce visceral/somatic hyperalgesia. Our objectives were to determine if trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in rats leads to visceral/somatic hypersensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were treated with 20 mg of TNBS in 50% ethanol (n = 40) or an equivalent volume of ethanol (n = 40) or saline (n = 25) via the colon. Colonic distension, Von Frey, Hargreaves, and tail reflex tests were used to evaluate for visceral, mechanical, and thermal sensitivity. The rats demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity at 2-28 days following TNBS administration (P rats also demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity that resolved after day 14. TNBS-treated rats demonstrated somatic hypersensitivity at days 14-28 (P TNBS colitis is associated with visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in areas of somatotopic overlap. This model of colitis should allow further investigation into the mechanisms of visceral and somatic hypersensitivity.

  6. Development of New Treatment Method for Dentin Hypersensitivity Using Ammonium Hexafluorosilicate

    OpenAIRE

    菅, 俊行

    2010-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common disease, the incidence is approximately 30% in the general population. However, knowledge is limited regarding the etiology of dentin hypersensitivity, and there is no consistent treatment method. Therefore, relationship between the etiology of dentin hypersensitivity and condition of plaque control was evaluated in vivo using the vital teeth of dogs. In the plaque control group, the average diameter of dentin tubules decreased over time. In contrast, the d...

  7. Cardiac Iodine-123-Meta-Iodo-Benzylguanidine Uptake in Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maw Pin Tan

    Full Text Available Carotid sinus syndrome is the association of carotid sinus hypersensitivity with syncope, unexplained falls and drop attacks in generally older people. We evaluated cardiac sympathetic innervation in this disorder in individuals with carotid sinus syndrome, asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity and controls without carotid sinus hypersensitivity.Consecutive patients diagnosed with carotid sinus syndrome at a specialist falls and syncope unit were recruited. Asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity and non-carotid sinus hypersensitivity control participants recruited from a community-dwelling cohort. Cardiac sympathetic innervation was determined using Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123-I-MIBG scanning. Heart to mediastinal uptake ratio (H:M were determined for early and late uptake on planar scintigraphy at 20 minutes and 3 hours following intravenous injection of 123-I-MIBG.Forty-two subjects: carotid sinus syndrome (n = 21, asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity (n = 12 and no carotid sinus hypersensitivity (n = 9 were included. Compared to the non- carotid sinus hypersensitivity control group, the carotid sinus syndrome group had significantly higher early H:M (estimated mean difference, B = 0.40; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.13 to 0.67, p = 0.005 and late H:M (B = 0.32; 95%CI = 0.03 to 0.62, p = 0.032. There was, however, no significant difference in early H:M (p = 0.326 or late H:M (p = 0.351 between the asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity group and non- carotid sinus hypersensitivity controls.Cardiac sympathetic neuronal activity is increased relative to age-matched controls in individuals with carotid sinus syndrome but not those with asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Blood pressure and heart rate measurements alone may therefore represent an over simplification in the assessment for carotid sinus syndrome and the relative increase in cardiac sympathetic innervation provides additional clues to

  8. Type I hypersensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus in patients with parthenium dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Chembolli; Srinivas C

    2007-01-01

    Background: Parthenium dermatitis is a major problem in urban and rural India. Patients with severe allergic rhinitis due to exposure to pollens of parthenium are reported to have parthenium specific IgE and IgG antibodies. Parthenium induces contact dermatitis by Type IV hypersensitivity and allergic rhinitis by Type-I hypersensitivity. Aims: The study was undertaken to detect Type-I and Type-IV hypersensitivity amongst patients with parthenium dermatitis. Methods: Fourteen patients wit...

  9. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can ... rarely, younger children can develop skin cancer. How can people with dark skin get skin cancer? Although ...

  10. Síndrome de Hipersensibilidad a Anticonvulsivantes (SHA Anticonvulsivant Hypersensitivity Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Estrella

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de hipersensibilidad a drogas o síndrome DRESS es una reacción rara y potencialmente fatal; se caracteriza por presentar la tríada de fiebre, rash y compromiso de órganos internos. Fenitoína, fenobarbital y carbamazepina son los anticonvulsivantes aromáticos que con más frecuencia causan esta reacción. Dicho síndrome ocurre entre la 1ra y 8va semanas después de la exposición al fármaco. La eliminación inmediata de la droga es esencial para el manejo de estos pacientes. Presentamos una paciente de sexo femenino, de 62 años, medicada con carbamazepina durante un mes, que consulta por fiebre, mal estado general y rash máculopapuloso que se generalizó hasta abarcar el 90% de la superficie cutánea.Anticonvulsivant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS is a rare and potentially fatal reaction characterized by the appearance of fever, skin rash and internal organ involvement. Phenytoin, phenobarbital and carbamazepine are the most frequent aromatic anticonvulsivant causing the reaction. This syndrome occurs 1-8 weeks after the initial drug exposure.

  11. The complex clinical picture of beta-lactam hypersensitivity: penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems, and clavams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Maria J; Blanca, Miguel

    2010-07-01

    Beta-lactam antibiotics are the drugs most frequently involved in drug hypersensitivity reactions that are mediated by specific immunologic mechanisms. In addition to benzylpenicillin, several chemical structures belonging to 5 major subgroups can induce reactions. The most relevant structure is that of the amoxicillin molecule. Reactions belong to the 4 major mechanisms described by Coombs and Gell, whereby type IV reactions have recently been further subclassified. The most frequent reactions are type I, which are IgE mediated, and type IV, which are nonimmediate and T-cell dependent. IgE-specific antibodies may recognize the benzylpenicilloyl structure or another part of the molecule, such as the side chain, as antigenic determinants. Depending on specific recognition, subjects can be either cross-reactors or selective responders. A variety of entities exist in T-cell reactions, ranging from mild exanthema to life-threatening, severe reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. Diagnostic tests for IgE-mediated reactions can be done in vivo by testing skin with different penicillin determinants or in vitro by quantitating specific IgE antibodies. For nonimmediate reactions, there are also in vitro and in vivo tests, with variable degrees of sensitivity and specificity. The natural history of IgE-mediated reactions indicates that the count of specific IgE antibodies decreases over time and that results of diagnostic tests can become negative.

  12. Acute liver failure caused by drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome associated with hyperferritinemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masayuki Miyazaki; Masatake Tanaka; Akihiro Ueda; Tsuyoshi Yoshimoto; Masaki Kato; Makoto Nakamuta; Kazuhiro Kotoh; Ryoichi Takayanagi

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) is a se-vere reaction usually characterized by fever, rash, and multiorgan failure, occurring 2-6 wk after drug introduction.It is an immune-mediated reaction involving macrophage and T-lymphocyte activation and cytokine release. A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed with rheumatic arthritis and initiated salazosulfapyridine by mouth. About 10 d later, she had a high fever, skin rash and liver dysfunction. She was admitted to hospital and diagnosed with a drug eruption. She was treated with oral prednisolone 30 mg/d; however, she developed high fever again and her blood tests showed acute liver failure and cytopenia associated with hyperferritinemia. She was diagnosed with acute liver failure and hemophagocytosis caused by DIHS. She was transferred to the Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Kyushu University, where she was treated with arterial steroid injection therapy. Following this treatment, her liver function improved and serum ferritin immediately decreased. We hypothesized that an immune-mediated reaction in DIHS may have generated over-activation of macrophages and T-lymphocytes, followed by a cytokine storm that affected various organs. The measurement of serum ferritin might be a useful marker of the severity of DIHS.

  13. Carboplatin hypersensitivity in children with glial tumors: a report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Kazgan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carboplatin, commonly used chemotherapeutic agent in treatment of pediatric cancers, can cause life-threatening hypersensitivty reactions. Carboplatin hypersensitivity is protocol-specific and associated with repeated doses and prolonged use of the drug. Vincristin and carboplatin combination is used efficiently in treatment of pediatric low-grade gliomas. However, hypersensitivity reactions are frequently observed during usage of this protocol. Desensitization strategies with variable success rates were reported. Failure of these strategies may lead to cessation of carboplatin Here, we report two cases with carboplatin hypersensitivity treated with epinephrine administration, in whom carboplatin was discontinued after hypersensitivity reaction. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 796-798

  14. Hypersensitivity to house dust mite and cockroach is the most common allergy in north of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Javad; Khademloo, Mohammad; Saffar, Mohammad Jafar; Rafiei, Alireza; Masiha, Farzad

    2010-12-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis are among the most common diseases in the world. The aim of this study was to detect, by skin prick test, aeroallergens in allergic patients in Sari, Mazandaran in north of Iran. This is a prospective study of skin prick test of aeroallergens in asthma, allergic rhinitis and their combination with clinical diagnosis. Three hundred and seventy five cases aged between 5 to 50 years, were referred to Tooba and Boo-Ali allergic centers of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences between December 2006 and July 2009. The aeroallergens studied included house dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), cockroaches, feather, aspergillus, Alternaria, pigweed, nettle, oak and maple. Of the studied individuals, 175 cases were males (46.7%) and 200 were females (53.3%), of which 156 (n=41.5%) reacted to allergen extracts. In asthma, allergic rhinitis and their combination, the respective positive percentages were 26.6%, 22.9%, and 32.6% for Dermatophagoides farinae; 26.6%, 25.3%, and 23.3% for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; 12.7%, 17.4%, and 11.6% for cockroaches and 16.5%, 4.7%, and 7.0% for the feather. Other allergens were positive up to 5 percent. Total IgE levels were elevated in 56.4%, 53% and 60.5% of asthmatic, allergic rhinitis and the combination group, respectively. Eosinophils count was elevated in 40.5%, 33.2% and 37.2% of the same groups, respectively. The hypersensitivity to house dust mites is very common in north of Iran which may be attributed to the warm and humid weather of this area.

  15. Physician approaches to beta-lactam use in patients with penicillin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prematta, Tracy; Shah, Shenil; Ishmael, Faoud T

    2012-01-01

    Beta-lactam antibiotics are widely used, but hypersensitivity reactions are common and difficult to manage. This study was designed to identify lack of knowledge regarding the safe use of alternative beta-lactams in penicillin-allergic patients and assess management differences between allergists and nonallergists. An electronic physician survey was sent to 623 providers in allergy, internal medicine, pediatrics, and family medicine, querying beta-lactam use in patients with a history of penicillin allergy. A total of 110 (17.7%) surveys were completed. For patients with a prior maculopapular rash to penicillin, most providers were uncomfortable prescribing penicillins again, although they would use other beta-lactams. In patients with an exfoliative dermatitis to penicillin, 46% of responders would not prescribe any beta-lactam again. For patients with a positive skin test to penicillin, only 45.1% of nonallergists were comfortable prescribing monobactams versus 62.5% of allergists; 30.3% of all responders would give a carbapenem. In patients with urticaria to penicillin, pediatricians were the most comfortable prescribing third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins. Providers (both allergists and nonallergists) were unfamiliar with the safety of prescribing penicillin in patients with history of maculopapular rash, the safety of monobactams, and low cross-reactivity with carbapenems in penicillin-allergic individuals. Nonallergists were also unfamiliar with the usefulness of penicillin skin testing. Improved education is needed to address these areas. Additionally, we found variability in responses regarding exfoliative dermatitis and comfort prescribing cephalosporins in patients with suspected IgE-mediated drug allergy to penicillin, highlighting the need for additional research in these areas.

  16. Photodamage in feline skin: clinical and histomorphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E M P; Caraça, R A; Adam, R L; Souza, E M; Metze, K; Cintra, M L

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and histomorphometric features of cat skin under long-term solar exposure. Ear skin of 34 Domestic Shorthair cats that were chronically exposed to sun was classified as follows: group 0, normal (n = 13); group 1, initial stage of photodamage (PD) (n = 10); group 2, advanced stage of PD (n = 11). Histologic sections were examined independently by 2 pathologists, and epidermal thickness, adnexal unit area, and dermal cellularity were assessed by morphometry. A positive correlation was obtained between age, degree of edema and sclerosis in the upper dermis, telangiectases, squamatization of basal keratinocytes, and epidermis thickness and the degree of PD. The area occupied by adnexal structures in the dermis diminished with increased PD. Dermal sclerosis and edema best separated the 3 groups. The results indicated a high level of skin hypersensitivity to sun rays in cats. The findings may be useful for clinical testing and in general veterinary pathology and dermatology.

  17. Penicillin skin testing: potential implications for antimicrobial stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Nathan R; Gauthier, Timothy P; Cheung, Linda W

    2013-08-01

    As the progression of multidrug-resistant organisms and lack of novel antibiotics move us closer toward a potential postantibiotic era, it is paramount to preserve the longevity of current therapeutic agents. Moreover, novel interventions for antimicrobial stewardship programs are integral to combating antimicrobial resistance worldwide. One unique method that may decrease the use of second-line antibiotics (e.g., fluoroquinolones, vancomycin) while facilitating access to a preferred β-lactam regimen in numerous health care settings is a penicillin skin test. Provided that up to 10% of patients have a reported penicillin allergy, of whom ~10% have true IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, significant potential exists to utilize a penicillin skin test to safely identify those who may receive penicillin or a β-lactam antibiotic. In this article, we provide information on the background, associated costs, currently available literature, pharmacists' role, antimicrobial stewardship implications, potential barriers, and misconceptions, as well as future directions associated with the penicillin skin test.

  18. Hypersensitivity reaction to components of parenteral nutrition in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Carlos Ruiz; Ponce, Esperanza Castejón; Busquets, Ferran Bossacoma; Hernández, Diana Sánchez; Oliva, Silvia Meavilla; Santacruz, Enrique Llerena; Pérez, Naymar; De Los Santos Pelegrini, Mariela; Flaque, Miquel Villaronga

    2016-01-01

    Very rare cases of hypersensitivity reactions to various constituents of parenteral nutrition (PN) have been reported in children. Adverse effects associated with PN administration have centered on metabolic, infectious, and mechanical complications. Here we describe three cases of hypersensitivity to components of PN. Case 1 is a 1-mo-old breastfed baby with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis associated with an infection with cytomegalovirus. On the second day of PN, 60 min after the initiation of the infusion, the patient had an allergic reaction with an overall diffused rash. On day 4 of PN, the multivitamin solution and the trace element mix were excluded, showing a good tolerance. Case 2 is a 4-y-old girl with a background of stage III neuroblastoma. On day 3 of PN, 15 min after the initiation of the infusion, the patient showed sudden facial edema. On day 5, suspecting the amino acid solution to be the etiology of her reaction, PN was infused with another amino acid preparation, and the patient showed good tolerance. Case 3 is a 10-y-old boy with a diagnosis of an acute peritonitis. Two h after the initiation of the infusion, the patient showed a general wheal rash. He referred a background of fish allergy. Considering that the lipid emulsion used had components from fish oil (SMOF Lipid), a new PN was infused on day 2. The new PN contained a lipid emulsion containing vegetable oil (ClinOleic). The patient showed good tolerance. In conclusion, we consider that, although the hypersensitivity to PN components is infrequent, there is an increase in reports of pediatric cases describing this allergic pathology.

  19. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  20. Curativo de biomembrana vegetal e hipersensibilidade Natural-biomembrane dressing and hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade

    2011-10-01

    been used as a dressing for skin ulcers. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate how safe the natural biomembrane is in relation to hypersensitivity to latex when used as a dressing. METHODS: We selected patients with skin ulcers, forming the following groups: control - low occupational exposure to latex (n = 17; latex-exposed control - high occupational exposure (n = 14; ulcerated, using the natural biomembrane (n = 13; ulcerated control, not using the natural biomembrane (n = 14; and new cases (n = 9, assessed before and after 3 months of using the natural biomembrane. All patients underwent clinical and epidemiological evaluation for latex hypersensitivity and specific IgE (UniCap®, and the control and latex-exposed control groups underwent the patch test. RESULTS: Hypersensitivity was positive in 64.7% of the patients in the control group, 71.4% of the patients in the latex-exposed control group, 61.5% of the ulcerated using the natural biomembrane, 35.7% of the ulcerated control, and only 22 , 2% of the new cases. In the patch test of the control and latex-exposed control groups, only one individual in the control group (low contact showed erythema in the first reading, which became negative in the second. The mean contact with latex in the latex-exposed control group was 3.42 hours / day. In the fluoroimmunoenzymatic assay, most of the sera was classified as zero (range 0-6. No serum was rated above 2, which is not considered significant for hypersensitivity (classification > 4. CONCLUSION: The natural biomembrane proved to be safe as a dressing, for it did not induce hypersensitivity reactions among the volunteers who underwent the patch test or among users of the natural biomembrane, as it was clinically and immunologically demonstrated by IgE levels.

  1. Visceral and Somatic Hypersensitivity in TNBS induced Colitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qiqi; Price, Donald D.; Caudle, Robert M; Verne, G Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    Inflammation of visceral structures in rats has been shown to produce visceral/somatic hyperalgesia. Our objectives were to determine if trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in rats leads to visceral/somatic hypersensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200g–250g) were treated with 20 mg of TNBS in 50% ethanol (n=40) or an equivalent volume of ethanol (n=40) or saline (n=25) via the colon. Colonic distension, Von-Frey, Hargreaves, and tail reflex test were used to evaluate for v...

  2. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: The opinion of an observer neurologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc-Vergnes, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a recent, uncertain and somehow confusing concept. It is now widely agreed that people claiming to be EHS really experience symptoms. However, no evidence for a causal link between the symptoms and electromagnetic fields (EMF) has been reported. Thus, we have to wonder whether EHS constitutes truly a relevant entity. Most of the previous studies suffer from methodological flaws. Owing to the quantification of symptoms, the interdisciplinary assessment of patients, and the use of personal exposimeters, the recent studies are of better quality. A set of convergent associated signs suggests that individual neuropsychic factors take a prominent, but maybe not unique, part in this condition.

  3. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to residential mosquito-coil smoke exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gopall Roshnee; CAO Guo-qiang; CHEN Hong

    2011-01-01

    We reported a previously healthy 25-year-old female patient who developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis following repeated exposures to the smoke of mosquito coils. The patient presented with vague symptoms of cough and fever for 3 days. Diagnostic criteria proposed for clinical use in this case included history, exposure to a recognized antigen, physical examination, consistent radiographic images, bronchoalveolar lavage and lung biopsy. Much symptomatic relief and better radiographic response were noted after short-term use of oral corticosteroid and removal of the offending antigen.

  4. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  5. Surveillance scheme for occupational skin disease in the Saarland, FRG. First report from BKH-S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, H; Bruckner, T; Bernhard-Klimt, C; Koch, T; Scheidt, R; Diepgen, T L

    2002-04-01

    Occupational skin disease (OSD) is a significant public health concern. To keep OSDs under surveillance, a register of OSDs (BKH-S) was implemented in 1999 in the Saarland, FRG. We conducted a population-based register study to analyse all initial reports of OSDs reported to the BKH-S. 336 cases were prospectively assessed from July 1999 to June 2001. In 78% (n = 263) of the cases an occupational cause for the skin disease was stated, 91% (n = 240) of which fell within 16 occupational groups. This is equivalent to 6.8 cases per 10,000 workers per year within these occupational groups. Notably, young age groups (median age 35 years) were affected with a female predominance. The most frequent final diagnosis was irritant contact dermatitis (75%) followed by allergic contact dermatitis (34%) and atopic dermatitis (19%). The overall prevalence of occupationally relevant delayed-type reactors was 21% and of immediate-type reactors 17%. Work-related delayed-type sensitizations to potassium dichromate (n = 8) and immediate-type sensitizations to natural rubber latex (n = 11) were the most frequently observed. Questionnaire results showed frequent occupational skin contact with wet work (59%), detergents (48%), and disinfectants (38%). The second valid surveillance scheme for OSD in the FRG has been introduced and can be made available for further analysis.

  6. Rice Hypersensitive Induced Reaction Protein 1 (OsHIR1 associates with plasma membrane and triggers hypersensitive cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Sai-Ming

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, HIR (Hypersensitive Induced Reaction proteins, members of the PID (Proliferation, Ion and Death superfamily, have been shown to play a part in the development of spontaneous hypersensitive response lesions in leaves, in reaction to pathogen attacks. The levels of HIR proteins were shown to correlate with localized host cell deaths and defense responses in maize and barley. However, not much was known about the HIR proteins in rice. Since rice is an important cereal crop consumed by more than 50% of the populations in Asia and Africa, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms of disease responses in this plant. We previously identified the rice HIR1 (OsHIR1 as an interacting partner of the OsLRR1 (rice Leucine-Rich Repeat protein 1. Here we show that OsHIR1 triggers hypersensitive cell death and its localization to the plasma membrane is enhanced by OsLRR1. Result Through electron microscopy studies using wild type rice plants, OsHIR1 was found to mainly localize to the plasma membrane, with a minor portion localized to the tonoplast. Moreover, the plasma membrane localization of OsHIR1 was enhanced in transgenic rice plants overexpressing its interacting protein partner, OsLRR1. Co-localization of OsHIR1 and OsLRR1 to the plasma membrane was confirmed by double-labeling electron microscopy. Pathogen inoculation studies using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing either OsHIR1 or OsLRR1 showed that both transgenic lines exhibited increased resistance toward the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. However, OsHIR1 transgenic plants produced more extensive spontaneous hypersensitive response lesions and contained lower titers of the invading pathogen, when compared to OsLRR1 transgenic plants. Conclusion The OsHIR1 protein is mainly localized to the plasma membrane, and its subcellular localization in that compartment is enhanced by OsLRR1. The expression of OsHIR1 may sensitize the plant

  7. Clinical evaluation of desensitizing treatments for cervical dentin hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Corrêa Aranha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare different treatments for dentin hypersensitivity in a 6-month follow-up. One hundred and one teeth exhibiting non carious cervical lesions were selected. The assessment method used to quantify sensitivity was the cold air syringe, recorded by the visual analogue scale (VAS, prior to treatment (baseline, immediately after topical treatment, after 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months. Teeth were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 20: G1: Gluma Desensitizer (GD; G2: Seal&Protect (SP; G3: Oxa-gel (OG; G4: Fluoride (F; G5: Low intensity laser-LILT (660 nm/3.8 J/cm²/15 mW. Analysis was based on the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test that demonstrated statistical differences immediately after the treatment (p = 0.0165. To observe the individual effects of each treatment, data was submitted to Friedman test. It was observed that GD and SP showed immediate effect after application. Reduction in the pain level throughout the six-month follow-up was also observed. In contrast, LILT presented a gradual reduction of hypersensitivity. OG and F showed effects as of the first and third month respectively. It can be concluded that, after the 6-month clinical evaluation, all therapies showed lower VAS sensitivity values compared with baseline, independently of their different modes of action.

  8. Beta-lactam hypersensitivity and cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terico, Adrienne T; Gallagher, Jason C

    2014-12-01

    Penicillin is the most frequently reported cause of drug allergy, and cross-reactivity of penicillins with other beta-lactam antibiotics is an area of debate. This review evaluates the available data on immunoglobulin E-mediated penicillin hypersensitivity and cross-reactivity with cephalosporin, carbapenem, and monobactam antibiotics. A MEDLINE search was conducted from 1950 to October 2013, and selected references from review articles were also evaluated. There is a wide variety in reported incidences of cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins or carbapenems, with early retrospective studies suggesting up to 41.7% and 47.4% cross-reactivity, respectively. Conversely, the use of monobactam antibiotics is frequently employed in the case of a penicillin allergy, as prescribers believe that there is no cross-reactivity between the 2 drug classes. More recent prospective studies suggest that the rates of cross-reactivity with cephalosporins and carbapenems are penicillin and cephalosporin side chains may play a role in cross-reactivity between these classes. Cross-reactivity with monobactams is essentially negligible; however, there are some clinical data to support an interaction between ceftazidime and aztreonam, due to the similarity of their side chains. The data reviewed suggest that avoidance of other beta-lactams in patients with type 1 hypersensitivity to penicillins should be reconsidered.

  9. N-acetylcysteine attenuates hexavalent chromium-induced hypersensitivity through inhibition of cell death, ROS-related signaling and cytokine expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Lee

    Full Text Available Chromium hypersensitivity (chromium-induced allergic contact dermatitis is an important issue in occupational skin disease. Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI can activate the Akt, Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, and Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways and induce cell death, via the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Recently, cell death stimuli have been proposed to regulate the release of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1 (IL-1. However, the exact effects of ROS on the signaling molecules and cytotoxicity involved in Cr(VI-induced hypersensitivity have not yet been fully demonstrated. N-acetylcysteine (NAC could increase glutathione levels in the skin and act as an antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the effects of NAC on attenuating the Cr(VI-triggered ROS signaling in both normal keratinocyte cells (HaCaT cells and a guinea pig (GP model. The results showed the induction of apoptosis, autophagy and ROS were observed after different concentrations of Cr(VI treatment. HaCaT cells pretreated with NAC exhibited a decrease in apoptosis and autophagy, which could affect cell viability. In addition, Cr (VI activated the Akt, NF-κB and MAPK pathways thereby increasing IL-1α and TNF-α production. However, all of these stimulation phenomena could be inhibited by NAC in both of in vitro and in vivo studies. These novel findings indicate that NAC may prevent the development of chromium hypersensitivity by inhibiting of ROS-induced cell death and cytokine expression.

  10. Evaluation of the Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy Toothbrush in Treatment of Dentin Hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghini, Jaber; Mogharehabed, Ahmad; Safavi, Nassimeh; Mohamadi, Mehrnush; Ashtiju, Fahime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dentin hypersensitivity is one of the most common complications that affect patients after periodontal therapy. Recently low level laser therapy has been introduced as a new treatment modality and has produced beneficial results. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of low level laser therapy toothbrushes in reduction of dentin hypersensitivity.

  11. Successful desensitization protocol for hypersensitivity reaction probably caused by dabrafenib in a patient with metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Sela, Gil; Abu-Amna, Mahmoud; Hadad, Salim; Haim, Nissim; Shahar, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Vemurafenib and dabrafenib are both orally bioavailable small molecule agents that block mitogen activated protein kinase signalling in patients with melanoma and BRAF(V600E) mutation. Generalized hypersensitivity reactions to vemurafenib or dabrafenib have not been described. Continuing vemurafenib or dabrafenib therapy despite hypersensitivity reaction is especially important in patients with melanoma and BRAF(V600E) mutation, in whom this mutation plays a critical role in tumour growth. Desensitization protocols to overcome hypersensitivity reactions by gradual reintroduction of small amounts of the offending drug up to full therapeutic doses are available for many anti-cancer agents, including vemurafenib but, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported for dabrafenib. We describe a patient with metastatic melanoma who developed Type I hypersensitivity reaction to vemurafenib and to subsequent treatment with dabrafenib, and who was successfully treated by drug desensitization which allowed safe prolonged continuation of dabrafenib. The development of hypersensitivity reactions for both dabrafenib and vemurafinib in the current case could be because these drugs have a similar chemical structure and cause a cross-reactivity. However, hypersensitivity reaction to a non-medicinal ingredient shared by the two drugs is also possible. Oral desensitization appears to be an option for patients with hypersensitivity Type I to dabrafenib. This approach may permit clinicians to safely administer dabrafenib to patients who experience hypersensitivity reactions to this life-prolonging medication. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Baroreflex Sensitivity And Autonomic Nervous System Function In Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise Schouborg; Pors, Kirsten; Theibel, Ann Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Syncope in the elderly may be caused by an apparent hypersensitivity in the high pressure baroreflex control of heart rate and blood pressure - carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Previous studies have found ambiguous results regarding the baroreceptor sensitivity in patients with carotid sinus hyper...... sensitivity may not follow the same neuronal pathways as those responding to the crude external pressures applied during carotid sinus massage...

  13. Hypersensitive cell death in plants : its mechanisms and role in plant defense against pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Michalczuk, L.; Woltering, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    This review is a recent update in the understanding of the hypersensitive response (HR) of plants with special consideration to the physiological and biochemical determinants in different model systems. Hypersensitive response is reviewed as a form of programmed cell death (PCD) representing one of

  14. Hypersensitivity and pain induced by operative procedures and the "cracked tooth" syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, S; Boston, D

    1997-01-01

    Various dental conditions are responsible for tooth hypersensitivity and pain. They include hypersensitive dentin; the "cracked tooth" syndrome; pulp and periapical irritation, inflammation and/or degeneration; barodontalgia (aerodontalgia); and periodontal pathoses, particularly the pulpal-periodontal syndrome. Each operative condition is reviewed with respect to its etiology, symptomatology, and diagnosis. Some treatment recommendations are made to prevent or reduce symptoms.

  15. TRIMELLITIC ANHYDRIDE (TMA) HYPERSENSITIVITY IN MICE AFTER MULTIPLE INTRATRACHAEL (IT) EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOT 2001 DMS214TRIMELLITIC ANHYDRIDE (TMA) HYPERSENSITIVITY INMICE AFTER MULTIPLE INTRATRACHEAL (IT) EXPOSURES. D Sailstad, E Boykin, M Ward, and MJ Selgrade. NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.TMA causes Th2 related respiratory hypersensitivity (RH) responses. W...

  16. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Takahiro; Tamai, Takuma; Sahara, Yurina; Kurohane, Kohta [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan); Watanabe, Tatsuo [Laboratory of Food Chemistry, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan); Imai, Yasuyuki, E-mail: imai@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52‐1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422‐8526 (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here we examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ► Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ► Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ► TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ► HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.

  17. Therapeutic efficacy and immunological response of CCL5 antagonists in models of contact skin reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Canavese

    Full Text Available Skin-infiltrating T-cells play a predominant role in allergic and inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and allergic contact dermatitis. These T-cells are attracted by several chemotactic factors including the chemokine CCL5/RANTES, a CC chemokine inducing both the migration and activation of specific leukocyte subsets. CCL5 has been found to be associated with various cell-mediated hypersensitive disorders such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis. We have used two antagonists, the first, Met-CCL5, a dual CCR1/CCR5 antagonist and the second, a variant in which GAG binding is abrogated, (44AANA(47-CCL5, which acts as a dominant negative inhibitor of CCL5. The antagonists were tested in two models of contact skin reaction. The first, irritant contact dermatitis (ICD is a pathological non-specific inflammatory skin condition arising from the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by keratinocytes in response to haptens, usually chemicals. The second, contact hypersensitivity (CHS is a T-cell dependent model, mimicking in part the T-cell-mediated skin diseases such as psoriasis. In both models, the CCL5 antagonists showed therapeutic efficacy by reducing swelling by 50% as well as the reduction of soluble mediators in homogenates derived from challenged ears. These results demonstrate that blocking the receptor or the ligand are both effective strategies to inhibit skin inflammation.

  18. Milk as Desensitizing Agent for Treatment of Dentine Hypersensitivity Following Periodontal Treatment Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Dentinal hypersensitivity is a commonly observed problem after periodontal treatment procedures in periodontal patients. This further complicates preventive oral hygiene procedures by patients which jeopardize periodontal treatment, or even may aid in periodontal treatment failure. Aims and Objectives The aims and objectives of present study were to assess the problem of dentine hypersensitivity after non-surgical periodontal treatment and selection of cases for evaluation of commercially available milk at room temperature as mouth rinse for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity caused by periodontal treatment. Materials and Methods Patients were selected randomly for nonsurgical periodontal treatment and then were assessed for dentine hypersensitivity. Those having dentine hypersensitivity were assigned in two groups. Group one patients were advised to rinse with commercially available milk at room temperature, group two patients were advised to rinse with luke warm water as control. A four point Verbal Rating Score (VRS) was designed to record the numerical value of dentine hypersensitivity. Results The results show incidence of 42.5% and prevalence of 77.5% for dentine hypersensitivity after periodontal treatment procedures. After rinsing with milk following periodontal treatment procedures, there was found a significant reduction of dentine hypersensitivity with probability by unpaired t-test as 0.0007 and 0.0001 at tenth and fifteenth day post periodontal treatment procedures respectively. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the milk rinse is a suitable, cheaper, fast acting, home-use and easily available solution to the problem of dentine hypersensitivity after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Milk can be used as desensitizing agent and rinsing with milk for few days is effective in quick reduction of dentine hypersensitivity due to periodontal treatment procedures. PMID:26674005

  19. Skin Care and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It becomes thinner, ... to make it feel and look better. Dry Skin and Itching Click for more information Many older ...

  20. Subjective Welfare, Well-Being, and Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity in Four European Countries : Implications for European Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, Jantine; Antonides, Gerrit; Fox, Margaret; Cerecedo, Inmaculada; Zamora, Javier; de la Hoz Caballer, Belen; Rokicka, Ewa; Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith; Jewczak, Maciej; Starosta, Pawel; Kowalska, Marek L.; Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, Monika; Vazquez-Cortes, Sonia; Escudero, Cano; de Blok, Bertine Flokstra; Dubois, Anthony; Mugford, Miranda; Frewer, Lynn J.

    This study estimates the effects of food hypersensitivity on individuals' perceived welfare and well-being compared to non-food hypersensitive individuals. Study respondents were recruited in the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and UK. The difference in welfare between food hypersensitive respondents and

  1. Subjective Welfare, Well-Being, and Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity in Four European Countries: Implications for European Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voordouw, Jantine; Antonides, Gerrit; Fox, Margaret; Cerecedo, Inmaculada; Zamora, Javier; de la Hoz Caballer, Belen; Rokicka, Ewa; Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith; Jewczak, Maciej; Starosta, Pawel; Kowalska, Marek L.; Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, Monika; Vazquez-Cortes, Sonia; Escudero, Cano; de Blok, Bertine Flokstra; Dubois, Anthony; Mugford, Miranda; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the effects of food hypersensitivity on individuals' perceived welfare and well-being compared to non-food hypersensitive individuals. Study respondents were recruited in the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and UK. The difference in welfare between food hypersensitive respondents and those asymptomatic to foods was estimated using…

  2. Subjective Welfare, Well-Being, and Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity in Four European Countries : Implications for European Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, Jantine; Antonides, Gerrit; Fox, Margaret; Cerecedo, Inmaculada; Zamora, Javier; de la Hoz Caballer, Belen; Rokicka, Ewa; Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith; Jewczak, Maciej; Starosta, Pawel; Kowalska, Marek L.; Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, Monika; Vazquez-Cortes, Sonia; Escudero, Cano; de Blok, Bertine Flokstra; Dubois, Anthony; Mugford, Miranda; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the effects of food hypersensitivity on individuals' perceived welfare and well-being compared to non-food hypersensitive individuals. Study respondents were recruited in the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and UK. The difference in welfare between food hypersensitive respondents and

  3. Subjective Welfare, Well-Being, and Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity in Four European Countries: Implications for European Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.; Antonides, G.; Fox, M.; Cerecedo, I.; Zamora, J.; Hoz Caballer, de la B.; Rokicka, E.; Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Jewczak, M.; Starosta, P.; Kowalska, M.L.; Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, M.; Vázquez-Cortés, S.; Escudero, C.; Flokstra-de Blok, B.M.; Dubois, A.E.J.; Mugford, M.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the effects of food hypersensitivity on individuals’ perceived welfare and well-being compared to non-food hypersensitive individuals. Study respondents were recruited in the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and UK. The difference in welfare between food hypersensitive respondents and

  4. Lithium treatment induces a hypersensitive-like response in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Miguel A; Romero, Carlos; Bellés, José M; Montesinos, Consuelo; Vicente, Oscar; Serrano, Ramón

    2003-07-01

    Treatment of tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants with lithium induces the formation of necrotic lesions and leaf curling as in the case of incompatible pathogen interactions. Further similarities at the molecular level include accumulation of ethylene and of salicylic and gentisic acids, and induced expression of pathogenesis-related PR-P, PR5 and PR1 genes. With the exception of PR1 induction, lithium produced the same effects in transgenic tobacco plants that do not accumulate salicylate because of overexpression of the bacterial hydroxylase gene nahG. On the other hand, inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis with aminoethoxyvinylglycine prevented lithium-induced cell death and PR5 expression. These results suggest that lithium triggers a hypersensitive-like response where ethylene signalling is essential.

  5. Incidence of abacavir hypersensitivity reactions in euroSIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Friis-Møller, Nina; Mocroft, Amanda;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of abacavir-related hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) and associated deaths in EuroSIDA HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: Poisson regression models were developed to compare incidence of abacavir discontinuation according to the line...... of therapy within which abacavir was received, geographical regions, calendar time and drug formulation (abacavir/lamivudine combination tablet versus abacavir as a single drug or abacavir/zidovudine/lamivudine combination). RESULTS: Of 3,278 patients that started abacavir, 2,101 (64.1%) discontinued....... Of these, 167 (5.1%) discontinued abacavir within 3 months due to HSR with an incidence of 22.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 18.7-25.4) per 100 person-years of follow-up. After adjustment for gender, prior AIDS, hepatitis C serostatus, baseline CD4+ T-cell count, region and calendar time, HSR incidence...

  6. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumagne, Thibaud; Pana-Katatali, Héloïse; Degano, Bruno; Dalphin, Jean-Charles

    2015-12-21

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema is a distinct syndrome reported in patients who smoke. A 72-year-old, never-smoking female dairy farmer was referred for progressive dyspnoea on exertion, basal crackles on auscultation, normal spirometry and normal lung volumes but decreased diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, centrilobular emphysema in the upper zones of the lungs and diffuse infiltrative lung disease in the lower zones on high-resolution CT scan. Bronchoalveolar lavage differential cell count showed 35% lymphocytosis, and precipitating antibodies for Wallemia sebi, Trichoderma species and Cladosporium sphaerospermum were identified. The diagnosis of farmer's lung disease with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema was retained. This case highlights for the first time that hypersensitivity pneumonitis should be suspected in the setting of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in non-smoking patients.

  7. Cladosporium species-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis in household environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Shigeki; Okada, Shinji; Suzuki, Yasuko; Watanuki, Zenta; Mitsuishi, Yoichiro; Igusa, Ryotaro; Sekii, Takehiko; Uchiyama, Bine

    2009-01-01

    Home-related chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is sometimes difficult to discriminate because patients do not have an obvious history of antigen exposure. We report two HP cases which developed in an office area and in a home: a 47-year-old woman with acute-onset HP and a 72-year-old woman with chronic HP followed up as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis following isolation of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium herbarum, respectively. Lymphocyte stimulating activity and antibody titer to these fungi were increased in these patients. Since Cladosporium spp. and several other fungi are present ubiquitously in our living environment, it is difficult to eliminate the antigen from the patients' environment to control the disease. Cladosporium spp. can be key antigens in inducing chronic HP in the home environment.

  8. Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with fungal contamination of indoor hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, Steffen; Rietschel, Ernst; Exner, Martin; Lange, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is often associated with exposure to antigens in the home environment. We describe a case of HP associated with indoor hydroponics in a 14-year-old girl. Water samples from hydroponics revealed Aureobasidium pullulans as the dominant fungal micro-organism (10(4)CFU/ml). The diagnosis is supported by the existence of serum precipitating antibodies against A. pullulans, lymphocytic alveolitis on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, a corresponding reaction on a lung biopsy, and the sustained absence of clinical symptoms following the removal of hydroponics from the home. We conclude that hydroponics should be considered as potential sources of fungal contaminants when checking for indoor health complaints.

  9. [Actualities in extrinsic allergic alveolities or hypersensitivity pneumonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, M; Soumah, M; Sow, M L

    2007-01-01

    Significant advances have been noticed in the pathogenesis and the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis during the last few years. Indeed the immune mechanism and the enabling conditions have been more precisely defined, the clinical stages and the diagnosis criterias clearly defined, new antigens incriminated and some etiological agents have been reclassified. The present pathogenic explanation insists on the type IV hypersensitivity reaction with sensitization of T lymphocytes, activation macrophages, the formation of IgG type antibodies and immune complexes, activation of complement and secretion of cytokines. The involvement of certain HLA classes (HLA2, DR3, DRB1, DQB1), interaction of genetics and environments factors, the role of infections agents and smoking have been demonstrated in several studies. The development of news clinical and biological diagnosis criteria have led the discovery of new extrinsic allergic alveolitis in the work places, a better knowledge of the prognostic elements and an appropriate adaptation of prevention measures.

  10. Quality of life in children and teenagers with food hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Heather; Dean, Taraneh

    2010-08-01

    Given that food is essential for life and that there is currently no cure for food hypersensitivity (FHS), quality of life is a key outcome measure for those affected. The quality of life of children and teenagers with FHS is particularly important given that they must learn to manage their FHS while also contending with normal developmental challenges. This article will review the current state of quality of life research in this important area, and discusses the impact of FHS on the quality-of-life of children and teenagers, the availability and suitability of disease-specific health-related quality-of-life measures for this population, and the identification of factors that may influence their health-related quality of life. Two previous reviews have been conducted in this area, and this article aims to extend this work by including recent publications and qualitative studies on this topic.

  11. Acute symptoms of drug hypersensitivity (urticaria, angioedema, anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsuwan, Ticha; Demoly, Pascal

    2010-07-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) are the adverse effects of drugs which, when taken at doses generally tolerated by normal subjects, clinically resemble allergy. Immediate-reaction of drug HSRs are those that occur less than 1 hour after the last drug intake, usually in the form of urticaria, angioedema, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, bronchospasm, and anaphylaxis or anaphylactic shock. Acute urticarial and angioedema reactions are common clinical problems frequently encountered by internists and general practitioners. They are not specific to drug allergic reaction, and can be caused by various pathogenic mechanisms. Despite the benign course of urticaria and angioedema, a mucocutaneous swelling of the upper respiratory tract could be life-threatening by itself or a feature of anaphylaxis. This article reviews acute symptoms of drug HSR-related urticaria, angioedema, anaphylaxis, and anaphylactic shock, and how clinicians should approach these problems.

  12. Immunological evaluation of captive green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) with ulcerative dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Fernando Alberto; ,; ,; Romero-Rojas, Andrés; Gonzalez-Ballesteros, Erik; Work, Thierry; Villaseñor-Gaona, Hector; Estrada-Garcia, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is common in captive sea turtles and manifests as skin erosions and ulcers associated with gram-negative bacteria. This study compared clinically healthy and UD-affected captive turtles by evaluating hematology, histopathology, immunoglobulin levels, and delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Turtles with UD had significantly lower weight, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. This study is the first to assay DTH in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and suggests that UD is associated with immunosuppression.

  13. Immunological evaluation of captive green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) with ulcerative dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Fernando Alberto; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Romero-Rojas, Andrés; Gonzalez-Ballesteros, Erik; Work, Thierry M; Villaseñor-Gaona, Hector; Estrada-Garcia, Iris

    2013-12-01

    Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is common in captive sea turtles and manifests as skin erosions and ulcers associated with gram-negative bacteria. This study compared clinically healthy and UD-affected captive turtles by evaluating hematology, histopathology, immunoglobulin levels, and delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Turtles with UD had significantly lower weight, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. This study is the first to assay DTH in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and suggests that UD is associated with immunosuppression.

  14. Thermal hypersensitivity in a subset of irritable bowel syndrome patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiQi Zhou; Roger B Fillingim; Joseph L Riley III; G Nicholas Verne

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To characterize thermal hypersensitivity in patients with constipation- and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: Thermal pain sensitivity was tested among patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (D-IBS) and constipation-predominant IBS (C-IBS) compared to healthy subjects. A total of 42 patients (29 female and patients (16 female and eight male; mean age 32.5participated in the study. Thermal stimuli were delivered using a Medoc Thermal Sensory Analyzer with a 3 cm heat pain tolerance (HPTo) were assessed on the left ventral forearm and left calf using an ascending method of limits. The Functional Bowel Disease Severity Index (FBDSI) was also obtained for all subjects. RESULTS: Controls were less sensitive than C-IBS and D-IBS (both at P < 0.001) with no differences between C-IBS and D-IBS for HPTh and HPTo. Thermal hyperalgesia was present in both groups of IBS patients relative to controls, with IBS patients reporting significantly lower pain threshold and pain tolerance at both test sites. Cluster analysis revealed the presence of subgroups of IBS patients based on thermal hyperalgesia. One cluster (17% of the sample) showed a profile of heat pain sensitivity very similar to that of healthy controls; a second cluster (47% of the sample) showed moderate heat pain sensitivity; and a third cluster (36% of the sample) showed a very high degree of thermal hyperalgesia.CONCLUSION: A subset of IBS patients had thermal hypersensitivity compared to controls, who reported significantly lower HPTh and HPTo. All IBS patients had a higher score on the FBDSI than controls. Interestingly, the subset of IBS patients with high thermal sensitivity (36%) had the highest FBDSI score compared to the other two groups of IBS patients.

  15. On the phenomenon of electromagnetic hypersensitivity; Das Phaenomen der Elektrosensibilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, E.; Reissenweber, J.; Wojtysiak, A.; Pfotenhauer, M. [Witten-Herdecke Univ., Witten (Germany). Inst. fuer Normale und Pathologische Physiologie; Witten-Herdecke Univ., Witten (Germany). Zentrum fuer Elektropathologie

    2002-07-01

    For more than fifteen years electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are intensively discussed in connection with health hazards in mass media as well as questions of standard setting by the authorities. The present elaboration gives an extended overview over the actual situation of the special electromagnetic hypersensitivity issue in relation to electromagnetic field research in the international scientific community. There are parallels and analogies between the symptoms of electromagnetic hypersensitivity and those of the Multiple-Chemical-Sensitivity-Syndrome and other environmental diseases. The first part deals with the biophysical fundamental knowledge of interactions between electromagnetic fields and biological systems such as man or animal including threshold values and threshold philosophy. Then hypothetical mechanisms of action of EMF are demonstrated, with a special focus on the melatonin hypothesis, which has not been proved in all its parts up to now. Additionally, in the context of our biomedical research into disorders of well-being we conducted an analysis of written and telephone questions about the EMF issue which are sent to our center. The results are of scientific and political interest and are demonstrated in detail. (orig.) [German] Das Phaenomen der Elektrosensibilitaet gewinnt zunehmend an Bedeutung innerhalb der Diskussion um die medizinisch-biologischen Wirkungen elektromagnetischer Felder. Es konnte bisher nicht nachgewiesen werden, dass die Elektrosensibilitaet/Magnetosensibilitaet als eigenstaendige Krankheitseinheit (Krankheitsentitaet) existiert. Es handelt sich dabei um ein Phaenomen, das vor etwa 15 Jahren benannt und zunaechst nicht ernst genommen wurde. Im Rahmen des relativ jungen medizinisch-biologischen Fachgebietes Elektropathologie scheinen weitere Untersuchungen erforderlich, um die teilweise auch widerspruechlichen Befunde aufzuklaeren und zu erfahren, ob Felder Befindlichkeitsstoerungen ausloesen koennen, die in aehnlicher Form

  16. Harmonia axyridis ladybug hypersensitivity in clinical allergy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, David W

    2007-01-01

    The imported Harmonia axyridis ladybug infests homes in northern West Virginia from fall through spring, causing allergic disease. Retrospective single-practice chart reviews were performed: (1) all skin prick tests (1400 included ladybug) in a community allergy practice over 4 years and (2) clinical analysis of 400 randomly chosen patients. The usual adult aeroallergen skin test panel included ladybug and 57 other allergens. Statistics used were contingency table analyses and the kappa-statistic for concordance. Home infestation with ladybugs was most common in rural areas but did not predict ladybug sensitization (kappa = -0.02). Ladybug sensitization and allergy occurred at all ages. Ladybug sensitization occurred with 21% frequency compared with cat at 24% frequency, cockroach at 27% frequency, and dust mites at 40% frequency. Only ladybug showed a significant (p ladybug, and 4% of cat-positive skin tests. Skin test concordance was strongest between the pairs: ladybug-cockroach (kappa = 0.36), cockroach-dust mite (kappa = 0.29), and dust mite-cat (kappa = 0.25). Ladybug is a major allergen in endemic areas, causing rhinoconjunctivitis (8% prevalence), asthma (2% prevalence), and urticaria (1% prevalence). Ladybug skin test sensitization is more common in rural areas and is comparable in frequency and age distribution with cat and cockroach. Cockroach and ladybug have a high degree of skin test concordance. A quality commercial ladybug allergen extract and increased ladybug allergen research are needed.

  17. Hipersensibilidade alimentar em cães Food hypersensitivity in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Salzo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo retro e prospectivo em 117 cães com prontuários suspeitos de apresentarem hipersensibilidade alimentar. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos: os do grupo I (n=86 foram atendidos em 1993 e 1994 e os do grupo II (n=31 em 1995. Os cães de ambos os grupos foram caracterizados quanto aos aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos. Os do grupo II foram submetidos a exames complementares para a diferenciação diagnóstica do prurido, incluindo: hemograma, micológico e parasitológico cutâneo, coproparasitológico, histológico de pele e sorológicos - RAST (radioimunoensaio e ELISA (ensaio imunoenzimático - ambos para determinação de IgE contra antígenos alimentares -, e ao exame da dieta de eliminação seguida pela exposição provocativa. Este último exame foi o mais confiável para o estabelecimento do diagnóstico, ao determinar que 20 cães, provenientes de ambos os grupos, eram alérgicos a alimentos. Pelos RAST e ELISA, não foi possível demonstrar resultados confiáveis quando comparados aos resultados com a dieta de eliminação. Os animais acometidos foram principalmente machos, com raça definida e na faixa etária de um a seis anos. Os principais alimentos incriminados foram a carne bovina, o arroz e a carne de frango.From 1993 to 1995, 117 cases of dogs suspected of food hypersensitivity were reviewed and analyzed. The animals were distributed in two groups: group I included 86 dogs assisted in the first two years of the study; and group II included 31 dogs that were observed in 1995. Dogs from both groups were characterized according to clinical and epidemiological aspects. Animals from group II were also submitted to exams in order to eliminate other similar causes of pruritus and to establish the diagnosis of food hypersensitivity, including complete blood counting, fungal culture, skin scraping, fecal exam, skin histopathology, and RAST and ELISA (both for the detection of serum IgE against food

  18. Skin and Systemic Manifestations of Jellyfish Stings in Iraqi Fishermen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Al-Rubiay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jellyfish stings are common worldwide with an estimated 150 million cases annually,and their stings cause a wide range of clinical manifestations from skin inflammation to cardiovascularand respiratory collapse. No studies on jellyfish stings have been carried out in Basra, Iraq.Objectives: To describe the immediate and delayed skin reactions to White Jellyfish (Rhizostomasp. stings and the types of local treatment used by fishermen. Methods and Materials: 150fishermen were enrolled at three Marine stations in Basra, Iraq. Demographic data, types of skinreactions, systemic manifestations and kinds of treatments were collected. Results: Overall, 79% offishermen in all three Marine stations gave a history of having been stung. The common sites of singswere the hands and arms followed by the legs. Most fishermen claimed that stings led to skinreactions within 5 minutes. The presenting complaints were itching, burning sensation, anderythematic wheals. A few days after the sting, new groups of painless and itchy erythematousmonomorphic papular rashes developed at the site of the sting in 62% of cases as a delayed type ofskin reaction that resolved spontaneously. The local remedies commonly used by the fishermen wereseawater, tap water and ice. A few fishermen considered stings as insignificant and did not think therewas a need to seek medical help. Conclusions: We conclude that jellyfish causes many stingsamong fishermen in the Basra region. Their stings lead to immediate and delayed skin reactions. Selftreatmentby topical remedies is common.

  19. Herbex-Kid Inhibits Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions in Mice and Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbex-kid (HK, a polyherbal formulation was evaluated in various experimental allergic models of Type I hypersensitivity reactions. Compound 48/80 (C 48/80 has been shown to induce rat mesentery mast cell degranulation and HK (1.07, 10.75 and 107.5 mg ml−1 inhibited the mast cell degranulation in a dose dependent manner. HK (1.07, 10.75 and 107.5 mg kg−1; p.o. showed dose-dependent protection against C 48/80 induced systemic anaphylaxis in male Balb/C mice. In active anaphylaxis model, male Wistar rats orally administered with 10.75 and 107.5 mg kg−1 of HK showed significant (P < 0.01 protection against mast cell degranulation, while in passive anaphylaxis model, only at 107.5 mg kg−1 showed significant (P < 0.01 reduction in mast cell degranulation. HK at all dose levels was able to significantly decrease the time spent in nasal rubbing in Wistar rats sensitized to ovalbumin, while only at 107.5 mg kg−1 it showed significant (P < 0.01 reduction in number of sneezes. In C 48/80-induced skin itch model, all dose levels of HK significantly (P < 0.001 decreased the time spent in itching and the number of itches. HK did not produce any significant inhibition in histamine induced contraction in guinea pig ileum. From the above findings we conclude that the HK possesses antiallergic activity mediated by reducing of the release mediators from mast cells and also by 5-HT antagonism without the involvement of histamine (H1 receptors.

  20. [Sarcoidosis of the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Y; Ogawa, H

    1994-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is characterized by formation of epithelioid-cell tubercules, without caseation, of the affected organ systems. The mediastinum, peripheral lymph nodes and eyes, in addition to the skin, are most frequently affected. Between 10% and 30% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis in Japan have skin lesions. Skin sarcoidosis is morphologically classified into three basic groups, erythema nodosum, scar sarcoidosis and skin sarcoid. Skin sarcoid is characterized by specific cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis, and may take nodular, plaque, angiolupoid, subcutaneous and some other forms. Clinical manifestations of the cutaneous lesions are usually asymptomatic and polymorphous. Skin biopsy is, however, often highly useful for confirming a diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  1. Medication error - Inadvertent high dose intradermal cloxacillin induced skin necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adithan Surendiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medication error is one of the important causes of preventable adverse drug reactions. It can occur in the form of administration of a wrong drug, in the wrong dose, to the wrong patient, in an unsuitable dosage form, for the wrong duration or by using an inappropriate route of administration. Intradermal skin testing for cloxacillin hypersensitivity is done at low doses to check for drug allergy. In this report, three patients were given 50 times higher dose of cloxacillin than recommended for skin testing, resulting in pain and necrosis at the site of injection. The error occurred due to wrong dilution of the drug as done by a nursing intern. Some reasons for this could be overtime working, under trained staff, unsupervised nursing interns, complicated and unclear protocols, interpersonal communication gap between health care professionals and also poor availability of ideal resources. Pharmacovigilance centers must alert health care professionals about the significance of reporting medication errors through bulletins and journals.

  2. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  3. Learning about Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information, in skin cells, creating "misspellings" in their genetic code and, as a result, alter the function of those cells. Cancers generally are caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. With skin cancer, the environment plays a ...

  4. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Items Awareness Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly ... use this video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly ...

  5. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  6. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  7. Bleeding into the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003235.htm Bleeding into the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bleeding into the skin can occur from broken blood ...

  8. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  9. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  10. [Utility of challenge test in immediate hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone sodium succinate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Mejía, Adela Sisy; Galindo-Pacheco, Lucy Vania; O'Farrill-Romanillos, Patricia María; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen Alicia; Campos-Romero, Freya Helena; del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroid hypersensitivity is a complex phenomenon in which many factors interact, such as idiosyncrasy, intolerance or allergic reactions. The prevalence of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids is 0.2%-0.5%. Corticosteroids have major therapeutic implications; thus, when hypersensitivity is suspected, in-vitro and/or in-vivo testing can be performed to confirm diagnosis, being the drug challenge the gold standard. After definitive diagnosis, cross-reactivity among the different corticosteroid groups should be considered, to choose wisely if corticosteroid therapy is still required. In Coopman classification, steroids belonging to groups A, B and D2 have high cross-reactivity, however, more studies are needed to determine the degree of cross-reaction among these drugs. This paper presents the case of a woman, in who hypersensitivity to hydrocortisone succinate was confirmed by drug challenge test.

  11. Nickel in nails, hair and plasma from nickel-hypersensitive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Veien, Niels

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of nickel in finger-nails, toe-nails, hair and plasma from 71 nickel-hypersensitive women and 20 non-hypersensitive women were determined. Nickel concentrations in finger-nails were significantly higher than in toe-nails in both the nickel-hypersensitive group and the control...... group. Nickel-sensitive women had significantly higher levels of nickel in toe-nails, hair and plasma than had control subjects, whereas there was no significant difference in nickel concentration in finger-nails between the two groups. No correlation could be demonstrated between nickel levels in any...... combination of nails, hair and plasma in the nickel-hypersensitive or in the control group....

  12. Electroacupuncture at He-Mu points reduces P2X 4 receptor expression in visceral hypersensitivity***

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxin Guo; Jianqiao Fang; Jifei Chen; Yuan Lu; Luyi Wu; Zhijun Weng; Ling Yang; Yuhu Xin; Xianming Lin; Yi Liang

    2013-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) was reported to improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was utilized to generate a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome. Results showed that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores noticeably increased after model establishment. Simultaneously, P2X 4 receptor immu-reactivity significantly increased in the colon and spinal cord. Electroacupuncture and pinaverium bromide therapy both markedly decreased abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in rats with visceral hypersensitivity, and significantly decreased P2X 4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. These data suggest that electroacupuncture treatment can improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome by diminishing P2X 4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord.

  13. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology.

  14. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Experts do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is ...

  15. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  16. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  17. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing

  18. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing

  19. On skin expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion.

  20. PPD skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test; Mantoux test Images Tuberculosis in the kidney Tuberculosis in the lung Positive PPD skin test PPD skin test References Chernecky CC, Berger ... test, purified protein derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, tuberculosis test) - diagnostic. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. ...

  1. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  2. Isolated ileal perforation due to cytomegalovirus reactivation during management of terbinafine hypersensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soichi; Sano; Hiroki; Ueno; Keiko; Yamagami; Yosuke; Yakushiji; Yoshihiro; Isaka; Isao; Kawasaki; Masashi; Takemura; Takeshi; Inoue; Masayuki; Hosoi

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of 71-year-old man who developed a hypersensitivity syndrome associated with terbinafine. He was placed on terbinafine (250 mg/d) for the treatment of tinea pedis due to diabetes mellitus. Following the treatment with terbinafine, he developed druginduced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS). Systemic corticosteroid led to transient improvement of his clinical manifestations. Three months after disease onset, he presented with panperitonitis due to ileal perforation, and underwent an emergency ...

  3. US-Based Emergency Department Visits for Fluoroquinolone-Associated Hypersensitivity Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. Christopher; Budnitz, Dan; Sorbello, Alfred; Mehta, Hina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the rate of hypersensitivity reactions per 100,000 prescription dispensings of fluoroquinolones based on care rendered in a nationally-representative sample of US hospital emergency departments (ED). Methods We analyzed the frequency of fluoroquinolone-associated hypersensitivity reactions using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Cooperative Adverse Drug Event Surveillance system (2004–2010) in conjunction with US retail outpatient prescription data from IMS Health (2004–2010). We further categorized reaction severity into three subgroups (mild, moderate, severe). Results Based on 1,422 cases of fluoroquinolone-associated hypersensitivity reactions and national drug utilization projections, we estimated risk of hypersensitivity reactions for moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin. The absolute risk of a fluoroquinolone-related hypersensitivity reaction of any severity was low (44.0 (95% CI 34.8–53.3) ED visits/100,000 prescriptions; however, we identified a statistically significant difference in the relative risk (rate ratios) of seeking care in an ED attributed to moxifloxacin hypersensitivity compared to either levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin. For all reaction severities, the estimated ED visits/100,000 prescriptions were 141.3 (95% CI 99.9–182.7) for moxifloxacin, 40.8 (95% CI 31.5–50.0) for levofloxacin, and 26.3 (95% CI 20.8–31.9) for ciprofloxacin. When the rates were stratified by reaction severity category (mild or moderate-severe), moxifloxacin continued to be implicated in more ED visits per 100,000 prescriptions dispensed than either levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Fluoroquinolones may cause hypersensitivity reactions requiring care in an ED, and relative to use, the rate of moxifloxacin-related hypersensitivity reactions is higher than comparator fluoroquinolones. PMID:23963962

  4. Involvement of Histamine and RhoA/ROCK in Penicillin Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Jiayin Han; Yan Yi; Chunying Li; Yushi Zhang; Lianmei Wang; Yong Zhao; Chen Pan; Aihua Liang

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of penicillin immediate hypersensitivity reactions has not been completely elucidated. These reactions are generally considered to be mediated by IgE, but penicillin-specific IgE could not be detected in most cases. This study demonstrated that penicillin was able to cause vascular hyperpermeability in a mouse model mimicking clinical symptoms of penicillin immediate hypersensitivity reactions. The first exposure to penicillin also induced immediate edema and exudative reactions...

  5. Probiotics for Prevention of Atopy and Food Hypersensitivity in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Hu, Hua-Jian; Liu, Chuan-Yang; Zhang, Qiao; Shakya, Shristi; Li, Zhong-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Most studies investigated probiotics on food hypersensitivity, not on oral food challenge confirmed food allergy in children. The authors systematically reviewed the literature to investigate whether probiotic supplementation prenatally and/or postnatally could reduce the risk of atopy and food hypersensitivity in young children. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and 4 main Chinese literature databases (Wan Fang, VIP, China National Knowledge Infrast...

  6. Contribution of afferent pathways to nerve injury-induced spontaneous pain and evoked hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tamara; Qu, Chaoling; Okun, Alec; Mercado, Ramon; Ren, Jiyang; Brion, Triza; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank

    2011-09-01

    A predominant complaint in patients with neuropathic pain is spontaneous pain, often described as burning. Recent studies have demonstrated that negative reinforcement can be used to unmask spontaneous neuropathic pain, allowing for mechanistic investigations. Here, ascending pathways that might contribute to evoked and spontaneous components of an experimental neuropathic pain model were explored. Desensitization of TRPV1-positive fibers with systemic resiniferatoxin (RTX) abolished spinal nerve ligation (SNL) injury-induced thermal hypersensitivity and spontaneous pain, but had no effect on tactile hypersensitivity. Ablation of spinal NK-1 receptor-expressing neurons blocked SNL-induced thermal and tactile hypersensitivity as well as spontaneous pain. After nerve injury, upregulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) is observed almost exclusively in large-diameter fibers, and inactivation of the brainstem target of these fibers in the nucleus gracilis prevents tactile but not thermal hypersensitivity. Blockade of NPY signaling within the nucleus gracilis failed to block SNL-induced spontaneous pain or thermal hyperalgesia while fully reversing tactile hypersensitivity. Moreover, microinjection of NPY into nucleus gracilis produced robust tactile hypersensitivity, but failed to induce conditioned place aversion. These data suggest that spontaneous neuropathic pain and thermal hyperalgesia are mediated by TRPV1-positive fibers and spinal NK-1-positive ascending projections. In contrast, the large-diameter dorsal column projection can mediate nerve injury-induced tactile hypersensitivity, but does not contribute to spontaneous pain. Because inhibition of tactile hypersensitivity can be achieved either by spinal manipulations or by inactivation of signaling within the nucleus gracilis, the enhanced paw withdrawal response evoked by tactile stimulation does not necessarily reflect allodynia.

  7. Subjective food hypersensitivity: assessment of enterochromaffin cell markers in blood and gut lavage fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregersen K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Kine Gregersen1,2, Jørgen Valeur1,3, Kristine Lillestøl1,3, Livar Frøyland2, Pedro Araujo2, Gülen Arslan Lied1,3, Arnold Berstad1,31Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, 2National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research; 3Department of Medicine, Section for Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, NorwayBackground: Food hypersensitivity is commonly suspected, but seldom verified. Patients with subjective food hypersensitivity suffer from both intestinal and extraintestinal health complaints. Abnormalities of the enterochromaffin cells may play a role in the pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate enterochromaffin cell function in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity by measuring serum chromogranin A (CgA and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin in gut lavage fluid.Methods: Sixty-nine patients with subjective food hypersensitivity were examined. Twenty-three patients with inflammatory bowel disease and 35 healthy volunteers were included as comparison groups. CgA was measured in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gut lavage fluid was obtained by administering 2 L of polyethylene glycol solution intraduodenally. The first clear fluid passed per rectum was collected and 5-HT was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.Results: Serum levels of CgA were significantly lower in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity than in healthy controls (P = 0.04. No differences were found in 5-HT levels in gut lavage fluid between patients with subjective food hypersensitivity and the control groups. There was no correlation between serum CgA and gut lavage 5-HT.Conclusion: Decreased blood levels of CgA suggest neuroendocrine alterations in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity. However, 5-HT levels in gut lavage fluid were normal.Keywords: food hypersensitivity, chromogranin A, serotonin, gut lavage fluid, liquid chromatography

  8. Acrolein contributes to TRPA1 up-regulation in peripheral and central sensory hypersensitivity following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jonghyuck; Zheng, Lingxing; Acosta, Glen; Vega-Alvarez, Sasha; Chen, Zhe; Muratori, Breanne; Cao, Peng; Shi, Riyi

    2015-12-01

    Acrolein, an endogenous aldehyde, has been shown to be involved in sensory hypersensitivity after rat spinal cord injury (SCI), for which the pathogenesis is unclear. Acrolein can directly activate a pro-algesic transient receptor protein ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel that exists in sensory neurons. Both acrolein and TRPA1 mRNA are elevated post SCI, which contributes to the activation of TRPA1 by acrolein and consequently, neuropathic pain. In the current study, we further showed that, post-SCI elevation of TRPA1 mRNA exists not only in dorsal root ganglias but also in both peripheral (paw skin) and central endings of primary afferent nerves (dorsal horn of spinal cord). This is the first indication that pain signaling can be over-amplified in the peripheral skin by elevated expressions of TRPA1 following SCI, in addition over-amplification previously seen in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia. Furthermore, we show that acrolein alone, in the absence of physical trauma, could lead to the elevation of TRPA1 mRNA at various locations when injected to the spinal cord. In addition, post-SCI elevation of TRPA1 mRNA could be mitigated using acrolein scavengers. Both of these attributes support the critical role of acrolein in elevating TRPA1 expression through gene regulation. Taken together, these data indicate that acrolein is likely a critical causal factor in heightening pain sensation post-SCI, through both the direct binding of TRPA1 receptor, and also by boosting the expression of TRPA1. Finally, our data also further support the notion that acrolein scavenging may be an effective therapeutic approach to alleviate neuropathic pain after SCI. We propose that the trauma-mediated elevation of acrolein causes neuropathic pain through at least two mechanisms: acrolein stimulates the production of transient receptor protein ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in both central and peripheral locations, and it activates TRPA1 channels directly. Therefore, acrolein appears to be a critical

  9. Evaluation of the effect of low level laser therapy toothbrush in treatment of dentin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghini, Jaber; Mogharehabed, Ahmad; Safavi, Nassimeh; Mohamadi, Mehrnush; Ashtiju, Fahime

    2015-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is one of the most common complications that affect patients after periodontal therapy. Recently low level laser therapy has been introduced as a new treatment modality and has produced beneficial results. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of low level laser therapy toothbrushes in reduction of dentin hypersensitivity. In this pilot interventional controlled clinical trial, 40 patients suffering from dentin hypersensitivity were selected using simple randomization. Half of the patients were given laser toothbrushes and the other half was given non-laser sensodyne toothbrushes. Primary dentin hypersensitivity was recorded by visual analogue scale (VAS) score and ice spray. Then dentin hypersensitivity was measured right after the treatment as well az in the intervals of 1 month and 2 months after initiation of the study. Data were compared using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) paired T test. The results of this study showed that there was a significant difference in each of the two kinds of tooth brushes separately for all time intervals (P sensodyne and laser tooth brushes improve dentin hypersensitivity, although the laser toothbrush led to better results in short.

  10. Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder updated in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yukio; Ueda, Tomohiro; Tomoe, Hikaru; Lin, Alex Tl; Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Lee, Ming-Huei; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Joon Chul; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2016-07-01

    Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder have been updated as of 2015. The guidelines define interstitial cystitis by the presence of hypersensitive bladder symptoms (discomfort, pressure or pain in the bladder usually associated with urinary frequency and nocturia) and bladder pathology, after excluding other diseases explaining symptoms. Interstitial cystitis is further classified by bladder pathology; either Hunner type interstitial cystitis with Hunner lesions or non-Hunner type interstitial cystitis with mucosal bleeding after distension in the absence of Hunner lesions. Hypersensitive bladder refers to a condition, where hypersensitive bladder symptoms are present, but bladder pathology or other explainable diseases are unproven. Interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder severely affect patients' quality of life as a result of disabling symptoms and/or comorbidities. Reported prevalence suggestive of these disorders varies greatly from 0.01% to >6%. Pathophysiology would be an interaction of multiple factors including urothelial dysfunction, inflammation, neural hyperactivity, exogenous substances and extrabladder disorders. Definite diagnosis of interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder requires cystoscopy with or without hydrodistension. Most of the therapeutic options lack a high level of evidence, leaving a few as recommended therapeutic options.

  11. Abnormal endogenous pain modulation and somatic and visceral hypersensitivity in female patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clive H Wilder-Smith; Joan Robert-Yap

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of endogenous pain modulatory mechanisms in the central sensitization implicated by the visceral hypersensitivity demonstrated in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).Dysfunction of modulatory mechanisms would be expected to also result in changes of somatic sensory function.METHODS: Endogenous pain modulatory mechanisms were assessed using heterotopic stimulation and somatic and visceral sensory testing in IBS. Pain intensities (visual analogue scale, VAS 0-100) during suprathreshold rectal distension with a barostat, cold pressor stimulation of the foot and during both stimuli simultaneously (heterotopic stimulation) were recorded in 40 female patients with IBS and 20 female healthy controls.RESULTS: Rectal hypersensitivity (defined by 95% CI of controls) was seen in 21 (53%), somatic hypersensitivity in 22 (55%) and both rectal and somatic hypersensitivity in 14 of these IBS patients. Heterotopic stimulation decreased rectal pain intensity by 6 (-11 to -1) in controls, but increased rectal pain by 2 (-3 to +6) in all IBS patients (P<0.05) and by 8 (-2 to +19) in IBS patients with somatic and visceral hypersensitivity (P<0.02).CONCLUSION: A majority of IBS patients had abnormal endogenous pain modulation and somatic hypersensitivity as evidence of central sensitization.

  12. Type I hypersensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus in patients with parthenium dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Chembolli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parthenium dermatitis is a major problem in urban and rural India. Patients with severe allergic rhinitis due to exposure to pollens of parthenium are reported to have parthenium specific IgE and IgG antibodies. Parthenium induces contact dermatitis by Type IV hypersensitivity and allergic rhinitis by Type-I hypersensitivity. Aims: The study was undertaken to detect Type-I and Type-IV hypersensitivity amongst patients with parthenium dermatitis. Methods: Fourteen patients with clinical features of parthenium dermatitis who patch tested positive to parthenium were included in the study. Patch testing was done by standard method and results interpreted as recommended by the ICDRG. Serum IgE was determined by chemiluminescence immuno assay system (CLIA. Prick testing was performed and interpreted by standard method. Results: Twelve out of the 14 patients included, showed a positive prick test. Serum IgE was elevated in all patients to varying degrees (mean IgE-1279.9 IU/ml; N - up to 100 IU/ml. Conclusion: The positive patch test, prick test and elevated serum IgE suggest that both Type-I and Type-IV hypersensitivity may play a role in the induction and perpetuation of parthenium dermatitis in most patients. To date, delayed hypersensitivity was thought to be solely responsible for parthenium dermatitis. This study suggests that a combined type-I and type IV hypersensitivity mechanisms may be operational.

  13. Food hypersensitivity in patients over 14 years of age suffering from atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Čelakovská

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients suffering from atopic dermatitis often describe food hypersensitivity. Rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity and severe allergic reactions to foods have been reported, but the data are scarce. Aims and Objectives: Evaluation of food hypersensitivity reactions in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: The dermatological examination was performed in patients of age 14 years and above and the detailed history was taken concerning the food hypersensitivity. Results: A total of 228 patients were examined-72 men, 156 women, average age 26.2 (SD 9.5 years. The food hypersensitivity reactions were recorded in 196 patients from 228 (86%, no reactions were recorded in 32 patients (24%. Foods with the most often recorded reactions are: Nuts (in 35% of patients, tomatoes (in 20%, and kiwi (in 17, 5%, apples and spices (in 16%, tangerines and oranges (in 15%, capsicum (in 13%, fishes (in 12%, celery (in 9%, and chocolate (in 7%. Conclusion: Food hypersensitivity reactions are recorded in 86% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Nuts, tomatoes, and pollen-associated foods play a role in the majority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis.

  14. Hypersensitivity reaction to pine nuts (pinon nuts--pignolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, A J

    1987-09-01

    This report describes two patients with allergic reactions due to the ingestion of pine nuts. Skin testing to the aqueous allergen revealed immediate positive prick test reactions suggesting an IgE-mediated response. No reported cases have been found previously in a review of the medical literature.

  15. Clinical Abacavir Hypersensitivity Reaction among Children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Jaya; Sharma, Saurabh; Johri, Anuradha; Chourasia, Ankita; Sundar, Shyam

    2016-08-01

    Abacavir is currently recommended as a part of first line regimen by National AIDS Control Organization. The objective of this study was to observe the incidence of clinically diagnosed abacavir Hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) among children on abacavir based therapy in the National program. In this observational study, all children started on abacavir were included and HSR reaction was diagnosed clinically as per National guidelines. HLA- B*5701 testing was done in children diagnosed with clinical abacavir HSR. Among 101 children started on abacavir during the study period, 8 [7.9 % (95 % CI 3.5-15.0 %)] children developed clinically diagnosed abacavir HSR. All children with concomitant illness (4/8) were HLA-B*5701 negative. Only 2 (25 %, 2/8) carried HLA-B*5701 allele. Fever with abdominal symptoms as compared to respiratory symptoms were more common in HLA-B*5701 positive cases. Overdiagnosis of clinically diagnosed abacavir HSR is common and could be decreased by treating concomitant illness before starting abacavir.

  16. Clinical evaluation of ferric oxalate in relieving dentine hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, D G; Newman, H N; Davies, E H; Bulman, J S; Troullos, E S; Curro, F A

    2004-03-01

    Previous in vitro permeability and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the oxalate ion in dentine permeability reduction and effective tubule occlusion. The aim of this randomized double-blind, split mouth 4-week clinical study, therefore was to determine whether a 1-min application of ferric oxalate (Sensodyne Sealant) on exposed root dentine was effective in reducing dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Thirteen subjects [8F:5M, mean age 46.2 (s.d. 4.15) years] completed the study. The subjective response was evaluated by tactile, thermal and evaporative methods of assessment. Data were collected at baseline and post-application at +5 min and 4 weeks. Analysis was based on paired t-test (P=0.05) and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests. No statistically significant differences were noted between ferric oxalate and placebo preparations at +5 min and 4 weeks for any of the test stimuli. There was, however, a clear trend towards immediate reduction (+5 min) in DH reverting back to baseline values at 4 weeks with the exception of the Biomat Thermal Probe mean values, which maintained the reductions in DH compared with placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that a 1-min application of ferric oxalate is both rapid and effective in reducing DH although its long-term effectiveness still needs to be determined.

  17. Eosinophilic tracheobronchitis with cough hypersensitivity caused by Streptomyces albus antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhiko Ogawa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old woman is reported with atopic cough, in whom bronchoprovocation with Streptomyces albus antigen induced cough and bronchoscopic biopsy revealed eosinophilic tracheobronchitis. She was admitted for the diagnosis and treatment of severe non-productive cough. Although her induced sputum contained 8% eosinophils of nucleated cells and bronchoscopic biopsy specimens revealed eosinophil infiltration in both tracheal and bronchial wall, she did not have bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine or heightened bronchomotor tone. Bronchodilator therapy was not effective for her coughing. Her symptoms worsened on returning home, suggesting the existence of some etiologic agents in her house. Streptomyces albus was isolated from her house. A high titer of anti-S. albus antibody was detected in her serum and the bronchoprovocation test with S. albus antigen was positive: development of coughing 15 min later and decrease in cough threshold to inhaled capsaicin 24 h later (3.9 μmol/L from 31.3 μmol/L prechallenge. This is the first report on eosinophilic tracheobronchitis with cough hypersensitivity caused by allergic reaction to S. albus antigen.

  18. Treatment of Dentine Hypersensitivity by Diode Laser: A Clinical Study

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    Romeo Umberto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dentine hypersensitivity (DH is characterized by pain after stimuli that usually provoke no symptoms. This study compared the effectiveness of GaAlAs diode laser alone and with topical sodium fluoride gel (NaF. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted on 10 patients (8 F/2 M, age 25–60 and 115 teeth with DH assessed by air and tactile stimuli measured by Numeric Rating Scale (NRS. Teeth were randomly divided into G1 (34 teeth treated by 1.25% NaF; G2 (33 teeth lased at 0.5 W PW (T on 100 m and T off 100 ms, fluence 62.2 J/cm2 in defocused mode with a 320 μ fiber. Each tooth received three 1′ applications; G3 (48 teeth received NaF gel plus laser at same G2 parameters. NRS was checked at each control. Results. Significant pain reduction was showed. The NRS reduction percentages were calculated, and there was a concrete decrease of DH above all in G3 than G2 and G1. Conclusion. Diode laser is a useful device for DH treatment if used alone and mainly if used with NaF gel.

  19. Kinetics and specificity of nickel hypersensitivity in the murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, G M; Seymour, G J

    1994-01-01

    Nickel contact dermatitis appears to be almost exclusively a disease of females despite the increasing exposure of males to nickel. Successful murine models of nickel allergic contact dermatitis have been described. The purpose of this study is to investigate the kinetics and specificity of the response in this model and to examine if any differences exist between male and female. Mice were sensitised epicutaneously with nickel sulphate in aqueous solution of varying concentration, volume and duration of application. Following intradermal challenge, dose dependent response kinetics which approximated linearity were demonstrated upto the point of toxicity. Sensitised mice were challenged with Cobaltous chloride, Chromic chloride and Cupric sulphate and demonstrated no evidence of cross sensitivity to cobalt or chrome. Copper produced an irritant response making interpretation difficult. Earlier and stronger responses were observed in female mice, however these differences fell short of statistical significance. The results of the present study therefore establishes a reliable model for nickel hypersensitivity, that demonstrates both specificity and dose dependent kinetics without significant sex differences.

  20. Contact hypersensitivity: quantitative aspects, susceptibility and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Peter S; Pickard, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The development of allergic sensitisation by environmental chemicals results in allergic contact dermatitis and highly undesirable morbidity and disability. This form of hypersensitivity is mediated by specific T lymphocytes that recognise the chemical sensitiser bound to self-proteins. Use of deliberate experimental contact sensitisation with dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) has been used to investigate the human immune system which exhibits dose-related responses. Many factors contribute to whether sensitisation occurs and the nature and magnitude of the immune response. Chemicals vary in sensitising potency, mainly reflecting their intrinsic protein-binding properties. The amount of sensitiser reaching the immune system is determined by many factors of which the concentration (dose per unit area), the relative lipid solubility and molecular weight are the most critical. Host-related factors contributing to the nature and magnitude of immune responses are mainly genetically determined including gender, age, the biochemical/physical integrity of the epidermal barrier and the quality of the innate and adaptive immune systems. The underlying mechanisms must be elucidated before it will be possible to make reliable predictions of whether a given individual will develop allergic sensitisation by a given chemical.

  1. T-bet controls severity of hypersensitivity pneumonitis

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    Nance Stephanie C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP is an interstitial lung disease that develops following repeated exposure to inhaled environmental antigens. The disease is characterized by alveolitis, granuloma formation and in some patients' fibrosis. IFNγ plays a critical role in HP; in the absence of IFNγ granuloma formation does not occur. However, recent studies using animal models of HP have suggested that HP is a Th17 disease calling into question the role of IFNγ. In this study, we report that initially IFNγ production is dependent on IL-18 and the transcription factor T-bet, however as the disease continues IFNγ production is IL-18-independent and partially T-bet dependent. Although IFNγ production is required for granuloma formation its role is distinct from that of T-bet. Mice that are deficient in T-bet and exposed to S. rectivirgula develop more severe disease characterized by an exacerbated Th17 cell response, decreased Th1 cell response, and increased collagen production in the lung. T-bet-mediated protection does not appear to be due to the development of a protective Th1 response; shifting the balance from a Th17 predominant response to a Th1 response by inhibition of IL-6 also results in lung pathology. The results from this study suggest that both Th1 and Th17 cells can be pathogenic in this model and that IFNγ and T-bet play divergent roles in the disease process.

  2. Presumed hydrochlorothiazide-associated immunologic-hypersensitivity-induced pericardial effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Chaskes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old Caucasian female presented for a second opinion regarding a newly diagnosed pericardial effusion. Seven months previously, hydrochlorothiazide was introduced into her pharmacologic regimen to aid in the management of her hypertension. A routine echocardiogram indicated a large pericardial effusion with signs of early cardiac tamponade. The patient subsequently underwent successful pericardiocentesis with complete drainage of the pericardial effusion. The effusion was empirically attributed to a viral etiology. Repeat echocardiograms showed recurrence of the pericardial effusion. Prior to undergoing a second pericardiocentesis with pericardial biopsy, as her physicians recommended, the patient sought a second opinion. While obtaining the patient’s history, an allergy to sulfa was elicited. The possibility that the pericardial effusion may be secondary to an immunologic-hypersensitivity reaction was considered. It was recommended the patient discontinue the use of hydrochlorothiazide. Nine days following discontinuation of hydrochlorothiazide and without any other intervention, an echocardiogram was reported to show the size of the pericardial effusion had subsided substantially. Nine weeks following discontinuation, almost complete resolution of the pericardial effusion was reported. It is hypothesized that when treated with hydrochlorothiazide, the patient had an immune response leading to the pericardial effusion.

  3. Study on hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Scintigraphic findings in three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Hirayama, Jiro; Kanai, Hisakata (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-11-01

    Three cases with hypersensitivity pneumonitis were studied with Tl-201 scintigraphy, perfusion lung scan and other clinical findings. Major symptoms and signs were fever and cough in 3 cases, exertional dyspnea in 2, sputum in 1 and moist rales in 3. Laboratory data showed elevated ESR, hyper ..gamma..-globulinemia in 3 cases, leukocytosis in 2, eosinophilia in 3, positive CRP in 2 and positive RA test in 1. Chest x-ray film revealed diffuse scattered reticulonodular shadows in 3 cases and patchy ones in 2. Abnormalities in the pulmonary function tests were decreased vital capacity and Pa sub(o2) in 3 cases, increased residual volume and decreased diffusion capacity in 2, decreased V50 and V25 in flow volume curve in 1. Precipitating antibodies against Sitophilus granarius, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Micropolyspola faeni, Aspergillus fumigatus and budgerigar serum were detected. Tl-201 scintigram showed diffuse marked uptake of Tl-201 in both lungs of 2 cases at acute stage and moderate in 2 cases in remission when abnormal shadows on chest x-ray film had been disappeared. Two cases in remission showed slight positive or negative results, but in 1 case moderate uptake was yet observed after 11 months. Positive visualization of right ventricle was demonstrated in 2 cases. Perfusion lung scintigram showed decreased perfusion in 3 cases. Each of 2 cases in acute stage and in remission showed slightly decreased perfusion and one case in admission showed a moderate decrease and still showed a slight decrease after 9 months.

  4. Diagnosing the tight building syndrome or diagnosing chemical hypersensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S.A. (Northeast Center for Environmental Medicine, Syracuse, NY (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The abrupt exposure to urea foam formaldehyde insulation served as an alert to its spectrum of symptoms, including attacks of headache, flushing, laryngitis, dizziness, nausea, extreme weakness or exhaustion, arthralgia, an inability to concentrate, unwarranted depression, arrhythmia, or muscle spasms, and baffled physicians from many specialties. Later it was learned that toluene, xylene, benzene, natural gas, trichloroethylene, and many other chemicals were also capable of triggering chemical hypersensitivity. Other names for this condition include Environmentally Induced Illness (EI), the Tight Building Syndrome (TBS), the Sick Building Syndrome, and Building-Related Illness. The very symptoms patients complain of can be provoked within minutes and then subsequently alleviated with an intradermal injection of the appropriate strength of the triggering chemical. This technique aids in convincing the patient of the EI or TBS triggers so that the patient can begin to relate symptoms to environmental exposures and initiate measure to bring the disease under control. The key to safer buildings is increased ventilation, increased filtration of air, and decreased use of off-gassing synthetic materials.

  5. The Relationship between Grandiose and Vulnerable (Hypersensitive Narcissism

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    Emanuel Jauk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Narcissistic grandiosity is characterized by overt expressions of feelings of superiority and entitlement, while narcissistic vulnerability reflects hypersensitivity and introversive self-absorbedness. Clinical evidence suggests that grandiosity is accompanied by vulnerable aspects, pointing to a common foundation. Subclinical personality research, however, views grandiose and vulnerable narcissism as independent traits. Grandiose narcissism displays substantial correlation with extraversion, while vulnerable narcissism correlates highly with introversion. We investigated if (1 controlling for intro-/extraversion might reveal a “common core” of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, and if (2 the correlation between both aspects might be higher at higher levels of narcissism. Latent variable structural equation modeling and segmented regression analysis confirmed these hypotheses in a large non-clinical sample (N = 1,006. Interindividual differences in intro-/extraversion mask the common core of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. The association between both aspects increases at high levels (upper 10% of grandiose narcissism, which suggests a possible transition to clinically relevant (pathological narcissism.

  6. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J R; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B Jean

    2013-12-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3=17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25-50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers.

  7. A Case of Immediate Hypersensitivity Reaction to Maltitol

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    Ana Rodríguez Trabado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maltitol is a sugar alcohol that is frequently used as a noncaloric sweetener, although it is also used as an excipient, a plasticizer in gelatin capsules, and an emollient. It has not been previously described as an agent involved in immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Methods. We report on an anaphylactoid reaction with pharyngeal occlusion suffered by a 60-year-old man after ingestion of a candy containing maltitol syrup. A prick-to-prick test was performed with the candy and maltitol powder. Other allergens were excluded as causative agents of the adverse reaction, although the patient refused to undergo an oral challenge test with the candy. A basophil activation test (BAT was performed with maltitol powder, and a dose-response curve was generated. The test was also performed in 3 healthy controls. Results. Both prick-to-prick tests were negative. The result of the BAT was positive at all the concentrations tested in the patient’s blood and negative in all the controls. Conclusions. The BAT can help to clarify the agents implicated in an adverse reaction and can reduce the risk involved in diagnosis. The BAT can also prove useful in the study of reactions caused by low-molecular-weight antigens, for which routine diagnostic tests are not feasible.

  8. Hypersensitivity of lung vessels to catecholamines in systemic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzi, M D; Alimento, M; Fiorentini, C; Pepi, M; Polese, A

    1986-08-02

    Among patients with primary systemic hypertension pressure and arteriolar resistance in the pulmonary circulation exceed normal values and are hyper-reactive to sympathetic stimulation. A study was therefore carried out in 16 patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension and nine healthy subjects to compare the pulmonary vascular reactivity to exogenous catecholamines. In the normotensive group the dose response relation to adrenaline (microgram: dyn) was 1 = -4, 2 = -9, 3 = -9, and 4 = -10 and to noradrenaline 2 = +3, 4 = /8, 6 = +4, and 8 = +3. The relations in the hypertensive subjects were 1 = +18, 2 = +42, 3 = +59, and 4 = +77 and 2 = +39, 4 = +54, 6 = +76, and 8 = +100, respectively. Group differences were highly significant. Cardiac output (blood flow through the lungs) was raised by adrenaline and reduced by noradrenaline. In either case the driving pressure across the lungs was significantly augmented in the hypertensive patients but not in the normotensive group. Both catecholamines had a vasoconstrictor effect on the pulmonary circulation as a result of vascular over-reactivity. The opposite changes in resistance between normal and hypertensive subjects produced by adrenaline suggest that a constrictor vascular hypersensitivity occurs in the pulmonary circulation with the development of systemic high blood pressure.

  9. Exploring Some Aspects Associated with Dentine Hypersensitivity in Children

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    Caleb Shitsuka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The etiology of dentine hypersensitivity (DH is still inconclusive and there are few studies concerning it in children. Aim. To evaluate clinical, dietary, and salivary variables in children with DH complaints. Design. Forty-eight children were asked about DH. Data regarding dietary habits were collected from the children’s parents and an examination was performed to determine dental erosion. Dental biofilm was estimated by oral hygiene status, according to Greene and Vermillion’s Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S. Whole saliva was collected under mechanical stimulation and evaluated salivary flow rate, initial pH, buffer capacity, and calcium and phosphate concentrations. The temperature of soft drinks, drinking method, sense of bitter taste, and other variables were also determined. Possible factors associated with DH were analyzed by univariate and multiple Poisson regression analyses. The prevalence ratio (PR values and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated. Results. DH was associated with the presence of dental erosion (PR; 95% CI = 2.23; 1.05 to 4.71 and salivary flow rate (2.49; 1.05 to 5.91. When the presence of erosion was not included, other variables were retained as follows: bitter taste (2.36; 1.38 to 4.03, OHI-S (0.47; 0.23 to 0.97. Conclusion. DH in children is associated with factors related to dental erosion.

  10. Enhancer networks revealed by correlated DNAse hypersensitivity states of enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Justin; Aniba, Mohamed Radhouane; Hannenhalli, Sridhar

    2013-08-01

    Mammalian gene expression is often regulated by distal enhancers. However, little is known about higher order functional organization of enhancers. Using ∼100 K P300-bound regions as candidate enhancers, we investigated their correlated activity across 72 cell types based on DNAse hypersensitivity. We found widespread correlated activity between enhancers, which decreases with increasing inter-enhancer genomic distance. We found that correlated enhancers tend to share common transcription factor (TF) binding motifs, and several chromatin modification enzymes preferentially interact with these TFs. Presence of shared motifs in enhancer pairs can predict correlated activity with 73% accuracy. Also, genes near correlated enhancers exhibit correlated expression and share common function. Correlated enhancers tend to be spatially proximal. Interestingly, weak enhancers tend to correlate with significantly greater numbers of other enhancers relative to strong enhancers. Furthermore, strong/weak enhancers preferentially correlate with strong/weak enhancers, respectively. We constructed enhancer networks based on shared motif and correlated activity and show significant functional enrichment in their putative target gene clusters. Overall, our analyses show extensive correlated activity among enhancers and reveal clusters of enhancers whose activities are coordinately regulated by multiple potential mechanisms involving shared TF binding, chromatin modifying enzymes and 3D chromatin structure, which ultimately co-regulate functionally linked genes.

  11. Jasmonic acid signaling modulates ozone-induced hypersensitive cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M V; Lee, H; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E; Davis, K R

    2000-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that cross-talk between salicylic acid (SA)-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, and ethylene-dependent signaling pathways regulates plant responses to both abiotic and biotic stress factors. Earlier studies demonstrated that ozone (O(3)) exposure activates a hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death pathway in the Arabidopsis ecotype Cvi-0. We now have confirmed the role of SA and JA signaling in influencing O(3)-induced cell death. Expression of salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) in Cvi-0 reduced O(3)-induced cell death. Methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) pretreatment of Cvi-0 decreased O(3)-induced H(2)O(2) content and SA concentrations and completely abolished O(3)-induced cell death. Cvi-0 synthesized as much JA as did Col-0 in response to O(3) exposure but exhibited much less sensitivity to exogenous Me-JA. Analyses of the responses to O(3) of the JA-signaling mutants jar1 and fad3/7/8 also demonstrated an antagonistic relationship between JA- and SA-signaling pathways in controlling the magnitude of O(3)-induced HR-like cell death.

  12. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  13. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  14. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z About Melanoma Skin Cancer What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma ... Policy . About Melanoma Skin Cancer What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma ...

  15. Developing a preventive immunization approach against insect bite hypersensitivity using recombinant allergens: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Hamza, Eman; Janda, Jozef; Rhyner, Claudio; Meinke, Andreas; Marti, Eliane; Svansson, Vilhjalmur; Torsteinsdottir, Sigurbjorg

    2015-07-15

    there was no indication of induction of IgE-mediated reactions, as horses neither responded to Culicoides extract stimulation in a sulfidoleukotriene release test, nor developed a relevant immediate hypersensitivity reaction to the recombinant allergens in skin test. IL-4 expression was significantly higher in horses vaccinated intralymphatically without IC31(®), as compared to horses intradermally vaccinated with IC31(®). Both routes gave higher IL-10 expression with IC31(®). Both intralymphatic and intradermal vaccination of horses with recombinant allergens in IC31(®) adjuvant induced an immune response without adverse effects and without IgE production. The horses were not sensitized and produced IgG that could inhibit allergen-specific IgE binding. We therefore conclude that both the injection routes and the IC31(®) adjuvant are strong candidates for further development of immunoprophylaxis and therapy in horses.

  16. Penicillin and hypersensitivity tests Penicilina y pruebas de sensibilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Montoya

    1996-01-01

    Information is summarized in this review on the history, immunological bases, clinical manifestations and risk factors associated with penicillin allergy. A detailed methodology is explained to perform clinically significant skin tests. Se hace un recuento histórico sobre la alergia penicilínica y las pruebas de sensibilidad; se presentan las bases inmunológicas, las manifestaciones clínicas y los factores de riesgo asociados a esta hipersensibilidad. Se explica detalladamente la metodología ...

  17. Association of tinnitus and electromagnetic hypersensitivity: hints for a shared pathophysiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Landgrebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is a frequent condition with high morbidity and impairment in quality of life. The pathophysiology is still incompletely understood. Electromagnetic fields are discussed to be involved in the multi-factorial pathogenesis of tinnitus, but data proofing this relationship are very limited. Potential health hazards of electromagnetic fields (EMF have been under discussion for long. Especially, individuals claiming themselves to be electromagnetic hypersensitive suffer from a variety of unspecific symptoms, which they attribute to EMF-exposure. The aim of the study was to elucidate the relationship between EMF-exposure, electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus using a case-control design. METHODOLOGY: Tinnitus occurrence and tinnitus severity were assessed by questionnaires in 89 electromagnetic hypersensitive patients and 107 controls matched for age-, gender, living surroundings and workplace. Using a logistic regression approach, potential risk factors for the development of tinnitus were evaluated. FINDINGS: Tinnitus was significantly more frequent in the electromagnetic hypersensitive group (50.72% vs. 17.5% whereas tinnitus duration and severity did not differ between groups. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus were independent risk factors for sleep disturbances. However, measures of individual EMF-exposure like e.g. cell phone use did not show any association with tinnitus. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that tinnitus is associated with subjective electromagnetic hypersensitivity. An individual vulnerability probably due to an over activated cortical distress network seems to be responsible for, both, electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus. Hence, therapeutic efforts should focus on treatment strategies (e.g. cognitive behavioral therapy aiming at normalizing this dysfunctional distress network.

  18. The microwave syndrome or electro-hypersensitivity: historical background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    Microwave generating equipment first became common during World War 2 with the development of radar. Soviet bloc countries reported that individuals exposed to microwaves frequently developed headaches, fatigue, loss of appetite, sleepiness, difficulty in concentration, poor memory, emotional instability, and labile cardiovascular function, and established stringent exposure standards. For a variety of reasons these reports were discounted in Western countries, where the prevailing belief was that there could be no adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) that were not mediated by tissue heating. The reported Soviet effects were at lower intensities than those that cause heating. However, there were several accidental exposures of radar operators in Western countries that resulted in persistent symptoms similar to those described above. The Soviets irradiated the US Embassy in Moscow with microwaves during the period 1953-1975, and while no convincing evidence of elevated cancer rates was reported, there were reports of "microwave illness". Officials passed these complaints off as being due to anxiety, not effects of the microwave exposure. There is increasing evidence that the "microwave syndrome" or "electro-hypersensitivity" (EHS) is a real disease that is caused by exposure to EMFs, especially those in the microwave range. The reported incidence of the syndrome is increasing along with increasing exposure to EMFs from electricity, WiFi, mobile phones and towers, smart meters and many other wireless devices. Why some individuals are more sensitive is unclear. While most individuals who report having EHS do not have a specific history of an acute exposure, excessive exposure to EMFs, even for a brief period of time, can induce the syndrome.

  19. Pneumonite de hipersensibilidade ao tabaco Hypersensitivity pneumonitis to tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÍLVIA E.C. MACEDO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonite de hipersensibilidade (PH é decorrente da inalação de antígenos orgânicos e/ou inorgânicos por indivíduos suscetíveis. Relata-se o caso de uma mulher de 18 anos, plantadora de tabaco em Pelotas, no Sul do Brasil, com dispnéia progressiva, tosse seca e emagrecimento havia 35 dias. Apresentava crepitações finas no tórax e a radiografia evidenciou infiltrado intersticial difuso. O diagnóstico de PH foi estabelecido pela história de exposição, achados tomográficos e exame anatomopatológico de pulmão obtido por biópsia a céu aberto. Estabeleceram-se como causa antígenos provenientes do cultivo de tabaco. Com prednisona e o afastamento do plantio do tabaco houve boa resposta clínica e funcional.Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP derives from the inhalation of organic and/or inorganic antigens by susceptible individuals. The authors report the case of an eighteen-year-old female, who worked as a tobacco planter in Pelotas, southern Brazil. She had been presenting progressive dyspnea, dry cough, and weight loss for 35 days. She had fine thoracic crepitations and X-ray examination revealed diffuse interstitial infiltration. The diagnosis of HP was determined by her history of exposure to tobacco, tomographic findings and anatomopathologic examination of the lung, obtained by open biopsy. Tobacco antigens were found to be the cause. As patient was treated with prednisone and tobacco exposure was discontinued, a good clinic and functional response was observed.

  20. A novel bioactive glass-ceramic for treating dentin hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Tirapelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentin hypersensitivity (DH is a painful response to stimulus applied to the open dentinal tubules of a vital tooth. It's a common oral condition, however, without an ideal treatment available yet. This work evaluated in vitro the effect of micron-sized particles from a novel bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate in occluding open dentinal tubules. A dentin disc model was employed to observe comparatively, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, dentinal tubule occlusion by different products and deposition of hydroxyl carbonate apatite (HCA on dentin surface by Biosilicate, after a single application: G1 - Dentifrice with potassium nitrate and fluoride; G2 - Two-step calcium phosphate precipitation treatment; G3 - Water-free gel containing Biosilicate particles (1%; G4 - Biosilicate particles mixed with distilled water in a 1:10 ratio; all of them after 1, 12 and 24 hours of immersion in artificial saliva. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was performed to detect HCA formation on dentin discs filled with Biosilicate after 2 minutes, 30 minutes and 12 hours of immersion in artificial saliva. SEM showed a layer of HCA formed on dentin surface after 24 hours by G4. G1, G2 and G3 promoted not total occlusion of open dentinal tubules after 24 hours. FTIR showed HCA precipitation on the dentin surface induced by Biosilicate after 30 minutes. The micron-sized particles from the bioactive glass-ceramic thus were able to induce HCA deposition in open dentinal tubules in vitro. This finding suggests that Biosilicate may provide a new option for treating DH.

  1. Oxytocin hypersensitivity in pregnant P-LAP deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masakazu; Naruse, Katsuhiko; Hattori, Akira; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Ishiura, Shoichi; Numaguchi, Yasushi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Shigehiko

    2009-05-08

    Oxytocin (OT) is the strongest uterotonic substance and has been used widely to induce labor. The physiological importance of OT in modulating the initiation and progression of labor remains unclear. In this study, we showed the roles of OT with onset of labor and also the arginine vasopressin (AVP) effect on urine volume in vivo using both wild type (WT) and placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP)-deficient (KO) mice. OT (1, 2, 2.5 U/day) or recombinant P-LAP (0.01 U/day) was continuously infused from gestation day 15.5 in WT and P-LAP KO mice. Duration until onset of labor was observed. Before and after administration of AVP (1 U/day) in WT and P-LAP KO mice, urine volume was measured. A significant shortening of pregnancy term was observed in P-LAP KO mice. Continuous infusion of OT (1 U/day) revealed that P-LAP KO mice resulted in premature delivery (OT hypersensitivity). We could observe a significant decrease of urine volume in P-LAP KO mice by administration of AVP. Administration of recombinant P-LAP in WT mice resulted in the delay of the onset of labor about 1.5 days compared with control mice. Our present study shows that the regulation of the onset of labor mainly depends on OT and its degradation by P-LAP and also the possible role of P-LAP in the regulation of urine output. P-LAP might be involved in the increased OT sensitivity just prior to onset of labor and also in the onset of labor by degradation of OT.

  2. Comparison of dentine hypersensitivity in selected occidental and oriental populations.

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    Gillam, D G; Seo, H S; Newman, H N; Bulman, J S

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological data on dentine hypersensitivity (DH) prevalence are limited. Few studies have compared prevalence between populations. The aim of this investigation, therefore, was to compare the perception and prevalence of DH in two distinct non-periodontal practice populations, one U.K. and one Korean. Completed questionnaires from 557 patients (230 males and 327 females, comprising 115 males and 162 females, mean age 41.7 years (s.d.=14.36), U.K. and 115 males and 165 females, mean age 29.7 years (s.d.=11.86), Korean) were collected. Analysis was by frequency distribution and cross-tabulation (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)). DH prevalence was similar and at levels comparable with those reported previously. Prevalence was higher in the third and fourth decades in both populations. Although there were no differences between U.K. or Korean males and U.K. or Korean females, there was a significant difference between gender reporting of DH, with more females complaining of DH than males (standard normal deviation (SND)=4.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.1134-0.2736). DH appeared to be regarded by patients as not severe in most cases, so treatment was not generally sought. Of those who claimed to have sought treatment, a significant number had received restorative treatment. Of those patients, only 23.3% of U.K. and or=7 days in either population. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between U.K.- and Korean-based populations in their perception of DH, with the exception that more females complained of sensitivity than males in both groups. Overall, DH was not considered a major dental problem by most patients in either of the populations.

  3. 262 Hypersensitivity to Beta-Lactam Antibiotics Evaluation Using the European Network Drug Allergy (ENDA) Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Tânia Maria; Martins, Emmanuel; Neto, Alfredo Alves; Delcourt, Nathalia; Rios, João; Arcanjo, Luiz; Rios, José Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypersensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics are usually defined only by the history of suspected previous reaction to these medicines. This definition, however, can erroneously restrict the use of these important therapeutic resources if not assessed by the proper tests. The objective was to assess the presence of hypersensitivity to beta-lactams through adequate testing. Methods Thirty-three patients were referred to our allergic clinic for testing of penicillin hypersensitivity i...

  4. Allergic urticaria: A case report of rare skin allergy with a common mouthwash

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    Viresh Chopra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is a widely used antiseptic and disinfectant in medical and non-medical environments. Compared to its ubiquitous use, allergic contact dermatitis from chlorhexidine has rarely been reported and so its sensitization rate seems to be low. Chlorhexidine has been used for more than 50 years but it was only in the last two decades, that reports of immediate- type reactions to chlorhexidine were seen. Reactions ranging from localized urticaria to anaphylactic shock and hypersensitivity reactions, including delayed hypersensitivity reactions such as contact dermatitis, fixed drug eruptions, and photosensitivity reactions, began to appear more frequently. However the prevalence of contact urticaria and anaphylaxis due to chlorhexidine remains to be unknown. In this case report we have reported a case of urticaria due to oral use of chlorhexidine. The adverse reaction was confirmed by a skin prick test.

  5. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  6. Aquaporins in the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravi; Kevin Heard, L; Chen, Xunsheng; Bollag, Wendy B

    2017-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the body, serving as an important barrier between the internal milieu and the external environment. The skin is also one of the first lines of defense against microbial infection and other hazards, and thus, the skin has important immune functions . This organ is composed of many cell types, including immune-active dendritic cells (epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells), connective tissue-generating dermal fibroblasts and pigment-producing melanocytes. Comprising the outer skin layer are the epidermal keratinocytes, the predominant cell of this layer, the epidermis , which provides both a mechanical barrier and a water -permeability barrier. Recent data suggest that aquaporins, a family of barrel-shaped proteins surrounding internal pores that allow the passage of water and, in some family members, small solutes such as glycerol , play critical roles in regulating various skin parameters. The involvement of different aquaporin family members in skin function is discussed.

  7. Update of immune events in the murine contact hypersensitivity model: toward the understanding of allergic contact dermatitis.

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    Honda, Tetsuya; Egawa, Gyohei; Grabbe, Stephan; Kabashima, Kenji

    2013-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is one of the most common skin diseases, consisting of sensitization and elicitation phases. With the advancement of technology and the discovery of new types of immune cells, our knowledge of the immunological mechanisms of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) as a murine model of ACD has expanded significantly in the past decade. For example, by introducing regulatory T cells, CD4(+) T-helper 17 cells, and Langerin-positive dermal dendritic cells, the initiation and termination mechanism of CHS has been revealed. In addition, the role of mast cells in CHS, long a matter of debate, has become apparent by developing conditional mast cell-deficient mice. Moreover, the role of the innate immunity system, such as that of Toll-like receptor signaling, has made a breakthrough in this field. In this review, we will integrate the recent advancement of immunological mechanisms of both the sensitization and elicitation phases of CHS into the classic view, and we will discuss updated mechanisms on its development and future directions.

  8. Basophils and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Granata, Francescopaolo; Marone, Gianni

    2014-05-01

    Since their discovery in 1879, basophils have been viewed as circulating blood granulocytes with limited immune function. New research tools for their functional analysis in vivo have revealed previously unrecognized roles for basophils in several skin disorders. Human basophils infiltrate different skin lesions and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases ranging from chronic idiopathic urticaria to systemic lupus erythematosus. In mouse models, basophils participate in IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation of the skin and have a protective role in tick infestation. In this review, we discuss critical advances in our understanding of basophil biology and their roles in the pathophysiology of skin disorders.

  9. Skin Images Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali E. Zaart

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Image segmentation is a fundamental step in many applications of image processing. Skin cancer has been the most common of all new cancers detected each year. At early stage detection of skin cancer, simple and economic treatment can cure it mostly. An accurate segmentation of skin images can help the diagnosis to define well the region of the cancer. The principal approach of segmentation is based on thresholding (classification that is lied to the problem of the thresholds estimation. Approach: The objective of this study is to develop a method to segment the skin images based on a mixture of Beta distributions. We assume that the data in skin images can be modeled by a mixture of Beta distributions. We used an unsupervised learning technique with Beta distribution to estimate the statistical parameters of the data in skin image and then estimate the thresholds for segmentation. Results: The proposed method of skin images segmentation was implemented and tested on different skin images. We obtained very good results in comparing with the same techniques with Gamma distribution. Conclusion: The experiment showed that the proposed method obtained very good results but it requires more testing on different types of skin images.

  10. Symptoms, physical findings and bronchial hypersensitivity in patients with bronchial asthma and normal spirometry

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    Aćimović Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The diagnosis of bronchial asthma, a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract, is made on the basis of anamnesis, pathologic auscultatory findings of the lungs, lung function disturbances, skin tests, as well as the basic indices of immunologic condition in bronchial trunk. The aim of the study was to find out correlation of objective indices of the disease and than relation with the symptoms in the patients with bronchial asthma. Methods. The study included 60 young male non smokers with long lasting symptoms of bronchial asthma including shortness of breath, wheezing, hard breathing, nonproductive or productive cough, weakness and night hard breathing. There were no symptoms of respiratory infection over the past two months and lung radiography and spirometry were normal. Based on the results of nonspecific bronchoprovocative test two groups of the patients were formed, group I (n = 30 with positive histamine test (average value of the inhaled histamine concentration with FEV1 drop by 20% in regard with the initial value (PC20 = 2.99 ± 0.51 mg/ml of histamine and group II (n = 30 with negative histamine test (PC20(a = 14.58 ± 6.34 mg/ml of histamine. Results. The obtained spirometry results revealed a statistically significant difference in values of FEV1 between groups: I group - FEV1 = 93.2%; II group - FEV1 = 101.8%; (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon test, although all the FEV1 values were normal. Regarding the presence of the most common symptoms there was not statistically significant difference between the groups (p > 0. 05, chisquare test. Pathologic auscultatory lung findings were found in 73.4% of the patients in the group I and 27.5% of the patients in the group II. There was statistically significant difference (p < 0.05, chi-squared test. A positive correlation between the degree of hypersensitivity and lung physical findings was confirmed (p < 0.05 Spearman's rho, but there was no correlation with FEV1 values

  11. Dentin hypersensitivity: from diagnosis to a breakthrough therapy for everyday sensitivity relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Diane

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current knowledge of diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, and clinical management of dentin hypersensitivity. It summarizes technical approaches to relieve sensitivity in professional and home-use products, with emphasis on the clinical evidence for the efficacy of desensitizing toothpaste, and introduces a new innovative dentifrice technology containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride. Dentin hypersensitivity is characterized by short, sharp pain arising from exposed dentin in response to external stimuli which cannot be ascribed to any other form of dental defect or disease. The hydrodynamic theory proposes that pain-producing stimuli cause a change in dentin fluid flow that activates intra-dental nerve fibers, via a mechanoreceptor response, to cause pain. To be hypersensitive, dentin must be exposed and dentin tubules must be open to external stimuli and patent at the pulp. Gingival recession is the primary cause of dentin exposure, and a major predisposing factor for dentin hypersensitivity. Dentin hypersensitivity is a prevalent condition. It has been reported to afflict 15-20% of the adult population, typically 20 to 50-year-olds, with peak incidence between 30 and 39 years. Some studies have reported higher prevalence levels of up to 57%. The incidence of dentin hypersensitivity is expected to rise with changing diets, and as caries and periodontal disease prevention result in improved oral health status, and retention and functionality of the dentition. Treatments to relieve dentin hypersensitivity are based on interruption of the neural response to pain stimuli or occlusion of open tubules to block the hydrodynamic mechanism. Effective and robust dentin occlusion offers the greatest prospect for instant and lasting relief of dentin hypersensitivity. In particular, materials which can coat exposed dentin surfaces, in addition to plugging and sealing open dentin tubules, offer the intriguing

  12. Colonic mast cell infiltration in rats with TNBS-induced visceral hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Katsuyo; Sato, Yasushi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Kurebayashi, Yoichi

    2007-12-01

    Colonic mucosal mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndromes. This study was designed to investigate the roles of mucosal mast cells in development of an experimental visceral hypersensitivity induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. TNBS, when injected into the proximal colon through laparotomy, produced a significant decrease in pain threshold of the distal colon to mechanical distention, indicating a visceral hypersensitivity. In the proximal colon that was directly insulted by TNBS, mucosal necrosis and extensive inflammatory cell infiltration were observed with concomitant increase in tissue myeloperoxide (MPO) activity. In the distal colon where distention stimuli were applied, the number of mucosal mast cells significantly increased following TNBS treatment, although neither mucosal injury nor increase in tissue MPO activity was observed. In an organ culture, spontaneous release of a mucosal mast cell-specific protease (RMCP-2) from the distal colon tissue of TNBS-treated rats was significantly larger than that of sham animals. Furthermore, TNBS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was significantly suppressed by subcutaneous pretreatment with a mast cell stabilizer doxantrazole in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that prominent colonic mast cell infiltration associated with an enhanced spontaneous mediator release is responsible, at least partly, for development of visceral hypersensitivity induced by TNBS in rats.

  13. Blockade of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 activation inhibits mechanical hypersensitivity following abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Sharron; Nolan, Andrea Mary

    2007-08-01

    This study used the metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor subtype-selective antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) to characterise the contribution of mGlu5 receptor activity to pain and hypersensitivity in an animal model of post-surgical pain. Adult female Wistar rats (200-250g) were anaesthetised with isoflurane (2%) and underwent a midline laparotomy with gentle manipulation of the viscera, and the effects of pre- (30min) or post- (5h) operative treatment with MPEP (1, 3 or 10mgkg(-1); i.p.) or drug-vehicle on hindpaw withdrawal latency (in seconds) to thermal stimulation (Hargreave's Test) and response threshold (in grams) to mechanical stimulation (using a dynamic plantar aesthesiometer) were measured. Animals that underwent surgery displayed significant hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the hindpaws. Hypersensitivity was maximum at 6h post-surgery (44.5+/-2.4% decrease; p<0.01 vs. anaesthesia only controls) and persisted for 48h. Surgery had no effect on thermal withdrawal latency. Both pre-operative and post-operative administration of 10mgkg(-1)MPEP blocked mechanical hypersensitivity induced by surgery (p<0.01 vs. vehicle treatment). MPEP had no effect on acute nociceptive thresholds in naïve animals. These data suggest that activity at mGlu5 receptors contributes to development of pain and hypersensitivity following surgery.

  14. High-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings in hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a pictorial essay*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Pedro Paulo Teixeira e Silva; Moreira, Marise Amaral Rebouças; Silva, Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus; da Gama, Roberta Rodrigues Monteiro; Sugita, Denis Masashi; Moreira, Maria Auxiliadora do Carmo

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a diffuse interstitial and granulomatous lung disease caused by the inhalation of any one of a number of antigens. The objective of this study was to illustrate the spectrum of abnormalities in high-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings related to hypersensitivity pneumonitis. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had been diagnosed with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (on the basis of clinical-radiological or clinical-radiological-pathological correlations) and had undergone lung biopsy. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is clinically divided into acute, subacute, and chronic forms; high-resolution computed tomography findings correlate with the time of exposure; and the two occasionally overlap. In the subacute form, centrilobular micronodules, ground-glass opacities, and air trapping are characteristic high-resolution computed tomography findings, whereas histopathology shows lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates, bronchiolitis, variable degrees of organizing pneumonia, and giant cells. In the chronic form, high-resolution computed tomography shows traction bronchiectasis, honeycombing, and lung fibrosis, the last also being seen in the biopsy sample. A definitive diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis can be made only through a multidisciplinary approach, by correlating clinical findings, exposure history, high-resolution computed tomography findings, and lung biopsy findings. PMID:27141134

  15. High-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings in hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Pedro Paulo Teixeira e Silva; Moreira, Marise Amaral Reboucas; Silva, Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus; Moreira, Maria Auxiliadora do Carmo [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Gama, Roberta Rodrigues Monteiro da [Hospital do Cancer de Barretos, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Sugita, Denis Masashi, E-mail: pedroptstorres@yahoo.com.br [Anapolis Unievangelica, Anapolis, GO (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a diffuse interstitial and granulomatous lung disease caused by the inhalation of any one of a number of antigens. The objective of this study was to illustrate the spectrum of abnormalities in high-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings related to hypersensitivity pneumonitis. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had been diagnosed with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (on the basis of clinical-radiological or clinical-radiological-pathological correlations) and had undergone lung biopsy. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is clinically divided into acute, subacute, and chronic forms; high-resolution computed tomography findings correlate with the time of exposure; and the two occasionally overlap. In the subacute form, centrilobular micronodules, ground glass opacities, and air trapping are characteristic high-resolution computed tomography findings, whereas histopathology shows lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates, bronchiolitis, variable degrees of organizing pneumonia, and giant cells. In the chronic form, high-resolution computed tomography shows traction bronchiectasis, honeycombing, and lung fibrosis, the last also being seen in the biopsy sample. A definitive diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis can be made only through a multidisciplinary approach, by correlating clinical findings, exposure history, high-resolution computed tomography findings, and lung biopsy findings. (author)

  16. Hypersensitivity reaction studies of a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Cheng, Guang; Du, Yuan; Ye, Liang; Chen, Wenzhong; Zhang, Leiming; Wang, Tian; Tian, Jingwei; Fu, Fenghua

    2013-03-01

    The commercial drug paclitaxel (Taxol) may introduce hypersensitivity reactions associated with the polyethoxylated castor oil-ethanol solvent. To overcome these problems, we developed a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation, known as Lipusu. In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to compare the safety profiles of Lipusu and Taxol, with special regard to hypersensitivity reactions. First, Swiss mice were used to determine the lethal dosages, and then to evaluate hypersensitivity reactions, followed by histopathological examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) of serum SC5b-9 and lung histamine. Additionally, healthy human serum was used to analyze in vitro complement activation. Finally, an MTT assay was used to determine the in vitro anti-proliferation activity. Our data clearly showed that Lipusu displayed a much higher safety margin and did not induce hypersensitivity or hypersensitivity-related lung lesions, which may be associated with the fact that Lipusu did not activate complement or increase histamine release in vivo. Moreover, Lipusu did not promote complement activation in healthy human serum in vitro, and demonstrated anti-proliferative activity against human cancer cells, similar to that of Taxol. Therefore, the improved formulation of paclitaxel, which exhibited a much better safety profile and comparable cytotoxic activity to Taxol, may bring a number of benefits to cancer patients.

  17. Nickel hypersensitivity and orthodontic treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölz, Lina; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Jäger, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Nickel-containing alloys are widely used in orthodontic appliances, even though nickel is by far the most common contact allergen. However, the scientific evidence concerning allergic reactions to nickel in orthodontic patients has not been evaluated systematically. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the prevalence of nickel hypersensitivity is affected by orthodontic treatment. Unrestricted electronic and manual searches were performed until July 2013 for human clinical studies assessing orthodontic treatment and nickel hypersensitivity. Methodological limitations were evaluated with the Downs and Black tool. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from random-effects meta-analyses, followed by subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Thirty studies were included in the review, and 24 datasets with 10 184 patients in the meta-analyses. Orthodontic treatment had no significant effect on nickel hypersensitivity (n = 11; crude OR 0.99; 95%CI: 0.78-1.25; p = 0.914). However, when confounding from factors such as sex and piercings was taken into account, orthodontic treatment was associated with a lower risk of hypersensitivity (n = 1; adjusted OR 0.60; 95%CI: 0.40-0.80; p nickel hypersensitivity, especially when it precedes piercings.

  18. Restoring Spinal Noradrenergic Inhibitory Tone Attenuates Pain Hypersensitivity in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Li-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether restoring descending noradrenergic inhibitory tone can attenuate pain in a PD rat model, which was established by stereotaxic infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the bilateral striatum (CPu). PD rats developed thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity at the 4th week after surgery. HPLC analysis showed that NE content, but not dopamine or 5-HT, significantly decreased in lumbar spinal cord in PD rats. Additional noradrenergic depletion by injection of N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) aggravated pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. At the 5th week after injection of 6-OHDA, systemic treatment with pharmacological norepinephrine (NE) precursor droxidopa (L-DOPS) or α2 adrenoceptor agonist clonidine significantly attenuated thermal and mechanical pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. Furthermore, application of norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors duloxetine, but not 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitors sertraline, significantly inhibited thermal and mechanical pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. Systemic administration of Madopar (L-DOPA) or the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole slightly inhibited the thermal, but not mechanical, hypersensitivity in PD rats. Thus, our study revealed that impairment of descending noradrenergic system may play a key role in PD-associated pain and restoring spinal noradrenergic inhibitory tone may serve as a novel strategy to manage PD-associated pain. PMID:27747105

  19. Quantification of atopy, lung function and airway hypersensitivity in adults

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    Marinho Susana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in children have shown that concentration of specific serum IgE (sIgE and size of skin tests to inhalant allergens better predict wheezing and reduced lung function than the information on presence or absence of atopy. However, very few studies in adults have investigated the relationship of quantitative atopy with lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR. Objective To determine the association between lung function and AHR and quantitative atopy in a large sample of adults from the UK. Methods FEV1 and FVC (% predicted were measured using spirometry and airway responsiveness by methacholine challenge (5-breath dosimeter protocol in 983 subjects (random sample of 800 parents of children enrolled in a population-based birth cohort enriched with 183 patients with physician-diagnosed asthma. Atopic status was assessed by skin prick tests (SPT and measurement of sIgE (common inhalant allergens. We also measured indoor allergen exposure in subjects' homes. Results Spirometry was completed by 792 subjects and 626 underwent methacholine challenge, with 100 (16.0% having AHR (dose-response slope>25. Using sIgE as a continuous variable in a multiple linear regression analysis, we found that increasing levels of sIgE to mite, cat and dog were significantly associated with lower FEV1 (mite p = 0.001, cat p = 0.0001, dog p = 2.95 × 10-8. Similar findings were observed when using the size of wheal on skin testing as a continuous variable, with significantly poorer lung function with increasing skin test size (mite p = 8.23 × 10-8, cat p = 3.93 × 10-10, dog p = 3.03 × 10-15, grass p = 2.95 × 10-9. The association between quantitative atopy with lung function and AHR remained unchanged when we repeated the analyses amongst subjects defined as sensitised using standard definitions (sIgE>0.35 kUa/l, SPT-3 mm>negative control. Conclusions In the studied population, lung function decreased and AHR increased with increasing

  20. Penicilina y pruebas de sensibilidad Penicillin and hypersensitivity tests

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    Fernando Montoya

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un recuento histórico sobre la alergia penicilínica y las pruebas de sensibilidad; se presentan las bases inmunológicas, las manifestaciones clínicas y los factores de riesgo asociados a esta hipersensibilidad. Se explica detalladamente la metodología necesaria para llevar a cabo pruebas cutáneas que sean de valor clínico. Information is summarized in this review on the history, immunological bases, clinical manifestations and risk factors associated with penicillin allergy. A detailed methodology is explained to perform clinically significant skin tests.