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Sample records for delay sexual initiation

  1. Reasons for delaying or engaging in early sexual initiation among adolescents in Nigeria

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    Ankomah A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Augustine Ankomah1, Fatima Mamman-Daura2, Godpower Omoregie1, Jennifer Anyanti11Society for Family Health, Abuja; 2Pathfinder International/Nigeria, Kaduna Field Office, Kaduna, NigeriaBackground: Annually, over 1 million births in Nigeria are to teenage mothers. Many of these pregnancies are unwanted and these mothers are also exposed to the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Sexual abstinence is a critical preventative health strategy. Several quantitative studies in Nigeria have identified the correlates and determinants of early sex, yet few have explored in depth the underlying reasons for early sex. This paper explores both the key factors that motivate some unmarried young people to engage in early sex and reasons why some delay.Methods: This qualitative study was based on data from 30 focus group discussions held with unmarried 14- to 19-year-olds in four geographically and culturally dispersed Nigerian states. Focus groups were stratified by sexual experience to capture variations among different subgroups.Results: Several reasons for early premarital sex were identified. The “push” factors included situations where parents exposed young female adolescents to street trading. “Pull” factors, particularly for males, included the pervasive viewing of locally produced movies, peer pressure and, for females, transactional sex (where adolescent girls exchange sex for gifts, cash, or other favors. Also noted were overtly coercive factors, including rape. There were also myths and misconceptions that “justified” early sexual initiation. Reasons cited for delay included religious injunction against premarital sex; disease prevention (especially HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; fear of pregnancy, and linked to this, the fear of dropping out of school; and, for females, the fear of bringing shame to the family, which could lead to their inability to get a "good" husband in the future.Conclusion: The differences

  2. A quasi-experimental evaluation of parents as sexual health educators resulting in delayed sexual initiation and increased access to condoms.

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    Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys; Atienzo, Erika E; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention for parents of first year high school students in the State of Morelos, Mexico, whose aim was to impact adolescents' sexual behavior, knowledge and access to contraception. Quasi-experimental prospective study with eleven control and eleven intervention schools using self-administered questionnaires for parents and adolescents pre- and post-intervention. Parent-child dyads in the control and intervention schools were matched according to parents' propensity score; the average treatment effect (ATE) was estimated for adolescent's outcome variables. At follow-up, we found significant differences for adolescents in the intervention schools: 6.8% delayed initiation of sexual intercourse, 14.4% had correct knowledge about emergency contraception (EC), and 164% reported having received condoms from their parents, when comparing with students in control schools. Our results suggest that parent-focused interventions could be an innovative and effective strategy to promote adolescents sexual health. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Parenting and Adolescents' Sexual Initiation

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    Longmore, Monica A.; Eng, Abbey L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on social control and social learning theories to examine the role of dating-specific attitudes and practices as predictors of adolescents' sexual initiation. We include attention to the adolescent's reaction to control attempts as a further means of assessing family dynamics (i.e., frequency of dating disagreements). The study…

  4. Delaying sexual debut amongst out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda.

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    Nobelius, A.; Kalina, B.; Pool, R.; Whitworth, J.; Chesters, J.; Power, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on ‘sexual debut’ among out-of-school youth in Masaka District, Uganda, factors influencing its timing and assistance young people feel they need to delay sexual initiation. Data were drawn from a sexual health needs assessment using applied anthropological techniques with young

  5. Family Homework and School-Based Sex Education: Delaying Early Adolescents' Sexual Behavior

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    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent…

  6. Regret Expression and Social Learning Increases Delay to Sexual Gratification.

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    Amanda J Quisenberry

    Full Text Available Modification and prevention of risky sexual behavior is important to individuals' health and public health policy. This study employed a novel sexual discounting task to elucidate the effects of social learning and regret expression on delay to sexual gratification in a behavioral task.Amazon Mechanical Turk Workers were assigned to hear one of three scenarios about a friend who engages in similar sexual behavior. The scenarios included a positive health consequence, a negative health consequence or a negative health consequence with the expression of regret. After reading one scenario, participants were asked to select from 60 images, those with whom they would have casual sex. Of the selected images, participants chose one image each for the person they most and least want to have sex with and person most and least likely to have a sexually transmitted infection. They then answered questions about engaging in unprotected sex now or waiting some delay for condom-protected sex in each partner condition.Results indicate that the negative health outcome scenario with regret expression resulted in delayed sexual gratification in the most attractive and least STI partner conditions, whereas in the least attractive and most STI partner conditions the negative health outcome with and without regret resulted in delayed sexual gratification.Results suggest that the sexual discounting task is a relevant laboratory measure and the framing of information to include regret expression may be relevant for prevention of risky sexual behavior.

  7. Correlates of sexual initiation among European adolescents

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    Carli, Vladimir; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Banzer, Raphaela; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cosman, Doina; Farkas, Luca; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W.; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; McMahon, Elaine; Postuvan, Vita; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Zadravec Sedivy, Nusa; Wasserman, Danuta

    2018-01-01

    Background Sexuality is a physiological component of adolescent development, though early initiation is associated with reproductive health risk. This study aimed at identifying correlates and predictors of sexual initiation in a large multinational cohort of European adolescents. Methods A questionnaire addressing socio-demographics, behaviours, mental health and sexual activity, was delivered to 11,110 adolescents recruited from 168 randomly selected schools in 10 European countries between 2009 and 2011. A follow-up questionnaire was delivered after 12 months. The longitudinal association of baseline risk behaviors, psychological attributes and contextual vulnerabilities, with sexual initiation during follow-up was evaluated through simple and multivariable age/sex stratified logistic regression. Multinomial logistic regression measured the association between predictors and sexual initiation with or without coexisting reproductive risk factors, such as multiple partners or infrequent condom use. Results Baseline sexual experience was reported by 19.2% of 10,757 respondents (median age 15; IQR 14–15; females 59.6%). This was significantly more frequent among pupils older than 15 (41%) and males (20.8%). Of 7,111 pupils without previous experience who were available at follow-up (response rate 81.8%), 17% reported sexual initiation, without differences between females and males. Baseline smoking (age/sex adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.63), alcohol use (aOR 2.95), illegal drugs use (aOR 2.72), and poor sleep (aOR 1.71) predicted sexual initiation. Stratified analyses showed a particularly strong association in case of younger and female pupils, and, among girls, when initiation was reported together with multiple partners and/or infrequent condom use. Externalizing (i.e. conduct and hyperactivity) symptoms independently predicted sexual initiation. Internalizing difficulties (i.e. emotional and peer problems) were negatively associated with early and risky sexual

  8. Correlates of sexual initiation among European adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Gambadauro

    Full Text Available Sexuality is a physiological component of adolescent development, though early initiation is associated with reproductive health risk. This study aimed at identifying correlates and predictors of sexual initiation in a large multinational cohort of European adolescents.A questionnaire addressing socio-demographics, behaviours, mental health and sexual activity, was delivered to 11,110 adolescents recruited from 168 randomly selected schools in 10 European countries between 2009 and 2011. A follow-up questionnaire was delivered after 12 months. The longitudinal association of baseline risk behaviors, psychological attributes and contextual vulnerabilities, with sexual initiation during follow-up was evaluated through simple and multivariable age/sex stratified logistic regression. Multinomial logistic regression measured the association between predictors and sexual initiation with or without coexisting reproductive risk factors, such as multiple partners or infrequent condom use.Baseline sexual experience was reported by 19.2% of 10,757 respondents (median age 15; IQR 14-15; females 59.6%. This was significantly more frequent among pupils older than 15 (41% and males (20.8%. Of 7,111 pupils without previous experience who were available at follow-up (response rate 81.8%, 17% reported sexual initiation, without differences between females and males. Baseline smoking (age/sex adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.63, alcohol use (aOR 2.95, illegal drugs use (aOR 2.72, and poor sleep (aOR 1.71 predicted sexual initiation. Stratified analyses showed a particularly strong association in case of younger and female pupils, and, among girls, when initiation was reported together with multiple partners and/or infrequent condom use. Externalizing (i.e. conduct and hyperactivity symptoms independently predicted sexual initiation. Internalizing difficulties (i.e. emotional and peer problems were negatively associated with early and risky sexual initiation among boys

  9. Can Sex Education Delay Early Sexual Debut?

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    Erkut, Sumru; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice A.; Ceder, Ineke; Charmaraman, Linda; Tracy, Allison J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine whether a nine-lesson sex education intervention, "Get Real: Comprehensive Sex Education That Works," implemented in sixth grade, can reduce the number of adolescents who might otherwise become "early starters" of sexual activity (defined as heterosexual intercourse) by seventh grade. Participants were…

  10. Parents as moderators of longitudinal associations between sexual peer norms and Dutch adolescents' sexual initiation and intention.

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    van de Bongardt, Daphne; de Graaf, Hanneke; Reitz, Ellen; Deković, Maja

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated how parents and peers interact in promoting or delaying Dutch adolescents' sexual initiation and intention and focused specifically on parents as moderators of peer influence. Using a longitudinal design, two waves of online questionnaire data were collected among 900 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.8 years at T1), who were sexually inexperienced at baseline. At T1, participants reported on three types of perceived sexual peer norms: friends' sexual behaviors (descriptive norms), friends' sexual attitudes (injunctive norms), and experienced peer pressure to have sex. They also rated two parenting aspects at T1: the general quality of their relationship with parents and the frequency of sexuality-specific communication with their parents. Six months later, the participants reported on their experience with different sexual behaviors ranging from naked touching or caressing to intercourse and their intention to have sex in the next school year. Relationship quality with parents was significantly associated with both outcomes, with a higher relationship quality predicting smaller odds of sexual initiation and less intention to have sex. Two significant interaction effects showed that frequent sexual communication with parents significantly reduced the effects of sexually active friends and experienced peer pressure on adolescents' intention to have sex. Our findings show that different types of sexual peer norms and both general and sexuality-specific parenting play an important role in the early stages of Dutch adolescents' sexual trajectories. Moreover, parent-adolescent communication about sexuality can function as a buffer for the sex-stimulating effects of sexual peer norms. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnitude and factors associated with delayed initiation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: In this study, 31.4% mothers delayed initiation of breastfeeding. This was associated with .... occupation, lack of prenatal guidance on advantages of breast feeding, failure to .... shown earlier in increasing uptake of exclusive breast-.

  12. Delaying sexual debut amongst out-of-school youth in rural southwest Uganda.

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    Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert

    2010-08-01

    This paper focuses on 'sexual debut' among out-of-school youth in Masaka District, Uganda, factors influencing its timing and assistance young people feel they need to delay sexual initiation. Data were drawn from a sexual health needs assessment using applied anthropological techniques with young people aged 13-19 years. Parents, guardians and community leaders were also consulted. All participants felt that young people begin their sexual lives too early. Young men feel under pressure from friends and older men to prove their masculinity. Most delay further activity after debut and want assistance to resist the pressure. Young women's debut after physical maturation prompts 'pestering' for sex from boys and men who offer gifts. After debut, young women remain sexually active but believe younger women need assistance to resist pressure. Programmes are needed to help young people achieve these goals. Structurally, the community needs to develop means of preventing men from pestering young women for sex and of redeveloping both the social role and pathway to marriage for young women who are marrying later than is traditional.

  13. Early initiation of sexual activity: a risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection, and unwanted pregnancy among university students in China

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    Ravari Shahrzad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore any association between the timing of the initiation of sexual activity and sexual behaviors and risks among university students in China. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study on sexual behavior among university students conducted in Ningbo municipality, China, at the end of 2003. Students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Of 1981 sexually active male students, 1908 (96.3% completed the item for timing of the initiation of sexual activity and were included in bivariate trend analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses to compare the association between this timing and sexual behavior and risks. Results Male early sexual initiators had a significantly higher risk profile, including a significantly higher proportion reporting non-regular partners (i.e., casual or commercial partners, multiple partners, diagnosis with a sexually transmitted disease (STD, partner history of pregnancy, partner history of induced abortion, and less condom and oral contraceptive use, compared with late initiators. Multivariate analyses confirmed the increased likelihood of these risks in early initiators versus late initiators, other than partner type during the last year. Conclusion Our results showed that, compared to late initiators, people who initiated sexual activity early engaged in more risky behaviors that could lead to elevated risks of unwanted pregnancies and STDs or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sex-education strategies should be focused on an earlier age, should include advice on delaying the age of first sexual activity, and should target young people who continue to take sexual risks.

  14. Initiation, desistance, and persistence of men's sexual coercion.

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    Hall, Gordon C Nagayama; DeGarmo, David S; Eap, Sopagna; Teten, Andra L; Sue, Stanley

    2006-08-01

    Patterns of sexually coercive behavior were examined among 266 Asian American and 299 European American men over 1 year. Noncoercer (n = 358), desister (n = 120), initiator (n = 39), and persistent (n = 48) sexually coercive groups were identified. The strongest predictor of sexual coercion was past sexual coercion. Persistent sexual coercers were higher than the other groups in delinquency and hostile masculinity and were nearly twice as likely to engage in laboratory sexual harassment. Loss of face attenuated self-reported sexual coercion and laboratory sexual harassment risk among Asian Americans and attenuated only laboratory sexual harassment risk among European Americans. These findings suggest that the heterogeneity of sexually coercive behavior and ethnicity are important research and clinical considerations.

  15. Delays in initiation of acyclovir therapy in herpes simplex encephalitis.

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    Hughes, Peter S; Jackson, Alan C

    2012-09-01

    Diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is based on clinical findings, MRI, and detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using polymerase chain reaction amplification. Delays in starting treatment are associated with poorer clinical outcomes. We assessed the timing of initiation of acyclovir therapy in HSE. Inpatient databases from seven hospitals in Winnipeg, Manitoba were used to identify individuals diagnosed with encephalitis and HSE from 2004 to 2009. The time taken to initiate therapy with acyclovir and the reasons for delays were determined. Seventy-seven patients were identified; 69 (90%) received acyclovir; in the others a non-HSV infection was strongly suspected. Thirteen patients were subsequently confirmed to have HSE. Acyclovir was initiated a median of 21 hours (3-407) after presentation in encephalitis cases, and a median of 11 hours (3-118) in HSE. The most common reason for delay was a failure to consider HSE in the differential diagnosis, despite suggestive clinical features. Where therapy was delayed in HSE patients, the decision to begin acyclovir was prompted by transfer of the patient to a different service (55%), recommendations by consultants (18%), imaging results (18%), and CSF pleocytosis (9%). Delays in initiating acyclovir for HSE are common, and are most often due to a failure to consider HSE in a timely fashion on presentation. In order to improve patient outcomes, physicians should be more vigilant for HSE, and begin acyclovir therapy expeditiously on the basis of clinical suspicion rather than waiting for confirmatory tests.

  16. Concordance between monetary and sexual delay discounting in men who have sex with men.

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    Jones, Jeb; Guest, Jodie L; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kramer, Michael R; Jenness, Samuel M; Sales, Jessica M

    2017-12-07

    Background: Delay discounting has been found to be associated with numerous health-related outcomes, including risky sexual behaviour. To date, it is unclear whether delay discounting measured in different domains is associated within individuals. The goal of this study was to assess the concordance of monetary and sexual delay discounting in men who have sex with men. Methods: Participants completed an online survey, including the Monetary Choice Questionnaire and the Sexual Discounting Task. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between monetary and sexual discount rates. Results: Sexual discount rates did not predict monetary discount rates. There was a substantial amount of clustering of sexual discount rates, requiring sexual discounting data to be categorised. Conclusions: Monetary and sexual delay discounting are distinct processes that are not necessarily associated within individuals, and monetary delay discounting is not an appropriate proxy measure for sexual impulsivity. Data from the Sexual Discounting Task are typically rank-transformed for analysis. These data suggest that this might be an invalid method of analysis. Future studies should investigate the distribution of their data to determine if it is appropriate to analyse sexual discounting data as a continuous measure.

  17. Family homework and school-based sex education: delaying early adolescents' sexual behavior.

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    Grossman, Jennifer M; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru

    2013-11-01

    Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent adolescents from completing these family homework activities. This mixed methods study included 6th- and 7th-grade survey responses from 706 students at 11 middle school schools receiving a sex education intervention, as well as interviews from a subset of 33, 7th-grade students from the larger sample. Adolescents who completed more family homework assignments were less likely to have vaginal intercourse in 7th grade than those who completed fewer assignments, after controlling for self-reports of having had vaginal intercourse in 6th grade and demographic variables. Participants' explanations for not completing assignments included personal, curriculum, and family-based reasons. Family homework activities designed to increase family communication about sexual issues can delay sex among early adolescents and contribute to school-based sex education programs. Successful sex education programs must identify and address barriers to family homework completion. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  18. [Sexual initiation, masculinity and health: narratives of young men].

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    Rebello, Lúcia Emilia Figueiredo de Sousa; Gomes, Romeu

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the narratives of young university students about the experience of sexual initiation. The theoretical and conceptual references used were the sexual scripts of our society that inform people about when, how, where and with whom they should have their sexual experiences, indicating how to act sexually and the reasons why they have to practice some kind of sexual activity. The method used was a qualitative study of narratives from the perspective of dialectic hermeneutics. The methodological design involves the comprehension of sceneries, contexts, environments and characters of the narratives about sexual initiation. The analysis refers to narratives of university students in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Among the meanings of sexual initiation, we emphasize sexual intercourse, the demarcation of a stage of life, the awakening to the opposite sex and the discovery of the body. We observed that the young men's narratives were coherent with what is considered masculine, present in the discourse of different generations. It is concluded that the young men should be encouraged to participate in actions combining health and education aimed at promotion of sexual and reproductive health.

  19. Severe mental deficiency, proportionate dwarfism, and delayed sexual maturation. A distinct inherited syndrome.

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    Cantú, J M; Sánchez-Corona, J; García-Cruz, D; Fragoso, R

    1980-01-01

    Two 46,XY brothers were found to have a previously undescribed syndrome characterized by severe mental deficiency, proportionate dwarfism, and delayed sexual development. A recessive mode of inheritance, either autosomal or X-linked, is assumed.

  20. Melatonin delays clutch initiation in a wild songbird

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    Greives, Timothy J.; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Beltrami, Giulia; Hau, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    The hormone melatonin is known to play an important role in regulating many seasonal changes in physiology, morphology and behaviour. In birds, unlike in mammals, melatonin has thus far been thought to play little role in timing seasonal reproductive processes. This view is mainly derived from laboratory experiments on male birds. This study tests whether melatonin is capable of influencing the timing of clutch initiation in wild female songbirds. Free-living female great tits (Parus major) treated with melatonin-filled implants prior to the breeding season initiated their first clutch of the season significantly later than females carrying an empty implant. Melatonin treatment did not affect clutch size. Further, melatonin treatment did not delay the onset of daily activity in the wild nor adversely affect body mass in captivity compared with controls. These data suggest a previously unknown role for this hormone in regulating the timing of clutch initiation in the wild. PMID:22171024

  1. Immediate newborn care practices delay thermoregulation and breastfeeding initiation

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    Sobel, Howard L; Silvestre, Maria Asuncion A; Mantaring, Jacinto Blas V; Oliveros, Yolanda E; Nyunt-U, Soe

    2011-01-01

    Aim A deadly nosocomial outbreak in a Philippine hospital drew nationwide attention to neonatal sepsis. Together with specific infection control measures, interventions that protect newborns against infection-related mortality include drying, skin-to-skin contact, delayed cord clamping, breastfeeding initiation and delayed bathing. This evaluation characterized hospital care in the first hours of life with the intent to drive policy change, strategic planning and hospital reform. Methods Trained physicians observed 481 consecutive deliveries in 51 hospitals using a standardized tool to record practices and timing of immediate newborn care procedures. Results Drying, weighing, eye care and vitamin K injections were performed in more than 90% of newborns. Only 9.6% were allowed skin-to-skin contact. Interventions were inappropriately sequenced, e.g. immediate cord clamping (median 12 sec), delayed drying (96.5%) and early bathing (90.0%). While 68.2% were put to the breast, they were separated two minutes later. Unnecessary suctioning was performed in 94.9%. Doctors trained in neonatal resuscitation were 2.5 (1.1–5.7) times more likely to unnecessarily suction vigorous newborns. Two per cent died and 5.7% developed sepsis/pneumonia. Conclusions This minute-by-minute observational assessment revealed that performance and timing of immediate newborn care interventions are below WHO standards and deprive newborns of basic protections against infection and death. PMID:21375583

  2. The association between sequences of sexual initiation and the likelihood of teenage pregnancy.

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    Reese, Bianka M; Haydon, Abigail A; Herring, Amy H; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2013-02-01

    Few studies have examined the health and developmental consequences, including unintended pregnancy, of different sexual behavior initiation sequences. Some work suggests that engaging in oral-genital sex first may slow the transition to coital activity and lead to more consistent contraception among adolescents. Using logistic regression analysis, we investigated the association between sequences of sexual initiation (i.e., initiating oral-genital or vaginal sex first based on reported age of first experience) and the likelihood of subsequent teenage pregnancy among 6,069 female respondents who reported vaginal sex before age 20 years and participated in waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Among female respondents initiating vaginal sex first, 31.4% reported a teen pregnancy. Among female respondents initiating two behaviors at the same age, 20.5% reported a teen pregnancy. Among female respondents initiating oral-genital sex first, 7.9% reported a teen pregnancy. In multivariate models, initiating oral-genital sex first, with a delay of at least 1 year to vaginal sex, and initiating two behaviors within the same year were each associated with a lower likelihood of adolescent pregnancy relative to teens who initiated vaginal sex first (odds ratio = .23, 95% confidence interval: .15-.37; and odds ratio = .78, 95% confidence interval: .60-.92, respectively). How adolescents begin their sexual lives may be differentially related to positive and negative health outcomes. To develop effective pregnancy prevention efforts for teens and ensure programs are relevant to youths' needs, it is important to consider multiple facets of sexual initiation and their implications for adolescent sexual health and fertility. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Student-Initiated Sexual Health Selective as a Curricular Tool

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    Katie Johnson, BS

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The 1-week SHS was successfully implemented through the teamwork of a medical student and faculty champion. It resulted in more accurate knowledge and more open attitudes toward sexual health among participating medical students. Potential benefits to undergraduate medical educators are reviewed. Johnson K, Rullo J, and Faubion S. Student-initiated sexual health selective as a curricular tool. Sex Med 2015;3:118–127.

  4. Delay and probability discounting of sexual and monetary outcomes in individuals with cocaine use disorders and matched controls.

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    Johnson, Matthew W; Johnson, Patrick S; Herrmann, Evan S; Sweeney, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorders are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS, partly due to higher rates of unprotected sex. Recent research suggests delay discounting of condom use is a factor in sexual HIV risk. Delay discounting is a behavioral economic concept describing how delaying an event reduces that event's value or impact on behavior. Probability discounting is a related concept describing how the uncertainty of an event decreases its impact on behavior. Individuals with cocaine use disorders (n = 23) and matched non-cocaine-using controls (n = 24) were compared in decision-making tasks involving hypothetical outcomes: delay discounting of condom-protected sex (Sexual Delay Discounting Task), delay discounting of money, the effect of sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk on likelihood of condom use (Sexual Probability Discounting Task), and probability discounting of money. The Cocaine group discounted delayed condom-protected sex (i.e., were more likely to have unprotected sex vs. wait for a condom) significantly more than controls in two of four Sexual Delay Discounting Task partner conditions. The Cocaine group also discounted delayed money (i.e., preferred smaller immediate amounts over larger delayed amounts) significantly more than controls. In the Sexual Probability Discounting Task, both groups showed sensitivity to STI risk, however the groups did not differ. The Cocaine group did not consistently discount probabilistic money more or less than controls. Steeper discounting of delayed, but not probabilistic, sexual outcomes may contribute to greater rates of sexual HIV risk among individuals with cocaine use disorders. Probability discounting of sexual outcomes may contribute to risk of unprotected sex in both groups. Correlations showed sexual and monetary results were unrelated, for both delay and probability discounting. The results highlight the importance of studying specific behavioral processes (e.g., delay and probability

  5. Delay and probability discounting of sexual and monetary outcomes in individuals with cocaine use disorders and matched controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Johnson

    Full Text Available Individuals with cocaine use disorders are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS, partly due to higher rates of unprotected sex. Recent research suggests delay discounting of condom use is a factor in sexual HIV risk. Delay discounting is a behavioral economic concept describing how delaying an event reduces that event's value or impact on behavior. Probability discounting is a related concept describing how the uncertainty of an event decreases its impact on behavior. Individuals with cocaine use disorders (n = 23 and matched non-cocaine-using controls (n = 24 were compared in decision-making tasks involving hypothetical outcomes: delay discounting of condom-protected sex (Sexual Delay Discounting Task, delay discounting of money, the effect of sexually transmitted infection (STI risk on likelihood of condom use (Sexual Probability Discounting Task, and probability discounting of money. The Cocaine group discounted delayed condom-protected sex (i.e., were more likely to have unprotected sex vs. wait for a condom significantly more than controls in two of four Sexual Delay Discounting Task partner conditions. The Cocaine group also discounted delayed money (i.e., preferred smaller immediate amounts over larger delayed amounts significantly more than controls. In the Sexual Probability Discounting Task, both groups showed sensitivity to STI risk, however the groups did not differ. The Cocaine group did not consistently discount probabilistic money more or less than controls. Steeper discounting of delayed, but not probabilistic, sexual outcomes may contribute to greater rates of sexual HIV risk among individuals with cocaine use disorders. Probability discounting of sexual outcomes may contribute to risk of unprotected sex in both groups. Correlations showed sexual and monetary results were unrelated, for both delay and probability discounting. The results highlight the importance of studying specific behavioral processes (e.g., delay and

  6. Initiation of sexual intercourse among middle school adolescents: the influence of psychosocial factors.

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    Santelli, John S; Kaiser, Javaid; Hirsch, Lesley; Radosh, Alice; Simkin, Linda; Middlestadt, Susan

    2004-03-01

    To explore potential psychosocial predictors for initiation of sexual intercourse among middle-school, inner-city youth, using longitudinal data from the Healthy and Alive! project. We conducted hierarchical, logistic regression with adjustment for intraclass correlation over two sequential periods, including seventh and eighth grades (N = 3163), to assess the independent influence of psychosocial and demographic factors. Internally reliable scales to assess psychosocial influences were created, based on major theories of behavior. The sample was 52% female, 51% black, 30% Hispanic, 9% white, and 3% Asian. At baseline, 13% of girls and 39% of boys reported already having initiated sexual intercourse. Personal and perceived peer norms about refraining from sex were a strong and consistent protective factor. Alcohol and other drug use, poor academic performance, male gender, and black race were consistent risk factors. Self-efficacy showed a mixed effect: protective in the seventh grade but increasing risk in the eighth grade. Speaking a language other than English was a protective factor in seventh grade. Both psychosocial and demographic factors provided independent explanatory power. Psychosocial factors, particularly norms about having sex, influence initiation of sexual intercourse. These data suggest that programs to delay initiation of sexual intercourse should reinforce norms about refraining from sex.

  7. Psychosocial predictors of sexual initiation and high-risk sexual behaviors in early adolescence

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    Schwab-Stone Mary

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This longitudinal study examined psychosocial factors associated with risky sexual behavior in early adolescence. Methods Data were collected through a self-report survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA, which was administered in three waves between 2001 and 2003 to a cohort of incoming sixth grade students in the public school system (149 classes at 17 middle and high schools, N = 1,175 of a small northeastern city in the United States. We first examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of sexual initiation two years later, when most of the sample was in eighth grade. We then assessed whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of engaging in high risk sexual behavior over the subsequent two years. Results Externalizing factors are more predictive of sexual risk in early adolescence than are internalizing factors. Specifically, substance use and violent delinquency over the course of middle school were associated with higher, while anxiety with lower, sexual initiation rates during middle school. Additionally, increased substance use over the course of middle school was associated with greater likelihood of engaging in high risk sexual behavior. Conclusion By identifying particular psychosocial risk factors among young adolescents, the findings of this study have implications for designing multi-dimensional programs aimed at preventing health-compromising sexual behavior among young teens.

  8. Rethinking sexual initiation: pathways to identity formation among gay and bisexual Mexican male youth.

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    Carrillo, Héctor; Fontdevila, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    The topic of same-sex sexual initiation has generally remained understudied in the literature on sexual identity formation among sexual minority youth. This article analyzes the narratives of same-sex sexual initiation provided by 76 gay and bisexual Mexican immigrant men who participated in interviews for the Trayectos Study, an ethnographic study of sexuality and HIV risk. These participants were raised in a variety of locations throughout Mexico, where they also realized their same-sex attraction and initiated their sexual lives with men. We argue that Mexican male same-sex sexuality is characterized by three distinct patterns of sexual initiation--one heavily-based on gender roles, one based on homosociality, and one based on object choice--which inform the men's interpretations regarding sexual roles, partner preferences, and sexual behaviors. We analyzed the social factors and forms of cultural/sexual socialization that lead sexual minority youth specifically to each of these three patterns of sexual initiation. Our findings confirm the importance of studying same-sex sexual initiation as a topic in its own right, particularly as a tool to gain a greater understanding of the diversity of same-sex sexual experiences and sexual identities within and among ethnic/cultural groups.

  9. ERICA: sexual initiation and contraception in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse of Brazilian adolescents, according to sociodemographic features. METHODS The data were obtained from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, a national school-based cross-sectional study. We included 74,589 adolescents from 32 geographic strata (27 capitals and five sets of municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of each of the five macro-regions of the Country. Information on sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse (male condom and oral contraceptive pill has been used. We have estimated prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI considering sample weights according to sex, age, type of school, residence status, macro-region and capitals. RESULTS We observed that 28.1% (95%CI 27.0-29.2 of the adolescents had already initiated sexual life, with higher prevalence among those aged 17 years (56.4%, 95%CI 53.9-58.9, males (33.5%, 95%CI 31.8-35.2, studying at public schools (29.9%, 95%CI 28.5-31.4, and from the Northern region (33.9%, 95%CI 32.3-35.4, mainly from Macapa, Manaus, and Rio Branco. Among those who had started their sexual life, 82.3% (95%CI 81.1-83.4 reported the use of contraceptive methods at the last intercourse, and the prevalence of use was higher among adolescents aged 17 years (85.3%, 95%CI 82.7-87.6, females (85.2%, 95%CI 83.8-86.5 and those living in the Southern region (85.9%, 95%CI 82.9-88.5. Male condom was used by 68.8% (95%CI 66.9-70.7, with no difference by type of school or macro-regions; the contraceptive pill was used by 13.4% (CI95% 12.2-14.6, and more frequently used among women (24.7%, 95%CI 22.5-27,0 and 17-year-old adolescents (20.8%, 95%CI 18.2-23.6 from urban settings(13.7%, 95%CI 12.5-14.9 and from the Southern region (22.6%, 95%CI 19.0-26.8, and less often in the Northern region. CONCLUSIONS ERICA’s data analysis on sexuality and

  10. The developmental progression of age 14 behavioral disinhibition, early age of sexual initiation, and subsequent sexual risk-taking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R; Iacono, William G; Keyes, Margaret A; Epstein, Marina; Bornovalova, Marina A; McGue, Matt

    2014-07-01

    Research has demonstrated a consistent relationship between early sexual experience and subsequent sexual risk-taking behaviors. We hypothesized that this relationship is due to a general predisposition toward behavioral disinhibition (BD), and that relationships among BD, early sex, and subsequent risky sexual behavior may be influenced by common genetic influences for males and common environmental influences for females. A prospective sample of 1,512 same-sex adolescent twins (50.2% female) was used. Adolescent BD was measured by clinical symptom counts of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and self-reported delinquent behavior (age 14). Age of sexual initiation was defined as first age of consensual oral or penetrative sex (mean age ~17). Adult risky sexual behavior was defined by sexual behaviors under the influence of drugs and alcohol and number of casual sexual partners in the past year (age 24). Multivariate analyses showed evidence for substantial common genetic variance among age 14 BD, age at sexual initiation, and adult risky sexual behavior for males, but not females. There was no significant difference in the degree of common environmental influence on these variables for females compared to males. Notably, age of sexual initiation was not significantly correlated with age 24 risky sexual behavior for females. The relationship between early sex and later risky sex can be better understood through a general liability toward BD, which is influenced primarily by genetic factors for males. The association between age 14 BD and age of sexual initiation was influenced through a combination of genetic and environmental factors for females; however, age of sexual initiation does not appear to be a salient predictor of adult women’s sexual risk-taking behavior. Findings suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing sexual risk behavior might target youth exhibiting BD by age 14, particularly males. More research is needed on what predicts

  11. Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT: initial experience in children and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Clinical utility of myocardial delayed enhancement CT has not been reported in children and young adults. To describe initial experience of myocardial delayed enhancement CT regarding image quality, radiation dose and identification of myocardial lesions in children and young adults. Between August 2013 and November 2016, 29 consecutive children and young adults (median age 16 months) with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality underwent arterial- and delayed-phase cardiac CT at our institution. We measured CT densities in normal myocardium, left ventricular cavity, and arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing myocardial lesions. We then compared the extent of delayed hyperenhancing lesions with delayed-enhancement MRI or thallium single-photon emission CT. Normal myocardium and left ventricular cavity showed significantly higher CT numbers on arterial-phase CT than on delayed-phase CT (t-test, P<0.0001). Contrast-to-noise ratios of the arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing lesions on CT were 26.7, 17.6 and 18.7, respectively. Delayed-phase CT findings were equivalent to those of delayed-enhancement MRI in all cases (7/7) and to those of thallium single-photon emission CT in 70% (7/10). Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT can be added to evaluate myocardial lesions in select children and young adults with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality. (orig.)

  12. Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT: initial experience in children and young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2017-01-01

    Clinical utility of myocardial delayed enhancement CT has not been reported in children and young adults. To describe initial experience of myocardial delayed enhancement CT regarding image quality, radiation dose and identification of myocardial lesions in children and young adults. Between August 2013 and November 2016, 29 consecutive children and young adults (median age 16 months) with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality underwent arterial- and delayed-phase cardiac CT at our institution. We measured CT densities in normal myocardium, left ventricular cavity, and arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing myocardial lesions. We then compared the extent of delayed hyperenhancing lesions with delayed-enhancement MRI or thallium single-photon emission CT. Normal myocardium and left ventricular cavity showed significantly higher CT numbers on arterial-phase CT than on delayed-phase CT (t-test, P<0.0001). Contrast-to-noise ratios of the arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing lesions on CT were 26.7, 17.6 and 18.7, respectively. Delayed-phase CT findings were equivalent to those of delayed-enhancement MRI in all cases (7/7) and to those of thallium single-photon emission CT in 70% (7/10). Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT can be added to evaluate myocardial lesions in select children and young adults with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality. (orig.)

  13. Starting young: sexual initiation and HIV prevention in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Mueller, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    The rising numbers of new HIV infections among young people ages 15-24 in many developing countries, especially among young women, signal an urgent need to identify and respond programmatically to behaviors and situations that contribute to the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in early adolescence. Quantitative and qualitative studies of the sexual knowledge and practices of adolescents age 14 and younger reveal that substantial numbers of boys and girls in many countries engage in unprotected heterosexual vaginal intercourse--by choice or coercion--before their 15th birthdays. Early initiation into male-male or male-female oral and/or anal sex is also documented in some populations. Educational, health, and social programs must reach 10-14-year-olds as well as older adolescents with the information, skills, services, and supplies (condoms, contraceptives) they need to negotiate their own protection from unwanted and/or unsafe sexual practices and to respect the rights of others.

  14. Variation formulae for the solutions of delay differential equations with discontinuous initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharatishvili, G L; Tadumadze, T A

    2005-01-01

    Variation formulae are proved for solutions of non-linear differential equations with variable delays and discontinuous initial conditions. The discontinuity of the initial condition means that at the initial moment of time the values of the initial function and the trajectory, generally speaking, do not coincide. The formulae obtained contain a new summand connected with the discontinuity of the initial condition and the variation of the initial moment.

  15. Forced sexual initiation, sexual intimate partner violence and HIV risk in women: A global review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2012-01-01

    Coerced or forced sexual initiation and sexual intimate partner violence (sexual IPV) contribute significantly to a woman’s risk for HIV infection. This review systematically examines global research (n=21 studies) published since 2000 on the role of coerced/forced sexual initiation and sexual IPV on HIV risk in women. In predominantly low- and middle-income countries, coerced/forced sexual initiation was associated with HIV/STIs, multiple and high-risk sex partners, and no condom use. Most studies using behaviorally specific terms for sexual IPV found strong associations between sexual IPV and HIV risk behaviors. In contrast, studies using less specific definitions often failed to find these significant associations. To develop more comprehensive HIV prevention programs, future efforts should integrate behaviorally specific terms into assessing prevalence of sexual IPV and its association with HIV risk, consider cultural differences, and identify causal pathways between coerced or forced sexual initiation, HIV risk behaviors and HIV/STI infection. PMID:23143750

  16. Membrane-Initiated Estradiol Signaling Regulating Sexual Receptivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micevych, Paul E.; Dewing, Phoebe

    2011-01-01

    Estradiol has profound actions on the structure and function of the nervous system. In addition to nuclear actions that directly modulate gene expression, the idea that estradiol can rapidly activate cell signaling by binding to membrane estrogen receptors (mERs) has emerged. Even the regulation of sexual receptivity, an action previously thought to be completely regulated by nuclear ERs, has been shown to have a membrane-initiated estradiol signaling (MIES) component. This highlighted the question of the nature of mERs. Several candidates have been proposed, ERα, ERβ, ER-X, GPR30 (G protein coupled estrogen receptor), and a receptor activated by a diphenylacrylamide compound, STX. Although each of these receptors has been shown to be active in specific assays, we present evidence for and against their participation in sexual receptivity by acting in the lordosis-regulating circuit. The initial MIES that activates the circuit is in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). Using both activation of μ-opioid receptors (MOR) in the medial preoptic nucleus and lordosis behavior, we document that both ERα and the STX-receptor participate in the required MIES. ERα and the STX-receptor activation of cell signaling are dependent on the transactivation of type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1a) that augment progesterone synthesis in astrocytes and protein kinase C (PKC) in ARH neurons. While estradiol-induced sexual receptivity does not depend on neuroprogesterone, proceptive behaviors do. Moreover, the ERα and the STX-receptor activation of medial preoptic MORs and augmentation of lordosis were sensitive to mGluR1a blockade. These observations suggest a common mechanism through which mERs are coupled to intracellular signaling cascades, not just in regulating reproduction, but in actions throughout the neuraxis including the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and dorsal root ganglias. PMID:22649369

  17. Membrane–initiated estradiol signaling regulating sexual receptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Micevych

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol has profound actions on the structure and function of the nervous system. In addition to nuclear actions that directly modulate gene expression, the idea that estradiol can rapidly activate cell signaling by binding to membrane estrogen receptors (mERs has emerged. Even the regulation of sexual receptivity, an action previously thought to be completely regulated by nuclear ERs, has been shown to have a membrane-initiated estradiol signaling (MIES component. This highlighted the question of the nature of mERs. Several candidates have been proposed, ERα, ERβ, ER-X, GPR30 (G protein coupled estrogen receptor; GPER, and a receptor activated by a diphenylacrylamide compound, STX. Although each of these receptors has been shown to be active in specific assays, we present evidence for and against their participation in sexual receptivity by acting in the lordosis-regulating circuit. The initial MIES that activates the circuit is in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH. Using both activation of μ-opioid receptors (MOR in the medial preoptic nucleus and lordosis behavior, we document that both ERα and the STX receptor participate in the required MIES. ERα and the STX receptor activation of cell signaling are dependent on the transactivation of type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1a that augment progesterone synthesis in astrocytes and protein kinase C (PKC in ARH neurons. While estradiol-induced sexual receptivity does not depend on neuroprogesterone, proceptive behaviors do. Moreover, the ERα and the STX receptor activation of medial preoptic MORs and augmentation of lordosis were sensitive to mGluR1a blockade. These observations suggest a common mechanism through which mERs are coupled to intracellular signaling cascades, not just in regulating reproduction, but in actions throughout the neuraxis including the cortex, hippocampus, striatum and DRGs.

  18. Avoidance symptoms and delayed verbal memory are associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms in female victims of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Cho, Sun-Mi; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Chung, Young Ki

    2015-09-15

    Victimization by sexual violence is strongly associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While several psychological and cognitive factors are known to be associated with PTSD prognosis, multivariable analysis is scarce. This study examined factors affecting the severity of PTSD symptoms in early stage of traumatic experience of sexual violence, including initial post-traumatic symptoms and cognitive characteristics. Participants were recruited from the center for women and children victims of violence in a university hospital. Thirty-four sexual assault victims were assessed at the baseline and the second visit one to five months after the baseline. At the baseline, an array of posttraumatic symptoms and cognitive functions were measured: at follow-up, PTSD symptoms were determined by Clinician Administered PTSD Scale. Stepwise multiple regression showed that avoidance symptoms (β = 0.551, P PTSD symptoms one to five month later. The regression model, factoring in avoidance and delayed verbal memory, showed a 34.9% explanatory power regarding the PTSD symptom severity. This study suggests that avoidance symptoms and verbal memory at the early stage of trauma are associated with later PTSD symptoms. It is also suggested that early intervention targeting avoidance symptoms may be beneficial in decreasing PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of Sexual Experience and Initiation of Sexual Intercourse Among Adolescents, Rakai District, Uganda, 1994-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santelli, John S; Song, Xiaoyu; Larsen Holden, Inge Kristine

    2015-01-01

    : Sexual experience was more common among adolescent women than men. The prevalence of sexual experience rose for most age-gender groups after 1994 and then declined after 2002. Factors associated with higher prevalence of sexual experience (without adjustment for other factors) included age, not enrolled......PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to identify risk factors and time trends for sexual experience and sexual debut in rural Uganda. METHODS: Using population-based, longitudinal data from 15- to 19-year olds in Rakai, Uganda, we examined temporal trends in the prevalence of sexual experience...... and potential risk factors for sexual experience (n = 31,517 person-round observations) using logistic regression. We then identified factors associated with initiation of sex between survey rounds, using Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR; n = 5,126 person-year observations). RESULTS...

  20. Delay Discounting Mediates Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Risky Sexual Behavior for Low Self-Control Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-01-01

    Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents’ sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55% male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents’ risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior. PMID:26202153

  1. Rap Music Use, Perceived Peer Behavior, and Sexual Initiation Among Ethnic Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Baker, Kimberly A; Markham, Christine; Baumler, Elizabeth; Swain, Honora; Emery, Susan

    2016-03-01

    Research shows that rap music use is associated with risky sexual behavior in ethnic minority youth; however, it is unknown whether rap music use impacts sexual initiation specifically and, if so, which factors mediate this impact. Thus, we investigated the longitudinal relationship between hours spent listening to rap music in seventh grade and sexual initiation in ninth grade. We also examined the role of perceived peer sexual behavior as a potential mediator of this relationship. We analyzed data from students (n = 443) enrolled in a school-based randomized controlled trial of a sexual health education curriculum collected at baseline and at 18-month follow-up. Rap music use and perceived peer sexual behavior were assessed in seventh grade, whereas sexual initiation was assessed in ninth grade. Univariate, multivariate, and mediation analyses were conducted. At baseline, rap music use was significantly associated with race/ethnicity, parental music rules, and sexual behavior, but not with gender or parental education. Rap music use was a significant predictor of sexual initiation on univariate analysis but not multivariate analysis. Mediation analysis showed that the association between hours spent listening to rap music and sexual initiation was significantly mediated by perceived peer sexual behavior. Rap music use in early adolescence significantly impacts sexual initiation in late adolescence, partially mediated by perceived peer sexual behavior. More research is needed to understand how rap music influences perceptions of peer sexual behavior, which, in turn, influence early sexual initiation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gamma-ray induced delay of fruiting body initiation in a basidiomycete, Hebeloma vinosophyllum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takimoto, K.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of gamma-radiation on fruiting body initiation in a basidiomycete, Hebeloma vinosophyllum, was investigated. Fruiting of this fungus is induced by visible light, but irradiation of the mycelium before or after light treatment delayed fruiting body initiation. The time required for fruiting body initiation increased with the radiation dose. The induction of fruiting bodies had two gamma-radiation sensitive stages, one immediately before fruiting body initiation and the other 15 to 20 h after the start of photoinduction. (author)

  3. Correlates of delayed sexual intercourse and condom use among adolescents in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijsdijk Liesbeth E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive sex education, including the promotion of consistent condom use, is still an important intervention strategy in tackling unplanned pregnancies, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs among Ugandan adolescents. This study examines predictors of the intention to use a condom and the intention to delay sexual intercourse among secondary school students (aged 12–20 in Uganda. Methods A school-based sample was drawn from 48 secondary schools throughout Uganda. Participants (N = 1978 completed a survey in English measuring beliefs regarding pregnancy, STIs and HIV and AIDS, attitudes, social norms and self-efficacy towards condom use and abstinence/delay, intention to use a condom and intention to delay sexual intercourse. As secondary sexual abstinence is one of the recommended ways for preventing HIV, STIs and unplanned pregnancies among the sexually experienced, participants with and without previous sexual experience were compared. Results For adolescents without sexual experience (virgins, self-efficacy, perceived social norms and attitude towards condom use predicted the intention to use condoms. Among those with sexual experience (non-virgins, only perceived social norm was a significant predictor. The intention to delay sexual intercourse was, however, predicted similarly for both groups, with attitudes, perceived social norm and self-efficacy being significant predictors. Conclusions This study has established relevant predictors of intentions of safe sex among young Ugandans and has shown that the intention to use condoms is motivated by different factors depending on previous sexual experience. A segmented approach to intervention development and implementation is thus recommended.

  4. Age at sexual initiation and factors associated with it among youths ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: For behavioral as well as physiological reasons, early sexual debut increases young peoples' risk for infection with HIV and other STIs. ... of the study was to determine the median age at first sexual intercourse and the associated factors of sexual initiation among rural and urban youths (age 15- 24 years).

  5. Violating the Sacred Trust: Sexual Misconduct in Initial Entry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-25

    sexual harassment . Quid pro quo occurs when a supervisor or superior bases an employment benefit or continuing employment...extent of interfering with their job performance.15 In the IET environment, the quid pro quo type of sexual harassment is more prevalent than the... quid pro quo type of sexual harassment , since drill sergeants exercise total control over the recruits. The second condition that

  6. Factors associated with delays in treatment initiation after tuberculosis diagnosis in two districts of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durba Paul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive time between diagnosis and initiation of tuberculosis (TB treatment contributes to ongoing TB transmission and should be minimized. In India, Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP focuses on indicator start of treatment within 7 days of diagnosis for patients with sputum smear-positive PTB for monitoring DOTS implementation. OBJECTIVES: To determine length of time between diagnosis and initiation of treatment and factors associated with delays of more than 7 days in smear-positive pulmonary TB. METHODS: Using existing programme records such as the TB Register, treatment cards, and the laboratory register, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB registered from July-September 2010 in two districts in India. A random sample of patients with pulmonary TB who experienced treatment delay of more than 7 days was interviewed using structured questionnaire. RESULTS: 2027 of 3411 patients registered with pulmonary TB were smear-positive. 711(35% patients had >7 days between diagnosis and treatment and 262(13% had delays >15 days. Mean duration between TB diagnosis and treatment initiation was 8 days (range = 0-128 days. Odds of treatment delay >7 days was 1.8 times more likely among those who had been previously treated (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-2.3 and 1.6 (95% CI 1.3-1.8 times more likely among those diagnosed in health facilities without microscopy centers. The main factors associated with a delay >7 days were: patient reluctance to start a re-treatment regimen, patients seeking second opinions, delay in transportation of drugs to the DOT centers and delay in initial home visits. To conclude, treatment delay >7 days was associated with a number of factors that included history of previous treatment and absence of TB diagnostic services in the local health facility. Decentralized diagnostic facilities and improved referral procedures may reduce such treatment

  7. Online communication predicts Belgian adolescents' initiation of romantic and sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbosch, Laura; Beyens, Ine; Vangeel, Laurens; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Online communication is associated with offline romantic and sexual activity among college students. Yet, it is unknown whether online communication is associated with the initiation of romantic and sexual activity among adolescents. This two-wave panel study investigated whether chatting, visiting dating websites, and visiting erotic contact websites predicted adolescents' initiation of romantic and sexual activity. We analyzed two-wave panel data from 1163 Belgian adolescents who participated in the MORES Study. We investigated the longitudinal impact of online communication on the initiation of romantic relationships and sexual intercourse using logistic regression analyses. The odds ratios of initiating a romantic relationship among romantically inexperienced adolescents who frequently used chat rooms, dating websites, or erotic contact websites were two to three times larger than those of non-users. Among sexually inexperienced adolescents who frequently used chat rooms, dating websites, or erotic contact websites, the odds ratios of initiating sexual intercourse were two to five times larger than that among non-users, even after a number of other relevant factors were introduced. This is the first study to demonstrate that online communication predicts the initiation of offline sexual and romantic activity as early as adolescence. Practitioners and parents need to consider the role of online communication in adolescents' developing sexuality. • Adolescents increasingly communicate online with peers. • Online communication predicts romantic and sexual activity among college students. What is New: • Online communication predicts adolescents' offline romantic activity over time. • Online communication predicts adolescents' offline sexual activity over time.

  8. Associations between Forced Sexual Initiation, HIV Status, Sexual Risk Behavior, Life Stressors, and Coping Strategies among Adolescents in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan

    Full Text Available Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status.We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10-19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman's conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies.Eighty-one adolescents (18.6% reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14-11.87, and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56-4.95. Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96-1.11 and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73-2.65, but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34-1.18. They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62-3.50 than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49-1.64 to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03 and loss and grief (p = 0.009. Adolescents reporting forced sexual initiation and HIV

  9. Associations between Forced Sexual Initiation, HIV Status, Sexual Risk Behavior, Life Stressors, and Coping Strategies among Adolescents in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status. Methods We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10–19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman’s conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies. Results Eighty-one adolescents (18.6%) reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14–11.87), and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56–4.95). Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96–1.11) and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73–2.65), but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34–1.18). They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62–3.50) than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49–1.64) to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03) and loss and grief (p = 0.009). Adolescents reporting forced

  10. The Haiti Breast Cancer Initiative: Initial Findings and Analysis of Barriers-to-Care Delaying Patient Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Haiti, breast cancer patients present at such advanced stages that even modern therapies offer modest survival benefit. Identifying the personal, sociocultural, and economic barriers-to-care delaying patient presentation is crucial to controlling disease. Methods. Patients presenting to the Hôpital Bon Sauveur in Cange were prospectively accrued. Delay was defined as 12 weeks or longer from initial sign/symptom discovery to presentation, as durations greater than this cutoff correlate with reduced survival. A matched case-control analysis with multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting delay. Results. Of N=123 patients accrued, 90 (73% reported symptom-presentation duration and formed the basis of this study: 52 patients presented within 12 weeks of symptoms, while 38 patients waited longer than 12 weeks. On logistic regression, lower education status (OR = 5.6, P=0.03, failure to initially recognize mass as important (OR = 13.0, P<0.01, and fear of treatment cost (OR = 8.3, P=0.03 were shown to independently predict delayed patient presentation. Conclusion. To reduce stage at presentation, future interventions must educate patients on the recognition of initial breast cancer signs and symptoms and address cost concerns by providing care free of charge and/or advertising that existing care is already free.

  11. Violating the Sacred Trust: Sexual Misconduct in Initial Entry Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gervais, Maria R

    2008-01-01

    .... Violation of this special trust and responsibility erodes the American public's confidence in the military, may negatively impact female recruitment, and embeds sexual harassment within Army culture...

  12. Initiation of delayed hydride cracking in zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalabi, A.F.; Meneley, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Delayed hydride cracking in zirconium alloys is caused by the repeated precipitation and cracking of brittle hydrides. The growth kinetic of the hydrides have been measured to evaluate the critical hydride length for crack initiation. Hydride growth leading to crack initiation follows an approximate (time) 1/3 law on the average; crack propagation proceeds in a stepwise fashion. The critical length of hydride for crack initiation increases with stress and temperature. The fracture criterion for crack initiation predicts the critical hydride length at a give stress level and temperature. The fracture initiation mechanism of the hydride confirms the temperature effects for heating and cooling cycles under services loads. (orig.)

  13. The Sexuality Education Initiative: a programme involving teenagers, schools, parents and sexual health services in Los Angeles, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Magaly; Ressa, Nicole

    2013-05-01

    In response to abstinence-only programmes in the United States that promote myths and misconceptions about sexuality and sexual behaviour, the comprehensive sexuality education community has been sidetracked from improving the sexuality education available in US schools for almost two decades now. Much work is still needed to move beyond fear-based approaches and the one-way communication of information that many programmes still use. Starting in 2008 Planned Parenthood Los Angeles developed and launched a teen-centred sexuality education programme based on critical thinking, human rights, gender equality, and access to health care that is founded on a theory of change that recognises the complex relationship between the individual and broader environment of cultural norms, socio-economic inequalities, health disparities, legal and institutional factors. The Sexuality Education Initiative is comprised of a 12-session classroom sexuality education curriculum for ninth grade students; workshops for parents; a peer advocacy training programme; and access to sexual health services. This paper describes that experience and presents the rights-based framework that was used, which seeks to improve the learning experience of students, strengthen the capacity of schools, teachers and parents to help teenagers manage their sexuality effectively and understand that they have the right to health care, education, protection, dignity and privacy. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceptions of sexual assertiveness among adolescent girls: initiation, refusal, and use of protective behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auslander, Beth A; Perfect, Michelle M; Succop, Paul A; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2007-06-01

    We describe adolescent girls' perceptions of sexual assertiveness and examine the relationship of these perceptions with developmental and interpersonal variables. Cross-sectional analysis. Participants were recruited from a school-based health clinic and local colleges, and through snowballing to participate in a 6-month study examining microbicide acceptability. 106 sexually experienced girls (ages 14 through 21 years). Girls described their demographics, sexual history, and romantic relationships and completed the Sexual Assertiveness Scale for Women (SAS-W), which assesses perceptions of sexual assertiveness: Initiation of Sex, Refusal of Unwanted Sex, and Pregnancy-STD Prevention. Girls perceived themselves as asserting themselves between 50% and 75% of the time with their current or most recent partner. The Initiation subscale was not related to the other two subscales. In final models, girls with a prior pregnancy perceived themselves as initiating sex more than girls without a prior pregnancy. Having a greater number of lifetime partners was related to perceptions of less refusal, whereas greater number of partners, being sexually experienced longer, and engaging in more unprotected sex were related to perceptions of less implementation of preventive methods. None of the relationship variables were related to scores on any subscale. Most of these girls perceived themselves as sexually assertive. Given that sexual experience, not relationship factors, were related to perceptions of sexual assertiveness, the design of counseling messages should incorporate sexual experience. These messages should find effective ways to help girls both to communicate their sexual desires and to enhance their ability to protect themselves.

  15. Delay of Treatment Initiation Does Not Adversely Affect Survival Outcome in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Tae-Kyung; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Kim, Jisun; Lee, Jun Woo; Kim, Min Kyoon; Lee, Eunshin; Kim, Jongjin; Noh, Dong-Young

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies examining the relationship between time to treatment and survival outcome in breast cancer have shown inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to analyze the overall impact of delay of treatment initiation on patient survival and to determine whether certain subgroups require more prompt initiation of treatment. This study is a retrospective analysis of stage I-III patients who were treated in a single tertiary institution between 2005 and 2008. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to evaluate the impact of interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation in breast cancer and various subgroups. A total of 1,702 patients were included. Factors associated with longer delay of treatment initiation were diagnosis at another hospital, medical comorbidities, and procedures performed before admission for surgery. An interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation as a continuous variable or with a cutoff value of 15, 30, 45, and 60 days had no impact on disease-free survival (DFS). Subgroup analyses for hormone-responsiveness, triple-negative breast cancer, young age, clinical stage, and type of initial treatment showed no significant association between longer delay of treatment initiation and DFS. Our results show that an interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation of 60 days or shorter does not appear to adversely affect DFS in breast cancer.

  16. Psychosexual therapy for delayed ejaculation based on the Sexual Tipping Point model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Sexual Tipping Point® (STP) model is an integrated approach to the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of men with delayed ejaculation (DE), including all subtypes manifesting ejaculatory delay or absence [registered trademark owned by the MAP Educational Fund, a 501(c)(3) public charity]. A single pathogenetic pathway does not exist for sexual disorders generally and that is also true for DE specifically. Men with DE have various bio-psychosocial-behavioral & cultural predisposing, precipitating, maintaining, and contextual factors which trigger, reinforce, or worsen the probability of DE occurring. Regardless of the degree of organic etiology present, DE is exacerbated by insufficient stimulation: an inadequate combination of “friction and fantasy”. High frequency negative thoughts may neutralize erotic cognitions (fantasy) and subsequently delay, ameliorate, or inhibit ejaculation, while partner stimulation (friction) may prove unsatisfying. Assessment requires a thorough sexual history including inquiry into masturbatory methods. Many men with DE engage in an idiosyncratic masturbatory style, defined as a masturbation technique not easily duplicated by the partner’s hand, mouth, or vagina. The clinician’s most valuable diagnostic tool is a focused sex history (sex status). Differentiate DE from other sexual problems and review the conditions under which the man can ejaculate. Perceived partner attractiveness, the use of fantasy during sex, anxiety-surrounding coitus and masturbatory patterns require meticulous exploration. Identify important DE causes by juxtaposing an awareness of his cognitions and the sexual stimulation experienced during masturbation, versus a partnered experience. Assist the man in identifying behaviors that enhance immersion in excitation and minimize inhibiting thoughts, in order to reach ejaculation in his preferred manner. Discontinuing, reducing or altering masturbation is often required, which evokes patient resistance

  17. Stability with respect to initial time difference for generalized delay differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Agarwal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stability with initial data difference for nonlinear delay differential equations is introduced. This type of stability generalizes the known concept of stability in the literature. It gives us the opportunity to compare the behavior of two nonzero solutions when both initial values and initial intervals are different. Several sufficient conditions for stability and for asymptotic stability with initial time difference are obtained. Lyapunov functions as well as comparison results for scalar ordinary differential equations are employed. Several examples are given to illustrate the theory.

  18. Initiation of nutritional support is delayed in critically ill obese patients: a multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Schwebel, Carole; Planquette, Benjamin; Vésin, Aurélien; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maité; Adrie, Christophe; Clec'h, Christophe; Azoulay, Elie; Souweine, Bertrand; Allaouchiche, Bernard; Goldgran-Toledano, Dany; Jamali, Samir; Darmon, Michael; Timsit, Jean-François

    2014-09-01

    A high catabolic rate characterizes the acute phase of critical illness. Guidelines recommend an early nutritional support, regardless of the previous nutritional status. We aimed to assess whether the nutritional status of patients, which was defined by the body mass index (BMI) at admission in an intensive care unit (ICU), affected the time of nutritional support initiation. We conducted a cohort study that reported a retrospective analysis of a multicenter ICU database (OUTCOMEREA) by using data prospectively entered from January 1997 to October 2012. Patients who needed orotracheal intubation within the first 72 h and >3 d were included. Data from 3257 ICU stays were analyzed. The delay before feeding was different according to BMI groups (P = 0.035). The delay was longer in obese patients [BMI (in kg/m²) ≥30; n = 663] than in other patients with either low weight (BMI nutritional status and a delay in nutrition initiation was independent of potential confounding factors such as age, sex, and diabetes or other chronic diseases. In comparison with normal weight, the adjusted RR (95% CI) associated with a delayed nutrition initiation was 0.92 (0.86, 0.98) for patients with low weight, 1.00 (0.94, 1.05) for overweight patients, and 1.06 (1.00, 1.12) for obese patients (P = 0.004). The initiation of nutritional support was delayed in obese ICU patients. Randomized controlled trials that address consequences of early compared with delayed beginnings of nutritional support in critically ill obese patients are needed. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Application of the variational iteration method for system of initial value problems delay differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Hamood. M.; Ismail, A. I. B. MD.

    2017-08-01

    Many attempts have been presented to solve the system of Delay Differential Equations (DDE) with Initial Value Problem. As a result, it has shown difficulties when getting the solution or cannot be solved. In this paper, a Variational Iteration Method is employed to find out an approximate solution for the system of DDE with initial value problems. The example illustrates convenient and an efficiency comparison with the exact solution.

  20. Delayed recall of childhood sexual abuse memories and the awakening rise and diurnal pattern of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Tom; Geraerts, Elke; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2007-08-30

    Traumatic stress associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may result in chronic alterations of stress-sensitive neurochemical systems (e.g., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic-adrenal medullary activity). Some authors have suggested that these alterations might help explain why some individuals, after a period of inability to remember, demonstrate delayed recall of CSA memories (i.e., "recovered" memories). The present study is the first study that explored morning cortisol responses and circadian cortisol profiles among women with recovered (n=7), repressed (n=8), or continuous (n=6) memories of CSA and women without a history of CSA (n=9). Although there were group differences in current depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms, we found no differences in cortisol awakening response or daytime profile between women reporting recovered, repressed, or continuous memories of CSA as compared to women without a history of CSA. Implications for neurobiological models intended to explain the delayed recall of CSA are discussed.

  1. Time Delay for the Initiation of an Emergency Shutdown at the Peruvian Nuclear Reactor RP-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramon, A.; Ovalle, E.; Canaza, D.; Salazar, A.; Zapata, A.; Felix, J.; Arrieta, R.; Vela, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show the measurement of the time delay for the initiation of an emergency shutdown state at the RP-10 Reactor. This time delay is the one corresponding to the delay between the detection of a signal of any fixed limit and the start of a protective action to get the reactor in a safety state. The experimental method used is based on monitoring two signals in an oscilloscope, one signal is the elected initiate event and the other is the de-energizing of electromagnets of the security bars. The time delay for each safety and control rods, was measured for seven energizing current values in a range of 36 - 52 mA. The results showed that the minimum value is (84 ± 1.26) ms and the maximum is (108 ± 1.60) ms. In all cases it is noted that, the delay time is less than the limit values prefixed down in the reactor safety report. (authors)

  2. Online communication predicts Belgian adolescents’ initiation of romantic and sexual activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbosch, L.; Beyens, I.; Vangeel, L.; Eggermont, S.

    2016-01-01

    Online communication is associated with offline romantic and sexual activity among college students. Yet, it is unknown whether online communication is associated with the initiation of romantic and sexual activity among adolescents. This two-wave panel study investigated whether chatting, visiting

  3. Adolescent Sexual Initiation through the Lens of Letters to the Editor Published in Polish Teenage Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Marek S.; Bajka-Kopacz, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Almost all teenage magazines invite readers to submit questions concerning relationships, published as letters to the editor, popularly called "advice columns," often containing explicit questions about sexuality. This study aims to examine, firstly, how themes related to sexual initiation are presented in letters to the editor published…

  4. Longitudinal Associations Among Religiousness, Delay Discounting, and Substance Use Initiation in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; McCullough, Michael E; Bickel, W K; Farley, Julee P; Longo, Gregory S

    2015-03-01

    Prior research indicates that religiousness is related negatively to adolescent health risk behaviors, yet how such protective effects operate is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal associations among organizational and personal religiousness, delay discounting, and substance use initiation (alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use). The sample comprised 106 early adolescents (10-13 years of age, 52% female) who were not using substances at Time 1. Path analyses suggested that high levels of personal religiousness at Time 1 were related to low levels of substance use at Time 2 (2.4 years later), mediated by low levels of delay discounting. Delay discounting appears to be an important contributor to the protective effect of religiousness on the development of substance use among adolescents.

  5. [Impact of care pathway on the delay for initiation of antituberculosis treatment in Conakry, Guinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, A; Bah-Sow, O Y; Baldé, N M; Camara, L M; Barry, I S; Bah, B; Diallo, M; Chaperon, J; Riou, F

    2009-06-01

    Complex care pathways can result in detrimental treatment delay particularly in tuberculosis patients. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the care pathways followed by tuberculosis patients prior to diagnosis and to assess impact on the delay for initiation of treatment in Conakry, Guinea. A total of 112 patients were interviewed at the time of first admission for pulmonary tuberculosis with positive bacilloscopy. Based on interview data, pathways were classified as conventional (use of health care facilities only) and mixed (use of health care facilities, self-medication, and traditional medicine). The correlation between patient characteristics and type of pathway was assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis and the two groups, i.e., conventional vs. mixed, were compared with regard to delay for initiation of treatment. The care pathway was classified as mixed in two out of three patients. Multivariate analysis showed that this type of pathway was only correlated with schooling (p=0.02). The mean delay for treatment was similar, i.e., 13.4 and 12.8 weeks for conventional and mixed pathways respectively (p<0.68). The percentage of pathways including three consultations at health care facilities was significantly higher in the conventional than mixed group (72% vs. 30%, p<0.001). The main reasons given for delayed use of health care facilities were poor knowledge of tuberculosis symptoms (26%) and high cost of care (12%). The findings of this study indicate that tuberculosis patients follow a variety of care pathways that can lead to delayed treatment. An information campaign is needed to increase awareness among the population and care providers.

  6. Devaluation of Safe Sex by Delay or Uncertainty: A Within-Subjects Study of Mechanisms Underlying Sexual Risk Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsomboon, Val; Robles, Elias

    2017-10-01

    The value of safe sex may be discounted based on contextual factors associated with an opportunity for sex. College students in a within-subjects study selected hypothetical sexual partners from a set of pictures and classified them based on attractiveness and estimated chance of having an sexually transmitted infection (STI). In the Sexual Delay Discounting (SDD) task, participants rated their likelihood (0-100 %) of waiting for some period of time (e.g., 3 h) to have protected sex with their selected partners, when they could have immediate sex without protection. In the Sexual Probability Discounting (SPD) task, participants rated their likelihood of having protected sex if the opportunity was uncertain (e.g., 50 %), when they could have unprotected sex for sure (100 %). All participants included in the final analyses were aware of and had a positive attitude towards protection against STIs as they were likely to have immediate (or certain) protected sex. Results from 432 delay data in the SDD task and 488 probability data in the SPD task showed that participants' preference for safe sex systematically decreased as the delay to and odds against having safe sex increased. However, this preference was altered by the participants' perception of their partner's attractiveness and STI risk.

  7. Delay Discounting Mediates Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Risky Sexual Behavior for Low Self-Control Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-09-01

    Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents' sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55 % male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents' risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior.

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Age at Initiation of Injection Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C.; Ikeda, Robin M.; Shah, Nina; Fuller, Crystal M.; Bailey, Susan; Morse, Edward; Kerndt, Peter; Maslow, Carey; Wu, Yingfeng; Vlahov, David; Garfein, Richard; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relation between childhood sexual abuse and injection drug use initiation among young adult injection drug users. Methods. We used mixed effect linear models to compare age at first injection among 2143 young injection drug users by first sexual abuse age categories. Results. The participants were predominantly male (63.3%) and White (52.8%). Mean age and age at first injection were 23.7 and 19.6 years, respectively; 307 participants (14.3%) reported childhood sexual abuse. After adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, noninjection drug use before first injection drug use, and recruitment site, childhood sexual abuse was independently associated with younger age at first injection. Conclusions. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with earlier initiation of injection drug use. These data emphasize the need to integrate substance abuse prevention with postvictimization services for children and adolescents. PMID:15798133

  9. [Could phimosis have been the cause of sexual difficulties and delayed fertility of Louis XVI (1754-1793)?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, Georges

    2002-02-01

    The great majority of historians agree that the marriage of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette was only consumated seven years after the official ceremony. This delay could have been due to a genital malformation (phimosis) of Louis XVI, a strict religious education, a traumatic childhood and the young age of the two spouses, factors that may have inhibited their sexuality. In this article, the authors try to determine whether Louis XVI was able to overcome his sexual difficulties following an operation (circumcision) or as a result of spontaneous cure.

  10. Age at initiation of sexual life, protection at first intercourse and sources of information regarding sexual and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Cornelia; Albu, Adriana; Petrariu, F D

    2013-01-01

    this study is intended to determine: age at initiation of sexual life, protection at first intercourse and sources of information regarding sexual and reproductive health. The trends identified by this study can form the basis of public health programmes. between 2011 and 2012, 564 subjects, 18-35 years old, from urban and rural environment, have responded to a questionnaire with 96 items on family-related topics. In the present study we focused on three items. The Pearson chi-square tests were employed using the statistical programs SPSS. most of the subjects had engaged in their first intercourse at 17-18 years old (48.58%). The number of individuals who had started their sexual life earlier than at 17 years of age was higher in males and in young subjects (p condom was the main method (34%). The protection was significantly higher in urban environment and in case of people with average and high educational level (p sexual behavior, the smallest contribution came from doctors and sanitary staff (12.6%), from the school (15.2%), from parents, relatives (17%). Friends and acquaintances contributed to the largest extent--45.7%, and the contribution of Internet was 41%. Diminishing the pregnancy rate in teenagers and the unwanted pregnancy rate, as well as the rate of sexually transmitted infections, requires a multidisciplinary approach in the prevention programmes. The school and parents are crucial factors within the education programmes.

  11. Effects of early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment on clinical outcomes of HIV-1 infection: results from the phase 3 HPTN 052 randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Ribaudo, Heather J; Swindells, Susan; Eron, Joseph; Chen, Ying Q; Wang, Lei; Ou, San-San; Anderson, Maija; McCauley, Marybeth; Gamble, Theresa; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeshwaran; Hakim, James G; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Pilotto, Jose H S; Godbole, Sheela V; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; de Melo, Marineide Gonçalves; Mayer, Kenneth H; Eshleman, Susan H; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Makhema, Joseph; Mills, Lisa A; Panchia, Ravindre; Sanne, Ian; Gallant, Joel; Hoffman, Irving; Taha, Taha E; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Celentano, David; Essex, Max; Havlir, Diane; Cohen, Myron S

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Use of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-1 infection has decreased AIDS-related morbidity and mortality and prevents sexual transmission of HIV-1. However, the best time to initiate antiretroviral treatment to reduce progression of HIV-1 infection or non-AIDS clinical events is unknown. We reported previously that early antiretroviral treatment reduced HIV-1 transmission by 96%. We aimed to compare the effects of early and delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment on clinical outcomes. Methods The HPTN 052 trial is a randomised controlled trial done at 13 sites in nine countries. We enrolled HIV-1-serodiscordant couples to the study and randomly allocated them to either early or delayed antiretroviral treatment by use of permuted block randomisation, stratified by site. Random assignment was unblinded. The HIV-1-infected member of every couple initiated antiretroviral treatment either on entry into the study (early treatment group) or after a decline in CD4 count or with onset of an AIDS-related illness (delayed treatment group). Primary events were AIDS clinical events (WHO stage 4 HIV-1 disease, tuberculosis, and severe bacterial infections) and the following serious medical conditions unrelated to AIDS: serious cardiovascular or vascular disease, serious liver disease, end-stage renal disease, new-onset diabetes mellitus, and non-AIDS malignant disease. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00074581. Findings 1763 people with HIV-1 infection and a serodiscordant partner were enrolled in the study; 886 were assigned early antiretroviral treatment and 877 to the delayed treatment group (two individuals were excluded from this group after randomisation). Median CD4 counts at randomisation were 442 (IQR 373–522) cells per μL in patients assigned to the early treatment group and 428 (357–522) cells per μL in those allocated delayed antiretroviral treatment. In the delayed group

  12. Sexual milestones and factors associated with coitus initiation among Israeli high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtarkshall, Ronny A; Carmel, Sara; Jaffe-Hirschfield, Dena; Woloski-Wruble, Anna

    2009-08-01

    In view of the developmental approach to sexual behavior, this article presents the stages of sexual behavior leading to coitus in four grades of high school students in Israel and the sociodemographic factors associated with initiating coitus. Analyses were based on data from the first national study dealing comprehensively with sexuality in 30 years. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a random sample of 4,609 students of the General Educational (secular) system that included 68% of the Hebrew-speaking sector or 55% of all students in Israel. Our findings indicated a progressive set of stages of sexual behavior forming a Guttman scale, from kissing and petting over the clothes though petting under the clothes and genital touching to coitus. In comparison to results of a 1970 Israeli survey, we found an increase in practice in all Guttman scale stages of sexual behavior, as well as a diminished gap between genders. The gap fully disappeared in the three lower stages. Predictive variables of coitus initiation included gender, religiosity, immigration status, family structure, perceptions of academic achievements, and the proportion of peers practicing coitus. In addition to gender, perception of the proportion of peers that already practiced intercourse was the best predictor followed by grade, perception of academic achievement, and family structure. Marked differences were noticed between genders regarding associations with religiosity and immigration status. The discussion focused on comparisons to findings in other countries, the contribution of the findings to the understanding of Israeli adolescents' sexual behavior, and practical educational implications.

  13. Lesions of the dopaminergic innervation of the nucleus accumbens medial shell delay the generation of preference for sucrose, but not of sexual pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hernández, José; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-García, Fernando

    2012-01-15

    Male sexual pheromones are rewarding stimuli for female mice, able to induce conditioned place preference. To test whether processing these natural reinforcing stimuli depends on the dopaminergic innervation of the nucleus accumbens, as for other natural rewards, we compare the effects of specific lesions of the dopaminergic innervation of the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens on two different appetitive behaviours, 'pheromone seeking' and sucrose preferential intake. Female mice, with no previous experience with either adult male chemical stimuli or with sucrose, received injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (or vehicle) in the medial shell of the accumbens. Then, we analyzed their preference for male soiled-bedding and their preferential intake of a sucrose solution, with particular emphasis on the dynamics of acquisition of both natural rewards. The results indicate that both lesioned and sham animals showed similar preference for male sexual pheromones, which was constant along the test (linear dynamics). In contrast, lesioned animals differed from sham operated mice in the dynamics of sucrose consumption in their first test of sucrose preference. Sham animals showed an initial sucrose preference followed by preference for water, which can be interpreted as sucrose neophobia. Lesioned animals showed no preference at the beginning of the test, and a delayed sucrose preference appeared followed by a delayed neophobia. The next day, during a second sucrose-preference test, both groups displayed comparable and sustained preferential sucrose intake. Therefore, dopamine in the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens has a different role on the reward of sexual pheromones and sucrose. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting Age of Sexual Initiation: Family-Level Antecedents in Three Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Leary, Janie M.; Watson, S. Michelle; Ottley, Jason

    2018-01-01

    We investigated how family characteristics and experiences during early adolescence predicted timing of sexual initiation. In addition, we investigated adolescent sex and race/ethnicity as potential moderating factors. As part of the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (CNLSY-79), 799 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years provided…

  15. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  16. Modelling cross-gender and sexual relations : Exploring the Soul Buddyz Edutainment Initiative in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cousins (Laura)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHIV/AIDS among youth is a serious problem in South Africa. Cross-gender relations and associated constructs surrounding masculinity/femininity and sexuality are increasingly recognized as at the heart of the issue. Growing attention has thus been given to developing initiatives geared

  17. Delays before Diagnosis and Initiation of Treatment in Patients Presenting to Mental Health Services with Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rashmi; Shetty, Hitesh; Jackson, Richard; Broadbent, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; Boydell, Jane; McGuire, Philip; Taylor, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Although existing treatments are effective, there is often a substantial delay before diagnosis and treatment initiation. We sought to investigate factors associated with the delay before diagnosis of bipolar disorder and the onset of treatment in secondary mental healthcare. Retrospective cohort study using anonymised electronic mental health record data from the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) Case Register on 1364 adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder between 2007 and 2012. The following predictor variables were analysed in a multivariable Cox regression analysis: age, gender, ethnicity, compulsory admission to hospital under the UK Mental Health Act, marital status and other diagnoses prior to bipolar disorder. The outcomes were time to recorded diagnosis from first presentation to specialist mental health services (the diagnostic delay), and time to the start of appropriate therapy (treatment delay). The median diagnostic delay was 62 days (interquartile range: 17-243) and median treatment delay was 31 days (4-122). Compulsory hospital admission was associated with a significant reduction in both diagnostic delay (hazard ratio 2.58, 95% CI 2.18-3.06) and treatment delay (4.40, 3.63-5.62). Prior diagnoses of other psychiatric disorders were associated with increased diagnostic delay, particularly alcohol (0.48, 0.33-0.41) and substance misuse disorders (0.44, 0.31-0.61). Prior diagnosis of schizophrenia and psychotic depression were associated with reduced treatment delay. Some individuals experience a significant delay in diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder after initiation of specialist mental healthcare, particularly those who have prior diagnoses of alcohol and substance misuse disorders. These findings highlight a need for further study on strategies to better identify underlying symptoms and offer appropriate treatment sooner

  18. Delays before Diagnosis and Initiation of Treatment in Patients Presenting to Mental Health Services with Bipolar Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Patel

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Although existing treatments are effective, there is often a substantial delay before diagnosis and treatment initiation. We sought to investigate factors associated with the delay before diagnosis of bipolar disorder and the onset of treatment in secondary mental healthcare.Retrospective cohort study using anonymised electronic mental health record data from the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM Biomedical Research Centre (BRC Case Register on 1364 adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder between 2007 and 2012. The following predictor variables were analysed in a multivariable Cox regression analysis: age, gender, ethnicity, compulsory admission to hospital under the UK Mental Health Act, marital status and other diagnoses prior to bipolar disorder. The outcomes were time to recorded diagnosis from first presentation to specialist mental health services (the diagnostic delay, and time to the start of appropriate therapy (treatment delay.The median diagnostic delay was 62 days (interquartile range: 17-243 and median treatment delay was 31 days (4-122. Compulsory hospital admission was associated with a significant reduction in both diagnostic delay (hazard ratio 2.58, 95% CI 2.18-3.06 and treatment delay (4.40, 3.63-5.62. Prior diagnoses of other psychiatric disorders were associated with increased diagnostic delay, particularly alcohol (0.48, 0.33-0.41 and substance misuse disorders (0.44, 0.31-0.61. Prior diagnosis of schizophrenia and psychotic depression were associated with reduced treatment delay.Some individuals experience a significant delay in diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder after initiation of specialist mental healthcare, particularly those who have prior diagnoses of alcohol and substance misuse disorders. These findings highlight a need for further study on strategies to better identify underlying symptoms and offer appropriate treatment

  19. Predictors on delay of initial health-seeking in new pulmonary tuberculosis cases among migrants population in East China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxu Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the length of delay in initial health-seeking in new pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB cases among migrant population in the eastern part of China, and factors associated with it. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire in six counties in Shanghai, Guangdong and Jiangsu from May to October, 2008, to estimate the extent and factors responsible for delayed initial health-seeking of the new PTB cases. The interval between self-reported onset of TB symptoms and date of first attendance at any medical institution was determined. More than the median duration was defined as delayed health-seeking. RESULTS: A total of 323 new migrant PTB patients participated in the study. Only 6.5% had medical insurance. The median and mean durations to initial health-seeking were respectively 10 and 31 days. There was no significant association between socio-demographic factors and delayed initial health-seeking. Average monthly working days >24 (AOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.03-2.51, and hemoptysis or bloody sputum (AOR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.28-0.85 were significantly associated with delayed initial health-seeking. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to improve health seeking behavior among the migrant population in China must focus on strengthening their labor, medical security and health education.

  20. Adolescents' exposure to sexy media does not hasten the initiation of sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2011-03-01

    It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted criticism of the entertainment industry for its corrupting influence on youth. One problem in research on media effects on sexual activity, however, is that outcomes that are presumed to result from media exposure may actually be due to factors that differentially predispose adolescents to have different degrees of media exposure and are themselves related to sexual activity. We reanalyzed data from one of these longitudinal studies (Brown et al., 2006) using propensity score matching to control for preexisting differences between adolescents with and without high exposure to sexy media. With such controls for differential selection in place, we found no evidence that the initiation of sexual intercourse is hastened by exposure to sexy media. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of anxiety and initiation of sexual behavior by CREB in the nucleus accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrot, Michel; Wallace, Deanna L.; Bolaños, Carlos A.; Graham, Danielle L.; Perrotti, Linda I.; Neve, Rachael L.; Chambliss, Heather; Yin, Jerry C.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2005-01-01

    Sexual deficits and other behavioral disturbances such as anxiety-like behaviors can be observed in animals that have undergone social isolation, especially in species having important social interactions. Using a model of protracted social isolation in adult rats, we observed increased anxiety-like behavior and deficits in both the latency to initiate sexual behavior and the latency to ejaculate. We show, using transgenic cAMP response element (CRE)-LacZ reporter mice, that protracted social isolation also reduces CRE-dependent transcription within the nucleus accumbens. This decrease in CRE-dependent transcription can be mimicked in nonisolated animals by local viral gene transfer of a dominant negative mutant of CRE-binding protein (CREB). We previously showed that this manipulation increases anxiety-like behavior. We show here that it also impairs initiation of sexual behavior in nonisolated animals, a deficit that can be corrected by anxiolytic drug treatment. This local reduction in CREB activity, however, has no influence on ejaculation parameters. Reciprocally, we used the viral transgenic approach to overexpress CREB in the nucleus accumbens of isolated animals. We show that this local increase in CREB activity completely rescued the anxiety phenotype of the isolated animals, as well as their deficit in initiating sexual behavior, but failed to rescue the deficit in ejaculation. Our data suggest a role for the nucleus accumbens in anxiety responses and in specific aspects of sexual behavior. The results also provide insight into the molecular mechanisms by which social interactions affect brain plasticity and behavior. PMID:15923261

  2. Delayed Presentation of Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction and Loss of Renal Function After Initially Mild (SFU Grade 1-2) Hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Diana K; Yerkes, Elizabeth B; Lindgren, Bruce W; Gong, Edward M; Faasse, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    We report 4 pediatric cases of ureteropelvic junction obstruction involving delayed progression of initially mild postnatal hydronephrosis. All 4 children became symptomatic; however, 3 already had a substantial decrement of ipsilateral kidney function by the time of diagnosis. Two of these 3 patients had previous renal scintigraphy demonstrating normal differential function. We caution that counseling regarding hydronephrosis should emphasize the importance of prompt re-evaluation for any symptoms potentially referable to delayed presentation of ureteropelvic junction obstruction, irrespective of initial hydronephrosis grade. Future studies are needed to determine the optimal follow-up regimen for conservative management of hydronephrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Loss-to-follow-up and delay to treatment initiation in Pakistan's national tuberculosis control programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Mustafa; Naureen, Farah; Noor, Arif; Fatima, Irum; Viney, Kerri; Ishaq, Muhammad; Anjum, Naveed; Rashid, Aamna; Haider, Ghulam Rasool; Khan, Muhammad Aamir; Aamir, Javariya

    2018-03-09

    Researchers and policy-makers have identified loss to follow-up as a major programmatic problem. Therefore, the objective of this study is to quantify TB related pre-treatment loss to follow up and treatment delay in private sector health care facilities in Pakistan. This was a retrospective, descriptive cohort study using routinely collected programmatic data from TB referral, diagnosis and treatment registers. Data from 48 private healthcare facilities were collected using an online questionnaire prepared in ODK Collect, for the period October 2015 to March 2016. Data were analysed using SPSS. We calculated the: (1) number and proportion of patients who were lost to follow-up during the diagnostic period, (2) number and proportion of patients with pre-treatment loss to follow-up, and (3) the number of days between diagnosis and initiation of treatment. One thousand five hundred ninety-six persons with presumptive TB were referred to the laboratory. Of these, 96% (n = 1538) submitted an on-the-spot sputum sample. Of the 1538 people, 1462 (95%) people subsequently visited the laboratory to submit the early morning (i.e. the second) sample. Hence, loss to follow-up during the diagnostic process was 8% overall (n = 134). Of the 1462 people who submitted both sputum samples, 243 (17%) were diagnosed with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB and 231 were registered for anti-TB treatment, hence, loss in the pre-treatment phase was 4.9% (n = 12). 152 persons with TB (66%) initiated TB treatment either on the day of TB diagnosis or the next day. A further 79 persons with TB (34%) commenced TB treatment within a mean time of 7 days (range 2 to 64 days). Concentrated efforts should be made by the National TB Control Programme to retain TB patients and innovative methods such as text reminders and behavior change communication may need to be used and tested.

  4. Durations and Delays in Care Seeking, Diagnosis and Treatment Initiation in Uncomplicated Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Mumbai, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerges Mistry

    Full Text Available Timely diagnosis and treatment initiation are critical to reduce the chain of transmission of Tuberculosis (TB in places like Mumbai, where almost 60% of the inhabitants reside in overcrowded slums. This study documents the pathway from the onset of symptoms suggestive of TB to initiation of TB treatment and examines factors responsible for delay among uncomplicated pulmonary TB patients in Mumbai.A population-based retrospective survey was conducted in the slums of 15 high TB burden administrative wards to identify 153 self-reported TB patients. Subsequently in-depth interviews of 76 consenting patients that fit the inclusion criteria were undertaken using an open-ended interview schedule. Mean total, first care seeking, diagnosis and treatment initiation duration and delays were computed for new and retreatment patients. Patients showing defined delays were divided into outliers and non-outliers for all three delays using the median values.The mean duration for the total pathway was 65 days with 29% of patients being outliers. Importantly the mean duration of first care seeking was similar in new (24 days and retreatment patients (25 days. Diagnostic duration contributed to 55% of the total pathway largely in new patients. Treatment initiation was noted to be the least among the three durations with mean duration in retreatment patients twice that of new patients. Significantly more female patients experienced diagnostic delay. Major shift of patients from the private to public sector and non-allopaths to allopaths was observed, particularly for treatment initiation.Achieving positive behavioural changes in providers (especially non-allopaths and patients needs to be considered in TB control strategies. Specific attention is required in counselling of TB patients so that timely care seeking is effected at the time of relapse. Prioritizing improvement of environmental health in vulnerable locations and provision of point of care diagnostics

  5. Durations and Delays in Care Seeking, Diagnosis and Treatment Initiation in Uncomplicated Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Nerges; Rangan, Sheela; Dholakia, Yatin; Lobo, Eunice; Shah, Shimoni; Patil, Akshaya

    2016-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and treatment initiation are critical to reduce the chain of transmission of Tuberculosis (TB) in places like Mumbai, where almost 60% of the inhabitants reside in overcrowded slums. This study documents the pathway from the onset of symptoms suggestive of TB to initiation of TB treatment and examines factors responsible for delay among uncomplicated pulmonary TB patients in Mumbai. A population-based retrospective survey was conducted in the slums of 15 high TB burden administrative wards to identify 153 self-reported TB patients. Subsequently in-depth interviews of 76 consenting patients that fit the inclusion criteria were undertaken using an open-ended interview schedule. Mean total, first care seeking, diagnosis and treatment initiation duration and delays were computed for new and retreatment patients. Patients showing defined delays were divided into outliers and non-outliers for all three delays using the median values. The mean duration for the total pathway was 65 days with 29% of patients being outliers. Importantly the mean duration of first care seeking was similar in new (24 days) and retreatment patients (25 days). Diagnostic duration contributed to 55% of the total pathway largely in new patients. Treatment initiation was noted to be the least among the three durations with mean duration in retreatment patients twice that of new patients. Significantly more female patients experienced diagnostic delay. Major shift of patients from the private to public sector and non-allopaths to allopaths was observed, particularly for treatment initiation. Achieving positive behavioural changes in providers (especially non-allopaths) and patients needs to be considered in TB control strategies. Specific attention is required in counselling of TB patients so that timely care seeking is effected at the time of relapse. Prioritizing improvement of environmental health in vulnerable locations and provision of point of care diagnostics would be

  6. Delayed puberty in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexual development - girls; Pubertal delay - girls; Constitutional delayed puberty ... In most cases of delayed puberty, growth changes just begin later than usual, sometimes called a late bloomer. Once puberty begins, it progresses normally. This pattern runs ...

  7. Initial report of the cancer Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) sexual function committee: review of sexual function measures and domains used in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Diana D; Tzeng, Janice P; Keefe, Francis J; Porter, Laura S; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Flynn, Kathryn E; Reeve, Bryce B; Weinfurt, Kevin P

    2009-03-15

    For this report, the authors described the initial activities of the Cancer Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)-Sexual Function domain group, which is part of the National Institutes of Health Roadmap Initiative to develop brief questionnaires or individually tailored assessments of quality-of-life domains. Presented are a literature review of sexual function measures used in cancer populations and descriptions of the domains found in those measures. By using a consensus-driven approach, an electronic bibliographic search was conducted for articles that were published from 1991 to 2007, and 486 articles were identified for in-depth review. In total, 257 articles reported the administration of a psychometrically evaluated sexual function measure to individuals who were diagnosed with cancer. Apart from the University of California-Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index, the International Index of Erectile Function, and the Female Sexual Function Index, the 31 identified measures have not been tested widely in cancer populations. Most measures were multidimensional and included domains related to the sexual response cycle and to general sexual satisfaction. The current review supports the need for a flexible, psychometrically robust measure of sexual function for use in oncology settings and strongly justifies the development of the PROMIS-Sexual Function instrument. When the PROMIS-Sexual Function instrument is available publicly, cancer clinicians and researchers will have another measure with which to assess patient-reported sexual function outcomes in addition to the few legacy measures that were identified through this review. Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  8. Remifentanil maintains lower initial delayed nonmatching-to-sample accuracy compared to food pellets in male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsell, Blake A; Banks, Matthew L

    2017-12-01

    Emerging human laboratory and preclinical drug self-administration data suggest that a history of contingent abused drug exposure impairs performance in operant discrimination procedures, such as delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMTS), that are hypothesized to assess components of executive function. However, these preclinical discrimination studies have exclusively used food as the reinforcer and the effects of drugs as reinforcers in these operant procedures are unknown. The present study determined effects of contingent intravenous remifentanil injections on DNMTS performance hypothesized to assess 1 aspect of executive function, working memory. Daily behavioral sessions consisted of 2 components with sequential intravenous remifentanil (0, 0.01-1.0 μg/kg/injection) or food (0, 1-10 pellets) availability in nonopioid dependent male rhesus monkeys (n = 3). Remifentanil functioned as a reinforcer in the DNMTS procedure. Similar delay-dependent DNMTS accuracy was observed under both remifentanil- and food-maintained components, such that higher accuracies were maintained at shorter (0.1-1.0 s) delays and lower accuracies approaching chance performance were maintained at longer (10-32 s) delays. Remifentanil maintained significantly lower initial DNMTS accuracy compared to food. Reinforcer magnitude was not an important determinant of DNMTS accuracy for either remifentanil or food. These results extend the range of experimental procedures under which drugs function as reinforcers. Furthermore, the selective remifentanil-induced decrease in initial DNMTS accuracy is consistent with a selective impairment of attentional, but not memorial, processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Outcomes of Neonatal Candidiasis: The Impact of Delayed Initiation of Antifungal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Cahan

    2011-01-01

    Results. Sixty-three newborns with invasive neonatal candidiasis were identified. Overall mortality rate was 35%. Virtually every infant had a central venous catheter (CVC, required mechanical ventilation and previous administration of antibacterial agents. Delayed institution of antifungal therapy was associated with increased mortality. In addition, length of hospitalization, duration of prior antibacterial therapy, mechanical ventilation, and CVC use, as well as evidence of end-organ disease, were associated with an adverse outcome. Conclusions. Reliance on available laboratory tools in cases of invasive neonatal candidiasis can result in delayed diagnosis and increased mortality. A risk-factor-based approach to empirical treatment could be justified in this setting.

  10. Effect of the PREPARE intervention on sexual initiation and condom use among adolescents aged 12–14: a cluster randomised controlled trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia John Mmbaga

    2017-04-01

    adolescent (p = 0.004, but not among female (p = 0.463. Conclusions The PREPARE intervention had an effect in delaying self-reported sexual initiation among adolescents aged 12–14 in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The intervention positively influenced action planning to use condoms for both sexes and increased actual condom use among male adolescents only. Future interventions addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health should focus on impacting mediators of behaviour change. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000900718 , registered on 13 August, 2013.

  11. Iniciação sexual masculina: conversas íntimas para fóruns privados Male sexual initiation: personal conversations for private forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ferreira do Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a iniciação sexual masculina, identificando os sentidos a ela atribuídos por jovens de classe popular. O referencial teórico-conceitual foi o de que a sexualidade reflete relações mais amplas, envolvendo sujeito e sociedade. O desenho metodológico se caracteriza por um estudo de caso sob a perspectiva das ciências sociais, ancorada numa abordagem hermenêutica-dialética, envolvendo dezenove jovens do sexo masculino, na faixa etária de 15 a 17 anos. Nas conversas estabelecidas pelos jovens, observa-se que, de um lado, valorizam-se determinadas fontes de informações em detrimento de outras e, de outro, há uma oscilação entre permissão e interdição dos assuntos relacionados à sexualidade em geral e à iniciação sexual em específico. Ainda nessas conversas, a masturbação desponta como um espaço privilegiado da iniciação sexual masculina. Em termos de sentidos atribuídos à iniciação sexual, os jovens a associam a algo complicado, prazeroso, afetuoso e espaço de aprendizagem. Os achados do estudo apontam que investimentos precisam ser empreendidos no campo da saúde coletiva para o desenvolvimento de tecnologias de acolhimento das demandas sexuais juvenis masculinas, deslocandose de fóruns privados acerca da iniciação sexual para uma atenção integral à saúde de homens jovens.This paper aims to analyze the male sexual initiation, identifying the way low income youth understand it. The theoretical and conceptual references were those in which sexuality reflects wider relations that involve the person itself and society. The methodological plan features a case study under the social sciences perspectives, supported by a hermeneutic and dialectical approach. It involves 19 male youngsters aged 15 to17. During young men’s conversations, it is observed that certain sources of information are valued in preference to others, on the one hand there is a range between to permit and to

  12. In the Dark: Young Men's Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…

  13. Sexual partner types and related sexual health risk among out-of-school adolescents in rural south-west Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobelius, A.; Kalina, B.; Pool, R.; Whitworth, J.; Chesters, J.; Power, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on ‘sexual debut’ among out-of-school youth in Masaka District, Uganda, factors influencing its timing and assistance young people feel they need to delay sexual initiation. Data were drawn from a sexual health needs assessment using applied anthropological techniques with young

  14. Delayed Orgasm and Anorgasmia

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Lawrence C.; Mulhall, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies; which include: medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation and psychological etiologies, amongst others. Unfortunately, ...

  15. Facilitators of community participation in an Aboriginal sexual health promotion initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme Chambers, Alana; Tomnay, Jane; Stephens, Kylie; Crouch, Alan; Whiteside, Mary; Love, Pettina; McIntosh, Leonie; Waples Crowe, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Community participation is a collaborative process aimed at achieving community-identified outcomes. However, approaches to community participation within Aboriginal health promotion initiatives have been inconsistent and not well documented. Smart and Deadly was a community-led initiative to develop sexual health promotion resources with young Aboriginal people in regional Victoria, Australia. The principles of community-centred practice, authentic participatory processes and respect for the local cultural context guided the initiative. The aim of this article is to report factors that facilitated community participation undertaken in the Smart and Deadly initiative to inform future projects and provide further evidence in demonstrating the value of such approaches. A summative evaluation of the Smart and Deadly initiative was undertaken approximately 2 years after the initiative ended. Five focus groups and 13 interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 32 participants who were involved with Smart and Deadly in one of the following ways: project participant, stakeholder or project partner, or project developer or designer. A deductive content analysis was undertaken and themes were compared to the YARN model, which was specifically created for planning and evaluating community participation strategies relating to Aboriginal sexual health promotion. A number of factors that facilitated community participation approaches used in Smart and Deadly were identified. The overarching theme was that trust was the foundation upon which the facilitators of community participation ensued. These facilitators were cultural safety and cultural literacy, community control, and legacy and sustainability. Whilst the YARN model was highly productive in identifying these facilitators of community participation, the model did not have provision for the element of trust between workers and community. Given the importance of trust between the project team and the Aboriginal

  16. Gender-Specificity of Initial and Controlled Visual Attention to Sexual Stimuli in Androphilic Women and Gynephilic Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Dawson

    Full Text Available Research across groups and methods consistently finds a gender difference in patterns of specificity of genital response; however, empirically supported mechanisms to explain this difference are lacking. The information-processing model of sexual arousal posits that automatic and controlled cognitive processes are requisite for the generation of sexual responses. Androphilic women's gender-nonspecific response patterns may be the result of sexually-relevant cues that are common to both preferred and nonpreferred genders capturing attention and initiating an automatic sexual response, whereas men's attentional system may be biased towards the detection and response to sexually-preferred cues only. In the present study, we used eye tracking to assess visual attention to sexually-preferred and nonpreferred cues in a sample of androphilic women and gynephilic men. Results support predictions from the information-processing model regarding gendered processing of sexual stimuli in men and women. Men's initial attention patterns were gender-specific, whereas women's were nonspecific. In contrast, both men and women exhibited gender-specific patterns of controlled attention, although this effect was stronger among men. Finally, measures of attention and self-reported attraction were positively related in both men and women. These findings are discussed in the context of the information-processing model and evolutionary mechanisms that may have evolved to promote gendered attentional systems.

  17. [Contextualization of sexual initiation and individual barriers to the use of contraceptives by adolescents of Lima, Huamanga, and Iquitos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Gloria; Beltran, Jessica; Calderón, María; Piazza, Marina; Chávez, Susana

    2017-01-01

    To contextualize sexual initiation and barriers to the use of contraceptives by adolescents as well as the acquisition of adequate knowledge regarding contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. This quantitative and qualitative study evaluated adolescents living in three cities with high pregnancy rates in Peru: Iquitos, Huamanga, and Lima. Subjects were invited to participate in the study via Facebook. Questionnaires were then used to select adolescents who met the inclusion criteria, and interviews were conducted to obtain detailed data regarding the study topic. A total of 33 women and 23 men aged 18 to 19 years participated in the study. The age of onset of sexual activity ranged from 14 to 16 years; the main reasons for sexual initiation were sexual desire among men and pressure from the partner among women; in most cases, the sexual partner was an occasional companion for men and a boyfriend for women. The barriers related to the use of contraceptives were the financial stability of the partner, responsibility of the female partner when using contraceptives, limited capacity to negotiate choices, fear of abandonment by the male partner for demanding the use of contraceptives, and the reduction of sexual sensitivity with the use of condoms. The barriers identified in this study limit the use of contraceptives and indicate the need to develop specific strategies to strengthen the interpersonal skills of adolescents and provide accurate information about the risks of unprotected sex.

  18. Gender-Specificity of Initial and Controlled Visual Attention to Sexual Stimuli in Androphilic Women and Gynephilic Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Samantha J.; Chivers, Meredith L.

    2016-01-01

    Research across groups and methods consistently finds a gender difference in patterns of specificity of genital response; however, empirically supported mechanisms to explain this difference are lacking. The information-processing model of sexual arousal posits that automatic and controlled cognitive processes are requisite for the generation of sexual responses. Androphilic women’s gender-nonspecific response patterns may be the result of sexually-relevant cues that are common to both preferred and nonpreferred genders capturing attention and initiating an automatic sexual response, whereas men’s attentional system may be biased towards the detection and response to sexually-preferred cues only. In the present study, we used eye tracking to assess visual attention to sexually-preferred and nonpreferred cues in a sample of androphilic women and gynephilic men. Results support predictions from the information-processing model regarding gendered processing of sexual stimuli in men and women. Men’s initial attention patterns were gender-specific, whereas women’s were nonspecific. In contrast, both men and women exhibited gender-specific patterns of controlled attention, although this effect was stronger among men. Finally, measures of attention and self-reported attraction were positively related in both men and women. These findings are discussed in the context of the information-processing model and evolutionary mechanisms that may have evolved to promote gendered attentional systems. PMID:27088358

  19. Feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of an online sexual health promotion program for LGBT youth: the Queer Sex Ed intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Greene, George J; Ryan, Daniel; Whitton, Sarah W

    2015-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience multiple sexual health inequities driven, in part, by deficits in parental and peer support, school-based sex education programs, and community services. Research suggests that the Internet may be an important resource in the development of sexual health among LGBT youth. We examined the feasibility of recruiting youth in same-sex relationships into an online sexual health intervention, evaluated intervention acceptability, and obtained initial estimates of intervention efficacy. LGBT youth (16 to 20 years old) completed Queer Sex Ed (QSE), an online, multimedia sexual health intervention consisting of five modules. The final sample (N = 202) completed the pretest, intervention, and posttest assessments. The primary study outcomes were sexual orientation identity and self-acceptance (e.g., coming-out self-efficacy), sexual health knowledge (e.g., sexual functioning), relationship variables (e.g., communication skills), and safer sex (e.g., sexual assertiveness). Analyses indicated that 15 of the 17 outcomes were found to be significant (p LGBT youth.

  20. Early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy for Indian HIV-Infected individuals with tuberculosis on antituberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sanjeev; Shekhar, Rahul C; Singh, Gurjeet; Shah, Nipam; Ahmad, Hafiz; Kumar, Narendra; Sharma, Surendra K; Samantaray, J C; Ranjan, Sanjai; Ekka, Meera; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T

    2012-07-31

    For antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults suffering from tuberculosis (TB), there is uncertainty about the optimal time to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after starting antituberculosis treatment (ATT), in order to minimize mortality, HIV disease progression, and adverse events. In a randomized, open label trial at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, eligible HIV positive individuals with a diagnosis of TB were randomly assigned to receive HAART after 2-4 or 8-12 weeks of starting ATT, and were followed for 12 months after HAART initiation. Participants received directly observed therapy short course (DOTS) for TB, and an antiretroviral regimen comprising stavudine or zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz. Primary end points were death from any cause, and progression of HIV disease marked by failure of ART. A total of 150 patients with HIV and TB were initiated on HAART: 88 received it after 2-4 weeks (early ART) and 62 after 8-12 weeks (delayed ART) of starting ATT. There was no significant difference in mortality between the groups after the introduction of HAART. However, incidence of ART failure was 31% in delayed versus 16% in early ART arm (p = 0.045). Kaplan Meier disease progression free survival at 12 months was 79% for early versus 64% for the delayed ART arm (p = 0.05). Rates of adverse events were similar. Early initiation of HAART for patients with HIV and TB significantly decreases incidence of HIV disease progression and has good tolerability. CTRI/2011/12/002260.

  1. Early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy for Indian HIV-Infected individuals with tuberculosis on antituberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Sanjeev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For antiretroviral therapy (ART naive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected adults suffering from tuberculosis (TB, there is uncertainty about the optimal time to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART after starting antituberculosis treatment (ATT, in order to minimize mortality, HIV disease progression, and adverse events. Methods In a randomized, open label trial at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, eligible HIV positive individuals with a diagnosis of TB were randomly assigned to receive HAART after 2-4 or 8-12 weeks of starting ATT, and were followed for 12 months after HAART initiation. Participants received directly observed therapy short course (DOTS for TB, and an antiretroviral regimen comprising stavudine or zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz. Primary end points were death from any cause, and progression of HIV disease marked by failure of ART. Findings A total of 150 patients with HIV and TB were initiated on HAART: 88 received it after 2-4 weeks (early ART and 62 after 8-12 weeks (delayed ART of starting ATT. There was no significant difference in mortality between the groups after the introduction of HAART. However, incidence of ART failure was 31% in delayed versus 16% in early ART arm (p = 0.045. Kaplan Meier disease progression free survival at 12 months was 79% for early versus 64% for the delayed ART arm (p = 0.05. Rates of adverse events were similar. Interpretation Early initiation of HAART for patients with HIV and TB significantly decreases incidence of HIV disease progression and has good tolerability. Trial registration CTRI/2011/12/002260

  2. Iniciação sexual, masculinidade e saúde: narrativas de homens jovens universitários Sexual initiation, masculinity and health: narratives of young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Emilia Figueiredo de Sousa Rebello

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é analisar narrativas de homens jovens universitários sobre a experiência de iniciação sexual. O referencial teórico-conceitual foi o de scripts ou roteiros sexuais que se caracterizam como aprendizados sociais que informam os sujeitos sobre quando, como, onde e com quem devem ter experiências sexuais, indicando como agir sexualmente e as razões pelas quais devem ter algum tipo de atividade sexual. O método da investigação se configura como um estudo de narrativas, ancorado na abordagem de pesquisa qualitativa a partir da perspectiva hermenêutica dialética. O desenho metodológico envolve a compreensão de contextos, cenários, enredos e personagens das narrativas acerca da iniciação sexual. A análise se refere a narrativas de universitários na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Dentre os significados da iniciação sexual, destacam-se os de coito, demarcação de uma etapa da vida, despertar para o gênero oposto e descoberta do corpo. Observa-se, ainda, como resultado do estudo, que as narrativas dos jovens foram coerentes com um modo de ser homem que se faz presente no discurso de diferentes gerações. Concluiu-se que é preciso um trabalho conjunto em saúde e educação que privilegie o protagonismo dos homens jovens em ações com vistas à promoção de saúde sexual e reprodutiva.The main objective of this study was to analyze the narratives of young university students about the experience of sexual initiation. The theoretical and conceptual references used were the sexual scripts of our society that inform people about when, how, where and with whom they should have their sexual experiences, indicating how to act sexually and the reasons why they have to practice some kind of sexual activity. The method used was a qualitative study of narratives from the perspective of dialectic hermeneutics. The methodological design involves the comprehension of sceneries, contexts, environments and characters of the

  3. Influence of family and school-level factors on age of sexual initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Candace N; Warner, Lynn A

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the association of individual, family, and school-level characteristics with age of sexual initiation (ASI) and focused specifically on school context as a moderator of known predictors of ASI. Data are from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 10,596). Predictors include grade point average, physical development, attitudes about sex, likelihood of higher education, alcohol use, delinquency, family structure, parents' education level, childhood abuse, maternal approval of sex, parental monitoring, and parent-child relationship quality. School-level predictors are averages of adolescents' attitudes about sex and likelihood of higher education and parents' education. Hierarchical linear models run separately by sex were used to predict ASI. When school-level attitudes about sex are more favorable, both boys and girls report younger ASI, and school mean parental education attainment moderates the influence of individual adolescents' attitudes about sex on ASI. More of the predictors are significant for girls than boys, whereas perception of maternal and peer approval of sexual activity are the most salient predictors of younger ASI for boys. Results highlight the importance of school context for understanding adolescents' motivations for early ASI. Findings support the need for school-wide prevention interventions that engage adolescents, peers, and parents in addressing attitudes about early sex. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Family instability and early initiation of sexual activity in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Rachel E

    2013-04-01

    Epidemiological, economic, and social forces have produced high levels of volatility in family and household structure for young people growing up in sub-Saharan Africa in recent decades. However, scholarship on the family to date has not examined the influence of this family instability on young people's well-being. The current study employs unique life history calendar data from Western Kenya to investigate the relationship between instability in caregiving and early initiation of sexual activity. It draws on a body of work on parental union instability in the United States, and examines new dimensions of family change. Analyses reveal a positive association between transitions in primary caregiver and the likelihood of early sexual debut that is rapidly manifested following caregiver change and persists for a short period. The association is strongest at early ages, and there is a cumulative effect of multiple caregiver changes. The results highlight the importance of studying family stability in sub-Saharan Africa, as distinct from family structure, and for attention to dimensions such as age and recency.

  5. AMPK agonist AICAR delays the initial decline in lifetime-apex V̇o2 peak, while voluntary wheel running fails to delay its initial decline in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toedebusch, Ryan G; Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Braselton, Joshua F; Heese, Alexander J; Hofheins, John C; Childs, Tom E; Thyfault, John P; Booth, Frank W

    2016-02-01

    There has never been an outcome measure for human health more important than peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2 peak), yet little is known regarding the molecular triggers for its lifetime decline with aging. We examined the ability of physical activity or 5 wk of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) administration to delay the initial aging-induced decline in lifetime-apex V̇o2 peak and potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Experiment 1 consisted of female rats with (RUN) and without (NO RUN) running wheels, while experiment 2 consisted of female nonrunning rats getting the AMPK agonist AICAR (0.5 mg/g/day) subcutaneously for 5 wk beginning at 17 wk of age. All rats underwent frequent, weekly or biweekly V̇o2 peak tests beginning at 10 wk of age. In experiment 1, lifetime-apex V̇o2 peak occurred at 19 wk of age in both RUN and NO RUN and decreased thereafter. V̇o2 peak measured across experiment 1 was ∼25% higher in RUN than in NO RUN. In experiment 2, AICAR delayed the chronological age observed in experiment 1 by 1 wk, from 19 wk to 20 wk of age. RUN and NO RUN showed different skeletal muscle transcriptomic profiles both pre- and postapex. Additionally, growth and development pathways are differentially regulated between RUN and NO RUN. Angiomotin mRNA was downregulated postapex in RUN and NO RUN. Furthermore, strong significant correlations to V̇o2 peak and trends for decreased protein concentration supports angiomotin's potential importance in our model. Contrary to our primary hypothesis, wheel running was not sufficient to delay the chronological age of lifetime-apex V̇o2 peak decline, whereas AICAR delayed it 1 wk. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Larval development of hoplias cf. Lacerdae (Pisces: Erythrinidae and delayed initial feeding effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo N. Sirol

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Larval development of Hoplias cf. lacerdae was studied under laboratory conditions. After hatching, ontogenetic changes were recorded on food-deprived larvae in 12-hour intervals. Mouth opening occurred after 2.5 days and notochord terminated flexure in 6.5 days. Notochord length increased at a constant rate until complete yolk absorption (13,5 days. Larval dry weight and body height diminished gradually up to 21 days after hatching, when all starved larvae died. Every 12 hours after yolk absorption, groups of larvae (n=15, were separeted, and fed with Artemia nauplii for 10 days. The point-of-no-return (when 50% of larvae were unable to feed or to assimilate ingested food after delayed feeding, was not apparent in this species.

  7. Myocardial delayed contrast enhancement in patients with arterial hypertension: Initial results of cardiac MRI

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    Andersen, Kjel [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: kjel_andersen@web.de; Hennersdorf, Marcus [Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: hennersdorf@med.uni-duesseldorf.de; Cohnen, Mathias [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: cohnen@med.uni-duesseldorf.de; Blondin, Dirk [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: blondin@med.uni-duesseldorf.de; Moedder, Ulrich [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: moedder@uni-duesseldorf.de; Poll, Ludger W. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: poll@gmx.de

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: In arterial hypertension left ventricular hypertrophy comprises myocyte hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis and structural alterations of the coronary microcirculation. MRI enables the detection of myocardial fibrosis, infarction and scar tissue by delayed enhancement (DE) after contrast media application. Aim of this study was to investigate patients with arterial hypertension but without known coronary disease or previous myocardial infarction to detect areas of DE. Methods and material: Twenty patients with arterial hypertension with clinical symptoms of myocardial ischemia, but without history of myocardial infarction and normal coronary arteries during coronary angiography were investigated on a 1.0 T superconducting magnet (Gyroscan T10-NT, Intera Release 8.0, Philips). Fast gradient-echo cine sequences and T2-weighted STIR-sequences were acquired. Fifteen minutes after injection of Gadobenate dimeglumine inversion recovery gradient-echo sequences were performed for detection of myocardial DE. Presence or absence of DE on MRI was correlated with clinical data and the results of echocardiography and electrocardiography, respectively. Results: Nine of 20 patients showed DE in the interventricular septum and the anteroseptal left ventricular wall. In 6 patients, DE was localized intramurally and in 3 patients subendocardially. There was a significant correlation between myocardial DE and ST-segment depressions during exercise and between DE and left-ventricular enddiastolic pressure. Patients with intermittent atrial fibrillation showed a myocardial DE more often than patients without atrial fibrillation. Conclusion: In our series, 45% of patients with arterial hypertension showed DE on cardiac MRI. In this clinical setting, delayed enhancement may be due to coronary microangiopathy. The more intramurally localization of DE, however, rather indicates myocardial interstitial fibrosis.

  8. Myocardial delayed contrast enhancement in patients with arterial hypertension: Initial results of cardiac MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Kjel; Hennersdorf, Marcus; Cohnen, Mathias; Blondin, Dirk; Moedder, Ulrich; Poll, Ludger W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In arterial hypertension left ventricular hypertrophy comprises myocyte hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis and structural alterations of the coronary microcirculation. MRI enables the detection of myocardial fibrosis, infarction and scar tissue by delayed enhancement (DE) after contrast media application. Aim of this study was to investigate patients with arterial hypertension but without known coronary disease or previous myocardial infarction to detect areas of DE. Methods and material: Twenty patients with arterial hypertension with clinical symptoms of myocardial ischemia, but without history of myocardial infarction and normal coronary arteries during coronary angiography were investigated on a 1.0 T superconducting magnet (Gyroscan T10-NT, Intera Release 8.0, Philips). Fast gradient-echo cine sequences and T2-weighted STIR-sequences were acquired. Fifteen minutes after injection of Gadobenate dimeglumine inversion recovery gradient-echo sequences were performed for detection of myocardial DE. Presence or absence of DE on MRI was correlated with clinical data and the results of echocardiography and electrocardiography, respectively. Results: Nine of 20 patients showed DE in the interventricular septum and the anteroseptal left ventricular wall. In 6 patients, DE was localized intramurally and in 3 patients subendocardially. There was a significant correlation between myocardial DE and ST-segment depressions during exercise and between DE and left-ventricular enddiastolic pressure. Patients with intermittent atrial fibrillation showed a myocardial DE more often than patients without atrial fibrillation. Conclusion: In our series, 45% of patients with arterial hypertension showed DE on cardiac MRI. In this clinical setting, delayed enhancement may be due to coronary microangiopathy. The more intramurally localization of DE, however, rather indicates myocardial interstitial fibrosis.

  9. Learning From Tests: Facilitation of Delayed Recall by Initial Recognition Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, William B., II; Leonard, Janet Mauriello

    1980-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to determine the effects of multiple-choice recognition test alternatives on subsequent memory for the correct answers. Results of both experiments are interpreted as demonstrations of the principle that long-term retention is facilitated such that memory evaluation occurs during initial recognition tests. (Author/RD)

  10. The differences in delay times for air showers initiated by 100 TeV gamma rays and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikocki, S.; Poirier, J.; Linsley, J.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Palermo; Wrotniak, A.; Maryland Univ., College Park

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there are any differences in the time delay distributions between showers initiated by gamma rays and by protons. The results of Monte Carlo calculations of atmospheric showers initiated by gamma rays and protons at an energy of 100 TeV show systematic differences. These differences are negligible at small distances from the core of the showers; at larger distances the effects become large. However, at large distances the particle densities are small at an energy of 100 TeV and the subsequent statistical fluctuations would make an identification of gamma-ray showers unreliable. However, these large effects should be included in corrections for the curvature of gamma-ray and proton shower fronts. (author)

  11. Sexuality education in Ghana and Mozambique : An examination of colonising assemblages informing school-based sexuality education initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, E.; Oduro, G.Y.; Rasmussen, M.L.; Allen, L.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses the historical and socio-political contexts of the design and delivery of school-based sexuality education for young women and men in two sub-Saharan African countries: Ghana and Mozambique. The chapter interrogates colonising tendencies within, and created through,

  12. Is there an association between suicide attempt and delay of initiation of mood stabilizers in bipolar I disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery-Fernandes, Fabiana; Quarantini, Lucas C; Guimarães, José L; de Oliveira, Irismar R; Koenen, Karestan C; Kapczinski, Flavio; Miranda-Scippa, Ângela

    2012-02-01

    Little is known about the extent to which delay of initiation of mood-stabilizing treatment may influence outcomes in bipolar patients (BP). In this study, our aim was to investigate the association between delay of mood stabilizer treatment in bipolar patients and lifetime history of suicide attempts. A consecutive sample of 268 bipolar I outpatients from two teaching hospitals in Brazil was recruited. The assessment included a socio-demographic history form, a clinical interview regarding clinical variables and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Participants were divided into three groups: BP that initiated the first mood stabilizer in the same year of the first episode of the disease (FMS≤1), between 1 and 5 years after the first episode of the disease (15). The mean time from the first episode until the first mood stabilizer medication was 8.6 years (SD 9.8 years). The FMS>5 group, showed a higher lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts than the other two groups (PR=1.75, 95% CI: 1.24-2.47), p=0.001. These results remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders, (PR=1.82, 95% CI: 1.29-2.60), p=0.001. This study evaluated patients retrospectively and does not permit a cause-effect relationship. The present study supports the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention for BP in order to limit the potentially lethal impact of the disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental warming delays autumn senescence in a boreal spruce bog: Initial results from the SPRUCE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew; Furze, Morgan; Aubrecht, Donald; Milliman, Thomas; Nettles, Robert; Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phenology is considered one of the most robust indicators of the biological impacts of global change. In temperate and boreal regions, long-term data show that rising temperatures are advancing spring onset (e.g. budburst and flowering) and delaying autumn senescence (e.g. leaf coloration and leaf fall) in a wide range of ecosystems. While warm and cold temperatures, day length and insolation, precipitation and water availability, and other factors, have all been shown to influence plant phenology, the future response of phenology to rising temperatures and elevated CO2 still remains highly uncertain because of the challenges associated with conducting realistic manipulative experiments to simulate future environmental conditions. At the SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change) experiment in the north-central United States, experimental temperature (0 to +9° C above ambient) and CO2 (ambient and elevated) treatments are being applied to mature, and intact, Picea mariana-Sphagnum spp. bog communities in their native habitat through the use of ten large (approximately 12 m wide, 10 m high) open-topped enclosures. We are tracking vegetation green-up and senescence in these chambers, at both the individual and whole-community level, using repeat digital photography. Within each chamber, digital camera images are recorded every 30 minutes and uploaded to the PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu) project web page, where they are displayed in near-real-time. Image processing is conducted nightly to extract quantitative measures of canopy color, which we characterize using Gcc, the green chromatic coordinate. Data from a camera mounted outside the chambers (since November 2014) indicate strong seasonal variation in Gcc for both evergreen shrubs and trees. Shrub Gcc rises steeply in May and June, and declines steeply in September and October. By comparison, tree Gcc rises gradually from March through June, and declines gradually from

  14. Initial Misdiagnosis of Proximal Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Is Associated with Delay in Diagnosis and Advanced Stage at Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Douglas S; Mone, Mary C; Zhang, Chong; Presson, Angela P; Mulvihill, Sean J; Scaife, Courtney L

    2015-10-01

    Delay in diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with decreased survival. The effect of an initial misdiagnosis on delay in diagnosis and stage of PDAC is unknown. This study is a retrospective review (2000-2010) from a University-based cancer center of new diagnoses of proximal PDAC. Of 313 patients, 98 (31.3 %) had an initial misdiagnosis. Misdiagnosed patients were younger, 62.8 ± 12.6 vs. 68.0 ± 10.1 (p < 0.001). The most common initial misdiagnoses were: gallbladder disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and peptic ulcer disease. After excluding patients with prior cholecystectomy, 14.2 % were misdiagnosed with gallbladder disease and underwent cholecystectomy before PDAC diagnosis. Misdiagnosed patients had higher rates of abdominal pain (p < 0.001), weight loss (p = 0.04), and acute pancreatitis (p < 0.001) and lower rate of jaundice (p < 0.001). Median time between symptoms to PDAC diagnosis was longer in misdiagnosed: 4.2 months vs. 1.4 (p < 0.001). Median time from contact with medical provider to axial imaging was longer in misdiagnosed (p < 0.001). Rate of stages III-IV disease at diagnosis was higher in misdiagnosed: 61.2 vs. 43.7 % (p = 0.004), with a 1.4 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.12-1.74) higher risk of stages III-IV disease at diagnosis; however, there was no difference in median overall survival in misdiagnosed patients (9.6 months in misdiagnosed vs. 10.3 months in correctly diagnosed, p = 0.69). Initial misdiagnosis of patients with proximal PDAC is associated with delay in diagnosis and higher risk of locally advanced or advanced disease at time of PDAC diagnosis.

  15. Sexualities of Initial Teacher Education Applicants in the Republic of Ireland: Addressing the Hidden Dimension of Diversity in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Manuela; Keane, Elaine; Davison, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    While research and policy recommendations internationally have pointed to the need to diversify teaching populations with regard to ethnicity, social class background and, to a lesser extent, dis/ability, there is a paucity of research addressing sexualities as a diversity dimension in teaching. This article explores initial teacher education…

  16. Delayed initiation of antenatal care and associated factors in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Loxton, Deborah; Chojenta, Catherine; Semahegn, Agumasie; Smith, Roger

    2017-11-15

    Antenatal care uptake is among the key indicators for monitoring the progress of maternal outcomes. Early initiation of antenatal care facilitates the timely management and treatment of pregnancy complications to reduce maternal deaths. In Ethiopia, antenatal care utilization is generally low, and delayed initiation of care is very common. We aimed to systematically identify and synthesize available evidence on delayed initiation of antenatal care and the associated factors in Ethiopia. Studies published in English from 1 January 2002 to 30 April 2017 were systematically searched from PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and other relevant sources. Two authors independently reviewed the identified studies against the eligibility criteria. The included studies were critically appraised using the Joanna Briggs-MAStARI instrument for observational studies. Meta-analysis was conducted in RevMan v5.3 for Windows using a Mantel-Haenszel random effects model. The presence of statistical heterogeneity was checked using the Cochran Q test, and its level was quantified using the I 2 statistics. Pooled estimate of the proportion of the outcome variable was calculated. Pooled Odd Ratios with 95% CI were calculated to measure the effect sizes. The pooled magnitude of delayed antenatal care in Ethiopia was 64% (95% CI: 57%, 70%). Maternal age (OR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.93), place of residence (OR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.50), maternal education (OR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.63), husband's education (OR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.85), maternal occupation (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.93), monthly income (OR = 2.06; 95% CI: 1.23, 3.45), pregnancy intention (OR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.60), parity (OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.58), knowledge of antenatal care (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.51), women's autonomy (OR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.94), partner involvement (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.75), pregnancy complications (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.06, 0

  17. Correlates of Precoital Behaviors, Intentions, and Sexual Initiation among Thai Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Katharine A.; Zimmerman, Rick; Cupp, Pamela K.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chaiphet, Nonthathorn; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the risk and protective factors associated with sexual behaviors among Thai youth ages 13-14 (N=420) living in Bangkok, Thailand. Cross-sectional data were collected using a random sample of households methodology. Three outcomes were assessed: (1) intention to engage in sexual intercourse, (2) pre-coital behaviors, and (3)…

  18. Adolescents' Exposure to Sexy Media Does Not Hasten the Initiation of Sexual Intercourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted…

  19. Random start ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation appears unlikely to delay initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Joseph M; Sinha, Nikita; Wald, Kaitlyn; Harris, Eve; Quinn, Molly; Imbar, Tal; Mok-Lin, Evelyn; Chien, A Jo; Rosen, Mitchell

    2017-10-01

    Is random start ovarian stimulation associated with delays in initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer? Among women who complete fertility preservation (FP) consultation, random start ovarian stimulation is unlikely to delay time to initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy start. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is now a widely accepted treatment modality for operable breast cancer and random start ovarian stimulation is an increasingly-utilized modality for FP. While conventional ovarian stimulation does not appear to delay starting adjuvant chemotherapy, the relationship between random start ovarian stimulation and neoadjuvant chemotherapy start is not well-understood. Cross-sectional study of all women seen between from January 2011 to April 2017 for FP consultation prior to starting neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. A chart-review was performed. Study inclusion criteria were female sex; age 18-45; non-metastatic breast cancer diagnosis; underwent FP consultation; underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Referrals for FP evaluation came from a regional referral base of oncology clinics. Various time-points related to cancer diagnosis, FP or chemotherapy were obtained from medical record review. We compared time-points between those who underwent ovarian stimulation for FP versus those who did not using T-tests and linear modeling. A total of 89 women who had FP consultation prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy were identified. Sixty-seven percent underwent ovarian stimulation prior to cancer treatment and 33% did not. Women who underwent ovarian stimulation were similar in parity and clinical cancer stage to those who did not. Overall, the average time from cancer diagnosis to chemotherapy start was similar between the group that did undergo ovarian stimulation and those who did not (38.1 ± 11.3 versus 39.4 ± 18.5 days, P = 0.672). Those that underwent ovarian stimulation were referred 9.4 ± 6.8 days after diagnosis versus 17.9 ± 15.3 days for those

  20. Mortality associated with delays between clinic entry and ART initiation in resource-limited-settings: results of a transition-state model

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOFFMANN, Christopher J; LEWIS, James J; DOWDY, David W; FIELDING, Katherine L; GRANT, Alison D; MARTINSON, Neil A; CHURCHYARD, Gavin J; CHAISSON, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    Objective Estimate the mortality impact of delay in antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation from the time of entry-into-care. Design A state-transition Markov process model. This technique allows for assessing mortality before and after ART initiation associated with delays in ART initiation among a general population of ART eligible patients without conducting a randomized trial. Methods We used patient-level data from three South African cohorts to determine transition probabilities for pre-ART CD4 count changes and pre-ART and on-ART mortality. For each parameter we generated probabilities and distributions for Monte Carlo simulations with one week cycles to estimate mortality 52 weeks from clinic entry. Results We estimated an increase in mortality from 11.0% to 14.7% (relative increase of 34%) with a 10 week delay in ART for patients entering care with our pre-ART cohort CD4 distribution. When we examined low CD4 ranges, the relative increase in mortality delays remained similar; however, the absolute increase in mortality rose. For example, among patients entering with CD4 count 50–99 cells/mm3, 12 month mortality increased from 13.3% with no delay compared to 17.0% with a 10 week delay and 22.9% with a 6 month delay. Conclusions Delays in ART initiation, common in routine HIV programs, can lead to important increases in mortality. Prompt ART initiation for patients entering clinical care and eligible for ART, especially those with lower CD4 counts, could be a relatively low cost approach with a potential marked impact on mortality. PMID:23392457

  1. Mortality associated with delays between clinic entry and ART initiation in resource-limited settings: results of a transition-state model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christopher J; Lewis, James J; Dowdy, David W; Fielding, Katherine L; Grant, Alison D; Martinson, Neil A; Churchyard, Gavin J; Chaisson, Richard E

    2013-05-01

    To estimate the mortality impact of delay in antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation from the time of entry into care. A state-transition Markov process model. This technique allows for assessing mortality before and after ART initiation associated with delays in ART initiation among a general population of ART-eligible patients without conducting a randomized trial. We used patient-level data from 3 South African cohorts to determine transition probabilities for pre-ART CD4 count changes and pre-ART and on-ART mortality. For each parameter, we generated probabilities and distributions for Monte Carlo simulations with 1-week cycles to estimate mortality 52 weeks from clinic entry. We estimated an increase in mortality from 11.0% to 14.7% (relative increase of 34%) with a 10-week delay in ART for patients entering care with our pre-ART cohort CD4 distribution. When we examined low CD4 ranges, the relative increase in mortality delays remained similar; however, the absolute increase in mortality rose. For example, among patients entering with CD4 count 50-99 cells per cubic millimeter, 12-month mortality increased from 13.3% with no delay compared with 17.0% with a 10-week delay and 22.9% with a 6-month delay. Delays in ART initiation, common in routine HIV programs, can lead to important increases in mortality. Prompt ART initiation for patients entering clinical care and eligible for ART, especially those with lower CD4 counts, could be a relatively low-cost approach with a potential marked impact on mortality.

  2. The Impact of Personal Gender-Typicality and Partner Gender-Traditionality on Taking Sexual Initiative: Investigating a Social Tuning Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerink, Peggy M J; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assertiveness is an issue of interest in the context of gender equality and sexual health. This study investigated the social tuning hypothesis that encountering a gender-traditional partner would lead to stronger gender-typical behavior, i.e., respectively, higher and lower levels of taking sexual initiative among men and women. Participants ( N = 271) read a vignette describing a romantic partner, who was either presented as gender-traditional or not, followed by a sexual scenario. Subsequently, participants were asked about their expectations toward their own sexual initiative taking. Results showed a significant 'target gender-traditionality × participant gender × participant gender-typicality (masculinity/femininity)' interaction meaning that less gender-typical men were more likely to initiate sexual contact in the experimental, compared to the control condition. Men low in masculine characteristics showed higher initiative taking in response to a gender-traditional target female. We conclude that less gender-typical men seem to employ more social tuning toward their sexual partner, whereas more gender-typical men seem to adhere to their gender-typical behavior regardless of perceived partner characteristics. These results were not seen among the women in the sample. These findings are a starting point for the further development of experimental investigations regarding the gendered nature of both sexual initiative taking and sexual assertiveness in general.

  3. The Impact of Personal Gender-Typicality and Partner Gender-Traditionality on Taking Sexual Initiative: Investigating a Social Tuning Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerink, Peggy M. J.; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assertiveness is an issue of interest in the context of gender equality and sexual health. This study investigated the social tuning hypothesis that encountering a gender-traditional partner would lead to stronger gender-typical behavior, i.e., respectively, higher and lower levels of taking sexual initiative among men and women. Participants (N = 271) read a vignette describing a romantic partner, who was either presented as gender-traditional or not, followed by a sexual scenario. Subsequently, participants were asked about their expectations toward their own sexual initiative taking. Results showed a significant ‘target gender-traditionality × participant gender × participant gender-typicality (masculinity/femininity)’ interaction meaning that less gender-typical men were more likely to initiate sexual contact in the experimental, compared to the control condition. Men low in masculine characteristics showed higher initiative taking in response to a gender-traditional target female. We conclude that less gender-typical men seem to employ more social tuning toward their sexual partner, whereas more gender-typical men seem to adhere to their gender-typical behavior regardless of perceived partner characteristics. These results were not seen among the women in the sample. These findings are a starting point for the further development of experimental investigations regarding the gendered nature of both sexual initiative taking and sexual assertiveness in general. PMID:28203216

  4. Correlates of Delayed Sexual Intercourse and Condom Use among Adolescents in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsdijk, L.E.; Bos, A.E.R.; Lie, R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Kok, G.

    2012-01-01

    Background - Comprehensive sex education, including the promotion of consistent condom use, is still an important intervention strategy in tackling unplanned pregnancies, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among Ugandan adolescents. This study examines predictors of the intention to

  5. Correlates of risky sexual behaviors in recently traditionally circumcised men from initiation lodges in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyembezi, Anam; Sifunda, Sibusiso; Funani, Itumeleng; Ruiter, Robert A C; Van Den Borne, Bart; Reddy, Priscilla S

    This exploratory quantitative study examines past risky sexual behaviors among young men who were circumcised as part of a rite of passage to adulthood embedded within a cultural and traditional belief system in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Following permission from the Eastern Cape House of Traditional Leaders (ECHOTL), individual face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted among 114 initiates. The mean age of the participants was 18.9 years, ranging from 15 to 32 years old. About 79.8% reported already having had sex with a woman prior to initiation. Of those, 89% reported that they ever used condoms when having sex, and 61% reported consistent use. Logistic regression analysis showed that consistent condom use increased with higher educational levels. Those involved in other risky health behaviors (specifically, smoking) were also more likely to report inconsistent condom use. Most participants had positive beliefs about male circumcision and STI/HIV transmission. This study provides a first look at the sexual behaviors of young men at the time of their initiation in adulthood, a process that is intended to make it socially acceptable to initiate sexual relations and highlights a major public health challenge in integrating the protective health benefits of circumcision with indigenous cultural practices.

  6. Curricular initiatives that enhance student knowledge and perceptions of sexual and gender minority groups: a critical interpretive synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Tim; Abel, Gillian; Pitama, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    There is no accepted best practice for optimizing tertiary student knowledge, perceptions, and skills to care for sexual and gender diverse groups. The objective of this research was to synthesize the relevant literature regarding effective curricular initiatives designed to enhance tertiary level student knowledge, perceptions, and skills to care for sexual and gender diverse populations. A modified Critical Interpretive Synthesis using a systematic search strategy was conducted in 2015. This method was chosen to synthesize the relevant qualitative and quantitative literature as it allows for the depth and breadth of information to be captured and new constructs to be illuminated. Databases searched include AMED, CINAHL EBM Reviews, ERIC, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Nursing Database, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar. Thirty-one articles were included in this review. Curricular initiatives ranging from discrete to multimodal approaches have been implemented. Successful initiatives included discrete sessions with time for processing, and multi-modal strategies. Multi-modal approaches that encouraged awareness of one's lens and privilege in conjunction with facilitated communication seemed the most effective. The literature is limited to the evaluation of explicit curricula. The wider cultural competence literature offers further insight by highlighting the importance of broad and embedded forces including social influences, the institutional climate, and the implicit, or hidden, curriculum. A combined interpretation of the complementary cultural competence and sexual and gender diversity literature provides a novel understanding of the optimal content and context for the delivery of a successful curricular initiative.

  7. Relações de gênero e iniciação sexual de mulheres adolescentes Relaciones de genero e iniciación sexual de mujeres adolescentes Gender relations and sexual initiation among adolescent women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    2007-12-01

    -sectional study con-ducted with 222 15 to 19 year-old female adolescents who lived in the area of a family health unit in the East part of the city of São Paulo. The aim was to describe their motivation for starting sexual life or remaining virgin, as well as the associated factors to the onset of sexual life. The girls that had already initiated their sexual life were older, did not cohabitate with both parents, were out of school, lived in illegally-occupied houses and were dating in a higher proportion than the virgin ones. It was also observed a decrease in the value of virginity, but the first intercourse independently of marriage seemed to be acceptable only when there was a romantic relationship with the partner, showing that traditional gender relations continue to be the basis for those girls' sexual behavior.

  8. Curricular initiatives that enhance student knowledge and perceptions of sexual and gender minority groups: a critical interpretive synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Desrosiers

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The literature is limited to the evaluation of explicit curricula. The wider cultural competence literature offers further insight by highlighting the importance of broad and embedded forces including social influences, the institutional climate, and the implicit, or hidden, curriculum. A combined interpretation of the complementary cultural competence and sexual and gender diversity literature provides a novel understanding of the optimal content and context for the delivery of a successful curricular initiative.

  9. Delayed initiation but not gradual advancement of enteral formula feeding reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC in preterm pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Ghoneim

    Full Text Available Enteral formula feeding is a risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC in premature infants, yet studies are conflicting regarding the safest timing for introduction and advancement of feeds. Our aim was to test the effects of early vs. late initiation and abrupt vs. gradual advancement of enteral feeding of an intact vs. hydrolyzed protein formula on NEC incidence and severity in preterm pigs. In Experiment 1, preterm pigs received total parenteral nutrition (TPN at birth with abrupt initiation of enteral formula feeds (50% full intake on d of life (DOL 2 (EA or 5 (LA while PN continued. Pigs were also fed formula containing either intact or hydrolyzed protein. In Experiment 2, preterm pigs received TPN at birth with enteral, hydrolyzed-protein formula feeds introduced on DOL 2 either abruptly (EA; 50% full feeds or gradually (EG; 10-50% full feeds over 5 d while PN continued. NEC incidence and severity were assessed based on macroscopic and histological scoring. In Experiment 1, NEC incidence (41% vs. 70%, P<0.05 and severity were reduced in LA vs. EA groups and LA was associated with a higher survival rate, daily weight gain and jejunum villus height. Piglets fed hydrolyzed vs. intact protein formula had lower stomach content weights and similar NEC incidence. In Experiment 2, NEC incidence and severity were not different between pigs the EG vs. EA group. Proinflammatory gene expression (IL-1β, IL-6 and S100A9 in the ileum was lower in both LA and EG vs. EA groups. In conclusion, delayed initiation but not gradual advancement of enteral feeding is protective against NEC in preterm pigs. Feeding hydrolyzed vs. intact protein formula improved gastric transit without affecting the NEC incidence.

  10. Prepubertal exposure to arsenic(III) suppresses circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) delaying sexual maturation in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Michael P; Saca, James C; Hamilton, Alina; Solano, Rene F; Rivera, Jesse R; Whitehouse-Innis, Wendy; Parsons, Jason G; Dearth, Robert K

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) is a prevalent environmental toxin readily accessible for human consumption and has been identified as an endocrine disruptor. However, it is not known what impact As has on female sexual maturation. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of prepubertal exposure on mammary gland development and pubertal onset in female rats. Results showed that prepubertal exposure to 10 mg/kg of arsenite (As(III)) delayed vaginal opening (VO) and prepubertal mammary gland maturation. We determined that As accumulates in the liver, disrupts hepatocyte function and suppresses serum levels of the puberty related hormone insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in prepubertal animals. Overall, this is the first study to show that prepubertal exposure to As(III) acts peripherally to suppress circulating levels of IGF-1 resulting in delayed sexual maturation. Furthermore, this study identifies a critical window of increased susceptibility to As(III) that may have a lasting impact on female reproductive function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in sexual activity and risk behaviors among PLWHA initiating ART in rural district hospitals in Cameroon -- data from the STRATALL ANRS 12110/ESTHER trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndziessi, Gilbert; Cohen, Julien; Kouanfack, Charles; Boyer, Sylvie; Moatti, Jean-Paul; Marcellin, Fabienne; Laurent, Christian; Spire, Bruno; Delaporte, Eric; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    The continued scaling-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Sub-Saharan Africa provides an opportunity to further study its impact on sexual behaviors among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We explored time trend and correlates of sexual activity among PLWHA initiating ART in Cameroon and compared sexual risk behaviors between patients sexually active before and after initiating ART and those resuming sexual activity after ART initiation. Analyses were based on longitudinal data collected within the randomized trial (n=459) conducted in nine rural district hospitals in Cameroon. Sexual activity was defined as reporting at least one sexual partner during the previous 3 months. Inconsistent condom use (ICU) was defined as reporting to have "never," "sometimes," or "nearly always" used condoms at least once with a partner(s) either HIV-negative or of unknown HIV status during the same period. Mc Nemar tests were used to assess time trend, while mixed-effect logistic regressions were conducted to analyze the effect of time since ART initiation on sexual activity. The proportion of sexually active patients significantly increased over time: from 31.8% at baseline to 40.2 and 47.1% after 6 and 12 months of ART, respectively (p=0.001), to 55.9% after 24 months (p=0.02). After adjustment for behavioral and psychosocial factors, time since ART initiation was independently associated with reporting sexual activity (AOR [95% CI]=1.30 [1.17-1.46] per 6-month increase, p=0.001). ICU was more frequent among patients sexually active both before and after ART initiation than among those who resumed sexual activity after ART initiation (82 vs. 59%, pART initiation fosters resumption of sexual activity in patients who are inactive before starting treatment; unsafe sexual behaviors remain less frequent in this population than in patients who are already sexually active before starting ART. Risk reduction programs should be reinforced among PLWHA in the context of ART scaling-up.

  12. Role of Individual, Family, and Peers in Sexual Initiation Among Late Adolescents Attending Institutions of Higher Learning in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Samad, Shazimah; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Ismail, Maslinor

    2016-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with sexual initiation among the late adolescents in 6 institutions of higher learning in Malaysia. A total of 1572 students completed self-administered questionnaires between April and September 2013. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses stratified by gender were employed to identify the correlates of sexual initiation. The analyses were further adjusted by sampling weights. The overall prevalence of sexual initiation was 9.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.3-11.6), 18.1% (95% CI = 15.1-21.5) among males, and 4.1% (95% CI = 2.9-5.9) among females. The risk factors identified in this study supported the influence of the individual, family, and peer factors in the social-ecological model on adolescents' behaviors. The findings suggest the need for risk-reduction strategies aimed at the individual, family, and peer levels as well as the importance of gender-specific focus in assuring better outcomes. © 2016 APJPH.

  13. Systemic delays in the initiation of antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy do not improve outcomes of HIV-positive mothers: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myer Landon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation in eligible HIV-infected pregnant women is an important intervention to promote maternal and child health. Increasing the duration of ART received before delivery plays a major role in preventing vertical HIV transmission, but pregnant women across Africa experience significant delays in starting ART, partly due the perceived need to deliver ART counseling and patient education before ART initiation. We examined whether delaying ART to provide pre-ART counseling was associated with improved outcomes among HIV-infected women in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods We undertook a retrospective cohort study of 490 HIV-infected pregnant women referred to initiate treatment at an urban ART clinic. At this clinic all patients including pregnant women are screened by a clinician and then undergo three sessions of counseling and patient education prior to starting treatment, commonly introducing delays of 2–4 weeks before ART initiation. Data on viral suppression and retention in care after ART initiation were taken from routine clinic records. Results A total of 382 women initiated ART before delivery (78%; ART initiation before delivery was associated with earlier gestational age at presentation to the ART service (p  Conclusions A substantial proportion of eligible pregnant women referred for ART do not begin treatment before delivery in this setting. Among women who do initiate ART, delaying initiation for patient preparation is not associated with improved maternal outcomes. Given the need to maximize the duration of ART before delivery for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, there is an urgent need for new strategies to help expedite ART initiation in eligible pregnant women.

  14. EARLY SEXUAL INITIATION AMONG ADOLESCENTS: A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS FOR 15-YEAR-OLDS IN PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Cueto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El porcentaje de las adolescentes latinoamericanas, incluyendo las peruanas, que reportan haber tenido relaciones sexuales se ha incrementado. Existen pocos estudios en la región que identifiquen los predictores de esta conducta. El presente estudio utiliza una base longitudinal de datos del Perú para explorar las variables individuales, familiares y comunitarias a lo largo del tiempo que predicen las conductas sexuales a los 15 años de edad. Los resultados muestran que la iniciación sexual temprana está relacionada positivamente con el sexo masculino, tener una madre sin secundaria completa, un aumento en la riqueza de su familia, extraedad en la escuela y reportar consumir alcohol frecuentemente o conductas sexuales de su grupo de amigos. Las relaciones con pares fueron significativas solo para los hombres (asociación positiva, mientras que las relaciones con los padres lo fueron solo para las mujeres (asociación negativa. El 11% de los participantes reportan desconocer si su última pareja sexual utilizó protección.

  15. Minimum initial service package (MISP) for sexual and reproductive health in disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisam, Suchitra

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based on a presentation given at the Evidence Aid Symposium, on 20 September 2014, at Hyderabad, India. The paper provides background about how the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) got conceived as a humanitarian health response that adopts human right approach, based on core principles driven by needs of adolescent girls and women, and having respect for their values, ethics and morals. Good practices across nations documented by Inter-Agency Working Groups (IAWGs) on Reproductive Health in Humanitarian Crisis has supported the provision of essential SRH care services to adolescent girls and women in humanitarian crisis and in disasters. Secondary desk review is used to document the lessons learnt and good practices followed and documents for SRH. These essential SRH care services are to be provided as "Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP)" for implementation at the outset of disaster. The Sphere Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response incorporated the MISP for SRH as a minimum standard of care in disaster response with a goal to reduce mortality, morbidity and disability among populations affected by crises, particularly women and girls. Disaster prone countries are expected to roll out MISP to improve humanitarian response and emergency preparedness systems. The East Europe and Central Asia (EECA) region including India have rolled out MISP starting from 2011 (EECA) and from 2013-2014 onwards in India across cities such as Chennai, Patna, Bhubaneshwar, Kolkata, Faridabad and Calcutta. Across India, through these national and state level trainings, nearly 600 people from NGOs, institutions, and government agencies were developed as national level trainers and resource persons for MISP who could advocate for RH in emergencies, apply core techniques provided in the MISP, apply coordination skills for the implementation of MISP and develop an action plan to integrate RH and Gender Based Violence (GBV) into Disaster

  16. Emergence of delayed posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms related to sexual trauma: patient-centered and trauma-cognizant management by physical therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Kim; Kubo Slowik, Amy

    2012-02-01

    Sexual violence has been identified as one of the most common predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This case report describes the emergence of delayed PTSD symptoms, disclosure of history of sexual trauma, and the influence of re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms on physical therapy treatment. A 60-year-old woman was seen for treatment of low back pain. of a discord between fear of falling and no balance impairments led to disclosure of sexual assault by a physician at 19 years of age. The patient's PTSD symptoms emerged after 10 weeks of physical therapy. The physical therapists monitored somatic responses and body language closely and modified and planned treatment techniques to avoid PTSD triggers and limit hyperarousal. Collaborative communication approaches included reinforcement of cognitive-behavioral strategies introduced by her psychotherapists. Trauma-cognizant approaches supported the patient's efforts to manage PTSD symptoms sufficiently to tolerate physical therapy and participate in a back care class. Nonlinear psychological healing is illustrated. Symptoms of PTSD may emerge during physical therapy treatment, and patient-sensitive responses to disclosure are important. The trauma-cognizant approach (2-way communication, patient-centered management, and integration of psychological elements into clinical decision making) helped identify and respond to triggers. The physical therapists reinforced cognitive-behavioral strategies introduced by psychotherapists to manage PTSD symptoms. Patient-centered care with further refinement to a trauma-cognizant approach may play an important role in assisting patients with PTSD or a history of sexual trauma to manage symptoms while addressing rehabilitation needs.

  17. 2017 European guideline for the screening, prevention and initial management of hepatitis B and C infections in sexual health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Gary; Brockmeyer, Norbert; van de Laar, Thijs; Schellberg, Sven; Winter, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    This guideline updates the 2010 European guideline for the management of hepatitis B and C virus infections. It is primarily intended to provide advice on testing, prevention and initial management of viral hepatitis B and C for clinicians working in sexual health clinical settings in European countries. The guideline is in a new question and answer format based on clinical situations, from which population/intervention/comparison/outcome questions were formulated. Updates cover areas such as epidemiology, point-of-care tests for hepatitis B, hepatitis C risk and 'chemsex', and HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and hepatitis B. We have also included a short paragraph on hepatitis E noting there is no evidence for sexual transmission. The guideline has been prepared in accordance with the Europe protocol for production available at http://www.iusti.org/regions/europe/pdf/2017/ProtocolForProduction2017.pdf.

  18. Age at sexual initiation and factors associated with it among youths ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the median age at first sexual intercourse and the associated .... Wollo Zone, Amhara National Regional State, North East ..... censored. Urba n. Rura l. Residence rural/urban. Fig 2: Kaplan Meier curve showing log survival for ..... renting and selling pornography films.

  19. Sources of Information on Sex and Antecedents of Early Sexual Initiation among Urban Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxman, Shai; De Los Santos, Sabrina; Finkelstein, Daniel; Landon, Mary Kay; O'Donnell, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between young adolescents' sources of information on sex and precursors to sexual activity. Surveys were conducted with 3,940 Latino sixth grade students. According to results, girls who received information from their parents were less likely to engage in sex precursors. For boys, getting information from other…

  20. Relationship between Sexual Harassment, Initiator Attractiveness, and Pro-Feminist Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. Wade; And Others

    Research has shown that physically attractive people in this culture are treated more favorably than are unattractive people. If this is so, acts of sexual harassment perpetrated by attractive males might be viewed less harshly than the same acts perpetrated by unattractive males. A study was conducted to examine the relationshp between…

  1. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lawrence C; Mulhall, John P

    2015-11-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies, which include medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation, and psychological etiologies. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Countertransference in the initial visit of women victims of sexual violence

    OpenAIRE

    Eizirik,Mariana; Schestatsky,Sidnei; Kruel,Letícia; Ceitlin,Lúcia Helena Freitas

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify demographic and clinical correlates associated with therapists' countertransference feelings on the first visit of women victims of sexual violence. METHOD: Forty patients were seen by 26 therapists, during 2 consecutive years, at the Center for the Study and Treatment of Psychological Trauma, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre , Brazil. After the first visit with the patient, the therapist completed the Assessment of Countertransference Scale and the patient was eval...

  3. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  4. Initial sexual maturity and fecundity of the goldfish Carassius auratus (Perciformes: Cyprynidae under semi-controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Ortega-Salas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the time of initial sexual maturity and the fecundity of the goldfish Carassius auratus under semi-controlled conditions. During the study the water temperature fluctuated from 21 to 30 ºC, the pH between 7 and 8, and the dissolved oxygen between 5.5 and 7 ppm. Sixty days old juvenile fish received prophylactic treatments of brackish water (15 ‰ and methylene blue baths (1 %, and they were fed with live Daphnia magna. The initial sexual maturity occurred between 225 and 233 days of captivity. Mean absolute fecundity was 2 347 (± 302.2 SD ova per gonad, and mean relative fecundity was 63.44 eggs/g fish weight. Gonadosomatic index was between 7.5 and 9.0. Our data will allow ornamental fish producers to calculate the time of initial maturity and fecundity for this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1113-1116. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.Estudiamos el tiempo inicial de madurez sexual y la fecundidad del pez dorado Carassius auratus en condiciones semi-controladas. Durante el estudio la temperatura del gua varió de 21 a 30 ºC, el pH entre 7 y 8, y el oxígeno disuelto entre 5.5 y 7 ppm. Jóvenes de 60 días de edad recibieron tratamiento profiláctico con agua salobre (15 ‰, y baños de azul de metileno (1 %. Se les alimentó con Daphnia magna. La madurez sexual inicial fue tras 225 a 233 días en cautiverio. La fecundidad absoluta media fue de 2 347 (±302.2 DS óvulos por gónada y la fecundidad relativa fue de 63.44 óvulos/g del peso del pez. El índice gonadosomático se calculó entre 7.5 and 9.0.

  5. Countertransference in the initial visit of women victims of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizirik, Mariana; Schestatsky, Sidnei; Kruel, Letícia; Ceitlin, Lúcia Helena Freitas

    2011-03-01

    To identify demographic and clinical correlates associated with therapists' countertransference feelings on the first visit of women victims of sexual violence. Forty patients were seen by 26 therapists, during 2 consecutive years, at the Center for the Study and Treatment of Psychological Trauma, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre , Brazil. After the first visit with the patient, the therapist completed the Assessment of Countertransference Scale and the patient was evaluated with the Davidson Trauma Scale, the Standardized Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Defense Style Questionnaire. The therapists showed a predominance of feelings of closeness (Mean = 5.42, SD = 1.25) in relation to the feelings of indifference (Mean = 1.82, SD = 1.22) and distance (Mean = 1.57, SD = 1.08) [p countertransference feelings and clinical characteristics of patients. The gender of the therapists did not influence the pattern of countertransference feelings. In the subgroup of female therapists, we detected an inverse correlation between a higher probability of patients' personality disorders and feelings of closeness in the therapists. We did not detect a differential pattern of countertransference feelings associated with specific clinical characteristics. Therapists of both genders presented a similar pattern of feelings of empathy towards women victims of sexual violence, although the gender of the therapist may moderate the feelings evoked by patients with increased likelihood of personality disorders.

  6. Adding Recognition Discriminability Index to the Delayed Recall Is Useful to Predict Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María J; Campos, Jorge; Vázquez, Silvia; Sevlever, Gustavo; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ongoing research is focusing on the identification of those individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are most likely to convert to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether recognition memory tasks in combination with delayed recall measure of episodic memory and CSF biomarkers can predict MCI to AD conversion at 24-month follow-up. Methods: A total of 397 amnestic-MCI subjects from Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative were included. Logistic regression modeling was done to assess the predictive value of all RAVLT measures, risk factors such as age, sex, education, APOE genotype, and CSF biomarkers for progression to AD. Estimating adjusted odds ratios was used to determine which variables would produce an optimal predictive model, and whether adding tests of interaction between the RAVLT Delayed Recall and recognition measures (traditional score and d-prime) would improve prediction of the conversion from a-MCI to AD. Results: 112 (28.2%) subjects developed dementia and 285 (71.8%) subjects did not. Of the all included variables, CSF Aβ1-42 levels, RAVLT Delayed Recall, and the combination of RAVLT Delayed Recall and d-prime were predictive of progression to AD (χ 2 = 38.23, df = 14, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The combination of RAVLT Delayed Recall and d-prime measures may be predictor of conversion from MCI to AD in the ADNI cohort, especially in combination with amyloid biomarkers. A predictive model to help identify individuals at-risk for dementia should include not only traditional episodic memory measures (delayed recall or recognition), but also additional variables (d-prime) that allow the homogenization of the assessment procedures in the diagnosis of MCI.

  7. Sexual initiation and associated factors among young women in West Shoa, Ambo Town, Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigatu, Digafe Tsegaye; Seme, Asefa; Fituma, Shewaye; Segni, Mesfin Tafa

    2018-05-30

    For physiological as well as behavioral reasons, sexual debut increases young individuals' risk for infection with sexually transmitted infection including HIV. It is fundamental to recognize the factors related to sexual debut in a broader context for designing and implementing effective interventions targeting youth. Community-based cross-sectional study was employed from January to May, 2013 among females of Ambo town. A multistage sampling technique was applied. The participants were selected using simple random sampling technique. Face to face interview using structured and pretested questionnaires were used to collect thedata from the study participants. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of sexual initiation. Three hundred seventeen (49.9%) of the respondents have ever had sex. The mean age at first sexual initiation was 16.6 (SD ±2.3) years. Being in age group 20-24 [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) & (95% CI) = 2.75 (1.74, 4.34)], Educational level [AOR& (95% CI) = 0.20 (0.08, 0.48)], being in school [AOR& (95% CI) = 0.19 (0.11, 0.33)], having paid job [AOR& (95% CI) = 2.20 (1.19, 4.07)], peer pressure [AOR& (95% CI) = 3.20 (2.08, 4.94)], alcohol consumption [AOR& (95% CI) = 2.17 (1.43, 3.28)], and pornographic materials [AOR& (95% CI) = 2.27 (1.43, 3.61)] had significant association with sexual initiation. Substantial numbers of females had started sexual activity that might expose them to different reproductive health problems. In general age group, peer pressure, alcohol consumption and watching pornographic materials were found to be predictors for the sexual debut. Therefore, building life skills, establishing youth friendly clubs should be intensified.

  8. Comparison of initial and delayed myocardial imaging with beta-methyl-p-[123I]-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Noriko; Yamamoto, Juro; Morita, Masato; Fukutake, Naoshige; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Iwasaki, Tadaaki; Fukuchi, Minoru

    1994-01-01

    Myocardial imaging using β-methyl-p-[ 123 I]-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) of 15 patients with acute myocardial infarction was performed to assess 'fill-in' and 'washout' defects in the delayed myocardial image. The initial and delayed images were evaluated by a visual and quantitative washout rate method. Visual judgement found 8/180 (4%) segments showed 'fill-in' defects, and 24/180 segments (13%) showed 'washout' defects. There was no relationship between days from onset to the study and the frequency of fill-in and washout defects. The mean washout rate in the segments with 'fill-in' defects was 9.0±16.6%, and that of 'washout' defects was 24.9±18.1% which was significantly higher than in controls (8.7±15.4%, p<0.05). There was no correlation between mean washout rate and total blood lipids, total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol. Therefore, neither time from onset nor blood lipids level was related to changes from the initial image to the delayed image. These changes may be due to relative (false) findings due to changes in circumference, and may be based on myocardial characteristics after myocardial infarction and/or reperfusion. (author)

  9. Comparison of initial and delayed myocardial imaging with beta-methyl-p-[[sup 123]I]-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid in acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Noriko; Yamamoto, Juro; Morita, Masato; Fukutake, Naoshige; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Iwasaki, Tadaaki; Fukuchi, Minoru (Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan))

    Myocardial imaging using [beta]-methyl-p-[[sup 123]I]-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) of 15 patients with acute myocardial infarction was performed to assess 'fill-in' and 'washout' defects in the delayed myocardial image. The initial and delayed images were evaluated by a visual and quantitative washout rate method. Visual judgement found 8/180 (4%) segments showed 'fill-in' defects, and 24/180 segments (13%) showed 'washout' defects. There was no relationship between days from onset to the study and the frequency of fill-in and washout defects. The mean washout rate in the segments with 'fill-in' defects was 9.0[+-]16.6%, and that of 'washout' defects was 24.9[+-]18.1% which was significantly higher than in controls (8.7[+-]15.4%, p<0.05). There was no correlation between mean washout rate and total blood lipids, total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol. Therefore, neither time from onset nor blood lipids level was related to changes from the initial image to the delayed image. These changes may be due to relative (false) findings due to changes in circumference, and may be based on myocardial characteristics after myocardial infarction and/or reperfusion. (author).

  10. [Comparison of initial and delayed myocardial imaging with beta-methyl-p-[123I]-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid in acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, H; Yoshimura, N; Yamamoto, J; Morita, M; Fukutake, N; Ohyanagi, M; Iwasaki, T; Fukuchi, M

    1994-01-01

    Myocardial imaging using beta-methyl-p-[123I]-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) of 15 patients with acute myocardial infarction was performed to assess "fill-in" and "washout" defects in the delayed myocardial image. The initial and delayed images were evaluated by a visual and quantitative washout rate method. Visual judgement found 8/180 (4%) segments showed "fill-in" defects, and 24/180 segments (13%) showed "washout" defects. There was no relationship between days from onset to the study and the frequency of fill-in and washout defects. The mean washout rate in the segments with "fill-in" defects was 9.0 +/- 16.6%, and that of "washout" defects was 24.9 +/- 18.1% which was significantly higher than in controls (8.7 +/- 15.4%, p < 0.05). There was no correlation between mean washout rate and total blood lipids, total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol. Therefore, neither time from onset nor blood lipids level was related to changes from the initial image to the delayed image. These changes may be due to relative (false) findings due to changes in circumference, and may be based on myocardial characteristics after myocardial infarction and/or reperfusion.

  11. Routine delayed voiding cystourethography after initial successful endoscopic treatment with Dextranomer/Hialuronic Acid Copolimer (Dx/HA) of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Is it necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aparicio, L; Blázquez-Gómez, E; Vila Santandreu, A; Camacho Diaz, J A; Vila-Cots, J; Ramos Cebrian, M; de Haro, I; Martin, O; Tarrado, X

    2016-12-01

    Some guidelines recommend an early voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) after endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), but there's no consensus if it's necessary a long-term follow-up in these patients. The aim of our study is analyze if it's necessary a delayed VCUG after initial successful treatment with Dx/HA. We have reviewed all medical charts of patients that underwent Dx/HA treatment from 2006 to 2010. We have selected patients with initial successful treatment and more than 3 years of radiological and clinical follow-up. We have analyzed late clinical and radiological outcomes. One hundred and sixty children with 228 refluxing ureters underwent Dx/HA endoscopic treatment with a mean follow-up of 52.13 months. Early VCUG was performed in 215 ureters with an initial successful rate of 84.1%. The group of study was 94/215 ureters with more than 3 years of follow-up with a delayed VCUG. VUR was still resolved in 79,8% of the ureters. Clinical success rate was 91.7%. The incidence of febrile urinary tract infection in those patients with cured VUR and those with a relapsed VUR was 8 and 15%, respectively; but there were no significant differences. We have not found any variable related with relapsed VUR except those ureters that initially received 2 injections (P<.05). If our objective in the treatment of VUR is to reduce the incidence of febrile urinary tract infection it is not necessary to perform a delayed VCUG even though the long-term radiological outcomes is worse than clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating the state of a geophysical system with sparse observations: time delay methods to achieve accurate initial states for prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhe; Rey, Daniel; Ye, Jingxin; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of forecasting the behavior of a complex dynamical system through analysis of observational time-series data becomes difficult when the system expresses chaotic behavior and the measurements are sparse, in both space and/or time. Despite the fact that this situation is quite typical across many fields, including numerical weather prediction, the issue of whether the available observations are "sufficient" for generating successful forecasts is still not well understood. An analysis by Whartenby et al. (2013) found that in the context of the nonlinear shallow water equations on a β plane, standard nudging techniques require observing approximately 70 % of the full set of state variables. Here we examine the same system using a method introduced by Rey et al. (2014a), which generalizes standard nudging methods to utilize time delayed measurements. We show that in certain circumstances, it provides a sizable reduction in the number of observations required to construct accurate estimates and high-quality predictions. In particular, we find that this estimate of 70 % can be reduced to about 33 % using time delays, and even further if Lagrangian drifter locations are also used as measurements.

  13. Changes in sexual desires and behaviours of people living with HIV after initiation of ART: Implications for HIV prevention and health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seeley Janet

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As immune compromised HIV sero-positive people regain health after initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART, they may seek a return to an active 'normal' life, including sexual activity. The aim of the paper is to explore the changing sexual desires and behaviour of people on ART in Uganda over a 30 month period. Methods This study employed longitudinal qualitative interviews with forty people starting ART. The participants received their ART, adherence education and counselling support from The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO. The participants were selected sequentially as they started ART, stratified by sex, ART delivery mode (clinic or home-based and HIV progression stage (early or advanced and interviewed at enrolment, 3, 6, 18 and 30 months of their ART use. Results Sexual desire changed over time with many reporting diminished desire at 3 and 6 months on ART compared to 18 and 30 months of use. The reasons for remaining abstinent included fear of superinfection or infecting others, fear that engaging in sex would awaken the virus and weaken them and a desire to adhere to the counsellors' health advice to remain abstinent. The motivations for resumption of sexual activity were: for companionship, to obtain material support, social norms around marriage, desire to bear children as well as to satisfy sexual desires. The challenges for most of the participants were using condoms consistently and finding a suitable sexual partner (preferably someone with a similar HIV serostatus who could agree to have a sexual relationship with them and provide for their material needs. Conclusions These findings point to the importance of tailoring counselling messages to the changing realities of the ART users' cultural expectations around child bearing, marriage and sexual desire. People taking ART require support so they feel comfortable to disclose their HIV status to sexual partners.

  14. Sexual Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Sharon

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Much attention is devoted to women's reproductive health, but the formative and mature stages of women's sexual lives are often overlooked. We have analyzed cross-sectional data from the Sexual Behaviour module of the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS, and reviewed the literature and available indicators of the sexual health of Canadian women. Key Findings Contemporary Canadian adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages than in previous generations. The gender gap between young males and females in age at first intercourse has virtually disappeared. The mean age at first intercourse for CCHS respondents aged 15–24 years was between 16 and 17. Canadian-born respondents are significantly younger at first intercourse than those who were born outside of Canada. Few adolescents recognize important risks to their sexual health. Older Canadians are sexually active, and continue to find emotional and physical satisfaction in their sexual relationships. Data Gaps and Recommendations Both health surveys and targeted research must employ a broader understanding of sexuality to measure changes in and determinants of the sexual health of Canadians. There is reluctance to direct questions about sexual issues to younger Canadians, even though increased knowledge of sexual health topics is associated with delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Among adults, sex-positive resources are needed to address aspects of aging, rather than medicalizing age-related sexual dysfunction. Age and gender-appropriate sexual health care, education, and knowledge are important not only for women of reproductive age, but for Canadians at all stages of life.

  15. Can exercise ameliorate treatment toxicity during the initial phase of testosterone deprivation in prostate cancer patients? Is this more effective than delayed rehabilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Robert U

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been substantial increase in use of androgen deprivation therapy as adjuvant management of prostate cancer. However, this leads to a range of musculoskeletal toxicities including reduced bone mass and increased skeletal fractures compounded with rapid metabolic alterations, including increased body fat, reduced lean mass, insulin resistance and negative lipoprotein profile, increased incidence of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity, greater distress and reduced quality of life. Numerous research studies have demonstrated certain exercise prescriptions to be effective at preventing or even reversing these treatment toxicities. However, all interventions to date have been of rehabilitative intent being implemented after a minimum of 3 months since initiation of androgen deprivation, by which time considerable physical and psychological health problems have manifested. The pressing question is whether it is more efficacious to commence exercise therapy at the same time as initiating androgen deprivation, so treatment induced adverse effects can be immediately attenuated or indeed prevented. Methods/design We are proposing a multi-site randomized controlled trial with partial crossover to examine the effects of timing of exercise implementation (immediate or delayed on preserving long-term skeletal health, reversing short- and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, and supporting mental health in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy. 124 men who are about to initiate androgen deprivation for prostate cancer will be randomized to immediate or delayed groups. Immediate will commence a 6-month exercise program within 7–10 days of their first dose. Delayed will receive usual care for 6 months and then commence the exercise program for 6 months (partial cross-over. Immediate will be free to adopt the lifestyle of their choosing following the initial 6-month intervention. Measurements for primary and

  16. Can exercise ameliorate treatment toxicity during the initial phase of testosterone deprivation in prostate cancer patients? Is this more effective than delayed rehabilitation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, Robert U; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel; Cormie, Prue; Chambers, Suzanne K; Gardiner, Robert A; Shum, David HK; Joseph, David; Galvão, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    There has been substantial increase in use of androgen deprivation therapy as adjuvant management of prostate cancer. However, this leads to a range of musculoskeletal toxicities including reduced bone mass and increased skeletal fractures compounded with rapid metabolic alterations, including increased body fat, reduced lean mass, insulin resistance and negative lipoprotein profile, increased incidence of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity, greater distress and reduced quality of life. Numerous research studies have demonstrated certain exercise prescriptions to be effective at preventing or even reversing these treatment toxicities. However, all interventions to date have been of rehabilitative intent being implemented after a minimum of 3 months since initiation of androgen deprivation, by which time considerable physical and psychological health problems have manifested. The pressing question is whether it is more efficacious to commence exercise therapy at the same time as initiating androgen deprivation, so treatment induced adverse effects can be immediately attenuated or indeed prevented. We are proposing a multi-site randomized controlled trial with partial crossover to examine the effects of timing of exercise implementation (immediate or delayed) on preserving long-term skeletal health, reversing short- and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, and supporting mental health in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy. 124 men who are about to initiate androgen deprivation for prostate cancer will be randomized to immediate or delayed groups. Immediate will commence a 6-month exercise program within 7–10 days of their first dose. Delayed will receive usual care for 6 months and then commence the exercise program for 6 months (partial cross-over). Immediate will be free to adopt the lifestyle of their choosing following the initial 6-month intervention. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6

  17. A tale of two pregnancies: A Critical Interpretive Synthesis of women's perceptions about delayed initiation of antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddrill, Rosalind; Jones, Georgina L; Anumba, Dilly; Mitchell, Caroline

    2017-10-14

    Delayed access to antenatal care in high income countries is associated with poor maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes. The aim was to synthesise the diverse body of evidence around women's views of early antenatal care and barriers to attendance in such countries. Critical Interpretive Synthesis integrates the process of systematic review with the qualitative methods of meta-ethnography and grounded theory, with a focus on theory generation to inform policy, practice and future research. Database searches were conducted, supplemented with reference and citation tracking and website searching between February 2014 and April 2016. Qualitative data analysis methods were used to extract and summarise the key themes from each study. A taxonomy of constructs was created, with the synthesis developed to thread these together. Fifty-four papers were synthesised, including qualitative, quantitative, mixed method and systematic review, published between 1987 and 2016. Seventeen constructs around the core concept of 'acceptance of personal and public pregnancies' were produced. Acceptance of the 'personal' pregnancy considers the contribution of mindset in the recognition and acceptance of pregnancy, influenced by knowledge of pregnancy symptoms, pregnancy planning and desire. Acceptance of the 'public' pregnancy considers women's assessment of the social consequences of pregnancy, and the relevance and priority of antenatal care. Critical Interpretive Synthesis offers a systematic yet creative approach to the synthesis of diverse evidence. The findings offer new perspectives on women's perceptions of early pregnancy and attendance for care, which may be used to facilitate timely antenatal provision for all pregnant women. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of Flaws Responsible for Crack Initiation and Micromechanisms of Slow Crack Growth in the Delayed Fracture of Alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    A-"AIS012 CALIFORNIA UNdIV LOS ANSELES DEPT OF MATERIALS SCIEN--ETC F/S 11/6 IDENTIFICATION OF FLAWS RESPONSIBLE FOR CRACK INITIATION AM %I--ETC(U...Sines and Adams . 71 It might be thought that other compressive loading devices could serve the same purpoee. For example, a spherical joint instead of the...compressive strength can be 18 times the tensile strength as reported by Adams . 92 This is because the established criteria are damage criter- ia, not

  19. Is There a Need for a European-Wide Initiative on Comprehensive Sexuality Education? Reflections from Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štulhofer, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, Aleksandar Štulhofer has been involved in debates over school-based sexuality education in his country. Introduced to this sensitive and often divisive topic by several research studies on sexual risk taking in youth, he recently participated in two education-policy processes dealing with school-based health and sexuality…

  20. Evaluation of a Statewide Initiative in the United States to Prevent/Reduce Sexual Harassment in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, Mark D.; Bryant, Yaphet U.; Dantzler, Joyce; Martin, Saran; D'Amico, Marie; Griffith, Brian; Gallun, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify best practices in the implementation of school-based sexual violence prevention education. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase plan was implemented to evaluate the Sexual Harassment/Assault Prevention Project (SHAPP) in one state in the USA. First, a structured review of the prevention…

  1. Can you ask? We just did! Assessing sexual function and concerns in patients presenting for initial gynecologic oncology consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Vanessa; Abramsohn, Emily; Makelarski, Jennifer; Barber, Rachel; Wroblewski, Kristen; Tenney, Meaghan; Lee, Nita Karnik; Yamada, S Diane; Lindau, Stacy Tessler

    2015-04-01

    To describe patterns of response to, and assess sexual function and activity elicited by, a self-administered assessment incorporated into a new patient intake form for gynecologic oncology consultation. A cross-sectional study of patients presenting to a single urban academic medical center between January 2010 and September 2012. New patients completed a self-administered intake form, including six brief sexual activity and function items. These items, along with abstracted medical record data, were descriptively analyzed. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between sexual activity and function and disease status, adjusting for age. Median age was 50 years (range 18-91, N=499); more than half had a final diagnosis of cancer. Most patients completed all sex-related items on the intake form; 98% answered at least one. Among patients who were sexually active in the prior 12 months (57% with cancer, 64% with benign disease), 52% indicated on the intake form having, during that period, a sexual problem lasting several months or more. Of these, 15% had physician documentation of the sexual problem. Eighteen women were referred for care. Providers reported no patient complaints about the inclusion of sexual items on the intake form. Nearly all new patients presenting for gynecologic oncology consultation answered self-administered items to assess sexual activity and function. Further study is needed to determine the role of pre-treatment identification of sexual function concerns in improving sexual outcomes associated with cancer diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictors of Delayed Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation, Mortality, and Loss to Followup in HIV Infected Patients Eligible for HIV Treatment: Data from an HIV Cohort Study in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Alvarez-Uria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa have shown that a substantial number of HIV patients eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART do not start treatment. However, data from other low- or middle-income countries are scarce. In this study, we describe the outcomes of 4105 HIV patients who became ART eligible from January 2007 to November 2011 in an HIV cohort study in India. After three years of ART eligibility, 78.4% started ART, 9.3% died before ART initiation, and 10.3% were lost to followup. Diagnosis of tuberculosis, being homeless, lower CD4 count, longer duration of pre-ART care, belonging to a disadvantaged community, being widowed, and not living near a town were associated with delayed ART initiation. Diagnosis of tuberculosis, being homeless, lower CD4 count, shorter duration of pre-ART care, belonging to a disadvantaged community, illiteracy, and age >45 years were associated with mortality. Being homeless, being single, not living near a town, having a CD4 count <150 cells/μL, and shorter duration of pre-ART care were associated with loss to followup. These results highlight the need to improve the timely initiation of ART in HIV programmes in India, especially in ART eligible patients with tuberculosis, low CD4 counts, living in rural areas, or having a low socioeconomic status.

  3. A comparison of the smeared-dislocation and super-dislocation description of a hydrided region in the context of modelling delayed hydride cracking initiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1994-01-01

    In quantifying the stress distribution within a hydrided region in the context of modelling delayed hydride cracking (DHC) initiation in zirconium alloys, this paper highlights the desirability of accounting for image effects, i.e. the interaction between the hydrided region and any free surface, for example a sharp crack, blunt notch or planar surface. The super-dislocation representation of a finite thickness hydrided region is ideal for accounting for image effects. It also adequately accounts for the finite thickness, t, of a hydrided region provided, as is the case in practice, we are concerned with the stress value within the hydride at distances ≥ 0.25 t from an end of the region. (Author)

  4. Overexpression of eIF5 or its protein mimic 5MP perturbs eIF2 function and induces ATF4 translation through delayed re-initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Caitlin; Thompson, Brytteny; Hustak, Samantha; Moore, Chelsea; Nakashima, Akio; Singh, Chingakham Ranjit; Reid, Megan; Cox, Christian; Papadopoulos, Evangelos; Luna, Rafael E; Anderson, Abbey; Tagami, Hideaki; Hiraishi, Hiroyuki; Slone, Emily Archer; Yoshino, Ken-Ichi; Asano, Masayo; Gillaspie, Sarah; Nietfeld, Jerome; Perchellet, Jean-Pierre; Rothenburg, Stefan; Masai, Hisao; Wagner, Gerhard; Beeser, Alexander; Kikkawa, Ushio; Fleming, Sherry D; Asano, Katsura

    2016-10-14

    ATF4 is a pro-oncogenic transcription factor whose translation is activated by eIF2 phosphorylation through delayed re-initiation involving two uORFs in the mRNA leader. However, in yeast, the effect of eIF2 phosphorylation can be mimicked by eIF5 overexpression, which turns eIF5 into translational inhibitor, thereby promoting translation of GCN4, the yeast ATF4 equivalent. Furthermore, regulatory protein termed eIF5-mimic protein (5MP) can bind eIF2 and inhibit general translation. Here, we show that 5MP1 overexpression in human cells leads to strong formation of 5MP1:eIF2 complex, nearly comparable to that of eIF5:eIF2 complex produced by eIF5 overexpression. Overexpression of eIF5, 5MP1 and 5MP2, the second human paralog, promotes ATF4 expression in certain types of human cells including fibrosarcoma. 5MP overexpression also induces ATF4 expression in Drosophila The knockdown of 5MP1 in fibrosarcoma attenuates ATF4 expression and its tumor formation on nude mice. Since 5MP2 is overproduced in salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma, we propose that overexpression of eIF5 and 5MP induces translation of ATF4 and potentially other genes with uORFs in their mRNA leaders through delayed re-initiation, thereby enhancing the survival of normal and cancer cells under stress conditions. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. A systematic review of fantasy driven vs. contact driven internet-initiated sexual offences: Discrete or overlapping typologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Laura Jayne; Izura, Cristina; Lorenzo-Dus, Nuria

    2018-05-01

    Within the literature individuals who use the internet to facilitate the sexual abuse of a minor are generally classified as being fantasy or contact driven. Classification is based upon the intended location for sexual climax: fantasy driven individuals aim to reach sexual climax online, whereas contact driven individuals target minors to achieve physical sex offline. This review systematically investigates whether there is an empirical basis for the distinction between these two proposed discrete types. Comparison of tactics and behaviour are considered to examine whether the contact vs. fantasy distinction is useful. A two-stage literature selection process, considered against pre-determined inclusion criteria, identified a total of twenty-two studies. As methodological heterogeneity limited the ability to conduct pooled analysis, a narrative synthesis of data employing an interpretive approach was conducted. This showed that the contact and fantasy distinction is ambiguous, given that both groups engage in online behaviours that provide them with online sexual gratification that can also lead to offline contact. Furthermore, no clear pattern of behaviour was found to define contact and fantasy individuals idiosyncratically. The European Online Grooming Project typology is thus proposed as a better representation of this behaviour; intimacy seeking, adaptable and hypersexualized groups. The distinction between these groups focuses primarily on the intensity of the relationship, acknowledging that sexual abuse can occur with or without offline contact. This review also highlights the need for larger, methodologically robust studies that examine the behaviour of online child sexual offenders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse linked to suicidal ideation and attempts: findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors.

  7. The timing and role of initiation rites in preparing young people for adolescence and responsible sexual and reproductive behaviour in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthali, Alister C; Zulu, Eliya M

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines timing of puberty and mechanisms through which society prepares adolescents to understand and deal with it in Malawi. Data from a national representative survey of adolescents and in-depth interviews also conducted with adolescents are used. SPSS was used to analyse survey data while N6 was used to analyse qualitative data. Results show that the onset of menarche in girls and various pubertal body changes in boys can be a cause of joy, excitement, or distress depending on how adolescents understand what this means to them at this critical stage when they start defining and comprehending their sexuality. Much more emphasis is put on educating girls about reproductive implications of menarche than on what is expected of boys as sexual beings, which may contribute to boys' greater indulgence in risky sexual behaviors than girls. The significance of initiation ceremonies in some communities provides an important platform through which programs can reach many adolescents and intervene, particularly in addressing the widely held notion among initiates that attending these ceremonies symbolizes that one is not a child anymore and can have sex.

  8. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexual Orientation Identity Disparities in Awareness and Initiation of the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Among U.S. Women and Girls: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Gordon, Allegra R; Haneuse, Sebastien; Potter, Jennifer E; Austin, S Bryn

    2015-07-21

    Lesbians and bisexual women are at risk for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection from female and male sexual partners. To examine the association between sexual orientation identity and HPV vaccination among U.S. women and girls. Cross-sectional, using 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth data. U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population. The 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth used stratified cluster sampling to establish a national probability sample of 12,279 U.S. women and girls aged 15 to 44 years. Analyses were restricted to 3253 women and girls aged 15 to 25 years who were asked about HPV vaccination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain prevalence estimates of HPV vaccine awareness and initiation adjusted for sociodemographic and health care factors for each sexual orientation identity group. Among U.S. women and girls aged 15 to 25 years, 84.4% reported having heard of the HPV vaccine; of these, 28.5% had initiated HPV vaccination. The adjusted prevalence of vaccine awareness was similar among heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian respondents. After adjustment for covariates, 8.5% (P = 0.007) of lesbians and 33.2% (P = 0.33) of bisexual women and girls who had heard of the vaccine had initiated vaccination compared with 28.4% of their heterosexual counterparts. Self-reported, cross-sectional data, and findings may not be generalizable to periods after 2006 to 2010 or all U.S. lesbians aged 15 to 25 years (because of the small sample size for this group). Adolescent and young adult lesbians may be less likely to initiate HPV vaccination than their heterosexual counterparts. Programs should facilitate access to HPV vaccination services among young lesbians. National Cancer Institute.

  10. Gendered Sexuality : Exploring dynamics of the sexual double standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerink, P.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/363312633

    2017-01-01

    The sexual double standard (SDS) is a divergent set of expectations for boys and men, and girls and women for engaging in romantic and sexual behaviour. It prescribes that boys and men should be sexually active, assertive and take sexual initiative, whereas girls and women should be sexually

  11. Induction of the 5S RNP-Mdm2-p53 ribosomal stress pathway delays the initiation but fails to eradicate established murine acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaako, P; Ugale, A; Wahlestedt, M; Velasco-Hernandez, T; Cammenga, J; Lindström, M S; Bryder, D

    2017-01-01

    Mutations resulting in constitutive activation of signaling pathways that regulate ribosome biogenesis are among the most common genetic events in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, whether ribosome biogenesis presents as a therapeutic target to treat AML remains unexplored. Perturbations in ribosome biogenesis trigger the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP)-Mdm2-p53 ribosomal stress pathway, and induction of this pathway has been shown to have therapeutic efficacy in Myc-driven lymphoma. In the current study we address the physiological and therapeutic role of the 5S RNP-Mdm2-p53 pathway in AML. By utilizing mice that have defective ribosome biogenesis due to downregulation of ribosomal protein S19 (Rps19), we demonstrate that induction of the 5S RNP-Mdm2-p53 pathway significantly delays the initiation of AML. However, even a severe Rps19 deficiency that normally results in acute bone marrow failure has no consistent efficacy on already established disease. Finally, by using mice that harbor a mutation in the Mdm2 gene disrupting its binding to 5S RNP, we show that loss of the 5S RNP-Mdm2-p53 pathway is dispensable for development of AML. Our study suggests that induction of the 5S RNP-Mdm2-p53 ribosomal stress pathway holds limited potential as a single-agent therapy in the treatment of AML.

  12. Contratransferência no atendimento inicial de vítimas de violência sexual e urbana: uma pesquisa qualitativa/quantitativa Countertransference in the initial care of victims of sexual and urban violence: a qualitative-quantitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Eizirik

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a contratransferência dos terapeutas durante o atendimento inicial de pacientes mulheres vítimas de violência sexual e urbana, investigando a influência do gênero do terapeuta e da natureza e momento do trauma. MÉTODO: A amostra foi composta por 36 relatos redigidos por médicos residentes de psiquiatria do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, oriundos do atendimento de 36 pacientes. Este estudo utilizou métodos qualitativos e quantitativos para a análise dos seus dados. Os relatos foram classificados em seis grupos, conforme o gênero do terapeuta e a natureza do trauma. Foi realizada a análise de conteúdo dos relatos. Associou-se uma análise estatística dos dados. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio de sentimentos de aproximação nos terapeutas de ambos os sexos no atendimento de vítimas de violência sexual. Entre terapeutas mulheres, a natureza do trauma (sexual ou urbano não influenciou os padrões contratransferenciais (p = 0,7. Entre os terapeutas homens, ao contrário, a natureza do trauma influenciou de forma significativa (p = 0,044 o padrão contratransferencial, havendo um número elevado de sentimentos de distanciamento nos relatos de atendimentos de vítimas de violência urbana. CONCLUSÕES: Houve um predomínio de sentimentos de aproximação dos terapeutas de ambos os sexos no atendimento inicial de pacientes vítimas de violência sexual. Foi observado um predomínio de sentimentos de distanciamento nos terapeutas homens que atenderam vítimas de violência urbana. Mais estudos são necessários para uma melhor compreensão das relações terapêuticas nos atendimentos de vítimas de trauma psíquico.OBJECTIVE: To assess therapists' countertransference during initial care of female victims of sexual and urban violence with the aim of investigating influence of therapist's gender, type and moment of trauma. METHODS: The sample comprised 36 reports written by psychiatry residents at Hospital de Cl

  13. Countertransference in the initial visit of women victims of sexual violence Contratransferência no atendimento inicial de mulheres vítimas de violência sexual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Eizirik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify demographic and clinical correlates associated with therapists' countertransference feelings on the first visit of women victims of sexual violence. METHOD: Forty patients were seen by 26 therapists, during 2 consecutive years, at the Center for the Study and Treatment of Psychological Trauma, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre , Brazil. After the first visit with the patient, the therapist completed the Assessment of Countertransference Scale and the patient was evaluated with the Davidson Trauma Scale, the Standardized Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Defense Style Questionnaire. RESULTS:The therapists showed a predominance of feelings of closeness (Mean = 5.42, SD = 1.25 in relation to the feelings of indifference (Mean = 1.82, SD = 1.22 and distance (Mean = 1.57, SD = 1.08 [p OBJETIVO: Identificar os correlatos demográficos e clínicos associados com sentimentos contratransferenciais de terapeutas na primeira consulta de mulheres vítimas de violência sexual. MÉTODO: Quarenta pacientes foram atendidas por 26 terapeutas, ao longo de dois anos consecutivos, no Núcleo de Estudos e Tratamento do Trauma Psíquico do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Após a primeira consulta com a paciente, o terapeuta preenchia a Escala para Avaliação da Contratransferência. Os pacientes foram avaliados com a Escala Davidson de Trauma, a Standardized Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale, o Inventário de Depressão de Beck, e a versão em português do Defense Style Questionaire. RESULTADOS: Os terapeutas apresentaram predominantemente sentimentos de proximidade (Mean = 5,42, SD = 1,25 em comparação aos sentimentos de indiferença (Mean = 1,82, SD = 1,22 e de distanciamento (Mean = 1,57, SD = 1,08 [p < 0,001]. As análises multivariadas revelaram a ausência de associações entre os sentimentos contratransferenciais e características clínicas dos

  14. Delay of insulin initiation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with oral hypoglycemic agents (analysis of patient- and physician-related factors): A prospective observational DIPP-FACTOR study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sin Gon; Kim, Nam Hoon; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shon, Ho Sang; Kim, Doo Man; Park, Tae Sun; Kim, Yong-Seong; Kim, In Joo; Choi, Dong Seop

    2017-05-01

    To assess the time to initiation of insulin therapy, and concurrently investigate both patient- and physician-related factors associated with delaying insulin therapy in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled by oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs). This prospective, observational disease registry study was carried out across 69 centers in Korea. Type 2 diabetes patients who had received two or more OHAs within the past 5 years, had a glycated hemoglobin ≥8% in the past 6 months and had not received insulin were included. Data recorded on data collection forms during a 12-month period were analyzed. Of 2168 patients enrolled, 1959 were evaluated and classified as the insulin-initiated or insulin-delayed group. Insulin was prescribed for just 20% of the patients during a 1-year follow-up period, and less than half (44.5%) of the patients who were taking two OHAs started insulin after 6 years. Patient-related factors for delay in insulin initiation included older age, shorter duration of diabetes and lower glycated hemoglobin. Physician-related factors included age (~50 to 1000) of patients consulted per month. Patient refusal (33.6%) and physicians' concerns of patient non-compliance (26.5%) were the major physician-reported reasons for delaying insulin therapy. Inconvenience of insulin therapy (51.6%) and fear of injection (48.2%) were the major reasons for patient refusal. Insulin initiation is delayed in patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled by two or more OHAs in Korea. Patient- and physician-related factors associated with this delay need to be addressed for better diabetes management. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Early smoking initiation, sexual behavior and reproductive health - a large population-based study of Nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo Terning; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    2010-01-01

    To investigate associations between early smoking initiation, risk-taking behavior and reproductive health.......To investigate associations between early smoking initiation, risk-taking behavior and reproductive health....

  16. Countertransference in the initial care of victims of sexual and urban violence: a qualitative-quantitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Eizirik, Mariana; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Schestatsky, Sidnei; Jaeger, Maria Amélia; Ceitlin, Lúcia Helena Freitas

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a contratransferência dos terapeutas durante o atendimento inicial de pacientes mulheres vítimas de violência sexual e urbana, investigando a influência do gênero do terapeuta e da natureza e momento do trauma. MÉTODO: A amostra foi composta por 36 relatos redigidos por médicos residentes de psiquiatria do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, oriundos do atendimento de 36 pacientes. Este estudo utilizou métodos qualitativos e quantitativos para a análise dos seus dados. Os ...

  17. Genital tract lesions in sexually mature Göttingen minipigs during the initial stages of experimental vaginal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erneholm, Karin; Lorenzen, Emma; Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Andersen, Peter; Cassidy, Joseph P; Follmann, Frank; Jensen, Henrik E; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2016-09-10

    Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans worldwide, causing chronic lesions in the reproductive tract. Due to its often asymptomatic course, there is limited knowledge about the initial changes in the genital tract following infection. This study employs a novel sexually mature minipig model to investigate the initial histopathological changes following vaginal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D. A vaginal inoculation resulted in an infection primarily affecting the lower genital tract. The histopathological changes were characterized by a subepithelial inflammation consisting of neutrophils and mononuclear cells, followed by an increase in the number of plasma cells within the sub-epithelial stroma of the vagina. Detection of Chlamydia was associated with expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-8 by superficial epithelial cells. The infection was self-limiting, with a duration of 7 days. Neutrophils, plasma cells and IL-8 have been linked with Chlamydia genital infection of unknown duration in human patients. In this study, we observe a similar pattern of local immune response/inflammation following experimental inoculation suggesting this porcine model shows promise as a model for translational chlamydia research.

  18. Trading Later Rewards for Current Pleasure: Pornography Consumption and Delay Discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Sesen; Sheppard, Nicole Van Ness; Lambert, Nathaniel M; Fincham, Frank D

    2016-01-01

    Internet pornography is a multi-billion-dollar industry that has grown increasingly accessible. Delay discounting involves devaluing larger, later rewards in favor of smaller, more immediate rewards. The constant novelty and primacy of sexual stimuli as particularly strong natural rewards make Internet pornography a unique activator of the brain's reward system, thereby having implications for decision-making processes. Based on theoretical studies of evolutionary psychology and neuroeconomics, two studies tested the hypothesis that consuming Internet pornography would relate to higher rates of delay discounting. Study 1 used a longitudinal design. Participants completed a pornography use questionnaire and a delay discounting task at Time 1 and then again four weeks later. Participants reporting higher initial pornography use demonstrated a higher delay discounting rate at Time 2, controlling for initial delay discounting. Study 2 tested for causality with an experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to abstain from either their favorite food or pornography for three weeks. Participants who abstained from pornography use demonstrated lower delay discounting than participants who abstained from their favorite food. The finding suggests that Internet pornography is a sexual reward that contributes to delay discounting differently than other natural rewards. Theoretical and clinical implications of these studies are highlighted.

  19. Acute poisoning following ingestion of medicines: initial management. How to treat life-threatening complications and to evaluate the risk of delayed effects and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    activated charcoal, provided the patient is fully conscious and capable of swallowing safely. Gastric lavage carries a risk of serious adverse effects. It is only justified in the rare cases in which the patient's life is at risk following ingestion of a drug that is not adsorbed by activated charcoal. Ipecac syrup should not be used under any circumstances. Purging and gastric lavage are not part of initial management. Few antidotes are suitable for use in the early stages of poisoning. Acetylcysteine can be used for some cases of paracetamol poisoning, and naloxone for some types of opioid poisoning. Paracetamol poisoning can cause life-threatening hepatocellular necrosis. Activated charcoal should be administered as soon as possible. Acetylcysteine protects the liver when administered within 24 hours after paracetamol ingestion. Paracetamol serum assay can be useful for guiding patient management. In practice, acetylcysteine should be given when access to emergency medical intervention is not feasible within 8 to 10 hours after paracetamol ingestion. Intravenous naloxone is useful for respiratory depression due to opioid poisoning, but its duration of action is often shorter than that of opioids, making continuous monitoring necessary. Hospital monitoring is warranted in case of potentially severe poisoning; this includes patients at increased risk, patients having taken a potentially lethal substance at a toxic or unknown dose. Some pharmacological substances and formulations can have delayed effects. In case of self-poisoning, the risk of short-term relapse should be evaluated, even when the patient's condition is not life-threatening. Hospital admission should be proposed, or sometimes imposed, until the acute risk of suicide has subsided. In practice, when faced with acute drug poisoning, the first step is to implement life-support measures, to gather and communicate prognostic information and details of any treatments to the ambulance crew or hospital team.

  20. Adolescent sexual victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P

    2012-01-01

    at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early......The present study set out to investigate predictors of first time adolescent peer-on-peer sexual victimization (APSV) among 238 female Grade 9 students from 30 schools in Denmark. A prospective research design was utilized to examine the relationship among five potential predictors as measured...... sexual onset and failing to signal sexual boundaries did not. The present study identifies specific risk factors for first time sexual victimization that are potentially changeable. Thus, the results may inform prevention initiatives targeting initial experiences of APSV....

  1. The success factors of scaling-up Estonian sexual and reproductive health youth clinic network--from a grassroots initiative to a national programme 1991-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempers, Jari; Ketting, Evert; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raudsepp, Triin

    2015-01-08

    A growing number of middle-income countries are scaling up youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health pilot projects to national level programmes. Yet, there are few case studies on successful national level scale-up of such programmes. Estonia is an excellent example of scale-up of a small grassroots adolescent sexual and reproductive health initiative to a national programme, which most likely contributed to improved adolescent sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This study; (1) documents the scale-up process of the Estonian youth clinic network 1991-2013, and (2) analyses factors that contributed to the successful scale-up. This research provides policy makers and programme managers with new insights to success factors of the scale-up, that can be used to support planning, implementation and scale-up of adolescent sexual and reproductive health programmes in other countries. Information on the scale-up process and success factors were collected by conducting a literature review and interviewing key stakeholders. The findings were analysed using the WHO-ExpandNet framework, which provides a step-by-step process approach for design, implementation and assessment of the results of scaling-up health innovations. The scale-up was divided into two main phases: (1) planning the scale-up strategy 1991-1995 and (2) managing the scaling-up 1996-2013. The planning phase analysed innovation, user organizations (youth clinics), environment and resource team (a national NGO and international assistance). The managing phase examines strategic choices, advocacy, organization, resource mobilization, monitoring and evaluation, strategic planning and management of the scale-up. The main factors that contributed to the successful scale-up in Estonia were: (1) favourable social and political climate, (2) clear demonstrated need for the adolescent services, (3) a national professional organization that advocated, coordinated and represented the youth clinics, (4) enthusiasm

  2. Outcomes of Sexual Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…

  3. Entre a modernidade e a tradição: a iniciação sexual de adolescentes piauienses universitárias Entre la modernidad y la tradición: la inicialización sexual de los adolescentes de las universidades de Piauí Between modernity and tradition: sexual initiation of university teens originally from Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosilene Cândido Moreira

    2011-09-01

    noviembre de 2009. Se han revelado cosas en común entre el comportamiento sexual y cultural permitiendo visualizar el poder ejercido por los sistemas de representación social. Es importante poner en punto sobre la necesidad de mirar meticulosamente sobre el asunto, pues son emergentes en los varios escenarios del existir humano.Sexuality as a phenomenon that provides unique moments for people discover each other, it means oneself and another, allowing the realization of permeated practices by acquired symbolizations in adolescence. Being influenced by genetic, social and cultural rights factors, adolescent sexual behavior is often permeated by conflict situations. This study aimed to disclose sexual behaviors of Nursing University female students from Federal University of Piauí, as well as their mechanisms of influence and understanding the aspect that surrounds sexual initiation, considering the obstacles caused by the traditional training and modernizing aspirations. We adopted an ethnography method, by applying profound interviews with twelve students in the months of October and November, 2009. Interviews stood out intersection between sexual behavior and culture, allowing you to see the power exercised by the systems of social representation. It is important to emphasize the need for more importance and attention to the subject for being emergent in several scenes of human existence.

  4. Delayed fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    Delayed fission is a nuclear decay process that couples {beta} decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes {beta} decay and thereby populates excited states in the daughter. If these states are of energies comparable to or greater than the fission barrier of the daughter, then fission may compete with other decay modes of the excited states in the daughter. In this paper, mechanism and some experiments of the delayed fission will be discussed. (author)

  5. Factors related to sexual practices and successful sexually transmitted infection/HIV intervention programs for Latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Me; Dancy, Barbara; Florez, Elizabeth; Holm, Karyn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review was to explore factors that are related to sexual practices among Latino adolescents and identify which of those factors are common across successful sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention programs for Latino adolescents. An integrative literature review was conducted. Search terms included Latino, Hispanic, education, intervention/prevention programs, sex, sexuality, reproductive health, health risk behaviors, multiple sex partners, contraception, STI/HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, delay in initiation of sexual intercourse, consistent use of birth control, avoidance of STI/HIV infections, unintended pregnancy, cultural factors, and gender roles. Findings revealed from the review of 17 articles addressing factors related to sexual practices among Latino adolescents included familialism, religion, gender roles, level of knowledge/information, and privacy/confidentiality. Five successful STI/HIV intervention programs, that incorporated those factors to effectively reduce risky sexual behaviors were identified. STI/HIV knowledge and gender roles were recognized as common factors integrated into and across successful intervention programs for this population. Only STI/HIV knowledge and gender roles were found as common factors across the five successful STI/HIV intervention programs and should be incorporated into future intervention programs that are culturally and gender specific. Therefore, health care providers need to understand culturally related gender roles and their impact on sexual practices to provide culturally sensitive and appropriate sex education about STIs and HIV for Latino adolescents to increase the program potential for reducing STI/HIV. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Factors influencing children to self-disclose sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Mary L; Hansen, David J

    2002-03-01

    Self-disclosure by victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is critical to initiate legal and therapeutic intervention. Unfortunately, research indicates that lengthy delays in disclosure and even nondisclosure are common. A comprehensive review of the clinical and research literature on CSA and an overview of related bodies of literature was conducted. Areas addressed include the context of sexual abuse as it relates to disclosure, the context and elements of children's disclosures, motivational factors inhibiting disclosure, and models of the disclosure process. Ancillary and analogue research on secrecy and disclosure are also reviewed. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  7. Delayed initiation of radiotherapy for glioblastoma: how important is it to push to the front (or the back) of the line?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Yaacov Richard; Blumenthal, Deborah T; Matceyevsky, Diana; Kanner, Andrew A; Bokstein, Felix; Corn, Benjamin W

    2011-10-01

    Glioblastoma is a malignant tumor characterized by a rapid proliferation rate. Contemporary multi-modality treatment consists of maximal surgical resection followed by radiation therapy (RT) combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy. The optimal timing of these different steps is not known. Four studies from the pre-temozolomide era, encompassing a total of 4,584 subjects, have examined the consequences of a delay between resection and starting RT. Whereas the two small single-institution studies found this delay to be detrimental, two large multi-institutional studies found delay to be either slightly beneficial or at least not harmful. Here, we critically compare the methodologies and results presented in these studies, and include a novel analysis of the combined datasets. We conclude that moderate wait periods (up to 4-6 weeks post-operatively) are safe and may be modestly beneficial. Conversely, there is no evidence to justify waiting longer than 6 weeks. Underlying radiobiological principles are discussed.

  8. Study protocol for the Integra Initiative to assess the benefits and costs of integrating sexual and reproductive health and HIV services in Kenya and Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Charlotte E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA there are strong arguments for the provision of integrated sexual and reproductive health (SRH and HIV services. Most HIV transmissions are sexually transmitted or associated with pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding. Many of the behaviours that prevent HIV transmission also prevent sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. There is potential for integration to increase the coverage of HIV services, as individuals who use SRH services can benefit from HIV services and vice-versa, as well as increase cost-savings. However, there is a dearth of empirical evidence on effective models for integrating HIV/SRH services. The need for robust evidence led a consortium of three organizations – International Planned Parenthood Federation, Population Council and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine – to design/implement the Integra Initiative. Integra seeks to generate rigorous evidence on the feasibility, effectiveness, cost and impact of different models for delivering integrated HIV/SRH services in high and medium HIV prevalence settings in SSA. Methods/design A quasi-experimental study will be conducted in government clinics in Kenya and Swaziland – assigned into intervention/comparison groups. Two models of service delivery are investigated: integrating HIV care/treatment into 1 family planning and 2 postnatal care. A full economic-costing will be used to assess the costs of different components of service provision, and the determinants of variations in unit costs across facilities/service models. Health facility assessments will be conducted at four time-periods to track changes in quality of care and utilization over time. A two-year cohort study of family planning/postnatal clients will assess the effect of integration on individual outcomes, including use of SRH services, HIV status (known/unknown and pregnancy (planned/unintended. Household surveys within some

  9. Uma contribuição ao entendimento da iniciação sexual feminina na adolescência Una contribución a la comprensión de la iniciación sexual femenina en la adolescencia Understanding female sexual initiation in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella R. Taquette

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O início da atividade sexual com envolvimento genital acontece, em geral, durante a adolescência e, na atualidade, tem ocorrido em idades mais precoces, o que pode resultar em gestações não esperadas e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de entender alguns aspectos da iniciação sexual feminina entre adolescentes de baixa renda, grupo social mais vulnerável às suas conseqüências indesejáveis. O método utilizado foi qualitativo por meio de reuniões em grupo e entrevistas individuais semi-estruturadas, e a população alvo composta por trabalhadoras da indústria calçadista da cidade de Franca - SP. Os resultados indicam que as adolescentes com investimento afetivo familiar se apropriam mais de sua sexualidade, agem com maior proteção e não se submetem meramente à satisfação dos desejos de outrem.El inicio de la actividad sexual con envolvimiento genital tiene lugar, en general, durante la adolescencia y, en la actualidad, ha ocurrido en edades más precoces, lo que puede resultar en gestaciones no esperadas y enfermedades transmisibles sexualmente. Este estudio fue realizado con el objetivo de entender algunos aspectos de la iniciación sexual femenina entre adolescentes de baja renda, grupo social más vulnerable a sus consecuencias indeseables. El método utilizado fue el cualitativo por medio de reuniones en grupo y encuestas individuales semiestructuradas, y la población blanco compuesta por trabajadoras de la industria del calzado de la ciudad de Franca - en el estado de São Paulo, en Brasil. Los resultados señalan que las adolescentes con inversión afectiva familiar se apropian más de su sexualidad, se manejan con mayor protección y no se someten meramente a la satisfacción de los deseos del otro.Articles that essentialize the difference between feminine and masculine characteristics have obtained especial attention in The initiation of sexual activity involving

  10. Sexual Anxiety and Eroticism Predict the Development of Sexual Problems in Youth With a History of Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Valerie A.; Feiring, Candice

    2008-01-01

    Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, i...

  11. Behavioral and psychosocial effects of two middle school sexual health education programs at tenth-grade follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Christine M; Peskin, Melissa F; Shegog, Ross; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Thiel, Melanie; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Robin, Leah; Tortolero, Susan R

    2014-02-01

    An earlier randomized controlled trial found that two middle school sexual education programs-a risk avoidance (RA) program and a risk reduction (RR) program-delayed initiation of sexual intercourse (oral, vaginal, or anal sex) and reduced other sexual risk behaviors in ninth grade. We examined whether these effects extended into 10th grade. Fifteen middle schools were randomly assigned to RA, RR, or control conditions. Follow-up surveys were conducted with participating students in 10th grade (n = 1,187; 29.2% attrition). Participants were 60% female, 50% Hispanic, and 39% black; seventh grade mean age was 12.6 years. In 10th grade, compared with the control condition, both programs significantly delayed anal sex initiation in the total sample (RA: adjusted odds ratio [AOR], .64, 95% confidence interval [CI], .42-.99; RR: AOR, .65, 95% CI, .50-.84) and among Hispanics (RA: AOR, .53, 95% CI, .31-.91; RR: AOR, .82, 95% CI, .74-.93). Risk avoidance students were less likely to report unprotected vaginal sex, either by using a condom or by abstaining from sex (AOR: .61, 95% CI, .45-.85); RR students were less likely to report recent unprotected anal sex (AOR: .34, 95% CI, .20-.56). Both programs sustained positive impact on some psychosocial outcomes. Although both programs delayed anal sex initiation into 10th grade, effects on the delayed initiation of oral and vaginal sex were not sustained. Additional high school sexual education may help to further delay sexual initiation and reduce other sexual risk behaviors in later high school years. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. African-American Fathers' Perspectives on Facilitators and Barriers to Father-Son Sexual Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Schenita D; Coakley, Tanya; Shears, Jeffrey; Thorpe, Roland J

    2017-06-01

    African-American males ages 13 through 24 are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), accounting for over half of all HIV infections in this age group in the United States. Clear communication between African-American parents and their youth about sexual health is associated with higher rates of sexual abstinence, condom use, and intent to delay initiation of sexual intercourse. However, little is known about African-American fathers' perceptions of what facilitates and inhibits sexual health communication with their preadolescent and adolescent sons. We conducted focus groups with 29 African-American fathers of sons ages 10-15 to explore perceived facilitators and barriers for father-son communication about sexual health. Participants were recruited from barbershops in metropolitan and rural North Carolina communities highly affected by STIs and HIV, and data were analyzed using content analysis. Three factors facilitated father-son communication: (a) fathers' acceptance of their roles and responsibilities; (b) a positive father-son relationship; and (c) fathers' ability to speak directly to their sons about sex. We also identified three barriers: (a) fathers' difficulty in initiating sexual health discussions with their sons; (b) sons' developmental readiness for sexual health information; and (c) fathers' lack of experience in talking with their own fathers about sex. These findings have implications for father-focused prevention interventions aimed at reducing risky sexual behaviors in adolescent African-American males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Delayed power analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, L.A.; Azarov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Time dependent core power behavior in a nuclear reactor is described with well-known neutron kinetics equations. At the same time, two portions are distinguished in energy released from uranium nuclei fission; one released directly at fission and another delayed (residual) portion produced during radioactive decay of fission products. While prompt power is definitely described with kinetics equations, the delayed power presentation still remains outstanding. Since in operation the delayed power part is relatively small (about 6%) operation, it can be neglected for small reactivity disturbances assuming that entire power obeys neutron kinetics equations. In case of a high negative reactivity rapidly inserted in core (e.g. reactor scram initiation) the prompt and delayed components can be calculated separately with practically no impact on each other, employing kinetics equations for prompt power and known approximation formulas for delayed portion, named residual in this specific case. Under substantial disturbances the prompt component in the dynamic process becomes commensurable with delayed portion, thus making necessary to take into account their cross impact. A system of differential equations to describe time-dependent behavior of delayed power is presented. Specific NPP analysis shows a way to significantly simplify the task formulation. (author)

  14. Delayed Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, it is due to a combination of physical and psychological concerns. Psychological causes of delayed ejaculation include: Depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions Relationship problems due to stress, poor communication ...

  15. Delayed growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; Growth delay Images Toddler development References Cooke DW, Divall SA, Radovick S. Normal and aberrant growth in children. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, ...

  16. [Adolescent sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions.

  17. Discounting of Condom-Protected Sex as a Measure of High Risk for Sexually Transmitted Infection Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Anahí; Johnson, Patrick S; Loya, Jennifer M; Johnson, Matthew W; Yi, Richard

    2017-10-01

    The study examined sexual delay discounting, or the devaluation of condom-protected sex in the face of delay, as a risk factor for sexually transmitted infection (STI) among college students. Participants (143 females, 117 males) completed the sexual delay discounting task (Johnson & Bruner, 2012) and questionnaires of risky sexual behavior, risk perception, and knowledge. Participants exhibited steeper sexual delay discounting (above and beyond general likelihood of having unprotected sex) when partners were viewed as more desirable or less likely to have a STI, with males demonstrating greater sexual delay discounting than females across most conditions. Importantly, greater self-reported risky sexual behaviors were associated with higher rates of sexual delay discounting, but not with likelihood of using a condom in the absence of delay. These results provide support for considering sexual delay discounting, with particular emphasis on potential delays to condom use, as a risk factor for STI among college students.

  18. Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Indian Health Careers Indian Preference Loan Repayment Military Transition Student ... Sexual Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American Indians and Alaska Natives. Sexual assault ...

  19. Age at migration, family instability, and timing of sexual onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Rachel E; Tienda, Marta; Adserà, Alícia

    2017-03-01

    This study builds on and extends previous research on nativity variations in adolescent health and risk behavior by addressing three questions: (1) whether and how generational status and age at migration are associated with timing of sexual onset among U.S. adolescents; (2) whether and how family instability mediates associations between nativity and sexual debut; and (3) whether and how these associations vary by gender. We find that first- and second-generation immigrant youth initiate sexual activity later than native youth. Foreign-born youth who migrate after the start of adolescence exhibit the latest sexual onset; boys' sexual behavior is particularly sensitive to age at migration. Parental union stability is protective for first- and second-generation youth, especially boys; however, instability in co-residence with parents accelerates sexual debut for foreign-born girls, and dilutes protections from parental marital stability. Use of a non-English language at home delays sexual onset for immigrant girls, but not boys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Use of Video Modeling with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Increase Independent Communicative Initiations in Preschoolers with Autism and Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihak, David F.; Smith, Catherine C.; Cornett, Ashlee; Coleman, Mari Beth

    2012-01-01

    The use of video modeling (VM) procedures in conjunction with the picture exchange communication system (PECS) to increase independent communicative initiations in preschool-age students was evaluated in this study. The four participants were 3-year-old children with limited communication skills prior to the intervention. Two of the students had…

  1. Developmental delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  2. Developmental Trajectories of Religiosity, Sexual Conservatism and Sexual Behavior among Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Woodrome, Stacy E.; Downs, Sarah M.; Hensel, Devon; Zimet, Gregory D.; Orr, Don P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity. PMID:24215966

  3. Whittling Down the Wait Time: Exploring Models to Minimize the Delay from Initial Concern to Diagnosis and Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Lipkin, Eliza; Foster, Jessica; Peacock, Georgina

    2016-10-01

    The process from initial concerns to diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be a long and complicated process. The traditional model for evaluation and diagnosis of ASD often consists of long wait-lists and evaluations that result in a 2-year difference between the earliest signs of ASD and mean age of diagnosis. Multiple factors contribute to this diagnostic bottleneck, including time-consuming evaluations, cost of care, lack of providers, and lack of comfort of primary care providers to diagnose autism. This article explores innovative clinical models that have been implemented to address this as well as future directions and opportunities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Urban Adolescents and Sexual Risk Taking

    OpenAIRE

    Hiršl-Hećej, V.; Štulhofer, A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper analyzes socio-cultural and psychosocial factors affecting sexual activities and related risk-taking behaviors in Croatian high-school students. It attempts to determine the correlates of sexual activity, early sexual initiation, the number of sexual partners, and the use of contraceptives and condoms. Due to the gender-specific trajectories of sexual socialization and initiation, all the analyses were carried out separately for female and male students. The results p...

  5. Social norms of sexual initiation among adolescents and gender relations Normas sociales de iniciación sexual entre adolescentes y relaciones de género Normas sociais de iniciação sexual entre adolescentes e relações de gênero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify standards and expectations regarding sexual initiation of 14 to 18 year-old adolescents in Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, using data from four focal groups conducted in 2006. Results revealed that gender issues are clearly present in participants' reports and showed to be essential in their choices about the moment, partners and contraceptive practices in the first sexual relation. Adolescents are subordinated to gender roles, traditionally attributed to male and female genders, i.e. the notion that sex is an uncontrolled instinct for boys, and intrinsically and closely associated to love and desire for girls. Adolescents also play a preponderant role in the perpetuation of these values within the group they live in.Con el objetivo de identificar las normas y expectativas sociales que se encuentran en la iniciación sexual, fueron estudiados cuatro grupos de adolescentes entre 14 y 18 años de edad, en 2.006, en la ciudad de San Pablo, Brasil. Los datos mostraron que las cuestiones de género están claramente presentes en los discursos de los entrevistados y se mostraron fundamentales en las elecciones sobre: el momento, el compañero y las prácticas contraceptivas que se encuentran en la vivencia de la primera relación sexual. Los adolescentes están subordinados a los papeles de género, tradicionalmente atribuidos a los hombres y a las mujeres, y al concepto de que el sexo es un instinto físico e incontrolable entre los muchachos, y a la intrínseca relación entre el amor, el deseo y el sexo entre las muchachas; estas percepciones tienen también un papel preponderante para mantener estos valores en el grupo en que viven.Com o objetivo de identificar normas e expectativas sociais que cercam a iniciação sexual, foram estudados quatro grupos focais com adolescentes de 14 a 18 anos de idade, em 2006, na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Os dados mostraram que as questões de gênero estão claramente presentes nos

  6. Factors associated with sexual initiation and condom use among adolescents on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, West Africa Fatores associados ao início da vida sexual e o uso de preservativo entre adolescentes da Ilha de Santiago, Cabo Verde, África Ocidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mendes Tavares

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on factors associated with sexual initiation and condom use among teenagers on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, according to gender. This was a representative, probabilistic sample of 13-to-17-year-olds (n = 768 attending public secondary schools on Santiago Island in 2007. Associations were tested by test of proportion, Pearson's chi-square, or Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Factors related to sexual initiation among boys were: age over 14 years, Catholic religion, and alcohol consumption. For girls, the factors included: > 9 years of schooling and involvement in an affective-sexual relationship. Unlike other Sub-Saharan countries, this study showed a high prevalence of condom use during initial sexual activity. Adolescents are able to safely begin sexually active life if they have access to information, sex education, and other STD prevention and contraceptive methods. This study provides insights on the development of policies to reduce the vulnerability of the young population to STD/AIDS and the limits and challenges related to the promotion of condom use and sex education, focusing on unequal gender relations.Foram analisados fatores associados ao início da vida sexual de adolescentes na Ilha de Santiago, Cabo Verde, segundo sexo. Estudo realizado com amostra probabilística e representativa de 768 adolescentes, age 13-17 anos, de escolas secundárias públicas da Ilha de Santiago em 2007. A associação foi testada pelo teste de proporção, qui-quadrado de Pearson ou Fisher e regressão logística. Nos rapazes, os fatores associados ao início da vida sexual foram: idade maior que 14 anos, ser católico e consumo de bebidas alcoólicas. Para meninas: escolaridade maior que nove anos e ter parceiro afetivo-sexual. Ao contrário de outros contextos da África Subsaariana, foram constatadas taxas elevadas de uso de preservativo por adolescentes no início da vida sexual. Os adolescentes podem iniciar a

  7. Familia, amigos y otras fuentes de información asociadas al inicio de las relaciones sexuales en adolescentes de El Salvador Family, friends, and other sources of information associated with the initiation of sexual relations by adolescents in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Canela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio es comprobar cómo influyen en el inicio de la actividad sexual de los jóvenes salvadoreños los mensajes que reciben sobre cuestiones de sexualidad, afectividad y ocio a través de la familia, los amigos y los medios de comunicación. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal a partir de una muestra representativa de 2 615 estudiantes (de 13 a 19 años de El Salvador. Se utilizó un muestreo sistemático aleatorio para seleccionar 30 colegios. Se recogieron aspectos sociodemográficos, estilos de vida y fuentes de información sobre sexualidad y amor utilizadas por los jóvenes. RESULTADOS: La edad media de los jóvenes fue de 15 años (DE = 1,8. En total 638 (24,4% jóvenes afirmaron haber tenido relaciones sexuales. Los siguientes factores se asociaron con una mayor probabilidad de haber tenido relaciones sexuales: percibir que los hermanos (OR = 1,8, IC 95%: 1,2-2,7 o los amigos (OR = 1,7, IC 95%: 1,3-2,2 apoyan que se tengan relaciones sexuales. Como factores protectores se encontraron la supervisión de los padres (OR = 0,5, IC 95%: 0,4-0,7; recibir mensajes que apoyan la abstinencia por parte de amigos (OR = 0,7, IC 95%: 0,6-1,0 o hermanos (OR = 0,7, IC 95%: 0,5-0,8 y recibir mensajes favorables al matrimonio por parte de los padres (OR = 0,4, IC 95%: 0,3-0,6. CONCLUSIONES: Los mensajes de la familia y amigos son factores que parecen influir en el inicio de las relaciones sexuales de los jóvenes. Los programas de promoción de la salud sexual en El Salvador deberían tener en cuenta estos factores.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to verify the influence of messages Salvadorian youth receive about sexuality, affection, and leisure from family, friends, and the media on the initiation of sexual activity. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on a representative sample of 2 615 students (from 13 to 19 years of age in El Salvador. A random systematic sampling was used to select 30 schools. Sociodemographic

  8. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    . The underlying reasons for the large variation in the age at pubertal onset are not fully established; however, nutritional status and socioeconomic and environmental factors are known to be influencing, and a significant amount of influencing genetic factors have also been identified. The challenges...... optimal in discriminating especially CDGP from HH. Management of the delayed puberty depends on the etiology. For boys with CDGP an observational period will often reveal imminent puberty. If puberty is not progressing spontaneously, sex steroid replacement is effective in stimulating the development...

  9. Perceived realism moderates the relation between sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes in Dutch adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Doornwaard, Suzan M; Rommes, Els; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether the development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes would be more strongly interrelated when adolescents perceived sexualized media images as highly realistic. We used data from a three-wave longitudinal sample of 444 Dutch adolescents aged 13-16 years at baseline. Results from parallel process latent growth modeling multigroup analyses showed that higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were associated with higher initial level of permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, increases of sexualized media consumption over time were associated with increases of permissive sexual attitudes over time. Considering the moderation by perceived realism, we found these effects only for those who perceived sexualized media as more realistic. Findings for male and female adolescents were similar except for the relations between initial levels and subsequent development. Among male adolescents who perceived sexualized media images to be realistic, higher initial levels of permissive sexual attitudes were related to subsequent less rapid development of sexualized media consumption. For male adolescents who perceived sexualized media to be less realistic, higher initial levels of sexualized media consumption were related to a subsequent less rapid development of permissive sexual attitudes. These relations were not found for female adolescents. Overall, our results suggest that, in male and female adolescents, those with a high level of perceived realism showed a correlated development of sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes. These findings point to a need for extended information on how to guide adolescents in interpreting and handling sexualized media in everyday life.

  10. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and changes in sexual function are common. These physiological changes can include: A need for more stimulation ... page: Sexuality in later life. National Institute on Aging. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/sexuality- ...

  11. Sexual Education

    OpenAIRE

    Býmová, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    The subject matter of this diploma thesis "Sexual Education" is sexual education in the Czech Republic, specifically dedicated to the study of the integration of sexual education into the educational process in schools and families.

  12. Ciprofloxacin prophylaxis delays initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and reduces the overall use of antimicrobial agents during induction therapy for acute leukaemia: A single-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallböök, Helene; Lidström, Anna-Karin; Pauksens, Karlis

    2016-01-01

    Due to an outbreak of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, the routine use of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis was questioned. As a result, this study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the impact of ciprofloxacin-prophylaxis on the use of broad-spectrum antibioctics and anti-mycotics. A cohort of 139 consecutive patients with acute leukaemia treated with remission-inducing induction chemotherapy between 2004-2012 at the Department of Haematology in Uppsala University Hospital was analysed. Fifty-three patients (38%) received broad-spectrum antibiotics at the initiation of chemotherapy and were not eligible for prophylaxis. Of the remaining patients, the initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics was delayed by 3 days in those receiving ciprofloxacin prophylaxis (n = 47) compared with those receiving no prophylaxis (n = 39). The median duration of systemic antibiotic treatment was 6 days shorter in patients receiving ciprofloxacin prophylaxis (12 vs 18 days; p = 0.0005) and the cumulative (total) median days on systemic antibiotic treatment was shortened by 8 days (15 vs 23 days, p = 0.0008). Piperacillin/tazobactam (p = 0.02), carbapenems (p = 0.05) and empiric broad-spectrum antifungals (p antibiotic use in this study. These benefits must be evaluated vs the risks of development of resistant bacterial strains, making fluoroquinolone prophylaxis an open question for debate.

  13. Sexual activity of Polish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. Material and method. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15–49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company – TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI interviews were carried out. Results. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15, and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion. There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.

  14. Cognitive representations of sexual self differ as a function of gender and sexual debut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Schacht, Rebecca L; Mullins, Peter M; Blayney, Jessica A

    2011-02-01

    This research evaluated the association between gender and sexual debut (initial sexual intercourse) and indirect measures of sexuality. A sample of 440 U.S. college students (pre-sexual debut: 144 women, 153 men; post-sexual debut: 49 women, 94 men) completed the Sexual Self-Schema Scale (SSSS), which assessed cognitive representations about sexual aspects of oneself, and three Implicit Association Tests (IAT), which measured the strength of the associations between the concepts of self + sex, women + sex, and men + sex. Results replicated previous findings that (1) men more strongly associated self + sex and women + sex than did women, and (2) men and women had similarly strong associations of men + sex. Post-sexual debut women's self + sexual and women + sexual associations were stronger than pre-sexual debut women's. Men's associations did not differ significantly as a function of sexual debut. Post-sexual debut women's SSSS scores were more direct, more romantic, and less conservative than pre-sexual debut women's. Post-sexual debut men's SSSS scores were more aggressive and more open-minded than pre-sexual debut men's. Sexual debut appeared to be associated with sexualized and sexually liberal cognitive representations in women and, to a lesser extent, sexually liberal and aggressive cognitive representations in men. Findings were consistent with theories of cognitive consistency and provide preliminary evidence that sexual debut status was associated with differing cognitive representations.

  15. Sexuality in the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Sexuality is an important part of a person's life continuing into older age. Physiologic changes that occur with aging can affect sexual function and may be exacerbated by comorbid disease. To diagnose sexual dysfunction, providers must obtain a thorough history and physical examination, including psychosocial factors. The causes of sexual dysfunction along with patient preferences within the patient's social system serve as the foundation for developing person-centered strategies to address these concerns. To improve care of older adults with sexual concerns, providers should initiate discussions with, listen to, and work with patients to create a comprehensive management plan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neurokinin B is critical for normal timing of sexual maturation but dispensable for adult reproductive function in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Cadence; Nasrin Alam, Sayeda; Cox, Kimberly; Chan, Yee-Ming; Seminara, Stephanie B

    2015-04-01

    Humans carrying mutations in neurokinin B (NKB) or the NKB receptor fail to undergo puberty due to decreased secretion of GnRH. Despite this pubertal delay, many of these patients go on to achieve activation of their hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adulthood, a phenomenon termed reversal, indicating that NKB signaling may play a more critical role for the timing of pubertal development than adult reproductive function. NKB receptor-deficient mice are hypogonadotropic but have no defects in the timing of sexual maturation. The current study has performed the first phenotypic evaluation of mice bearing mutations in Tac2, the gene encoding the NKB ligand, to determine whether they have impaired sexual development similar to their human counterparts. Male Tac2-/- mice showed no difference in the timing of sexual maturation or fertility compared with wild-type littermates and were fertile. In contrast, Tac2-/- females had profound delays in sexual maturation, with time to vaginal opening and first estrus occurring significantly later than controls, and initial abnormalities in estrous cycles. However, cycling recovered in adulthood and Tac2-/- females were fertile, although they produced fewer pups per litter. Thus, female Tac2-/- mice parallel humans harboring NKB pathway mutations, with delayed sexual maturation and activation of the reproductive cascade later in life. Moreover, direct comparison of NKB ligand and receptor-deficient females confirmed that only NKB ligand-deficient animals have delayed sexual maturation, suggesting that in the absence of the NKB receptor, NKB may regulate the timing of sexual maturation through other tachykinin receptors.

  17. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  18. Preventing High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Pregnancy among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    Adolescent sexual activity and the resulting pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases have been on the rise during the past several decades. This chapter addresses each of the three objectives regarding sexual behavior outlined in the Healthy People 2000 initiative. Background data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior are…

  19. Values that Fathers Communicate to Sons about Sex, Sexuality, Relationships, and Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Tanya M; Randolph, Schenita D; Shears, Jeffrey; Collins, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    African American males between ages 13 and 24 are disproportionately affected by unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV/AIDS; indeed, they account for 50% of HIV infections among all youth. Clear communication between parents and their youth about sex is associated with higher rates of sexual abstinence, condom use, and intent to delay initiation of sexual intercourse, which can prevent STIs and unintended pregnancy. However, barriers exist for parents to educate their youth about sexual health. The purpose of this article is to explore the values fathers communicate to their sons to prevent their risky sexual behaviors that lead to STIs, HIV, and adolescent parenthood. This was a qualitative study conducted from May and June 2015. African American fathers (N = 29) who had sons, ages 10 to 15 years, participated in five focus groups across metropolitan and rural North Carolina communities in barbershops. A qualitative content analysis revealed four themes regarding areas that fathers imparted their values onto their sons to protect them from sexual health risks: (a) sex, (b) sexuality, (c) relationships, and (d) marriage. The findings have implications for social work and public health practice.

  20. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...... by numerical analysis with simulation. This paper proposes an analytical estimate of aggregate delay with a polynomial form. The function returns the aggregate delay of a railway line resulting from an initial, primary, delay. Analysis of the function demonstrates that there should be a balance between the two...

  1. The Relationship Between Sexual Abuse and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Adolescent Boys: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yuko; Wang, Naren; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Kishor, Nand

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been shown to lead to increased odds of sexual behaviors that lead to sexually transmitted infections and early pregnancy involvement. Research, meta-analyses, and interventions, however, have focused primarily on girls and young women who have experienced abuse, yet some adolescent boys are also sexually abused. We performed a meta-analysis of the existing studies to assess the magnitudes of the link between a history of sexual abuse and each of three risky sexual behaviors among adolescent boys in North America. Methods The three outcomes were a) unprotected sexual intercourse, b) multiple sexual partners, and c) pregnancy involvement. Weighted mean effect sizes were computed from 10 independent samples, from nine studies published between 1990 and 2011. Results Sexually abused boys were significantly more likely than non-abused boys to report all three risky sexual behaviors. Weighted mean odds ratios were 1.91 for unprotected intercourse, 2.91 for multiple sexual partners, and 4.81 for pregnancy involvement. Conclusions Our results indicate that childhood and adolescent sexual abuse can substantially Influence sexual behavior in adolescence among male survivors. To improve sexual health for all adolescents, even young men, we should strengthen sexual abuse prevention initiatives, raise awareness about male sexual abuse survivors’ existence and sexual health issues, improve sexual health promotion for abused young men, and screen all people, regardless of gender, for a history of sexual abuse. PMID:22727072

  2. Age differences at sexual debut and subsequent reproductive health: Is there a link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Heidi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experiences at sexual debut may be linked to reproductive health later in life. Additionally, young women with older sexual partners may be at greater risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections. This study examines sexual debut with an older partner and subsequent reproductive health outcomes among 599 sexually experienced women aged 15–24 who utilized voluntary counseling and testing or reproductive health services in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Methods Logistic regression models, controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors, examined whether age differences at first sex were significantly associated with STI diagnosis in the previous 12 months and family planning method use at last intercourse. Results Sixty-five percent of women reported sexual initiation with a partner younger or less than 5 years older, 28% with a partner 5 to 10 years older, and 7% with a partner 10 or more years older. There was a trend towards decreased likelihood of recent use of family planning methods in women who had first sexual intercourse with a partner 5 to 9 years older compared to women with partners who were younger or less than 5 years older. Age differences were not linked to recent STI diagnosis. Conclusion Programs focusing on delaying sexual debut should consider age and gender-based power differentials between younger women and older men. Future research should examine whether wide age differences at sexual debut are predictive of continued involvement in cross-generational relationships and risky sexual behaviors and explore the mechanisms by which cross-generational first sex and subsequent reproductive health may be connected.

  3. Delayed Puberty (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Delayed Puberty KidsHealth / For Teens / Delayed Puberty What's in this ... wonder if there's anything wrong. What Is Delayed Puberty? Puberty is the time when your body grows ...

  4. Sexual Essays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giles, James

    Through a series of interrelated essays, this book explores fundamental issues concerning gender, sexual and romantic attraction, sexual desire and fantasies, the sexual positions, age dysphoria, and the role of naked skin in human sexuality. It does so by exploring experiential, social, biological...... on sex. It is further argued that sexual desire is an existential need based on the experience of having a gendered body. A case study of age dysphoria is presented showing how the conclusions concerning concerning gender and desire apply in an atypical case. The body's fundamental role in sexuality......, and evolutionary aspects of sexual life. The author criticizes several popular views, rejecting both social constructionist accounts of gender and social constructionist and biological accounts of sexual desire. It is argued instead that gender roles and gender are often confused and that gender itself is based...

  5. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself from sexually transmitted infections. Talking to kids about sex Kids and sexuality — those words strike fear into the hearts of many parents. But talking to kids about sex is an important part of parenting. Children and ...

  6. Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly 1 in ... 5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made to ...

  7. Female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic fre...

  8. Sexual Regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to answer three key questions about explaining the emotion of regret in the domain of casual sex: Are sex differences in sexual regret robust or attenuated in a highly egalitarian culture? What proximate psychological variables might explain sex differences in sexual regret? And what accounts for within-sex variation in experiences of sexual regret about casual sex. We conducted a study of 263 Norwegian students (ages 19–37 who reported how much they regretted having either engaged in, or passed up, their most recent casual sexual experience. Sex differences in sexual regret are not attenuated in this sexually egalitarian culture. The study revealed sex differences in worries about pregnancy, STIs, and reputation; however, these predictors did not succeed in accounting for the sex differences in regret engaging in casual sex. Sexual gratification and socio-sexual orientation both predicted the sex differences in casual sex regret. In contrast, only socio-sexual orientation attenuated the sex difference in regret passing up casual sex. Predictors of within-sex variation in casual sexual regret included worry about sexual reputation, experienced gratification during the encounter, and socio-sexual orientation. Discussion focuses on implications for the psychological design features of this relatively neglected emotion.

  9. Infantile sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy

    2010-01-01

    When first presented, Freud´s theory of infantile sexuality was a scandal. Not only was the claim that the small child sucking at the mother´s breast experiences a kind of pleasure that Freud without hesitation named sexual, the theory also turned the common understanding of human sexuality up-si...

  10. Diagnostic Delay in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbaek, Karen; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Primdahl, Jette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To prevent joint damage among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is a need to minimize delays from the onset of symptoms until the initiation of appropriate therapy. The present study explored the factors that have an impact on the time it takes for Danish patients with RA...

  11. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  12. Sexual Attitude Reassessment for Psychiatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincin, Jerry; Wise, Shirley

    1979-01-01

    Sexuality programs are one part of the program at Thresholds, a rehabilitation center for psychiatric patients (17 to 50 years old). A 16 week sexuality group includes seven phases: initial interview; beginning group development (health care, contraception, reproduction, sexuality); masturbation; intercourse; homosexuality; coed group discussion;…

  13. Sexual Behaviour and Practices Among Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean, modal and youngest ages of initiation into sexual activity were 15.08 + 0.2, 15+ 0.2, and 10+ 0.2 years respectively. About 49 (40.8%) have multiple sexual partners. Contraceptive awareness was 52.0%, while contraceptive uses at first and last sexual intercourse were 35 (29.2%) and 108 (75.0%) respectively.

  14. Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quincy, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper, "Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works", is to present some basic curriculum necessities for developing an in-school sexual education program that results in decreasing the number of teenagers initiating sex, thus reducing the number of teen pregnancies and cases of sexually transmitted…

  15. Speech and Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OTC Relief for Diarrhea Home Diseases and Conditions Speech and Language Delay Condition Speech and Language Delay Share Print Table of Contents1. ... Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is a speech and language delay? A speech and language delay ...

  16. [Eating disorders and sexual function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravvariti, V; Gonidakis, Fr

    2016-01-01

    Women suffering from eating disorders, present considerable retardation and difficulties in their psychosexual development during adolescence. This leads to primary or secondary insufficiencies in their adult sexual life. The cause of these difficulties seems to be a series of biological, family and psychosocial factors. The majority of the research findings indicate that eating disorders have a negative impact on the patient's sexual function. The factors related to eating disorders symptomatology that influence sexuality are various and differ among each eating disorder diagnostic categories. Considering anorexia nervosa, it has been reported that women have negative attitudes to sexual issues and their body. Their sexual motivation increases when they engage in psychotherapy and their body weight is gradually restored. Starvation and its consequences on the human physiology and especially on the brain function seem to be the main factor that leads to reduced sexual desire and scarce sexual activity. Moreover, personality traits that are common in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa such as compulsivity and rigidity are also related with difficulties initiating and retaining romantic and sexual relationships. Usually patients suffering from anorexia nervosa report impaired sexual behavior and lack of interest to engage in a sexual relationship. Considering Bulimia Nervosa, impulsivity and difficulties in emotion regulation that are common features of the individuals that suffer from bulimia nervosa are also related to impulsive and sometimes self-harming sexual behaviors. Moreover women sufferers often report repulsion, anger and shame towards their body and weight, mainly due to the distorted perception that they are fat and ugly. It is interesting that a number of research findings indicate that although patients suffering from bulimia nervosa are more sexually active and have more sexual experiences than patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, both

  17. ATFM airborne delays without extra fuel consumption in wind conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, L.; Prats, X.

    2012-01-01

    Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) regulations, such as ground holdings, are often canceled before their initially planned ending time. The ground delays impact on the cost of recovering part of the delay if the regulation is canceled, as aircraft are still at the origin airport. In previous publications, the authors have suggested a speed reduction strategy to split the assigned ATFM delay between ground delay and airborne delay. By flying at the the minimum speed that g...

  18. Factors associated with self-reported first sexual intercourse in Scottish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is continuing concern about high pregnancy rates and increasing numbers of sexually transmitted infections being detected in Scottish adolescents. Consistent evidence about factors associated with risky sexual behaviours, including early first sexual intercourse, may help to identify adolescents at risk and help improve interventions. This study aimed to provide detailed analysis of the evidence of the associations between individual factors and early sexual intercourse using cross-sectional questionnaire data from 4,379 Scottish adolescents who participated in a sexual health intervention evaluation. Findings Multivariate secondary analysis showed that aspects of family and school life such as decreasing parental monitoring (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.24–1.70 and decreasing enjoyment of school (OR 2.55, 95% CI 2.15–3.03 were associated with reporting previous sexual intercourse. Furthermore, females were more likely to report previous sexual intercourse than males (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.14–1.91. Several factors commonly used to inform sexual health intervention design, such as socioeconomic status, self-esteem and religion, were not independently associated. Conclusion These results contribute to the evidence base for the association of several factors with early initiation of sexual activity. The findings suggest that interventions aiming to delay first intercourse may need to consider targeting aspects of individuals' connection to their school and family. Furthermore, the results do not support the need to consider socio-economic background, religion or self-esteem of the individuals in intervention design.

  19. The neurophysiology of sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Justine M; Pfaff, Donald

    2007-09-01

    Our understanding of the process and initiation of sexual arousal is being enhanced by both animal and human studies, inclusive of basic science principles and research on clinical outcomes. Sexual arousal is dependent on neural (sensory and cognitive) factors, hormonal factors, genetic factors and, in the human case, the complex influences of culture and context. Sexual arousal activates the cognitive and physiologic processes that can eventually lead to sexual behavior. Sexual arousal comprises a particular subset of central nervous system arousal functions which depend on primitive, fundamental arousal mechanisms that cause generalized brain activity, but are manifest in a sociosexual context. The neurophysiology of sexual arousal is seen as a bidirectional system universal to all vertebrates. The following review includes known neural and genomic mechanisms of a hormone-dependent circuit for simple sex behavior. New information about hormone effects on causal steps related to sex hormones' nuclear receptor isoforms expressed by hypothalamic neurons continues to enrich our understanding of this neurophysiology.

  20. Etiology and Management of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kumar Muthugaduru Shivarudrappa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction is the impairment or disruption of any of the three phases of normal sexual functioning, including loss of libido, impairment of physiological arousal and loss, delay or alteration of orgasm. Each one of these can be affected by an orchestra of factors like senility, medical and surgical illnesses, medications and drugs of abuse. Non-pharmacological therapy is the main stay in the treatment of sexual dysfunction and drugs are used as adjuncts for a quicker and better result. Management in many of the cases depends on the primary cause. Here is a review of the major etiological factors of sexual dysfunction and its management

  1. Risk factors associated with injection initiation among drug users in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriyanon Vinai

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circumstances surrounding injection initiation have not been well addressed in many developing country contexts. This study aimed to identify demographic factors, sexual behaviors and drug use characteristics related to injection initiation among drug users in northern Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,231 drug users admitted to the Northern Drug Treatment Center in Mae Rim, Chiang Mai, Thailand, between February 1, 1999 and December 31, 2000. A multiple logistic regression was employed to identify the independent effects from potential risk factors of transition into injection. Results After controlling for other covariates, being 20 years of age or older, single, ever receiving education, urban residence, and having a history of smoking or incarceration were significantly associated with higher likelihood of injection initiation. Multiple sex partners and an experience of sex abuse were associated with an increased risk of injection initiation. Comparing to those whose first drug was opium, individuals using heroin as their initiation drug had greater risk of injection initiation; conversely, those taking amphetamine as their first drug had less risk of injection initiation. Age of drug initiation was negatively associated with the risk of injection initiation: the older the age of drug initiation, the less the risk of injection initiation. Conclusion Injection initiation was related to several demographic factors, sexual behaviors and drug use characteristics. Understanding these factors will benefit the design of approaches to successfully prevent or delay transition into injection.

  2. Sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbraga, T P; O'Donohue, W

    2000-01-01

    We review the current state of sexual harassment theory, research, treatment, and prevention. Definitional problems and implications are discussed. An examination of the epidemiology of sexual harassment is presented, highlighting correlates that include characteristics of the organizational environment, the perpetrator, and the recipient of unwanted sexual behavior. Normative responses to sexual harassment and consequences are discussed. Descriptions of the most prevalent models of sexual harassment are offered and the empirical evidence for them is briefly reviewed. From there, the effect of model development and evaluation on the prevention and treatment of sexual harassment is considered. We comment on the steps that would need to be taken to develop viable prevention and treatment programs. Suggestions for fruitful avenues of research and theory development are offered.

  3. Delayed child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jo-Ann; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    compensate for age-related decline in fertility. (II-2A) 2. A fertility evaluation should be initiated after 6 months of unprotected intercourse without conception in women 35 to 37 years of age, and earlier in women > 37 years of age. (II-2A) 3. Prospective parents should be informed that semen quality and male fertility deteriorate with advancing age and that the risk of genetic disorders in offspring increases. (II-2A) 4. Women ≥ 35 years of age should be offered screening for fetal aneuploidy and undergo a detailed second trimester ultrasound examination to look for significant fetal birth defects (particularly cardiac defects). (II-1A) 5. Delayed child-bearing is associated with increased obstetrical and perinatal complications. Care providers need to be aware of these complications and adjust obstetrical management protocols to ensure optimal maternal and perinatal outcomes. (II-2A) 6. All adults of reproductive age should be aware of the obstetrical and perinatal risks of advanced maternal age so they can make informed decisions about the timing of child-bearing. (II-2A) 7. Strategies to improve informed decision-making by prospective parents should be designed, implemented, and evaluated. These strategies should provide opportunity for adults to understand the potential medical, social, and economic consequences of child-bearing throughout the reproductive years. (III-B) 8. Barriers to healthy reproduction, including workplace policies, should be reviewed to optimize the likelihood of healthy pregnancies. (III-C).

  4. Sexual pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K

    2009-12-01

    Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain.

  5. Sexual addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Thibaut, Florence

    2010-09-01

    The potential adverse consequences, personal distress, shame and guilt presented by patients who suffer from sexual addiction require a more in-depth understanding of the phenomenology and psychobiology of this disorder. A bibliographic review was conducted using MEDLINE and EBSCO databases with the following keywords: "sexual addiction," "hypersexuality," "compulsive sexual behavior," "behavioural addiction," "treatment," and "addiction." Several conceptualizations of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder have been proposed based on the models of, respectively, obsessive compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, out of control excessive sexual disorder, and addictive disorder. Despite the lack of robust scientific data, a number of clinical elements, such as the frequent preoccupation with this type of behavior, the time spent in sexual activities, the continuation of this behavior despite its negative consequences, the repeated and unsuccessful efforts made to reduce the behavior, are in favor of an addictive disorder. In addition there is a high comorbidity between excessive sexual behavior and other addictive behaviors. The phenomenology of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder favors its conceptualization as an addictive behavior, rather than an obsessive-compulsive, or an impulse control disorder. Moreover, the criteria that are quite close to those of addictive disorders were recently proposed for the future DSM-V in order to improve the characterization of this condition. Finally, controlled studies are warranted in order to establish clear guidelines for treatment of sexual addiction.

  6. Internet Sexualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  7. Do Family Structure and Poverty Affect Sexual Risk Behaviors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a questionnaire instrument, information was obtained on sexual behaviours of interest such as sexual initiation, multi-partnered sexual activity and condom use. Findings showed a noticeable variation in the relationship between family structure and risky sexual behaviour. Contrary to expectations, students from ...

  8. UAVs and Control Delays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Vries, S. C

    2005-01-01

    .... Delays of about 250-300 ms often lead to unacceptable airplane handling qualities. Techniques such as filtering and predictive displays may extend the range of acceptable delays up to about 400 ms...

  9. Delayed puberty in boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007695.htm Delayed puberty in boys To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delayed puberty in boys is when puberty does not begin ...

  10. Sexual revolutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekma, G.; Giami, A.

    2014-01-01

    The sexual revolution of 1960-1980 created a major break in attitudes and practices in Western societies. It created many new freedoms for gay men, youth and women, in terms of sexual imagery, information, and rights. Leftists denounced the revolution's consumerism whilst feminists lamented its

  11. Sexual Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Sexual Violence Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir April ... stop sexual violence before it begins. Understanding Sexual Violence Sexual violence is any sexual activity where consent ...

  12. Sexual assault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M-L; Hilden, M; Lidegaard, Ø

    2015-01-01

    ) the relationship between victim and perpetrator. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the victims were aged 15-24 years. Seventy-five percent had met the perpetrator before the sexual assault and 70% reported the assault to the police. A physical injury was found in 53, and 27% sustained an anogenital lesion. Alcohol...... is important in creating an environment where women are not reluctant to seek help after a sexual assault. Young age and drinking alcohol were risk factors for sexual assault, and we need to address this when considering preventive strategies.......OBJECTIVE: To describe the victims of sexual assault and the circumstances in which the assaults occur. DESIGN: Descriptive case study. SETTING: Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault (CVSA), Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: A total of 2541 women attending CVSA from 2001...

  13. Sexual prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry.

  14. Sexual offences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Schierff, Laura Marie; Ejbye-Ernst, Peter

    addresses the question of a dark figure of crime as well as a supposed hidden population of male victims and is consequently developed as a two-stage survey project. The population of interest is men and women above the age of 18 who potentially are victims of sexual offences. The analysis will initially......During the last years, the question of whether or not Denmark suffers from an increasing culture of violation mirroring incidents of rape and sexual coercion has been a hot topic. Thus, the low number of convictions and the complexities of the reported cases has brought about questions...... rape cases has been questioned. The aim of the paper is to present the actual prevalence of sexual offences in Denmark and to investigate the various forms of offenses and their distributions among men as well as women. Thus, this paper work with a conceptualization of rape having both men and women...

  15. [Sexuality in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, R; Araa, S; Ibazeta, G; Jordan, P; Lagos, E

    1987-01-01

    A survey of knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding human reproduction and sexuality was undertaken in 2 groups of secondary school students in Chile to assess whether greater knowledge of reproduction and sexuality is associated with greater permissiveness and earlier initiation of sexual activity. Students in 2 public schools, 1 coeducational and 1 for female students only, were of lower middle class background, while students at the coeducational private school were of higher socioeconomic status. An anonymous, semiclosed questionnaire was administered to students in the 3 schools. The schools were selected because their directors agreed to permit the study. 14.8% of the 351 public school students were aged 14 or under and 77.8% were 15-18, while 99.5% of the 197 private school students were aged 15-18. The students' levels of knowledge of human reproduction and sexuality were measured through direct personal assessments by the students themselves and through 21 questions to confirm the assessments. At least 93% of students in all schools said their level of knowledge was medium or high, but the test indicated that only 64% of public school students and 75% of private school students actually had medium or high levels of knowledge. 45.9% of private and 27.9% of public school students felt the information they received from their schools about sexuality was adequate, while 41.9% of private and 60.9% of public school students felt it was insufficient. There were no significant differences in the opinions of the 2 groups of students concerning premarital sex, but the reasons given by the private school students to explain their attitudes expressed a greater sense of commitment to the partner, while those of the public school students tended to be more functional. Among public school students, 38.7% of males and 9.7% of females reported having had sexual relations, while among private school students, 17.7% of males and 4.4% of females reported having done so

  16. Exposure to violent and sexual media content undermines school performance in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çetin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Humans are hard-wired to pay attention to violent and sexual cues. Because humans have limited attention capacity, attention allocated to violent and sexual cues decreases attention that can be allocated to encoding important information in school. This study examined the effects of exposure to violent and sexual media on general school performance and Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL scores in Turkish youth. Methods: The relationship between exposure to violent and sexual media on school performance was assessed in a sample of 1545 Turkish adolescents. Then, we compared the TOEFL scores of 143 Turkish boys aged 14 to 18 divided in 71 living in dormitories in which consumption of media was strictly regulated and 72 living at home. Results: A significant negative relationship was found between exposure to violent/sexual media and school success. The effects remained significant even after controlling for the total amount of media exposure. In addition, boys living in the dormitory in which consumption of media was strictly regulated outscored those living at home on the TOEFL post-test immediately after the end of the study, and on a delayed post-test one week later. Conclusions: Because there was no difference between boys living at home and those living in a dormitory on the pre-test, the post-test and delayed post-test differences cannot be attributed to initial differences in English language proficiency. These results suggest that exposure to violent and sexual media impairs adolescent school performance and foreign language memory.

  17. Developmental trajectories of religiosity, sexual conservatism and sexual behavior among female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalsma, Matthew C; Woodrome, Stacy E; Downs, Sarah M; Hensel, Devon J; Zimet, Gregory D; Orr, Don P; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Violencia sexual

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Tadayuki Oshikata

    2003-01-01

    Resumo: A violência sexual é um crime clandestino e subnotificado, praticado contra a liberdade sexual da mulher. Provoca traumas físicos e psíquicos, além de expor a doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e gravidez indesejada. Existem poucos serviços no Brasil que oferecem um atendimento especializado para diagnosticar e tratar as mulheres vítimas de violência sexual. A finalidade deste trabalho foi avaliar, através de um estudo descritivo e retrospectivo, 166 mulheres que compareceram na urgên...

  19. Pair formation models for sexually transmitted infections : A primer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretzschmar, MEE; Heijne, Janneke C M

    For modelling sexually transmitted infections, duration of partnerships can strongly influence the transmission dynamics of the infection. If partnerships are monogamous, pairs of susceptible individuals are protected from becoming infected, while pairs of infected individuals delay onward

  20. Radionuclide scan findings in delayed splenic rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, F.W.; Jackson, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    An initial liver/spleen scan performed on a patient with blunt abdominal trauma was negative 3 days following the accident. A follow-up scan 7 days later showed definite evidence of splenic rupture, proved surgically. The authors conclude that, in such cases, spleen scans may be negative initially because of delayed splenic ruptures

  1. Prevenção da AIDS no período de iniciação sexual: aspectos da dimensão simbólica das condutas de homens jovens AIDS prevention in the period of sexual initiation: aspects of the symbolic dimension of the conduct of young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno José Barcellos Fontanella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Para aprofundar a compreensão sobre o uso não consistente do preservativo, objetivou-se caracterizar aspectos das significações simbólicas das práticas sexuais de jovens do sexo masculino. Entrevistas de 42 sujeitos, cujas iniciações sexuais começaram no final dos anos 90, foram abordadas qualitativamente por meio de análise de enunciados e interpretadas sob as perspectivas teóricas dos roteiros sexuais e do habitus masculino. Eles enfatizaram a importância de exames sorológicos e da análise biográfica das parceiras (para gerar "confiança" e tenderam a utilizar uma semiotécnica não fundamentada para avaliar o estado de saúde delas. Estabeleceram uma tipologia diádica: parcerias "não fixas" e "fixas", exercitando respectivamente dois tipos de roteiros quanto ao uso do preservativo: para prevenção de AIDS-DST e gravidez ou somente para prevenir gravidez. As narrativas resultariam, dentre outros fatores, de um processo de biomedicalização de aspectos de suas sexualidades e de anseios de relacionamentos afetivo-sexuais estáveis e monogâmicos. Entre os participantes, as importantes e recentes mudanças nos roteiros sexuais intrapsíquico e interpessoal não parecem ser, por ora, acompanhadas de mudanças igualmente profundas nos roteiros culturais ou de habitus masculino.To acquire an in-depth grasp of the non-consistent use of condoms, an attempt was made to characterize aspects of the symbolic meanings of sexual conduct in a group of young males. Interviews with forty-two subjects whose sexual initiation occurred in the late 1990s were qualitatively assessed by an analysis of statements interpreted under the theoretical perspectives of sexual scripts and male lifestyle and values. Participants emphasized the importance of blood testing and a biographical analysis of their partners (to generate 'trust' and tended to use personal criteria to assess the state of their partners' health. They established a dyadic typology of

  2. Attitudes, beliefs and practices of the Vhavenda in sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems ... Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are not foreign to African cultures. ... the moral expectations of a society based on cultural values such as sexual education, initiation schools, ...

  3. Sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Takač

    2012-11-01

    Conclusions: Effective and efficient treatment of victims of sexual abuse requires a systematic approach to the patient, starting with a thorough history, and continuing with a clinical investigation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse. The complete management must include sampling of any potential biological traces from the body of the victim. The key to success is a coordinated cooperation with investigators and forensics.

  4. Enigmatic Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    ? Divided into three sections, Clinical Encounters in Sexuality begins with six chapters on important themes in queer theory: identity, desire, perversion, pleasure, discourse and ethics. Section two includes fourteen responses to the chapters in section one by practising psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic......: psychoanalytic and queer. The book is edited by two psychoanalytic practitioners — one Kleinian, one Freudian-Lacanian — who also have research expertise in sexuality studies. All pieces are new and have been commissioned....

  5. Sexual Jealousy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual jealousy is a basic emotion. Although it lacks a distinctive facial expression and is unlikely to solve problems of survival, it evolved because it solves adaptive problems of mating. Some adaptive functions are similar in men and women at one level of abstraction, such as warding off potential mate poachers and deterring relationship defection. Other functions are sex-differentiated, such as increasing paternity probability for men and monopolizing a mate's economic commitments for women. Dozens of studies have documented sex-differentiated design features of jealousy: The relative upset about sexual and emotional aspects of infidelity; processing speed and memorial recall of sexual and emotional infidelity cues; physiological distress to sexual and emotional infidelity cues; qualities of same-sex rivals that evoke jealousy, such as superior job prospects versus greater physical attractiveness; triggers of mate retention tactics; jealous interrogations following the discovery of infidelity; and whether an infidelity produces forgiveness or breakup. Although showing all the hallmarks of evolved functionality, sexual jealousy also leads to tremendous destruction, from humiliation to homicide. By these scientific theoretical and empirical criteria, sexual jealousy is properly considered not only "basic" but also "one of the most important emotions".

  6. [Anatomy and physiology of sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cour, F; Droupy, S; Faix, A; Methorst, C; Giuliano, F

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the physiology of male and female sexuality has advanced considerably. Initially there is always desire with its biological neuroendocrine components and its emotional field which is particularly marked in women. There is a distinction between "spontaneous" sexual desire related to intrinsic affective, cognitive stimuli, and fantasies, and "reactive" sexual desire in response to physical arousal. There are similarities between men and women concerning the activation of cerebral zones in sexual arousal contexts in laboratory conditions. The neural pathways for sexual arousal are similar between men and women, bringing into play the sympathetic centres of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord and, at the sacral level, the parasympathetic center and the motoneurons controlling the muscular contractions of the pelviperineal striated muscles. Genital sensitivity is mainly transmitted by the pudendal nerve in both men and women. Sexual arousal in men consists of penile erection, and ejaculation accompanied with orgasm. In women, sexual arousal causes increase in blood to flow to the vagina leading to lubrication and to the vulva leading to the erection of the clitoris and vulvar hyperaemia. The orgasm which can be multiple in women is accompanied by contractions of the striated perineal muscles. Several neurotransmitters are closely involved in the control of sexuality at the central level: dopamine, ocytocin, serotonin, and peripheral: nitric oxide and noradrenaline in men, vasoactive intestinal peptide and neuropeptide Y in women. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Development of delayed radiation necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, ShigFeki; Takagi, Terumasa; Shibata, Taichiro; Nagai, Hajime.

    1983-01-01

    The authors discussed the developing process of delayed radiation necrosis of the brain from the case of a 42-year-old female who developed intracranial hypertension and left hemiparesis 5 and a half years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The initial sign of radiation necrosis was from a CT scan taken 3 and a half years after radiotherapy showing an irregular low density lesion in the right temporal lobe. CT scan 2 years later demonstrated displacement of the midline structures to the left and a larger low density lesion with partially high density in the right MCA territory that was enhanced with intravenous contrast medium. Recovery after a right temporal lobectomy and administration of steroid hormone were uneventful. Eight months later there were no signs of raised intracranial pressure nor of neurological deficits. Tissues obtained from the right temporal lobe at lobectomy revealed the characteristic changes of delayed radiation necrosis; a mixture of fresh, recent, and old vascular lesions in the same specimen. From these findings, it was speculated that delayed radiation necrosis might initially occur within several years after radiotherapy and might gradually take a progressive and extended course, even in cases whose clinical symptoms develop much later. (author)

  8. A Desire for Love: Considerations on Sexuality and Sexual Education of People With Intellectual Disability in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijak, Remigiusz J

    2011-03-01

    This article is intended to attract public attention to the fact that people with intellectual disability, despite their delayed sexual development, still remain sexual beings, which is connected with many individual and social consequences. The empirical data collected in this work provides knowledge about biological and psychological conditioning of sexual development of individuals with intellectual disability. However, the problem of sexuality for this population should be further analyzed. One should also think about the possibility of supporting the psychological and sexual development of people with more severe intellectual disability.

  9. Representing delayed force feedback as a combination of current and delayed states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Guy; Mawase, Firas; Karniel, Amir; Shmuelof, Lior; Donchin, Opher; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A; Nisky, Ilana

    2017-10-01

    To adapt to deterministic force perturbations that depend on the current state of the hand, internal representations are formed to capture the relationships between forces experienced and motion. However, information from multiple modalities travels at different rates, resulting in intermodal delays that require compensation for these internal representations to develop. To understand how these delays are represented by the brain, we presented participants with delayed velocity-dependent force fields, i.e., forces that depend on hand velocity either 70 or 100 ms beforehand. We probed the internal representation of these delayed forces by examining the forces the participants applied to cope with the perturbations. The findings showed that for both delayed forces, the best model of internal representation consisted of a delayed velocity and current position and velocity. We show that participants relied initially on the current state, but with adaptation, the contribution of the delayed representation to adaptation increased. After adaptation, when the participants were asked to make movements with a higher velocity for which they had not previously experienced with the delayed force field, they applied forces that were consistent with current position and velocity as well as delayed velocity representations. This suggests that the sensorimotor system represents delayed force feedback using current and delayed state information and that it uses this representation when generalizing to faster movements. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The brain compensates for forces in the body and the environment to control movements, but it is unclear how it does so given the inherent delays in information transmission and processing. We examined how participants cope with delayed forces that depend on their arm velocity 70 or 100 ms beforehand. After adaptation, participants applied opposing forces that revealed a partially correct representation of the perturbation using the current and the

  10. "Blurred lines?" Sexual aggression and barroom culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wayne Osgood, D; Abbey, Antonia; Parks, Michael; Flynn, Andrea; Dumas, Tara; Wells, Samantha

    2014-05-01

    Meeting potential sexual/romantic partners for mutual pleasure is one of the main reasons young adults go to bars. However, not all sexual contacts are positive and consensual, and aggression related to sexual advances is a common experience. Sometimes such aggression is related to misperceptions in making and receiving sexual advances while other times aggression reflects intentional harassment or other sexually aggressive acts. This study uses objective observational research to assess quantitatively gender of initiators and targets and the extent that sexual aggression involves intentional aggression by the initiator, the nature of responses by targets, and the role of third parties and intoxication. We analyzed 258 aggressive incidents involving sexual advances observed as part of a larger study on aggression in large capacity bars and clubs, using variables collected as part of the original research (gender, intoxication, intent) and variables coded from narrative descriptions (invasiveness, persistence, targets' responses, role of third parties). Hierarchical linear modeling analyses were used to account for nesting of incidents in evening and bars. Ninety percent of incidents involved male initiators and female targets, with almost all incidents involving intentional or probably intentional aggression. Targets mostly responded nonaggressively, usually using evasion. Staff rarely intervened; patron third parties intervened in 21% of incidents, usually to help the target but sometimes to encourage the initiator. initiators' level of invasiveness was related to intoxication of the targets, but not their own intoxication, suggesting intoxicated women were being targeted. Sexual aggression is a major problem in bars often reflecting intentional sexual invasiveness and unwanted persistence rather than misperceptions in sexual advances. Prevention needs to focus on addressing masculinity norms of male patrons and staff who support sexual aggression and better

  11. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  12. Sexual function of the ageing male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Maseroli, Elisa; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2013-08-01

    With the progressive increase in the proportion of older people, there is an increasing interest in characterizing the modifications of sexual health and the effect of its perturbations as a function of the aging process. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence regarding the age-dependent modifications of male sexual function and their interaction with general health and age-dependent modification of endocrine function. Elderly patients are often affected by multiple organic diseases which can interfere with sexual function. Despite this evidence, several studies have indicated that, with advancing age, normal erections are not an absolute prerequisite to remain sexually active. Good physical health, the availability of a partner, and a regular and stable pattern of sexual activity earlier in life predict the maintenance of sexual activity in old age. Conversely, there are no convincing data that hormonal changes, associated with aging, have a primary role in underlying changes in sexual function in healthy aging men. Nonetheless, sexual dysfunctions especially in elderly people are poor investigated. Asking about sexual health remains difficult or embarrassing for many primary care physicians. In addition, many patients find it difficult to raise sexual issues with their doctor. This situation often results in sexual issues not being adequately addressed thus resulting in depression, social withdrawal and delayed diagnosis of underlying medical conditions often resulting in forthcoming cardiovascular events. Education and permission from a health care professional may help to alter such misconceptions. Information from physicians regarding normal age-related changes in sexuality and encouragement, together with advice on how to continue meaningful sexual relations, may play a key role in altering such negative attitudes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychological features and teenage sexual behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbatova T.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an empirical study on the personality traits of sexually active teenagers. The research identified the personality traits of teenagers who are inclined to look for sexual relations. The research focused on the following: motivation and values, implicit representations about sexual contacts, parent-child relations, and self-concept. The study comprised 465 individuals including 405 school students aged 14-16 and 60 mothers of the teenagers examined. The results demonstrate that teenagers' refusal to begin sexual life, provided they have this opportunity (i.e. a partner, is linked to their subjective perception of the basic values reflected in their consciousness. The research also focused on the features of teenagers' implicit representations with regard to sexual intercourse. This allowed to identify the role of sexual intercourse in teenagers' life. The factors regulating sexual relations in the age under study have been revealed. The research shows that teenage sexual intercourse is mainly driven by cognitive motives combined with the hedonistic (boys and communicational/social ones (girls. Emotionally distant parents are another factor triggering sexual relations. The negatively critical attitude to sexual partners was also displayed, especially by girls. The attitude was expressed by teenagers even where they initiated sexual intercourse themselves, without been pressured into it by their partners. The study has an applied character and enables effective preventive and corrective work with sexually active teenagers.

  14. Tattoos, piercing, and sexual behaviors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Sipiński, Adam; Kuczerawy, Ilona; Kozłowska-Rup, Danuta; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2012-09-01

    Body piercing and tattooing are accepted by a growing number of teenagers and young adults as a way of self-expressing. Some authors suggest association between body piercings/tattoos and early sexual initiation, higher number of sexual partners, or risky sexual behaviors. The aim of the study was to evaluate sexual behaviors among young adults with body modifications (BMs)--tattoos and piercings. One hundred twenty young healthy adults, ages between 20 and 35, were included in the population study. The study group was divided into three subgroups: controls (N = 60), adults with tattoos (N = 28), and adults with piercings (N = 32). The research instrument was a self-prepared questionnaire containing 59 questions assessing socioepidemiological parameters, sexual behaviors, incidents of sexual harassment in the past, and self-attractiveness evaluation, as well as questions concerning tattoos and piercings. Socioepidemiological variables and sexual behaviors were compared between subgroups. To assess and describe the correlation between having BM--tattoos and piercing--and sexual behaviors in the population of young adults by using the logistic regression model. Adults with BMs have had their first intercourse statistically earlier and were more sexually active compared with controls. There were no statically significant differences in sexual orientation, sexual preferences, engaging in risky sexual behaviors, frequency of masturbation, and history of sexual abuse between the groups. In contrast, the frequency of sexual intercourses was statistically higher and oral sex was more likely to be a dominant sexual activity in adults with BM compared with controls. The multivariate logistic model revealed that adults with BM were four times less likely to participate in religious practices and twice more likely to have early sexual initiation. Having BM is associated with early sexual initiation and more liberal attitudes toward sexual behaviors but not with engaging in

  15. Handsome wants as handsome does: physical attractiveness and gender differences in revealed sexual preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Elizabeth Aura

    2011-01-01

    In this article I evaluate the effect of physical attractiveness on young adults' sexual and romantic outcomes to reveal gender differences in acted preferences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a probability sample of young adults (n = 14,276), I investigate gender differences in desired sexual partner accumulation, relationship status, and timing of sexual intercourse. I find gender differences in sexual and romantic strategies consistent with those predicted by the double standard of sexuality and evolutionary theory. Specifically, compared to men, women pursue more committed relationships, fewer sexual partners, and delayed sexual intercourse.

  16. Evaluation of sexual maturity among adolescent male sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanner staging and testicular volume assessment were both used as models for evaluating stages of sexual maturation among SCA patients and their normal counterparts matched for age and socioeconomic status. Results. SCA patients showed delayed onset and completion of sexual maturation. TV of subjects was ...

  17. Casual Sexual Scripts on the Screen: A Quantitative Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Elisabeth; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2018-07-01

    While existing content analyses have provided insightful information in terms of contextual factors and frequency of sexual behaviors, not much is known about the relational context in which sexual depictions generally occur. The current study addresses this void by employing content analytic methods to measure the frequency and context of depictions of sexual behavior within nine popular television shows produced in the U.S., while taking into account the type of sexual behavior. The results suggest that, in the analyzed television shows, sexual behaviors within a casual sexual context were almost as frequently shown as sexual behaviors within a committed relationship context. Whereas sexual behaviors within a committed relationship context were mainly limited to passionate kissing, sexual behaviors within a casual sexual context mostly consisted of explicit portrayals of sexual intercourse. Additionally, genre seemed to be an important factor when examining casual sexual television content. The situational comedy genre, for example, had no explicit portrayals of intercourse and mainly portrayed kissing couples within a committed relationship. The comedy drama genre, on the contrary, had the largest proportion of explicit sexual portrayals, usually between casual sexual partners. A second goal of this study was to analyze the portrayals of the typical casual sexual experience script and the typical casual sexual relationship script in which these sexual behaviors often occur. For instance, our analyses revealed that female characters were more likely to initiate casual sex compared to male characters. Moreover, casual sex often occurred between former partners.

  18. American Dream Delayed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Miller, Robert A.

    This paper investigates the delay in homeownership and a subsequent reduction in homeownership rate observed over the past decades. We focus on the delay in giving birth to children and increased labor market participation as contributing factors to homeownership dynamics for prime-age female hou...

  19. Talking to Daddy's Little Girl about Sex: Daughters' Reports of Sexual Communication and Support from Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Cederbaum, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Although mothers are widely acknowledged as the primary in-home sexual educators of children, fathers also play an important role in sexual socialization. Paternal involvement is linked to positive social and psychological outcomes; an increased father-daughter communication can delay sexual debut and decrease frequency of engagement in…

  20. Dating Violence and Self-Efficacy for Delayed Sex among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, dating violence is known to be widespread among adolescents, and is therefore a major public health issue because of its association with sexual risk behaviours. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between dating violence and self-efficacy for delayed sex among school-going ...

  1. Sexuality and Sexual Rights in Muslim Societies

    OpenAIRE

    Liz Ercevik Amado

    2009-01-01

    In August 2008, the Coalition for Sexual and Bodily Rights in Muslim Societies (CSBR) organized the CSBR Sexuality Institute, the first international Institute on sexuality and sexual rights in Muslim societies in Malaysia. Liz Amado presents how the Institute expanded the discourse, knowledge and thinking around sexuality in Muslim societies, as well as providing a unique space for the much needed exchange of information and experience among sexual rights advocates. Development (2009) 52, 59...

  2. Female sexual dysfunction: a focus on flibanserin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodise NM

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nicole M Lodise Department of Pharmacy Practice, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USA Abstract: Flibanserin is the first US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved option for sexual dysfunction, specifically low sexual desire. Until recently, there were no FDA-approved medication options to assist the ~40% of women affected by female sexual dysfunction (FSD. Often, patients report feeling uncomfortable discussing sexual health, identifying a strong need for health care professionals (HCPs to proactively reach out to patients to identify concerns and initiate a discussion about sexual health and the available treatment options. Within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DMS-5, the criteria of female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD are outlined, encompassing one of the most common sexual concerns, formerly in its own category defined as hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD or low sexual desire. HSDD is the absence or deficiency of sexual interest and/or desire leading to significant distress and interpersonal difficulties. HCPs offer an important service in assessing their patients and providing information about treatment considerations while ensuring patient comfort with this topic. This article provides an overview of the types and potential causes associated with FSD and the role of flibanserin in practice as a treatment option. Despite a need for additional study in diverse populations, flibanserin has demonstrated efficacy with increased female sexual function index (FSFI total and desire domain scores in clinical studies indicating benefit in sexual desire. Common patient or provider-administered assessment tools to assist in identifying affected patients and patient counseling strategies are reviewed. Keywords: female sexual dysfunction, low sexual desire, hypoactive sexual desire disorder, pharmacotherapy, flibanserin

  3. Guest editorial: Pharmacology of male sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Olivier, Berend

    The introduction of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the mid 1980s has led not only to an increased attention to antidepressant-induced sexual side effects, but also to a paradigm shift in the theory of premature ejaculation (PE). Because of their ejaculation delaying effects,

  4. Sexuality in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucilene Sales da Paixão Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the sexual behavior of women with polycystic ovary syndrome and the relationship between sexual behavior and the clinical parameters related to this syndrome (obesity, hirsutism and menstrual irregularities. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 48 women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The evaluation was based on the complaints reported by the women with particular emphasis on sexual satisfaction, the presence of a sexual partner, phases of the sexual response cycle (desire, arousal, orgasm and resolution phases, sexual frequency, practice of masturbation, evaluation of less usual sexual habits, degree of intimacy and the quality of communication in the women’s involvement with their sexual partner. The variables of sexual behavior (sexual satisfaction, masturbation, sexual fantasies, frequency of desire, arousal and orgasm were compared with three clinical parameters: menstrual cycle, hirsutism and body mass index (BMI. Results: The sexual initiation, ways of expressing sexuality, communication and intimacy with partner and sexual satisfaction were not influenced by the clinical aspects of the syndrome. With respect to association of polycystic ovary syndrome clinical parameters with sexual behavior, a statistically significant correlation was found with the menstrual cycle. Conclusion: The absence of menstruation affected sexual interest in activities not involving the partner, thus increasing the frequency of masturbation.

  5. Delayed Partial Nephrectomy for Hydronephrosis After Renal Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Shaan; Jackson, Jessica Nicole; Herndon, C D Anthony; Corbett, Sean T

    2017-03-01

    Delayed sequelae following conservative management of renal trauma in the pediatric population are uncommon. Reports of delayed operations to manage these sequelae are even less common. Here we present the case of a 16-year-old male patient who had delayed development of upper urinary tract obstruction with recurrent infections following high-grade renal trauma managed conservatively. Ultimately, he required a robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy 2 years after initial nonoperative management. This is unique as no prior studies to our knowledge have described delayed hydronephrosis and delayed partial nephrectomy over a year following renal trauma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-Esteem and Sexual Permissiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Edward S.; Goodwin, Marilyn Shirley

    1979-01-01

    Studied were 486 single females aged 13-20 attending ten birth control centers. In this liberal sample, high self-esteem subjects were accepting of premarital intercourse with affection, were more willing to take sexual initiative, and felt less guilt. Those endorsing sexual abstinence had lower self-esteem. (Editor/SJL)

  7. Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who is unable to consent. It also includes abusive sexual contact. It can happen to men, women or children. The attacker can be anyone - a current or former partner, a family member, a person in position of power or trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a ...

  8. Risky sexual

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... AMONG STUDENTS OF JIMMA UNIVERSITY, ETHIOPIA ... control, substance use, peer pressure, campus and outside ... Author: Gurmesa Tura E- mail: gurmesatura@gmail.com or gurmesa.tura@ju.edu.et .... following substances: alcohol, Khat cigarette, .... leading reason was sexual desire 106(42.9%).

  9. Sexual conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Parental care includes a wide variety of traits that enhance offspring development and survival. It is taxonomically widespread and is central to the maintenance of biodiversity through its close association with other phenomena such as sexual selection, life-history evolution, sex allocation,

  10. Sexual Violence

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast discusses sexual violence - what it is, the long-term health problems it can contribute to, and tips to stop it before it begins.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/4/2011.

  11. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Background The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152), 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250), 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496), 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590), and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150). Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The improvements in gender

  12. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Kontula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective: This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design: In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152, 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250, 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496, 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590, and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150. Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results: Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion: The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The

  13. Compensating for telecommunication delays during robotic telerehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoni, Leonardo J; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Krebs, Hermano I

    2017-07-01

    Rehabilitation robotic systems may afford better care and telerehabilitation may extend the use and benefits of robotic therapy to the home. Data transmissions over distance are bound by intrinsic communication delays which can be significant enough to deem the activity unfeasible. Here we describe an approach that combines unilateral robotic telerehabilitation and serious games. This approach has a modular and distributed design that permits different types of robots to interact without substantial code changes. We demonstrate the approach through an online multiplayer game. Two users can remotely interact with each other with no force exchanges, while a smoothing and prediction algorithm compensates motions for the delay in the Internet connection. We demonstrate that this approach can successfully compensate for data transmission delays, even when testing between the United States and Brazil. This paper presents the initial experimental results, which highlight the performance degradation with increasing delays as well as improvements provided by the proposed algorithm, and discusses planned future developments.

  14. Diagnosis delay in tuberculosis and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibullah, S.; Sheikh, M.A.; Sadiq, A.; Anwar, T.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To find out the average duration from onset of symptoms to the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis, reasons for diagnostic delay, its consequences, association of variables and formulation of recommendations. Results: In this study it was found that average time from onset of initial symptoms to diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis was 120 days. In 64% of the patients medical practitioners were responsible for delaying the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Loss of weight in 40% and haemoptysis is 21% were the consequences of diagnostic delay of tuberculosis. Delay in the diagnosis of tuberculosis was statistically significant in those patients who consulted private practitioners, and consequences of tuberculosis were severe in those patients who consulted late. (author)

  15. Neutron delayed choice experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Delayed choice experiments for neutrons can help extend the interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena. They may also rule out alternative explanations which static interference experiments allow. A simple example of a feasible neutron test is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  16. Quad nanosecond delay module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.; Hunter, J.B.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1986-04-01

    Four nanosecond (ns) delay units have been designed to fit in a single-width NIM module. This module is particularly suited for use in conjunction with quad constant fraction timing discriminators (CFTDs) since it has four delay units that can be placed adjacent to the four units of the CFTD. A series of different length cables connected via DIP toggle switches provide delays of 0.60 ns in 4 ns increments. Thus, the CFTD delay can be optimized for pulses of different rise times from approx.10-100 ns. Design work for the PC board and silkscreening of the front panel were done with the MacDraw program on the Apple Mackintosh computer and printed with the Lasewriter printer. 6 refs

  17. Puberty, sexual milestones and abuse: how are they related in eating disorder patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, U; Evans, K; Tiller, J; Treasure, J

    1995-03-01

    In order to assess the relationship pubertal development, sexual milestones and childhood sexual abuse in women with eating disorders, 44 patients with restricting anorexia nervosa (RAN), 26 with bulimic anorexia nervosa (BAN), 29 with bulimia nervosa and also with a history of anorexia nervosa (BN/HistAN), and 69 with bulimia nervosa but without a history of anorexia nervosa (BN) completed questionnaires on pubertal and sexual development and unpleasant sexual experiences. Forty-four female college students complete the sexual development questionnaire only. Different eating disorder groups were found to be similar in terms of their pubertal development. All eating disorder groups showed delays in aspects of their psychosexual development (age at first kiss, masturbation, genital fondling and first sexual intercourse) compared with the control group, although to a different degree. The RAN group was delayed on almost all sexual milestones whereas the other groups were delayed on only some. On some variables, most noticeably on first sexual intercourse, restricters also were more delayed than the other eating disorder groups. Similarly, the median number of sexual partners differed significantly between groups (RAN = 1, BAN = 2, BN/HistAN = 4, BN = 4, controls = 5, P masturbation, marriage, children or pregnancy. Of the eating disorder patients 22-31% had been sexually abused during childhood. A history of abuse affected attitudes to masturbation, but did not appear to affect sexual development.

  18. Delayed rule following

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative even...

  19. Vernier Delay Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    This module will accept differential ECL pulses from the auxiliary rear panel or NIM level pulses from the front panel. The pulses are produced at the output with a fixed delay that is software programmable in steps of 0.1 ns over the range of 0.1 to 10.5 ns. Multiple outputs are available at the front panel. Minimum delay through the module is 9 ns

  20. Quad precision delay generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shanti; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.; Marballi, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    A Quad Precision Delay Generator delays a digital edge by a programmed amount of time, varying from nanoseconds to microseconds. The output of this generator has an amplitude of the order of tens of volts and rise time of the order of nanoseconds. This was specifically designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements of the plasma focus experiments. Plasma focus is a laboratory device for producing and studying nuclear fusion reactions in hot deuterium plasma. 3 figs

  1. Prevalence of Sexual Activity and Outcome among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual activity among 534 Nigerian female secondary school students was studied using self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of sexual intercourse was 25.7%. There was no significant difference between the junior (48.2%) and senior (51.8%) students (p > 0.05). Seventeen (12.4%) students had initiated sexual ...

  2. An Investigation of Parent/Child Communication about Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angera, Jeffrey J.; Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; Inungu, Joseph N.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the communication and initial sexuality education between parents and children as it relates to later sexual activity. The study asked 192 undergraduate college students from a Midwestern state university their perceptions about past communication with their parents regarding sexuality. The students completed a 180-item…

  3. Modelling delays in pharmacokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Z.H.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Linear system analysis has come to form the backbone of pharmacokinetics. Natural systems usually involve time delays, thus models incorporating them would be an order closer approximation to the real world compared to those that do not. Delays may be modelled in several ways. The approach considered in this study is to have a discrete-time delay dependent rate with the delay respresenting the duration between the entry of a drug into a compartment and its release in some form (may be as a metabolite) from the compartment. Such a delay may be because of one or more of several physiological reasons, like, formation of a reservoir, slow metabolism, or receptor binding. The mathematical structure this gives rise to is a system of delay-differential equations. Examples are given of simple one and two compartment systems with drugs like bumetanide, carbamazepine, and quinolone-caffeine interaction. In these examples generally a good fit is obtained and the suggested models form a good approximation. 21 refs., 6 figs

  4. Satisfaction with Previous Sexual Health Education as a Predictor of Intentions to Pursue Further Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, B. J.; Mashinter, Carling; Meaney, Glenn J.; Wood, Eileen; Gentile, Savannah

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of the relationship between satisfaction with high school sexual health education and the pursuit of a post-secondary human sexuality course. In an initial study, first-year university students who received high school sexual health education in Ontario completed a questionnaire which assessed their satisfaction…

  5. Sexual Violence and the Call to Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Larry D.

    2015-01-01

    Legislation and initiatives at the state and federal levels are challenging colleges and universities to review their approach to issues of sexual violence. This article addresses issues of compliance and beyond.

  6. Relationship between short-term sexual strategies and sexual jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W

    2005-02-01

    In a classic study, Buss, Larson, Westen, and Semmelroth reported that men were more distressed by the thought of a partner's sexual infidelity (sexual jealousy) and women were more distressed by the thought of a partner's emotional infidelity (emotional jealousy). Initially, Buss and his associates explained these results by suggesting that men are concerned about uncertainty of paternity, that is, the possibility of raising another man's child while believing the child is their own. However, later they explained the results in terms of men's preference for short-term sexual strategies. The purpose of this research was to test the explanation of short-term sexual strategies. Men and women subjects were instructed to imagine themselves in a relationship which was either short-term (primarily sexual) or long-term (involving commitment) and then respond to Buss's jealousy items. It was hypothesized that, when both men and women imagined a short-term relationship, they would be more threatened by a partner's sexual infidelity, and, when they imagined a long-term relationship, they would be more threatened by a partner's emotional infidelity. Support was found for this hypothesis.

  7. Puberty and adolescent sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sexuality and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

  9. [Delayed rupture of the spleen in a multiply injured patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lică, I; Venter, M D; Mehic, R; Marian, R; Ionescu, G

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a case of delayed rupture of the spleen in a polytraumatised patient. This entity was defined as a late occurrence of signs and symptoms attributed to splenic injury not detected by diagnostic computed tomographic scanning during the initial examination. The mechanisms in which the delayed rupture of the spleen occurs are discussed and the conclusion is that the delayed rupture of the spleen represent a real clinical entity.

  10. Traditional values of virginity and sexual behaviour in rural Ethiopian youth: results from a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane Yemane

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delaying sexual initiation has been promoted as one of the methods of decreasing risks of HIV among young people. In traditional countries, such as Ethiopia, retaining virginity until marriage is the norm. However, no one has examined the impact of this traditional norm on sexual behaviour and risk of HIV in marriage. This study examined the effect of virginity norm on having sex before marriage and sexual behaviour after marriage among rural Ethiopian youth. Methods We did a cross-sectional survey in 9 rural and 1 urban area using a probabilistic sample of 3,743 youth, 15–24 years of age. Univariate analysis was used to assess associations between virginity norm and gender stratified by area, and between sexual behaviour and marital status. We applied Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis to estimate age at sexual debut and assessed the predictors of premarital sex among the never-married using SPSS. Results We found that maintaining virginity is still a way of securing marriage for girls, especially in rural areas; the odds of belief and intention to marry a virgin among boys was 3–4 times higher among rural young males. As age increased, the likelihood of remaining a virgin decreased. There was no significant difference between married and unmarried young people in terms of number of partners and visiting commercial sex workers. Married men were twice more likely to have multiple sexual partners than their female counterparts. A Cox regression show that those who did not believe in traditional values of preserving virginity (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 2.91 [1.92–4.40], alcohol drinkers (AHR = 2.91 [1.97–4.29], Khat chewers (AHR = 2.36 [1.45–3.85], literates (AHR = 18.01 [4.34–74.42], and the older age group (AHR = 1.85 [1.19–2.91] were more likely to have premarital sex than their counterparts. Conclusion Although virginity norms help delay age at sexual debut among rural Ethiopian youth, and thus

  11. [Effects of TeenSTAR, an abstinence only sexual education program, on adolescent sexual behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Pilar; Riquelme, Rosa; Rivadeneira, Rosario; Aranda, Waldo

    2005-10-01

    Urgent measures are required to stop the increase in the frequency of pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers. A means of facing this problem is promoting sexual abstinence among youngsters. There are studies that confirm the efficacy of this approach. To show the results of the application of a holistic sexuality program (TeenSTAR) among Chilean teenagers. Students attending basic or high school were divided into a control or study group. The control group (342 students) received the usual education on sexuality given by their schools and the study group (398 students) participated in twelve TeenSTAR sessions lasting 1.5 hours each, given by a trained professor. Assessment of achievements was made using an anonymous questionnaire answered at the start and end of the program. The rates of sexual initiation among control and study groups were 15 and 6.5%, respectively. Among sexually active students, 20% of those in the study group and 9% of those in the control group discontinued sexual activity. A higher proportion of students in the TeenSTAR program retarded their sexual initiation or discontinued sexual activity and found more reasons to maintain sexual abstinence than control students.

  12. The reasons for delay lumbar puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH. Lotfi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of meningitis and encephalitis and prompt initiation of appropriate therapy is vital and any delay will lead to high mortality and serious and permanent morbidity. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the management of 220 patients with suspected central nervous system (CNS infections (meningitis and encephalitis to determine the percentage of patients’ suspected CNS infection undergo lumbar puncture in acceptable time (in accordance with conventional algorithms. In this descriptive study, patients with suspected CNS infections admitted to Bu-Ali and Qods hospitals, in the period July 2013 to December 2015 were studied. Information of 220 patients was collected. Continuous variables were summarized as means ± standard deviation and categorical variables as frequencies and percentages. Lumbar puncture (LP in patients was delayed in 200 cases (91%. Most common causes of delay in performing LP were prolongation of the process of determining patient needs to puncture, satisfying patients, CT scan delay and the delay in allowing LP by neurologist. In this study, delaying LP rate was higher than other studies. It seems certain pattern in assistants’ visits for counseling. CT requests and neurologic consultation before LP performed for all adult patients.

  13. Nuclear size and cell division delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced division delay has been linked to damage at the nuclear envelope. Further, cells in G 2 phase are drastically arrested by high LET radiation such that single particles traversing cell nuclei may produce measurable division delay. A modest effort was initiated using two related cell lines of different size, near-diploid cells and near-tetraploid cells of Chinese hamster origin, to compare their sensitivity for radiation-induced division delay. If the nuclear surface is the critical target, then a larger nuclear cross-section presented to an alpha-particle beam should exhibit delay induced by a lesser particle fluence. Preliminary estimates of the extent of delay in asynchronous cultures following low doses of gamma-irradiation or of alpha-irradiation were made by in-situ observation of the time of onset of mitosis and by fixation and staining of cultures to determine the mitotic index as a function of time after irradiation. The basic approach to evaluating division delay will be to use Colecemid to accumulate mitotic cells over a period of time

  14. Optimal Joint Expected Delay Forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Xu; Xin Feng; Wen Jun Yang; Ru Chuan Wang; Bing Qing Han

    2013-01-01

    Multicopy forwarding schemes have been employed in delay tolerant network (DTN) to improve the delivery delay and delivery rate. Much effort has been focused on reducing the routing cost while retaining high performance. This paper aims to provide an optimal joint expected delay forwarding (OJEDF) protocol which minimizes the expected delay while satisfying a certain constant on the number of forwardings per message. We propose a comprehensive forwarding metric called joint expected delay (JE...

  15. Education in sexual medicine: proceedings from the international consultation in sexual medicine, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Sharon J; Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio

    2010-10-01

    Sexual problems in men and women are common; and physicians endorse many barriers to addressing these issues, including lack of knowledge about the diagnosis and management of sexual problems and inadequate training in sexual health communication and counseling. To update the recommendations published in 2004, from the International Consultation on Sexual Medicine (ICSM) relevant to the educational aspects of sexual health in undergraduate, graduate, and postgraducate medical education. A third international consultation in collaboration with the major sexual health organizations assembled over 186 multidisciplinary experts from 33 countries into 25 committees. Three experts from three countries contributed to this committee's review of Education in Sexual Medicine. Expert opinion was based on a comprehensive review of the medical literature, committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. A comprehensive review about the current state of undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate sexual health education worldwide is provided. Recommendations about ideal sexual health curricula across training levels are provided. Best methods for achieving optimal training approaches to sexual health communication and interviewing, clinical skills and management, and counseling are described. Current sexual health education for undergraduate and practicing physicians is inadequate to meet the advancing science and technology and increasing patient demand for high-quality sexual health care. There is a need for enhanced training in medical institutions responsible for physician sexual health training worldwide. Future training programs at all levels of medical education should incorporate standardized measures of sexual health clinical skills acquisition and assessments of the impact on patient outcomes into the design of educational initiatives. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. What Money Can't Buy: Different Patterns in Decision Making About Sex and Money Predict Past Sexual Coercion Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier Emond, Fannie; Gagnon, Jean; Nolet, Kevin; Cyr, Gaëlle; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine

    2018-02-01

    Self-reported impulsivity has been found to predict the perpetration of sexual coercion in both sexual offenders and male college students. Impulsivity can be conceptualized as a generalized lack of self-control (i.e., general perspective) or as a multifaceted construct that can vary from one context to the other (i.e., domain-specific perspective). Delay discounting, the tendency to prefer sooner smaller rewards over larger delayed rewards, is a measure of impulsive decision making. Recent sexual adaptations of delay discounting tasks can be used to test domain-specific assumptions. The present study used the UPPS-P impulsivity questionnaire, a standard money discounting task, and a sexual discounting task to predict past use of sexual coercion in a sample of 98 male college students. Results indicated that higher negative urgency scores, less impulsive money discounting, and more impulsive sexual discounting all predicted sexual coercion. Consistent with previous studies, sexuality was discounted more steeply than money by both perpetrators and non-perpetrators of sexual coercion, but this difference was twice as large in perpetrators compared to non-perpetrators. Our study identified three different predictors of sexual coercion in male college students: a broad tendency to act rashly under negative emotions, a specific difficulty to postpone sexual gratification, and a pattern of optimal non-sexual decision making. Results highlight the importance of using multiple measures, including sexuality-specific measures, to get a clear portrait of the links between impulsivity and sexual coercion.

  17. Observations on early and delayed colostomy closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tade, A O; Salami, B A; Ayoade, B A

    2011-06-01

    Traditional treatment of a variety of colorectal pathologies had included a diverting colostomy that was closed eight or more weeks later during a readmission. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the outcomes of early colostomy closure and delayed colostomy closure in patients with temporary colostomies following traumatic and non-traumatic colorectal pathologies. In this study early colostomy closure was the closure of a colostomy within three weeks of its construction, while delayed colostomy closure referred to closure after 3 weeks. Complete records of the 37 adult patients who had temporary colostomy constructed and closed between Jan. 1997 December 2003 for various colorectal pathologies were studied. Fourteen patients had early colostomy closure while 23 had delayed closure. In the early colostomy closure group there were 10 men and 4 women. The mean age of the patients was 28yr with a range of 18-65yr. Colostomies were closed 9-18 days after initial colostomy construction. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate 28.6% (4 out of 14). There were two faecal fistulas (14.3%). Twenty-three patients had delayed colostomy closure 8 weeks to 18 months after initial colostomy construction. These were patients unfit for early surgery after initial colostomy construction because of carcinoma, significant weight loss, or sepsis. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate was 26.1%. There were 3 faecal fistulas (13.2%). Outcomes following early colostomy closure and delayed closure were comparable. Patients fit for surgery should have early closure whilst patients who may have compromised health should have delayed closure.

  18. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Persistent, recurrent problems with sexual response, desire, orgasm or pain — that distress you or strain your ... You have persistent or recurrent difficulty in achieving orgasm after sufficient sexual arousal and ongoing stimulation. Sexual ...

  19. Rethinking Sexual Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane

    2017-04-01

    Over the last two decades sexuality has emerged as a key theme in debates about citizenship, leading to the development of the concept of sexual citizenship. This article reviews this literature and identifies four main areas of critical framing: work that contests the significance of sexuality to citizenship; critiques that focus on the possibilities and limitations of mobilising the language of citizenship in sexual politics; analyses of sexual citizenship in relation to nationalisms and border making; and literature that critically examines western constructions of sexuality and sexual politics underpinning understandings of sexual citizenship. In order to progress the field theoretically, the article seeks to extend critiques of sexual citizenship focusing on two key aspects of its construction: the sexual citizen-subject and spaces of sexual citizenship. It argues for a critical rethink that encompasses a de-centring of a 'western-centric' focus in order to advance understandings of how sexual citizenship operates both in the Global North and South.

  20. Dating and Sexual Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Body Your sexuality Dating and sexual feelings Dating and sexual feelings Thinking about romance, starting to ... you learn how to stay healthy and strong. Dating older guys top If you date someone even ...

  1. Diagnosis delay in Libyan female breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermiah Eramah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To study the diagnosis delay and its impact on stage of disease among women with breast cancer on Libya. Methods 200 women, aged 22 to 75 years with breast cancer diagnosed during 2008–2009 were interviewed about the period from the first symptoms to the final histological diagnosis of breast cancer. This period (diagnosis time was categorized into 3 periods: 6 months. If diagnosis time was longer than 3 months, the diagnosis was considered delayed (diagnosis delay. Consultation time was the time taken to visit the general practitioner after the first symptoms. Retrospective preclinical and clinical data were collected on a form (questionnaire during an interview with each patient and from medical records. Results The median of diagnosis time was 7.5 months. Only 30.0% of patients were diagnosed within 3 months after symptoms. 14% of patients were diagnosed within 3–6 months and 56% within a period longer than 6 months. A number of factors predicted diagnosis delay: Symptoms were not considered serious in 27% of patients. Alternative therapy (therapy not associated with cancer was applied in 13.0% of the patients. Fear and shame prevented the visit to the doctor in 10% and 4.5% of patients, respectively. Inappropriate reassurance that the lump was benign was an important reason for prolongation of the diagnosis time. Diagnosis delay was associated with initial breast symptom(s that did not include a lump (p  Diagnosis delay was associated with bigger tumour size (p Conclusions Diagnosis delay is very serious problem in Libya. Diagnosis delay was associated with complex interactions between several factors and with advanced stages. There is a need for improving breast cancer awareness and training of general practitioners to reduce breast cancer mortality by promoting early detection. The treatment guidelines should pay more attention to the early phases of breast cancer. Especially, guidelines for good practices in managing

  2. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplicy, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects.

  3. Delayed splenic rupture presenting 70 days following blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resteghini, Nancy; Nielsen, Jonpaul; Hoimes, Matthew L; Karam, Adib R

    2014-01-01

    Delayed splenic rupture following conservative management of splenic injury is an extremely rare complication. We report a case of an adult patient who presented with delayed splenic rupture necessitating splenectomy, 2 months following blunt abdominal trauma. Imaging at the initial presentation demonstrated only minimal splenic contusion and the patient was discharge following 24 hours of observation. © 2014.

  4. Video Game Intervention for Sexual Risk Reduction in Minority Adolescents: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiellin, Lynn E; Hieftje, Kimberly D; Pendergrass, Tyra M; Kyriakides, Tassos C; Duncan, Lindsay R; Dziura, James D; Sawyer, Benjamin G; Mayes, Linda; Crusto, Cindy A; Forsyth, Brian Wc; Fiellin, David A

    2017-09-18

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately impacts minority youth. Interventions to decrease HIV sexual risk are needed. We hypothesized that an engaging theory-based digital health intervention in the form of an interactive video game would improve sexual health outcomes in adolescents. Participants aged 11 to 14 years from 12 community afterschool, school, and summer programs were randomized 1:1 to play up to 16 hours of an experimental video game or control video games over 6 weeks. Assessments were conducted at 6 weeks and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Primary outcome was delay of initiation of vaginal/anal intercourse. Secondary outcomes included sexual health attitudes, knowledge, and intentions. We examined outcomes by gender and age. A total of 333 participants were randomized to play the intervention (n=166) or control games (n=167): 295 (88.6%) were racial/ethnic minorities, 177 (53.2%) were boys, and the mean age was 12.9 (1.1) years. At 12 months, for the 258 (84.6%) participants with available data, 94.6% (122/129) in the intervention group versus 95.4% (123/129) in the control group delayed initiation of intercourse (relative risk=0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.05, P=.77). Over 12 months, the intervention group demonstrated improved sexual health attitudes overall compared to the control group (least squares means [LS means] difference 0.37, 95% CI 0.01-0.72, P=.04). This improvement was observed in boys (LS means difference 0.67, P=.008), but not girls (LS means difference 0.06, P=.81), and in younger (LS means difference 0.71, P=.005), but not older participants (LS means difference 0.03, P=.92). The intervention group also demonstrated increased sexual health knowledge overall (LS means difference 1.13, 95% CI 0.64-1.61, Pvideo game intervention improves sexual health attitudes and knowledge in minority adolescents for at least 12 months. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01666496; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01666496 (Archived by WebCite at http

  5. Sexual Dysfunction in Women: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Rullo, Jordan E

    2015-08-15

    Sexual dysfunction in women is a common and often distressing problem that has a negative impact on quality of life and medication compliance. The problem is often multifactorial, necessitating a multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment approach that addresses biological, psychological, sociocultural, and relational factors. Criteria for sexual interest/arousal disorder require the presence of at least three specific symptoms lasting for at least six months. Lifelong anorgasmia may suggest the patient is unfamiliar or uncomfortable with self-stimulation or sexual communication with her partner. Delayed or less intense orgasms may be a natural process of aging due to decreased genital blood flow and dulled genital sensations. Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder includes fear or anxiety, marked tightening or tensing of the abdominal and pelvic muscles, or actual pain associated with attempts toward vaginal penetration that is persistent or recurrent for at least six months. Treatment depends on the etiology. Estrogen is effective for the treatment of dyspareunia associated with genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Testosterone, with and without concomitant use of estrogen, is associated with improvements in sexual functioning in naturally and surgically menopausal women, although data on long-term risks and benefits are lacking. Bupropion has been shown to improve the adverse sexual effects associated with antidepressant use; however, data are limited. Psychotherapy or sex therapy is useful for management of the psychological, relational, and sociocultural factors impacting a woman's sexual function. Clinicians can address many of these issues in addition to providing education and validating women's sexual health concerns.

  6. Effects of Sexuality Information on Sexual Behavior and Control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant correlation between knowledge of sexuality and sexual ... Conclusion: It is recommended that instructors on sexuality education be ... youths facts of sexuality, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases to reduce the ...

  7. Satisfaction guaranteed? How individual, partner, and relationship factors impact sexual satisfaction within partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Within committed relationships, a wide range of factors may challenge or facilitate sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study was to clarify which individual, partner-, and partnership-related aspects of a sexual relationship are crucial for the prediction of sexual satisfaction. The study included data of a representative sample of 964 couples from the general population. The actor-partner interdependence model was used to estimate actor and partner effects. Overall, predictors explained 57% of outcome variance. Actor effects were found for sexual function, sexual distress, frequency of sexual activity, desire discrepancy, sexual initiative, sexual communication, sociosexual orientation, masturbation, and life satisfaction. Gender-specific partner effects were found for sexual function and sexual distress. Neither age, nor relationship duration were significant predictors. To deepen our understanding of sexual satisfaction, it is necessary to take quantitative and qualitative aspects of sexual relationships into account and to consider actor-, partner-, and relationship-related predictors. PMID:28231314

  8. "Yes Means Yes:" A New Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention and Positive Sexuality Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrance, Dawn E.; Loe, Meika; Brown, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    "Yes Means Yes" (YMY) is an interdisciplinary, noncredit, five-week, positive sexuality seminar offered at a small liberal arts college as part of a campus-wide initiative to improve students' relationship skills and behaviors. Most university campuses employ some sort of sexual assault prevention program to help protect students from problematic…

  9. Sexual Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Christine Boyce

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This month two general practitioners (GPs describe their approach to sexual health consultations.The issue of a sexually active adolescent demonstrates some differences in legislation pertaining tothe requirement to involve the authorities, although in essence the young person can expect thesame response from these practitioners in two different health care systems. On the other hand apatient at risk of sexually transmitted infections is more likely to be referred to a specialistGenitourinary clinic in the UK although the protocols for screening and education are largely similar.Equally patients who are HIV positive can expect to receive the bulk of their care from specialistclinics in both countries.Midwives are the main stay of antenatal services in Australia and the UK with general practitionersminimally involved in routine cases. Also home births are a negigible proportion of all deliveries ineither country. When patients opt for a home birth our authors expressed the view that GPsgenerally do not have the skills or experience to be the main health professional in attendance.Therefore such births are primarily managed by midwives as the key health care professional. Thefocus of General practitioners is primarily to ensure that the patient is making an informed decisionabout delivering her baby at home. The GP is therefore still in an influential position to assist thewoman in making a decision about where to give birth. As a point of difference in Australia a homebirth would result in out of pocket expences for the mother.The views expressed below are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect health policy orpractice elsewhere in their countries. However we believe they offer an interesting perspective ontheir health care systems and commend the article to our readers.Please

  10. Can Victoria's Secret Change the Future? A Subjective Time Perception Account of Sexual-Cue Effects on Impatience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B. Kyu; Zauberman, Gal

    2013-01-01

    Sexual cues influence decisions not only about sex, but also about unrelated outcomes such as money. In the presence of sexual cues, individuals are more "impatient" when making intertemporal monetary tradeoffs, choosing smaller immediate amounts over larger delayed amounts. Previous research has emphasized the power of sexual cues to induce a…

  11. Assessing delay discounting in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Delay discounting (also intertemporal choice or impulsive choice) is the process by which delayed outcomes, such as delayed food delivery, are valued less than the same outcomes delivered immediately or with a shorter delay. This process is of interest because many psychopathologies, including substance dependence, pathological gambling, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder, are characterized by heightened levels of delay discounting. Some of these disorders are herit...

  12. Goodwin accelerator model revisited with fixed time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akio; Merlone, Ugo; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2018-05-01

    Dynamics of Goodwin's accelerator business cycle model is reconsidered. The model is characterized by a nonlinear accelerator and an investment time delay. The role of the nonlinearity for the birth of persistent oscillations is fully discussed in the existing literature. On the other hand, not much of the role of the delay has yet been revealed. The purpose of this paper is to show that the delay really matters. In the original framework of Goodwin [6], it is first demonstrated that there is a threshold value of the delay: limit cycles arise for smaller values than the threshold and so do sawtooth oscillations for larger values. In the extended framework in which a consumption or saving delay, in addition to the investment delay, is introduced, three main results are demonstrated under assumption of the identical length of investment and consumption delays. The dynamics with consumption delay is basically the same as that of the single delay model. Second, in the case of saving delay, the steady state can coexist with the stable and unstable limit cycles in the stable case. Third, in the unstable case, there is an interval of delay in which the limit cycle or the sawtooth oscillation emerges depending on the choice of the constant initial function.

  13. Estimating Delays In ASIC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gary; Nesheiwat, Jeffrey; Su, Ling

    1994-01-01

    Verification is important aspect of process of designing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Design must not only be functionally accurate, but must also maintain correct timing. IFA, Intelligent Front Annotation program, assists in verifying timing of ASIC early in design process. This program speeds design-and-verification cycle by estimating delays before layouts completed. Written in C language.

  14. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  15. Delayed neutrons in ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, T.

    1988-01-01

    Delayed neutron analysis carried out at the Australian Nuclear Scientific and Technology Organization facilities, provides a fast, high sensitivity, low cost, reliable method, particularly suitable for large batches of samples, and for non destructive analysis of a range of materials. While its main use has been in uranium exploration, other applications include archeological investigations, agriculture, oceanography and biology

  16. The effect of sexual selection on adaptation and extinction under increasing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrett, Jonathan M; Knell, Robert J

    2018-04-25

    Strong sexual selection has been reported to both enhance and hinder the adaptive capacity and persistence of populations when exposed to novel environments. Consequently, how sexual selection influences population adaption and persistence under stress remains widely debated. Here, we present two empirical investigations of the fitness consequences of sexual selection on populations of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, exposed to stable or gradually increasing temperatures. When faced with increasing temperatures, strong sexual selection was associated with both increased fecundity and offspring survival compared with populations experiencing weak sexual selection, suggesting sexual selection acts to drive adaptive evolution by favouring beneficial alleles. Strong sexual selection did not, however, delay extinction when the temperature became excessively high. By manipulating individuals' mating opportunities during fitness assays, we were able to assess the effect of multiple mating independently from the effect of population-level sexual selection, and found that polyandry has a positive effect on both fecundity and offspring survival under increasing temperatures in those populations evolving with weak sexual selection. Within stable temperatures, there were some benefits from strong sexual selection but these were not consistent across the entire experiment, possibly reflecting changing costs and benefits of sexual selection under stabilizing and directional selection. These results indicate that sexual selection can provide a buffer against climate change and increase adaptation rates within a continuously changing environment. These positive effects of sexual selection may, however, be too small to protect populations and delay extinction when environmental changes are relatively rapid. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeersch, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    P. Vandermeersch, A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture? In: F. VAN DE VIJVER & G. HUTSCHEMAEKERS (ed.), The Investigation of Culture. Current Issues in Cultural Psychology, Tilburg, Tilburg University Press, 1990, 43-58.

  18. Sexual Health Care, Sexual Behaviors and Functioning, and Female Genital Cutting: Perspectives From Somali Women Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement.

  19. Delayed cerebral thrombosis complicating pneumococcal meningitis: an autopsy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen-Lee, Joo-Yeon; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Aronica, Eleonora; van de Beek, Diederik

    2018-01-01

    Background: Delayed cerebral thrombosis (DCT) is a devastating cerebrovascular complication in patients with excellent initial recovery of pneumococcal meningitis. The aetiology is unknown, but direct bacterial invasion, activation of coagulation or post-infectious immunoglobulin deposition has been

  20. Prenatal undernutrition disrupted the sexual maturation, but not the sexual behavior, in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Mayila, Yiliyasi; Iwasa, Takeshi; Yano, Kiyohito; Yanagihara, Rie; Tokui, Takako; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Sumika; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to various stressors, including psychological, metabolic, and immune, in the perinatal period induces long-lasting effects in physiological function and increase the risk of metabolic disorders in later life. In the present study, sexual maturation and sexual behavior were assessed in prenatally undernourished mature male rats. All the pregnant rats were divided into the maternal normal nutrition (mNN) group and the maternal undernutrition (mUN) group. The mUN mothers received 50% of the amount of the daily food intake of the mNN mothers. Preputial separation and sexual behavior were observed in randomly selected pups of the mNN and mUN groups. The body weight of the mothers was significantly lighter in the mUN group than in the mNN group. Similarly, the pups in the mUN group showed a significantly lower body weight than those in the mNN group from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND 15. The preputial separation day was significantly delayed in the mUN group, compared to the mNN group. Sexual behavior did not show any significant difference between the two groups. These findings indicated that prenatal undernutrition delayed sexual maturation, but did not suppress sexual behavior, in mature male rats.

  1. Patient Delay, Diagnosis Delay and Treatment Delay for Breast Cancer: Comparison of the Pattern between Patients in Public and Private Health Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Harirchi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to compare patient delay, diagnosis delay and treatment delay in breast cancer patients of selected public and private health centers in Tehran, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, female patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer in a public medical complex and a private breast clinic within one year were included. Patient delay was considered positive, if the interval between the detection of the first symptom by the patient and the first visit to a health care provider took longer than one month. Delay in diagnosis was defined as the period of more than one week between the first medical visit for the symptoms and the diagnosis of breast cancer. Following the confirmed diagnosis of breast malignancy, if the medical treatment was initiated later than one week, treatment delay had occurred. The potential reasons for patient, diagnosis and treatment delay according to the patients’ reports were also recorded.Results: Overall, 385 patients were included of whom 52.7% were recruited from the public hospitals and 47.3% from a private clinic. The prevalence of patient delay, diagnosis delay and treatment delay were 31.7%, 17.9% and 28.3%, respectively. Patient delay was significantly more common among patients with lower socio-economic status and those recruited from the public hospitals. All the patients with diagnosis delay were in the group recruited from the public hospitals.Conclusions: Gaps between women of different socio-economic levels of the society need to be addressed in order to decrease patient, diagnosis and treatment delay.

  2. Sexual function and behavior in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodinger, Liron; Hermesh, Haggai; Aizenberg, Dov; Valevski, Avi; Marom, Sofi; Shiloh, Roni; Gothelf, Doron; Zemishlany, Zvi; Weizman, Abraham

    2002-10-01

    Social phobia is a type of performance and interpersonal anxiety disorder and as such may be associated with sexual dysfunction and avoidance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sexual function and behavior in patients with social phobia compared with mentally healthy subjects. Eighty subjects participated in the study: 40 consecutive, drug-free outpatients with social phobia (DSM-IV) attending an anxiety disorders clinic between November 1997 and April 1999 and 40 mentally normal controls. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were used to quantitatively and qualitatively assess sexual function and behavior. Men with social phobia reported mainly moderate impairment in arousal, orgasm, sexual enjoyment, and subjective satisfaction domains. Women with social phobia reported severe impairment in desire, arousal, sexual activity, and subjective satisfaction. In addition, compared with controls, men with social phobia reported significantly more frequent paid sex (p social phobia reported a significant paucity of sexual partners (p social phobia exhibit a wide range of sexual dysfunctions. Men have mainly performance problems, and women have a more pervasive disorder. Patients of both genders show difficulties in sexual interaction. It is important that clinicians be aware of this aspect of social phobia and initiate open discussions of sexual problems with patients.

  3. Sexual behaviour in adolescents and young people attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic, Ile Ife, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olasode Olayinka

    2007-01-01

    WHO estimates that 20% of persons living with HIV/AIDS are in their 20s and one out of twenty adolescents contract a sexually transmitted disease (STD) each year. A total of 303 adolescents and youths (10-24 years of age) attending an STD clinic were subjected to a questionnaire to assess sexual behavioural patterns that predisposed them to STD. Scope of the questions included age at initiation of sexual intercourse, partner at first exposure, number of sexual partners, use of condoms,...

  4. Multidimensional sexual perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N; Almeida, Isabel; Lyons, Emma

    2013-11-01

    Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality characteristic that can affect all areas of life. This article presents the first systematic investigation of multidimensional perfectionism in the domain of sexuality exploring the unique relationships that different forms of sexual perfectionism show with positive and negative aspects of sexuality. A sample of 272 university students (52 male, 220 female) completed measures of four forms of sexual perfectionism: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. In addition, they completed measures of sexual esteem, sexual self-efficacy, sexual optimism, sex life satisfaction (capturing positive aspects of sexuality) and sexual problem self-blame, sexual anxiety, sexual depression, and negative sexual perfectionism cognitions during sex (capturing negative aspects). Results showed unique patterns of relationships for the four forms of sexual perfectionism, suggesting that partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism are maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with negative aspects of sexuality whereas self-oriented and partner-oriented sexual perfectionism emerged as ambivalent forms associated with positive and negative aspects.

  5. Delay time and tunneling transient phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Calderon, Gaston; Villavicencio, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Analytic solutions to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for cutoff wave initial conditions are used to investigate the time evolution of the transmitted probability density for tunneling. For a broad range of values of the potential barrier opacity α, we find that the probability density exhibits two evolving structures. One refers to the propagation of a forerunner related to a time domain resonance [Phys. Rev. A 64, 0121907 (2001)], while the other consists of a semiclassical propagating wave front. We find a regime where the forerunners are absent, corresponding to positive time delays, and show that this regime is characterized by opacities α c . The critical opacity α c is derived from the analytical expression for the delay time, which reflects a link between transient effects in tunneling and the delay time

  6. Acculturative Stress and Risky Sexual Behavior: The Roles of Sexual Compulsivity and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Sharp, Carla; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Recent syndemic models of sexual health disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities have highlighted the role of discrimination. Yet no previous work has examined how acculturative stress (distress at the transition from one's original culture toward a new culture) associates with sexual HIV-risk behavior (SHRB). Work among other minority populations suggests sexual compulsivity (SC) may contribute to syndemic sexual health disparities as a means of coping with distress. With this in mind, the present study examined whether SC explained the relation between acculturative stress and SHRB. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females within a sample of 758 sexually initiated racial/ethnic minority college students. Among males and females, acculturative stress had an indirect effect on SHRB via SC. As the first study to examine SHRB in relation to acculturative stress, findings provide preliminary evidence that targeting SC among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce sexual health disparities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Best matching Barenblatt profiles are delayed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolbeault, Jean; Toscani, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The growth of the second moments of the solutions of fast diffusion equations is asymptotically governed by the behavior of self-similar solutions. However, at next order, there is a correction term which amounts to a delay depending on the nonlinearity and on a distance of the initial data to the set of self-similar Barenblatt solutions. This distance can be measured in terms of a relative entropy to the best matching Barenblatt profile. This best matching Barenblatt function determines a scale. In new variables based on this scale, which are given by a self-similar change of variables if and only if the initial datum is one of the Barenblatt profiles, the typical scale is monotone and has a limit. Coming back to original variables, the best matching Barenblatt profile is delayed compared to the self-similar solution with same initial second moment as the initial datum. Such a delay is a new phenomenon, which has to be taken into account for instance when fitting experimental data. (paper)

  8. Topological Acoustic Delay Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Wei, Qi; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Topological protected wave engineering in artificially structured media is at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research that is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogues of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation with strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to backscattering. Earlier fabrications of topological insulators are characterized by an unreconfigurable geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful devices. Here we establish topologically protected sound in reconfigurable phononic crystals that can be switched on and off simply by rotating its three-legged "atoms" without altering the lattice structure. In particular, we engineer robust phase delay defects that take advantage of the ultrabroadband reflection-free sound propagation. Such topological delay lines serve as a paradigm in compact acoustic devices, interconnects, and electroacoustic integrated circuits.

  9. Delayed traumatic intracranial hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Hiroki

    1984-01-01

    CT was performed serially within 24 hours after head injury in 64 patients having Glasgow Coma Scale of 14 or less or cranial fracture shown on roentgenogram. Delayed traumatic extradural hematoma was observed within 7-12 hours after head injury in 6 cases (9.4%). This was prominent in the frontal and occipital regions (67%). Good recovery was seen in 83.3%. Delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma was observed within 6-24 hours after head injury in 17 cases (26.6%). This higher incidence was related to contre coup injury. Conservative treatment was possible in 14 of the 17 patients (82.4%), showing good recovery in 70%. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

  11. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sexual Orientation KidsHealth / For Parents / Sexual Orientation What's in this ... orientation is part of that process. What Is Sexual Orientation? The term sexual orientation refers to the gender ( ...

  12. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  13. "The Heart Desires but the Body Refuses": Sexual Scripts, Older Men's Perceptions of Sexuality, and Implications for Their Mental and Sexual Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutagumirwa, Sylivia Karen; Bailey, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    We use sexual scripting theory in the present paper to gain a better understanding of older men's perceptions of their sexuality in relation to dominant Tanzanian cultural norms of masculinity. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 older men, and ten focus group discussions were conducted with 60 men aged 60-82. Participants' recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies. Consistent with the principles of grounded theory, data collection and analysis occurred simultaneously. Our findings indicate that Jando (male initiation rites) serves as a script for male sexuality that outlines the expectations and rewards of male sexuality. Adhering to masculine sexual script affects older men's perceptions of their sexuality in later life and has detrimental effects on their well-being. Older men were concerned with changes in their sexual life, such as the decline in their sexual performance. The majority of the participants said they felt emotionally distressed about the age-related decline in their body and in their sexuality, and they reported that their inability to conform to male sexual scripts undermined their sense of masculinity. Several of the participants reported that in an effort to regain their previous sexual performance, they had turned to remedies and strategies of questionable appropriateness and effectiveness. Our study suggests that older men may benefit from age-related interventions tailored to their cultural background. These interventions may require trained health care providers on mental health issues to bridge the gap between the internalized scripts of ideal male sexuality and the reality of aging.

  14. Sexual overperception: power, mating motives, and biases in social judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstman, Jonathan W; Maner, Jon K

    2011-02-01

    Results from 4 experiments suggest that power motivates heightened perceptions and expectations of sexual interest from subordinates. Having power over a member of the opposite sex activated sexual concepts that persisted across a temporal delay, indicating the activation of a mating goal (Study 1). Having power increased participants' expectations of sexual interest from a subordinate (Study 2) but only when a mating goal was attainable (i.e., when the subordinate was romantically available; Study 3). In a face-to-face interaction between 2 participants, power heightened perceptions of sexual interest and sexualized behavior among participants with chronically active mating goals (i.e., sexually unrestricted individuals; Study 4). Tests of mediation demonstrated that sexual overperception mediated power's effect on sexually tinged behavior. Through its capacity to induce goal pursuit, power can activate mating goals that sexualize interactions between men and women. This research demonstrates one route through which power might lead to sexual harassment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven by ch...... by changes in sexual behaviour patterns. The purpose of our study is to assess the occurrence of risky behaviour in men aged 18-45 years from the general population. Furthermore, we aim to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviour.......Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven...

  16. Violencia sexual vivida por varones en el estado de guerrero, México

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Martínez Jerez

    2014-01-01

    There are described results of 10 years of investigation on sexual violence in 87 adult resident males in Guerrero, Mexico; they were participants in a course on sexuality. The study is descriptive and attempts to outline an initial characterization of how sexual violence occurs in adult males of that region. The sample was not random for convenience. 68 % of them was forced once in his life: 64 % experienced sexual abuse, 26 % sexual harassment and 10 % violation. The average age in which th...

  17. Buffer or Brake? The Role of Sexuality-Specific Parenting in Adolescents’ Sexualized Media Consumption and Sexual Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Overbeek (Geertjan); van de Bongardt, D. (Daphne); Baams, L. (Laura)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractOne main source of sexual socialization lies within family interactions. Especially sexuality-specific parenting may determine adolescents’ sexual development—adolescents’ sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior, sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes—to a

  18. Buffer or Brake? The Role of Sexuality-Specific Parenting in Adolescents’ Sexualized Media Consumption and Sexual Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, Geertjan; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura

    2018-01-01

    One main source of sexual socialization lies within family interactions. Especially sexuality-specific parenting may determine adolescents’ sexual development—adolescents’ sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior, sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes—to a significant extent,

  19. Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Cornwell, R. Elisabeth; Law Smith, Miriam J; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Moore, Fhionna R; Davis, Hasker P; Stirrat, Michael; Tiddeman, Bernard; Perrett, David I

    2006-01-01

    Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate s...

  20. Sexual Function Across Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Anita H; Harsh, Veronica

    2016-03-01

    Women experience multiple changes in social and reproductive statuses across the life span which can affect sexual functioning. Various phases of the sexual response cycle may be impacted and can lead to sexual dysfunction. Screening for sexual problems and consideration of contributing factors such as neurobiology, reproductive life events, medical problems, medication use, and depression can help guide appropriate treatment and thereby improve the sexual functioning and quality of life of affected women. Treatment options include psychotropic medications, hormone therapy, and psychotherapy.

  1. Alcohol Increases Delay and Probability Discounting of Condom-Protected Sex: A Novel Vector for Alcohol-Related HIV Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick S; Sweeney, Mary M; Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Matthew W

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use, especially at binge levels, is associated with sexual HIV risk behavior, but the mechanisms through which alcohol increases sexual risk taking are not well-examined. Delay discounting, that is, devaluation of future consequences as a function of delay to their occurrence, has been implicated in a variety of problem behaviors, including risky sexual behavior. Probability discounting is studied with a similar framework as delay discounting, but is a distinct process in which a consequence is devalued because it is uncertain or probabilistic. Twenty-three, nondependent alcohol users (13 male, 10 female; mean age = 25.3 years old) orally consumed alcohol (1 g/kg) or placebo in 2 separate experimental sessions. During sessions, participants completed tasks examining delay and probability discounting of hypothetical condom-protected sex (Sexual Delay Discounting Task, Sexual Probability Discounting Task) and of hypothetical and real money. Alcohol decreased the likelihood that participants would wait to have condom-protected sex versus having immediate, unprotected sex. Alcohol also decreased the likelihood that participants would use an immediately available condom given a specified level of sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. Alcohol did not affect delay discounting of money, but it did increase participants' preferences for larger, probabilistic monetary rewards over smaller, certain rewards. Acute, binge-level alcohol intoxication may increase sexual HIV risk by decreasing willingness to delay sex in order to acquire a condom in situations where one is not immediately available, and by decreasing sensitivity to perceived risk of STI contraction. These findings suggest that delay and probability discounting are critical, but heretofore unrecognized, processes that may mediate the relations between alcohol use and HIV risk. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Youth Sexual Health: Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Among Students at a University in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraçoğlu, Gamze Varol; Erdem, İlknur; Doğan, Sultan; Tokuç, Burcu

    2014-09-01

    To determine sexual attitudes, behavior, and knowledge of Namik Kemal University (NKU) students about sexual health and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A sample representing 10% of the undergraduate population of NKU in 2009-2010, was studied. Of 1,500 questionnaires distributed, 1,314 (87.6%) were filled out. The mean age of the respondents (52.9% male) was 20.07±1.75 years. The rate of students who had received sexual health education was 32.0%, and 15.3% had previously used a sexual health service. Eleven percent of the female students and 50.3% of the male students had had sexual intercourse. The average age of initial sexual intercourse was 16.83±2.07 years. Of the students who had had sexual intercourse, 46.6% reported that they did not use any contraception method. The most preferred method was condoms (37.6%). The rate of contraceptive use was 58.7% in sexually educated students and 43.9% in those not educated (p=.004). The most well-known STI was AIDS (96.5%), with sexually educated students giving higher rates of correct answers about STIs (psexual health education were more knowledgeable about vital consequences of STI's, even though it is not sufficient, than sexually active students. Awareness of safe sexual practices and changes in behavior, in particular, promoting condom use should be established in higher risk youths. Deficiencies in knowledge could be addressed by adding a sexual healthtraining component to the university curriculum, and unmet requirements could be met by reorganizing medico-social centers in universities.

  3. Sexuality and Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialmy, Abdessamad

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts.

  4. Preventing Sexual Violence and HIV in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommarin, Clara; Kilbane, Theresa; Mercy, James A.; Moloney-Kitts, Michele; Ligiero, Daniela P.

    2018-01-01

    Background Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. Methods Authors analyzed data from national household surveys on violence against children undertaken by governments in Swaziland, Tanzania, Kenya, and Zimbabwe, with support of the Together for Girls initiative, as well as an analysis of evidence on effective programmes. Results Data show that sexual and physical violence in childhood are linked to negative health outcomes, including increased sexual risk taking (eg, inconsistent condom use and increased number of sexual partners), and that girls begin experiencing IPV (emotional, physical, and sexual) during adolescence. Evidence on effective programmes addressing childhood sexual violence is growing. Key interventions focus on increasing knowledge among children and caregivers by addressing attitudes and practices around violence, including dating relationships. Programmes also seek to build awareness of services available for children who experience violence. Discussion Findings include incorporating attention to children into HIV and violence programmes directed to adults; increased coordination and leveraging of resources between these programmes; test transferability of programmes in low- and middle-income countries; and invest in data collection and robust evaluations of interventions to prevent sexual violence and IPV among children. Conclusions This article contributes to a growing body of evidence on the prevention of sexual violence and HIV in children. PMID:24918598

  5. REASONS FOR PATIENT DELAYS & HEALTH SYSTEM DELAYS FOR TUBERCULOSIS IN SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Goel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, the burden of Tuberculosis is escalating. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of tuberculosis treatment is essential for an effective tuberculosis control programme. Objectives: To study the self reported reasons for patient and health system (diagnosis & treatment delays in Tuberculosis patients. Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted among 98 new sputum positive TB cases aged > 15 years registered under RNTCP from Oct 2006 to June 2007 & receiving treatment under DOTS in Udupi taluk by interviewing them. Results: Total 98 patients were recruited and 68% were males. Out of 17 patients with patient delays, 82% felt that their symptoms were not severe, 71% felt that patient delay was due to lack of awareness and 71% did not take it seriously. Out of 86 patients with health system delays, 82.6% of patients mentioned that doctor has not advised for sputum examination, 76.7% of patients told that they first consulted a private doctor, 21% of them mentioned that doctor was unaware to diagnose TB. Conclusion: Symptoms not severe is the main reason for the patient delay and doctor didn’t advise for sputum examination is the main reason for health system delays.

  6. Delayed HIV diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodi, Sara; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Touloumi, Giota

    2014-01-01

    nine HIV cohorts within COHERE in Austria, France, Greece, Italy, Spain and Switzerland, collecting data on level of education in categories of the UNESCO/International Standard Classification of Education standard classification: non-completed basic, basic, secondary and tertiary education. We...

  7. Delaying information search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we examined factors that may temporarily attenuate information search. People are generally curious and dislike uncertainty, which typically encourages them to look for relevant information. Despite these strong forces that promote information search, people sometimes deliberately delay obtaining valuable information. We find they may do so when they are concerned that the information might interfere with future pleasurable activities. Interestingly, the decision to search or to postpone searching for information is influenced not only by the value and importance of the information itself but also by well-being maintenance goals related to possible detrimental effects that negative knowledge may have on unrelated future plans.

  8. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  9. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  10. Parent-adolescent sexual communication and its association with adolescent sexual behaviors: a nationally representative analysis in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Looze, Margaretha; Constantine, Norman A; Jerman, Petra; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; ter Bogt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Sexual communication is a principal means of transmitting sexual values, beliefs, expectations, and knowledge from parents to children. Although this area has received considerable research attention, more studies with representative samples are needed to assure that findings are reflective of populations of interest. A nationally representative sample of parent-adolescent dyads (N = 2,965; mean adolescent age = 13.8 years) in the Netherlands was employed to examine the frequency of parent-adolescent sexual communication and its association with adolescent sexual behaviors (defined as sexual initiation, condom use, and contraceptive pill use). Nine communication topics in the areas of anatomy, relationships and rights, and protection and contraception were examined. In all, 75%of parents reported having discussed at least one topic multiple times with their adolescents. Romantic relationships were discussed most frequently. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses indicated that parent-adolescent sexual communication on protection and contraception was positively associated with adolescent sexual initiation and contraceptive pill use but not condom use. This may reflect that adolescents, when they become sexually active, are more likely to discuss sexuality with their parents. Findings are interpreted within the context of Dutch culture, which is generally accepting of adolescent sexuality and characterized by open sexual communication.

  11. The Strong Lensing Time Delay Challenge (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kai; Dobler, G.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Rumbaugh, N.; Linder, E.; Hojjati, A.

    2014-01-01

    Time delays between multiple images in strong lensing systems are a powerful probe of cosmology. At the moment the application of this technique is limited by the number of lensed quasars with measured time delays. However, the number of such systems is expected to increase dramatically in the next few years. Hundred such systems are expected within this decade, while the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is expected to deliver of order 1000 time delays in the 2020 decade. In order to exploit this bounty of lenses we needed to make sure the time delay determination algorithms have sufficiently high precision and accuracy. As a first step to test current algorithms and identify potential areas for improvement we have started a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). An "evil" team has created realistic simulated light curves, to be analyzed blindly by "good" teams. The challenge is open to all interested parties. The initial challenge consists of two steps (TDC0 and TDC1). TDC0 consists of a small number of datasets to be used as a training template. The non-mandatory deadline is December 1 2013. The "good" teams that complete TDC0 will be given access to TDC1. TDC1 consists of thousands of lightcurves, a number sufficient to test precision and accuracy at the subpercent level, necessary for time-delay cosmography. The deadline for responding to TDC1 is July 1 2014. Submissions will be analyzed and compared in terms of predefined metrics to establish the goodness-of-fit, efficiency, precision and accuracy of current algorithms. This poster describes the challenge in detail and gives instructions for participation.

  12. Delayed rule following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D R

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [S(D)], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the S(D). The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects.

  13. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C.; Lapresle, J.

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. γEG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed [fr

  14. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C; Lapresle, J [Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. ..gamma..EG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed.

  15. Sexual Narcissism and the Perpetration of Sexual Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales—Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction). PMID:19130204

  16. Sexual narcissism and the perpetration of sexual aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K

    2010-08-01

    Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction).

  17. Indian concepts on sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality.

  18. Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth.

  19. Sexual Recovery Following Prostate Cancer: Recommendations From 2 Established Canadian Sexual Rehabilitation Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stacy; Matthew, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Supportive sexual health care is much-needed adjuvant care to oncologic management for men with prostate cancer (PCa). To inspire the initiation of biopsychosocial sexual health programming where it does not exist and to inform program enhancement in existing sexual rehabilitation clinics (SRCs). This article reviews the combined 30-year experience of 2 well-established Canadian SRCs for men and their partners after PCa treatments, interwoven with empirical evidence. To comprehensively review the biopsychosocial approach to sexual health assessment of men with PCa and their partners to direct the practicalities of running a successful and sustainable SRC. A full description of the biomedical and psychosocial approaches, inclusive of comprehensive sexual function, the penile rehabilitation controversy, and other medical and relationship issues affecting sexual adjustment, is provided to highlight the relevance of proper assessment and follow-through for sexual adaptation and adjustment. 10 recommendations for a successful SRC are discussed, including the principles behind developing a sustainable business plan, staff acquisition and training, budget, integration of treatment and research priorities, respectful and multidisciplinary approaches to care, and suggestions of visit formats, protocols, and questionnaires. We recommend a phased approach of an SRC into usual care with the option to provide accessible and equitable care to patients not within proximal access of treating institutions. Sexual rehabilitation after treatment for PCa requires a complex treatment process. Providing sustainable sexual rehabilitation programming under the financially strained environment of the Canadian medical system is a challenge; therefore, to provide Canadian patients and their partners with comprehensive cancer care, they deserve a biopsychosocial approach combined with a creative and systematic implementation strategy. Elliott S, Matthew A. Sexual Recovery Following Prostate

  20. [Age of puberty and western young women sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresch, C; Ohl, J

    2015-02-01

    The onset of menarche and age of first sexual experience have both lowered over the past century. Does the age of puberty influence the sexuality of the girl/young occidental woman? If so, to what degree? Besides, is the acquisition of reproductive function, regardless of age, a sign of sufficient maturity to engage in sexual activity? Studies show that early puberty, early sex, unprotected sexual intercourse in adolescence and number of sexual partners in early adulthood are closely related. These early sexual experiences could be stimulated by early drug use as well as by depressive disorders. The age of puberty has a real influence on sexuality but this link will be modulated by a number of social behavioral factors and it is not sustainable. The age of puberty is not a good indicator of maturity for teenage sexuality; early maturation and early sexual activity are usually associated with risky behaviors. However, other studies on the subject are required, including a consideration of the issues associated with delayed puberty, a subject virtually absent from the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Informational dichotomy of the mind; the role of sexual neuromodulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion G. Motofei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Many basic physiological mechanisms of sexuality were initially studied on animal subjects and conclusions regarding human subjects extrapolated afterward. These ancestral reflexes are assumed to have ascended during human evolution to the cerebral level, where cognition would intermediate (being an environmental operator both sexual and mental processes. Accordingly, the study of human sexuality suggests an additional/ particular documentation regarding mental existence and its implication, phenomena that are not characteristic of animals. In a previously published paper we presented ideas regarding the structural dichotomy of the mind and its subsequent implications to sexuality. In this paper we present a general perspective regarding the informational dichotomy of the mind and sexuality, which will be followed by a forthcoming paper that addresses the relational dichotomy of the mind and brain. Though these psychological implications may initially seem implausible, they represent in our opinion essential hypothetical perspectives that could further promote a better understanding of both cognition and sexuality.

  2. Delayed puberty but normal fertility in mice with selective deletion of insulin receptors from Kiss1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaoliang; Dowling, Abigail R; Marino, Joseph S; Faulkner, Latrice D; Bryant, Benjamin; Brüning, Jens C; Elias, Carol F; Hill, Jennifer W

    2013-03-01

    Pubertal onset only occurs in a favorable, anabolic hormonal environment. The neuropeptide kisspeptin, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, modifies GnRH neuronal activity to initiate puberty and maintain fertility, but the factors that regulate Kiss1 neurons and permit pubertal maturation remain to be clarified. The anabolic factor insulin may signal nutritional status to these neurons. To determine whether insulin sensing plays an important role in Kiss1 neuron function, we generated mice lacking insulin receptors in Kiss1 neurons (IR(ΔKiss) mice). IR(ΔKiss) females showed a delay in vaginal opening and in first estrus, whereas IR(ΔKiss) males also exhibited late sexual maturation. Correspondingly, LH levels in IR(ΔKiss) mice were reduced in early puberty in both sexes. Adult reproductive capacity, body weight, fat composition, food intake, and glucose regulation were comparable between the 2 groups. These data suggest that impaired insulin sensing by Kiss1 neurons delays the initiation of puberty but does not affect adult fertility. These studies provide insight into the mechanisms regulating pubertal timing in anabolic states.

  3. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  4. Sexuality and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Sexuality and Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Can ... It's something everyone needs. Many people think that sexuality refers only to sexual intercourse. But sexuality includes ...

  5. Sexuality, aging, and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Susan Mary; Beeston, Derek

    2012-07-01

    Sexuality in later life and its relationship to dementia is a neglected topic: greater understanding of the area has the potential to contribute to the quality of life of people with dementia, their family members, and formal carers. We review current knowledge about sexuality, aging, and dementia. We undertook a review of the recent literature to examine of the following areas: what is known about sexuality and aging, and about attitudes to sexuality and aging; what is known about the relevance of sexuality and aging to people living with dementia and their care; and the management of sexual behaviors causing concern to others. Sexual activity decreases in frequency with increasing age but many older people remain sexually active; there is no age limit to sexual responsiveness; and sexuality is becoming more important to successive cohorts of older people, including people living with dementia and gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered elderly people. Attitudes and beliefs toward sexuality and aging are strongly influenced by stereotypes and myths, not only among the general public but also among those working in health and social care. Professional bodies should include sexuality, aging, and dementia in their training curricula. More work is needed on the impact of environmental issues, particularly in group living situations, on older adults' sexuality, and on consent issues. Ethical decision-making frameworks can be useful in practice. Organizations should investigate how to support staff in avoiding a problem-orientated approach and focus on providing holistic person-centered care.

  6. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  8. Sexual communication among young adult heterosexual Latinos: a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Carmen Paula; Villarruel, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Sexual communication between sexual partners is an important component in prevention efforts against unintended consequences of sex. The purpose of this study was to describe sexual communication among young adult Latinos. Four semistructured, sex-segregated focus groups were used for this study. Participants (N = 20) were 18-30 years old self-identified Latinos who were in heterosexual and sexually active relationships (more than 3 months). Participants revealed that initial sexual communication with their partners was avoided related to a lack of interest in a partner's sexual history, feeling embarrassed about the topic, or concern for offending one's partner or partner's family. As a result of these beliefs and attitudes, initial sexual communication was nonverbal and focused on sexual pleasure. After the initiation of sexual activity, verbal sexual communication expanded to include sexual history. These findings highlight the importance of attitudes and subjective norms toward verbal sexual communication. Attitudes and subjective norms toward sexual communication in the context of a romantic relationship and how it may impact sexual behavior in the relationship should be further explored.

  9. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... of radiation therapy was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of reoperation after both 1-stage (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and 2-stage (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) procedures. Reconstruction failure was highest (13.2%) in the 2-stage procedures with a history of radiation therapy. Breast...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  10. Delay tolerant networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Longxiang; Luan, Tom H

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents emerging and promising communication methods for network reliability via delay tolerant networks (DTNs). Different from traditional networks, DTNs possess unique features, such as long latency and unstable network topology. As a result, DTNs can be widely applied to critical applications, such as space communications, disaster rescue, and battlefield communications. The brief provides a complete investigation of DTNs and their current applications, from an overview to the latest development in the area. The core issue of data forward in DTNs is tackled, including the importance of social characteristics, which is an essential feature if the mobile devices are used for human communication. Security and privacy issues in DTNs are discussed, and future work is also discussed.

  11. Diagnosis delay in Libyan female breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermiah, Eramah; Abdalla, Fathi; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Larbesh, Entesar; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Collan, Yrjö

    2012-08-21

    To study the diagnosis delay and its impact on stage of disease among women with breast cancer on Libya. 200 women, aged 22 to 75 years with breast cancer diagnosed during 2008-2009 were interviewed about the period from the first symptoms to the final histological diagnosis of breast cancer. This period (diagnosis time) was categorized into 3 periods: 6 months. If diagnosis time was longer than 3 months, the diagnosis was considered delayed (diagnosis delay). Consultation time was the time taken to visit the general practitioner after the first symptoms. Retrospective preclinical and clinical data were collected on a form (questionnaire) during an interview with each patient and from medical records. The median of diagnosis time was 7.5 months. Only 30.0% of patients were diagnosed within 3 months after symptoms. 14% of patients were diagnosed within 3-6 months and 56% within a period longer than 6 months. A number of factors predicted diagnosis delay: Symptoms were not considered serious in 27% of patients. Alternative therapy (therapy not associated with cancer) was applied in 13.0% of the patients. Fear and shame prevented the visit to the doctor in 10% and 4.5% of patients, respectively. Inappropriate reassurance that the lump was benign was an important reason for prolongation of the diagnosis time. Diagnosis delay was associated with initial breast symptom(s) that did not include a lump (p diagnosis, the clinical stage distribution was as follows: 9.0% stage I, 25.5% stage II, 54.0% stage III and 11.5% stage IV.Diagnosis delay was associated with bigger tumour size (p Diagnosis delay is very serious problem in Libya. Diagnosis delay was associated with complex interactions between several factors and with advanced stages. There is a need for improving breast cancer awareness and training of general practitioners to reduce breast cancer mortality by promoting early detection. The treatment guidelines should pay more attention to the early phases of breast

  12. Child Sexual Abuse in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantula, Fennie; Saloojee, Haroon

    2016-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse is a significant public health problem globally, its incidence, prevention, and management is less well described in resource-poor settings. In poorer settings prevention initiatives assume even more importance since resources for managing abused children are severely limited. This article examines the current status of policy and practice related to the prevention of child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe. It identifies implementation challenges and highlights opportunities that could be embraced to reduce CSA in Zimbabwe, based on evidence synthesized from recent work. Although Zimbabwe has a well-established legal and regulatory framework to protect children from child sexual abuse, implementation of existing policies is weak. Financial, human, and material resource constraints are frequently cited to explain limited prevention activity. Effective strategies for the prevention of child sexual abuse should focus on implementing existing legislation, targeting schoolchildren, and getting community involvement. A dedicated budget would help entrench these strategies, but gains can be achieved even in the absence of this.

  13. Reperfusion delay in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel M; Sejersten, Maria; Hvelplund, Anders

    2012-01-01

    identification number to emergency medical services (EMS) and National Board of Health databases in the period of 2005-2008. Patients were stratified according to transfer distances to PPCI into zone 1 (0-25 km), zone 2 (65-100 km) and zone 3 (101-185 km) and according to referral by pre-hospital triage. System...... the local hospital (219 (171-250)). System delay was an independent predictor of mortality (ppatients. PCI-related delay exceeded European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for patients living >100 km away and for non-directly referred......BACKGROUND: Reperfusion delay in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) predicts adverse outcome. We evaluated time from alarm call (system delay) and time from first medical contact (PCI-related delay), where fibrinolysis could be initiated, to balloon inflation in a pre...

  14. "Talking about child sexual abuse would have helped me": Young people who sexually abused reflect on preventing harmful sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Gemma; Humphreys, Cathy; Hamilton, Bridget

    2017-08-01

    Harmful sexual behavior carried out by children and young people accounts for about half of all child sexual abuse perpetration. The aim of this study was to draw on the insights of young people who had been sexually abusive to enhance the current prevention agenda. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 14 young people and six treatment-providing workers. Sampling was purposive and the young people had previously completed a treatment program for harmful sexual behaviour in Victoria, Australia. The young people were approached as experts based on their previous experience of engaging in harmful sexual behavior. At the same time, their past abusive behavior was not condoned or minimised. Constructivist Grounded Theory was used to analyse the qualitative data. Opportunities for preventing harmful sexual behavior were the focus of the interviews with young people and workers. The research identified three opportunities for prevention, which involved acting on behalf of children and young people to: reform their sexuality education; redress their victimization experiences; and help their management of pornography. These opportunities could inform the design of initiatives to enhance the prevention agenda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Sarah A; Rosen, Natalie O

    2017-03-01

    Sexual problems are common during pregnancy, but the proportion of pregnant women who experience sexual distress is unknown. In non-pregnant samples, sexual distress is associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. To identify the proportion of women experiencing sexual distress during pregnancy and to compare the sexual and relationship satisfaction of women who report sexual distress during pregnancy with that of women without distress. Two-hundred sixty-one pregnant women completed a cross-sectional online survey. Women completed validated measurements of sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index; score sexual problem), sexual distress (Female Sexual Distress Scale; score ≥ 15 indicates clinically significant distress), sexual satisfaction (Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction), and relationship satisfaction (Couples Satisfaction Index). Overall, 42% of women met the clinical cutoff for sexual distress. Of sexually active women (n = 230), 26% reported concurrent sexual problems and distress and 14% reported sexual distress in the absence of sexual problems. Sexual distress and/or problems in sexual functioning were linked to lower sexual and relationship satisfaction compared with pregnant women with lower sexual distress and fewer sexual problems. Sexual distress is common during pregnancy and associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. Health care providers should ask pregnant women about feelings of sexual distress. Identifying pregnant women who experience sexual distress and referring them to appropriate resources could help minimize sexual and relationship problems during pregnancy. Vannier SA, Rosen NO. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction. J Sex Med 2017;14:387-395. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Your Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase arousal? • What can help me have an orgasm? • How can I minimize sexual pain? • How can ... difficulties. What are orgasmic problems? Not having an orgasm during sexual activity may not be a problem. ...

  17. Sexual Health and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pass through menopause and discover its effects on sexuality. And that’s something we can all be grateful for, since our understanding of how menopause and aging affect sexual health has grown a lot in ...

  18. Aging and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lesley

    2010-10-01

    Sexuality has become a medical issue in association with aging. This is due to a number of factors, including increasing age of survival, a positive societal construct that promotes sexuality as important for quality of life as we age, and the medicalisation of sexuality with the advent of prescription medications to treat sexual dysfunction. This article reviews the factors surrounding aging and sexuality and also considers special situations with age, such as institutionalised care and the possibility of elder abuse. Normal physiological changes with aging affect both genders in terms of sexual desire and performance. Other medical conditions increase with age, and these and their treatments will impact on sexuality and the way it can be expressed. Medical practitioners require an understanding of these changes in order to find ways to optimise sexual function in older patients.

  19. Scleroderma and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scleroderma and Sexuality INTRODUCTION If you or your partner have been diagnosed with scleroderma, you may be wondering how this will ... will continue to find satisfaction and enjoyment through sexuality. If you are single, you may wonder how ...

  20. Rape and Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF 73K) | Appendix H: Data Tables for Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault Perpetration (PDF 79K) | Appendix I: Data Tables for School Connectedness and Campus Climate (PDF 140K) | Appendix J: ...

  1. Number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness predict sexual victimization: do more partners equal more risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dave P; Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness were examined as independent risk factors for sexual victimization among college women. Using a sample of 335 college women, this study examined the interaction of number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness on verbal sexual coercion and rape. Approximately 32% of the sample reported unwanted sexual intercourse, 6.9% (n = 23) experienced verbal sexual coercion, 17.9% (n = 60) experienced rape, and 7.2% (n = 24) experienced both. As number of sexual partners increased, instances of verbal sexual coercion increased for women low in relational sexual assertiveness but not for women high in relational sexual assertiveness. A similar relationship was not found for rape. Among women who experienced both verbal sexual coercion and rape, increases in number of partners in the context of low refusal and relational assertiveness were associated with increases in verbal sexual coercion and rape. Findings suggest sexual assertiveness is related to fewer experiences of sexual coercion.

  2. An Overview of Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, William F., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…

  3. Can a cognitive-behavioral group-therapy training program for the treatment of child sexual abuse reduce levels of burnout and job-strain in trainees? initial evidence of a brazilian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Figueiredo Damásio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the extent to which a professional training program of an evidence-based intervention for the treatment of child and adolescent victims of sexual abuse could reduce strain and burnout levels in trainees. Participants were 30 psychologists, 19 of whom composed the experimental group (G1 and 11 the comparison group (G2. Data collection occurred before and after the training. The results showed that the ‘work demand’ increased for G1 and remained stable for G2, whereas the ‘control at work’ remained stable for G1 while decreasing for G2. Regarding burnout levels, there was a decrease in depersonalization and stabilization in the levels of emotional exhaustion and reduced professional efficacy for G1, whereas for G2, all the burnout indicators significantly increased. These results partially support the perspective that the training program would have an indirect protective effect on the occupational psychopathology levels of the trainees.

  4. Development of delayed radiation necrosis. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, ShigFeki; Takagi, Terumasa [Meitetsu Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Shibata, Taichiro; Nagai, Hajime

    1983-04-01

    The authors discussed the developing process of delayed radiation necrosis of the brain from the case of a 42-year-old female who developed intracranial hypertension and left hemiparesis 5 and a half years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The initial sign of radiation necrosis was from a CT scan taken 3 and a half years after radiotherapy showing an irregular low density lesion in the right temporal lobe. CT scan 2 years later demonstrated displacement of the midline structures to the left and a larger low density lesion with partially high density in the right MCA territory that was enhanced with intravenous contrast medium. Recovery after a right temporal lobectomy and administration of steroid hormone were uneventful. Eight months later there were no signs of raised intracranial pressure nor of neurological deficits. Tissues obtained from the right temporal lobe at lobectomy revealed the characteristic changes of delayed radiation necrosis; a mixture of fresh, recent, and old vascular lesions in the same specimen. From these findings, it was speculated that delayed radiation necrosis might initially occur within several years after radiotherapy and might gradually take a progressive and extended course, even in cases whose clinical symptoms develop much later.

  5. Sexual Desire Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the phys...

  6. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis

    2018-01-01

    -mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). METHODS: Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual...

  7. Location Estimation using Delayed Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Nørgård, Peter Magnus

    1998-01-01

    When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new techn...... technique to a sensor fusion system for estimating the location of an autonomous guided vehicle. The system fuses encoder and vision measurements in an extended Kalman filter. Results from experiments in a real environment are reported...

  8. Modeling delay in genetic networks: from delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R; Josić, Krešimir; Ott, William

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  9. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Bennett, Matthew R. [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77204, USA and Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Josić, Krešimir [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  10. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay

  11. Men pressured and forced into sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckman-Johnson, C; Struckman-Johnson, D

    1994-02-01

    A predominantly heterosexual sample of 204 college men were asked to report incidents of pressured or forced sexual touch or intercourse since age 16. About 34% indicated they had received coercive sexual contact: 24% from women, 4% from men, and 6% from both sexes. Contact involved only sexual touching for 12% and intercourse for 22%. Sexual contact was pressured in 88% of the 81 reported incidents by tactics of persuasion, intoxication, threat of love withdrawal, and bribery. In 12% of the incidents, sexual contact was forced through physical restraint, physical intimidation, threat of harm, or harm. Contact was initiated by an acquaintance or intimate in 77% of incidents. The negative emotional impact of male contact was rated significantly higher than the impact of female contact. Men with and without coercion experience did not differ, however, for scale scores on sexual esteem, depression, and preoccupation. Interviews with 10 subjects revealed complex reactions to coercive male and female contact, including doubts about one's sexuality, resentment of unexpected or forceful contact, and fear of telling others about the event.

  12. Components of Sexual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  13. Sexual Harassment in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John F.; And Others

    As in many other areas of society, sexual harassment has become an important issue in education. It has left the educational community with many questions about what constitutes sexual harassment, how to prevent it, and how to deal with the legal problems that may arise concerning it. This report dispels several myths about sexual harassment in…

  14. Loneliness and Sexual Dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1987-01-01

    Argues that sexual dysfunctions result from early childhood experiences which were originally nonsexual in nature. Contends that psychological difficulties centered around problems of loneliness tend to generate certain sexual dysfunctions. Extends and explores suggestion that genesis of sexual conflicts is in nonsexual infant separation anxiety…

  15. Rethinking Sexual Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades sexuality has emerged as a key theme in debates about citizenship, leading to the development of the concept of sexual citizenship. This article reviews this literature and identifies four main areas of critical framing: work that contests the significance of sexuality to citizenship; critiques that focus on the possibilities and limitations of mobilising the language of citizenship in sexual politics; analyses of sexual citizenship in relation to nationalisms and border making; and literature that critically examines western constructions of sexuality and sexual politics underpinning understandings of sexual citizenship. In order to progress the field theoretically, the article seeks to extend critiques of sexual citizenship focusing on two key aspects of its construction: the sexual citizen-subject and spaces of sexual citizenship. It argues for a critical rethink that encompasses a de-centring of a ‘western-centric’ focus in order to advance understandings of how sexual citizenship operates both in the Global North and South. PMID:28490816

  16. Toddlers and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that seems sexual to an adult is not sexual to children. They think about it as play. Sex education should start at home at an early age. References Bushnell P and Lucas L. Questions and Answers About Sex. KidsHealth. ... Sexual Behavior in Children: What's Normal? http://www.mayoclinic. ...

  17. Systematic of delayed neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, S.G.; Piksaikin, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental studies of the energy dependence of the delayed neutron (DN) parameters for various fission systems has shown that the behaviour of a some combination of delayed neutron parameters has a similar features. On the basis of this findings the systematics of delayed neutron experimental data for thorium, uranium, plutonium and americium isotopes have been investigated with the purpose to find a correlation of DN parameters with characteristics of fissioning system as well as a correlation between the delayed neutron parameters themselves. It was presented the preliminary results which were obtained during study the physics interpretation of the results [ru

  18. Time Delay of CGM Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773

  19. Risky sexual practices among youth attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhalu F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth have been reported to be at a higher risk of acquiring STIs with significant adverse health and social consequences. Knowledge on the prevailing risky practices is an essential tool to guide preventive strategies. Methods Youth aged between 18 and 25 years attending an STI clinic were recruited. Social, sexual and demographic characteristics were elicited using a structured standard questionnaire. Blood samples were tested for syphilis and HIV infections. Urethral, high vaginal and cervical swabs were screened for common STI agents. Results A total of 304 youth were studied with mean age of 21.5 and 20.3 years for males and females respectively. 63.5% of youth were seeking STI care. The mean age of coitache was 16.4 and 16.2 years for males and females respectively. The first sexual partner was significantly older in females compared to male youth (23.0 vs 16.8 years (p Conclusion Most female youth seen at the STI clinic had their first sexual intercourse with older males. Youth were engaging in high risk unprotected sexual practices which were predisposing them to STIs and unplanned pregnancies. There is a great need to establish more youth-friendly reproductive health clinics, encourage consistent and correct use of condoms, delay in sexual debut and avoid older sexual partners in females.

  20. Solving the Linear 1D Thermoelasticity Equations with Pure Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Ya. Khusainov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a system of partial differential equations with a single constant delay τ>0 describing the behavior of a one-dimensional thermoelastic solid occupying a bounded interval of R1. For an initial-boundary value problem associated with this system, we prove a well-posedness result in a certain topology under appropriate regularity conditions on the data. Further, we show the solution of our delayed model to converge to the solution of the classical equations of thermoelasticity as τ→0. Finally, we deduce an explicit solution representation for the delay problem.

  1. Asymptotic Behaviour and Extinction of Delay Lotka-Volterra Model with Jump-Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Li; Jing’an Cui; Guohua Song

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of jump-diffusion random environmental perturbations on the asymptotic behaviour and extinction of Lotka-Volterra population dynamics with delays. The contributions of this paper lie in the following: (a) to consider delay stochastic differential equation with jumps, we introduce a proper initial data space, in which the initial data may be discontinuous function with downward jumps; (b) we show that the delay stochastic differential equation with jumps associate...

  2. The Sexual Health of Transgender Men: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Riley, Erin; Rogers, Erin; Suarez, Nicolas; Metheny, Nick; Senda, Jonathan; Saylor, Kate M; Bauermeister, José A

    There is a general paucity of research concerning the sexual health of transgender individuals, and most existing research focuses on transgender women. A scoping review concerning the sexual health of transgender men was conducted to identify gaps in the literature and to highlight opportunities for future research and intervention. A comprehensive search of seven databases was conducted. The Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual was used as a framework. Some 7,485 articles were initially identified using a search strategy applied to seven online databases: 54 articles were identified as relevant to the research questions and reviewed in detail; of those, 33 were included in the final analysis. Studies were conceptualized into four broad themes: sexual behaviors, sexual identity, sexual pleasure and sexual function, and transactional sex. Besides an overall lack of research, existing studies were often characterized by small convenience samples that do not allow for generalization to the larger population of transgender men. Significant gaps in the literature regarding sexual coercion, sexual and intimate partner violence, and relationship quality and functioning among transgender men exist. There is a need to improve the scope and depth of research examining the sexual health of this population, especially concerning sexual risk behaviors and structural barriers to sexual health care access.

  3. Body Mass Index and Sexual Maturation in Adolescent Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with delayed sexual maturation. The Body Mass Index (BMI) or Quetelets Index is closely linked to events of puberty in normal children. We have so far, found no reports on studies on the relationship between BMI and puberty in patients with SCA. Objectives: To evaluate ...

  4. Energy management - The delayed flap approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Flight test evaluation of a Delayed Flap approach procedure intended to provide reductions in noise and fuel consumption is underway using the NASA CV-990 test aircraft. Approach is initiated at a high airspeed (240 kt) and in a drag configuration that allows for low thrust. The aircraft is flown along the conventional ILS glide slope. A Fast/Slow message display signals the pilot when to extend approach flaps, landing gear, and land flaps. Implementation of the procedure in commercial service may require the addition of a DME navigation aid co-located with the ILS glide slope transmitter. The Delayed Flap approach saves 250 lb of fuel over the Reduced Flap approach, with a 95 EPNdB noise contour only 43% as large.

  5. Workplace sexual harassment and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Maria K.; Hansen, Jørgen V.; Aldrich, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work...... workplace initiatives modified the association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and level of depressive symptoms. Methods: We used data from the Work Environment and Health in Denmark cohort study (WEHD) and the Work Environment Activities in Danish Workplaces Study (WEADW) collected...... employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. Results: Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly...

  6. Sexual and reproductive health in rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østensen, Monika

    2017-08-01

    Family size is reduced among patients with rheumatic diseases. The causes for the low number of children are multifactorial and include impaired sexual function, decreased gonadal function, pregnancy loss, therapy and personal choices. Sexuality contributes to quality of life in patients with rheumatic disease, but is often ignored by health professionals. Both disease-related factors and psychological responses to chronic disease can impair sexual functioning. Toxic effects of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs can induce transient or permanent gonadal failure in women and men. Furthermore, permanent infertility can be a consequence of treatment with cyclophosphamide, whereas transient infertility can be caused by NSAIDs in women and sulfasalazine in men. These adverse effects must be communicated to the patients, and measures to preserve fertility should be initiated before the start of gonadotoxic therapy. Management of patients of both genders should include regular family planning, effective treatment of high disease activity, sexual counselling, and, if necessary, infertility treatment.

  7. Association between Age at First Sexual Relation and Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses show that initiation of sexual activity before age 14 is more likely to be associated with having a casual sex partner. It is less likely to be associated with condom use at first sexual relation or with systematic condom use in the past 12 months. These associations vary depending on adolescents' country and gender.

  8. Psychological and Interpersonal Dimensions of Sexual Function and Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori; Atallah, Sandrine; Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista; Rosenbaum, Talli; Abdo, Carmita; Byers, E Sandra; Graham, Cynthia; Nobre, Pedro; Wylie, Kevan

    2016-04-01

    Psychological, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors play a significant role in making one vulnerable to developing a sexual concern, in triggering the onset of a sexual difficulty, and in maintaining sexual dysfunction in the long term. To focus on psychological and interpersonal aspects of sexual functioning in women and men after a critical review of the literature from 2010 to the present. This report is part 1 of 2 of our collaborative work during the 2015 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine for Committee 2. Systematic review of the literature with a focus on publications since 2010. Our work as sexual medicine clinicians is essentially transdisciplinary, which involves not only the collaboration of multidisciplinary professionals but also the integration and application of new knowledge and evaluation and subsequent revision of our practices to ensure the highest level of care provided. There is scant literature on gender non-conforming children and adolescents to clarify specific developmental factors that shape the development of gender identity, orientation, and sexuality. Conversely, studies consistently have demonstrated the interdependence of sexual function between partners, with dysfunction in one partner often contributing to problems in sexual functioning and/or sexual satisfaction for the other. We recommend that clinicians explore attachment styles of patients, childhood experiences (including sexual abuse), onset of sexual activity, personality, cognitive schemas, infertility concerns, and sexual expectations. Assessment of depression, anxiety, stress, substance use and post-traumatic stress (and their medical treatments) should be carried out as part of the initial evaluation. Clinicians should attempt to ascertain whether the anxiety and/or depression is a consequence or a cause of the sexual complaint, and treatment should be administered accordingly. Cognitive distraction is a significant contributor to sexual response problems

  9. Adolescent sexual behaviour, knowledge and attitudes to sexuality among school girls in Transkei, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, G A; Amoko, D H; Ncayiyana, D J

    1996-02-01

    Teenagers make up a quarter of all mothers in Transkei, South Africa, and well over 75% of them are unmarried. Such a high rate of teenage pregnancy is indicative of a high level of unprotected adolescent sexual activity. We examined sexual behaviour, knowledge and attitudes to sexuality among adolescent school girls in Transkei, using a self-administered questionnaire, in order to establish the incidence of sexual activity, and associated risk factors. Of the 1072 respondents, 74.6% were already sexually experienced, and 21.0% were not. The majority of sexually experienced girls (SEGs) and sexually inexperienced girls (SIGs) were living with both their parents. There were no religious differences between the two groups of girls. The age of SEGs at first coitus correlated positively with the age of menarche, and the age at the first date, suggesting that sexual maturation and onset of dating were possible risk factors for initiation of sexual activity. Contraceptive use was low, and a third of SEGs had been pregnant at least once. The knowledge of reproductive biology among both groups of girls was generally poor, although SEGs were significantly more knowledgeable than SIGs. The majority of girls in both groups did not approve of premarital sex, and adolescent pregnancy. They also did not approve of the idea of introducing sex education in schools, or the provision of contraceptives by schools. Nearly a third of the respondents in both groups did not wish to get married in future. In conclusion, there is a high level of unprotected sexual activity among school girls in Transkei. The risk factors for this include early sexual maturation, early onset of dating, and poor knowledge of reproductive biology and contraceptives.

  10. Relaxation periodic solutions of one singular perturbed system with delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashchenko, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we consider a singularly perturbed system of two differential equations with delay, simulating two coupled oscillators with a nonlinear compactly supported feedback. We reduce studying nonlocal dynamics of initial system to studying dynamics of special finite-dimensional mappings: rough stable (unstable) cycles of these mappings correspond to exponentially orbitally stable (unstable) relaxation solutions of initial problem. We show that dynamics of initial model depends on coupling coefficient crucially. Multistability is proved.

  11. The Development of the Sexual Assertiveness Questionnaire (SAQ): A Comprehensive Measure of Sexual Assertiveness for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loshek, Eevett; Terrell, Heather K

    2015-01-01

    Sexual assertiveness has been defined in a number of ways by many researchers, with different aspects of sexual assertiveness emphasized in different measures. Most previous measures have included condom insistence as an important aspect of sexual assertiveness, but this may not translate well to women at all life stages or in varied types of relationships. The goal of the current study was to develop a comprehensive measure of sexual assertiveness that encompasses the aspects of sexual assertiveness that have been emphasized by previous researchers, with the exception of condom insistence. Items were generated based on previous measures and definitions, and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted (Study 1) to better understand the dimensions of sexual assertiveness. The proposed scale was revised and further refined using both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis in Study 2. The final scale consisted of 18 items that seem to capture three dimensions of sexual assertiveness: the ability to initiate and communicate about desired sex, the ability to refuse unwanted sex, and the ability to communicate about sexual history and risk. Model fit indices indicate that this three-factor solution fits the data well. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  12. Sexual harassment in the Chinese workplace. Attitudes toward and experiences of sexual harassment among workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, T Y

    1996-09-01

    This study, with the use of a questionnaire survey method, examined the characteristics of sexual harassment experiences and the dynamics of the attitudes toward sexual harassment among male and female workers in Taipei. An occupationally representative sample of male and female workers was recruited to participate in the survey. The findings showed that 1 in 4 workers in Taipei experienced some sort of sexual harassment in the workplace, 36% (n = 493) of the surveyed women and 13% (n = 415) of the surveyed men reported experiencing workplace sexual harassment. The most frequently reported type of sexual harassment was unwanted sexual jokes/comments, followed by unwanted deliberate body contact, and unwanted requests/pressure for a date. The major source of sexual harassment came from coworkers of the opposite sex. Majority of the alleged victims attributed their sexual harassment incident to insensitivity of the initiator. In being consistent with previous research, the study established three attitudinal models toward sexual harassment among Chinese workers: the victim-blame/trivialization model, the natural/biological explanation, and the power/manipulation model. The study found no consistent relationship between the self-rated attitudes toward sexual harassment and the self-reported sexual harassment experiences.

  13. Anthropology of sexual exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Velibor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors observe sexual exploitation from an anthropological perspective. They analyze the rational, ethical, emotional and mythological dimensions of human sexuality. Consequently, after setting the phenomenon in a social and historical context, sexual exploitation is closely observed in the contemporary age. Based on thoughts of relevant thinkers, they make the conclusion that the elimination of sexual exploitation is not an utterly legal issue, but political and economical issues as well. Namely, legal norms are not sufficient to overcome sexual exploitation, but, political and economical relationships in contemporary societies, which will be based on sincere equal opportunities must be established.

  14. Delayed epidural hematoma after mild head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danilo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traumatic delayed epidural hematoma (DEH can be defined as insignificant or not seen on the initial CT scan performed after a trauma but seen on the subsequent CT scan as a “massive” epidural bleeding. Case report. We presented two cases of traumatic DEH after mild head injury. Both patients were conscious and without neurological deficit on the admission. Initial CT scan did not reveal intracranial hematoma. Repeated CT scan, that was performed after neurological deterioration, revealed epidural hematoma in both cases. The patients were operated with a favorable surgical outcome. Conclusion. Traumatic DEH could occur in the patients with head injuries who were conscious on the admission with a normal initial CT scan finding. Early detection of DEH and an urgent surgical evacuation were essential for a good outcome.

  15. Sexual Revictimization during Women's First Year of College: Self-Blame and Sexual Refusal Assertiveness as Possible Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jennifer; May, Pamela; Sorensen, Silvia; DelTosta, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Although sexual victimization during adolescence increases risk for later revictimization, mechanisms for increased risk among new college students have not been identified. Female undergraduates (N = 87) were assessed at the start and end of their first academic year. Those who reported initial sexual victimization at Time 1 were more likely than…

  16. Sexual activity and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-08-01

    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human sexual response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The human sexual response to sexually arousing stimuli is a motivational incentive-based cycle comprising subjective experience and physiologic changes. Clinical and empirical data support a circular model of overlapping phases of variable order. Brain imaging data of sexual arousal identify areas of cerebral activation and inhibition reflecting a complex network of cognitive, motivational, emotional, and autonomic components. Psychologic and biologic factors influence the brain's appraisal and processing of sexual stimuli to allow or disallow subsequent arousal. The sexual and non-sexual outcomes influence motivation to future sexual intimacy. Variability is marked both between individuals and within a person's sexual life, influenced by multiple factors, including stage of life cycle, mental health, and relationship happiness. Neurologic disease can interrupt the cycle at many points: by limiting motivation, reducing ability to attend to and feel sexual stimuli, and accomplishing the movements needed to stimulate and experience intercourse. Impairments to genital congestion, penile erection, and orgasm may also occur. Disease-associated changes to the interpersonal relationship and self-image plus frequently comorbid depression will tend to lessen motivation and temper the brain's appraisal of sexual stimuli, so precluding arousal. Therapy begins by explaining the sexual response cycle, clarifying the points of interruption in the patient's own cycle so as to guide treatment. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  19. #FakeNobelDelayReasons

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Tuesday’s hour-long delay of the Nobel Prize in Physics announcement was (and still is) quite the cause for speculation. But on the Twittersphere, it was simply the catalyst for some fantastic puns, so-bad-they're-good physics jokes and other shenanigans. Here are some of our favourite #FakeNobelDelayReasons.    

  20. Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market. (technical design note)

  1. Parenting Style and the Timing of Jewish Adolescents’ Sexual Debut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Etzkin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parenting style and its effect on the timing of Jewish adolescents’ sexual debuts were examined in the reported study. One hundred sixty-eight research participants between the ages of 18 and 22 from a large university in the Southeast participated in the study. A survey instrument was administered at three fraternities and two sororities to examine parenting style and sexual debut retrospectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequency chi square tests, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA; while post hoc results were determined through Tukey’s honestly significant difference. Results found that authoritative parenting provides a delay in the age of sexual debut for Jewish adolescents. All other parenting styles had mean ages less than the overall mean age of sexual debut, 17.10 years old, with indifferent parenting having the earliest debut. These findings suggest that parenting style may affect the timing of Jewish adolescents’ sexual debut. The study has implications for understanding factors that may affect the timing of a Jewish adolescent’s sexual debut and may help parents protect their adolescent from the negative effects associated with early sexual debut, such as low academic achievement. Recommendations for future research include exploring the effects of family structure and peer networks to understand fully the many factors that affect the timing of adolescents’ sexual debut.

  2. Age of Sexual Debut and Physical Dating Violence Victimization: Sex Differences among US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihongbe, Timothy O.; Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that early age of sexual debut is associated with physical dating violence (PDV), but sex-specific associations are sparse. We estimated the prevalence of PDV victimization in high school students who have initiated sexual intercourse and examined sex-specific association between age of sexual debut and PDV…

  3. Project delay analysis of HRSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvianita; Novega, A. S.; Rosyid, D. M.; Suntoyo

    2017-08-01

    Completion of HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) fabrication project sometimes is not sufficient with the targeted time written on the contract. The delay on fabrication process can cause some disadvantages for fabricator, including forfeit payment, delay on HRSG construction process up until HRSG trials delay. In this paper, the author is using semi quantitative on HRSG pressure part fabrication delay with configuration plant 1 GT (Gas Turbine) + 1 HRSG + 1 STG (Steam Turbine Generator) using bow-tie analysis method. Bow-tie analysis method is a combination from FTA (Fault tree analysis) and ETA (Event tree analysis) to develop the risk matrix of HRSG. The result from FTA analysis is use as a threat for preventive measure. The result from ETA analysis is use as impact from fabrication delay.

  4. Delay and refusal of human papillomavirus vaccine for girls, national immunization survey-teen, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorell, Christina; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Stokley, Shannon; Fisher, Allison; Markowitz, Lauri; Smith, Philip J

    2014-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage among girls is low. We used data reported by parents of 4103 girls, 13 to 17 years old, to assess associations with, and reasons for, delaying or refusing HPV vaccination. Sixty-nine percent of parents neither delayed nor refused vaccination, 11% delayed only, 17% refused only, and 3% both delayed and refused. Eighty-three percent of girls who delayed only, 19% who refused only, and 46% who both delayed and refused went on to initiate the vaccine series or intended to initiate it within the next 12 months. A significantly higher proportion of parents of girls who were non-Hispanic white, lived in households with higher incomes, and had mothers with higher education levels, delayed and/or refused vaccination. The most common reasons for nonvaccination were concerns about lasting health problems from the vaccine, wondering about the vaccine's effectiveness, and believing the vaccine is not needed.

  5. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Beppu, H.; Hirose, K.; Yamada, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author).

  6. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Toshiko; Miyamoto, Kazuto; Beppu, Hirokuni; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Katsuhiro

    1981-01-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author)

  7. Transgender transitioning and change of self-reported sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthias K; Fuss, Johannes; Höhne, Nina; Stalla, Günter K; Sievers, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female "MtF" and 45 female-to-male "FtM") patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. In total, 32.9% (n = 23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n = 10) FtM transsexual persons (p = 0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p = 0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p =0.05). In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon.

  8. Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, R Elisabeth; Law Smith, Miriam J; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Moore, Fhionna R; Davis, Hasker P; Stirrat, Michael; Tiddeman, Bernard; Perrett, David I

    2006-12-29

    Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate sexual maturation and reproduction. Early age of menarche is associated with absence of younger siblings, absence of a father figure during early life and increased weight. Father absence during early life is also associated with early marriage, pregnancy and divorce. Choice of partner characteristics is critical to successful implementation of sexual strategies. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic traits (including those evident in the face) signal high-quality immune function and reproductive status. Masculinity in males has also been associated with low investment in mate and offspring. Thus, women's reproductive strategy should be matched to the probability of male investment, hence to male masculinity. Our review leads us to predict associations between the rate of sexual maturation and adult preferences for facial characteristics (enhanced sexual dimorphism and attractiveness). We find for men, engaging in sex at an early age is related to an increased preference for feminized female faces. Similarly, for women, the earlier the age of first sex the greater the preference for masculinity in opposite-sex faces. When we controlled sexual dimorphism in male faces, the speed of sexual development in women was not associated with differences in preference for male facial attractiveness. These developmental influences on partner choice were not mediated by self-rated attractiveness or parental relationships. We conclude that individuals assort in preferences based on

  9. Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, R. Elisabeth; Law Smith, Miriam J; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Moore, Fhionna R; Davis, Hasker P; Stirrat, Michael; Tiddeman, Bernard; Perrett, David I

    2006-01-01

    Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate sexual maturation and reproduction. Early age of menarche is associated with absence of younger siblings, absence of a father figure during early life and increased weight. Father absence during early life is also associated with early marriage, pregnancy and divorce. Choice of partner characteristics is critical to successful implementation of sexual strategies. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic traits (including those evident in the face) signal high-quality immune function and reproductive status. Masculinity in males has also been associated with low investment in mate and offspring. Thus, women's reproductive strategy should be matched to the probability of male investment, hence to male masculinity. Our review leads us to predict associations between the rate of sexual maturation and adult preferences for facial characteristics (enhanced sexual dimorphism and attractiveness). We find for men, engaging in sex at an early age is related to an increased preference for feminized female faces. Similarly, for women, the earlier the age of first sex the greater the preference for masculinity in opposite-sex faces. When we controlled sexual dimorphism in male faces, the speed of sexual development in women was not associated with differences in preference for male facial attractiveness. These developmental influences on partner choice were not mediated by self-rated attractiveness or parental relationships. We conclude that individuals assort in preferences based on

  10. The reciprocal relationship between sexual victimization and sexual assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A; Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2007-03-01

    Low sexual assertiveness has been proposed as a possible mechanism through which sexual revictimization occurs, yet evidence for this has been mixed. In this study, prospective path analysis was used to examine the relationship between sexual refusal assertiveness and sexual victimization over time among a community sample of women. Results provide support for a reciprocal relationship, with historical victimization predicting low sexual assertiveness and low sexual assertiveness predicting subsequent victimization. The effect of recent sexual victimization on subsequent sexual assertiveness also was replicated prospectively. These findings suggest that strengthening sexual assertiveness may help reduce vulnerability to future victimization.

  11. Sexual Harassment DEOCS 4.1 Construct Validity Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Sexual Harassment DEOCS 4.1 Construct Validity Summary DEFENSE EQUAL OPPORTUNITY MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE...DIRECTORATE OF RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND STRATEGIC INITIATIVES Directed by Dr. Daniel P. McDonald, Executive Director 366 Tuskegee Airmen Drive Patrick AFB

  12. The prevalence of risky sexual behaviours amongst undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azwihangwisi Helen Mavhandu-Mudzusi

    Department of Health Studies, University of South Africa, Preller Street, Muckleneuk Ridge, Pretoria, .... been successful in increasing knowledge, attitude and .... oral and/or anal sex. ..... sexual initiation due to increased freedom from parental.

  13. Psychosexual correlates of sexual double standard endorsement in adolescent sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerink, Peggy; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; van den Eijnden, Regina; ter Bogt, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the sexual double standard, more insight is needed into the conditions

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  15. [Influence of cumulated sexual trauma on sexual life and relationship of a patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Klasa, Katarzyna; Cyranka, Katarzyna; Müldner-Nieckowski, Lukasz; Dembińska, Edyta; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Mielimaka, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of links of accumulated traumatic events of a sexual nature, recollected from the past, with the current functioning of the patients in the area of sexual life and relationship. Comorbidity of memories of traumatic sexual events from childhood and puberty in patients with the features of their current partner relationships and sexual life were analyzed on the basis of Live Inventory completed by 2,582 women and 1,347 men, before treatment in day hospital (years 1980-2002). The accumulation was evaluated for a combination of two or three selected events. The presence of relatively numerous traumatic events in the field of sexuality early initiation or enforced initiation, incest or its attempt, sub-optimal sexual education and punishment for masturbation was indicated. In some patients, these events occurred simultaneously. Especially in women, the presence in the same person of two or three aggravating circumstances of life was associated with a higher risk of among others fleeting, casual sexual contacts, marriage under the influence of environment pressures, reluctance to partner. Increased accumulation - the presence in the same patient of more than one adverse circumstances associated with sexual development - leads to a higher incidence of interference in relationship with a partner including the elements of sexual dysfunction. The obtained results are generally consistent with clinical observations and literature despite different, simplified methodology of the study based on the analysis of single variables from questionnaire interviews. Finding fewer links in the group of men can be explained by their much lower number in the study group and less frequent burdening with certain traumatic events or different experiencing.

  16. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out if there's someone at your school. Most schools have a sexual harassment policy or a bullying policy to protect you. Ask a guidance counselor, school nurse, or administrator about your school's policy. If ...

  17. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  18. A gender discrepancy analysis of heterosexual sexual behaviors in two university samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Satinsky, Sonya A

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to (1) offer a large-scale enumeration of college students' lifetime sexual behaviors and sexual behaviors at last event, and (2) apply a gender discrepancy lens to college students' sexual behaviors in order to examine potential gender differences in heterosexual college students' experiences. Nine-hundred and seventy college students between the ages of 18 and 27 from two large universities in the United States participated in the current study. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire during the last 30 min of class. Measures of lifetime sexual behaviors and engagement in behaviors at last sexual event were replicated from the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior. Most college students engaged in some form of sexual behavior (manual, oral, vaginal-penile, anal). Men more frequently reported engaging in receptive sexual behaviors (e.g., receiving oral sex) where as women were more likely to engage in performative sexual behaviors (e.g., performing oral sex). At most recent sexual event, men were more likely than women to report being the sexual initiator. Findings highlight gender differences in sexual behavior and provide a foundation for social norms interventions. Holistic sexual health promotion for young adults includes acknowledging and discouraging sites of disparity in equity and pleasure. Therefore, college-level sexual health educators should pay attention to the potential pleasure gap between men and women in heterosexual encounters, and to see pleasure as an important part of sexual health that should be included in social norms campaigns.

  19. Sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercevik Amado, Liz

    2004-05-01

    A regional workshop on sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa was held in Malta in 2003, attended by 22 NGO representatives from Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Turkey, Pakistan and USA. The meeting aimed to develop strategies for overcoming human rights violations in the region with reference to law and social and political practices. Session topics included sexuality and gender identity; sexuality and sexual health; sexuality and comparative penal law; sexual rights in international documents; advocacy and lobbying. Sexual rights, sexual health and education, sexual violence and adolescent sexuality were explored in depth, including taboos and emerging trends. Specific areas of concern included marital rape, early marriages, temporary marriages, sexual orientation, premarital and extramarital sexuality, honour crimes, female genital mutilation, unmarried mothers, adolescent sexuality, unwanted pregnancies and safe abortion, sexuality in education and health services. An analysis of civil codes, penal codes and personal status codes indicated a clear imperative for legal reform. Participants heard about efforts to promote the right to sexual orientation which have already been initiated in Lebanon, Turkey and Tunisia. Networking within the region and with counterparts in other regions in comparable situations and conditions was deemed essential.

  20. The mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Brown, Jane D; Kenneavy, Kristin

    2006-03-01

    This study compared influences from the mass media (television, music, movies, magazines) on adolescents' sexual intentions and behaviors to other socialization contexts, including family, religion, school, and peers. A sample of 1011 Black and White adolescents from 14 middle schools in the Southeastern United States completed linked mail surveys about their media use and in-home Audio-CASI interviews about their sexual intentions and behaviors. Analysis of the sexual content in 264 media vehicles used by respondents was also conducted. Exposure to sexual content across media, and perceived support from the media for teen sexual behavior, were the main media influence measures. Media explained 13% of the variance in intentions to initiate sexual intercourse in the near future, and 8-10% of the variance in light and heavy sexual behaviors, which was comparable to other contexts. Media influences also demonstrated significant associations with intentions and behaviors after all other factors were considered. All contextual factors, including media, explained 54% of the variance in sexual intentions and 21-33% of the variance in sexual behaviors. Adolescents who are exposed to more sexual content in the media, and who perceive greater support from the media for teen sexual behavior, report greater intentions to engage in sexual intercourse and more sexual activity. Mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual socialization, and media influences should be considered in research and interventions with early adolescents to reduce sexual activity.

  1. Sexual revolution in China: implications for Chinese women and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Mehrotra, Purnima; Zimmerman, Rick

    2011-06-01

    China is undergoing rapid changes in sexual mores due to several reasons such as decreasing control of the state over private lives of individuals, globalization of its economy, and some policies initiated by the state. There is increased acceptance of premarital sex and extramarital sex in China, especially among youth. In historically conservative China, influenced by Confucian ideals of patriarchal dominance for centuries, the sexual freedom currently enjoyed by many is unprecedented. This has impacted women's status and sexual lives in several positive ways such as increasing freedom of sexual expression, control over their bodies, sexual choices, and increasing equality with men in all spheres of life. However several negative consequences such as a rise in STD/HIV prevalence, commercial sex, and divorce rates have also been attributed to the ongoing sexual revolution in China. Recommendations combating these and suggestions for directions in future research are discussed.

  2. Sexualización en la publicidad digital de marcas de moda infantil: iniciativas ciudadanas y mecanismos de denuncia//Sexualization in digital advertising of fashion brands for kids: initiatives and ways to report the complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Diaz-Bustamante Ventisca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Los niños son presentados como objetos sexuales en gran parte, según el debate social, debido a la actividad de las marcas y medios vinculados a la moda. La metodología llevada a cabo combina un análisis de contenido de los catálogos de publicidad de moda infantil en Internet en el contexto español, con el objetivo de ver si las marcas de moda infantil sexualizan a los niños; una revisión de las iniciativas de denuncia en Internet para conocer si la sociedad civil está concienciada; y una revisión de la normativa jurídica y ética en la publicidad digital para verificar si hay una especial protección a los niños. Los hallazgos apuntan que casi la mitad de los niños de los catálogos (el 45.8% muestran atributos que los sexualizan, que las niñas son las más perjudicadas -un 48.9% frente al 38.2% de los niños- y las marcas de moda infantil que sexualizan más son las de alta gama originalmente de adultos. Entre las conclusiones sobre la presencia de esta sexualización en los niños destaca la libertad creativa y el beneficio económico de las marcas. Respecto a las iniciativas, se concentran en este orden entre padres, Gobierno y asociaciones de consumidores. Se recomienda información a los ciudadanos para transformar sus quejas en procesos que inicien los mecanismos de protección legal y ética previstos para proteger a los niños.

  3. Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-08-26

    We report measurements of energy-dependent photoionization delays between the two outermost valence shells of N_{2}O and H_{2}O. The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N_{2}O, whereas the delays in H_{2}O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N_{2}O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to ∼110 as. The unstructured continua of H_{2}O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible.

  4. An examination of the path between recent sexual violence and sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sternberg, Kirk; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Jun, Jina; Learman, Joy; Velasquez, Mary M

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common infections in the United States and are particularly prevalent in survivors of sexual violence. The purpose of this study is to examine co-occurring risk factors for sexual violence and STIs including mental health, alcohol use, drug use, and multiple partners as intersecting pathways to STIs for women who experienced sexual abuse in the past year. Secondary analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data from women originally recruited as respondents for an epidemiologic survey funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Project CHOICES. The survey was administered to 2,672 women in six settings: A large, urban jail and residential alcohol and drug treatment facilities (Texas); a gynecology clinic (Virginia); two primary care clinics (Virginia and Florida); and media solicitation (Florida). Women were included in the current study if they were fertile, sexually active, and not pregnant or trying to get pregnant (n = 1,183). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the conceptual path model between sexual violence and STI occurrence. In the SEM, there were no significant paths from mental health, alcohol severity, or drug use to STI occurrence contrary to the results of the initial bivariate analyses. Multiple sexual partners significantly mediated the relationship between sexual violence and STIs and between mental health and drug use and STIs. This study highlights the importance of providing effective treatment to survivors of sexual violence, which includes addressing risky sexual behaviors to reduce STI occurrence. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ageing and healthy sexuality among women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Manjulaa; Payne, Caitlin; Caldas, Stephanie; Beard, John R; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2016-11-01

    Populations around the world are rapidly ageing and effective treatment for HIV means women living with HIV (WLHIV) can live longer, healthier lives. HIV testing and screening programmes and safer sex initiatives often exclude older sexually active WLHIV. Systematically reviewing the literature to inform World Health Organization guidelines on the sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of WLHIV, identified four studies examining healthy sexuality among older WLHIV. In Uganda, WLHIV reported lower rates of sexual activity and rated sex as less important than men. In the United States, HIV stigma, disclosure, and body image concerns, among other issues, were described as inhibiting relationship formation and safer sexual practices. Sexual activity declined similarly over time for all women, including for WLHIV who reported more protected sex, while a significant minority of WLHIV reported unprotected sex. A single intervention, the "ROADMAP" intervention, demonstrated significant increases in HIV knowledge and decreases in HIV stigma and high risk sexual behaviour. WLHIV face ageist discrimination and other barriers to remaining sexually active and maintaining healthy sexual relationships, including challenges procuring condoms and seeking advice on safe sex practices, reduced ability to negotiate safer sex, physical and social changes associated with menopause, and sexual health challenges due to disability and comorbidities. Normative guidance does not adequately address the SRHR of older WLHIV, and while this systematic review highlights the paucity of data, it also calls for additional research and attention to this important area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. School Nurses Avoid Addressing Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an…

  7. Delayed somatic effects following extended radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slanina, J

    1977-10-27

    A group of 135 patients was investigated, who suffered from Hodgkin's disease with long-term remission following radiotherapy. By restricting the investigations to the patient group with long-term remission and correlative examinations, differentiation was made between exclusive or principal delayed radiation effects and delayed effects due to other factors. The study reports the most significant results obtained in the fields of catamnesis, laboratory diagnostics, hematology, pulmology, cardiology, thyroid function tests, neurology, andrology and dermatology. Due to the numerous detectable delayed effects the group of patients with long-term remission receives a special status. Although those effects are in no proportion to the deletary risks of an untreated Hodgkin's disease and though they are consequently tolerable in the present state of the therapeutic development, they must initiate the completion of the therapeutic concept including performance of radiotherapy and aftercare, because only then the risk for the patient provoked by these effects, which ranges beyond the malignity of this disease can be reduced or prevented.

  8. Hopf Bifurcation and Delay-Induced Turing Instability in a Diffusive lac Operon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xin; Song, Yongli; Zhang, Tonghua

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a lac operon model with delayed feedback and diffusion effect. If the system is without delay or the delay is small, the positive equilibrium is stable so that there are no spatial patterns formed; while the time delay is large enough the equilibrium becomes unstable so that rich spatiotemporal dynamics may occur. We have found that time delay can not only incur temporal oscillations but also induce imbalance in space. With different initial values, the system may have different spatial patterns, for instance, spirals with one head, four heads, nine heads, and even microspirals.

  9. [Factors linked to delayed diagnosis of tuberculosis in Conakry (Guinea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, A; Diallo, A; Camara, L M; Fielding, K; Sow, O Y; Chaperon, J

    2006-03-01

    Untreated smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis constitutes a reservoir of infection which is highly contagious. The present study was conducted in Conakry, Guinea, to determine the different options which are available when seeking treatment or care, and to ascertain the average delay in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and the main factors linked to the delay in diagnosis after the initial onset of symptoms. Through a cross-sectional study, 113 consecutive patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were interviewed through the use of a questionnaire. The median total delay from the onset of symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis until the diagnosis was 11 weeks. This delay period exceeded 4 weeks for 90 of the patients (80%). The average delay linked to the conventional health care system was double that of the one at the fault of the patient (6 weeks versus 3 weeks, respectively). 54% of the patients had initially resorted to non-conventional care. To shorten this mean delay period, it is necessary to both strengthen the professional abilities and skills which train for one to better to detect tuberculosis and to sensitize the population to the subject matter and information on the illness and its symptoms.

  10. Initial management of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinusas, K; Gagliardi, A

    2001-09-15

    Breast milk is widely accepted as the ideal source of nutrition for infants. In order to ensure success in breastfeeding, it is important that it be initiated as early as possible during the neonatal period. This is facilitated by skin-to-skin contact between the mother and infant immediately following birth. When possible, the infant should be allowed to root and latch on spontaneously within the first hour of life. Many common nursery routines such as weighing the infant, administration of vitamin K and application of ocular antibiotics can be safely delayed until after the initial breastfeeding. Postpartum care practices that improve breastfeeding rates include rooming-in, anticipatory guidance about breastfeeding problems and the avoidance of formula supplementation and pacifiers.

  11. Sexual dysfunction, depression, and the impact of antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sidney H; Rizvi, Sakina

    2009-04-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common symptom of depression. Although decreased libido is most often reported, difficulties with arousal, resulting in vaginal dryness in women and erectile dysfunction in men, and absent or delayed orgasm are also prevalent. Sexual dysfunction is also a frequent adverse effect of treatment with most antidepressants and is one of the predominant reasons for premature drug discontinuation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the most widely prescribed antidepressants and have significant effects on arousal and orgasm compared with antidepressants that target norepinephrine, dopamine, and melatonin systems. The availability of an antidepressant that does not cause or exacerbate sexual dysfunction represents an advance in pharmacotherapy for mood disorders and should reduce treatment noncompliance and decrease the need for switching antidepressants or adding antidotes. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on the prevalence, psychobiology, and relative adverse effect burden of sexual dysfunction associated with different antidepressants.

  12. Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Irwin; Kim, Noel N.; Clayton, Anita H

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health expert consensus panel was to develop a concise, clinically relevant, evidence-based review of the epidemiology, physiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), a sexual...... dysfunction affecting approximately 10% of adult women. Etiologic factors include conditions or drugs that decrease brain dopamine, melanocortin, oxytocin, and norepinephrine levels and augment brain serotonin, endocannabinoid, prolactin, and opioid levels. Symptoms include lack or loss of motivation...... to participate in sexual activity due to absent or decreased spontaneous desire, sexual desire in response to erotic cues or stimulation, or ability to maintain desire or interest through sexual activity for at least 6 months, with accompanying distress. Treatment follows a biopsychosocial model and is guided...

  13. Sexuality in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Sapetti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Just as the body and its functions undergo changes with age, in the same way sexuality shares this aging process. However, remember a golden rule that we are sexual since we are born until we die; only possibilities are modified with the passage of the years. This article intends to show the changes that occur in the sexual response of the elderly. If sexual life during youth was pleasant and satisfactory this will condition sexuality in the socalled third age and the elderly seek to maintain it, this is not the case for those who had a dysfunctional past. This article briefly describes the andropause and the SIM, vicissitudes, changes and differences in sexual response and chances to maintain eroticism in the older adult. 

  14. Spina bifida and sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Michael Ernst; Biering-Sørensen, Ida; Liebach, Annette

    2014-01-01

    , neurological examination, personal interview, Functional Independence Measure (FIMTM), Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) on quality of life, and questions on sexual function and related topics. Study cohort: Fifty-three participants (27 women, 26 men) with spina bifida (mean age 27.1, range 18......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sexual function amongst adult individuals with spina bifida and to register their subjective satisfaction with their sexual life and relationships. SETTING: Department for Spinal Cord Injuries, East Denmark. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cohort study. Medical record information......-35) years. Response rate 74%. RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of subjects regarded their sexual life as a failure or dysfunctional. However, 45% reported being satisfied with their sexual life. Participants with partners were more satisfied with their sexual life than those without partners. Faecal...

  15. THE TREATMENT OF INTERSEX AND THE PROBLEM OF DELAY: THE AUSTRALIAN SENATE INQUIRY INTO INTERSEX SURGERY AND CONFLICTING HUMAN RIGHTS FOR CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mike

    2016-03-01

    When a child is born with indeterminate genitalia (so-called intersex or disordered sex development), it becomes very difficult to balance the child's right to determine their own sexual future against the problems of living as a child with an indeterminate gender. Moreover, the initial assignment of gender may prove to be inappropriate and major psychological disturbances in the recipient can arise during adolescence and adult life. The problems of these children were explained to the Australian Senate Committee during its inquiry into intersex surgery in 2013. As a result, the Committee made a number of recommendations, including a proposal that all surgery be deferred until the child is able to consent to treatment. The author argues that the Committee's proposal to delay all modifications of indeterminate genitalia is impractical. The inclusion in the definition of intersex of common conditions (such as hypospadias in genetic male infants) means that necessary and uncontroversial surgery will be delayed until after puberty. This delay may be harmful and adverse to some children's best interests.

  16. Social and emotional consequences of refraining from sexual activity among sexually experienced and inexperienced youths in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2008-01-01

    We examined the social and emotional consequences among adolescents of refraining from sexual activity (oral or vaginal sex) and whether these consequences differed over time and by gender and sexual experience. Adolescents (N=612; 58% female) recruited from 2 schools were assessed at 4 time points separated by 6-month intervals, beginning in fall of ninth grade. The percentage of adolescents who reported only positive consequences (e.g., they felt responsible, friends were proud) dramatically decreased over time, whereas the percentage that reported negative consequences (e.g., they felt left out, partners became angry) steadily increased. Adolescent girls and sexually experienced adolescents were more likely to report both positive and negative consequences than were adolescent boys and sexually inexperienced adolescents. Adolescents who began the study with sexual experience were more likely to report positive consequences of refraining from sexual activity by the end of the study than those who initiated sexual activity later. Sexual education programs should address how adolescents can cope with or prevent negative consequences of refraining from sexual activity, so that decisions to abstain are rewarding and decisions to engage in sexual activity are motivated by maturity and readiness.

  17. Women's Sexual Health: Talking about Your Sexual Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... talking to your partner. By Mayo Clinic Staff Women's sexual health, like men's, is important to overall ... well worth addressing. Follow this guide to discussing women's sexual health concerns and promoting sexual enjoyment. Many ...

  18. Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually transmitted ... condom use among patients presenting with sexually transmitted infections (STI) ... having less than 8 years of school education; and being resident in villages.

  19. Mediators of Sexual Revictimization Risk in Adult Sexual Assault Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  20. Aging and sexuality.

    OpenAIRE

    Holzapfel, S.

    1994-01-01

    Recent research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. In men, greater physical stimulation is required to attain and maintain erections, and orgasms are less intense. In women, menopause terminates fertility and produces changes ste...

  1. Increase in condom use and decline in prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among high-risk men who have sex with men and transgender persons in Maharashtra, India: Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Shreena; Deshpande, Sucheta; Gautam, Abhishek; Pardeshi, Dilip B; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Mainkar, Mandar M

    2014-08-03

    behaviours with male sexual partners. Syphilis prevalence declined; however HIV prevalence did not change and is still a major concern. Continued strengthening of core programmatic strategies are needed to effectively improve condom use with all partner types and to help bring sustained reductions in HIV risk in HR-MSM/TG and its onward transmission.

  2. Delays and networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl

    2016-01-01

    This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  3. Linear rotary optical delay lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerboukha, Hichem; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2016-03-01

    We present a semi-analytical solution for the design of a high-speed rotary optical delay line that use a combination of two rotating curvilinear reflectors. We demonstrate that it is possible to design an infinite variety of the optical delay lines featuring linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle. This is achieved via shape optimization of the rotating reflector surfaces. Moreover, a convenient spatial separation of the incoming and outgoing beams is possible. For the sake of example, we present blades that fit into a circle of 10cm diameter. Finally, a prototype of a rotary delay line is fabricated using CNC machining, and its optical properties are characterized.

  4. Sexual dysfunction among youth: an overlooked sexual health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Caroline; Kågesten, Anna E; Blum, Robert Wm

    2016-11-18

    There is growing recognition that youth sexual health entails a broad range of physical, emotional and psychosocial responses to sexual interactions, yet little is known about sexual dysfunctions and well being in youth populations. This study explored sexual dysfunctions among youth and its associations with other domains of sexual health. Sexual dysfunctions were defined as: problems related to orgasm, pain during intercourse, lack of sexual desire or sexual pleasure. Data were drawn from the 2010 French national sexual and reproductive health survey comprising a random sample of 2309 respondents aged 15-24 years. The current analysis included 842 females and 642 males who had sexual intercourse in the last 12 months. Chi square tests were used to test for differences in sexual dysfunctions by sex and explore associations with other domains of sexual health. Half of females (48%) reported at least one sexual dysfunction versus 23% of males. However, over half (57%) of youth reporting at least one dysfunction did not consider this to hinder their sexuality. Altogether, 31% of females cited at least one sexual dysfunction hindering their sexuality-more than three times the 9% of males. Sexual dysfunction was strongly and inversely related to sexual satisfaction for both males and females and additionally to a recent diagnosis of STI or unintended pregnancy for females. Sexual dysfunctions hindering sexuality were also correlated with a history of unintended pregnancy among males. While most youth in France enjoy a satisfying sexual life, sexual dysfunction is common, especially among females. Public health programs and clinicians should screen for and address sexual dysfunction, which substantially reduce youth sexual wellbeing.

  5. The Sexuality of Adults with Intellectual Disability in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijak, Remigiusz

    2013-06-01

    Sexuality is one of the most important aspects of human life that relates to sex, one's identification, sexual role, sexual preferences, eroticism, pleasure and intimacy. It fulfils such functions as procreative, hedonistic and relationship-building as well as constitutes an integral part of human's personality. The sexuality of people with intellectual disability is a special case - both from medical, pedagogical, psychological and ethical point of view. Little available research shows that it may become a significant factor that modifies their psychological and sexual functioning. The basic poll involved altogether 133 people with mild intellectual disability. The work was carried out in 11 schools and special institutions of three provinces in Poland: kujawsko - pomorskie, wielkopolskie and dolnośląskie (provinces of Kujavy and Pomerania, Great Poland and Lower Silesia) The respondents qualified to take part in the poll constituted a very uniform group - homogenous as regards their age of 18-25 as well as IQ level that was average for the people with higher degree of intellectual disability (HDID). Their age was of importance as in that life period one can observe the formation of first partner relationships with the clear aim of establishing a family. It is accompanied by a quick development of sexual desire and taking up various forms of sexual activity. People with intellectual disability don't form a homogenous group as regards their psychological and sexual development. In this group, one can observe both different forms of clinical mental handicap which definitely affects the whole process of sexual development. The sexual development is delayed by an average period of 3 years. The people with intellectual disability take up mostly autoerotic behaviour whereas partner relationships wthin that group are more seldom. The phenomenon of sexuality of people with higher degree of intellectual disability is an issue that needs further constant analysis. The

  6. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  7. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  8. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  9. Fibromyalgia and sexual problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarpellini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to describe the recent literature concerning sexual dysfunction in fibromyalgic patients. To this end, we used the common online databases PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to June 2012 and searched for the key words fibromyalgia (FM and sexual dysfunction. All the studies examined underlined that FM is strictly associated with sexual dysfunction in women. The major findings observed were related to a decreased sexual desire and arousal, decreased experience of orgasm, and in some studies an increase in genital pain. The psychological aspects, together with the stress related to the constant presence of chronic widespread pain, fatigue and sleep disturbances, are certainly a major factor that adversely affects the sexuality of the patient with FM. Moreover, the drugs most commonly used in these cases may interfere negatively on the sexuality and sexual function of these patients. Therefore, the therapeutic intervention should be targeted and the side effects should be weighed up against the positive effects. It is of the utmost importance to recognise the problem of sexuality and sexual dysfunction in a more complex form of its expression and undertake a multidisciplinary therapeutic intervention to improve the quality of FM patients’ life.

  10. Sexual orientation disparities in sexually transmitted infections: examining the intersection between sexual identity and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G

    2013-02-01

    The terms MSM (men who have sex with men) and WSW (women who have sex with women) have been used with increasing frequency in the public health literature to examine sexual orientation disparities in sexual health. These categories, however, do not allow researchers to examine potential differences in sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk by sexual orientation identity. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, this study investigated the relationship between self-reported STIs and both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. Additionally, this study examined the mediating role of victimization and STI risk behaviors on the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported STIs. STI risk was found to be elevated among heterosexual-WSW and bisexual women, whether they reported same-sex partners or not, whereas gay-identified WSW were less likely to report an STI compared to heterosexual women with opposite sex relationships only. Among males, heterosexual-identified MSM did not have a greater likelihood of reporting an STI diagnosis; rather, STI risk was concentrated among gay and bisexual identified men who reported both male and female sexual partners. STI risk behaviors mediated the STI disparities among both males and females, and victimization partially mediated STI disparities among female participants. These results suggest that relying solely on behavior-based categories, such as MSM and WSW, may mischaracterize STI disparities by sexual orientation.

  11. Prime time sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauerholz, E; King, A

    1997-04-01

    This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves.

  12. Sexuality in transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik

    2015-01-01

    such an approach, the complexities of sexual assault, changing power relations and unstable narratives of gender and sexuality are illuminated. The analysis shows that the traditional divide between public and private has dissolved and that public spaces of pop culture are drawn into spaces of intimacy and thereby......Through an investigation of a reported rape, this article suggests that we conceive sexuality as a transitional object that changes and transforms depending on space and temporality. This makes sexuality difficult to grasp within specific and stable frames of gender and power analysis. Applying...

  13. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  14. [How to teach human sexuality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, S

    1991-03-01

    sexuality. Workshop organizers emphasized the need for support from school authorities in implementing sex education programs. The final sex education initiative consisted of a mental health program developed by a group of professional women who worked with lower class urban women. The Center for Development of Women (DOMOS) began its work in the area of female sexuality, but by 1987 had become specialized in the mental health of women. DOMOS has a program of shortterm individual psychotherapy and a program of preventive education consisting of workshops on different themes lasting 4-12 weeks each. A sexuality workshop was held to help participants understand their sexuality as a natural function and an important part of human life.

  15. College Students' Sexual Consent Communication And Perceptions of Sexual Double Standards: A Qualitative Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Marcantonio, Tiffany L; Hunt, Mary E

    2017-12-01

    Affirmative consent standards adopted by colleges and universities are meant to decrease miscommunication that may lead to sexual assault. However, they may not take into account sociocultural factors that influence consent. In particular, the role of gender norms needs to be better understood. In-depth interviews about college students' sexual activity, including sexual consent communication, were conducted with 17 female and 13 male students at a large southern university during the spring 2013 semester. The interview protocol and analyses were guided by Carspecken's critical qualitative methodology, which seeks to understand both participants' explicit statements and implied underlying meanings and values. Themes and subthemes were identified through inductive analyses. Two overarching themes emerged: Students perceived a sexual double standard, and males viewed obtaining sex as a conquest. Subthemes related to the first theme reflected endorsement of traditional views of women's sexuality (the notions that "good girls" do not have sex, that women should privilege men's sexual needs over their own and that women "owe" men sex once men have "worked" for it). Subthemes related to the second theme reflected males' beliefs that sex is a commodity that pits women and men against one another, and that women can be "convinced" to have sex if they initially refuse. College students' consent communication may be influenced by gender norms that challenge assumptions of affirmative consent standards. Cultural shifts in students' views of sexuality may be necessary for affirmative consent policies to be effective. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  16. Sexual Identity Mobility and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Analysis of Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany; Talley, Amelia; Hughes, Tonda; Wilsnack, Sharon; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minority identity (bisexual, lesbian) is a known risk factor for depression in women. This study examines a facet of minority stress prevalent among women—sexual identity mobility—as an identity-related contributor to higher levels of depressive symptoms. We used three waves of data from the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women (CHLEW) study, a longitudinal study of sexual minority women (N = 306). Random effects OLS regression models were constructed to examine the effect of sexual-identity changes on depressive symptoms. We found that 25.6% of the sample reported a sexual-identity change between Wave I and Wave II, and 24.91% reported a sexual identity change between Waves II and III. Women who reported a change in sexual identity also reported more depressive symptoms subsequent to identity change. This effect was moderated by the number of years participants’ had reported their baseline identity and by whether the participant had initiated a romantic relationship with a male partner. PMID:27255306

  17. Hormonal contraception and female pain, orgasm and sexual pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicole K; Jozkowski, Kristen N; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2014-02-01

    Almost half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintentional, unplanned, or mistimed. Most unplanned pregnancies result from inconsistent, incorrect, or nonuse of a contraceptive method. Diminished sexual function and pleasure may be a barrier to using hormonal contraception. This study explores sexual function and behaviors of women in relation to the use of hormonal vs. nonhormonal methods of contraception. Data were collected as part of an online health and sexuality study of women. Main outcomes variables assess frequencies in two domains: (i) sexual function (proportion of sexual events with experiences of pain or discomfort, arousal, contentment and satisfaction, pleasure and enjoyment, lubrication difficulty, and orgasm) and (ii) sexual behavior (number of times engaged in sexual activity, proportion of sexual events initiated by the woman, and proportion of sexual events for which a lubricant was used). Sociodemographic variables and contraceptive use were used as sample descriptors and correlates. The recall period was the past 4 weeks. The sample included 1,101 women with approximately half (n = 535) using a hormonal contraceptive method exclusively or a combination of a hormonal and nonhormonal method, and about half (n = 566) using a nonhormonal method of contraception exclusively. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the relation of hormonal contraceptive use to each of the dependent variables. Women using a hormonal contraceptive method experienced less frequent sexual activity, arousal, pleasure, and orgasm and more difficulty with lubrication even when controlling for sociodemographic variables. This study adds to the literature on the potential negative sexual side effects experienced by many women using hormonal contraception. Prospective research with diverse women is needed to enhance the understanding of potential negative sexual side effects of hormonal contraceptives, their prevalence, and possible mechanisms

  18. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  19. Analytical applications for delayed neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical formulations that describe the time dependence of neutron populations in nuclear materials contain delayed-neutron dependent terms. These terms are important because the delayed neutrons, even though their yields in fission are small, permit control of the fission chain reaction process. Analytical applications that use delayed neutrons range from simple problems that can be solved with the point reactor kinetics equations to complex problems that can only be solved with large codes that couple fluid calculations with the neutron dynamics. Reactor safety codes, such as SIMMER, model transients of the entire reactor core using coupled space-time neutronics and comprehensive thermal-fluid dynamics. Nondestructive delayed-neutron assay instruments are designed and modeled using a three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code. Calculations on high-burnup spent fuels and other materials that contain a mix of uranium and plutonium isotopes require accurate and complete information on the delayed-neutron periods, yields, and energy spectra. A continuing need exists for delayed-neutron parameters for all the fissioning isotopes

  20. Sexual dysfunction associated with infertility'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... incidence of sexual dysfunction during this phase; loss of libido was the ... association with decreased orgasmic response and diminished sexual satisfaction (Fig. 2). ..... Human Sexual Inadequacy. Boston: Little, Brown,.