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Sample records for delaware soybean grower

  1. Development of a Team-Based On-Farm Learning Program While Challenging Soybean Growers to Increase Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Vince M.; Kull, Linda S.; Nelson, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Illinois soybean growers have not been satisfied with recent lagging yield trends. A yield "challenge" was created to blend the motivation and creativity of a yield contest with the learning power of teamwork and on-farm demonstration. In the initial year (2010), 123 on-farm side-by-side demonstration plots were located throughout the…

  2. Delayed senescence in soybean: Terminology, research update, and survey results from growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The terms used to describe symptoms of delayed senescence in soybean often are used inconsistently or interchangeably and do not adequately distinguish the observed symptoms in the field. Various causes have been proposed to explain the development of delayed senescence symptoms. In this article, we...

  3. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  4. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Grabs 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  5. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  6. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  7. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  8. Greening the greenhouse grower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staats, Henk; Jansen, Lilian; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    growers. Factual information on these growers’ pesticide use in 2004 and 2005 was provided by the agency responsible for the program, and could be linked to the questionnaire data. Using structural equation modeling we found that intention to reduce emission was primarily predicted by the attitude...

  9. 7 CFR 930.9 - Grower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... Definitions § 930.9 Grower. Grower is synonymous with producer and means any person who produces cherries to...: Provided that, the term grower shall not include a person who produces cherries to be marketed...

  10. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  11. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus levels on the total tract digestibility of innate and supplemental organic and inorganic microminerals in a corn-soybean meal based diet of grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, J S; Mahan, D C

    2013-06-01

    The effects of Ca and P (CaP) levels and micromineral sources on mineral digestibility were evaluated in growing pigs. Treatments consisted of 2 levels of CaP and 3 trace mineral (TM) treatments arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial in a randomized complete block design with 8 replicates. The CaP levels evaluated were: 1) 0.65% Ca and 0.55% P [standard CaP (Std CaP)], and 2) 1.00% Ca and 0.85% P (High CaP). The TM treatments were: 1) Basal, without supplemental TM, 2) Basal supplemented with organic TM, and 3) Basal supplemented with inorganic TM. Both organic and inorganic TM premixes added 15 mg Cu, 150 mg Fe, 10 mg Mn, 0.3 mg Se, and 140 mg Zn/kg diet. Diets were formulated using corn soybean meal with a Ca to P ratio of 1.18 in both CaP treatments. Barrows with an initial BW of 45 kg were acclimated to stainless steel metabolism crates where diets were fed for 14 d before a 10-d collection period. Pigs within replicates were fed equivalent amounts of feed at 0800 and 1600 h each day with water provided free choice. Total feces, urine, and feed orts were collected daily. Essential macro- and microminerals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma analysis. Increasing dietary CaP decreased the digestibility of Ca and Zn. Phosphorus digestibility did not change when the P inclusion level increased from 0.55 to 0.85% Ptotal. The High CaP level resulted in a lower urinary excretion of most minerals, particularly Cu (P dietary CaP level increased but the others were not statistically significant. A summary of the ATTD for each of the experimental variables was statistically analyzed and averaged for the experiment. Although there were few statistical differences with individual minerals, they generally demonstrated a decline in digestibility when the High CaP was fed, averaging a 3% lower digestibility consistently than when the Std CaP level was fed. Organic TM averaged an approximately 5% greater digestibility than the average inorganic microminerals with the difference

  12. 7 CFR 29.74 - Growers' referendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Growers' referendum. 29.74 Section 29.74 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.74 Growers' referendum. (a) Method of conducting. Any referendum held as provided in section 5 of the Act shall be conducted by the Division in accordance with...

  13. 7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.31 Grower districts. (a) For the purpose...

  14. China Plans to Benefit Wool Growers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The rise of the Chinese domestic consumer and the country's most recent five-year economic development plan bodes well for wool growers, according to AWI's market intelligence and trade reporting manager Paul Swan.

  15. Energy Flexibility of The Commercial Greenhouse Growers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2016-01-01

    The commercial greenhouses can provide energy flexibility with the artificial lighting usage. Therefore, the commercial greenhouse growers can potentially play an important role in the electricity market as providers of flexibility services with the technology and software readiness. This paper...... takes Danish commercial growers and the Nordic regulating market as an example, to investigate the market potential with two business models. One business model is that commercial greenhouse growers directly participate in the regulating market. Another model is rescuing the BRPs’ (Balance Responsible...... Parties) imbalance error. Two calculations are formulated to evaluate the monetary benefits for the commercial greenhouse growers’ participation in both business models. The positive results indicate potential and benefits for the Danish commercial greenhouse growers’ participation in the electricity...

  16. Energy Flexibility of The Commercial Greenhouse Growers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    The commercial greenhouses can provide energy flexibility with the artificial lighting usage. Therefore, the commercial greenhouse growers can potentially play an important role in the electricity market as providers of flexibility services with the technology and software readiness. This paper...... Parties) imbalance error. Two calculations are formulated to evaluate the monetary benefits for the commercial greenhouse growers’ participation in both business models. The positive results indicate potential and benefits for the Danish commercial greenhouse growers’ participation in the electricity...... takes Danish commercial growers and the Nordic regulating market as an example, to investigate the market potential with two business models. One business model is that commercial greenhouse growers directly participate in the regulating market. Another model is rescuing the BRPs’ (Balance Responsible...

  17. 7 CFR 920.9 - Grower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grower. 920.9 Section 920.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  18. Technically Speaking: Why Should You Use Virtual Grower?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtual Grower is a free, easy-to-use software program that every grower who heats their greenhouse should install on their computer. The program enables growers to simulate their own greenhouse and predict how changes or investments could impact the growing environment, heating costs, and crop res...

  19. Delaware's first serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  20. Almond advertising yields net benefits to growers

    OpenAIRE

    Crespi, John M.; Sexton, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic impacts of advertising and promotion expenditures funded under the almond marketing order. Over the crop years 1962/63 through 1997/98, the correlation of industry promotion and demand was positive and statistically significant. Almond advertising has yielded marginal benefits between $3 and $10 per dollar spent. The 1994/95 through 1996/97 suspension of the promotion program reduced grower profits in the range of $88 million to $231 million during the suspen...

  1. Evaluation of a Simple Method to Screen Soybean Genotypes for Salt Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive salt can reduce soybean yield in grower fields. Salt tolerant cultivars are needed to prevent field yield losses where excess salt is a problem. Soybean genotypes have primarily been evaluated for reaction to salt in the greenhouse using a labor intensive and costly hydroponics method. ...

  2. Delaware Bay, Delaware Sediment Distribution 2003 to 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 38 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2003 to 2004 along the middle to lower Delaware Bay Coast. The bottom sediment map...

  3. An intervention analysis on the relationship between futures prices of non-GM and GM contract soybeans in China

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    China adopted a mandatory labeling policy of Genetically Modified (GM) food products in 2002. The strategy of separating trading was intended by Chinese regulators to protect domestic non-GMO production, provide non-GM soybean growers a higher selling price, and facilitate marketing. On December 22, 2004, the Dalian Commodity Exchange (DCE) introduced a separate futures contract for No. 2 soybeans, which includes GM soybeans. With this change, the No. 1 soybean futures contract defaulted to a...

  4. Citrus growers vary in their adoption of biological control

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Kelly A.; Goodhue, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    In a spring 2010 survey, we investigated the characteristics that influenced whether California growers controlled major citrus pests with beneficial insects. We also performed statistical analysis of growers' reliance on Aphytus melinus, a predatory wasp, to control California red scale. The survey results suggest that growers with greater citrus acreage and more education are more likely to use biological control. Marketing outlets, ethnicity and primary information sources also influenced ...

  5. 7 CFR 930.158 - Grower diversion and grower diversion certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON... portion of their tart cherry production which otherwise, upon delivery to handlers, would become... which states that the grower agrees to comply with the regulations established for a tart...

  6. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  7. Libraries in Delaware: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/delaware.html Libraries in Delaware To use the sharing features on ... Newark Christiana Care Health System Lewis B. Flinn Library 4755 Ogletown-Stanton Road / PO BOX 6001 Newark, ...

  8. Grower demand for sensor-controlled irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Majsztrik, John; Saavoss, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is likely to increase in the coming years, making improvements in irrigation efficiency increasingly important. An emerging technology that promises to increase irrigation efficiency substantially is a wireless irrigation sensor network that uploads sensor data into irrigation management software, creating an integrated system that allows real-time monitoring and control of moisture status that has been shown in experimental settings to reduce irrigation costs, lower plant loss rates, shorten production times, decrease pesticide application, and increase yield, quality, and profit. We use an original survey to investigate likely initial acceptance, ceiling adoption rates, and profitability of this new sensor network technology in the nursery and greenhouse industry. We find that adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are decreasing in price, as expected. The price elasticity of the probability of adoption suggests that sensor networks are likely to diffuse at a rate somewhat greater than that of drip irrigation. Adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are increasing in specialization in ornamental production: growers earning greater shares of revenue from greenhouse and nursery operations are willing to pay more for a base system and are willing to purchase larger numbers of expansion components at any given price. We estimate that growers who are willing to purchase a sensor network expect investment in this technology to generate significant profit, consistent with findings from experimental studies.

  9. Simulating soybean productivity under rainfed conditions for major soil types using APEX model in East Central Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangbang Zhang; Gary Feng; John J. Read; Xiangbin Kong; Ying Ouyang; Ardeshir Adeli; Johnie N. Jenkins

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of soybean yield constraints under rainfed conditions on major soil types in East CentralMississippi would assist growers in the region to effectively utilize the benefits of water/irrigation man-agement. The objectives of this study were to use the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX)agro-ecosystem model to simulate rainfed soybean grain yield (...

  10. 7 CFR 1400.212 - Growers of hybrid seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Growers of hybrid seed. 1400.212 Section 1400.212... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.212 Growers of hybrid seed. The existence of a hybrid seed contract for a person or legal entity will not be taken into...

  11. Delaware Bay Upper Shelf Bottom Sediments 2008-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  12. Preventative disease management and grower decision making: A case study of California winegrape growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, Vicken; Lubell, Mark; Kaplan, Jonathan; Baumgartner, Kendra

    2017-02-07

    Preventative disease management is challenging to farmers because it requires paying immediate costs in the hopes of returning uncertain future benefits. Understanding farmer decision making about prevention has the potential to reduce disease incidence and minimize the need for more costly post-infection practices. For example, the grapevine trunk-disease complex (Esca, Botryosphaeria dieback, Eutypa dieback, Phomopsis dieback) significantly impacts vineyard productivity and longevity. Given the chronic nature of the infections and inability to eradicate the fungal pathogens, the preventative practices of delayed pruning, applications of pruning-wound protectants, and double pruning (a.k.a. pre-pruning) are the most effective means of management. We surveyed wine-grape growers in six regions of California on their usage of these three practices. In spite of acknowledging the yield impacts of trunk diseases, a substantial number of respondents either choose not to use preventative practices or incorrectly adopt them in mature vineyards, too late in the disease cycle to be effective. Growers with more negative perceptions of cost-efficacy were less likely to adopt preventative practices or were more likely to time adoption incorrectly in mature vineyards. In general, preventative management may require strong intervention in the form of policy or extension to motivate behavioral change.

  13. University of Delaware Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Michael T

    2012-09-30

    The main goal of this project funded through this DOE grant is to help in the establishment of the University of Delaware Energy Institute (UDEI) which is designed to be a long-term, on-going project. The broad mission of UDEI is to develop collaborative programs encouraging research activities in the new and emerging energy technologies and to partner with industry and government in meeting the challenges posed by the nation's pressing energy needs.

  14. Soybean Shortcomings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Before the Spring Festival,which falls on February 7 this year,the most important festival for the Chinese, counters selling soybean oil in a supermar- ket in Beijing’s Chaoyang District were especially crowded."Since September 2007,soybean oil has sold very well,"Li Ping,a sales assistant of the supermarket, told Beijing Review,"More than 1,000 bottles are sold every day."

  15. The influence of raw grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L. seeds on growth performance and biochemical and haematological parameters in the blood of grower-finisher pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. WINIARSKA-MIECZAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of raw seeds of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L. in feed mixtures for grower-finisher pigs on growth performance, and biochemical and haematological parameters in their blood, as well as on the weight of the liver and the kidney. The experiment was performed on 96 grower-finisher pigs of (Polish Landrace × Polish Large White × Pietrain, weighing from 25 to ca. 100 kg. The pigs were divided into four diet groups. The feed compound of the control group contained extracted soybean meal. In experimental groups soybean meal protein was replaced by raw grass pea seeds in quantities of 50% in grower and/or finisher diet, and 100% in both fattening period. The use of raw grass pea seeds amounting to 50% of protein feeds in finisher diet did not result in lower growth performance in comparison to the control group. However, the fatteners fed grass pea seeds amounting to 50% of protein feedstuffs in both fattening periods revealed the highest feed and energy intake per kg of live weight gain, compared to the group feed grass pea only in the second phase of the fattening period. A higher share of grass pea seeds in the mixture led to weaker growth performance and carcass characteristics. Hypertrophy of kidney and liver was noted in the animals which were fed with raw seeds of grass pea amounting to 100% of protein feeds. Also, hyperactivity of ALAT, ASAT and alkaline phosphatase was observed in the animals’ serum. No negative influence of applying raw seeds of grass pea amounting up to 50% of protein feeds in grower and/or finisher periods on the parameters examined was noted.;

  16. 33 CFR 165.511 - Security Zone; Atlantic Ocean, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... escorted passenger vessels in the Captain of the Port, Delaware Bay zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.25-05. (b... vessel in order to ensure safe passage in accordance with the Navigation Rules as seen in 33 CFR...

  17. Developing GAP Training for Growers: Perspectives from Pennsylvania Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Daniel; Thomson, Joan; LaBorde, Luke; Bagdonis, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Major supermarket chains increasingly are requiring their produce suppliers to provide evidence of compliance with on-farm food safety standards, known as Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). To develop a relevant GAP training curriculum that meets the needs of Pennsylvania growers, supermarkets that operate in the state were surveyed to determine…

  18. Grower Communication Networks: Information Sources for Organic Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Chelsi; Grossman, Julie; Warren, Sarah T.; Cubbage, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study to determine which information sources organic growers use to inform farming practices by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 organic farmers across 17 North Carolina counties. Effective information sources included: networking, agricultural organizations, universities, conferences, Extension, Web…

  19. Management strategies for greenhouse growers in a competitive environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, G.; Renkema, J.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study among 26 Dutch chrysanthemum firms was performed between November 1993 and November 1994 to (a) assess the relative economic performance of each firm and (b) compare three strategies used by growers in getting high economic results. These strategies, related to the theory of Porter (1985), a

  20. Management strategies for greenhouse growers in a competitive environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, G.; Renkema, J.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study among 26 Dutch chrysanthemum firms was performed between November 1993 and November 1994 to (a) assess the relative economic performance of each firm and (b) compare three strategies used by growers in getting high economic results. These strategies, related to the theory of Porter (1985), a

  1. Grower Communication Networks: Information Sources for Organic Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Chelsi; Grossman, Julie; Warren, Sarah T.; Cubbage, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study to determine which information sources organic growers use to inform farming practices by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 organic farmers across 17 North Carolina counties. Effective information sources included: networking, agricultural organizations, universities, conferences, Extension, Web…

  2. Feather pecking in growers: a study with individually marked birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wechsler, B; Huber-Eicher, B; Nash, David Richard

    1998-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether individual birds specialise in feather pecking. Growers were individually marked and reared in groups of 30 or 31 in pens with a slatted floor. At an age of 4 to 6 weeks feather pecking was frequent in all pens. 2. On average 83% of all...

  3. 2005 Delaware Coastal Program Lidar: Sussex County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data were acquired in March 2005 using the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) platform in Sussex County, Delaware. Once acquired, the...

  4. Enhancing Extension Programs by Discussing Water Conservation Technology Adoption with Growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Warner, Laura A.; Martin, Emmett T.; White, Sarah A.; Fisher, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Nursery growers are one of the largest agricultural users of water. Researchers have been developing new water treatment techniques and technologies for nursery growers to assist in preserving this precious resource, yet adoption within the industry has been limited. Extension professionals need to work closely with nursery growers to encourage…

  5. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department of... grower shall apply to ship tree run fruit using a Grower Tree Run Certificate Application, furnished...

  6. 9 CFR 201.100 - Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... growers and sellers. 201.100 Section 201.100 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... poultry growers and sellers. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR 63277, Dec. 3, 2009. (a) Contracts... forth as follows: § 201.100 Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers. (a) Poultry...

  7. 78 FR 14060 - Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware AGENCY... and seeks a waiver of the Commission's freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by televisions... with its first local television service, and that Seaford will remain well-served after the...

  8. 33 CFR 117.235 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. 117.235 Section 117.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.235 Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile...

  9. Delaware Bay Database; Delaware Sea Grant College Program, 28 June 1988 (NODC Accession 8900151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delaware Bay database contains records of discrete quality observations, collected on 40 oceanographic cruises between May 1978 and October 1985. Each record...

  10. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing soybean meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant (MON 89788), control, or conventional reference soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M; Hartnell, G; Lucas, D; Davis, S; Nemeth, M

    2007-12-01

    A 42-d floor pen study was conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when fed diets containing meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (MON 89788) with those of broilers fed diets containing meal produced from control soybean (A3244) that has similar genetic background to MON 89788. Soybean meal produced from 6 conventional soybean varieties was included in the study to provide comparison measurements for broilers fed meal derived from conventional soybeans. It has been found that MON 89788 produces the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4 epsps), which confers tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. Broilers were fed starter diets (approximately 33% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 0 to 21 and grower-finisher diets (approximately 30% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 21 to 42. The study utilized a randomized complete block design with 8 dietary treatments assigned randomly within 5 blocks of 16 pens each (8 male and 8 female) with 10 birds per pen. There were 10 pens per treatment group (5 male and 5 female). No treatment differences (P > 0.05) were detected among dietary treatments for feed intake, weight gain, adjusted feed conversion, or any measured carcass and meat quality parameters. Comparison of all performance, carcass, and meat quality parameters measured showed no differences (P > 0.05) between birds fed the MON 89788 soybean meal diet and the population of birds fed the control and 6 conventional reference soybean meal diets. It is concluded that the diets containing soybean meal produced from MON 89788 were nutritionally equivalent to diets containing soybean meal produced from the control and conventional reference soybean varieties when fed to broilers.

  11. U. of Delaware Abandons Sessions on Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The University of Delaware spent years refining its residence-life education program. One week of public criticism unraveled it. Late last month, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, a free-speech group, accused the university of promoting specific views on race, sexuality, and morality in a series of discussions held in dormitories.…

  12. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in four areas: single-parent families, births to teenage mothers, juvenile crime and violence, and education. Following brief sections on the state's demographics and economic status, the fact book…

  13. Results of the 1975 Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    During the Spring semester of 1975, the University of Delaware initiated a PLATO project with the dual purpose of demonstrating how a computer system might function in a university and of evaluating what part such a system might play in the future of the university and its supporting community. The demonstration phase of the project, which…

  14. Grower perceptions of biotic and abiotic risks of potato production in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waals, van der J.E.; Steyn, J.M.; Franke, A.C.; Haverkort, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Growers' surveys took place in all sixteen potato growing regions of South Africa in 2013 and 2014. The agro-ecological climate of these regions is diverse and potato is produced in rainy or dry seasons, in winter or summer seasons, or year round. Growers were asked how often in ten years crops s

  15. Evaluation of an intervention to reduce musculoskeletal hazards among fresh market vegetable growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Larry J; Newenhouse, Astrid C; Meyer, Robert H; Taveira, Alvaro D; Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Ehlers, Janet J; Palermo, Teri

    2004-01-01

    We conducted an intervention to convince small, fresh market vegetable operations to adopt mesh bags and standard containers, two production practices that aid in crop handling and that are known to improve labor efficiency and reduce exposures to musculoskeletal injury hazards. The intervention disseminated information about the practices to growers through trade publications, public events, university Extension, and growers already using the practices. A mail questionnaire was administered to vegetable growers (n=243 and 207) before and after the intervention. Strawberry growers were used as a comparison group and also received questionnaires (n=50 and 35). After the intervention, more vegetable growers reported seeing information about mesh bags in trade publications (37% vs. 59%) and information about standard containers at public events (33% vs. 49%). Levels of self-reported adoption increased for containers (38% vs. 54%) and approached significance for bags (8% vs. 17%). Aware, non-adopting grower perceptions of bag profitability improved (2.6 vs. 3.8). Strawberry grower control results were unchanged. Better information flow to growers may be able to increase the speed with which agricultural practices with better ergonomics are adopted, especially when the practices are more profitable.

  16. Dynamic Supply Response Analysis of Pakistani Rice Growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M.Shaikh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternative specifications of model of supply response of Pakistani rice growers and their economic implications are considered in terms of the existences and nature of production lags, and the choice between expected price and gross returns as the preferred explanatory of producer‟s response to changing economic condition. The analysis indicates that there are lags which are due primarily to the difficulties and cost of rapid adjustment rather than to the time required to revise expectations. The statistical results were similar for the alternative specification of gross margins and prices as the economic decision available. However, the price elasticities derived using the gross margins specification were about a third of those using the prices specification. The gross margin specification yielded additional information in the form of yield and input cost elasticities.

  17. Fourth Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    A brief history of the Delaware PLATO project and descriptions of new developments in facilities, applications, user services, research, evaluation, and courseware produced since the Third Summative Report (1978) are provided, as well as an overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Sample lessons, illustrations, and activity…

  18. Fifth Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    A brief history of the Delaware PLATO project and descriptions of the new developments in facilities, applications, user services, research, evaluation, and courseware produced since the Fourth Summative Report (1979) are provided, as well as an overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Sample lessons, illustrations, and…

  19. The Courts, the Legislature, and Delaware's Resegregation: A Report on School Segregation in Delaware, 1989-­2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Arielle

    2014-01-01

    Delaware's history with school desegregation is complicated and contradictory. The state both advanced and impeded the goals of "Brown v. Board of Education." After implementing desegregation plans that were ineffective by design, Delaware was ultimately placed under the first metropolitan, multi-district desegregation court order in the…

  20. 1978 Suggested Fungicide Guide: Fungicide Guide for Commercial Vegetable Growers. Circular 999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Barry; Shurtleff, M. C.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides and fungicides for the control of pests and disease by commercial vegetable growers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of fungicides to control infestation in all crops of commercial importance. (CS)

  1. Hydroponic food production: a definitive guidebook for the advanced home gardener and the commercial hydroponic grower

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Resh, Howard M

    2013-01-01

    Hydroponic Food Production: A Definitive Guidebook for the Advanced Home Gardener and the Commercial Hydroponic Grower details advances that have taken place in this field since the publication of the previous edition in 2001...

  2. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  3. Escherichia coli phytase improves growth performance of starter, grower, and finisher pigs fed phosphorus-deficient diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendza, J A; Dilger, R N; Adedokun, S A; Sands, J S; Adeola, O

    2005-08-01

    Corn-soybean meal-based diets, consisting of a high-P control (HPC) containing supplemental dicalcium phosphate (DCP), a basal diet containing no DCP, and the basal diet plus Escherichia coli phytase at 500 or 1,000 phytase units per kilogram (FTU/kg; as-fed basis) were fed to evaluate growth performance in starter, grower, and finisher pigs. Pigs were blocked by weight and gender, such that average weight across treatments was similar, with equal numbers of barrows and gilts receiving each treatment in each block. In Exp. 1, 48 pigs with an average initial BW of 11 kg, housed individually, with 12 pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 3 wk. Overall ADG and G:F were increased linearly (P < 0.05) by dietary phytase addition. Final BW and plasma P concentrations at 3 wk also increased linearly (P < 0.05). In Exp. 2, 128 pigs with an average initial BW of 23 kg, housed four pigs per pen, with eight pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 6 wk. A linear increase in response to phytase was noted for ADG and G:F in all three 2-wk periods, as well as overall (P < 0.05). Percentage of bone ash also showed a linear increase (P < 0.01). In Exp. 3, 160 pigs (53 kg), housed five pigs per pen, with eight pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 6 wk. A linear increase was detected for final BW, as well as ADG and G:F in the first and second 2-wk periods, and overall (P < 0.01). Twenty-four 15-kg individually housed pigs were used to evaluate total-tract nutrient digestibility in Exp. 4. Daily absorption of P linearly increased (P < 0.05) with phytase supplementation. Results of this research indicate that E. coli phytase is effective in liberating phytate P for uptake and utilization by starter, grower, and finisher pigs.

  4. Returns to integrated pest management research and outreach for soybean aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feng; Swinton, Scott M

    2009-12-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a major invasive pest that has caused substantial yield loss and increased insecticide use in the United States since its discovery in 2000. Using the economic surplus approach, we estimate the economic benefits of U.S. research and outreach for integrated pest management (IPM) of soybean aphid. We calculate ex ante net benefits from adoption of an IPM economic threshold (ET). The ET triggers insecticide application only if the value of predicted yield damage from pest scouting is expected to exceed the cost of pest control. Our research finds that gradual adoption of an ET for soybean aphid management will generate a projected economic net benefit of $1.3 billion, for an internal rate of return of 124%, over the 15 yr since soybean aphid IPM research began in 2003. Lower and upper bound sensitivity analysis brackets the estimated net benefit to U.S. consumers and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., growers in the range of $0.6 to $2.6 billion in 2005 dollars. If a 10% rate of return is attributed to IPM applied research and outreach on soybean aphid, that would leave nearly $800 million to compensate prior activities that contribute to the development and adoption of IPM.

  5. Evaluation of Contaminant Residues in Delaware Bay Bald Eagle Nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagle (Naliacetus leucocephalus) nesting attempts have steadily increased over the past decade in the Delaware Bay and River drainage basin; however, nesting...

  6. 2007 Delaware Coastal Programs Lidar: Kent and New Castle Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data acquisition occurred in 7 missions between March 31 and April 5, 2007 in Kent and New Castle Counties, Delaware. The data have been classified and were...

  7. NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  8. 2007 Delaware Coastal Program Lidar: Kent and New Castle Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data acquisition occurred in 7 missions between March 31 and April 5, 2007 in Kent and New Castle Counties, Delaware. The data have been classified and were...

  9. 33 CFR 162.40 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., between Reedy Point, Delaware River, and Old Town Point Wharf, Elk River. (b) Speed. No vessel in the..., are required to travel at all times at a safe speed throughout the canal and its approaches so as to...

  10. Midwest growers' mail survey of contributors to migrant health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilanowski, Jill F

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to solicit information from farm owners (growers), as representatives of their farm businesses, regarding descriptive information on migrant camp housing that may contribute to the health and nutritional status of employed workers and their families. This cross-sectional descriptive mail survey was sent to 802 growers in Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Pennsylvania via the US Postal Service. The growers were identified by an Internet search for licensed agricultural work camps in Midwest departments of agriculture. Response rate was 34%. Overall, growers reported a median of one migrant camp with 23 residents, employing workers seasonally for either 10 weeks or 6 months, with seven accompanying children on site. Individual kitchen appliances varied across the states, potentially influencing the preparation of healthy meals. Three themes were identified from the results. First, over one third of owners lacked or had limited knowledge about the health services available to migrant families. Second, migrant workers may have limited access to a variety of fresh produce for household meal preparation. Third, migrant children were unable to easily access public play areas, and families lacked recreational spaces in agricultural work camps. Play areas in migrant camps were mostly identified as open fields with little play equipment on site. Knowledge learned can influence future agricultural camp practices and the design of future research studies, and provide direction for grower education topics presented at agricultural conferences and by extension services.

  11. Inconsistent food safety pressures complicate environmental conservation for California produce growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Baur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Controlling human pathogens on fresh vegetables, fruits and nuts is imperative for California growers. A range of rules and guidelines have been developed since 2006, when a widespread outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 was linked to bagged spinach grown in California. Growers face pressure from industry and government sources to adopt specific control measures on their farms, resulting in a complex, shifting set of demands, some of which conflict with environmental stewardship. We surveyed 588 California produce growers about on-farm practices related to food safety and conservation. Nearly all respondents considered both food safety and environmental protection to be important responsibilities for their farms. Responses indicate that clearing vegetation to create buffers around cropped fields, removing vegetation from ditches and ponds, and using poison bait and wildlife fences are commonly used practices intended to reduce wildlife movements onto farm fields. The survey also revealed that on-farm practices vary substantially even among farms with similar characteristics. This variability suggests inconsistencies in food safety requirements, auditors' interpretations or growers' perception of the demands of their buyers. Although site-specific considerations are important and practices should be tailored to local conditions, our findings suggest growers, natural resources and food safety would benefit from clearer, more consistent requirements.

  12. Soybean Production Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Keith R.

    These lesson plans for teaching soybean production in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…

  13. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  14. Mortality on grower/finisher-only swine operations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losinger W.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available For 53 grower/finisher-only swine operations that participated in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System 1995 National Swine Study, mortality among finisher pigs ranged from 0 to 12.0% over a 6-month period. Twenty-six (49.1% had 2% mortality. Nine (17.0% operations experienced >4% mortality. Fisher's exact test revealed that operations with all-in all-out management were significantly more likely to have 1 grower/finisher pig came from another source. Larger operations (where >900 pigs entered the grower/finisher phase practiced all-in, all-out management more frequently than smaller operations, and had a lower mean percent mortality than smaller operations. Diagnosis of Salmonella in finisher pigs performed at a laboratory or by a veterinarian in the 12 months prior to interview was associated with both increased percent mortality and increased percent mortality per day.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Delaware. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Delaware.

  16. 75 FR 76036 - Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise Disbursement Divisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise... of Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc., including the Accounts Payable, Rent, and Merchandise... the same division, are engaged in activities related to the supply of accounts payable,...

  17. 75 FR 54026 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... safety zone in an area of the Delaware River, Camden, NJ, described as North of the Wiggins park Marina... traffic from navigating on the Delaware River in an area described as north of the Wiggins Park Marina...

  18. Flood Plain Information, Delhi New York, West Branch Delaware River and Little Delaware River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    1,383.9 1,382.4 1,391.3 Little Delaware River Back River Road 0.15 1,346.4 1,346.9 1,352.1 College Golf Course Footbridge 0.28 1,349.4 1,350.0 1,353.2...College Golf Course Footbridge 0.36 1,353.7 1,353.6 1,356.1 Bridge by USGS Gaging Station 1.79 1,395.9 1,396.9 1,403.6 N.Y. Rte. 28 5.93 1,533.9

  19. Smoke-free law did affect revenue from gaming in Delaware

    OpenAIRE

    Michael R. Pakko

    2005-01-01

    A paper recently published in the journal Tobacco Control purports to show that the implementation of a smoking prohibition in Delaware had no statistically significant effect on the revenues of three gaming facilities in that state. After correcting for evident errors in that analysis, I find that the smoke-free law did affect revenues from gaming in Delaware. Total gaming revenues are estimated to have declined by at least $6 million per month after the implementation of Delaware*s Clean In...

  20. Opportunities and Best Practices to Support Sustainable Production for Small Growers and Post-Harvest Processors in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissore, Cinzia; Duran, Daniel F.; Russell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes current practices and needs associated with water and gas conservation among Southern California greenhouse growers, Post-Harvest Processors (PHPs), and agricultural associations. Two communication forums were held with the goal of educating the local gas company and small growers and PHPs on the most compelling needs and…

  1. 78 FR 4167 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Offshore Delaware. SUMMARY: BOEM has issued a commercial wind energy lease to Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Commercial Wind Lease Issuance on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Delaware AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  2. Addition of enzyme to starter and grower diets for ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, D; Burrows, H; Adeola, O

    2002-12-01

    The growth performance and nutrient utilization responses of White Pekin ducks to a commercial enzyme preparation were investigated. The enzyme contained 4,000 units amylase, 12,000 units protease, and 1,600 units xylanase per gram. Twelve pens of 10 ducks were fed diets based on corn and soybean meal and wheat middlings. The diets contained the enzyme mixture at 0, 0.375, or 0.5 g/kg in a growth study for 42 d. At the end of growth study, four ducks from each of eight pens per diet were retained and continued their respective diets containing 2.5 g Cr2O3/kg for 7 d. Intestinal content was sampled to determine ileal digestibilities of energy, nitrogen, and amino acids. One duck from each pen was selected at the end of the growth study and was fitted with retainer rings around the vent for the attachment of an excreta collection apparatus; these ducks were maintained on their respective diets containing 2.5 g Cr2O3/ kg to determine dietary nitrogen, amino acids, and energy retention. Results from the performance study showed a 6 to 8% increase (P ducks fed diets containing the enzyme preparation at 0.5 g/kg, but ileal digestibility of energy was not affected by enzyme supplementation of diets. Apparent nitrogen retention was greater (P ducks that received enzyme at 0.5 g/kg diet than in ducks fed diets without the enzyme. Energy retention (AME and AMEn) of diets was not affected by the addition of enzyme to diets. Excreta amino acid digestibilities were found to be consistently higher than ileal estimates. The mean ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients in diets with enzyme at 0, 0.375, and 0.5 g/kg were 86.94, 88.82, and 88.87%, respectively. The addition of enzyme improved (P growth performance, nitrogen, and amino acid retention of White Pekin ducks.

  3. The Adoption and Rejection of Innovations by Strawberry Growers in the Lower Fraser Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, E. Patrick; Verner, Coolie

    The study investigated the adoption behavior of 100 strawberry growers (including 32 Mennonites and 23 Japanese) in the lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia. Adoption of six selected practices was examined in relation to socioeconomic characteristics and ethnicity. Findings included the following: (1) ethnic groups differed significantly on…

  4. Impact of Access to Credit on Farm Productivity of Fruit and Vegetable Growers in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, A.; Lensink, B.W.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Moll, H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the factors that determine productivity of fruit and vegetable growers in central Chile, focusing especially on the effect of short-term credit on farm productivity for market-oriented farmers. We explicitly test for possible selection bias using a panel dat

  5. Horticulture take-home messages. Grower Day Summary: 2011 International HLB Meeting, Orlando, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2nd International Research Conference on Huanglongbing covered 3 full days, with 400 participants from 20 countries. There were 75 oral presentations, 96 posters, and I took 20 pages of notes. Urgency of HLB as a threat to citrus production and the engine of substantial grower investment has fu...

  6. Acute pesticide poisoning among female and male cotton growers in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancini, F.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Jiggins, J.L.S.; Ambatipudi, A.C.; Murphy, H.

    2005-01-01

    A season-long assessment of acute pesticide poisoning among farmers was conducted in three villages in India. Fifty female cotton growers reported the adverse effects experienced after exposures to pesticides by themselves and by their male relatives (n = 47). The study documented the serious conseq

  7. Exposure to pesticides of fruit growers and effects on reproduction: an epidemiological approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cock, de J.S.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis the exposure to pesticides of fruit growers in The Netherlands was studied as well as its relation to reproductive health effects. The most commonly used fungicide, captan, was used as a marker for exposure. Several exposure studies were carried out during application of captan, and w

  8. Alfalfa transgene dispersal and adventitious presence: understanding grower perception of risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the importance of coexistence, the alfalfa industry has developed a set of Best Management Practices (BMP) to maintain separation of GE and conventional production. But the success of BMP depends upon the degree that growers comply. Therefore we surveyed 530 alfalfa hay and seed producer...

  9. 77 FR 21684 - User Fees for 2012 Crop Cotton Classification Services to Growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 28 RIN 0581-AD23 User Fees for 2012 Crop Cotton Classification Services to Growers AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is proposing to maintain user fees for cotton...

  10. 78 FR 18898 - User Fees for 2013 Crop Cotton Classification Services to Growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 28 RIN 0581-AD30 User Fees for 2013 Crop Cotton Classification Services to Growers AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is proposing to maintain user fees for cotton...

  11. Growers throw away money by fertilising on automatic pilot (interview with Chris Blok)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, J.; Blok, C.

    2013-01-01

    Growers can fertilise much more precisely and effectively. It’s been proven already that the plant uses fertiliser much more efficiently if the fertiliser system takes into account the measured requirements of the crop. Better utilisation has many benefits: lower emissions into the environment and s

  12. Four barriers and a set of values that prevent violence among cannabis growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersvik, Eirik

    2015-03-01

    Cannabis markets are often described as less violent than other drug markets. Domestic cannabis cultivation markets seem to be especially non-violent. However, few studies have investigated why this might be. Two and half years of ethnographic fieldwork among indoor cannabis growers and interviews and conversations with 52 growers in Norway. This study identified four barriers and a set of values that prevent violence among growers. (1) Violence attracts increased attention from police and enemies, which inhibits 'business as usual' and reduces profits. (2) Careful attention to profits makes growers calculate and prepare for financial losses. (3) The prospect of covering debt by producing more cannabis makes it possible to choose non-violent sanctions. (4) Tight social ties and friendships prevent violence when conflicts erupt. However, the cannabis culture of the actors and the transactions stands out as the main reason why these four barriers are more important in cannabis markets than in other drug markets. This paper discusses how policymakers can benefit from the market changes that follow 'import substitution' to construct policies that prevent violence and facilitate peaceful drug markets and drug cultures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. FACTORS CONTRIBUTION TO THE ADOPTION OF PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES BY POTATO GROWERS IN NORTHWEST BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Sharif Uddin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the factors which contribute to the adoption of potato production technologies by the growers. The adoption of potato production technologies by the growers was measured by computing of scores of proper land preparation, cultivation of modern variety, fertilizer dose, fertilizer application method, irrigation, plant protection measures, seed quality, intercultural operations, planting time, seed size and planting space. Data were collected from randomly selected 232 potato growers by using interview schedule in three Upazilla of Rajshahi district in Bangladesh during July 2010 to February 2011. Out of 11 technologies relating to the adoption of potato production, recommended irrigation was at the top of highest ranking by the adoption index and plant spacing was the lowest. Majority (46.55% of the growers had medium adoption compared to high (29.74% and low (23.71% adoption. Pearson correlation test depicted that out of 22 variables, 16 had significant positive relationship with the adoption of potato production technologies. Results of stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that seven variables namely: innovativeness, potato production knowledge, aspiration, potato problem awareness, group contact, peer relationship and attitude contributed significantly which altogether explained to the extent of 65.30% of the total variation to the adoption of potato production technologies. Path analysis indicated that these variables had both direct and indirect effects to the adoption behaviour. Potato growers who had more innovativeness, better knowledge in connection to potato production, more aspiration, more contact with group members, more peer relation and more favourable attitude were found to better adopt the potato production technologies.

  14. PARASITE MYCOPOPULATION OF SOYBEAN GRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Jasenka Ćosić; Karolina Vrandečić; Draženka Jurković; Ivan Ereš; Jelena Poštić

    2008-01-01

    Disease appearance on soybean can influence quality and quantity of yield. Different spieces of saprophyte and parasite fungi can be isolated from stems, pods and grain of soybean. The aim of the research was to evaluate the incidence of important disease on natural soybean grain over the period of 4 years (2004-2007) of experiment held on the location Sopot-Vinkovci and included 9 cultivars of soybean. The following plant pathogenic fungi were identified: Peronospora, Sclerotinia, Cercospora...

  15. 27 CFR 9.49 - Central Delaware Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Delaware Valley. 9.49 Section 9.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU.... (ix) From there northward along Covered Bridge Road to Green Sergeant Covered Bridge. (x) From...

  16. Sex, Lies, and Residence Life: Delaware's Thought Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The University of Delaware has a zero-tolerance policy for anything remotely resembling "hate speech." As such, the school implemented a mandatory training for all 7,000-odd students in its dorms. The sessions were part of a thorough thought-reform curriculum, designed by the school's Office of Residence Life, psychologically to…

  17. Manual for School Building Commissions of the State of Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    This manual contains provisions of Delaware state law and recommended procedures for construction programs. Areas discussed include--(1) financing, (2) school construction formulae for space allowances, (3) proposed school building budget, (4) procedures for school building construction, (5) a check list for an accounting system, (6) purchase…

  18. 3.0 Foundation programs for the Delaware CEMRI framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Murdoch

    2008-01-01

    A complete review of all the national monitoring programs that could possibly contribute to the Delaware River Basin (DRB) CEMRI Framework is beyond the scope of this report. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment developed a Web-based annotated inventory of such monitoring programs for the mid-Atlantic region. Olsen et al. (...

  19. Second Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    Begun on an experimental basis in March 1975, the ongoing PLATO project at the University of Delaware has become an established part of the University's academic program. This descriptive report is divided into three sections: (1) project history and development, including organization, utilization, instructor and author training, and projections…

  20. Third Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    Descriptions of new developments in the areas of facilities, applications, user services, support staff, research, evaluation, and courseware production since the Second Summative Report (1977) are provided, as well as a summative overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Through the purchase of its own PLATO system, this…

  1. Fighting Asian soybean rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar eLangenbach

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking Asian soybean rust (SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several resistance genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR.

  2. Study on the Production Benefit of Large-scale Tobacco Growers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunyou; LU; Qinggao; CHEN; Ting; LEI; Yuanhui; WANG; Huizhong; LIU

    2014-01-01

    The tobacco growers with the growing area of greater than or equal to 100 mu,have become an important subject of tobacco production in Weng’an County of Guizhou Province. Regulating and developing the production and business activities of large-scale tobacco growers, plays an important role in stabilizing tobacco production,reducing costs and increasing efficiency in Weng’an County. Through the field survey of large-scale growers’ production activities,this article analyzes the input and output levels,and explores the key factors influencing benefit, in order to provide a basis for further regulating the tobacco growing practices and improving the flue-cured tobacco production benefit.

  3. Constraints and opportunities for cultivation of Moringa oleifera in the Zimbabwean smallholder growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mudyiwa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to establish the constraints to Moringa agronomic practices and marketing in the smallholder farming sector of Zimbabwe. Purposive sampling selected 96 respondents across four study districts in Zimbabwe who were interviewed using an open-ended questionnaire. Eight focus group discussions disaggregated by gender were carried out to supplement primary data. Growers asserted Moringa oleifera production problems of livestock damage, theft, seed supply, inefficient cultivation practices resulting in inherent low productivity and poor marketing. The growers coped through intensive monoculture of M. oleifera, enhanced local seed supply from establishing their own seed orchards, product value addition and organized associations. Moringa can be used to promote climate change resilient agricultural systems and will be a solution to environmental problems.

  4. Attitudes of cannabis growers to regulation of cannabis cultivation under a non-prohibition cannabis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Simon; Frank, Vibeke A; Barratt, Monica J; Dahl, Helle Vibeke; Potter, Gary R

    2015-03-01

    How cannabis cultivation is dealt with under various examples of cannabis legalization or regulation is an important consideration in design of such schemes. This study aimed to (i) investigate support among current or recent cannabis growers, for various potential policy options for cannabis cultivation if prohibition were repealed, and (ii) explore the support for these options across countries, scale of growing operations, demographics, drug use and cannabis supply involvement variables. This study utilized data from the online web survey of largely 'small-scale' cannabis cultivators, aged 18yrs and over, in eleven countries conducted by the Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium (GCCRC). Data from 1722 current and recent cannabis growers in Australia, Denmark and the UK, who were all asked about policy, were included in the analysis. It investigated support for various frameworks for cultivation: (no regulation (free market); adult only; growing licenses; restrictions on plant numbers; licensed business-only sale; approved commercial growing; etc.). Among current growers, support for these options were compared across countries, across scale of growing operations, and by demographics, drug use and crime variables. Although there were some between country differences in support for the various policy options, what was striking was the similarity of the proportions for each of the eight most popular policy options. Among current growers, many of these positions were predicted by demographic, drug use and cannabis growing variables which were conceptually congruent with these positions. The results have relevance for the provisions regarding cannabis cultivation in the design of new non-prohibitionist models of cannabis which are increasingly under consideration. It should be of interest to policy makers, drug policy researchers, law enforcement and cannabis cultivators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. History and contemporary perspectives of the integrated pest management of soybean in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzi, A R

    2013-04-01

    The integrated pest management (IPM) of soybean developed and implemented in Brazil was one of the most successful programs of pest management in the world. Established during the 1970s, it showed a tremendous level of adoption by growers, decreasing the amount of insecticide use by over 50%. It included outstanding approaches of field scouting and decision making, considering the economic injury levels (EILs) for the major pests. Two main biological control programs were highly important to support the soybean IPM program in Brazil, i.e., the use of a NPVAg to control the major defoliator, the velvet bean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and the use of egg parasitoids against the seed-sucking stink bugs, in particular, the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). These two biological control programs plus pests scouting, and the use of more selective insecticides considering the EILs supported the IPM program through the 1980s and 1990s. With the change in the landscape, with the adoption of the no-tillage cultivation system and the introduction of more intense multiple cropping, and with the lower input to divulge and adapt the IPM program to this new reality, the program started to decline during the years 2000s. Nowadays, soybean IPM is almost a forgotten control technology. In this mini-review article, suggestions are made to possibly revive and adapt the soybean IPM to contemporary time.

  6. Economic Thresholds in Soybean-Integrated Pest Management: Old Concepts, Current Adoption, and Adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, A F; Paula-Moraes, S V; Gazzoni, D L; Pomari, A F

    2013-10-01

    Increasing global demands for food underline the need for higher crop yields. The relatively low costs of the most commonly used insecticides in combination with increasing soybean market prices led growers and technical advisors to debate the adequacy of recommended economic thresholds (ETs). The adoption of ETs and pest sampling has diminished in Brazil, leading to excessive pesticide use on soybean. The reduced efficacy of natural biological control, faster pest resurgence, and environment contamination are among the side-effects of pesticide abuse. To address these problems and maximize agricultural production, pest control programs must be guided by a proper integrated pest management (IPM) approach, including the ET concept. Therefore, the most appropriate time to initiate insecticide spraying in soybean is indicated by the available ETs which are supported by experiments over the last 40 years in different edapho-climatic conditions and regions with distinct soybean cultivars. Published scientific data indicate that preventive insecticide use is an expensive and harmful use of chemicals that increases the negative impact of pesticides in agroecosystems. However, the established ETs are for a limited number of species (key pests), and they only address the use of chemicals. There is a lack of information regarding secondary pests and other control strategies in addition to insecticides. It is clear then that much progress is still needed to improve ETs for pest management decisions. Nevertheless, using the current ETs provides a basis for reducing the use of chemicals in agriculture without reducing yields and overall production, thereby improving sustainability.

  7. Chemical evidence for the effect of Urochloa ruziziensis on glyphosate-resistant soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Mariluce; Chinchilla, Nuria; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José Mg; Lacret, Rodney; Alves, Pedro Lca; Macias, Francisco A

    2017-10-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is an important oleaginous legume that has been cultivated in new areas in Brazil, including pastures. Problems of reduced production yields have been reported by soybean growers when the crop is sown immediately after desiccation of pastures of Urochloa spp. using glyphosate. The objective of this work was to extract, isolate and identify the major chemicals from U. ruziziensis that have phytotoxic activity and to evaluate the possible relation between this effect and reduced soybean yield. U. ruziziensis plants at the flowering stage were desiccated using glyphosate at 1.44 kg ha(-1) . The plants were collected between five and ten days after treatment. Extracts of dried and ground shoots were obtained by sequential extraction with hexane, dichloromethane and methanol. The results of wheat coleoptile bioassays indicated that the methanol extract was more inhibitory than the dichloromethane extract regardless of glyphosate application. Protodioscin, a steroidal saponin, was isolated from the extract as the major component and the activities of this compound were in good agreement with those found for the extract. The release of this compound into the soil is a plausible explanation for the decrease in production observed in transgenic soybean crop after desiccation of U. ruziziensis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Soybean allergen detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona H; Holzhauser, Thomas; Bisson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...

  9. Management Affects Soybean Nodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation may contribute 40 – 70% of the nitrogen required by soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] during the growing season. Therefore, sustaining nitrogen input is critical for profitable grain yield and sustaining long-term soil productivity. We evaluated management practices used...

  10. From Select Agent to an Established Pathogen: The Response to Phakopsora pachyrhizi (Soybean Rust) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Heather Y; Dufault, Nicholas S; Walker, David R; Isard, Scott A; Schneider, Raymond W; Giesler, Loren J; Wright, David L; Marois, James J; Hartman, Glen L

    2015-07-01

    The pathogen causing soybean rust, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first described in Japan in 1902. The disease was important in the Eastern Hemisphere for many decades before the fungus was reported in Hawaii in 1994, which was followed by reports from countries in Africa and South America. In 2004, P. pachyrhizi was confirmed in Louisiana, making it the first report in the continental United States. Based on yield losses from countries in Asia, Africa, and South America, it was clear that this pathogen could have a major economic impact on the yield of 30 million ha of soybean in the United States. The response by agencies within the United States Department of Agriculture, industry, soybean check-off boards, and universities was immediate and complex. The impacts of some of these activities are detailed in this review. The net result has been that the once dreaded disease, which caused substantial losses in other parts of the world, is now better understood and effectively managed in the United States. The disease continues to be monitored yearly for changes in spatial and temporal distribution so that soybean growers can continue to benefit by knowing where soybean rust is occurring during the growing season.

  11. Transgenic soybeans and soybean protein analysis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand; Bae, Hanhong; Lakshman, Dilip; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-04

    To meet the increasing global demand for soybeans for food and feed consumption, new high-yield varieties with improved quality traits are needed. To ensure the safety of the crop, it is important to determine the variation in seed proteins along with unintended changes that may occur in the crop as a result various stress stimuli, breeding, and genetic modification. Understanding the variation of seed proteins in the wild and cultivated soybean cultivars is useful for determining unintended protein expression in new varieties of soybeans. Proteomic technology is useful to analyze protein variation due to various stimuli. This short review discusses transgenic soybeans, different soybean proteins, and the approaches used for protein analysis. The characterization of soybean protein will be useful for researchers, nutrition professionals, and regulatory agencies dealing with soy-derived food products.

  12. PARASITE MYCOPOPULATION OF SOYBEAN GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Ćosić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Disease appearance on soybean can influence quality and quantity of yield. Different spieces of saprophyte and parasite fungi can be isolated from stems, pods and grain of soybean. The aim of the research was to evaluate the incidence of important disease on natural soybean grain over the period of 4 years (2004-2007 of experiment held on the location Sopot-Vinkovci and included 9 cultivars of soybean. The following plant pathogenic fungi were identified: Peronospora, Sclerotinia, Cercospora, Fusarium and Diaporthe/Phomopsis. The most frequent fungi on soybean grains were: Cladosporium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Epicoccum. The health condition of the natural soybean grains over the four years period on all cultivars was good.

  13. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  14. An Investigation into the Feasibility of Tasmanian Stonefruit Growers Employing Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Pedersen

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an assessment of the feasibility of Tasmanian stonefruit growers adopting electronic commerce. In order to achieve this aim a number of qualitative techniques were employed under an action research methodology. Although not all applications of electronic commerce are suitable within the environment under study, it is suggested that there are ways in which electronic commerce could provide value. However, inhibitors, some common to Small to Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs, do exist. There is a need for these issues to be understood prior to adopting electronic commerce.

  15. Experience from Soybean Industry Development of Main Soybean Producing Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zenglin; GUO Xiangyu

    2009-01-01

    Soybean output and trade are mainly operated in America, Brazil, Argentina and China in recent years, especially in America. For China, the import output is number one, and the export output is the forth. For this reason, the soybean industry of China got a huge lash, and the soybean farmers got a large loss, it influenced the building of new countryside construction in China. Both U.S.A's soybean output and trade amout are the number one in the world, this achievement should be contributed to U.S.A's advanced production ability and its favorable subsidy policies. Contrary to U.S.A's large subsidy and cheap loan, Brazil and Argentina raise their soybean output and trade amount by high production technology and "untying" policies, such as abolishing some unreasonable rules and tax. So if we want to develop Chinese soybean industry and make sure our soybean industry's safety, it's necessary for us to experience soybean industry development of other countries' and improve ours.

  16. Locally Grown: Examining Attitudes and Perceptions About Organic Cotton Production and Manufacturing Between Mississippi Cotton Growers and Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Freeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine attitudes and perceptions about organic cotton of Mississippi cotton growers and producers in comparison to fashion-conscious consumers, including advantages/disadvantages of growing and production processes, quality control, consumer preferences, and competitive price structures/profit margins. A sample size of 16 local Mississippi growers and/or producers and 44 undergraduate students at a mid-major Southeastern university were chosen to participate in the study. Instruments were developed based on current research and the definition of organic cotton production defined by the United States Department of Agriculture. Results indicate 75% of growers and producers do not perceive a quality difference between organic and conventionally grown cotton, while 72.7% of the consumers report organically grown cotton is capable of producing a higher quality product compared to conventionally grown cotton. Even with an increase in organic cotton prices (25- 40% higher premium, only 25% of growers and producers would be willing to convert, while a majority (52.3% of consumers would not be willing to spend more than 25% extra for an organically grown cotton product. Consumers indicate the negative effects of conventionally grown cotton, yet many report little knowledge about organic cotton production, while growers/producers immediately dismiss organically grown cotton as a retail marketing strategy.

  17. Greening the greenhouse grower. A behavioral analysis of a sector-initiated system to reduce the environmental load of greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Henk; Jansen, Lilian; Thøgersen, John

    2011-10-01

    Growing plants and flowers in greenhouses is a commercial activity that imposes a burden on the environment. Recently a system of registration, control, and licensing has been developed by the sector of greenhouse growers in the Netherlands, acknowledged by the state. The current study was executed to understand the achievements of the greenhouse growers within this system. We applied a social-cognitive model to understand intentions to reduce emissions and predict actual pesticide use. The social-cognitive concepts from the model were measured in a questionnaire that was completed by 743 greenhouse growers. Factual information on these growers' pesticide use in 2004 and 2005 was provided by the agency responsible for the program, and could be linked to the questionnaire data. Using structural equation modeling we found that intention to reduce emission was primarily predicted by the attitude, descriptive norm, and self-efficacy. Actual pesticide use was predicted by the interaction of intention and response efficacy. Results can be used to improve communication with growers, focusing on the influential determinants of intention and behavior.

  18. 78 FR 22840 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; State Board Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA) for all criteria pollutants of the national ambient air quality... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; State Board Requirements,'' that is located in the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; State...

  19. The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative: Lessons Learned in Designing a GIS-Based Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Silberman, Jordan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative is a Web- and GIS-based set of lesson units for teaching geographic concepts and research methods within the context of the state's high school geography standards. Each unit follows a research-based, inquiry-centered model addressing questions of health because of Delaware's high incidence of cancer,…

  20. 33 CFR 100.T05-0443 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Delaware River, New Hope, PA. 100.T05-0443 Section 100.T05-0443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA. (a) Location. The safety zone will restrict.... Bridge located in New Hope, PA, and 400 ft east of the shoreline of New Hope, PA. (b) Regulations. (1)...

  1. 75 FR 33690 - Safety Zone, Lights on the River Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ..., Delaware River, New Hope, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Delaware River in New Hope, PA. The safety zone... downriver of the bridge in New Hope, PA. DATES: This rule is effective from June 15, 2010 through July...

  2. 33 CFR 334.120 - Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.120 Section 334.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....120 Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular...

  3. 33 CFR 167.173 - Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.173 Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic...

  4. The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative: Lessons Learned in Designing a GIS-Based Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Silberman, Jordan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative is a Web- and GIS-based set of lesson units for teaching geographic concepts and research methods within the context of the state's high school geography standards. Each unit follows a research-based, inquiry-centered model addressing questions of health because of Delaware's high incidence of cancer,…

  5. 33 CFR 110.70 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md. 110.70 Section 110.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.70 Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of...

  6. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by The University of Delaware

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The University of Delaware along with MAGPI (Metropolitan Area GigaPoP in Philadelphia for Internet2) and Internet2 are excited to host "Network Delaware Day: Advancing Research and Education Initiatives Across the First State." Discover the power of advanced networking opportunities in research and education throughout the First State.

  7. Evaluation of Delaware Stars for Early Success: Year 1 Report. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Tamargo, Jennifer; Setodji, Claude Messan

    2014-01-01

    Delaware was in the first group of states to receive a federal grant in 2012 to improve early care and education services and increase the number of infants, toddlers, and preschool-age children in high-quality programs. One component of the state's grant is a rigorous validation process for Delaware Stars for Early Success, a voluntary quality…

  8. Literacy at the Core of the Delaware World Language Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton-Archer, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Certain aspects of the implementation of language immersion programs in Delaware are unique given the state's size, demographics, and role in national education initiatives including Race to the Top, Common Core, and Smarter Balance. The Delaware experience typifies what every state, district, or even school goes through as they try to provide…

  9. Evaluation of Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to Soybean Rust in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, is a severe foliar disease of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] that occurs throughout most soybean producing regions of the world. Soybean rust may be managed with fungicides, but the utilization of soybean cultivars that are resistant to the path...

  10. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (Ptallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; Ptallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  11. Water intake and digestive metabolism of broilers fed all-vegetable diets containing acidulated soybean soapstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare live performance and digestive metabolism of broiler chickens fed all-vegetable diets (All-Veg compared to a regular diet including animal by-products. Three feeds were formulated and provided to broilers according to the feeding program: pre-starter from 1 to 10 days, starter from 11 to 21 days, and grower from 21 to 35 days. All feeds had corn and soybean meal as major ingredients; however, two of them were all-vegetable diets having either Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO or Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS as fat sources. The third diet included poultry by-product and poultry fat. A total number of 360 day-old broiler chicks were allocated to 1m² battery cages, 10 chicks in each, and 12 replicates per treatment. Live performance was similar between groups of birds receiving the different diets with the exception of weight gain, which was increased for birds fed the All-Veg diet with ASS. Birds fed All-Veg diets had increased water intake and produced more excreta with a concurrent reduced feed metabolizability at both ages, regardless of fat source. Metabolizable Energy was not different for the three diets.

  12. Quantification and probabilistic modeling of CRT obsolescence for the State of Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Kelsea A., E-mail: kschum@udel.edu [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy, University of Delaware, 278 Graham Hall, Newark, 19716 (United States); Schumacher, Thomas, E-mail: schumact@udel.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, 19711 (United States); Agbemabiese, Lawrence, E-mail: agbe@udel.edu [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy, University of Delaware, 272 Graham Hall, Newark, 19716 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We modeled the obsolescence of cathode ray tube devices in the State of Delaware. • 411,654 CRT units or ∼16,500 metric tons have been recycled in Delaware since 2002. • The peak of the CRT obsolescence in Delaware passed by 2012. • The Delaware average CRT recycling rate between 2002 and 13 was approximately 27.5%. • CRTs will continue to infiltrate the system likely until 2033. - Abstract: The cessation of production and replacement of cathode ray tube (CRT) displays with flat screen displays have resulted in the proliferation of CRTs in the electronic waste (e-waste) recycle stream. However, due to the nature of the technology and presence of hazardous components such as lead, CRTs are the most challenging of electronic components to recycle. In the State of Delaware it is due to this challenge and the resulting expense combined with the large quantities of CRTs in the recycle stream that electronic recyclers now charge to accept Delaware’s e-waste. Therefore it is imperative that the Delaware Solid Waste Authority (DSWA) understand future quantities of CRTs entering the waste stream. This study presents the results of an assessment of CRT obsolescence in the State of Delaware. A prediction model was created utilizing publicized sales data, a variety of lifespan data as well as historic Delaware CRT collection rates. Both a deterministic and a probabilistic approach using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) were performed to forecast rates of CRT obsolescence to be anticipated in the State of Delaware. Results indicate that the peak of CRT obsolescence in Delaware has already passed, although CRTs are anticipated to enter the waste stream likely until 2033.

  13. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  14. Nutritional requirements for soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans [Glycine max] are the second largest cash crop in US Agriculture, but the soybean yield is compromised by infections from Heterodera glycines, also known as Soybean Cyst Nematodes [SCN]. SCN are the most devastating pathogen or plant disease soybean producers confront. This obligate parasi...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  17. Molecular Studies on Soybean Mosaic Virus-Soybean Interations

    OpenAIRE

    Qusus, Saba J.

    1997-01-01

    In the U.S., soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is classified into seven strain groups, designated G1 to G7, based on their different responses on resistant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars. These responses are: symptomless or resistant (R), necrotic (N), and mosaic or susceptible (S). The gene-for-gene model has been proposed for SMV-soybean interactions. In the majority of cultivars, a single dominant gene, Rsv1, confers both the R and N responses. In the first part of this study, the coa...

  18. Growers forget the needs of the crop: More accurate feeding: lower runoff emissions and better use of fertilisers (interview a.o. with Chris Blok)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, J.; Blok, C.

    2012-01-01

    Fertilisers received a lot of attention when growers first started using substrates. Since then the nutritional requirements of the plant have been largely driven by the need to reduce runoff emissions. In addition, more efficient use of fertilisers is playing a role. Until now growers went along wi

  19. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil.

  20. Mortality as a bivariate function of age and size in indeterminate growers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colchero, Fernando; Schaible, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    developed a model that treats age- and size-specific mortality as a bivariate process. This method facilitates the exploration of the underlying (unobserved) contributions of age and size to mortality. We show that, in theory, a population can show declining mortality with age and size while the underlying......Mortality in organisms that grow indefinitely, known as indeterminate growers, is thought to be driven primarily by size. However, a number of ageing mechanisms also act as functions of age. Thus, to explain mortality in these species, both size and age need to be explicitly modelled. Here we...... contribution of age, as a proxy for chronological deterioration, is of typical senescence; while a seemingly senescent population can have underlying age-related negative senescence, which is, however, overcome by negative underlying size effects. We show how inference about these unobserved processes can...

  1. The Impact of the 2002 Delaware Smoking Ordinance on Heart Attack and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. Solis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, smoking is the leading cause of death - having a mortality rate of approximately 435,000 people in 2000—accounting for 8.1% of all US deaths recorded that year. Consequently, we analyzed the Delaware Hospital Discharge Database, and identified state and non-state residents discharged with AMI or asthma for the years 1999 to 2004. Statistical data analysis compared the incidence of AMI or asthma for each group before (1999–2002 and after (2003–2004 the amendment. As a result, we found that pre-ordinance and post-ordinance quarterly rates of AMI for Delaware residents were 451 (se = 21 and 430 (se = 21 respectively, representing a 4.7% reduction. Over the same time period, there was negligible change in the incidence of AMI for non-Delaware residents. After adjusting for population growth, the Risk Ratio (RR for asthma in Delaware residents post-ordinance was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.999, which represented a significant reduction (P = 0.046. By comparison, non-Delaware residents had an increased RR for asthma post-ordinance of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.86; P < 0.0001.The results suggest that Delaware’s comprehensive non-smoking ordinance effectively was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of AMI and asthma in Delaware residents when compared to non-Delaware residents.

  2. Evidence of infection with H4 and H11 avian influenza viruses among Lebanese chicken growers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Kayali

    Full Text Available Human infections with H5, H7, and H9 avian influenza viruses are well documented. Exposure to poultry is the most important risk factor for humans becoming infected with these viruses. Data on human infection with other low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses is sparse but suggests that such infections may occur. Lebanon is a Mediterranean country lying under two major migratory birds flyways and is home to many wild and domestic bird species. Previous reports from this country demonstrated that low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses are in circulation but highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses were not reported. In order to study the extent of human infection with avian influenza viruses in Lebanon, we carried out a seroprevalence cross-sectional study into which 200 poultry-exposed individuals and 50 non-exposed controls were enrolled. We obtained their sera and tested it for the presence of antibodies against avian influenza viruses types H4 through H16 and used a questionnaire to collect exposure data. Our microneutralization assay results suggested that backyard poultry growers may have been previously infected with H4 and H11 avian influenza viruses. We confirmed these results by using a horse red blood cells hemagglutination inhibition assay. Our data also showed that farmers with antibodies against each virus type clustered in a small geographic area suggesting that unrecognized outbreaks among birds may have led to these human infections. In conclusion, this study suggests that occupational exposure to chicken is a risk factor for infection with avian influenza especially among backyard growers and that H4 and H11 influenza viruses may possess the ability to cross the species barrier to infect humans.

  3. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURALLY IMPACTED TIDAL BLACKBIRD CREEK, DELAWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blackbird Creek, Delaware is a small watershed in northern Delaware that has a significant proportion of land designated for agricultural land use. The Blackbird Creek water monitoring program was initiated in 2012 to assess the condition of the watershed’s habitats using multiple measures of water quality. Habitats were identified based on percent adjacent agricultural land use. Study sites varying from five to fourteen were sampled biweekly during April and November, 2012-2015. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and generalized linear modeling. Results from these first four years of data documented no significant differences in water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity, inorganic nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphate, alkalinity, and turbidity between the two habitats, although both orthophosphate and turbidity were elevated beyond EPA-recommended values. There were statistically significant differences for all of the parameters between agriculture seasons. The lack of notable differences between habitats suggests that, while the watershed is generally impacted by agricultural land use practices, there appears to be no impact on the surface water chemistry. Because there were no differences between habitats, it was concluded that seasonal differences were likely due to basic seasonal variation and were not a function of agricultural land use practices.

  4. A comparison of the prevalence and burdens of helminth infections in growers and adult free-range chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwisha, H B; Kassuku, A A; Kyvsgaard, N C; Permin, A

    2002-05-01

    Matched samples of 100 chickens of each of growers and adult rural free-range chickens in Morogoro, Tanzania, were purchased from the beginning to the end of the long rainy season. At necropsy, the trachea, the gastrointestinal tract and the oviduct were examined for helminth infections. The helminth species isolated comprised 18 nematodes and 8 cestodes but no trematodes. Tetrameres fissispina is a new record in Tanzania. All the chickens harboured at least three different helminth species. Growers contained 4-14 and adults 3-12 helminth species. The number of species isolated per chicken increased as the rainy season advanced. The prevalence of the following species were significantly higher in growers than in adults (p Raillietina tetragona (36%, 21%). Allodapa suctoria (3%, 20%) and Capillaria annulata (1%, 10%) had a significantly lower prevalence in growers than in adults (p tetragona, S. trachea, T. americana, T. fissispina and T. tenuis. Conversely, A. suctoria and C. annulata showed significantly higher worm burdens in adults (p < 0.05). The sex of the chickens influenced the burdens of Heterakis brevispiculum (p < 0.05). There was an interaction effect such that growing males and adult females had statistically higher (p < 0.05) burdens of T. tenuis and A. suctoria, respectively.

  5. Survey of biosecurity protocols and practices adopted by growers on commercial poultry farms in Georgia, U. S. A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorea, F C; Berghaus, R; Hofacre, C; Cole, D J

    2010-09-01

    The integrated commercial poultry system is a highly connected network in which routine activities keep farms within a geographic area in constant contact. Consequently, biosecurity practices designed to minimize the transmission of infectious diseases between and within farms are an important component of modern flock health programs. A survey of Georgia poultry growers was conducted in order to assess the level of adoption of standard biosecurity measures by farm personnel and visitors. The results showed that compliance with recommended biosecurity practices did not significantly vary by company, farm size, or number of farms owned by the same grower. However, biosecurity was higher in the northern part of the state, where the density of farms is higher, and where there was an ongoing outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis at the time of the study. The survey found that growers place more emphasis on biosecurity measures targeting farm visitors than those targeting farm personnel. Most growers reported that all visitors to the farm were required to wear shoe covers, although visitors were not typically required to park outside the farm entrance or to wash tires on their vehicles. No visitor type was reportedly excluded from poultry houses during grow out on all farms. The results highlight the need to evaluate the comparative efficacy of specific biosecurity measures in order to set priorities and attain feasible rates of implementation of targeted biosecurity practices.

  6. Adapting Extension Food Safety Programming for Vegetable Growers to Accommodate Differences in Ethnicity, Farming Scale, and Other Individual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Terence R.; Kneen, Harold; Barrett, Eric; Kleinschmidt, Andy; Doohan, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Differences in vegetable production methods utilized by American growers create distinct challenges for Extension personnel providing food safety training to producer groups. A program employing computers and projectors will not be accepted by an Amish group that does not accept modern technology. We have developed an outreach program that covers…

  7. Haematology and Serum Chemistry of Local Grower Turkeys Fed Diets Containing Samsorg17 and ICSV400 Varieties of Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etuk, E. Bassey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Turkeys are of considerable economic and social significance to the traditional life of Nigerians but its production has been hampered by high cost of feedstuff. This study was carried out to determine the haematological parameters and serum chemistry of local grower turkeys fed Samsorg 17 and ICSV 400 sorghum varieties as replacement for higher cost maize in their diet. One hundred six weeks old grower turkeys were divided into nine groups of three replicates each on sex and weight equalization basis. The groups were randomly assigned to nine experimental turkey grower diets containing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement level of maize with each of samsorg17 and ICSV400 varieties of sorghum. The feeding trial lasted 42 days. Six turkeys were randomly selected on trial day 38, blood samples were collected for haematological and serum biochemical analysis. RBC, HB, WBC and PCV were determined while MCHC, MCH AND MCV were calculated using appropriate formulae. Serum protein (albumin and globulin, sugar, cholesterol, urea, minerals and enzymes were also determined. The result indicated that only WBC count was higher and the serum sugar and creatinine was lower than normal range. The ALP level declined while SGPT increased with increasing dietary sorghum but SGOT followed no pattern. There was no observed adverse effect on the blood parameters of experimental grower turkeys fed these sorghum varieties and is therefore recommended as replacement for maize in their diets.

  8. Adapting Extension Food Safety Programming for Vegetable Growers to Accommodate Differences in Ethnicity, Farming Scale, and Other Individual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Terence R.; Kneen, Harold; Barrett, Eric; Kleinschmidt, Andy; Doohan, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Differences in vegetable production methods utilized by American growers create distinct challenges for Extension personnel providing food safety training to producer groups. A program employing computers and projectors will not be accepted by an Amish group that does not accept modern technology. We have developed an outreach program that covers…

  9. Evaluating the influence of National Research Council levels of copper, iron, manganese, and zinc using organic (Bioplex) minerals on resulting tissue mineral concentrations, metallothionein, and liver antioxidant enzymes in grower-finisher swine diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowanlock, D W; Mahan, D C; Jolliff, J S; Hill, G M

    2015-03-01

    Graded levels of a trace mineral premix containing an organic (Bioplex) source of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn was evaluated with additional treatments containing organic Zn or Fe. Grower-finisher pigs were fed from 25 to 115 kg BW. The number of pigs in the experiment, the breeding/genetics of the pigs, the management, and the average age of the pigs were previously reported. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design in 7 replicates. Treatments were 1) basal diet without supplemental Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn; 2) basal diet + 2.5 mg/kg Cu, 50 mg/kg Fe, 1.5 mg/kg Mn, and 40 mg/kg Zn (50% NRC); 3) basal diet + 5 mg/kg Cu, 100 mg/kg Fe, 3 mg/kg Mn, and 80 mg/kg Zn (100% NRC); 4) basal diet + 25 mg Zn/kg; 5) basal diet + 50 mg Zn/kg; and 6) basal diet + 50 mg Fe/kg. Selenium and I were added to all diets at 0.3 and 0.14 mg/kg, respectively. Diets were composed of corn-soybean meal, dicalcium phosphate, and limestone with phytase added to enhance mineral availability. Three pigs per pen were bled at 55, 80, and 115 kg BW and plasma was analyzed for microminerals. When the average replicate BW was 115 kg, 3 pigs per pen of an equal gender ratio were killed. The liver, kidney, and heart were removed and analyzed for microminerals. Liver, duodenum, and jejunal metallothionein and the antioxidant enzymes in the liver containing these microminerals were determined. The results demonstrated that plasma minerals were unaffected at the 3 BW intervals. Liver and duodenum metallothionein protein were greater ( dietary micromineral levels increased but jejunum metallothionein did not change as microminerals increased. The activity of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) was not affected as the levels of the micromineral increased, whereas the activity of Mn SOD increased slightly ( dietary micromineral levels increased and also when Zn was added singly to the diet. Liver, kidney, and heart Cu and Mn concentrations were similar at the various micromineral levels. The

  10. Pseudo-outbreak of tuberculosis in poultry plant workers, Sussex County, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dennis Y; Ridzon, Renee; Giles, Beverly; Mireles, Teresa

    2002-12-01

    Delaware is a leading US poultry-producing state, and foreign-born workers make up a significant percentage of those employed by Delaware's poultry plants. In Sussex County, Delaware, a high percentage of the poultry workers are from two countries with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), Mexico and Guatemala, and thus are at risk for TB infection and disease. Furthermore, their risk of TB may be increased because many of these workers live in crowded conditions and lack access to medical care.

  11. Water quality of the Delaware and Raritan Canal, New Jersey, 1998-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, Jacob; Gray, Bonnie; Rice, Donald E.; Tessler, Steven; Barringer, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1934, the Delaware and Raritan Canal has been used to transfer water from the Delaware River Basin to the Raritan River Basin. The water transported by the Delaware and Raritan Canal in New Jersey is used primarily for public supply after it has been treated at drinking-water treatment plants located in the Raritan River Basin. Recently (1999), the raw water taken from the canal during storms has required increased amounts of chemical treatments for removal of suspended solids, and the costs of removing the additional sludge or residuals generated during water treatment have increased. At present, action to control algae is unnecessary.

  12. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments...... are currently designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. This paper questions the validity of proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. The production of soybean production is associated with profound environmental impacts...... generates emissions of N2O. The large quantity of substances, sprayed by terrestrial and aerial means, has negative impacts on biodiversity, water, soil, and human and animal health. The intensive production of soybeans also leads to social impacts, including loss of livelihoods and food sovereignty...

  13. Soybean, a promising health source

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mateos-Aparicio, I; Redondo Cuenca, A; Villanueva-Suárez, M J; Zapata-Revilla, M A

    2008-01-01

    .... Many researches have been carried out into the benefits of legumes: chickpeas, beans, lentils and soy, among others, but characterization and positive health effects of soybeans have been recently studied...

  14. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Bruns, H Arnold; Abbas, Hamed K; Mengistu, Alemu; Fisher, Daniel K; Reddy, Krishna N

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effects of management practices on soybean seed composition is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date (PD) and seeding rate (SR) on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and seed minerals (B, P, and Fe) in soybean grown in two row-types (RTs) on the Mississippi Delta region of the Midsouth USA. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, USA, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown in 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows in 102 cm centers at SRs of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m(-2). The results showed that in May and June planting, protein, glucose, P, and B concentrations increased with increased SR, but at the highest SRs (40 and 50 seeds m(-2)), the concentrations remained constant or declined. Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid concentrations were the least responsive to SR increases. Early planting resulted in higher oil, oleic acid, sucrose, B, and P on both single and twin-rows. Late planting resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. The changes in seed constituents could be due to changes in environmental factors (drought and temperature), and nutrient accumulation in seeds and leaves. The increase of stachyose sugar in 2010 may be due to a drier year and high temperature in 2010 compared to 2009; suggesting the possible role of stachyose as an environmental stress compound. Our research demonstrated that PD, SR, and RT altered some seed constituents, but the level of alteration in each year dependent on environmental factors such as drought and temperature. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering agronomic practices to select for soybean seed nutritional qualities under drought and high heat conditions.

  15. 76 FR 26679 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for Preconstruction Review, Prevention of Significant Deterioration AGENCY: Environmental... Regulation 1125, Requirements for Preconstruction Review, Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) found...

  16. Inventory and Evaluation of Information on Delaware Bay, vol. 2, November 1972 (NODC Accession 7310520)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the second section of a three part study describing the history, land use, and legal mechanisms which operate in the tideland region of the lower Delaware...

  17. 77 FR 39456 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Section 110(a)(2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ..., 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401, Dover, Delaware 19903. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rose Quinto... from Stephen D. Page, Director, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards to the Regional...

  18. Accuracy Assessment Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation and fire fuel model mapping in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this...

  19. Field Plot Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots use to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this data set,...

  20. Field Plot Points for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots used to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River.

  1. EAARL Coastal Topography--Maryland and Delaware, post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the eastern Maryland and Delaware coastline, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter), was produced from remotely...

  2. NOAA orthorectified Digital Elevation Model (DEM) image tiles, Bombay Hook, Delaware, 2011 (NODC Accession 0112173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Bombay Hook Project covers 177 square kilometers of the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge and surrounding areas in Kent County, Delaware. The Dewberry...

  3. Assessment of blood contaminant residues in Delaware Bay bald eagle nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The bald eagle population around the lower Delaware River Basin is rebounding from near extirpation in the early 1970's to 14 active breeding pairs today....

  4. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Delaware Bay Summary Database (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  5. EAARL Coastal Topography--Maryland and Delaware, post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the eastern Maryland and Delaware coastline, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter), was produced from remotely...

  6. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Delaware based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Delaware census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  7. 2011 Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) Lidar: Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected LiDAR for over 177 square kilometers of the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge in Kent County, Delaware. The nominal pulse spacing for this...

  8. Three Year Investigation Of Mosquito Breeding In Natural And Impounded Tidal Marshes In Delaware

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1953 to 1955 the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the University of Delaware Agricultural Experiment Station conducted a cooperative investigation of...

  9. Summary of the 1998 Spawning Survey of Horseshoe Crabs Along the Delaware Bay Shore

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The spawning survey of horseshoe crabs was conducted along the shores of Delaware Bay for the ninth year. Counts of spawning horseshoe crabs was performed by trained...

  10. Spatial Vegetation Data for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  11. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Delaware Bay Summary Database (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system...

  12. Delaware River Dredging Disposal Study, Stage 1 Reconnaissance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    Ca :1 0 0 $ 41 >0 I pI1C 3 c a x oa C4 i-i :4n .- kip 0 *1 4+4 A.>A 44 C)p 0)- 144 to ~ 5 -4$ %4 a Lo 0 1 0) C: Go 14 V2 U) 4 14 1* 4 t $4 U 4 Cd 0 g a...a bank building to a private residence, this brick structure survives as an example of Greek Revival architecture. Nat. Reg. DK 116 Thorne Mansion...of Sydenham Thorne , an Anglican minister and co-founder of Milford, A.William Burton, Governor of Delaware and John M. Clayton, Secretary of State

  13. Clinical characteristics of soybean allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Holzhauser, Thomas; Scibilia, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy.......Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy....

  14. Upper Cenozoic sediments of the lower Delaware Valley and the northern Delmarva Peninsula, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, James Patrick; Minard, James Pierson

    1979-01-01

    The 'yellow gravels' referred to by R. D. Salisbury in 1898 and the 'Trenton gravel,' as defined by H. C. Lewis in 1880, were investigated along the inner edge of the New Jersey Coastal Plain in southern New Jersey and in the northern Delmarva Peninsula. The highest level deposits, the Beacon Hill gravel, are found on only the highest hills in the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Their distribution suggests deposition from north to south across the plain. After deposition of the Beacon Hill, probably in middle or late Miocene time, a narrow valley was formed paralleling the inner edge of the New Jersey Coastal Plain between Raritan Bay and Camden. South of Camden, the valley broadened, covering much of southern New Jersey. The deposits in this valley are largely the Bridgeton Formation as we have redefined it. A second narrow valley was entrenched through the Bridgeton between Trenton and Salem, N.J. This valley broadens and covers much of the northern Delmarva Peninsula west of the Delaware River. The fill in the valley is largely the Pensauken Formation, as we have redefined it in our report. Collectively, the Beacon Hill, the Bridgeton, and the Pensauken were originally the 'yellow gravels' of Salisbury. These deposits are all fluviatile in origin and were largely formed as a series of step like downcutting channels. The Delaware Valley between Trenton and the lower Delaware Bay region is occupied by the 'Trenton gravel,' which is below the average level of the 'yellow gravels.' Two units recognized throughout the area and informally named the Spring Lake beds and the Van Sciver Lake beds are lithologically distinct from the 'yellow gravel' formations. The lithologies of the Spring Lake beds and the Van Sciver Lake beds are much more heterogeneous than those of the older formations. These two units, particularly, contain much greater amounts of silt and clay, often in thick beds. The depositional environments associated with the two units include fluviatile, estuarine

  15. Surface Currents and Winds at the Delaware Bay Mouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscarella, P A; Barton, N P; Lipphardt, B L; Veron, D E; Wong, K C; Kirwan, A D

    2011-04-06

    Knowledge of the circulation of estuaries and adjacent shelf waters has relied on hydrographic measurements, moorings, and local wind observations usually removed from the region of interest. Although these observations are certainly sufficient to identify major characteristics, they lack both spatial resolution and temporal coverage. High resolution synoptic observations are required to identify important coastal processes at smaller scales. Long observation periods are needed to properly sample low-frequency processes that may also be important. The introduction of high-frequency (HF) radar measurements and regional wind models for coastal studies is changing this situation. Here we analyze synoptic, high-resolution surface winds and currents in the Delaware Bay mouth over an eight-month period (October 2007 through May 2008). The surface currents were measured by two high-frequency radars while the surface winds were extracted from a data-assimilating regional wind model. To illustrate the utility of these monitoring tools we focus on two 45-day periods which previously were shown to present contrasting pictures of the circulation. One, the low-outflow period is from 1 October through 14 November 2007; the other is the high-outflow period from 3 March through 16 April 2008. The large-scale characteristics noted by previous workers are clearly corroborated. Specifically the M2 tide dominates the surface currents, and the Delaware Bay outflow plume is clearly evident in the low frequency currents. Several new aspects of the surface circulation were also identified. These include a map of the spatial variability of the M2 tide (validating an earlier model study), persistent low-frequency cross-mouth flow, and a rapid response of the surface currents to a changing wind field. However, strong wind episodes did not persist long enough to set up a sustained Ekman response.

  16. Mycobacterial infections in striped bass from Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, C.A.; Brown, J.J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Starliper, C.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Weyers, H.S.; Beauchamp, K.A.; Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.

    2007-01-01

    Eighty striped bass Morone saxatilis were obtained from Delaware Bay using commercial gill nets set adjacent to Woodland Beach (n = 70) and Bowers Beach (n = 10) in December 2003. Fish were examined for gross lesions. Total lengths (TLs) and eviscerated weights were determined to calculate condition factors (K). Portions of spleens were aseptically harvested for bacterial culture, and portions of spleens, kidneys (anterior and posterior), livers, and gonads were obtained for histological examination. The size distribution of the striped bass was relatively homogeneous; the mean TL was about 600 mm for all samples. Mean K exceeded 0.95 in all samples and was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among samples. Significant differences in mycobacterial infection prevalence (P ??? 0.05) were observed among samples; samples obtained at Woodland Beach (WB) on December 10 (53.8%, n = 13) and December 17 (7.1%, n = 42) exhibited the most striking differences in prevalence. Mycobacterial infection intensity ranged from 1 ?? 102 to 1 ?? 107 colony-forming units per gram of spleen. Acanthocephalan infection prevalence and intensity, non-acid-fast bacterial infection prevalence, and fish sex ratio were also significantly different among the samples (P ??? 0.05). Similar to the mycobacterial infections, differences in sex ratio, acanthocephalan infection, and non-acid-fast bacterial infection were observed between the WB samples taken on December 10 and 17. However, no significant associations (P > 0.05) were observed between sex ratio or these infections and mycobacterial infection. The differences in bacterial and parasite infection prevalence and intensity and fish sex ratio in some samples indicate that these fish had a different history and that the epizootiology of mycobacterial infection in striped bass from Delaware Bay may be relatively complex. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  17. Thickness of the surficial aquifer, Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    A digital map of the thickness of the surficial unconfined aquifer, including from the land surface and unsaturated zone to the bottom of sediments of geologic units identified as part of the surficial aquifer, was produced to improve understanding of the hydrologic system in the Maryland and Delaware portions of the Delmarva Peninsula. The map is intended to be used in conjunction with other environmental coverages (such land use, wetlands, and soil characteristics) to provide a subsurface hydrogeologic component to studies of nitrate transport that have historically relied on maps of surficial features. It could also be used to study the transport of other water soluble chemicals. The map was made using the best currently available data, which was of varying scales. It was created by overlaying a high resolution land surface and bathymetry digital elevation model (DEM) on a digital representation of the base of the surficial aquifer, part of hydrogeologic framework, as defined by Andreasen and others (2013). Thickness was calculated as the difference between the top of land surface and the bottom of the surficial aquifer sediments, which include sediments from geologic formations of late-Miocene through Quaternary age. Geologic formations with predominantly sandy surficial sediments that comprise the surficial aquifer on the Delmarva Peninsula include the Parsonsburg Sand, Sinepuxent Formation (Fm.), and parts of the Omar Fm. north of Indian River Bay in Delaware, the Columbia Fm., Beaverdam Fm., and Pennsauken Fm. (Ator and others 2005; Owens and Denney, 1986; Mixon, 1985; Bachman and Wilson, 1984). Formations with mixed texture and sandy stratigraphy including the Scotts Corner Fm. and Lynch Heights Fm. in Delaware are also considered part of the surficial aquifer (Ramsey, 1997). Subcropping aquifers and confining beds underlie the surficial aquifer throughout the Peninsula and may increase or limit its thickness, respectively (Andreasen and others, 2013

  18. Study on Application of Soybean Expansion Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangXuede; ZhangBaichun; LiuYulan; LiuGuoqin; ZhouZikuan; LuoShenming; XuZhaoyong; WangDeyuan; WangXuewu

    2002-01-01

    The soybean expanding and exacting have obvious superiority in the oil process compared with soybean extracting directly.Production capacity improves by 40%,the power consumption reduces by 30%,the steam consumption reduces by 15%,refinery rate by 0.5%,the urea enzyme activity of soybean meal is steady.Oil and soybean quality can be improved.The market latent capacity is hopeful.

  19. A High Throughput Soybean Gene Identification System Developed using Soybean Yellow Common Mosaic Virus (SYCMV)

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Eun–Young; Cho, Seunghee; Moon, Jae Sun; Gotoh, Takafumi; Goto, Takafumi; Kim, Hong Gi; Domier, Leslie L; Lim, Seungmo; Kim, Kil Hyun; Moon, Jung–Kyung; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun–Sub; Song, Ki Hak

    2015-01-01

    Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) was recently reported from Korea, and a subsequent survey of soybean fields found that SYCMV, Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV), and Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) infections were widespread. SYCMV has recently been developed into a Virus Inducing Gene Silencing (VIGS) vector for use as a reverse genetics tool for soybean, and here we report a modified SYCMV VIGS vector containing a new restriction enzyme site in the 3’ non–coding region into wh...

  20. Soybean, a promising health source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Aparicio, I; Redondo Cuenca, A; Villanueva-Suárez, M J; Zapata-Revilla, M A

    2008-01-01

    Health properties and uses of soybean, as well as the different chemical and botanical characteristics of this legume are shown in this review. Soybean represents an excellent source of high quality protein, it has a low content in saturated fat, it contains a great amount of dietary fibre and its isoflavone content makes it singular among other legumes. Many researches have been carried out into the benefits of legumes: chickpeas, beans, lentils and soy, among others, but characterization and positive health effects of soybeans have been recently studied. The interest in this legume has increased because of its functional components. Most of the studies have been focused on soybean protein as a possible source of prevention against cardiovascular disease. This positive effect may be due to a decrease in serum cholesterol concentrations. In addition, there are many studies on isoflavones, non-nutritive substances, associated with prevention and treatment of different chronic diseases. Moreover, some studies have shown the health properties of soy dietary fibre. Therefore, it would be interesting to consider the replacement of animal based foods for soybean foods in order to obtain some nutritional benefits.

  1. Vegetable soybean (Glycine max) tolerance to pyroxasulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    If registered for use on vegetable soybean, pyroxasulfone would fill an important gap in weed management systems in the crop. In order to determine the potential crop injury risk of pyroxasulfone on vegetable soybean, the objective of this work was to quantify vegetable soybean tolerance to pyroxasu...

  2. The prevalence of swine enteropathogens in Brazilian grower and finish herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viott, A M; Lage, A P; Cruz, E C C; Guedes, R M C

    2013-05-17

    Diarrhoea among growing and finishing pigs is an important problem in many herds. The prevalence of L. intracellularis, B. pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae, Salmonella spp., enterotoxigenic E. coli, Trichuris suis and the occurrence of mixed infection were investigated. Fecal samples for forty-six herds with diarrhea or a history of diarrhea were randomly collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The enteric pathogens were detected by culture (E. coli and Salmonella sp.), PCR (L. intracellularis and Brachyspira spp.) and eggs counts (T. suis). The overall herd prevalence of L. intracellularis, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and enterotoxigenic E. coli were 19.56%, 6.52%, 10.86% respectively. Mixed infection was diagnosed in 30.43% of herds, and L. intracellularis and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium are main pathogens association (10.87%). B. pilosicoli was diagnosed only in two herds, always associated with mixed infections. B. hyodysenteriae and T. suis were not demonstrated in any sample. These pathogens have been reported world-wide but studies regarding epidemiology in Brazil are few. This study contributes to establish of prevention programs for the control enteropathogens in grower finish herds in Brazil.

  3. The prevalence of swine enteropathogens in Brazilian grower and finish herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Viott

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea among growing and finishing pigs is an important problem in many herds. The prevalence of L. intracellularis, B. pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae, Salmonella spp., enterotoxigenic E. coli, Trichuris suis and the occurrence of mixed infection were investigated. Fecal samples for forty-six herds with diarrhea or a history of diarrhea were randomly collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The enteric pathogens were detected by culture (E. coli and Salmonella sp., PCR (L. intracellularis and Brachyspira spp. and eggs counts (T. suis. The overall herd prevalence of L. intracellularis, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and enterotoxigenic E. coli were 19.56%, 6.52%, 10.86% respectively. Mixed infection was diagnosed in 30.43% of herds, and L. intracellularis and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium are main pathogens association (10.87%. B. pilosicoli was diagnosed only in two herds, always associated with mixed infections. B. hyodysenteriae and T. suis were not demonstrated in any sample. These pathogens have been reported world-wide but studies regarding epidemiology in Brazil are few. This study contributes to establish of prevention programs for the control enteropathogens in grower finish herds in Brazil.

  4. Assessing Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Excreta from Grower-finisher Pigs Fed Prevalent Rations in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van, Vu Thi Khanh; Sommer, Sven G.; Vu, C. C.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock production in Vietnam is, as in most Asian countries, increasing rapidly and changing into specialized highly intensified operations. The volume of animal excreta generated exceeds the capacity of the operation land base and cannot be utilized efficiently. As a consequence, there is a l......Livestock production in Vietnam is, as in most Asian countries, increasing rapidly and changing into specialized highly intensified operations. The volume of animal excreta generated exceeds the capacity of the operation land base and cannot be utilized efficiently. As a consequence......, there is a loss of plant nutrients from livestock farms that causes environmental pollution. This study carried out a feed and excretion experiment measuring fecal characteristic, daily fecal production, daily nitrogen and phosphorous excretion from grower-finisher pigs fed prevalent rations in Vietnam....... Furthermore, equations for assessing the excretion were tested, which can be used in farm models for optimal recycling of manure while focusing on reducing pollution. The results indicated that fecal production and nutrient excretion were affected by the different rations tested. This study showed that five...

  5. Farmer field school’s training on knowledge level of citrus growers regarding improved production practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Nougha Victor

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The major objective of this paper was to assess the impact of the Farmer field school (FFS training program on the knowledge level of farmers (citrus growers regarding improved citrus production practices. Distract Sargodha was the targeted research area for this study being the leading producer of citrus in Pakistan. Quantitative data were collected through interview schedule and analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. It was conclude that young people were more tend towards getting training under FFS program than old age farmers. Educated farmers were in majority in FFS farmers while; conversely illiterate farmers were in majority in the category of non-FFs farmers. In category of FFS farmers livestock farming was their primary income as reported by majority (31.3% of FFS farmers and in the case of non-FFS farmer’s crop sale was their primary income source as reported by 28.4% of non-FFs farmers. In addition to that both FFS and non-FFS farmers also earn income from nonfarm sources like business, job, foreign remittances and labour. FFS training program had positive and significant impact on the knowledge level of farmers regarding citrus production and protection practices. T-test statistics showed highly significant (P<0.05 difference in knowledge level of FFS farmers and non-FFS farmers.

  6. Responding to Globalization: Impacts of Certification on Colombian Small-Scale Coffee Growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Rueda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eco-certification of food and other agricultural products has been promoted as a way of making markets work for sustainability. Certification programs offer a price premium to producers who invest in more sustainable practices. The literature on the impacts of certification has focused primarily on the economic benefits farmers perceive from participating in these schemes. These benefits, however, are often subject to price variability, offering only a partial explanation of why farmers join and stay in certification programs. We evaluated the potential of the Rainforest Alliance certification program to foster more resilient social-ecological systems in the face of globalization. Using the case of Santander, Colombia, and a pair-based comparison of 86 households to effectively produce a robust counterfactual, we showed that certification provides important environmental benefits, while improving the well-being of farmers and their communities. Furthermore, the study showed that price premiums are only one of many elements defining the success of certification, particularly important for motivating farmers to join, but less so to explain retention and upgrading. The case of Colombian coffee growers illustrates how the connections between local social-ecological systems and larger global forces can produce more sustainable livelihoods and land uses.

  7. Urinary excretion of tetrahydrophtalimide in fruit growers with dermal exposure to captan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cock, J; Heederik, D; Hoek, F; Boleij, J; Kromhout, H

    1995-08-01

    The relation between dermal and respiratory exposure and uptake into the body of captan, measured as 24 hr cumulative tetrahydrophtalimide (THPI) dose, was studied among 14 male fruit growers applying pesticides in orchards in the Netherlands. No contribution of respiratory exposure was observed on THPI in the urine. Dermal exposure, measured with skin pads, showed a clear relation with THPI in urine when exposure was estimated from exposure on skin pads of ankles and neck. No relation was found for total dermal exposure, calculated from measured exposure on skin pads of representative skin areas according to models described in the literature. Determinants of exposure such as use of a cabin on the tractor, use of gloves during mixing and loading, and use of rubber boots also explained THPI in urine very well. This finding corroborated the findings on measured dermal exposure. Results indicate that more attention should be paid to skin areas which are suspected to be most permeable for a chemical under study. It was concluded that dermal exposure data can be linked better to biological monitoring based on empirical findings as gathered in a pilot study on exposure of specific body areas than on estimations of total skin dose.

  8. Legal issues for German-speaking cannabis growers. Results from an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werse, Bernd

    2016-02-01

    Cannabis prohibition can generally be regarded as the main driver for home growing of marijuana. In this paper, I discuss the impact of drug prohibition on cannabis cultivators from the three German-speaking countries: Germany, Austria and Switzerland. In particular, this refers to the questions; how illicitness influences motivations for growing; which precautionary measures are taken against the risk of discovery; how penal consequences differ in the three countries and how these aspects are linked to each other. The results come from a sample of 1578 respondents from the German-language online survey conducted following the International Cannabis Cultivation Questionnaire (ICCQ). The survey was carried out in late 2012 and early 2013. While most of the reasons for growing cannabis relate to avoiding negative consequences of prohibition, the illicitness of cannabis also plays a major role for concern about the cultivation activities as well as measures to avoid negative consequences. Swiss growers are less worried about their activity compared to respondents from Germany or Austria. The results confirm the notion that the illicitness of cannabis is the main drive for the private cultivation of the plant. At the same time, prohibition is the principal reason for concern regarding the growing activity. The severity of possible sentences seems to be linked to the degree of concern and precautionary measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Animal and management factors influencing grower and finisher pig performance and efficiency in European systems: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, S L; Szyszka, O; Stoddart, K; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2015-07-01

    A meta-analysis on the effects of management and animal-based factors on the performance and feed efficiency of growing pigs can provide information on single factor and interaction effects absent in individual studies. This study analysed the effects of such factors on average daily gain (ADG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of grower and finisher pigs. The multivariate models identified significant effects of: (1) bedding (Panimals with the least amount of floor space having a higher FI when given a feed with a low metabolisable energy (ME) content, in contrast to all other pigs, which showed a higher FI with increased ME content. The meta-analysis confirmed the significant effect of several well-known factors on the performance and efficiency of grower and finisher pigs, the effects of some less established ones and, importantly, the interactions between such factors.

  10. Heterogeneity of farms entering export supply chains: the case of fruit growers from central-south Chile

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Barrena Ruiz; L. A. Nahuelhual Muñoz; A. Engler Palma; R. Echeverría Pezoa; G. Cofré Bravo

    2013-01-01

    The increasing stringency of world food markets requires farmers to adjust farm structure and commercial strategies to remain integrated in export supply chains. The goal of this study was to identify and characterize different types of fresh fruit farms with regard to farm structural and commercial strategies for a representative sample of fresh fruit growers from central-south Chile exporting to world markets. A typology of farms was constructed based on multivariate analysis, according to ...

  11. Valine, isoleucine, arginine and glycine supplementation of low-protein diets for broiler chickens during the starter and grower phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-Rojas, I C; Murakami, A E; Duarte, C R A; Eyng, C; Oliveira, C A L; Janeiro, V

    2014-01-01

    1. Two experiments were performed to study the supplementation of valine, isoleucine, arginine and glycine (Val, Ile, Arg, Gly) in low-protein diets for broiler chickens in the starter (1-21 d; Exp. 1) and grower (22-42 d; Exp. 2) phases. 2. A low-crude protein (CP) diet was formulated to meet the requirements of all amino acids (AA) supplied by the control diet except for Val, Ile, Arg and Gly. The other experimental diets were obtained by the isolated or combined supplementation of the studied AA in the low-CP diet. 3. Growth, serum parameters and litter characteristics were taken in both of the experiments. Carcass measurements were taken in Experiment 2. 4. In the starter and grower phases, low-CP diets without supplementation resulted in birds with a poorer weight gain and feed conversion than those of the birds that received the control diet. 5. In the starter phase, individual supplementation with Val and Gly, but not Ile and Arg, restored the weight gain of the birds, while diets with the addition of Val + Gly, Val + Ile + Arg, Val + Ile + Gly and Val + Ile + Arg + Gly restored their feed conversion. 6. In the grower phase, weight gain was re-established at the same rate as the control diet for the diets supplemented with Val + Ile, Val + Ile + Arg, Val + Ile + Gly and Val + Ile + Arg + Gly. However, the feed conversion was restored only in birds that received the diet supplemented with all studied AA. 7. The supplementation of Val and Gly in low-CP diets was sufficient to avoid adverse effects in the performance and serum parameters of broilers in the starter phase. However, birds in the grower phase required the combined supplementation of Val, Ile, Arg and Gly, to prevent compromised performance.

  12. Comparative genomic analysis of soybean flowering genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chol-Hee Jung

    Full Text Available Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant

  13. Economic consequences of improved temperature forecasts: An experiment with the Florida citrus growers (control group results). [weather forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A demonstration experiment is being planned to show that frost and freeze prediction improvements are possible utilizing timely Synchronous Meteorological Satellite temperature measurements and that this information can affect Florida citrus grower operations and decisions. An economic experiment was carried out which will monitor citrus growers' decisions, actions, costs and losses, and meteorological forecasts and actual weather events and will establish the economic benefits of improved temperature forecasts. A summary is given of the economic experiment, the results obtained to date, and the work which still remains to be done. Specifically, the experiment design is described in detail as are the developed data collection methodology and procedures, sampling plan, data reduction techniques, cost and loss models, establishment of frost severity measures, data obtained from citrus growers, National Weather Service, and Federal Crop Insurance Corp., resulting protection costs and crop losses for the control group sample, extrapolation of results of control group to the Florida citrus industry and the method for normalization of these results to a normal or average frost season so that results may be compared with anticipated similar results from test group measurements.

  14. Techno-Economic Models for Optimised Utilisation of Jatropha curcas Linnaeus under an Out-Grower Farming Scheme in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Osei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Techno-economic models for optimised utilisation of jatropha oil under an out-grower farming scheme were developed based on different considerations for oil and by-product utilisation. Model 1: Out-grower scheme where oil is exported and press cake utilised for compost. Model 2: Out-grower scheme with six scenarios considered for the utilisation of oil and by-products. Linear programming models were developed based on outcomes of the models to optimise the use of the oil through profit maximisation. The findings revealed that Model 1 was financially viable from the processors’ perspective but not for the farmer at seed price of $0.07/kg. All scenarios considered under Model 2 were financially viable from the processors perspective but not for the farmer at seed price of $0.07/kg; however, at seed price of $0.085/kg, financial viability was achieved for both parties. Optimising the utilisation of the oil resulted in an annual maximum profit of $123,300.

  15. Degumming of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly, Saadia M.

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Degumming process was carried out on Factory grade crude soybean oil in fats and oils Department. Thirty two samples were treated with different concentrations of phosphoric acid and / or water at different temperatures and with different time of stirring. It was found that degumming 100 gm of oil with 3,5% water only and with 0,34 gm phosphoric acid in 5,8% water, at 75°C with stirring time of 30 minutes gave better results compared with other conditions. The analysis of variance of factorial experiments for illustrating the different effect and interaction between time of stirring and temperature during degumming process was recorded.

    El proceso de desgomado fue llevado a cabo en una fábrica de aceite crudo de soja en el departamento de aceites y grasas. Treinta y dos muestras fueron tratadas con concentraciones diferentes de ácido fosfórico y/o agua a temperaturas diferentes y con tiempo diferente de agitación. Se encontró que el desgomado de 100 g de aceite con solo 3,5% de agua y con 0,34 g de ácido fosfórico en 5,8% de agua a 75°C, con tiempo de agitación de 30 minutos, dio mejores resultados comparado con otras condiciones. Se realizó el análisis de varianza de experiencias factoriales para ilustrar el diferente efecto y la interacción entre el tiempo de agitación y la temperatura, durante el proceso de desgomado.

  16. Laura: Soybean variety lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srebrić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain of conventional soybean varieties requires heat processing to break down trypsin inhibitor's activity before using as food or animal feed. At the same time, protein denaturation and other qualitative changes occur in soybean grain, especially if the temperature of heating is not controlled. Two types of trypsin inhibitor were found in soybean grain the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk inhibitor. Mature grain of soybean Laura is lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. Grain yield of variety Laura is equal to high yielding varieties from the maturity group I, where it belongs. Lacking of Kunitz-trypsin inhibitor makes soybean grain suitable for direct feeding in adult non ruminant animals without previous thermal processing. Grain of variety Laura can be processed for a shorter period of time than conventional soybeans. This way we save energy, and preserve valuable nutritional composition of soybean grain, which is of interest in industrial processing.

  17. Explanatory Variables Associated with the Yield Performance Gap among Small- Medium-and Large-Scale Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Growers at Ubombo Sugar, Big bend, Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbuyazwe M. Dlamini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the ex post facto study was to determine explanatory variables for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum yield among small, medium and large scale-growers at Ubombo Sugar, Swaziland. The target population of the census study was all small-medium-and large-scale-growers, milling their cane at the Big Bend Mill. Data were collected using valid and reliable questionnaires. The findings indicated that large-scale farmers obtained significantly higher yields than small and medium scale-growers. However, sucrose percentage was higher with small-scale than medium and large scale-growers. Production inputs and farming services were available, accessible, and affordable to all groups of sugarcane growers. Sugarcane growers were within the recommended delays in implementing the crucial planting and post harvest operations for sugarcane; and the man-days used per activity per hectare were within recommended practice. Explanatory variables for sugarcane yield were found to be distance between the farm and the mill; hand application of fertilizer man-days per hectare; and labour strength. Distance between the farm and the mill had a significantly negative influence on sugarcane yield. The research failed to reject the research hypothesis that good management and adequate production inputs increases sugarcane yield. The main conclusion was that, those farmers who were furthest from the mill should consider replacing sugarcane with other viable business ventures.

  18. Designing virtual science labs for the Islamic Academy of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZahrani, Nada Saeed

    Science education is a basic part of the curriculum in modern day classrooms. Instructional approaches to science education can take many forms but hands-on application of theory via science laboratory activities for the learner is common. Not all schools have the resources to provide the laboratory environment necessary for hands-on application of science theory. Some settings rely on technology to provide a virtual laboratory experience instead. The Islamic Academy of Delaware (IAD), a typical community-based organization, was formed to support and meet the essential needs of the Muslim community of Delaware. IAD provides science education as part of the overall curriculum, but cannot provide laboratory activities as part of the science program. Virtual science labs may be a successful model for students at IAD. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of implementing virtual science labs at IAD and to develop an implementation plan for integrating the virtual labs. The literature has shown us that the lab experience is a valuable part of the science curriculum (NBPTS, 2013, Wolf, 2010, National Research Council, 1997 & 2012). The National Research Council (2012) stressed the inclusion of laboratory investigations in the science curriculum. The literature also supports the use of virtual labs as an effective substitute for classroom labs (Babateen, 2011; National Science Teachers Association, 2008). Pyatt and Simms (2011) found evidence that virtual labs were as good, if not better than physical lab experiences in some respects. Although not identical in experience to a live lab, the virtual lab has been shown to provide the student with an effective laboratory experience in situations where the live lab is not possible. The results of the IAD teacher interviews indicate that the teachers are well-prepared for, and supportive of, the implementation of virtual labs to improve the science education curriculum. The investigator believes that with the

  19. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  20. Development of Separator for Soybeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de H.C.P.; Rijpma, P.J.; Owaa, J.S.E.

    1997-01-01

    A simple and effective separator for soybeans was developed for small-scale farmers in Uganda, to clean the seeds from foreign material, chaff, broken beans etc. as demanded by local and world markets. It will help to avoid losses during post-harvest time and to reduce human drudgery of cleaning the

  1. Archaeophytopathology of Global Soybean Rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae are two rust species that infect soybean (Glycine max). A number of other hosts support the uredinial growth of these Phakopsora, including Pachyrhizus erosus, Pueraria lobata, and Vigna unguiculata, but no aecial host is known. Traditionally, these two species...

  2. Hydration kinetics of transgenic soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Francielle Fracasso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic and experimental analyses of the hydration process of transgenic soybeans (BRS 225 RR are provided. The importance of the hydration process consists of the grain texture modifications which favor grinding and extraction of soybeans. The soaking isotherms were obtained for four different temperatures. Results showed that temperature affected transgenic soybeans´ hydration rate and time. Moisture content d.b. of the soybeans increased from 0.12 ± 0.01 kg kg-1 to 1.45 ± 0.19 kg kg-1 during 270 min. of process. Two models were used to fit the kinetic curves: an empirical model developed by Peleg (1988 and a phenomenological one, proposed by Omoto et al. (2009. The two models adequately represented the hydration kinetics. Peleg model was applied to the experimental data and the corresponding parameters were obtained and correlated to temperature. The model by Omoto et al. (2009 showed a better statistical fitting. Although Ks was affected by temperature (Ks = 0.38079 exp (-2289.3 T-1, the equilibrium concentration remained practically unchanged.

  3. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  4. A 2014 nationwide survey of the distribution of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) major viruses in South Korean soybean fields, and changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014 symptomatic soybean samples were collected throughout Korea, and were tested for the most important soybean viruses found in Korea, namely Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV). SYMMV was most commonly detected,...

  5. Estimated use of water in the Delaware River Basin in Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Susan S.; Linsey, Kristin S.; Ludlow, Russell A.; Reyes, Betzaida; Shourds, Jennifer L.

    2016-11-07

    The Delaware River Basin (DRB) was selected as a Focus Area Study in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the USGS National Water Census. The National Water Census is a USGS research program that focuses on national water availability and use and then develops new water accounting tools and assesses water availability at both the regional and national scales. One of the water management needs that the DRB study addressed, and that was identified by stakeholder groups from the DRB, was to improve the integration of state water use and water-supply data and to provide the compiled water use information to basin users. This water use information was also used in the hydrologic modeling and ecological components of the study.Instream and offstream water use was calculated for 2010 for the DRB based on information received from Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Water withdrawal, interbasin transfers, return flow, and hydroelectric power generation release data were compiled for 11 categories by hydrologic subregion, basin, subbasin, and subwatershed. Data availability varied by state. Site-specific data were used whenever possible to calculate public supply, irrigation (golf courses, nurseries, sod farms, and crops), aquaculture, self-supplied industrial, commercial, mining, thermoelectric, and hydroelectric power withdrawals. Where site-specific data were not available, primarily for crop irrigation, livestock, and domestic use, various techniques were used to estimate water withdrawals.Total water withdrawals in the Delaware River Basin were calculated to be about 7,130 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 2010. Calculations of withdrawals by source indicate that freshwater withdrawals were about 4,130 Mgal/d (58 percent of the total) and the remaining 3,000 Mgal/d (42 percent) were from saline water. Total surface-water withdrawals were calculated to be 6,590 Mgal/d, or 92 percent of the total; about 54 percent (3,590 Mgal/d) of surface

  6. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  7. 78 FR 63972 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report... methodology proposed to be used in the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report is...: Comments will be accepted via email to john.yagecic@drbc.state.nj.us , with ``Water Quality Assessment 2014...

  8. 76 FR 4716 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware, Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the... public notice of a proposed lease area for commercial wind development on the OCS off Delaware and... from Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC (Bluewater) and another from Occidental Development & Equities, LLC...

  9. 76 FR 50188 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality... methodology proposed to be used in the 2012 Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality Assessment is... to 609-883-9522; by U.S. Mail to DRBC, Attn: Water Quality Assessment 2012, P.O. Box 7360, West...

  10. Climate Change Impacts in the State of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, C.

    2011-12-01

    The State of Delaware is currently completing its first statewide climate impacts and vulnerability assessment that will provide the foundation for a new statewide adaptation planning process. The assessment focuses on both the observed impacts and the projected impacts on five main sectors: public health and safety; infrastructure and water; industry, agriculture, and forestry; tourism and recreation; and wildlife, plants, and natural ecosystems. Examples of key impacts to the State include loss of wetlands from sea level rise and public health impacts from increased tropospheric ozone and heatwaves. The assessment is a result of collaboration across state agencies, universities, local governments, and non-governmental organizations. We discuss several challenges in translating national and regional research to locally-specific and locally-meaningful impacts necessary for the policy process, adaptation planning, and public outreach. We identify information and research gaps that continue to slow progress at the local and state level. There are lessons learned on how to best engage with policymakers and be relevant and useful for policy planning. Lastly, we give examples of successes in diverse collaborations, public communication of the results, and early policy actions resulting from the findings.

  11. Raffinose-Series Oligosaccharides in Soybean Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Švejstil R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean foods forming a substantial part of Asian diet have still more expanded into European diet. Raffinose-series oligosaccharides (RSO are important constituents of soya beans and they can be found also in soybean products. These oligosaccharides can be considered potentially prebiotic for their capability of influencing the composition of the host’s intestinal microbiota. The aim of the present paper was to determine the oligosaccharide content in various soybean products. Enzymatic assay has been used for the determination of oligosaccharides. RSO have been found in all tested samples and their content varied from 0.66 g per 100 g in soybean beverage to 5.59 g per 100 g in first clear soybean flour. Generally, the highest content of RSO has been detected in soybean flour in the average amount of 4.83 g per 100 g. There was no statistically significant difference observed in the amount of oligosaccharides in all four types of soybean flour (P < 0.01. Considerably high amounts of RSO have been found in sweet soybean bars and textured soy protein. Foods as soybean flour and soybean bar ‘Sójový suk’ seem to be effective natural sources of prebiotic oligosaccharides for humans.

  12. Artificial Selection for Determinate Growth Habit in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determinacy is an agronomically important trait associated with the domestication in soybean (Glycine max). Most soybean cultivars are classifiable into indeterminate and determinate growth habit, while Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of soybean, is indeterminate. Indeterminate (Dt1) and determina...

  13. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methlyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN) is the most pervasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. SCN reduced soybean yields worldwide by an estimated billion dollars annually. These losses remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over ...

  14. Characterization and genetics of multiple soybean aphid biotype resistance in five soybean plant introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is the most important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] insect pest in the USA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the resistance expressed in the five plant introductions (PIs) to four soybean aphid biotypes, determine the mode of resistance in...

  15. Grower Perception of the Significance of Weaver Ants as a Fruit Fly Deterrent in Tanzanian Smallholder Mango Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina; Msogoya, Theodosy; Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Managed populations of weaver ants in mango trees have been used successfully in Australia, SE Asia and parts of Western Africa to deter fruit flies from ovipositing in ripening fruits. The presence of indigenous weaver ants in mango trees of smallholder growers in Tanzania offers the possibility...... of exploiting them as an affordable, environmentally -friendly method to improve marketable fruit yield and quality. In a preliminary interview study in a mango-growing region of rural Tanzania, the farmers were not convinced of any beneficial, deterrent effect attributable to the indigenous weaver ants...

  16. Short communication. Effect of soybean meal heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousi-Mojarradi, M.; Seidavi, A.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Roca-Fernandez, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM) heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days). The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM), T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 20 min), T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 30 min), T4 (roasted SBM: 120 degree centigrade, 20 min) and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46 degree centigrade, 540 watt, 7 min). Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW), body weight grain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR). Higher BW (p<0.05) and BWG (p<0.05) and lower FCR (p<0.05) were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving) on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid) and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers. (Author)

  17. Short communication. Effect of soybean meal heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddeseh Tousi Mojarrad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days. The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM, T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121ºC, 20 min, T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121ºC, 30 min, T4 (roasted SBM: 120ºC, 20 min and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46ºC, 540 watt, 7 min. Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW, body weight grain (BWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion rate (FCR. Higher BW (p<0.05 and BWG (p<0.05 and lower FCR (p<0.05 were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers.

  18. Soybean improvement: Achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a major source of vegetable protein and oil in the world. Worldwide demand continues to be high and production has more than doubled in the past 20 years to a total of 264.2 million metric tons in 2011 (National Agricultural Statistics Service 2012. Much of this increase has been due to increased planting in Argentina and Brazil. But, there have been genetic gains as well. We now have powerful genetic tools and these will be useful in gene discovery and in developing selectable markers for those genes. But for traits that are quantitative and multigenic, marker assisted selection may not be practical. We are facing unprecedented changes in our climate which will require resourceful use of the new genetic tools along with standard plant breeding methodology to maintain soybean productivity and quality.

  19. A STUDY ON WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TJITROSEMITO

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments on weed control in soybeans were carried out at BIOTROP, Bogor, Indonesia from February to June, 1989. The critical period for weed control was found to be between 20 - 40 days after planting of soybean (c. v. Wilis grown at a planting distance of 40 x 10 cm. It did not coincide with the fastest growth in terms of trifoliate leaf number. Further studies were suggested to understand the physiological growth of soybean related to weed control. Pendimethalin at 660- 1320 g a.e./ha applied one day after sowing did not cause any phytotoxic effect to soybean and had good weed control performance.

  20. Matemáticas de Infantil en Delaware, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Fábrega

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Estados Unidos se encuentra en momento de cambio en el sistema educativo. La implantación de los estándares comunes para todas las etapas de educación obligatoria proporciona una estructura normalizada para todo el territorio estadounidense. En este documento, se presenta un ejemplo de cómo trabajar los estándares matemáticos en una clase bilingüe de alumnos de 5 a 6 años. La implementación difiere de estado a estado. En este caso concreto se sigue un currículo bastante estricto, con un material pautado y guías del profesor. No obstante, el maestro/a siempre puede complementar este currículo con otros talleres y juegos matemáticos. Arte, juegos de mesa y actividades motrices, entre otros, ayudan a los alumnos/as a entender y, lo más importante, a aplicar las capacidades matemáticas trabajadas.Mathematics in a Kindergarten School in Delaware, USA. The education system in United States of America is undergoing significant changes. The implementation of the new Common Core Standards in K - 12 provides for a unified structure for the entire territory. This article presents examples of how to work those new standards for mathematics in a bilingual kindergarten classroom.The implementation differs from State to State. In this specific case we follow a very strict curriculum, which includes learning materials and teacher guides. Nevertheless, teachers can always complement the curriculum with any other mathematic workshops and games. Art, board games and motor activities, among others, can help students understand - and more importantly - to apply the mathematic skills learned.

  1. Economic consequences of improved temperature forecasts: An experiment with the Florida citrus growers (control group results). Executive summary. [weather forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A demonstration experiment is being planned to show that frost and freeze prediction improvements are possible utilizing timely Synchronous Meteorological Satellite temperature measurements and that this information can affect Florida citrus grower operations and decisions so as to significantly reduce the cost for frost and freeze protection and crop losses. The design and implementation of the first phase of an economic experiment which will monitor citrus growers decisions, actions, costs and losses, and meteorological forecasts and actual weather events was carried out. The economic experiment was designed to measure the change in annual protection costs and crop losses which are the direct result of improved temperature forecasts. To estimate the benefits that may result from improved temperature forecasting capability, control and test groups were established with effective separation being accomplished temporally. The control group, utilizing current forecasting capability, was observed during the 1976-77 frost season and the results are reported. A brief overview is given of the economic experiment, the results obtained to date, and the work which still remains to be done.

  2. Diurnal odor, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide emission profiles of confined swine grower/finisher rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Guo, Huiqing; Peterson, Jonathan; Predicala, Bernardo; Laguë, Claude

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain diurnal variation profiles of odor and gas (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], carbon dioxide [CO2]) concentrations and emission rate (OGCER) from confined swine grower/ finisher rooms under three typical weather conditions (warm, mild, and cold weather) in a year. Two grower/ finisher rooms, one with a fully slatted floor and the other with partially slatted floors, were measured for 2 consecutive days under each weather condition. The results revealed that the diurnal OGCER in the room with a fully slatted floor was 9.2-39.4% higher than that with a partially slatted floor; however, no significant differences in the diurnal OGCER were found between these two rooms, except for the NH3 concentrations in August, the NH3 and H2S concentrations and emissions in October, and odor concentrations and emissions in February (p > 0.05). The OGCER variations presented different diurnal patterns as affected by time of day, season, type of floor, ventilation rate, animal growth cycles, in-house manure storage, and weather conditions. Significant diurnal fluctuations in the OGCER (except for the odor concentrations and H2S emissions) were observed in August (p dispersion modeling to decrease the great incertitude of setback determination using randomly measured data.

  3. Pressurized water extraction of isoflavones by experimental design from soybean flour and Soybean Protein Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moras, Benjamin; Rey, Stéphane; Vilarem, Gérard; Pontalier, Pierre-Yves

    2017-01-01

    A Doehlert experimental design was conducted and surface response methodology was used to determine the effect of temperature, contact time and solid liquid ratio on isoflavone extraction from soybean flour or Soybean Protein Isolate in pressurized water system. The optimal conditions conducted gave an extraction yield of 85% from soybean flour. For Soybean Protein Isolate compared to soybean flour, the isoflavone extraction yield is 61%. This difference could be explained by higher aglycon content, while aglycon appears to be the least extracted isoflavone by pressurized water. The solid liquid ratio in the ASE cell was the overriding factor in obtaining high yields with both soybean products, while temperature has less influence. A high temperature causes conversion of the malonyls-glucosides and glucosides isoflavone derivatives into glucosides or aglycons forms. pressurized water extraction showed a high solubilization of protein material up to 95% of inserted Soybean Protein Isolate.

  4. BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL ON THE SHORELINE OF DELAWARE BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 1994, a field study was undertaken in Delaware in which light crude oil was intentionally released onto plots to evaluate bioremediation. The objectives were to obtain credible statistical evidence to determine if bioremediation with inorganic mineral nutrients ...

  5. 77 FR 28489 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... to the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions From Industrial Boilers and Process Heaters at Petroleum... Delaware's regulation that establishes controls for nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions from industrial... amend the regulation that establishes controls for NO X emissions from industrial boilers and...

  6. 77 FR 3211 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions From Industrial Boilers and Process Heaters at Petroleum Refineries... amends Delaware's regulation that establishes controls for nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions from industrial boilers and process heaters at petroleum refineries by including a NO X emission limit for...

  7. 77 FR 22224 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... revision amends the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from industrial cleaning solvents... meet the requirements to implement reasonably available control technology (RACT) controls on emission... developments and expand VOC emission controls. The revision is part of Delaware's strategy to achieve...

  8. 78 FR 39601 - Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display... out zone that covers part of the Delaware River. Sugar House Casino has contracted with Pyrotecnico... Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display will pose significant risks to the public. The purpose of the...

  9. Monitoring hemlock crown health in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; Bradley Onken; Richard A. Evans; Richard A. Evans

    2005-01-01

    Decline of the health of hemlocks in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area was noticeable in the southern areas of the park by 1992. The following year, a series of plots were established to monitor hemlock health and the abundance of hemlock woolly adelgid. This poster examines only the health rating of the hemlocks in the monitoring plots.

  10. TOXICITY TRENDS DURING AN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION EXPERIMENT ON A SANDY SHORELINE IN DELAWARE, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 13-week, refereed, inter-agency toxicity testing program involving five bioassay methods was used to document the effectiveness of shoreline bioremediation to accelerate toxicity reduction of an oiled sandy shoreline at Fowler Beach, Delaware, USA. The study was part of an inte...

  11. 76 FR 20367 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the... notice provides BOEMRE's determination that no competitive interest exists in acquiring a commercial wind... 21653). Bluewater Wind Delaware, LLC submitted the only valid expression of commercial interest in...

  12. Delaware Stars for Early Success. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Delaware's Stars for Early Success prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  13. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  14. The Politics of Race and Educational Disparities in Delaware's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Theodore J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Delaware has long played a pivotal role in the nation's struggle to end school segregation and promote educational equality. This article discusses racial disparities in educational achievement and outcomes by examining the state's political history and the politics of race in public education. This article explores educational disparities from a…

  15. Improving Anti-Rape Policy and Education at the University of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    It is incumbent on colleges and universities to evaluate the conditions that lead to sexual assault on their campuses and to address those that may support a climate that encourages or tolerates rape. Though various policies and educational programs attempt to mitigate the problem, still it persists. The University of Delaware has not engaged in a…

  16. 78 FR 57573 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Attainment Plan for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... expeditiously as practicable in a given area.\\21\\ Thus, assuming no presumptions under 40 CFR 51.1002, a state... in a given nonattainment area.\\35\\ \\34\\ See 40 CFR 51.1008. \\35\\ See 2007 PM 2.5 Implementation Rule... Plan for the Philadelphia-Wilmington, Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware Nonattainment Area for the...

  17. State of Delaware Science Curriculum Framework Content Standards [and] Performance Indicators, 6-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover.

    Part of the Delaware Department of Education's ongoing efforts to provide assistance and support to local school districts in their development of a standards-based curriculum, this document presents the eight science standards for middle school. The standards for grades 6-8 are: (1) nature and application of science and technology; (2) materials…

  18. Climate change effects on forests, water resources, and communities of the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will Price; Susan Beecher

    2014-01-01

    The Delaware River provides drinking water to 5 percent of the United States, or approximately 16.2 million people living in 4 states, 42 counties, and over 800 municipalities. The more than 1.5 billion gallons withdrawn or diverted daily for drinking water is delivered by more than 140 purveyors, yet constitutes less than 20 percent of the average daily withdrawals....

  19. 77 FR 58953 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control... published in the Federal Register. This action is not a ``major rule'' as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2). C... compounds. Dated: September 7, 2012. Shawn M. Garvin, Regional Administrator, Region III. 40 CFR part 52...

  20. Environmental Assessment. Increase Fuel Storage Capacity, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    in 1998. Grasshopper Sparrow 2 Observed on Bergold Farm 16 July 2003 and in 1998. Great blue heron 2 Observed many times foraging along both Pipe...ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES Increase Fuels Capacity Dover Air Force Base, Delaware 28 calculations were derived from the same EPA software utilized to

  1. Synopsis of the University of Delaware's Office of Computer-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    This brief paper presents background information and a description of the organizational structure and educational objectives of the Office of Computer-Based Instruction, formerly the Delaware PLATO project, whose name was changed to reflect the University's ongoing commitment to providing leadership in educational computing following the…

  2. Recent Developments of Genomic Research in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching Chan; Xinpeng Qi; Man-Wah Li; Fuk-Ling Wong; Hon-Ming Lam

    2012-01-01

    Soybean is an important cash crop with unique and important traits such as the high seed protein and oil contents,and the ability to perform symbiotic nitrogen fixation.A reference genome of cultivated soybeans was established in 2010,followed by whole-genome re-sequencing of wild and cultivated soybean accessions.These efforts revealed unique features of the soybean genome and helped to understand its evolution.Mapping of variations between wild and cultivated soybean genomes were performed.These genomic variations may be related to the process of domestication and human selection.Wild soybean germplasms exhibited high genomic diversity and hence may be an important source of novel genes/alleles.Accumulation of genomic data will help to refine genetic maps and expedite the identification of functional genes.In this review,we summarize the major findings from the whole-genome sequencing projects and discuss the possible impacts on soybean researches and breeding programs.Some emerging areas such as transcriptomic and epigenomic studies will be introduced.In addition,we also tabulated some useful bioinformatics tools that will help the mining of the soybean genomic data.

  3. Study on Application of Soybean Expansion Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xuede; Zhang Baichun; Liu Yulan; Liu Guoqin; Zhou Zikuan; Luo Shenming; Xu Zhaoyong; Wang Deyuan; Wang Xuewu

    2002-01-01

    The soybean expanding andexacting have obvious superiority n the oilprocess compared with soybean extractingdirectly. Production capacity improves by 40%,the power consumption reduces by 30%, thesteam consumption reduces by 15%, refineryrate by 0.5%, the urea enzyme activity ofsoybean meal is steady. Oil and soybeanquality can be improved. The market latentcapacity is hopeful.

  4. Connecting onshore and offshore near-surface geology: Delaware's sand inventory project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, K.W.; Jordan, R.R.; Talley, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1988, the Delaware Geological Survey began a program to inventory on-land sand resources suitable for beach nourishment. The inventory included an assessment of the native beach textures using existing data and developing parameters of what would be considered suitable sand textures for Delaware's Atlantic beaches. An assessment of the economics of on-land sand resources was also conducted, and it was determined that the cost of the sand was competitive with offshore dredging costs. In addition, the sand resources were put into a geologic context for purposes of predicting which depositional environments and lithostratigraphic units were most likely to produce suitable sand resources. The results of the work identified several suitable on-land sand resource areas in the Omar and Beaverdam formations that were deposited in barrier-tidal delta and fluvial-estuarine environments, respectively. The identified on-land resources areas have not been utilized due to difficulties of truck transport and development pressures in the resource areas. The Delaware Geological Survey's participation in years 8, 9, and 10 of the Continental Margins Program was developed to extend the known resource areas onshore to offshore Delaware in order to determine potential offshore sand resources for beach nourishment. Years 8 and 9 involved primarily the collection of all available data on the offshore geology. These data included all seismic lines, surface grab samples, and cores. The data were filtered for those that had reliable locations and geologic information that could be used for geologic investigations. Year 10 completed the investigations onshore by construction of a geologic cross-section from data along the coast of Delaware from Cape Henlopen to Fenwick. This cross section identified the geologic units and potential sand resource bodies as found immediately along the coast. These units and resources are currently being extended offshore and tied to known and

  5. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to diets using grains grown in various regions of the United States with differing natural Se concentrations and fed to grower-finisher swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, D C; Azain, M; Crenshaw, T D; Cromwell, G L; Dove, C R; Kim, S W; Lindemann, M D; Miller, P S; Pettigrew, J E; Stein, H H; van Heugten, E

    2014-11-01

    Grains grown in various regions of the United States vary in their innate or natural Se contents. A regional study evaluated the effects of adding inorganic Se (sodium selenite) or organic Se (Se yeast) to diets with differing innate Se contents. A 2 × 2 + 1 factorial experiment evaluating 2 Se sources (organic or inorganic) at 2 Se levels (0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg) in 18 total replicates (n = 360 total pigs). A basal diet was fed without supplemental Se and served as the negative (basal) control. The study was conducted as a randomized complete block design in 9 states (Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, South Dakota, Texas, and Wisconsin) with each station conducting 2 replicates. Pigs were fed from 25 to approximately 115 kg BW. Similar dietary formulations were used at each station, incorporating a common source of trace mineral and Se premixes. Three pigs per treatment in 16 replicates (n = 240) were bled at 55, 85, and 115 kg BW and serum Se and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined. Three pigs (n = 260) from each treatment pen were killed at 115 kg BW and issues (liver, loin, and hair) were analyzed for Se. The corn Se content from the various states ranged from 0.026 to 0.283 mg Se/kg while the soybean meal Se content ranged from 0.086 to 0.798 mg Se/kg. Tissue and serum Se concentrations were greater (P supplemental organic Se was fed, whereas serum GSH-Px was greater (P dietary Se level increased within each state. There was a source × level interaction (P dietary Se level indicating that those states having greater grain natural Se contents also had greater tissue Se concentrations. These results indicate that a large difference in corn and soybean meal Se concentrations exists between states, that the addition of organic or inorganic Se to these grains increased tissue and serum Se in each state, and that organic Se was incorporated at greater concentrations in the loin, liver, and hair tissues of grower

  6. Composition and temporal patterns of larval fish communities in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparing larval fish assemblages in different estuaries provides insights about the coastal distribution of larval populations, larval transport, and adult spawning locations (Ribeiro et al. 2015. We simultaneously compared the larval fish assemblages entering two Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB estuaries (Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay, USA through weekly sampling from 2007 to 2009. In total, 43 taxa (32 families and 36 taxa (24 families were collected in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, respectively. Mean taxonomic diversity, mean richness, and evenness were generally lower in Delaware Bay. Communities of both bays were dominated by Anchoa spp., Gobiosoma spp., Micropogonias undulatus, and Brevoortia tyrannus; Paralichthys spp. was more abundant in Delaware Bay and Microgobius thalassinus was more abundant in Chesapeake Bay. Inter-annual variation in the larval fish communities was low at both sites, with a relatively consistent composition across years, but strong seasonal (intra-annual variation in species composition occurred in both bays. Two groups were identified in Chesapeake Bay: a ‘winter’ group dominated by shelf-spawned species (e.g. M. undulatus and a ‘summer’ group comprising obligate estuarine species and coastal species (e.g. Gobiosoma spp. and Cynoscion regalis, respectively. In Delaware Bay, 4 groups were identified: a ‘summer’ group of mainly obligate estuarine fishes (e.g. Menidia sp. being replaced by a ‘fall’ group (e.g. Ctenogobius boleosoma and Gobionellus oceanicus; ‘winter’ and ‘spring’ groups were dominated by shelf-spawned (e.g. M. undulatus and Paralichthys spp. and obligate estuarine species (e.g. Leiostomus xanthurus and Pseudopleuronectes americanus, respectively. This study demonstrates that inexpensive and simultaneous sampling in different estuaries provides important insights into the variability in community structure of fish assemblages at large spatial scales.

  7. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  8. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State...

  9. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the...

  10. ENDOPARASITIC NEMATODES OF THE GENUS PRATYLENCHUS ON SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Majić

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine susceptibility of soybean cultivars to root lesion nematodes (genus Pratylenchus), effect of intensity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization on penetration of endoparasitic nematodes in soybean roots, and trophic biodiversity of nematode community in soybean. In the period 2005 - 2007, investigations were conducted at experimental sites of Agricultural Institute Osijek. Seven soybean cultivars were included (Korana, ...

  11. Soybean aphid intrabiotype variability based on colonization of specific soybean genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Michelle; Hill, Curtis B; Voegtlin, David J; Hartman, Glen L

    2015-12-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is one of the most destructive insect pests on soybeans in the United States. One method for managing this pest is through host plant resistance. Since its arrival in 2000, 4 aphid biotypes have been identified that are able to overcome soybean aphid resistance (Rag) genes. A soybean aphid isolate collected from Moline, Illinois readily colonized soybean plants with the soybean aphid resistance gene Rag2, unlike biotypes 1 and 2, but similar to soybean aphid biotype 3. Two no-choice experiments compared the virulence of the Moline isolate with biotype 3. In both experiments, differences in aphid population counts were not significant (P > 0.05) on soybean genotypes LD08-12957a (Rag2) and LD11-5413a (Rag2), but the aphid counts for the Moline isolate were significantly (P soybean genotypes Dowling (Rag1), LD05-16611 (Rag1), LD11-4576a (Rag1), and PI 567598B (rag1b and rag3). The Moline isolate was a variant of aphid biotype 3, which is the first report showing that soybean aphid isolates classified as the same biotype, based on virulence against specific Rag genes, can differ in aggressiveness or ability to colonize specific host genotypes.

  12. Relationship of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to soybean plant nutrients, landscape structure, and natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Takuji; Gratton, Claudio; Colunga-Garcia, Manuel; Brewer, Michael J; Mueller, Emily E; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Heimpel, George E; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2010-02-01

    In the north central United States, populations of the exotic soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are highly variable across space, complicating effective aphid management. In this study we examined relationships of plant nutrients, landscape structure, and natural enemies with soybean aphid abundance across Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, representing the range of conditions where soybean aphid outbreaks have occurred since its introduction. We sampled soybean aphid and its natural enemies, quantified vegetation land cover and measured soybean nutrients (potassium [K] and nitrogen [N]) in 26 soybean sites in 2005 and 2006. Multiple regression models found that aphid abundance was negatively associated with leaf K content in 2005, whereas it was negatively associated with habitat diversity (Simpson's index) and positively associated with leaf N content in 2006. These variables accounted for 25 and 27% of aphid variability in 2005 and 2006, respectively, suggesting that other sources of variability are also important. In addition, K content of soybean plants decreased with increasing prevalence of corn-soybean cropland in 2005, suggesting that landscapes that have a high intensification of agriculture (as indexed by increasing corn and soybean) are more likely to have higher aphid numbers. Soybean aphid natural enemies, 26 species of predators and parasitoids, was positively related to aphid abundance; however, enemy-to-aphid abundance ratios were inversely related to aphid density, suggesting that soybean aphids are able to escape control by resident natural enemies. Overall, soybean aphid abundance was most associated with soybean leaf chemistry and landscape heterogeneity. Agronomic options that can ameliorate K deficiency and maintaining heterogeneity in the landscape may reduce aphid risk.

  13. Effect of different doses of glyphosate in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gomes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Brazil ranks second in production of conventional soybeans and third in production of transgenic soybeans. The main advantage of transgenic soybean is resistant to the herbicide glyphosate, but the continued use of exaggeration and even of the same herbicide on soybean can significantly decrease acquired resistance. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses of glyphosate can result in soybean. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse on the Campus of UFMT in Sinop-MT, and evaluated five doses of glyphosate in transgenic soybeans intercropped with two conventional soybeans. The characters were evaluated for phytotoxicity scores and length of the root system. It was found that, regardless of the amount of glyphosate applied occur symptoms of phytotoxicity in conventional and transgenic soybean. Whereas the most damage will be in conventional soybean, and transgenic soybean little affected by the action of the herbicide.Key words: Glycine max, glyphosate, phytotoxicity

  14. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014793)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania from 1969 to 2000(May 2002 v.3). ESI data...

  15. RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Data Points - Rehoboth Bay, Delaware Algae Mapping with Single Beam Acoustics: June 12 - 16, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs(DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  16. NOAA Office for Coastal Management RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Benthic Habitat Data, Rehoboth Bay, Delaware, 2000 (NODC Accession 0089461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs (DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  17. Biological, chemical, and physical data collected in Delaware Bay from 2 Sep 1997 to 8 Oct 1997 (NODC Accession 0118720)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  18. Report of the River Master of the Delaware River for the period December 1, 2008–November 30, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Paulachok, Gary N.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Owens, Marie

    2016-04-06

    A Decree of the Supreme Court of the United States, entered June 7, 1954, established the position of Delaware River Master within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In addition, the Decree authorizes diversions of water from the Delaware River Basin and requires compensating releases from certain reservoirs, owned by New York City, to be made under the supervision and direction of the River Master. The Decree stipulates that the River Master will furnish reports to the Court, not less frequently than annually. This report is the 56th Annual Report of the River Master of the Delaware River. It covers the 2009 River Master report year, the period from December 1, 2008, to November 30, 2009.During the report year, precipitation in the upper Delaware River Basin was 50.89 inches (in.) or 116 percent of the long-term average. Combined storage in Pepacton, Cannonsville, and Neversink Reservoirs remained high throughout the year and did not decline below 80 percent of combined capacity at any time. Delaware River operations during the year were conducted as stipulated by the Decree and the Flexible Flow Management Program (FFMP).Diversions from the Delaware River Basin by New York City and New Jersey were in full compliance with the Decree. Reservoir releases were made as directed by the River Master at rates designed to meet the flow objective for the Delaware River at Montague, New Jersey, on 25 days during the report year. Releases were made at conservation rates—rates designed to relieve thermal stress and protect the fishery and aquatic habitat in the tailwaters of the reservoirs—on all other days.During the report year, New York City and New Jersey complied fully with the terms of the Decree, and directives and requests of the River Master.As part of a long-term program, the quality of water in the Delaware Estuary between Trenton, New Jersey, and Reedy Island Jetty, Delaware, was monitored at various locations. Data on water temperature, specific conductance

  19. Soybean phytase and nucleic acid encoding the same

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Isolated soybean phytase polypeptides and isolated nucleic acids encoding soybean phytases are provided. The invention is also directed to nucleic acid expression constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the isolated soybean phytase nucleic acids, as well as methods for producing recombinant and non-recombinant purified soybean phytase. The invention also relates to transgenic plants expressing the soybean phytase, particularly expression under seed-specific expression control elements.

  20. Development of a control alternative for the citrus fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae): from basic research to the grower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Jose Roberto P.; Bento, Jose Mauricio S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola], e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; Garcia, Mauro S. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil); Yamamoto, Pedro T. [Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura (Fundecitrus), Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Vilela, Evaldo F. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal; Leal, Walter S. [University of California, Davis, CA (Brazil). Dept. of Entomology

    2004-12-15

    All research steps, developed from 1995 to 2000, to synthesize the sex pheromone of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) are described, in order to monitoring this pest that causes losses in the order of 50 million dollars per year to citriculture in the State of Sao Paulo. The basic researches conducted are described, including the development of an artificial diet for the insect, the study of its temperature and humidity requirements, behavioral studies, and synthesis of the male-attracting substance up to the formulation and distribution of the pheromone to the grower, by means of its commercialization. It is a case of success, at a cost of 50 thousand dollars, involving inter- and multidisciplinary researches, which can be adopted to other insect pests in the country. (author)

  1. Comparative status and assessment of Limulus polyphemus with emphasis on the New England and Delaware Bay populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Millard, Michael J.; Carmichael, Ruth H.

    2009-01-01

    Increases in harvest of the American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) during the 1990s, particularly for whelk bait, coupled with decreases in species that depend on their eggs has reduced horseshoe crab abundance, threatened their ecological relationships, and dictated precautionary management of the horseshoe crab resource. Accordingly, population assessments and monitoring programs have been developed throughout much of the horseshoe crab’s range. We review and discuss implications for several recent assessments of Delaware Bay and New England populations and a meta-analysis of region-specific trends. These assessments show that the western Atlantic distribution of the horseshoe crab is comprised of regional or estuarine-specific meta-populations, which exhibit distinct population dynamics and require management as separate units. Modeling of Delaware Bay and Cape Cod populations confirmed that overharvest caused declines, but indicated that some harvest levels are sustainable and consistent with population growth. Coast-wide harvest was reduced by 70% from 1998 to 2006, with the greatest reductions within Delaware Bay states. Harvest regulations in Delaware Bay starting in the late 1990s, such as harvest quotas, seasonal closures, male-only harvest, voluntary use of bait-saving devices, and establishment of the Carl N. Shuster Jr. Horseshoe Crab Reserve, were followed by stabilization and recent evidence of increase in abundance of horseshoe crabs in the region. However, decreased harvest of the Delaware Bay population has redirected harvest to outlying populations, particularly in New York and New England. While the recent Delaware Bay assessments indicate positive population growth, increased harvest elsewhere is believed to be unsustainable. Two important considerations for future assessments include (1) managing Delaware Bay horseshoe crab populations within a multi-species context, for example, to help support migratory shorebirds and (2

  2. Response of Soybean to Halosulfuron Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Nandula

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, halosulfuron injury in soybean through off-target movement of halosulfuron when applied to rice fields has been reported. Sulfonylurea-tolerant (ST soybean varieties have enhanced tolerance for sulfonylurea herbicides and might provide an option for mitigating injury to soybean from halosulfuron drift. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of halosulfuron on growth and yield of selected soybean varieties with ST trait alone and stacked with glyphosate resistance trait. Soybean plants were treated with halosulfuron at 0, 0.0043, 0.0087, 0.017, 0.034, and 0.069 kg ai/ha rate at the V3 growth stage in the greenhouse and at 0.034 kg/ha rate (labeled use rate in rice in the field studies. All soybean varieties containing the ST trait exhibited some halosulfuron injury, but survived the halosulfuron application in the greenhouse. In field studies, a single POST application of halosulfuron at 0.034 kg/ha to soybean at three-trifoliolate leaf stage or at full bloom stage resulted in halosulfuron injury to a certain extent regardless of ST trait. Halosulfuron did not have a significant effect on yield of ST varieties compared to their respective nontreated controls. Severe halosulfuron injury in two non-ST varieties resulted in yield loss.

  3. The Impact of Region, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, and Grower Incentives on Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Canola (Brassica napus) Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammac, W. A.; Pan, W.; Koenig, R. T.; McCracken, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated through the second renewable fuel standard (RFS2) that biodiesel meet a minimum threshold requirement (50% reduction) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction compared to fossil diesel. This designation is determined by life cycle assessment (LCA) and carries with it potential for monetary incentives for biodiesel feedstock growers (Biomass Crop Assistance Program) and biodiesel processors (Renewable Identification Numbers). A national LCA was carried out for canola (Brassica napus) biodiesel feedstock by the EPA and it did meet the minimum threshold requirement. However, EPA's national LCA does not provide insight into regional variation in GHG mitigation. The authors propose for full GHG reduction potential of biofuels to be realized, LCA results must have regional specificity and should inform incentives for growers and processors on a regional basis. The objectives of this work were to determine (1) variation in biofuel feedstock production related GHG emissions between three agroecological zones (AEZs) in eastern Washington State (2) the impact of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) on GHG mitigation potential for each AEZ and (3) the impact of incentives on adoption of oilseed production. Results from objective (1) revealed there is wide variability in range for GHG estimates both across and within AEZs based on variation in farming practices and environment. It is expected that results for objective (2) will show further GHG mitigation potential due to minimizing N use and therefore fertilizer transport and soil related GHG emission while potentially increasing biodiesel production per hectare. Regional based incentives may allow more timely achievement of goals for bio-based fuels production. Additionally, incentives may further increase GHG offsetting by promoting nitrogen conserving best management practices implementation. This research highlights the need for regional assessment/incentive based

  4. Socio-economic characterisation of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) growers and date value chains in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Ghayoor; Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Buerkert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Increasing food production to feed its rapidly growing population is a major policy goal of Pakistan. The production of traditional staples such as rice (Oryza sativa L.) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been intensified in many regions, but not in remote, drought-ridden areas. In these arid, marginal environments dates and their by-products are an option to complement staples given their high nutritive value and storability. To fill knowledge gaps about the role of date palm in the household (HH) income of rural communities and the structure of date value chains, this project studied date palm production across six districts in four provinces of Pakistan. During 2012-2013 a total of 170 HHs were interviewed with a structured questionnaire using a snowball sampling approach. The results showed that most of the HH were headed by males (99 %) who were married (74 %) and often illiterate (40 %). Agriculture was the main occupation of date palm growers (56 %), while a few coupled agricultural activities with business (17 %) or extra-farm employment opportunities (government 9 %; private sector 8 %). Date sales contributed >50 % to the total income of 39 % of HH and 90-100 % to 24 % of HH. Overall farmers grew a total of 39 date palm cultivars and cultivated an average of 409 ± 559 mature date palms. The majority of the respondents sold dates to commission agents (35 %), contractors (22 %) and wholesalers (21 %), while 28 % of HH cultivated date palms only for self-consumption. Date palm growers had only limited knowledge about high quality date cultivars, optimized farm management and about effective post-harvest conservation. Changes in extension and marketing efforts are needed to allow farmers to better exploit value chains in date thereby reaping higher benefits from improved market access to secure their often marginal income.

  5. Current development and application of soybean genomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingli HE; Jing ZHAO; Man ZHAO; Chaoying HE

    2011-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max),an important domesticated species originated in China,constitutes a major source of edible oils and high-quality plant proteins worldwide.In spite of its complex genome as a consequence of an ancient tetraploidilization,platforms for map-based genomics,sequence-based genomics,comparative genomics and functional genomics have been well developed in the last decade,thus rich repertoires of genomic tools and resources are available,which have been influencing the soybean genetic improvement.Here we mainly review the progresses of soybean (including its wild relative Glycine soja) genomics and its impetus for soybean breeding,and raise the major biological questions needing to be addressed.Genetic maps,physical maps,QTL and EST mapping have been so well achieved that the marker assisted selection and positional cloning in soybean is feasible and even routine.Whole genome sequencing and transcriptomic analyses provide a large collection of molecular markers and predicted genes,which are instrumental to comparative genomics and functional genomics.Comparative genomics has started to reveal the evolution of soybean genome and the molecular basis of soybean domestication process.Microarrays resources,mutagenesis and efficient transformation systems become essential components of soybean functional genomics.Furthermore,phenotypic functional genomics via both forward and reverse genetic approaches has inferred functions of many genes involved in plant and seed development,in response to abiotic stresses,functioning in plant-pathogenic microbe interactions,and controlling the oil and protein content of seed.These achievements have paved the way for generation of transgenic or genetically modified (GM) soybean crops.

  6. Evaluation of Education Programs Developed by the Public and Private Alliance between the Coffee Growers Committee of Caldas and the State Government of Caldas, Colombia. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Audrey-Marie Schuh; Florez, Ana; Grajeda, Eva

    2010-01-01

    This evaluation of progress in tackling the problems of access, quality, equity and completion of primary and secondary education examines the results of an alliance between the Coffee Growers Committee of Caldas (CGC) and the Department of Caldas, Colombia. The evaluation team employed a retrospective approach to understanding the social,…

  7. The University of Delaware Carlson International Polar Year Events: Collaborative and Educational Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, F. E.; Bryant, T.; Wellington, P.; Dooley, J.; Bird, M.

    2008-12-01

    Delaware is a small state with, by virtue of its coastal location, a large stake in climatic change in the polar regions. The University of Delaware has maintained a strong presence in cold-regions research since the mid-1940s, when William Samuel Carlson, a highly accomplished Arctic explorer, military strategist, and earth scientist, was named 20th President (1946-50) of the University. Carlson played a leading role in two of the University of Michigan's Greenland expeditions in the late 1920s and early 1930s. As Director of the Arctic, Desert, and Tropic Branch of the US Army Air Forces Tactical Center during World War II, Colonel Carlson played a role in developing several air transportation routes through the Arctic that helped to facilitate the Allied victory in Europe. Carlson authored many scientific and popular publications concerned with the Arctic, including the books Greenland Lies North (1940) and Lifelines Through the Arctic (1962). Although the University of Delaware has maintained a vigorous and continuous program of polar research since Carlson's tenure, the faculty, staff, and students involved are diffused throughout the University's colleges and departments, without an institutional focal point. Consequently, although many of these individuals are well known in their respective fields, the institution has not until recently been perceived widely as a center of polar-oriented research. The goals of the Carlson International Polar Year Events are to: (a) develop a sense of community among UD's diffuse polar-oriented researchers and educators; (b) create a distinctive and highly visible role for UD in the milieu of IPY activities; (c) promote interest in and knowledge about the polar regions in the State of Delaware, at all educational levels; (d) forge a close relationship between UD and the American Geographical Society, a national organization involved closely with previous International Polar Years; and (e) create a new basis for development

  8. The current status of the Soybean-Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) Pathosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Jianzhong Liu; Yuan Fang; Hongxi Pang

    2016-01-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most devastating pathogens that cost huge economic losses in soybean production worldwide. Due to the duplicated genome, clustered and highly homologous nature of R genes, as well as recalcitrant to transformation, soybean disease resistance studies is largely lagging compared with other diploid crops. In this review, we focus on the major advances that have been made in identifying both the virulence/avirulence factors of SMV and mapping of SMV resist...

  9. Nutritive composition of soybean by-products and nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Soybean by-products (soybean germ, soybean milk residue, soybean hull, soybean pod husk and soybean stem were subjected to proximate analysis, and in vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD were determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in 2 ANKOMII Daisy Incubators using Completely Randomised Design. Four native cattle (body weight 210 + 13.5 kg were used to determine nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk. They were randomly assigned by Cross-over Design to receive two roughage sources, i.e. guinea grass and guinea grass + soybean pod husk (60:40 DM basis, in two experimental periods. Guinea grass was harvested on the 35th day after the first cut of the year and used as green forage. Total collection method was used to determine the digestibility coefficients and digestibility by difference was used to calculate nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk.The nutritive composition showed that soybean germ was highest in CP content (42.27% of DM and EE content (5.07% of DM but lowest in NDF and ADF content (20.09 and 21.53% of DM respectively. The average CP content of soybean straw, soybean stem and soybean pod husk was low (4.91, 4.67 and 5.04% respectively, while ADF content was high (42.76, 38.01 and 42.08% respectively. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD showed that all of them, except soybean stem, can be used as cattle feed, e.g. as supplemented feed or admixture in concentrate feed. Digestibility coefficients of guinea grass were higher in CP, CF and EE when compared to the other groups. The apparent digestibility of CP and CF were highly different (P0.05. The digestibility of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, CF, NFE, NDF and ADF of soybean pod husk were 53.81 + 4.3, 59.69 + 4.6, 42.38 + 3.8, 30.71 + 3.2, 50.74 + 4.3, 75.26 + 4.0, 45.78 + 3.7 and 30.53 + 4.2 % respectively. Soybean pod husk was higher in total digestible nutrients (TDN (51.87 + 3.3 vs

  10. Records available to September 30, 1956, on use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, John C.

    1957-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize data on the use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area (fig. 2) and to list the principal data sources that are available in published form. The tables and bibliography will assist Geological Survey personnel assigned to the Delaware Basin Project in evaluating the scope and deficiencies of previous studies of the basin. Information is also given on the use of water by public supplies in the New York-New Jersey region comprising the New York City Metropolitan Area and in the remaining north-central and south-eastern parts of New Jersey. These regions may depend increasingly on water from the Delaware River basin for part of their public supplies. The Geological Survey has the responsibility for appraising and describing the water resources of the Nation as a guide to use, development, control, and conservation of these resources. Cooperative Federal-State water-resources investigations in the Delaware Basin States have been carried on the the Geological Survey for more than 50 years. In July 1956 the Survey began the "Delaware Basin Project," a hydrologic study of the Delaware River basin in order to: 1) Determine present status and trends in water availability, quality, and use, 2) assess and improve the adequacy of the Survey's basic water data program in the basin, 3) interpret and evaluate the water-resources data in terms of past and possible future water-use and land-use practices, and 4) disseminate promptly the results of this investigation for the benefit of all interested agencies and the general public. The Geological Survey is working closely with the U.S. Corps of Engineers and other cooperating Federal and State agencies in providing water data which will contribute to the present coordinated investigation aimed at developing a plan for long-range water development in the Delaware River basin. Estimates of quantities of water used are given for water withdrawn from streams and aquifers during calendar

  11. Enzymatic Aqueous Extraction of Soybean Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The procedure of enzymatic aqueous extraction of soybean oil was assessed when two-step controlled enzymatic hydrolysis was applied. With aqueous extraction of soybean oil-containing protein, the highest yield of oil was 96.1% at the optimized conditions studied. Soybean oil-containing protein was hydrolyzed and resulted in releasing part of oil. The separated protein that contained 40% oil was enriched due to its adsorption capacity of released oil, the average oil extraction yeild reached 93.5%. Then the high oil content protein was hydrolyzed again to release oil by enzyme, the oil extraction yeild was 80.4%. As a result, high quality of soybean oil was obtained and the content of total oil yield was 74.4%.

  12. Meiotic behavior of several Brazilian soybean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bione Nilton Cesar Pires

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of soybeans little cytogenetic work has traditionally been done, due to the small size and apparent similarity of the chromosomes. Fifteen soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] varieties adapted for cultivation in two distinct regions of Brazil were analyzed cytogenetically. A low frequency of meiotic abnormalities was noted in all varieties, although they were not equally affected. Irregular chromosome segregation, chromosome stickiness, cytoplasmic connections between cells, cytomixis and irregular spindles were the main abnormalities observed, none of which had been described previously in soybeans. All of these abnormalities can affect pollen fertility. Pollen fertility was high in most varieties and was correlated with meiotic abnormalities. Although soybean is not a model system for cytological studies, we found that it is possible to conduct cytogenetic studies on this species, though some modifications in the standard methods for meiotic studies were necessary to obtain satisfactory results.

  13. Soybean Biomass as a Renewable Energy Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Kiš

    2009-12-01

    The knowledge and use of soybean growing has a great importance for the development of certain regions in Croatia, as well as on the employment rate and entrepreneur encouragement. It would be even more important to start using unused land areas. Soybean growing makes it possible to introduce “the third culture“ (except for wheat and corn, which will result in additional and safer profit for farmers in Croatia, a more favourable use of agricultural machines, and the profitability of production.

  14. The Function and Development of Soybean Peptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Caiyan; Song Junmei

    2009-01-01

    Soybean peptides are small molecules hydrolyzed soy protein,from three to six amino acid composition of the peptide mixture,in 1000Da molecular weight below.Because it has a lot of good physical and chemical properties and physiological functions,in many areas has been widely used.This paper reviews the soybean peptide physical and chemical characteristics,physiological functions,technology and applications in the food industry.

  15. Preparation of Functional Soybean Protein Isolate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liuzhitong; LiXiaolian; 等

    2000-01-01

    Soybean protein isolate(SPI) is a high purity soybean protein product.Its protein content is over 90%.A popular processing method is alkali dissolution and acid precipitation.This method can produce various functional SPIs by changing the temperature,pH,types of alkali and acid,and by different pretreatment and post transformation treatment.The properties addressed in this paper would open a big market for the appli cation of SPI.

  16. Preparation of Functional Soybean Protein Isolate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhitong; Li Xiaolian; Zhao Guangming

    2000-01-01

    Soybean protein isolate(SPI)is a high purity soybean protein product. Its protein content is over 90% .A popular processing method is alkali dissolution and acid precipitation. This method can produce various functional SPIs by changing the temperature, pH, types of alkali and acid, and by different pretreatment and post transformation treatment. The properties addressed in this paper would open a big market for the appli cation of SPI.

  17. Cation Permeability in Soybean Aleurone Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Hiroko; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    1998-01-01

    The permeation of water and ions into bean seeds is essential for processing and cooking of beans. The permeability of cations, K, Na, Ca, and Mg ions, into soybean seed tissue, especially aleurone layer, during water uptake was investigated to characterize the ion permeation into soybeans. Aleurone layers and seed coats contained relatively high concentration of endogenous K and Ca ions, and endogenous Ca ion, respectively. The amounts of Ca ion entered seed coats and aleurone layers were gr...

  18. Meiotic behavior of several Brazilian soybean varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Bione Nilton Cesar Pires; Pagliarini Maria Suely; Toledo José Francisco Ferraz de

    2000-01-01

    Despite the importance of soybeans little cytogenetic work has traditionally been done, due to the small size and apparent similarity of the chromosomes. Fifteen soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] varieties adapted for cultivation in two distinct regions of Brazil were analyzed cytogenetically. A low frequency of meiotic abnormalities was noted in all varieties, although they were not equally affected. Irregular chromosome segregation, chromosome stickiness, cytoplasmic connections between ce...

  19. Risk assessment of soybean-based phytoestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Seung Jun; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Hyung Sik; Yoon, Kyung Sil; Lee, Byung Mu

    2009-01-01

    Koreans generally consume high quantities of soybean-based foods that contain a variety of phytoestrogens, such as, daidzein, zenistein, and biochalin A. However, phytoestrogens are considered to be potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC), which interfere with the normal function of the hormonal and reproductive systems. Therefore, dietary exposure to soybean-based phytoestrogens is of concern for Koreans, and comparative dietary risk assessments are required between Japanese (high consumers) versus Americans (low consumers). In this study, a relative risk assessment was conducted based upon daily intake levels of soybean-based foods and phytoestrogens in a Korean cohort, and the risks of photoestrogens were compared with those posed by estradiol and other EDC. Koreans approximately 30-49 yr of age consume on average a total of 135.2 g/d of soy-based foods including soybean, soybean sauce, soybean paste, and soybean oil, and 0.51 mg/kg body weight (bw)/d of phytoestrogens such as daidzein and genistein. Using estimated daily intakes (EDI) and estrogenic potencies (EP), margins of safety (MOS) were calculated where 0.05 is for estradiol (MOS value estrogenic effect); thus, MOS values of 1.89 for Japanese, 1.96 for Koreans, and 5.55 for Americans indicate that consumption of soybean-based foods exerted no apparent estrogenic effects, as all MOS values were all higher than 1. For other synthetic EDC used as reference values, MOS values were dieldrin 27, nonylphenol 250, butyl benzyl phthalate 321, bisphenol A 1000, biochanin A 2203, and coumesterol 2898. These results suggest that dietary exposure to phytoestrogens, such as daidzein and genistein, poses a relatively higher health risk for humans than synthetic EDC, although MOS values were all greater than 1.

  20. Tradition and Culture Change in the Oklahoma Delaware Big House Community: 1867-1924.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Viburnum prunifolium), pecans ( Carya adult Delaware settlers. Nor is their use of the illinoensis ), persimmon (Diospyro virginiana), cabin divergent from...preparations Sycamore Platanus occidentails xaxakw "tree" Chips of heartwood boiled to make a tea Pecans Carya illinoensis KIT:m Nuts eaten in fall I...Bark used to sweeten and preserve fat; inner bark used to repair baskets Hickory Carya hickori t~tpan%.ma;i "bitter nut tree" Used in basketry and for

  1. Enzyme activities in the Delaware Estuary affected by elevated suspended sediment load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziervogel, K.; Arnosti, C.

    2009-09-01

    Extracellular enzyme activities were compared among surface water, bottom water, and sediments of the Delaware Estuary using six fluorescently labeled, structurally distinct polysaccharides to determine the effects of suspended sediment transport on water column hydrolytic activities. Potential hydrolysis rates in surface waters were also measured for the nearby shelf. Samples were taken in December 2006, 6 months after a major flood event in the Delaware Basin that was followed by high freshwater run-off throughout the fall of 2006. All substrates were hydrolyzed in sediments and in the water column, including two (pullulan and fucoidan) that previously were not hydrolyzed in surface waters of the Delaware estuary. At the time of sampling, total particulate matter (TPM) in surface waters at the lower bay, bay mouth, and shelf ranged between 31 mg l -1 and 48 mg l -1 and were 2 to 20 times higher than previously reported. The presence of easily resuspended sediments at the lower bay and bay mouth indicated enhanced suspended sediment transport in the estuary prior to our sampling. Bottom water hydrolysis rates at the two sites affected by sediment resuspension were generally higher than those in surface waters from the same site. Most notably, fucoidan and pullulan hydrolysis rates in bay mouth bottom waters were 22.6 and 6.2 nM monomer h -1, respectively, and thus three and five times higher than surface water rates. Our data suggest that enhanced mixing processes between the sediment and the overlying water broadened the spectrum of water column hydrolases activity, improving the efficiency of enzymatic degradation of high molecular weight organic matter in the water with consequences for organic matter cycling in the Delaware estuary.

  2. Revenue management education (RevME), 30 April-2 May 2015, University of Delaware, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Koupriouchina, Larissa; van der Rest, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Xuan Lorna

    2015-01-01

    On 30 April–2 May, 2015, an inaugural Revenue Management Education Workshop on teaching Revenue Management (RM) was held at the University of Delaware. Made possible through generous support from Hyatt, the initiative was launched by Prof. Dr. Zvi Schwartz in order to facilitate a dialog among a selected group of hospitality RM educators and key industry players including: major international hotel chains, RM related technology and service providers and leading hospitality educators from worl...

  3. Chemical modification of soybean oil for lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan Shijie; Mao Zongqiang [Tsinghua Univ., INET, BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a series of structural modifications of soybean oils for lubricant. The reaction was monitored and products were confirmed by NMR and FTIR. The structural modification is carried out in four stages, (1) synthesis of soybean oil isooctyl ester from soybean oil; (2) synthesis of epoxy-soybean oil isooctyl ester from soybean oil isooctyl ester; (3) synthesis of hydroxylated products from epoxy soybean oil isooctyl ester with fatty acid; (4) esterification of the hydroxylated product with anhydride. Rheological behaviour of the products was measured. Pour points of the products (3) were observed as low as -24 C (lauric acid) and -15 C (isooctanoic acid) respectively. When the hydroxyl groups in the products were esterified with and acid anhydride, the pour points were became higher, which were -21 C (lauric acid) and -6 C (isooctanoic acid) without pour point depressant, and -27 C (lauric acid) and -24 C (isooctanoic acid) with 1% of pour point depressant respectively. The products have suitable viscosity and viscosity index, and the viscosity indices are all above 100. (orig.)

  4. Control of virus diseases in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Soybean, one of the world's most important sources of animal feed and vegetable oil, can be infected by numerous viruses. However, only a small number of the viruses that can potentially infect soybean are considered as major economic problems to soybean production. Therefore, we consider management options available to control diseases caused by eight viruses that cause, or have the potential to cause, significant economic loss to producers. We summarize management tactics in use and suggest direction for the future. Clearly, the most important tactic is disease resistance. Several resistance genes are available for three of the eight viruses discussed. Other options include use of virus-free seed and avoidance of alternative virus hosts when planting. Attempts at arthropod vector control have generally not provided consistent disease management. In the future, disease management will be considerably enhanced by knowledge of the interaction between soybean and viral proteins. Identification of genes required for soybean defense may represent key regulatory hubs that will enhance or broaden the spectrum of basal resistance to viruses. It may be possible to create new recessive or dominant negative alleles of host proteins that do not support viral functions but perform normal cellular function. The future approach to virus control based on gene editing or exploiting allelic diversity points to necessary research into soybean-virus interactions. This will help to generate the knowledge needed for rational design of durable resistance that will maximize global production.

  5. Isolation and characterization of soybean NBS analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Isolation of plant resistance genes is greatly helpful to crop resistance breeding and the insight of resistance mechanism. The cloned plant resistance genes are classified into four classes according to their putative structural domain, of which the majority possesses nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain that consists of P-loop, kinase2a and kinase3a. The conservation of this domain affords the potential possibility of cloning the plant resistance genes, which is homology-based cloning technique. In the present study, the degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed according to the tobacco N and Arabidopsis RPS2, and 358 clones were isolated from the genomic DNA of resistance soybean cultivar Kefeng1, resistant to soybean mosaic virus, and 4 open-reading NBS analogs were finally characterized and designated as KNBS1, KNBS2, KNBS3 and KNBS4. Southern hybridization suggested that they were present with multicopy in the soybean genome; KNBS4 was mapped to F linkage group and KNBS2 co-located J linkage group with the SCAR marker of Rsa resistant to soybean mosaic virus by RFLP analysis. Northern analysis suggested that KNBS2- related sequence was low and constitutively expressed in the root, stem and leaves of soybean. The detailed characterization of NBS analogs is very helpful to ultimately cloning the soybean resistance gene.

  6. Soybean growth and yield under cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.

  7. Soybean in China: adaptating to the liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamet Jean-Paul

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978 and its opening, China has undergone a process of nutrition transition, animal products taking an increasing share. Anxious to ensure a certain level of food independence, Chinese authorities have developed national livestock production. The increase in volumes and the development of large scale breeding have increased the demand for commercial feed and thus soymeal. Meanwhile, edible oil consumption rose sharply, accentuating the demand for soybeans. To meet this demand, soybean imports were liberalized early, leading the country to become heavily dependent. China has indeed made the choice to maintain its independence in cereals at the expense of other grains, such as soybeans. Competition between corn and soybeans has turned in favor of the cereal, soybean production levelling off then regressing. China’s dependence extends to the crushing sector, controlled by foreign companies. Public supports in place, such as minimum prices, have resulted in increasing the price gap with imported products, leading to a reform of soybean policy in 2014.

  8. Mercury concentrations in tidal marsh sparrows and their use as bioindicators in Delaware Bay, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Sarah E; Shriver, W Gregory; Pepper, Margaret A; Taylor, Robert J

    2010-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination from industrial sources is pervasive throughout North America and is recognized by the US Environmental Protection Agency as a health hazard for wildlife and humans. Avian species are commonly used as bioindicators of Hg because they are sensitive to contaminants in the environment and are relatively easy to sample. However, it is important to select the appropriate avian species to use as a bioindicator, which should be directly related to the project objectives. In this study, we tested the utility of two tidal marsh sparrows, Seaside (Ammodramus maritimus) and Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) sparrows, as bioindicator species of the extent of Hg contamination in tidal marshes along the Delaware Bay. To determine the possibility of using one or both of these species, we estimated sparrow blood Hg burden in five Delaware watersheds. We found no difference in Hg concentrations between species (F (1,133) bioindicator species given their habitat specificity, relative abundance, widespread distribution in marsh habitats, ease of sampling, and limited variation in blood Hg estimates within a sampling area. In Delaware Bay, Saltmarsh Sparrows may be too rare (making them difficult to sample) to be a viable tidal marsh Hg bioindicator.

  9. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Delaware, a watercourse is not to be confused with surface water. Each gives rise to certain riparian rights, but the law makes certain distinctions between the two. The presence of both surface waters and watercourses give rise to private and public rights related to the presence of the water. Some of these rights are vested in riparian owners. Recent Delaware case law has described the riparian owner as one who owns land on the bank of a river, or who is owner of land along, bordering upon, bounded by, fronting upon, abutting, or adjacent and contiguous to and in contact with a river. But, ownership of the bank does not give the riparian ownership of the water. Some law cases are cited to discuss the laws in Delaware.

  10. Effects of horseshoe crab harvest in delaware bay on red knots: Are harvest restrictions working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, L.J.; Bart, J.; Sitters, H.P.; Dey, A.D.; Clark, K.E.; Atkinson, P.W.; Baker, A.J.; Bennett, K.A.; Kalasz, K.S.; Clark, N.A.; Clark, J.; Gillings, S.; Gates, A.S.; Gonzalez, P.M.; Hernandez, D.E.; Minton, C.D.T.; Morrison, R.I.G.; Porter, R.R.; Ross, R.K.; Veitch, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Each May, red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) congregate in Delaware Bay during their northward migration to feed on horseshoe crab eggs (Limulus polyphemus) and refuel for breeding in the Arctic. During the 1990s, the Delaware Bay harvest of horseshoe crabs for bait increased 10-fold, leading to a more than 90% decline in the availability of their eggs for knots. The proportion of knots achieving weights of more than 180 grams by 26-28 May, their main departure period, dropped from 0.6-0.8 to 0.14-0.4 over 1997-2007. During the same period, the red knot population stopping in Delaware Bay declined by more than 75%, in part because the annual survival rate of adult knots wintering in Tierra del Fuego declined. Despite restrictions, the 2007 horseshoe crab harvest was still greater than the 1990 harvest, and no recovery of knots was detectable. We propose an adaptive management strategy with recovery goals and annual monitoring that, if adopted, will both allow red knot and horseshoe crab populations to recover and permit a sustainable harvest of horseshoe crabs.

  11. Multispecies modeling for adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and red knots in the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David; Sweka, John A.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; Wong, Richard; Lyons, James E.; Niles, Lawrence J.; Kalasz, Kevin; Brust, Jeffrey; Klopfer, Michelle; Spear, Braddock

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management requires that predictive models be explicit and transparent to improve decisions by comparing management actions, directing further research and monitoring, and facilitating learning. The rufa subspecies of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa), which has recently exhibited steep population declines, relies on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs as their primary food source during stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. We present a model with two different parameterizations for use in the adaptive management of horseshoe crab harvests in the Delaware Bay that links red knot mass gain, annual survival, and fecundity to horseshoe crab dynamics. The models reflect prevailing hypotheses regarding ecological links between these two species. When reported crab harvest from 1998 to 2008 was applied, projections corresponded to the observed red knot population abundances depending on strengths of the demographic relationship between these species. We compared different simulated horseshoe crab harvest strategies to evaluate whether, given this model, horseshoe crab harvest management can affect red knot conservation and found that restricting harvest can benefit red knot populations. Our model is the first to explicitly and quantitatively link these two species and will be used within an adaptive management framework to manage the Delaware Bay system and learn more about the specific nature of the linkage between the two species.

  12. Measuring Macrobenthos Biodiversity at Oyster Aquaculture Sites in the Delaware Inland Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, M. J.; Ozbay, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Delaware Inland Bays consists of three shallow coastal bays located in the southern portion of Delaware. Anthropogenic activities have led to the degradation of water quality, because the bays are surrounded by highly developed areas and have low flushing rates. This results in loss of biodiversity and abundance of organisms. Ongoing degradation of the bays has led to a dramatic decline in local oyster populations since the late 1800s. Oysters are keystone species, which provide habitats for organisms and help to improve water quality. This study aims to find if the introduction of oyster aquaculture improves local biodiversity and abundance of macrobenthos. The study was conducted in Rehoboth Bay, Indian River Bay and Little Assawoman Bay. Aquaculture gear was placed at one location in each of the bays and 24 sediment core samples were taken once a month. From these core samples all worms were fixed and stained in a 10% Formalin Rose Bengal solution and preserved in 70% Ethanol for later identification. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of oyster tissue will also be performed to assess the health of the bay. The goals of this research are to better understand the role of oyster aquaculture in restoring the viability and health of the Delaware Inland Bays.

  13. Genetic Improvement and Germplasm Study of Soybean in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gai Junyi

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 Soybean production,utilization nd genetic improvement in China Soybean production in china Soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr.] has itsorigin in China. Gai and Guo (2001) traced thehistory of soybean production in ancient China,among the "Five Crops" or "Nine Crops",soybean and millet were most important foodcrops, which were recorded in ancient Chineseliterature, such as the Book of Poems (Shi-Jin),a collection of songs before the written time in6th century B.C. It is believed that soybeans were cultivated as early as in Yan and Huang Empires about 5000 Years ago.

  14. Research on the modeling method of soybean leafs structure simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Leaf is one of the most important organs of soybean. The modeling of soybean leaf structure is useful to research of leaf function. The paper discussed it from two aspects that were distilling method of leaf profile and establishing method of leaf simulation model. It put forward basic method of soybean leaf digital process, and successfully established simulation model of soybean leaf structure based on L-system. It also solved a critical problem in the process of establishing soybean growth simulation model. And the research had guiding significance to establishment of soybean plant model.

  15. A review of soybean rust from a South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antony Jarvie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article describes the nature of the soybean rust pathogen, its interaction with the soybean host and documents some of the history of soybean rust in South Africa. Soybean rust has affected soybean cropping in parts of South Africa since 2001. The disease causes leaf lesions, which may progress to premature defoliation and ultimately result in grain yield loss in susceptible soybean genotypes. Chemical control measures have been successfully employed to limit commercial yield losses in South Africa; however, controlling the effects of this disease through host-resistance or tolerance mechanisms remains a long-term goal.

  16. Estimation of daily mean streamflow for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin, water years 1960–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Marla H.

    2016-06-09

    The ability to characterize baseline streamflow conditions, compare them with current conditions, and assess effects of human activities on streamflow is fundamental to water-management programs addressing water allocation, human-health issues, recreation needs, and establishment of ecological flow criteria. The U.S. Geological Survey, through the National Water Census, has developed the Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET) to estimate baseline (minimally altered) and altered (affected by regulation, diversion, mining, or other anthropogenic activities) and altered streamflow at a daily time step for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin for water years 1960–2010. Daily mean baseline streamflow is estimated by using the QPPQ method to equate streamflow expressed as a percentile from the flow-duration curve (FDC) for a particular day at an ungaged stream location with the percentile from a FDC for the same day at a hydrologically similar gaged location where streamflow is measured. Parameter-based regression equations were developed for 22 exceedance probabilities from the FDC for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin. Water use data from 2010 is used to adjust the baseline daily mean streamflow generated from the QPPQ method at ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin to reflect current, or altered, conditions. To evaluate the effectiveness of the overall QPPQ method contained within DRB-SET, a comparison of observed and estimated daily mean streamflows was performed for 109 reference streamgages in and near the Delaware River Basin. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values were computed as a measure of goodness of fit. The NSE values (using log10 streamflow values) ranged from 0.22 to 0.98 (median of 0.90) for 45 streamgages in the Upper Delaware River Basin and from -0.37 to 0.98 (median of 0.79) for 41 streamgages in the Lower Delaware River Basin.

  17. Registration of ‘Wyandot-14’ soybean with resistance to soybean aphid and powdery mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Wyandot-14’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] with resistance to soybean aphid biotypes 1 and 2 and resistance to powdery mildew was jointly released by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service and The Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) as a late maturity group (MG) II (2.9) foo...

  18. Comparison of 'Fayette' Soybean, Aldicarb, and Experimental Nematicides for Management of Heterodera glycines on Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, G R

    1987-10-01

    The efficacies of Heterodera glycines-resistant 'Fayene' soybean and aldicarb for managing H. glycines were compared to the experimental nematicides DS-47187 10F, DS-47357 10F, DS-48145 10F, DS-48165 10F, DS-46995 10F and 5G, and DS-38697 5G during 1981-83. Yield of Fayette was greater than yield of the H. glycines-susceptible cultivar treated with nematicide in 1981 and 1983. Yield of aldicarb-treated soybean was greater than yield of soybean treated with experimental nematicides in 1983. There were no yield differences in 1982. Fewer white females were recovered from Fayette 5 weeks after planting than from soybean treated with nematicides in 1981 and 1982, but not in 1983. Fewer white females were recovered from aldicarb-treated soybean than from experimental nematicide-treated soybean in 1983 but not in 1981 and 1982. In 1983 numbers of first generation white females at 5 weeks and the ratio of those white females to gravid cysts at planting were negatively correlated with soybean yield when soybean was severely damaged by the nematode, but the ratio of final eggs and second-stage juveniles to initial eggs and second-stage juveniles was not correlated with yield.

  19. Soybean Production &Trade in China-Implicated Impacts of GMO Regulation on Soybean Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiRong; ZhangTao; YanXiaoqing

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the economic analysis, policy debate, and methodological issues on soybean production, import and export, and impacts of GMO regulation on soybean foreign trade of China, Thepaper analyzes China's soybean production capability, and discovers that the present yield of China's soybean plant system cannot satisfy the domestic demand. The paper also provides the method to solve such matters by using the result of a modftTed Cobb.Douglas model, in the third section of this paper, the impacts of GMOregulation on soybean trade and market in China are analyzed, fn this section, we provide a methodological issue to analyze the impacts of such regulation on trade. The paper then explains the implicated result induced by such regulations.

  20. Dynamic Management of Releases for the Delaware River Basin using NYC's Operations Support Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Wang, L.; Murphy, T.; Muralidhar, D.; Tarrier, B.

    2011-12-01

    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has initiated design of an Operations Support Tool (OST), a state-of-the-art decision support system to provide computational and predictive support for water supply operations and planning. Using an interim version of OST, DEP and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) have developed a provisional, one-year Delaware River Basin reservoir release program to succeed the existing Flexible Flow Management Program (FFMP) which expired on May 31, 2011. The FFMP grew out of the Good Faith Agreement of 1983 among the four Basin states (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware) that established modified diversions and flow targets during drought conditions. It provided a set of release schedules as a framework for managing diversions and releases from New York City's Delaware Basin reservoirs in order to support multiple objectives, including water supply, drought mitigation, flood mitigation, tailwaters fisheries, main stem habitat, recreation, and salinity repulsion. The provisional program (OST-FFMP) defines available water based on current Upper Delaware reservoir conditions and probabilistic forecasts of reservoir inflow. Releases are then set based on a set of release schedules keyed to the water availability. Additionally, OST-FFMP attempts to provide enhanced downstream flood protection by making spill mitigation releases to keep the Delaware System reservoirs at a seasonally varying conditional storage objective. The OST-FFMP approach represents a more robust way of managing downstream releases, accounting for predicted future hydrologic conditions by making more water available for release when conditions are forecasted to be wet and protecting water supply reliability when conditions are forecasted to be dry. Further, the dynamic nature of the program allows the release decision to be adjusted as hydrologic conditions change. OST simulations predict that this

  1. Tolerance of Broiler to Dietary Soybean Antinutritional Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Raw, heat treated soybean meal and diets made from soybeans extruded at varying temperature were compared to examine dietary threshold levels of the major soybean antinutritional factors (ANF)for broilers.Whole full-fat soybeans were extruded at 90,100,110,120,130,or 140 C. An in vivo nutritional evaluation of the extruded soybean meals was carried out using 224 Arbor Acres broilers allotted to seven treatments with four replicates of eight birds per pen. As extrusion cooking temperature increased,the urease activity,TI activity,lectin content and PDI decreased. Extruding at 120 C reduced the urease actvity to 0.11 units.the TI activity to 7.20 mg@ g-1 ,and lectin content to zero. Raw soybean meal significantly depressed the growth rate of broiler chickens. Remaining ANF obviously reduced feed intake and dietary nitrogen metabolism. The performance of broilers was improved as extrusion temperature increased. Extruding at 110 C produced an effect equal to that of conventional soybean meal. The weight of the pancreas of the birds fed the raw soybean or 90C-extruded soybean were significantly higher than those in heated-soybean meal group and in the higher temperature-extruded soyean groups. The same tendency was found from 3 to 7 wk of age. The weights of duodenum and ileum of the broilers fed the raw soybean were significantly higher than those in heated-soybean meal group. Extending the feeding of raw soybean or low temperature-extruded soybean to 7-wk-old hroilers significantly increased the fresh weights of proventriculus,jejunum and ileum and dry weights of jejunum and ileum. The villi of birds fed raw soybean meal and low-temperature-extruded soybean meals were shot tened and damaged. Broilers grew well on the diets containing soybean trypsin inhitory activity as high as 3.74 mg @ g-1 without showing any negative effect on the weights of organs and alimentary tracts.

  2. Chinese Soybean Industry:Current Status and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DachuanLiu; ShaojunTian

    2002-01-01

    This paper focus on the soybean resources and their industry development in China.Due to the high demand in domestic market,it is necessary to expand the cultivation area and improve the production yields.Meanwhile,to increase the export of soybeans from overseas is also important.China has a long history in producing traditional soybean foods.After recent fifty years,the development of Chinese soybean industry has reached to a reasonable level.The current status of Chinese soybean industry has been included in the paper.It has been expected that in next five years,there will be a rapid increase in the processing of soybeans;it will become more reasonable in the scale and distribution of soybean oil factories.Emphasis will be put on the improvement of the functionalities of soybean products.Different kinds of functional soybean foods,especially the soybean proteins for particular uses will be developed by the use of modification technologies.Concern is also given to the multi-utilization of soybean resources,which not only covers the extraction of oil from soybean seeds and the processing of protein products from the meal;but also includes the recovery of the natural phyto-chemicals from soybeans which could then be exploited to novel products with more profits.

  3. Soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) response to soybean plant defense: stress levels, tradeoffs, and cross-virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Laramy; Bickel, Ryan; Brisson, Jennifer; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Siegfried, Blair; Zera, Anthony; Miller, Nick

    2014-02-01

    A variety of management methods to control the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) have been investigated since its invasion into North America in 2000, among them plant resistance has emerged as a viable option for reducing aphid damage to soybeans and preventing outbreaks. Plant resistance methods often use natural soybean plant defenses that impose stress on aphids by reducing fitness and altering behavior. Research efforts have heavily focused on identification and development of aphid resistant soybean varieties, leaving much unknown about soybean aphid response to stressful host plant defenses. In this study, we aimed to 1) evaluate lifetime fitness consequences and phenotypic variation in response to host plant-induced stress and 2) investigate whether trade-offs involving fitness costs and/or cross-virulence to multiple antibiotic soybean varieties exists. We compared aphid survival and reproduction during and after a short period of exposure to soybeans with the Rag2 resistance gene and measured aphid clonal variation in response to Rag2 soybeans. In addition, we measured the performance of Rag2 virulent and avirulent aphids on five soybean varieties with various forms of antibiotic resistance. Our results indicate that plant defenses impose high levels of stress and have long-term fitness consequences, even after aphids are removed from resistant plants. We identified one aphid clone that was able to colonize Rag2 among the seven clones tested, suggesting that virulent genotypes may be prevalent in natural populations. Finally, although we did not find evidence of cross-virulence to multiple antibiotic soybean varieties, our results suggest independent mechanisms of aphid virulence to Rag1 and Rag2 that may involve fitness costs.

  4. Methyl salicylate attracts natural enemies and reduces populations of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybean agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Rachel E; Hogg, David B; Gratton, Claudio

    2011-02-01

    Methyl salicylate, an herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to attract natural enemies and affect herbivore behavior. In this study, methyl salicylate was examined for its attractiveness to natural enemies of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and for its direct effects on soybean aphid population growth rates. Methyl salicylate lures were deployed in plots within organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fields. Sticky card traps adjacent to and 1.5 m from the lure measured the relative abundance of natural enemies, and soybean aphid populations were monitored within treated and untreated plots. In addition, exclusion cage studies were conducted to determine methyl salicylate's effect on soybean aphid population growth rates in the absence of natural enemies. Significantly greater numbers of syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were caught on traps adjacent to the methyl salicylate lure, but no differences in abundance were found at traps 1.5 m from the lure. Furthermore, abundance of soybean aphids was significantly lower in methyl salicylate-treated plots. In exclusion cage studies, soybean aphid numbers were significantly reduced on treated soybean plants when all plants were open to natural enemies. When plants were caged, however, soybean aphid numbers and population growth rates did not differ between treated and untreated plants suggesting no effect of methyl salicylate on soybean aphid reproduction and implicating the role of natural enemies in depressing aphid populations. Although aphid populations were reduced locally around methyl salicylate lures, larger scale studies are needed to assess the technology at the whole-field scale.

  5. Analysis of resource use efficiency among soybean ( Glycine max ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of resource use efficiency among soybean ( Glycine max ) farmers in ... Resource-use efficiency revealed that quantity of seed, farm size, herbicide and ... making loans accessible to farmers and reasonable market price of soybean ...

  6. Benefits of Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments to Soybean Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read about EPA’s analysis of use of the neonicotinoid seed treatments for insect control in U.S. soybean production. EPA concludes that these seed treatments provide little or no overall benefits to soybean production in most situations.

  7. Heterogeneity of farms entering export supply chains: the case of fruit growers from central-south Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Barrena Ruiz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing stringency of world food markets requires farmers to adjust farm structure and commercial strategies to remain integrated in export supply chains. The goal of this study was to identify and characterize different types of fresh fruit farms with regard to farm structural and commercial strategies for a representative sample of fresh fruit growers from central-south Chile exporting to world markets. A typology of farms was constructed based on multivariate analysis, according to which five types of farms were differentiated from five distinct factors. Cluster I comprised the smallest and uncertified farms (14.3% of the sample. The remaining four clusters comprised certified farms, but with different farm structural and commercial characteristics. Cluster II (15.1% was composed of farms located further from market connections. Cluster III (23.9% comprised farms with the highest number of fruit species, and consequently, more diversified in fruit production. Cluster IV (8.8% was the smallest group, and comprised the largest firms. Finally, Cluster V (37.8% was composed of highly specialized fruit farms, with the highest proportion of hectares dedicated to the production of a single fruit species. The results show the heterogeneity among fresh fruit farms and support the need for differentiated incentives and technological transfer schemes from the public sector and fruit companies in order to successfully keep farmers within export supply chains.

  8. Seasonal odor, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide concentrations and emissions from swine grower-finisher rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Guo, Huiqing; Peterson, Jonathan

    2010-04-01

    Seasonal odor and gas (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], and carbon dioxide [CO2]) concentrations and emission rates (OGCERs) from swine facilities are vital for providing accurate source emissions and reducing the uncertainty of setback distances on the basis of emission data. In this study, a repeated measurement experimental method and a split-block statistical model were used to obtain seasonal OGCER profiles from two types of swine grower-finisher rooms in Saskatchewan, Canada, over a 12-month period. The results indicate that the OGCERs were significantly affected by the sampling month and ambient temperature (P dispersion models to reduce uncertainties in setback calculations. It was also found that the seasonal OGCERs from the rooms with fully slatted floors were 6.3-40.6% higher than those with partially slatted floors. The seasonal OGCERs (except for the NH3 concentrations in October, November, and January; the CO2 concentrations in August; and the CO2 emission rates in December) between these two rooms for each measuring month did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). The measured gas concentrations were generally below the permissible exposure limits (PELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) throughout the year except for the NH3 concentrations in cold weather (December, January, and February).

  9. Heterogeneity of farms entering export supply chains: the case of fruit growers from central-south Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrena, J.; Nahuelhual, L.; Engler, A.; Echeverria, R.; Cofre, G.

    2013-06-01

    The increasing stringency of world food markets requires farmers to adjust farm structure and commercial strategies to remain integrated in export supply chains. The goal of this study was to identify and characterize different types of fresh fruit farms with regard to farm structural and commercial strategies for a representative sample of fresh fruit growers from central-south Chile exporting to world markets. A typology of farms was constructed based on multivariate analysis, according to which five types of farms were differentiated from five distinct factors. Cluster I comprised the smallest and uncertified farms (14.3% of the sample). The remaining four clusters comprised certified farms, but with different farm structural and commercial characteristics. Cluster II (15.1%) was composed of farms located further from market connections. Cluster III (23.9%) comprised farms with the highest number of fruit species, and consequently, more diversified in fruit production. Cluster IV (8.8%) was the smallest group, and comprised the largest firms. Finally, Cluster V (37.8%) was composed of highly specialized fruit farms, with the highest proportion of hectares dedicated to the production of a single fruit species. The results show the heterogeneity among fresh fruit farms and support the need for differentiated incentives and technological transfer schemes from the public sector and fruit companies in order to successfully keep farmers within export supply chains. (Author) 40 refs.

  10. Some reflections on development of tobacco growers' cooperative%关于烟农合作社发展的几点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丰

    2012-01-01

    受制于烟区经济发展程度、合作社认知水平和烟区农民素质,许多合作社发展过程中都出现一些共性问题.本文重点分析了合作社目标定位、资源筹集、规模形式、民主管理、盈余分配、资产普惠等6个方面的问题,提出了针对性策略.%Tobacco growers' cooperatives face some common problems during their development due to restrains from e-conomic development, cooperative knowledge, and growers' education. Issues related to cooperative management such as goal setting, resource mobilization, democratic management, scale and form, surplus distribution, and generalized preferential service were analyzed. Suggestions for solving these problems were proposed.

  11. Study on Visualization Simulation of Soybean Leaf Based on IFS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Lichao; SU Zhongbin; ZHENG Pin; JING Liqun

    2008-01-01

    This article applied the self-similarity of fractal theory to the soybean leaf with the aid of powerful iterative computation ability of computer, analyzed the generation principle of IFS code in the iterated function system, calculated the IFS code of the simulation soybean leaf. It basically realized the visualization simulation of soybean leaf and laid a foundation for the visualization simulation of the whole soybean plant.

  12. Quality Pricing in U.S. Soybean Exports

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines quality-price relationship in U.S. soybean exports. Implicit prices for quality characteristics of U.S. soybean exports were estimated using a hedonic price function from a rich transaction-specific data set to major destination markets to test the efficiency of the market in transmitting preferences for quality. The results of this analysis suggest that the price of soybean export shipments was not affected by the oil and protein content of the soybeans. Moisture content ...

  13. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean (Glycine max)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pednekar, Mrinal, E-mail: mrinal1854@yahoo.co.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Das, Amit K. [Department of Food Engineering, CFTRI, Mysore 570020, Karnataka (India); Rajalakshmi, V; Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-04-15

    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  14. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean ( Glycine max)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pednekar, Mrinal; Das, Amit K.; Rajalakshmi, V.; Sharma, Arun

    2010-04-01

    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  15. A selection and seed-grower are a substantial factor of increase to the productivity of oil-bearing cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Кириченко

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of oilseeds in Ukraine, including sunflower, soybean, winter and spring rape, mustard, linseed, sesame, spring false flax, safflower. Presented research-based elements of the technology of cultivation. Described seed of oilseeds. Named most promising varieties of these crops. Disclosed their productive and qualitative potential. The above varietal structure of oilseeds in the State Register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine for years. In order to ensure stable population of oil and food, which include oil, and for the implementation of programs related to soil fertility, scientifically grounded recommended area of oilseeds in Ukraine for 2013–2015 years, ha.

  16. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and refined conceptual model of groundwater flow for Coastal Plain aquifers at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2005-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Myers, Luke; Degnan, James R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.

    2015-01-01

    From 1966 to 2002, activities at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware chemical facility in New Castle County, Delaware resulted in the contamination of groundwater, soils, and wetland sediment. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, and the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control began a multi-year investigation of the hydrogeologic framework and hydrology of the confined aquifer system. The goals of the ongoing study at the site (the Potomac Aquifer Study) are to determine the hydraulic connection between the Columbia and Potomac aquifers, determine the direction of groundwater flow in the Potomac aquifer, and identify factors affecting the fate of contaminated groundwater. This report describes progress made towards these goals based on available data collected through September 2012.

  17. Genome Sequence of the Palaeopolyploid soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, Jeremy; Cannon, Steven B.; Schlueter, Jessica; Ma, Jianxin; Mitros, Therese; Nelson, William; Hyten, David L.; Song, Qijian; Thelen, Jay J.; Cheng, Jianlin; Xu, Dong; Hellsten, Uffe; May, Gregory D.; Yu, Yeisoo; Sakura, Tetsuya; Umezawa, Taishi; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.; Sandhu, Devinder; Valliyodan, Babu; Lindquist, Erika; Peto, Myron; Grant, David; Shu, Shengqiang; Goodstein, David; Barry, Kerrie; Futrell-Griggs, Montona; Abernathy, Brian; Du, Jianchang; Tian, Zhixi; Zhu, Liucun; Gill, Navdeep; Joshi, Trupti; Libault, Marc; Sethuraman, Anand; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Nguyen, Henry T.; Wing, Rod A.; Cregan, Perry; Specht, James; Grimwood, Jane; Rokhsar, Dan; Stacey, Gary; Shoemaker, Randy C.; Jackson, Scott A.

    2009-08-03

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants for seed protein and oil content, and for its capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms. We sequenced the 1.1-gigabase genome by a whole-genome shotgun approach and integrated it with physical and high-density genetic maps to create a chromosome-scale draft sequence assembly. We predict 46,430 protein-coding genes, 70percent more than Arabidopsis and similar to the poplar genome which, like soybean, is an ancient polyploid (palaeopolyploid). About 78percent of the predicted genes occur in chromosome ends, which comprise less than one-half of the genome but account for nearly all of the genetic recombination. Genome duplications occurred at approximately 59 and 13 million years ago, resulting in a highly duplicated genome with nearly 75percent of the genes present in multiple copies. The two duplication events were followed by gene diversification and loss, and numerous chromosome rearrangements. An accurate soybean genome sequence will facilitate the identification of the genetic basis of many soybean traits, and accelerate the creation of improved soybean varieties.

  18. Chinese Soybean Industry: Current Status and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dachuan Liu; Shaojun Tian

    2002-01-01

    This paper focus on the soybeanresources and their industry development inChina. Due to the high demand in domesticmarket, it is necessary to expand the cultivationarea and improve the production yields.Meanwhile, to inc e the export of soybeansfrom overseas is also important. China has along history in producing traditional soyfoods. After recent fifty years, the developmentof Chinese soybean industry has reached to areasonable level. The current status of Chinesesoybean industry has been included in thepaper. It has been expected that in next fiveyears, there will be a rapid increase in theprocessing of soybeans; it will become morereasonable in the scale and distribution ofsoybean oil factories. Emphasis will be put onthe improvement of the functionalities ofsoybean products. Different kinds of functionalsoybean foods, especially the soybean proteinsfor particular uses will be developed by the useof modification technologies. Concern is alsogiven to the multi -utilizn of soybeanresources, which not only the extractionof oil from soybean and the processingof protein products from the meal; but alsoincludes the recovery of the naturalchemicals from soybeans which could then beexploited to novel products with more profits.

  19. ENERGY AND FERTILIZATION VALUE OF SOYBEAN RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Kiš

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the quantity and calorific value of biomass of the varieties investigated as well as the amount of nutrients in plowed biomass. Soybean varieties in the research were:“Tisa”, “Podravka”, Neoplanta”, “Ika” and “Vita”. Average yield of all examined soybean varieties was 3.06 t/ha. By using 80% soybean straw the best results showed variety Tisa with 48.97 GJ/ha or it is substitute for 1375.19 Nm3/ha of natural gas or 1194 t/ha of oil fuel. They are followed by Tisa, Neoplanta, Podravka, Ika and Vita. These are huge amounts of energy that can be used for soybean drying process and it can be used as energy source for other uses. The estimated fertilization value of harvest soybean leftovers are in the same level as fresh ow or horse manure. Namely, it represents 40% of fertilization value of composted farm manure.

  20. Soil compaction and fertilization in soybean productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutler Amauri Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction and fertilization affect soybean development. This study evaluated the effects of soil compaction and fertilization on soybean (Glycine max cv. Embrapa 48 productivity in a Typic Haplustox under field conditions in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A completely randomized design with a 5 x 2 factorial layout (compaction vs. fertilization, with four replications in each treatment, was employed. Each experimental unit (replicate consisted of a 3.6 m² useful area. After the soil was prepared by cultivation, an 11 Mg tractor passed over it a variable number of times to create five levels of compaction. Treatments were: T0= no compaction, T1= one tractor pass, T2= two, T4= four, and T6= six passes, and no fertilizer and fertilizer to give soybean yields of 2.5 to 2.9 Mg ha-1. Soil was sampled at depths of 0.02-0.05, 0.07-0.10, and 0.15-0.18 m to determine macro and microporosity, penetration resistance (PR, and bulk density (Db. After 120 days growing under these conditions, the plants were analyzed in terms of development (plant height, number of pods, shoot dry matter per plant and weight of 100 seeds and seed productivity per hectare. Soil compaction decreased soybean development and productivity, but this effect was decreased by soil fertilization, showing that such fertilization increased soybean tolerance to soil compaction.

  1. Effects of low-phytic acid corn, low-phytic acid soybean meal, and phytase on nutrient digestibility and excretion in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B E; Sutton, A L; Richert, B T

    2009-04-01

    Forty-eight grower pigs were used to evaluate the effects of feeding low phytic acid (LPA) corn, LPA soybean meal, normal corn (NC), normal soybean meal (NSBM), and phytase on nutrient digestibility and excretion. Barrows were blocked by BW (initial BW=45.3+/-1.6 kg) and randomly assigned to 1 of 8 dietary treatments in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (6 pigs/treatment). Pigs were fed twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) at 3 times the ME requirement for maintenance. Phytase was added to the diet at 510 phytase units/kg of feed (where 1 phytase unit is the quantity of enzyme that liberates 1 mumol of inorganic P/min from 0.005 mol/L of sodium phytate at pH 5.5 and 37 degrees C), at the expense of corn starch, and all diets were formulated to provide 0.39% total P, 0.50% Ca, and 1.0% lysine with no supplemental inorganic P. Pigs were adapted to metabolism crates and dietary treatments for 7 d, followed by a 3-d total collection of urine and feces. Total fecal DM excreted, percentage of DM of feces, and percentage of DM digested were not different (P>0.53) among treatments. Fecal P excretion was reduced for pigs fed LPA corn vs. NC (2.85 vs. 3.24+/-0.119 g/d; P=0.024), for pigs fed LPA soybean meal vs. NSBM (2.79 vs. 3.30+/-0.119 g/d; P=0.007), for pigs fed phytase vs. nonphytase diets (2.80 vs. 3.29+/-0.119 g/d; P=0.009), and for pigs fed LPA corn, LPA soybean meal, and phytase vs. NC and NSBM without phytase (2.16 vs. 3.70+/-0.237 g/d; Psoybean meal, and phytase diet vs. the NC and soybean meal diet (60.1 vs. 34.1+/-4.5%; Psoybean meal vs. NSBM (47.2 vs. 41.1+/-2.27%; P=0.075). Corn type and soybean meal type had no effect (P>0.11) on water-soluble P excretion. However, pigs fed diets containing phytase tended to excrete less total water-soluble P than those without phytase inclusion (1.99 vs. 2.27+/-0.099 g/d; Psoybean meal, and phytase was additive, significantly improving P digestibility and dramatically decreasing P excretion to reduce the potential impacts of P

  2. Suitability of Soybean Meal from Insect-Resistant Soybeans for Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, María A; Davis, Adam J; Boerma, H Roger; Parrott, Wayne A

    2016-03-23

    Benning(M) and Benning(MGH) are near-isogenic lines (NILs) of the soybean cultivar Benning, which contain insect-resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from the soybean accession PI 229358. Benning(M) contains QTL-M, which confers antibiosis and antixenosis. In addition to QTL-M, Benning(MGH) contains QTL-G, which confers antibiosis, and QTL-H, which confers antixenosis. Soybean meal was produced from Benning and the NILs. Nutritional composition, digestible amino acid content, and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEN) were equivalent among soybean meals. A 21-day broiler feeding trial was carried out to determine if the QTLs affect soybean meal quality. Weight gain and feed-to-gain ratio were evaluated. No biologically significant differences were detected for broilers fed Benning, Benning(M), and Benning(MGH). This demonstrates that soybean meal produced from the insect-resistant NILs is equivalent to soybean meal produced from their non-insect-resistant parent cultivar for broiler weight gain.

  3. The current status of the Soybean-Soybean mosaic virus (SMV Pathosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soybean mosaic virus (SMV is one of the most devastating pathogens that cost huge economic losses in soybean production worldwide. Due to the duplicated genome, clustered and highly homologous nature of R genes, as well as recalcitrant to transformation, soybean disease resistance studies is largely lagging compared with other diploid crops. In this review, we focus on the major advances that have been made in identifying both the virulence/avirulence factors of SMV and mapping of SMV resistant genes in soybean. In addition, we review the progress in dissecting the SMV resistant signaling pathways in soybean, with a special focus on the studies using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS. The soybean genome has been fully sequenced, and the increasingly saturated SNP markers have been identified. With these resources available together with newly developed genome editing tools, and more efficient soybean transformation system, cloning SMV resistant genes, and ultimately generating cultivars with a broader spectrum resistance to SMV are becoming more realistic than ever.

  4. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef

  5. A novel flavivirus in the soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a subterranean root pathogen that causes the most damaging disease of soybean in the United States. A novel nematode virus genome, soybean cyst nematode virus 5 (SbCNV5), was identified in RNASeq data from SCN eggs and second-stage juveniles. T...

  6. 7 CFR 407.16 - Group risk plan for soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for soybean. 407.16 Section 407.16..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.16 Group risk plan for soybean. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Soybeans for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.122 - Qualified State Soybean Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.122 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.228 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.228 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Expenses and...

  9. Putatively novel sources of resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) remains to be the most economically devastating endo-root parasite of soybean [Glycine max L. (Merrill)], in the USA and worldwide. Currently, two resistance loci, rhg1 and Rhg4 have been the main sources of resistance to SCN. Over 95% of soybean cultivars with SCN resist...

  10. Soybean seedlings tolerate abrasion from air-propelled grit

    Science.gov (United States)

    New tools for controlling weeds would be useful for soybean production in organic systems. Air-propelled abrasive grit is one such tool that performs well for in-row weed control in corn, but crop safety in soybean is unknown. We examined responses to abrasion by corn-cob grit of soybean seedlings a...

  11. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef produc

  12. Globalizing land use transitions: the soybean acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reenberg, Anette; Fenger, Nina Astrid

    2011-01-01

    This note presents the recent global development trends in soybean cultivation as derived from the FAO statistics. It focuses on the change over the course of the last thirty years, when significant new allocations of the global production have occurred, which have turned South America into a lea......This note presents the recent global development trends in soybean cultivation as derived from the FAO statistics. It focuses on the change over the course of the last thirty years, when significant new allocations of the global production have occurred, which have turned South America...... into a leading player on the global scale. It takes point of departure in a land change science approach and employs the notions of underlying and proximate drivers and teleconnections to characterize the process of land use change in relation to the accelerating use of land for soybean cultivation....

  13. [Soybean allergens and hypoallergenic germplasm enhancement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xu-Qian; Zhu, You-Lin; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2006-08-01

    Food allergy is a public sanitary problem which has received attention worldwide. It is becoming an increasingly interesting problem to decrease the concentration of allergens for improvement of the food security. Soybean allergens in seeds are composing of storage proteins, structure proteins, and disease-related proteins. Among them, Gly m Bd 28K, Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m Bd 60K are the major allergens located in 7S conglycinin fragments. By recognizing allergens' physicochemical property, hypersensitivity and gene structure, certain progresses had been made to reduce the concentration of allergens in soybean through food processing, traditional breeding and genetic engineering. The paper reviewed the sorts and characters of soybean allergens, the physicochemical property of the three immunodominant allergens and their gene structures. Progress in developing hypoallergenic cultivars was also discussed.

  14. Evolution Analysis About Soybean MIR166 Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-hao; Jin Hui-hui; Chen Qing-shan; Zhu Rong-sheng

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of important regulating non-coding small molecular RNA. The gma-MIR166 gene family consists of 21 members and their expression patterns diversify widely. It is important to analyze the evolution of gma-MIR166 gene family in order to understand the evolutionary mechanisms of miRNAs in soybean. In this study, we implemented soybean wide genome block analysis, the molecular phylogeny of gma-MIR166 and block analysis of gma-MIR166 family. The results showed that both chromosome big segmental duplications and tandem duplications were main reasons contributed to the expanding of gma-MIR166 gene family. These findings suggested that gma-MIR166 gene family might originate from one or two ancient miRNA genes. The results of research provided a support for evolutionary study of miRNAs in soybean and related species in Fabaceae.

  15. Development of Soybean Highly Pure Powdered Lecithin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guihua; Gu Keren; Liang Shaohua

    2002-01-01

    This project makes use ofCondensed Soybean Phospholipids (CSP) toproduce highly pure powdered soybean lecithin.In the production technology, the first step is tode-oil by continuous y delivered mater al, higheffective mixing CSP with acetone and circularextraction. The second step is to centrifugallyseparate the lecithin miscellaneous liquid intomiscellaneous oil and solid-state lecithin withacetone. Then the mixing oil can be separatedinto crude oil and acetone by vaporization andcondensation. If the acetone contains too muchwater, it should be rectified for use circularly.Solid state lecithin with acetone can be madeinto highly pure powdered soybean lecithin(acetone insoluble matter >95% ) under thefollowing conditions: vacuum 750mmHg,temperature 60℃, time 20 minutes. Theproduction not only reaches the domestic andoversea quality index, but also has favorablehydrophilic property, which makes it becomenatural food additive and sanitarian nurture.

  16. Effect of Ultrasound in Soybean Protein Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukase, Hirokazu; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Ide, Masao

    1994-05-01

    Application of ultrasound for accelerating the extraction of nutriments in food processing has been attempted. However, conditions of exposure to ultrasound were not clear in previous studies. This paper reports on the relationship between the ultrasonic pressure and the amount of extracted protein from soybeans. Experiments were conducted using a beaker, in which the ultrasonic fields were precisely measured. Soybean flakes suspended in water were put in the beaker and placed in a water tank. The amount of extracted protein in water upon ultrasonic exposure was calculated by the Kjeldahl method. It was found that the amount of extracted protein increased in proportion to ultrasonic pressure up to the total amount of soybean protein soluble in water. Furthermore, this paper describes the denaturation of the protein produced by the ultrasonic cavitation.

  17. Soybean production in eastern and southern Africa and threat of yield loss due to soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murithi, H.M.; Beed, F.; Tukamuhabwa, P.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is a major source of oil and proteins worldwide. The demand for soybean has increased in Africa, driven by the growing feed industry for poultry, aquaculture and home consumption in the form of processed milk, baked beans and for blending with maize and wheat flour. Soybean, in addition t

  18. 77 FR 40529 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1220 Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... the United Soybean Board (Board) to reflect changes in production levels that have occurred since...

  19. 78 FR 1 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1220 Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule adjusts the number of members on the United Soybean Board (Board) to...

  20. Soybean production in eastern and southern Africa and threat of yield loss due to soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murithi, H.M.; Beed, F.; Tukamuhabwa, P.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is a major source of oil and proteins worldwide. The demand for soybean has increased in Africa, driven by the growing feed industry for poultry, aquaculture and home consumption in the form of processed milk, baked beans and for blending with maize and wheat flour. Soybean, in addition t

  1. Hydrogeologic characterization and assessment of bioremediation of chlorinated benzenes and benzene in wetland areas, Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles W.; Baker, Anna C.; Teunis, Jessica A.; Majcher, Emily H.; Brayton, Michael J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site (SCD) in New Castle County, Delaware, are affected by contamination with chlorobenzenes and benzene from past waste storage and disposal, spills, leaks, and contaminated groundwater discharge. In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey began an investigation in June 2009 to characterize the hydrogeology and geochemistry in the wetlands and assess the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation as remedial strategies. Groundwater flow in the wetland study area is predominantly vertically upward in the wetland sediments and the underlying aquifer, and groundwater discharge accounts for a minimum of 47 percent of the total discharge for the subwatershed of tidal Red Lion Creek. Thus, groundwater transport of contaminants to surface water could be significant. The major contaminants detected in groundwater in the wetland study area included benzene, monochlorobenzene, and tri- and di-chlorobenzenes. Shallow wetland groundwater in the northwest part of the wetland study area was characterized by high concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (maximum about 75,000 micrograms per liter [μg/L]), low pH, and high chloride. In the northeast part of the wetland study area, wetland groundwater had low to moderate concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (generally not greater than 10,000 μg/L), moderate pH, and high sulfate concentrations. Concentrations in the groundwater in excess of 1 percent of the solubility of the individual chlorinated benzenes indicate that a contaminant source is present in the wetland sediments as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Consistently higher contaminant concentrations in the shallow wetland groundwater than deeper in the wetland sediments or the aquifer also indicate a continued source in the wetland sediments, which could include dissolution of DNAPLs and

  2. Genome sequences of two Phytophthora species responsible for Sudden Oak Death and Soybean Root Rot provide novel insights into their evolutionary origins and mechanisms of pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, Brett M.; Tripathi, Sucheta; Aerts, Andrea; Bensasson, Douda; Dehal, Paramvir; Dubchak, Inna; Garbelotto, Matteo; Gijzen, Mark; Huang, Wayne; Ivors, Kelly; Jiang, Rays; Kamoun, Sophien; Krampis, Konstantinos; Lamour, Kurt; McDonald, Hayes; Medina, Monica; Morris, Paul; Putnam, Nik; Rash, Sam; Salamov, Asaf; Smith, Brian; Smith, Joe; Terry, Astrid; Torto, Trudy; Grigoriev, Igor; Rokhsar, Daniel; Boore, Jeffrey

    2005-12-01

    The approximately 60 species of Phytophthora are all destructive pathogens, causing rots of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of a wide range of agriculturally and ornamentally important plants (1). Some species, such as P. cinnamomi, P. parasitica and P. cactorum, each attack hundreds of different plant host species, whereas others are more restricted. Some of the crops where Phytophthora infections cause the greatest financial losses include potato, soybean, tomato, alfalfa, tobacco, peppers, cucurbits, pineapple, strawberry, raspberry and a wide range of perennial tree crops, especially citrus, avocado, almonds, walnuts, apples and cocoa, and they also heavily affect the ornamental, nursery and forestry industries. The economic damage overall to crops in the United States by Phytophthora species is estimated in the tens of billions of dollars, including the costs of control measures, and worldwide it is many times this amount (1). In the northern midwest of the U.S., P. sojae causes $200 million in annual losses to soybean alone, and worldwide causes around $1-2 billion in losses per year. P. infestans infections resulted in the Irish potato famine last century and continues to be a difficult and worsening problem for potato and tomato growers worldwide, with worldwide costs estimated at $5 billion per year.

  3. Integrating livestock manure with a corn-soybean bioenergy cropping system improves short-term carbon sequestration rates and net global warming potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, K.D.; Fronning, B.E.; Kravchenko, A.; Min, D.H.; Robertson, G.P. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Carbon cycling and the global warming potential (GWP) of bioenergy cropping systems with complete biomass removal are of agronomic and environmental concern. Corn growers who plan to remove corn stover as a feedstock for the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry will benefit from carbon amendments such as manure and compost, to replace carbon removed with the corn stover. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of beef cattle feedlot manure and composted dairy manure on short-term carbon sequestration rates and net global warming potential (GWP) in a corn-soybean rotation with complete corn-stover removal. Field experiments consisting of a corn-soybean rotation with whole-plant corn harvest, were conducted near East Lansing, MI over a three-year period beginning in 2002. Compost and manure amendments raised soil carbon (C) at a level sufficient to overcome the C debt associated with manure production, manure collection and storage, land application, and post-application field emissions. The net GWP in carbon dioxide equivalents for the manure and compost amended cropping systems was -934 and -784 g m{sup -2} y{sup -1}, respectively, compared to 52 g m{sup -2} y{sup -1} for the non-manure amended synthetic fertilizer check. This work further substantiates the environmental benefits associated with renewable fuels and demonstrates that with proper management, the integration of livestock manures in biofuel cropping systems can enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) remediation. (author)

  4. Chemical characteristics of Delaware River water, Trenton, New Jersey, to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfor, Charles N.; Keighton, Walter B.

    1954-01-01

    This progress report gives the results of an investigation of the quality of water in the Delaware River from Trenton, N. J. to Marcus Hook, Pa., for the period August 1949 to December 1952. The Delaware River is the principal source of water for the many industries and municipal water supplies along this reach of the river and both industries and municipalities use it for the disposal of their wastes. Consequently, a study of the quality of the water and variations in the quality caused by changes in streamflow, tidal effects, pollution and other factors is important to the many users. In both New Jersey and Pennsylvania steps are being taken to abate pollution, thus it is of more than passing interest to measure the effects of waste treatment on the quality of the Delaware River water. At average or higher rates of streamflow the mineral content of the water increases slightly from Trenton to Marcus Hook. There is little variation in the concentration of dissolved minerals from bank to bank or from top to bottom of the river. At times of protracted low rates of flow the effect of ocean water mixing with the river water may be noted as far upstream as Philadelphia. At such times the salinity is often greater near the bottom of the river than near the top. The increase in chloride concentration upstream from Philadelphia is small compared to the rapid increase downstream from Philadelphia. Temperatures of offshore water vary with the season, but on a given day are substantially uniform throughout the reach of the river from Trenton to Marcus Hook. The water contains less dissolved oxygen as it flows downstream indicating that oxygen is being consumed by oxidizable matter. From Philadelphia downstream there are periods, especially in late summer, when the dissolved oxygen is barely sufficient to meet the oxygen demands of the pollution load.

  5. Implementation of a framework for multi-species, multi-objective adaptive management in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David R.; Nichols, James D.; Lyons, James E.; Sweka, John A.; Kalasz, Kevin; Niles, Lawrence J.; Wong, Richard; Brust, Jeffrey; Davis, Michelle C.; Spear, Braddock

    2015-01-01

    Decision analytic approaches have been widely recommended as well suited to solving disputed and ecologically complex natural resource management problems with multiple objectives and high uncertainty. However, the difference between theory and practice is substantial, as there are very few actual resource management programs that represent formal applications of decision analysis. We applied the process of structured decision making to Atlantic horseshoe crab harvest decisions in the Delaware Bay region to develop a multispecies adaptive management (AM) plan, which is currently being implemented. Horseshoe crab harvest has been a controversial management issue since the late 1990s. A largely unregulated horseshoe crab harvest caused a decline in crab spawning abundance. That decline coincided with a major decline in migratory shorebird populations that consume horseshoe crab eggs on the sandy beaches of Delaware Bay during spring migration. Our approach incorporated multiple stakeholders, including fishery and shorebird conservation advocates, to account for diverse management objectives and varied opinions on ecosystem function. Through consensus building, we devised an objective statement and quantitative objective function to evaluate alternative crab harvest policies. We developed a set of competing ecological models accounting for the leading hypotheses on the interaction between shorebirds and horseshoe crabs. The models were initially weighted based on stakeholder confidence in these hypotheses, but weights will be adjusted based on monitoring and Bayesian model weight updating. These models were used together to predict the effects of management actions on the crab and shorebird populations. Finally, we used a dynamic optimization routine to identify the state dependent optimal harvest policy for horseshoe crabs, given the possible actions, the stated objectives and our competing hypotheses about system function. The AM plan was reviewed, accepted and

  6. Organochlorine contaminant exposure and effects in pipping black-crowned night-herons in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Olsen, G.H.; Parsons, K.C.; Schmidt, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Pea Patch Island in Delaware Bay is the site of the largest heronry north of Florida. From 1989-93. the population of 9 species of wading birds numbered approximately 12,000 pairs. but has recently declined to 7,000 pairs. Because Delaware Bay is a major shipping channel. and receives anthropogenic releases of toxic substances from agricultural, industrial and municipal point and nonpoint sources, contaminant exposure and effects to the heronry have been an ongoing concern. In 1997, piping black-crowned night-herons (BCNHs) wee collected from separate nests at Pea Patch Island (N=l5), and from a coastal reference site, Middle Island (N=9), in Rehoboth Bay. DE. There was neither evidence of malformations nor hepatic histopathological lesions, and body and liver weights did not differ between sites. Biomarkers of petroleum hydrocarbons, polyhalogenated contaminant and metal exposure (cytochrome P450 induction and oxidative stress responses) did not differ (P>0.05) between sites, however, activities of benzyloxy- and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were greater in 3 of 15 embryos from Pea Patch Island compared to Middle Island. Concentrations of 21 organochlorine pesticides and metabolites were relatively low at both sites. with p,.p'DDE values well below the threshold associated with eggshell thinning. Although total PCB concentration was modestly elevated (Pdioxins, dibenzofurans and Toxic Equivalents were low and did not differ between sites. Surprisingly, organochlorine contaminant exposure and effects in Delaware Bay BCNHs appear to be considerably less than that observed and recently reported (ETC 16:2315-2322,1997) for herons residing in the Chesapeake Bay.

  7. Origin of Atlantic Sturgeon collected off the Delaware coast during spring months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirgin, Isaac; Breece, Matthew W.; Fox, Dewayne A.; Maceda, Lorraine; Wark, Kevin W.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus was federally listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as five distinct population segments (DPS). Currently, at least 18 estuaries coastwide host spawning populations and the viability of these vary, requiring differing levels of protection. Subadults emigrate from their natal estuaries to marine waters where they are vulnerable to bycatch; one of the major threats to the rebuilding of populations. As a result, identifying the population origin of Atlantic Sturgeon in coastal waters is critical to development of management plans intended to minimize interactions of the most imperiled populations with damaging fisheries. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequencing and microsatellite DNA analyses to determine the origin of 261 Atlantic Sturgeon collected off the Delaware coast during the spring months. Using individual-based assignment (IBA) testing and mixed stock analysis, we found that specimens originated from all nine of our reference populations and the five DPSs used in the listing determination. Using IBA, we found that the Hudson River population was the largest contributor (38.3%) to our coastal collection. The James (19.9%) and Delaware (13.8%) river populations, at one time thought to be extirpated or nearly so, were the next largest contributors. The three populations combined in the South Atlantic DPS contributed 21% of specimens; the Altamaha River, the largest population in the South Atlantic DPS, only contributed a single specimen to the collection. While the origin of specimens collected on the Delaware coast was most likely within rivers of the New York Bight DPS (52.1%), specimens that originated elsewhere were also well represented. Genetic analyses provide a robust tool to identify the population origin of individual sturgeon outside of their natal estuaries and to determine the quantitative contributions of individual populations to coastal aggregations that are vulnerable to

  8. Reservoir Operations and Flow Modeling to Support Decision Making in the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinodoz, H. A.

    2006-12-01

    About five percent of the US population depends on the waters from the Delaware River Basin for its water supply, including New York City and Philadelphia. Water management in the basin is governed by a compact signed in 1961 by the four basin states and the federal government. The compact created the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) and gave it broad powers to plan, regulate, and manage the development of the basin water resources. The compact also recognized a pre-existing (1954) U.S. Supreme Court Decree that grants the City of New York the right to export up to 800 million gallons per day out of the basin, provided that a prescribed minimum flow is met at Montague, New Jersey for the use of the lower-basin states. The Delaware River Basin Compact also allows the DRBC to adjust the releases and diversions under the Decree, subject to the unanimous consent of the decree parties. This mechanism has been used several times over the last 30 years, to implement and modify rules governing drought operations, instream flows, minimum flow targets, and control of salinity intrusion. In every case, decision makers have relied upon extensive modeling of alternative proposals, using a basin-wide daily flow model. Often, stakeholders have modified and used the same model to test and refine their proposals prior to consideration by the decision makers. The flow model has been modified over the years, to simulate new features and processes in a river system partially controlled by more than ten reservoirs. The flow model has proved to be an adaptable tool, able to simulate the dynamics of a complex system driven by conflicting objectives. This presentation reviews the characteristics of the daily flow model in its current form, discuss how model simulations are used to inform the decision-making process, and provide a case study of a recent modification of the system-wide drought operating plan.

  9. Health Service Utilization of Children in Delaware Foster Care, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Erin K; McDuffie, May Joan; Gifford, Katie; Zorc, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Children in foster care represent some of the most vulnerable children in the U.S. Their higher prevalence of a range of physical and behavioral health problems can lead to greater health care utilization and higher costs. However, many children in foster care have undiagnosed conditions and unmet needs. The purpose of this study was to provide a description of health services accessed by children in foster care in Delaware. The data serves as a baseline and informs current efforts to improve the health care of children in foster care. We analyzed rates of emergency room visits, behavioral health visits, hospitalizations, and costs of care for children in foster care and made comparisons with other children participating in Medicaid. We also looked at utilization before and after entry into care and assessed rates of appropriate medical screening for children on entering foster care. This study was conducted as part of a larger analysis guided by the Delaware Task Force on the Health of Children in Foster Care with funding appropriated by the Delaware General Assembly. Using a unique identification number, we linked Medicaid claims data with demographic information and characteristics associated with foster care from the Delaware Department of Services for Children, Youth and Their Families. We examined diagnoses, patterns of utilization, and costs for children in foster care (n = 1,458) and a comparable cohort of other children in Medicaid (n = 124,667) during fiscal years 2013 and 2014. Compared with other children in Medicaid, children in foster care had similar rates of emergency department utilization, but relatively high rates of outpatient behavioral health visits. Similarly, compared with other children in Medicaid, those in foster care had particularly high rates of psychotropic drug utilization. Entry into foster care was associated with increased utilization of overall health care services, including receipt of well-child care. However, just 31 percent

  10. Delaware River water quality Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, August 1949 to December 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighton, Walter B.

    1965-01-01

    During the 14-year period from August 1949 to July 1963, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Philadelphia, collected samples of river water once each month in the 43-mile reach of the Delaware River from Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pa., and daily at Trenton, 10 miles upstream from Bristol. This part of the Delaware is an estuary into which salt water is brought by tides; fresh water flows into the estuary at Trenton, NJ, and farther downstream from the Schuylkill River and other tributaries of the Delaware. In March, April, and May, when fresh-water flow is high, the average concentration of dissolved solids in the water at Bristol was 76 ppm (parts per million), and at Marcus Hook 112 PPM In August and September, streamflow is lower, and the average concentration of dissolved solids increased to 117 PPM at Bristol and 804 PPM at Marcus Hook. Major salinity invasions of the Delaware River occurred in 1949, 1953, 1954, 1957, and 1963. In each of these years the fresh-water flow into the tidal river at Trenton was low during the period from July to October. The greatest dissolved-solids concentrations in these monthly samples were 160 PPM at Bristol and 4,000 PPM at Marcus Hook. At times the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the river water has become dangerously low, especially in that reach of the river between Wharton Street and League Island. At the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, one-third of the samples of river water were less than 30 percent saturated with oxygen; however, no trend, either for better or for worse, was apparent during the 14-year period. It is useful now to summarize these monthly analyses for the period 1949-63 even though a much more detailed description of water quality in this reach of the estuary will soon become available through the use of recording instrumental conditions. This compendium of water-quality data is useful as an explicit statement of water quality during the 14-year study period and is valuable for directing

  11. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Delaware River, Delhi, New York, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Breaker, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5-mile reach of the West Branch Delaware River through the Village and part of the Town of Delhi, New York, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Village of Delhi, the Delaware County Soil and Water Conservation District, and the Delaware County Planning Department. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the Federal Flood Inundation Mapper Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) referenced to the USGS streamgage at West Branch Delaware River upstream from Delhi, N.Y. (station number 01421900). In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model that had been used to produce the flood insurance rate maps for the most recent flood insurance study for the Town and Village of Delhi. This hydraulic model was used to compute 10 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft or near bankfull to 16 ft, which exceeds the stages that correspond to both the estimated 0.2-percent annual-exceedance-probability flood (500-year recurrence interval flood) and the maximum recorded peak flow. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model, which was derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with a 1.2-ft (0.61-ft root mean squared error) vertical accuracy and 3.3-ft (1-meter) horizontal resolution, to delineate the area flooded at each water level. A map that was produced using this method to delineate the inundated area for the flood that occurred on August 28, 2011, agreed well with highwater marks that had been located in the field using a

  12. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar energy system located at the Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware is described. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat - new addition, domestic water - entire facility, and pool heating - entire facility. On a cost basis for 2920 hours of operation, the heat reclaimed would cost $969.66 annually if provided by gas at 3.79 per million Btu's. At 5.5 centers per kwh, heat recovery costs of $481.80 percent a net savings of $487.86 annually.

  13. Hydrodynamics and Eutrophication Model Study of Indian River and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Millsboro Townsend’s 1 21.8 6 0.1 0 18 Inc. Vlmssic 0.06 3.1 1.36 0.064 0.066 18 Food Colonial 9.7 6.85 9.7 2.2 OA 18 East Moble Home Pk. Rehoboth 0.95...Delaware," Proceedings of the Third Annual National Beach Preservation Technology Conference, St. Petersburg, FL pp 280-294. Andres, A. S. (1992...Wen, C., Kao, J., Wang, L., and Liaw, C. (1984). "Effect of salinity on reaeration coefficient of receiving waters," Water Science and Technology , 16

  14. Groundwater quality in the Delaware and St. Lawrence River Basins, New York, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 10 production and domestic wells in the Delaware River Basin in New York and from 20 production and domestic wells in the St. Lawrence River Basin in New York from August through November 2010 to characterize groundwater quality in the basins. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria.

  15. Impacts of Tillage, Maturity Group, and Insecticide Use on Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) Populations in Double-Cropped Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Reisig, Dominic D; Bacheler, Jack S

    2017-01-04

    Megacopta cribraria (F.), also known as the kudzu bug, is a soybean pest in the United States, and it can cause up to a 60% yield reduction if not controlled. Insecticides are commonly used to manage this pest in commercial soybean fields. However, other soybean production practices may also affect kudzu bug populations. This study investigated the effect of soil tillage, maturity group selection, and insecticide use on kudzu bug densities in soybean. During 2012 and 2013, at two locations each year in North Carolina, four varieties of soybean maturity groups were planted in June into conventionally tilled plots and into plots with cereal crop residue under reduced tillage conditions (mimicking double-crop production). Plots were further split as insecticide-protected and untreated. Four times more kudzu bugs were found in conventionally tilled than reduced till plots throughout the growing season. Selection of the maturity group influenced the attractiveness of the kudzu bug to oviposit on soybean. A 56% reduction of kudzu bug densities was achieved through insecticide treatment, with an ∼6% increase in yield. Information on how production practices, including soil tillage, affect kudzu bug populations in soybean may help growers select practices to minimize kudzu bug injury and protect yield.ResumenMegacopta cribraria (F.), conocido como el bicho del kudzu, es una plaga de la soja en los Estados Unidos que puede reducir el rendimiento hasta un 60% si no es controlado oportunamente con insecticidas en campos comerciales de soja. Sin embargo, otras prácticas de producción en la soja pueden afectar las poblaciones del bicho del kudzu. El presente estudio investigó el efecto de la labranza del campo, la selección del grupo de madurez en soja, y el uso de insecticidas en la densidad del bicho del kudzu. Durante el 2012 y el 2013, cuatro diferentes grupos de madurez de soja fueron plantados en Junio bajo el sistema tradicional de labranza y con labranza reducida

  16. Innovation strategies in a fruit growers association impacts assessment by using combined LCA and s-LCA methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecco, Nadia; Baudino, Claudio; Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana

    2016-10-15

    In the challenging world of territorial transformations within the agriculture, there is an increasing need for an integrated methodological framework of assessment that is able to reconcile the demand for solutions that are both economically sustainable and contribute to environmental and social improvement. This study aims to assess the introduction of innovation into agro-food systems by combining an environmental life cycle (LCA) assessment and a social life cycle assessment (s-LCA) to support the decision making process of a fruit growers co-op for the adoption of mulching and covering in raspberry farming. LCA and s-LCA have been applied independently under specific consistency requirements, selecting two scenarios to compare the impact with (1) and without (2) the innovation and then combined within a cause-effect chain. The interactions between the environment and socioeconomic components were considered within a nested frameset of business and territorial features. The total emissions from raspberry production in Scenario 1, according to the Global Warming Potential (GWP) Impact Category amounted to 2.2840kg of CO2 eq. In Scenario 2, the impact of production was associated with a GWP of 0.1682kg of CO2 eq. Social repercussions analysis from Scenario 1 compared to Scenario 2 indicate more satisfaction for working conditions and the management of climate risks. The mulching and covering, implemented within a given framework of farm activity, created conditions for the preservation of a model in which raspberry production contributes to landscape protection, the business sustainability of farms and the creation of employment. The combined use of the two methods contributes to the development of a strategy planning due to its ability to deliver, as well as specific analysis at a functional level, a wider framework for assessing the consistency of the impacts related to innovation in raspberry production.

  17. Allergenicity of an enzymatic hydrolysate of soybean 2S protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Dongeun; Ahn, Kang Mo; Lim, Seung-Yong; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to examine how the characteristics of soybean 2S protein influence allergenicity after enzymatic hydrolysis. Soybean 2S protein was extracted and enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using pepsin and chymotrypsin. Allergenicity was observed using soybean-sensitive patients' sera. Only 13.3% (6/45) of soybean-sensitive patients reacted to soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI), known as the major allergen of soybean 2S protein. After peptic hydrolysis for 90 min at pH 1.2, the intensity of SKTI decreased to 25% but was still visible on SDS-PAGE. Chymotryptic hydrolysis following peptic hydrolysis at pH 8 for 60 min showed a limited hydrolytic effect on soybean 2S protein. Peptic hydrolysis of soybean 2S protein partially reduced the allergenicity of soybean 2S protein, while chymotryptic hydrolysis following peptic hydrolysis increased slightly the allergenicity. Food allergy caused by soybean 2S protein occurred in part of the soybean-sensitive patients. SKTI was partially digested after peptic hydrolysis for 90 min. The allergenicity was decreased with peptic hydrolysis, while subsequent treatment of chymotrypsin increased slightly the allergenicity. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Induced mutations and marker assisted breeding in soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chotechuen, Somsong [Prachinburi Rice Research Center, Prachinburi (Thailand); Srisombun, Somsak [Department of Agriculture, Field Crops Research Institute, Bangkok (Thailand); Lamseejan, Siranut [Kasetsart Univ., Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2002-02-01

    Soybean is one of the important crops in Thailand. Constraints to soybean production include low yield potential, susceptibility to diseases and insects, and non-adoption of appropriate management practices. Mutation induction has been used to improve soybean yield and resistance to major diseases such as rust, purple seed, crinkle leaf, anthracnose and green seed. This paper reviews previous work and achievements of induced mutations in soybean. Successful examples are the release of a soybean variety, Doi Kham, and the development of a mutant CM 60-10kr-71; both are resistant to rust disease. The paper also gives example of the use of soybean SSR markers to identify QTL associated with pod shattering, and emphasizes the integration of mutation techniques and marker assisted selection for soybean improvement. (author)

  19. Linkages among the non-genetically modified soybean, conventional soybean, and corn futures markets in the Tokyo Grain Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The market linkages among the non-genetically modified (non-GM) soybean, conventional soybean, and cor futures markets at the Tokyo Grain Exchange are investigated to find out if the two soybean futures markets and the corn futures market share price information in the presence of unknown breaks. The results reveal that there are market linkages between the non-GM and conventional soybean futures prices and between the non-GM soybean and corn futures prices and that these markets do influence...

  20. Stability of isoflavone isomers in steamed black soybeans and black soybean koji stored under different conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru-Yue; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2009-03-11

    Steamed black soybeans and black soybean koji, a potentially functional food additive, were stored at 4 or 25 degrees C with or without deoxidant and desiccant for 120 days. After storage, steamed black soybeans and koji showed various extents of reduction in isoflavone contents dependent on storage temperature, packaging condition, and the kind of isoflavone isomer. Generally, black soybeans and koji showed the highest residual of isoflavone when they were stored at 4 degrees C with deoxidant and desiccant. Under this storage condition, beta-glucosides (daidzin, glycitin, and genistein), acetyl glucosides (acetyldaidzin, acetylglycitin, and acetylgenistin), manlonyl glucosides (malonyldaidzin, malonglycitin, and malonylgenistin), and aglycones (daidzein, glycitein, and genistin) in steamed black soybeans exhibited residuals of 100.1-100.9, 92.0-99.4, 90.0-94.0, and 77.2-78.8%, respectively, of their original contents after 120 days of storage. Meanwhile, the residuals found in black soybean koji were 77.8-90.0, 13.1-88.9, 66.7-85.5, and 76.4-80.6%, respectively.

  1. Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziadekey, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk was prepared from twelve soybean cultivars grown under the same environmental conditions to evaluate their effects on soymilk characteristics. Significant correlations were observed between the Chemical composition of the seeds and the resultant soymilk. Soymilk solids were significantly affected by seed size and seed phosphorus contents. Cultivars with dark hilum produced soymilk with less attractive colour.

  2. Organogel formation of soybean oil with waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated vegetable oils, petroleum waxes and commercial non-edible gelling agents to understand factors affecting the gelation ability of a gelator. Sunflower wax...

  3. Waxes as organogelator for soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research reveals that a small amount of a food grade plant wax may replace a large amount of the hardstock containing trans-fat or saturated fat. Natural waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated ...

  4. Radar backscatter properties of milo and soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, T. F.; Ulaby, F. T.; Metzler, T.

    1975-01-01

    The radar backscatter from fields of milo and soybeans was measured with a ground based radar as a function of frequency (8-18 GHz), polarization (HH and VV) and angle of incidence (0 deg-70 deg) during the summer of 1974. Supporting ground truth was gathered contemporaneously with the backscatter data. At nadir sigma deg of milo correlated highly, r = 0.96, with soil moisture in the milo field at 8.6 GHz but decreased to a value of r = 0.78 at a frequency of 17.0 GHz. Correlation studies of the variations of sigma deg with soil moisture in the soybean fields were not possible due to a lack of a meaningful soil moisture dynamic range. At the larger angles of incidence, however, sigma deg of soybeans did appear to be dependent on precipitation. It is suggested this phenomenon was caused by the rain altering plant geometry. In general sigma deg of both milo and soybeans had a relatively small dynamic range at the higher angles of incidence and showed no significant dependence on the measured crop parameters.

  5. Elevated ozone alters soybean-virus interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Damla D; Aldea, Mihai; O'Neill, Bridget F; Benitez, Marisol; Li, Min; Clough, Steven J; DeLucia, Evan H

    2008-10-01

    Increasing concentrations of ozone (O(3)) in the troposphere affect many organisms and their interactions with each other. To analyze the changes in a plant-pathogen interaction, soybean plants were infected with Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) while they were fumigated with O(3). In otherwise natural field conditions, elevated O(3) treatment slowed systemic infection and disease development by inducing a nonspecific resistance against SMV for a period of 3 weeks. During this period, the negative effect of virus infection on light-saturated carbon assimilation rate was prevented by elevated O(3) exposure. To identify the molecular basis of a soybean nonspecific defense response, high-throughput gene expression analysis was performed in a controlled environment. Transcripts of fungal, bacterial, and viral defense-related genes, including PR-1, PR-5, PR-10, and EDS1, as well as genes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathways (and concentrations of their end products, quercetin and kaempherol derivatives) increased in response to elevated O(3). The drastic changes in soybean basal defense response under altered atmospheric conditions suggest that one of the elements of global change may alter the ecological consequences and, eventually, coevolutionary relationship of plant-pathogen interactions in the future.

  6. Hydrolysis of soybean protein improves iron bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is an important trace metal element in human body. Iron deficiency affects human health, especially pregnant women and children. Soybean protein is a popular food in Asia and can contain a high amount of iron (145.70±0.74 ug/g); however, it is usually reported as an inhibitor of iron absorption...

  7. Extruded Soybean Samples for Mechnical Oil Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaFu-go; WuFeng-zhi; 等

    1999-01-01

    Soybean is generally recognized as a source of edible and the deoiled meal is seen as a source of protein in animal feed.In recent years.However,more interest has been directed toward using soy meal as a protein souce for human consumption.Extrusion-expelling of soybean provides an opportunity in this direction.The main focus of this study was to maximize the oil recovery from extruded soybean processed using three different kinds of extrudates and processing conditions.These extruded samples were later pressed uniaxially in a specifically designed test-cell and the oil recovery was recorded over time.The effects of process variables,including applied pressure,pressing temperature and sample height,were investigated.Results indicated that over 90% of the available oil could be recovered from pressing of extruded soy samples.The information generated is likedly to be useful in interpreting the effect of precess variables and extruding equipment for pretreatment of soybean for subsequent mechanical oil expression.

  8. Extruded Soybean Samples for Mechnical Oil Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Soybean is generally recognized as a source of edible and the deoiled meal is seen as a source of protein in animal feed. In recent years. However,more interest has been directed toward using soy meal as a protein souce for human consumption. Extrusion-expelling of soybean provides an opportunity in this direction. The main focus of this study was to maximize the oil recovery from extruded soybean processed using three differ- ent kinds of extrudates and processing conditions. These extruded samples were later pressed uniaxially in a specifically designed test-cell and the oil recovery was recorded over time. The effects of process variables ,in- cluding applied pressure, pressing temperature and sample height, were investigated. Results indicated that over90% of the available oil could be recovered from pressing of extruded soy samples. The information gen- erated is likedly to be useful in interpreting the effect of precess variables and extruding equipment for pre- treatment of soybean for subsequent mechanical oil expression.

  9. Sudden death syndrome of soybean in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...

  10. Genetically modified soybean plants and their ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic plants are developed by introgressing new genes using methods of molecular genetics and genetic engineering. The presence of these genes in plant genome is identified on the basis of specific oligonucleotides primers, and the use of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA fragments multiplication. Genetically modified plants such as soybean constitute a newly created bioenergetic potential whose gene expression can cause disturbance of the biological balance ecosystem, soil structure and soil microbiological activity. Genetically modified plants may acquire monogenic or polygenic traits causing genetic and physiological changes in these plants, which may elicit a certain reaction of the environment including changes of microbiological composition of soil rhizosphere. The aim of introgressing genes for certain traits into a cultivated plant is to enhance its yield and intensify food production. There are more and more genetically modified plant species such as soybean, corn, potato, rice and others and there is a pressure to use them as human food and animal feed. Genetically modified soybean plants with introgressed gene for resistance to total herbicides, such as Round-up, are more productive than non-modified herbicide-sensitive soybeans.

  11. The U.S. Soybean Industry. Agricultural Economic Report Number 588.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, James; And Others

    This report describes the U.S. soybean industry from producers to consumers and provides a single source of economic and statistical information on soybeans. Highlights are as follows: U.S. soybean production has increased sevenfold since 1950, making soybeans the second highest valued crop after corn. Soybean production has risen in response to…

  12. Methods and evaluation of soybean genotypes for resistance to Colletotrichum truncatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] occurs throughout the soybean production areas of the world. The fungal species that cause soybean anthracnose infect all parts of the soybean plant. There is little information on standardizing an inoculation technique or on evaluating soybean germpla...

  13. Impact of sea level rise on tidal range in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Serena Blyth; Li, Ming; Zhang, Fan

    2017-05-01

    Coastal inundation is affected not only by rising mean sea level but also by changing tides. A numerical model is developed to investigate how sea level rise and coastline changes may impact tides in two coastal-plain estuaries, Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay. Despite their different tidal characteristics, the two estuaries display similar responses to the sea level rise and shoreline management scenarios. When hypothetic sea walls are erected at the present coastline to prevent low-lying land from flooding, tidal range increases, with greater amplification in the upper part of the two estuaries. When low-lying land is allowed to become permanently inundated by higher sea level, however, tidal range in both estuaries decreases. Analyses of the tidal energy budget show that the increased dissipation over the shallow water and newly inundated areas compensates for the reduced dissipation in deep water, leading to smaller tidal range. The changes in the tidal range are not proportional to the changes in the mean sea level, indicating a nonlinear tidal response to sea level rise. The ratio of tidal range change to sea level rise varies between -0.05 and 0.1 in Chesapeake Bay and between -0.2 and 0.25 in Delaware Bay. The model results suggest a potential adaptation strategy that uses inundation over low-lying areas to reduce tidal range at up-estuary locations.

  14. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Dave Martin and Associates, Inc., Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, limits development with conventional drilling. Combinations of vertical and horizontal wells combined with selective completions are being evaluated to optimize production performance. Based on the production response of similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Draw Pool. A detailed reservoir model of pilot area was developed, and enhanced recovery options, including waterflooding, lean gas, and carbon dioxide injection, are being evaluated.

  15. Niche dynamics of shorebirds in Delaware Bay: Foraging behavior, habitat choice and migration timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novcic, Ivana

    2016-08-01

    Niche differentiation through resource partitioning is seen as one of the most important mechanisms of diversity maintenance contributing to stable coexistence of different species within communities. In this study, I examined whether four species of migrating shorebirds, dunlins (Calidris alpina), semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), least sandpipers (Calidris minutilla) and short-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus), segregate by time of passage, habitat use and foraging behavior at their major stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. I tested the prediction that most of the separation between morphologically similar species will be achieved by differential migration timing. Despite the high level of overlap along observed niche dimensions, this study demonstrates a certain level of ecological separation between migrating shorebirds. The results of analyses suggest that differential timing of spring migration might be the most important dimension along which shorebird species segregate while at stopover in Delaware Bay. Besides differences in time of passage, species exhibited differences in habitat use, particularly least sandpipers that foraged in vegetated areas of tidal marshes more frequently than other species, as well as short-billed dowitchers that foraged in deeper water more often than small sandpipers did. Partitioning along foraging techniques was less prominent than segregation along temporal or microhabitat dimensions. Such ranking of niche dimensions emphasizes significance of temporal segregation of migratory species - separation of species by time of passage may reduce the opportunity for interspecific aggressive encounters, which in turn can have positive effects on birds' time and energy budget during stopover period.

  16. User’s guide for the Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Marla H.; Ulrich, James E.

    2016-06-09

    IntroductionThe Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET) is a tool for the simulation of streamflow at a daily time step for an ungaged stream location in the Delaware River Basin. DRB-SET was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and funded through WaterSMART as part of the National Water Census, a USGS research program on national water availability and use that develops new water accounting tools and assesses water availability at the regional and national scales. DRB-SET relates probability exceedances at a gaged location to those at an ungaged stream location. Once the ungaged stream location has been identified by the user, an appropriate streamgage is automatically selected in DRB-SET using streamflow correlation (map correlation method). Alternately, the user can manually select a different streamgage or use the closest streamgage. A report file is generated documenting the reference streamgage and ungaged stream location information, basin characteristics, any warnings, baseline (minimally altered) and altered (affected by regulation, diversion, mining, or other anthropogenic activities) daily mean streamflow, and the mean and median streamflow. The estimated daily flows for the ungaged stream location can be easily exported as a text file that can be used as input into a statistical software package to determine additional streamflow statistics, such as flow duration exceedance or streamflow frequency statistics.

  17. Relative competitiveness of soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ouriques Bastiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness between soybean cultivars and barnyardgrass, based on morphological and physiological characteristics of species. The experiments were conducted in completely randomized experimental design, with 4 replications. In the first study, for both soybean and barnyardgrass, it was determined the population of plants in which shoot dry matter became constant and independent of the population (16 plants∙pot−1 or 400 plants∙m−2. In the second study, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the competitiveness of BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass plants, both carried out in replacement series under different proportions of plants∙pot−1 (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100 between the crop and the weed. The analysis of the species competitiveness was determined through diagrams applied to replacement series experiments and use of relative competitiveness indexes. At 44 days after the emergence of species, the physiological and morphological parameters of the crop and the weed were evaluated. The BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars show similar competitiveness when competing with the barnyardgrass; therefore, the ability of one species to interfere on another is equivalent. For plant height, barnyardgrass displays higher competitiveness compared to BMX Apolo RR, with early cycle and short height. The intraspecific competition is more important to barnyardgrass than interspecific competition with soybean cultivars, resulting in negative effects on the morphological and physiological characteristics of species.

  18. Soybean oil biosynthesis: role of diacylglycerol acyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Fukushige, Hirotada; Hildebrand, David

    2013-03-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol to form seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG). To understand the features of genes encoding soybean (Glycine max) DGATs and possible roles in soybean seed oil synthesis and accumulation, two full-length cDNAs encoding type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases (GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B) were cloned from developing soybean seeds. These coding sequences share identities of 94 % and 95 % in protein and DNA sequences. The genomic architectures of GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B both contain 15 introns and 16 exons. Differences in the lengths of the first exon and most of the introns were found between GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B genomic sequences. Furthermore, detailed in silico analysis revealed a third predicted DGAT1, GmDGAT1C. GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B were found to have similar activity levels and substrate specificities. Oleoyl-CoA and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol were preferred substrates over vernoloyl-CoA and sn-1,2-divernoloylglycerol. Both transcripts are much more abundant in developing seeds than in other tissues including leaves, stem, roots, and flowers. Both soybean DGAT1A and DGAT1B are highly expressed at developing seed stages of maximal TAG accumulation with DGAT1B showing highest expression at somewhat later stages than DGAT1A. DGAT1A and DGAT1B show expression profiles consistent with important roles in soybean seed oil biosynthesis and accumulation.

  19. The impact of land and sea surface variations on the Delaware sea breeze at local scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher P.

    The summertime climate of coastal Delaware is greatly influenced by the intensity, frequency, and location of the local sea breeze circulation. Sea breeze induced changes in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation influence many aspects of Delaware's economy by affecting tourism, farming, air pollution density, energy usage, and the strength, and persistence of Delaware's wind resource. The sea breeze front can develop offshore or along the coastline and often creates a near surface thermal gradient in excess of 5°C. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the dynamics of the Delaware sea breeze with a focus on the immediate coastline using observed and modeled components, both at high resolutions (~200m). The Weather Research and Forecasting model (version 3.5) was employed over southern Delaware with 5 domains (4 levels of nesting), with resolutions ranging from 18km to 222m, for June 2013 to investigate the sensitivity of the sea breeze to land and sea surface variations. The land surface was modified in the model to improve the resolution, which led to the addition of land surface along the coastline and accounted for recent urban development. Nine-day composites of satellite sea surface temperatures were ingested into the model and an in-house SST forcing dataset was developed to account for spatial SST variation within the inland bays. Simulations, which include the modified land surface, introduce a distinct secondary atmospheric circulation across the coastline of Rehoboth Bay when synoptic offshore wind flow is weak. Model runs using high spatial- and temporal-resolution satellite sea surface temperatures over the ocean indicate that the sea breeze landfall time is sensitive to the SST when the circulation develops offshore. During the summer of 2013 a field campaign was conducted in the coastal locations of Rehoboth Beach, DE and Cape Henlopen, DE. At each location, a series of eleven small, autonomous thermo-sensors (i

  20. 75 FR 21653 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware-Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Minerals Management Service Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore... more commercial leases for the construction of a wind energy project(s) on the OCS offshore Delaware... offshore wind facility proposed on the OCS, about 12.5 miles off of Rehoboth Beach. The agreement...

  1. A numerical model to evaluate potential impacts of sea-level rise on groundwater resources in the Delaware coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, C.; McKenna, T. E.; Wang, L.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise on the U.S. East Coast has accelerated much faster than in other parts of the world. In Delaware, the estimated sea level could rise as high as 1.5 meters by the year 2100 based on the information in IPCC (2007) and CCSP (2009). In this study, we used a 3-D variable-density groundwater flow model to study the movement of the fresh-water/salt-water interface and water table changes due to sea-level rise. Rather than developing a site-specific model, we analyzed the geospatial features of a serious of sub-watersheds along the coastline of the Delaware Estuary in Delaware using ArcGIS and constructed a representative model to capture the generalized flow patterns and saltwater intrusion rates that occur in typical area. Different scenarios with varying parameters were simulated. The simulation results were then applied to the Delaware River region to evaluate potential impacts of groundwater level changes on the potential land lose.

  2. Uniting Rural, Urban and Suburban America! Live Internet-Based Paraeducator and Teacher Training in Idaho, Utah, Delaware, and Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, David E.; Morgan, Robert L.

    This paper describes Project Impact*Net, a model project for delivering training to paraeducators and teachers in light of requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act. The project delivered four semester-length courses to instructional sites serving 69 participants in Delaware, Idaho, Pennsylvania, and Utah. The Project Impact*Net delivery system…

  3. 76 FR 7589 - Bob Evans Farms, Inc., an Ohio Corporation, a Subsidiary of Bob Evans Farms, Inc., a Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bob Evans Farms, Inc., an Ohio Corporation, a Subsidiary of Bob Evans... Assistance (TAA), applicable to workers and former workers of Bob Evans Farms, Inc., an Ohio Corporation, a subsidiary of Bob Evans Farms, Inc., a Delaware Corporation, Galva, Illinois. The negative determination...

  4. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  5. Arsenic effect on the model crop symbiosis Bradyrhizobium-soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talano, Melina A; Cejas, Romina B; González, Paola S; Agostini, Elizabeth

    2013-02-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is often being cultivated in soils with moderate to high arsenic (As) concentrations or under irrigation with As contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of As on soybean germination, development and nodulation in soybean-Bradyrhizobium japonicum E109 symbiosis, as a first-step approach to evaluate the impact of As on soybean production. Semi-hydroponic assays were conducted using soybean seedlings inoculated and non-inoculated with B. japonicum E109 and treated with arsenate or arsenite. Soybean germination and development, at early stage of growth, were significantly reduced from 10 μM arsenate or arsenite. This also was seen for soybean seedlings inoculated with B. japonicum mainly with arsenite where, in addition, the number of effective nodules was reduced, despite that the microorganism tolerated the metalloid. This minor nodulation could be due to a reduced motility (swarming and swimming) of the microorganism in presence of As. Arsenic concentration in roots was about 250-times higher than in shoots. Transference coefficient values indicated that As translocation to aerial parts was low and As accumulated mainly in roots, without significant differences between inoculated and non-inoculated plants. The presence of As restricted soybean-B. japonicum symbiosis and hence, the efficiency of most used commercial inoculants for soybean. Thus, water and/or soils containing As would negatively impact on soybean production, even in plants inoculated with B. japonicum E109.

  6. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingyu; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Junwei J; Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Wusheng; Pantalone, Vincent R; Arelli, Prakash R; Stewart, Charles N; Chen, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in soybean defence against soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN). GmSAMT1 was identified as a candidate SCN defence-related gene in our previous analysis of soybean defence against SCN using GeneChip microarray experiments. The current study started with the isolation of the full-length cDNAs of GmSAMT1 from a SCN-resistant soybean line and from a SCN-susceptible soybean line. The two cDNAs encode proteins of identical sequences. The GmSAMT1 cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli. Using in vitro enzyme assays, E. coli-expressed GmSAMT1 was confirmed to function as salicylic acid methyltransferase. The apparent Km value of GmSAMT1 for salicylic acid was approximately 46 μM. To determine the role of GmSAMT1 in soybean defence against SCN, transgenic hairy roots overexpressing GmSAMT1 were produced and tested for SCN resistance. Overexpression of GmSAMT1 in SCN-susceptible backgrounds significantly reduced the development of SCN, indicating that overexpression of GmSAMT1 in the transgenic hairy root system could confer resistance to SCN. Overexpression of GmSAMT1 in transgenic hairy roots was also found to affect the expression of selected genes involved in salicylic acid biosynthesis and salicylic acid signal transduction.

  7. The effect of the combination of acids and tannin in diet on the performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krsnik Mladen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The abolition of in-feed antibiotics or chemotherapeutics as growth promoters have stimulated the swine industry to look for alternatives such as organic acids, botanicals, probiotics and tannin. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of a combination of acids and tannin with diet with organic acids and diet without growth promoters on the growth performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs. Tannin is more natural and cheaper but possibly with the same effectiveness as organic acids with regard to growth performance. Methods Thirty-six 7 week old grower pigs, divided into three equal groups, were used in a three week feeding trial. Group I was fed basal diet, group II basal diet with added organic acids and group III basal diet with added organic and inorganic acids and tannin. Pigs were weighed before and after feeding and observed daily. Blood was collected before and after the feeding trial for the determination of selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters. One-way ANOVA was used to assess any diet related changes of all the parameters. Paired t-test was used to evaluate changes of blood parameters individually in each group of growers before and after feeding. Results No clinical health problems related to diet were noted during the three week feeding trial. The average daily gain (ADG and selected blood parameters were not affected by the addition to basal diet of either acids and tannin or of organic acids alone. Selected blood parameters remained within the reference range before and after the feeding trial, with the exception of total serum proteins that were below the lower value of reference range at both times. The significant changes (paired t-test observed in individual groups before and after the feeding trial are related to the growth of pigs. Conclusion Diet with acids and tannin did not improve the

  8. Understanding the World Wool Market: Trade, Productivity and Grower Incomes. Part 6: The Costs of Global Tariff Barriers on Wool Products; Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This is Chapters 6 & 7 of my PhD thesis Understanding the World Wool Market: Trade, Productivity and Grower Incomes, UWA, 2006. The full thesis is available as Discussion Papers 06.19 to 06.24. The WOOLGEM model is applied to estimate the distortionary effects on prices, output, trade and regional welfare of wool tariff barriers. The estimates are simulated under long-run conditions where each region faces a trade balance constraint and capital is free to accumulate or depreciate within each ...

  9. Effects of Replacing of Inorganic Trace Minerals by Organically Bound Trace Minerals on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Status, and Fecal Mineral Excretion in Commercial Grower-Finisher Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Xiong, Pingwen; Chen, Nana; He, Junna; Lin, Gang; Xue, Yan; Li, Weifen; Yu, Dongyou

    2016-10-01

    A total of 180 crossbred pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White; BW = 47.1 ± 4.8 kg) were used to investigate the effects of totally replacing inorganic trace minerals (ITMs) by organically bound trace minerals (OTMs) on growth performance, tissue mineral status, liver antioxidant enzyme activities, and fecal mineral excretion in grower-finisher pigs. A randomized complete block design with three treatments and six replicates (n = 10 pigs per pen) was used in this 69-day, 2-phase feeding trial. Experimental treatments were as follows: (1) a basal diet without trace mineral supplementation, (2) basal + ITMs (Fe, Mn, and Zn from sulfates, Cu oxychloride, and sodium selenite providing commercially recommended levels in China at 125, 22.5, 117.5, 30, and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively), and 3) basal + OTMs (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu from Bioplex and Se as Sel-Plex (Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) providing levels identical to ITMs). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among the treatments during the entire grower-finisher period. Supplementation with minerals, regardless of source, increased (P supplemented. Pigs supplemented with OTMs displayed greater activities of Cu/Zn-SOD, ALP, and GSH-Px in the liver compared to pigs supplemented with ITMs. Dietary mineral supplementation to pig diets greatly increased (P mineral (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Se) excretion in both grower and finisher phases. Fecal concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Se excretion were lower (P supplementation than that in pigs fed diets containing ITMs. These results indicate that use of organic trace minerals, as well as no trace mineral supplementation, did not influence pig growth performance. Totally replacing ITMs by equivalent levels of OTMs could improve hepatic Cu/Zn-SOD, ALP, and GSH-Px activities and reduce fecal Mn, Cu, and Se excretion for grower-finisher pigs when supplemented at commercially recommended levels.

  10. Heating affects the content and distribution profile of isoflavones in steamed black soybeans and black soybean koji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru-Yue; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2008-09-24

    Steamed black soybeans and black soybean koji, a potentially functional food additive, were subjected to heating at 40-100 degrees C for 30 min. It was found that steamed black soybeans and black soybean koji after heating at 80 degrees C or higher generally showed reduced contents of malonylglucoside, acetylglucoside, and aglycone isoflavone and an increased content of beta-glucoside. A lower reduction in malonylglucoside and acetylglucoside isoflavone but greater reduction in aglycone content was noted in steamed black soybeans compared to black soybean koji after a similar heat treatment. After 30 min of heating at 100 degrees C, steamed black soybean retained ca. 90.3 and 83.8%, respectively, of its original malonylglucoside and acetylglucoside isoflavone, compared to lower residuals of 80.9 and 78.8%, respectively, for black soybean koji. In contrast, the heated black soybeans showed an aglycone residual of 68.0%, which is less than the 80.0% noted with the heated black soybean koji.

  11. [Impact of climatic change on soybean production: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xing-yu; Han, Xue; Ju, Hui; Lin, Er-da

    2010-10-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the rapid increase of global atmospheric concentration of CO2 and other greenhouse gases has induced the global warming and the change of global precipitation pattern. The growth, development, yield, and quality of soybean are subject to all these changes of climatic conditions. Soybean is one of the major grain and oil crops in the world and in China, and any change in the soybean production under future climate scenario will affect the grain- and edible oil security nationally and internationally. This paper reviewed the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2, global warming, and water stress on soybean growth, and discussed the future research needs, which could provide scientific basis for realizing soybean production in the future and for implementing in advance proper policies in the context of climatic change impact on soybean production.

  12. Comparison of different strategies for soybean antioxidant extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun; Ji, Xiangming; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-04-14

    Three extraction strategies including Soxhlet extraction, conventional solid-liquid extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were compared for their efficiency to extract phenolic antioxidants from Virginia-grown soybean seeds. Five extraction solvents were evaluated in UAE and the conventional extraction. The soybean extracts were compared for their total phenolic contents (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activities. The results showed that UAE improved the extraction of soybean phenolic compounds by >54% compared to the conventional and Soxhlet extractions. Among the tested solvents, 50% acetone was the most efficient for extracting soybean phenolic compounds. There was no significant correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activities of the soybean extracts. The extracts prepared by 70% ethanol had the highest ORAC values. Overall, UAE with 50% acetone or 70% ethanol is recommended for extracting soybean antioxidants on the basis of the TPC and ORAC results.

  13. Quality characteristics of soybean pasted (Doenjang) manufactured with 2 soybean mutant lines derived from cv. baekwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Jun; Kang, Si Yong; Choi, Hong Il; Kim, Jin Baek [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In order to identification of the possibility of manufacturing soybean paste (doenjang) with soybean mutant lines induced from gamma-ray mutagenesis, this study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of doenjang using two soybean mutant lines, Baekwon-1 (BW-1) and Baekwon-2 (BW-2) and their original cultivar (cv. Baekwon, BW) for 8 weeks. The BW and two mutant lines (BW-1 and BW-2) were showed higher content of amino type nitrogen than control (cv. Taegwang). The pH decreased and the titratable acidity increased all the samples during aging period. The lightness, redness and yellowness of doenjang were the lowest in BW. Total free sugar content of doenjang was the highest in control (10.43%) after 4 weeks and composed mainly fructose and glucose. The order of the free amino acid content was Glutamic acid>Leucine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in control, Glutamic acid>Leucine >Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine in BW, Glutamic acid>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid>Valine in BW-1 and Glutamic acid>Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in BW-2, respectively. Our results showed that it is possible to increase the quality of doenjang using soybean mutant lines in manufacturing soybean paste.

  14. Performances and Germplasm Evaluation of Quantitative Resistance to Soybean Mosaic Virus in Soybeans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHI Hai-jian; GAI Jun-yi

    2004-01-01

    A sample composed of 96 soybean accessions was evaluated for their diseased rate (I),diseased rank (S), latent period (LP) and rate of disease development (R) in order tostudy the quantitative resistance to soybean mosaic virus (SMV) in soybeans. The resultsshowed that the performances of the above four resistance components were significantlydifferent among accessions and that some of the accessions, such as Zhongzihuangdou,Peixian Tianedan, Youbian30 could be infected by four SMV strains, Sa, SC8, N1 and N3,but their I, S, and R were lower and LP longer than most other accessions. These resultsdemonstrated the existence of quantitative resistance to SMV in soybeans. It was foundthat some soybean accessions, such as AGS19 and Lishui Zhongzihuangdou, previouslyidentified as resistant to SMV infection, performed some infection but resistant toexpansion in the present study. In addition, the resistance in Pixian Chadou and HuaiyinQiuheidou might be either qualitative or quantitative. Furthermore, the present studyalso indicated that the resistance spectrum and durability of accessions with quantitativeresistance might be wider and longer than those with qualitative resistance.

  15. Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis of Hydroxylated Soybean Lecithin from Crude Soybean Lecithin as an Emulsifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiplunkar, Pranali P; Pratap, Amit P

    2017-09-15

    Soybean lecithin is a by-product obtained during degumming step of crude soybean oil refining. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) contains major amount of phospholipids (PLs) along with minor amount of acylglycerols, bioactive components, etc. Due to presence of PLs, CSL can be used as an emulsifier. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) was utilized to synthesize hydroxylated soybean lecithin (HSL) by hydroxylation using hydrogen peroxide and catalytic amount of lactic acid to enhance the hydrophilicity and emulsifying properties of CSL. To reduce the reaction time and to increase rate of reaction, HSL was synthesized under ultrasound irradiation. The effect of different operating parameters such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle in synthesis of HSL were studied and optimized. The surface tension (SFT), interfacial tension (IFT) and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the HSL (26.11 mN/m, 2.67 mN/m, 112 mg/L) were compared to CSL (37.53 mN/m, 6.22 mN/m, 291 mg/L) respectively. The HSL has better emulsion stability and low foaming characteristics as compared to CSL. Therefore, the product as an effective emulsifier can be used in food, pharmacy, lubricant, cosmetics, etc.

  16. Rag1 aphid resistant soybeans alter the movement and distribution of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Rebecca; Harmon, Jason P

    2012-12-01

    Herbivorous insects often move and distribute according to the quality of the plant they are on, and this behavior could influence interactions with plants bred for herbivore resistance. However, when an insect is normally considered sedentary, less is known about the potential importance of movement. We performed experiments to determine if a resistant soybean variety alters the movement and distribution, both within and between plants, of the soybean aphid Aphis glycines Matsumura. We did this by counting apterous aphids on leaves of resistant and susceptible soybean plants across several days. In individual plant tests aphid distribution was different between susceptible and resistant soybeans. Most notably aphids on resistant plants were quickly found off the original leaf on which they were placed and were ultimately distributed throughout the resistant soybean. Aphids on susceptible plants, however, tended to stay on their initial leaf of placement. Follow up experiments indicated this was primarily because of the movement of individuals and not differential demography on various plant parts. In experiments where aphids were able to walk to an adjacent plant there appeared to be a net movement of aphids off resistant plants and on to susceptible plants. Aphid populations on susceptible plants were higher when the plant was adjacent to a resistant plant than when adjacent to another susceptible plant. The effect of resistant plants on aphid movement and distribution could lead to unintended side-effects such as greater spread of plant viruses or altered effectiveness of biological control agents.

  17. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity.

  18. Study on Hydrolysis Conditions of Flavourzyme in Soybean Polypeptide Alcalase Hydrolysate and Soybean Polypeptide Refining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Ma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean protein Alcalase hydrolysate was further hydrolyzed by adopting Flavourzyme as hydrolytic enzyme. The optimal hydrolysis conditions of Flavourzyme was that pH was 7.0 at temperature 50°C and E/S(ratio of enzyme and substrate was 20LAPU/g. Bitterness value was reduced to 2 after Flavourzyme hydrolysis reaction in optimal hydrolysis conditions. The change of molecular weight distribution range from Alcalase hydrolysate to Flavourzyme hydrolysate was not obvious. DH (Degree of hydrolysis of soybean protein hydrolysate was increased to 24.2% which was improved 3.5% than Alcalase hydrolysate. Protein recovery proportion was increased to 73.2% which was improved 0.8% than Alcalase hydrolysate. Soybean polypeptide Flavourzyme hydrolysate was decolorized with activated carbon which optimal dosage was 1.2% solution amount (w/w. Anion/cation exchange process was used in the desalination processing of soybean polypeptide. Ratio of anion resin and cation resin was 2:3(V/V. The volume of hydrolysate processed was 5 times as the volume of anion resin. Ash content of soybean peptide solution reduced to 2.11% (dry basis, salinity decreased by 86% after desalination processing.

  19. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kanobe

    Full Text Available The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of "metabolic hijacking" by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor.

  20. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers RWJ Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Niles, Lawrence [Conserve Wildlife, 109 Market Lane, Greenwich, NJ (United States); Dey, Amanda [NJ Department of Environmental Protection, Endangered and Nongame Species Program, Trenton, NJ (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Rd, Bernardsville, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-15

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  1. Environmental drivers of dissolved organic matter molecular composition in the Delaware Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholz, Helena; Kirchman, David L.; Niggemann, Jutta; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    Estuaries as connectors of freshwater and marine aquatic systems are hotspots of biogeochemical element cycling. In one of the best studied temperate estuaries, the Delaware Estuary (USA), we investigated the variability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) over five sampling cruises along the salinity gradient in August and November of 3 consecutive years. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were more variable in the upper reaches of the estuary (245±49 µmol L-1) than at the mouth of the estuary (129±14 µmol L-1). Bulk DOC decreased conservatively along the transect in November but was non-conservative with increased DOC concentrations mid-estuary in August. Detailed analysis of the solid-phase extractable DOM pool via ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS) revealed compositional differences at the molecular level that were not reflected in changes in concentration. Besides the mixing of terrestrial and marine endmember signatures, river discharge levels and biological activity were found to impact DOM molecular composition. DOM composition changed less between August and November than along the salinity gradient. Relative contributions of presumed photolabile DOM compounds did not reveal non-conservative behavior indicative of photochemical processing; suggesting that on the timescales of estuarine mixing photochemical removal of molecules plays a minor role in the turbid Delaware Bay. Overall, a large portion of molecular formulae overlapped between sampling campaigns and persisted during estuarine passage. Extending the analysis to the structural level via the fragmentation of molecular masses in the FT-ICR-MS cell, we found that the relative abundance of isomers along the salinity gradient did not change, indicating a high structural similarity of aquatic DOM independent of the origin. These results point towards a recalcitrant character of the DOM supplied by the Delaware

  2. Environmental drivers of dissolved organic matter molecular composition in the Delaware Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Osterholz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries as connectors of freshwater and marine aquatic systems are hotspots of biogeochemical element cycling. In one of the best studied temperate estuaries, the Delaware Estuary (USA, we investigated the variability of dissolved organic matter (DOM over five sampling cruises along the salinity gradient in August and November of 3 consecutive years. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were more variable in the upper reaches of the estuary (245±49 µmol L-1 than at the mouth of the estuary (129±14 µmol L-1. Bulk DOC decreased conservatively along the transect in November but was non-conservative with increased DOC concentrations mid-estuary in August. Detailed analysis of the solid-phase extractable DOM pool via ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS revealed compositional differences at the molecular level that were not reflected in changes in concentration. Besides the mixing of terrestrial and marine endmember signatures, river discharge levels and biological activity were found to impact DOM molecular composition. DOM composition changed less between August and November than along the salinity gradient. Relative contributions of presumed photolabile DOM compounds did not reveal non-conservative behavior indicative of photochemical processing; suggesting that on the timescales of estuarine mixing photochemical removal of molecules plays a minor role in the turbid Delaware Bay. Overall, a large portion of molecular formulae overlapped between sampling campaigns and persisted during estuarine passage. Extending the analysis to the structural level via the fragmentation of molecular masses in the FT-ICR-MS cell, we found that the relative abundance of isomers along the salinity gradient did not change, indicating a high structural similarity of aquatic DOM independent of the origin. These results point towards a recalcitrant character of the DOM supplied by the

  3. MARKETING PRACTICES AND MARKET CHANNEL UTILIZATION BY MISSISSIPPI SOYBEAN PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren; JONES, Tom

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines current marketing practices by Mississippi soybean producers as well as willingness to participate in a marketing cooperative and willingness to plant Identity Preserved soybeans. In general, most Mississippi soybean producers utilize cash sales at harvest or forward contracting as primary marketing tools. Use of futures and options is found to increase with farm size. Willingness to participate in a marketing cooperative (pool) is found to be effected by use of cash sales...

  4. Chances and limitations of European soybean production : market potential analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Berschneider, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Overseas imports of soybeans from Brazil, the US and Argentina to Europe are increasing every year. Simultaneously, GMO farming in these countries is being expanded ever further. European farming of protein crops especially soybeans is being pushed by organizations and protein initiatives for economical and ecological reasons. In 2015 soybean acreages expanded drastically due to the additional Greening political measures which came into force. Therefore it is worth asking about the potential ...

  5. Chances and limitations of European soybean production : market potential analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Berschneider, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Overseas imports of soybeans from Brazil, the US and Argentina to Europe are increasing every year. Simultaneously, GMO farming in these countries is being expanded ever further. European farming of protein crops especially soybeans is being pushed by organizations and protein initiatives for economical and ecological reasons. In 2015 soybean acreages expanded drastically due to the additional Greening political measures which came into force. Therefore it is worth asking about the potential ...

  6. Soybeans, Poverty and Inequality in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Weinhold, Diana; Killick, Evan; Reis, Eustaquio Jose

    2011-01-01

    The recent growth of soybean cultivation in the Brazilian Amazon has been unprecedented, even as the debate continues over its economic and environmental consequences. Based on contemporary datasets as well as our own field studies, this paper examines the social and economic costs and benefits of increases in soybean production for local populations. After presenting some background information on the rise of soybean cultivation in Brazil we examine the relationship between increases in soyb...

  7. Evaluation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments and sentinel benthic organisms of the Delaware Bay Division, Cape May National Wildlife Refuge and adjoining marshes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This pilot study was conducted to characterize ambient petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in marshes of the Cape May NWR and adjacent areas bordering the Delaware...

  8. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the DELAWARE from 10 May 1967 to 01 June 1967 (NODC Accession 7000769)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the DELAWARE from 10 May 1967 to 01 June 1967. Data were submitted by the National Marine...

  9. Current direction and CTD data from moored current meter and CTD casts in the Delaware Bay from 01 January 1984 - 01 December 1984 (NODC Accession 8600001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and CTD data were collected using moored current meter and CTD casts in the Delaware Bay from January 1, 1984 to December 1, 1985. Data were...

  10. Current direction data from moored current meter casts in the Delaware Bay from 23 February 1976 - 23 September 1985 (NODC Accession 8600005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Delaware Bay from February 23, 1976 to September 23, 1985. Data were submitted by...

  11. A sequence based synteny map between soybean and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lightfoot David A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soybean (Glycine max, L. Merr. is one of the world's most important crops, however, its complete genomic sequence has yet to be determined. Nonetheless, a large body of sequence information exists, particularly in the form of expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Herein, we report the use of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress for which the entire genomic sequence is available as a framework to align thousands of short soybean sequences. Results A series of JAVA-based programs were created that processed and compared 341,619 soybean DNA sequences against A. thaliana chromosomal DNA. A. thaliana DNA was probed for short, exact matches (15 bp to each soybean sequence, and then checked for the number of additional 7 bp matches in the adjacent 400 bp region. The position of these matches was used to order soybean sequences in relation to the A. thaliana genome. Conclusion Reported associations between soybean sequences and A. thaliana were within a 95% confidence interval of e-30 – e-100. In addition, the clustering of soybean expressed sequence tags (ESTs based on A. thaliana sequence was accurate enough to identify potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the soybean sequence clusters. An EST, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC end sequence and marker amplicon sequence synteny map of soybean and A. thaliana is presented. In addition, all JAVA programs used to create this map are available upon request and on the WEB.

  12. Soil Respiration During a Soybean-Growing Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Soil respiration induced by soybean cultivation over its entire growing season and the factors influencing soil respiration were investigated to examine the seasonal pattern of soil respiration induced by soybean cultivation, explore soybean growth and photosynthesis on soil respiration, and determine the temperature dependence on soil respiration. Soil respiration in a pot experiment with and without soybean plants was sampled using the static chamber method and measured using gas chromatograph. Air temperature was a dominant factor controlling soil respiration rate in unplanted soil. Additionally,rhizosphere respiration comprised 62% to 98% of the soil respiration rate in the soybean-planted soil varying with the soybean growth stages. Harvesting aerial parts of soybean plant caused an immediate drop in the soil respiration rate at that stage. After harvesting the aerial parts of the soybean plant, a highly significant correlation between soil respiration rate and air temperature was found at the flowering stage (P < 0.01), the pod stage (P < 0.01), and the seed-filling stage(P < 0.05). Thus, rhizosphere respiration during the soybean-growing period not only made a great contribution to soil respiration, but also determined the seasonal variation pattern of the soil respiration rate.

  13. The comparative advantage of South Africa soybean production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahta Yonas T.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of trade policy on the South African soybean industry is analyzed by using 4 digits Standard International Trade Classification of soybean (1201 data of 1996–2011. The Revealed comparative advantage (RCA, Hirschman index, Major export category, Effective rate of protection (ERP and Nominal rate of protection (NRP were calculated. The RCA of the soybean industry in South Africa has shown a revealed comparative disadvantage from 1996–2011. Hirschman index indicates that the soybean industry shows lower concentration throughout 16 years. Lower concentration reduces the impact of international trade risk due to the possibility of price fluctuation of the soybean product. MEC measurement also indicates that South Africa does not rely its international trade from the soybean industry. ERP and NRP were also calculated, using an enterprise budget for soybean production. The result shows that the ERP is negative, which indicates that the weighted input tariffs on soybean inputs amount are more than the output tariffs; that is an indication producers of soybean would be better off, everything else being equal, by not being protected through tariffs. The NRP is higher than the ERP which implies that the tariff applied on the output is higher than the tariff applied on inputs. The structure of the tariff schedule may have an important bearing on efficiency. Thus, the study recommended that an extremely dispersed and ill-chosen tariff structure implies that protection remains uneven and gains from openness may still be confined.

  14. Divergence of flowering genes in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moon Young Kim; Jin Hee Shin; Yang Jae Kang; Sang Rea Shim; Suk-Ha Lee

    2012-11-01

    Soybean genome sequences were blasted with Arabidopsis thaliana regulatory genes involved in photoperiod-dependent flowering. This approach enabled the identification of 118 genes involved in the flowering pathway. Two genome sequences of cultivated (Williams 82) and wild (IT182932) soybeans were employed to survey functional DNA variations in the flowering-related homologs. Forty genes exhibiting nonsynonymous substitutions between G. max and G. soja were catalogued. In addition, 22 genes were found to co-localize with QTLs for six traits including flowering time, first flower, pod maturity, beginning of pod, reproductive period, and seed filling period. Among the genes overlapping the QTL regions, two LHY/CCA1 genes, GI and SFR6 contained amino acid changes. The recently duplicated sequence regions of the soybean genome were used as additional criteria for the speculation of the putative function of the homologs. Two duplicated regions showed redundancy of both flowering-related genes and QTLs. ID 12398025, which contains the homeologous regions between chr 7 and chr 16, was redundant for the LHY/CCA1 and SPA1 homologs and the QTLs. Retaining of the CRY1 gene and the pod maturity QTLs were observed in the duplicated region of ID 23546507 on chr 4 and chr 6. Functional DNA variation of the LHY/CCA1 gene (Glyma07g05410) was present in a counterpart of the duplicated region on chr 7, while the gene (Glyma16g01980) present in the other portion of the duplicated region on chr 16 did not show a functional sequence change. The gene list catalogued in this study provides primary insight for understanding the regulation of flowering time and maturity in soybean.

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: soybean [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available soybean Glycine max Glycine_max_L.png Glycine_max_NL.png Glycine_max_S.png Glycine_max..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=NS ...

  16. Effects of different enzyme complex supplements in corn-soybean feedstuff on growth performance and nutrient utilization of broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hua; WANG Kang-ning

    2008-01-01

    A six-week experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing different enzyme cocktails in corn-soybean-byproduct diets on broiler chickens' growth performance and nutrient utilization. A total of 630 one-day-old Arbor Acre broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 7 experimental groups with 6 replicates of 15 chicks. The group of chicks serving as the control group were fed a basal diet made of mainly corn and soybean meal, mixed with a little fish meal, rapeseed meal and wheat bran. The other six groups were fed the same basal diet supplemented with each a different enzyme complex at the dosage of 0.75 kg enzyme in 1 t basal diet. At the same time, a metabolic trial was carried out on 42 chicks at the 27 d age. The results showed that the average daily mass gain (ADG) of chicks in the starter phase, age 1 d to 21 d, was improved by all enzyme complex supplements except the cocktail made of 230 IU/g (-amylase, 5.6 kIU/g (-glucanase, 5.3 kIU/g cellulase, 15.5 kIU/g protease and 37.5 kIU/g xylanase. The enzyme cocktail made of 1.6 kIU/g (-amylase, 80 kIU/g protease and 1.6 kIU/g xylanase worked out the most significant difference (P(0.05). Enzyme supplementation decreased the feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 2.78% to 3.98% (P(0.05), indicating better utilization of nutritients. In the grower phase at the age from 22 d to 42 d, the enzyme cocktail made of 4.0 kIU/g (-glucanase, 3.8 kIU/g cellulase, 17.8 kIU/g protease, 4.5 kIU/g xylanase and 44 IU/g (-glactase, and that made of 240 IU/g (-amylase, 1.4.6 kIU/g (-glucanase, 2.0 kIU/g cellulase, 5.7 kIU/g protease, 400 IU/g xylanase, 20 IU/g (-glactase and 200 IU/g phytase imporved chicks' ADG and FCR significantly (P(0.05). These two cocktails also were shown to improve ADG and FCR in the entire period of broiler age from 1 d to 42 d. Exogenous digesting enzymes such as protease and amylase benefited the growth and nutrition utilization in young broilers in the starter phase but barely in the grower

  17. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented.

  18. A summary of the test procedures and operational details of a Delaware River and an ocean dumping pollution monitoring experiment conducted 28 August 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Ohlhorst, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Two remote sensor evaluation experiments are discussed. One experiment was conducted at the DuPont acid-dump site off the Delaware coast. The second was conducted at an organic waste outfall in the Delaware River. The operational objective of obtaining simultaneous sea truth sampling with remote sensors overpasses was met. Descriptions of the test sites, sensors, sensor platforms, flight lines, sea truth data collected, and operational chronology are presented.

  19. Development of Soybean Highly Pure Powdered Lecithin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiGuihua; GuKeren; LiangShaohua

    2002-01-01

    This project makes use of Condensed Soybean Phospholipids(CSP)to produce highly pure powdered soybean lecithin.In the production technology,the first step is to de-oil by continuously delivered material,high effective mixing CSP with acetone and circular extraction.The second step is to centrifugally separate the lecithin miscellaneous liquid into miscellaneous oil and solid-state lecithin with acetone.Then the mixing oil can be separated into crude oil and acetone by vaporization and condensation.If the acetone contains too much water,it shoud be rectified for use circularly.Solid state lecithin with acetone can be made into highly pure powdered soybean lecithin (acetone insoluble matter >95%)under the following conditions:vacuum 750mmHg,temperature 60℃,time 20 minutes.The production not only reaches the domestic and oversea quality index,but also has favorable hydrophilic property,which makes it become natural food additive and sanitarian nurture.

  20. Environmental accounting of biodiesel from soybeans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanelli, T.L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2008-07-01

    As nonrenewable energy sources are depleted globally new sources of energy are becoming necessary. One option that has been explored in recent years is biodiesel production using agricultural products such as soybeans. The emergy accounting method gives value to environmental flows of energy and it quantifies the total amount of energy that has gone in to a product. Also, it provides an inventory of inputs and outputs that can be used to analyze what, if any, types of changes can be made to specific processes within the production as well as improvements in the efficiency of the system as a whole in order to increase the viability of biodiesel as a fuel source. This evaluation uses the concept of emergy to quantify the costs and returns of biodiesel production. This study showed that, currently in the typical production system in the US, biodiesel is not competitive to fossil fuel sources regarding energy providing. But, considering the depletion of the latter source it may become part of source for society. For biodiesel from soybean oil to become more energetically competitive the agricultural production has to be improved since it demands more than 80% of the used resources. Within the soybean production, topsoil loss was responsible for more than 40% which also negatively affects the renewability of this energy source. (author)

  1. Determinants of the Use of Certified Seed Potato among Smallholder Farmers: The Case of Potato Growers in Central and Eastern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Juma Okello

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Potato yields in sub-Saharan Africa remain very low compared with those of developed countries. Yet potato is major food staple and source of income to the predominantly smallholder growing households in the tropical highlands of this region. A major cause of the low potato yields is the use of poor quality seed potato. This paper examines the factors determining the decision to use certified seed potato (CSP, as well as the intensity of its use, among potato growers with access to it. We focused on potato growers in the central highlands of Kenya and used regression analysis to test hypotheses relating to potential impediments of CSP use. The study found that the distance to the market (a proxy for transaction costs, household food insecurity, and asset endowment affect the decision to use CSP. However, the effect of the intensity of use of CSP depends on how the intensity variable is defined. Several other control variables also affect the decision and extent of CSP use. The study concludes that transaction costs, asset endowment, and household food insecurity play a major role in the decision by smallholder potato farmers to use CSP and the extent to which they do so. We also discuss the policy implications of the findings.

  2. Some hydrological impacts of climate change for the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    To gain insight into possible impacts of climate change on water availability in the Delaware River, two models are linked. The first model is a monthly water balance model that converts the temperature and precipitation values generated by a random number generator to monthly streamflow values. The monthly streamflow values are input to a second model that simulates the operation of reservoirs and diversions within the basin. The output for the two linked models consists of time series of reservoir levels and streamflow at key points in the basin. Model results for a base case, in which monthly temperature and precipitation statistics are unchanged from historical records, are compared to several changed-climate scenarios under a standard set of rules of operation.

  3. Spatial pattern of hormone and antibiotic concentrations in surface waters in Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaicunas, R.; Inamdar, S. P.; Dutta, S.; Aga, D.; Zimmerman, L. R.

    2011-12-01

    Water quality surveys of the U.S. have confirmed the presence of hormones and antibiotics in some surface waters. Although the reported concentrations of these substances are extremely low, there is substantial concern about their effect on aquatic species. For example, chronic exposure to estradiol (E2β) concentrations as low as 40 ng/L have been shown to cause endocrine disruption in fish. Furthermore, there is potential for contaminants to enter our drinking supply. Significant sources of hormones and antibiotics include discharge from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and wastewater treatment plants as well as runoff from agricultural land receiving application of animal manure. Since Sussex County, Delaware is one of the leading poultry producing counties in the nation, and many farmers in the state use poultry litter as fertilizer for their crops, it is critical to study the concentrations of contaminants in surface waters. Fifty surface water (streams, lakes, and ponds) sampling locations throughout the state of Delaware were chosen based on DNREC (Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control) data. Locations with the highest nitrogen and phosphorus levels were assumed to be associated with agriculture and wastewater sources and therefore were likely to be contaminated with hormones and antibiotics. The first set of sampling occurred in April representing high-flow conditions, and the second set will occur in September representing low-flow conditions. Water samples will be screened through the cost-effective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method followed by more rigorous analyses of selected samples using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). ELISA screening includes estradiol (E2β), sulfamethazine and triclosan, while LC/MS/MS will quantify both free and conjugated forms of estrone (E1), estradiol (E2β), estriol (E3), as well as selected sulfa and tetracycline antibiotics. Initial ELISA results

  4. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System located at the Wilmington, Swim School, New Castle, Delaware. This active solar system is composed of 2,700 square feet of Revere liquid flat plate collectors piped to a 2,800 gallon concrete storage tank located below ground near the building. A micro-computer based control system selects the optimal applications of the stored energy among space, domestic water and pool alternatives. The controlled logic is planned for serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat-new addition, domestic water-entire facility, and pool heating-entire facility. A modified trombe wall passive operation the active system will bypass the areas being served passively. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution.

  5. Skylab/EREP application to ecological, geological, and oceanographic investigations of Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V.; Bartlett, D. S.; Philpot, W. D.; Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    Skylab/EREP S190A and S190B film products were optically enhanced and visually interpreted to extract data suitable for; (1) mapping coastal land use; (2) inventorying wetlands vegetation; (3) monitoring tidal conditions; (4) observing suspended sediment patterns; (5) charting surface currents; (6) locating coastal fronts and water mass boundaries; (7) monitoring industrial and municipal waste dumps in the ocean; (8) determining the size and flow direction of river, bay and man-made discharge plumes; and (9) observing ship traffic. Film products were visually analyzed to identify and map ten land-use and vegetation categories at a scale of 1:125,000. Digital tapes from the multispectral scanner were used to prepare thematic maps of land use. Classification accuracies obtained by comparison of derived thematic maps of land-use with USGS-CARETS land-use maps in southern Delaware ranged from 44 percent to 100 percent.

  6. Sweden in the Delaware Valley: Everyday Life and Material Culture in New Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    In 1637 the Swedish Crown, encouraged by Dutch merchants, developed a plan to establish a colonial outpost in America to tap into profitable tobacco and beaver pelt trade. The same year the first cargo ships left Sweden and sailed westwards to claim their piece of America along the Delaware River....... Although in many ways unsuccessful and short-lived (the colony collapsed in 1656), New Sweden became a home for generations of colonists. This chapter focuses on the different aspects of their daily life: their longing and desperation, practices of homemaking and domesticating the landscape......, their perception and interactions with the neighbouring Native American groups. It discusses the ways material culture was used, exchanged and appropriated by the colonists and the local Lenape and Susquehannock in the processes of meeting, negotiations and daily coexistence....

  7. Understanding water column and streambed thermal refugia for endangered mussels in the Delaware River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A; Voytek, Emily B; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Rosenberry, Donald O; Lane, John W

    2013-10-15

    Groundwater discharge locations along the upper Delaware River, both discrete bank seeps and diffuse streambed upwelling, may create thermal niche environments that benefit the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon). We seek to identify whether discrete or diffuse groundwater inflow is the dominant control on refugia. Numerous springs and seeps were identified at all locations where dwarf wedgemussels still can be found. Infrared imagery and custom high spatial resolution fiber-optic distributed temperature sensors reveal complex thermal dynamics at one of the seeps with a relatively stable, cold groundwater plume extending along the streambed/water-column interface during midsummer. This plume, primarily fed by a discrete bank seep, was shown through analytical and numerical heat-transport modeling to dominate temperature dynamics in the region of potential habitation by the adult dwarf wedgemussel.

  8. [Effects of maize plant types on dry matter accumulation characteristics and yield of soybean in maize-soybean intercropping systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liang; Yang, Wen-yu; Huang, Ni; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Yan-ling; Wang, Xiao-hui; Liu, Yang; Yan, Shou

    2015-08-01

    In order to explore the effects of maize plant types on dry matter accumulation and yield of soybean, a field experiment was conducted in 2013, including three maize-soybean relay strip intercropping systems. The relay strip intercropping systems were designed as soybean (Gongxuan 1) intercropped with Denghai 605 (RI1), Chuandan 418 (RI2) or Yayu 13 ( RI3), and the monocultured soybean was used as control. The results demonstrated that the dry matter accumulation rates of intercropped soybean in RI2 and RI3 treatments were lower than in RI1 treatment, and the leaf, stem and pod dry matter accumulation of intercropped soybean in RI1 treatment was 17.6%, 16.5% and 13.7% higher than that in RI2 treatment, and 34.6%, 33.1% and 28.4% higher than that in RI3 treatment, respectively. The distribution proportion of leaf and stem of intercropped soybean was in the order of RI1 > RI2 > RI3. However, the trend of the distribution proportion of pod was opposite. Compared with RI2 and RI3, the dry matter translocation amount, translocation proportion, contribution proportion of soybean vegetative organs to pod of soybean were improved in RI, treatment, and the pod per plant, seeds per plant, seeds per pod, yield per plant and yield of soybean in RI, were higher than RI2 and RI3 by 6.8%, 11.5%, 4.4%, 15.9%, 15.6% and 14.3%, 22.2%, 6.7%, 33.4%, 36.8%, respectively. The results showed that the yield was positively related with the accumulation rate of dry matter, dry matter translocation, dry matter translocation ratio and the contribution of dry matter accumulation, and these indices were highest in RI treatment. The results indicated that the compact maize relay intercropped with soybean could effectively regulate the dry matter accumulation, translocation and distribution, and improve the yield of soybean.

  9. Effect of a microbial phytase on growth performance, plasma parameters and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in Youxian Sheldrake fed a low-phosphorus corn-soybean diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoping He

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the effect of microbial phytase supplementation on growth performance, tibia ash, plasma parameters, apparent ileal digestibility (AID of amino acid (AA and apparent digestibility of nutrients in Youxian Sheldrakes fed with low-phosphorus (P corn-soybean diets. Methods A total of 350 Youxian Sheldrakes (7d old were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups: positive control (PC group has adequate available P diet (0.42% and 0.38%, starter and grower, negative control (NC group were deficient in available P (0.32% and 0.28%, starter and grower and NC diet was supplemented with 3 levels of microbial phytase (500, 750, and 1,000 U/kg. Results Dietary supplementation of phytase in NC diet improved the average daily gain, increased the levels of serum calcium (Ca, tibia Ca and P, AID of AA and apparent digestibility of energy and Ca in starter stage (p<0.05. There was an increased (p<0.001 in the utilization of P from 17.3% to 23.9%. Phytase supplementation (1,000 U/kg has shown that the AID of His, Thr, Val, indispensable AA, Glu, Pro, and dispensable AA was higher (p<0.05 than that of NC. Moreover, phytase supplementation improved (p<0.05 serum and tibia Ca and P, AID of AA and apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, energy, P and Ca, and reduced (p<0.05 feed to gain ratio (F/G and the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase in grower stage. Likewise, an increase (p<0.001 in the utilization of P was noticed from 12.6% to 17.2%. Supplement phytase at 750 U/kg improved the AID of His, Thr, Asp, Cys, Pro, and Ser (p<0.05. Conclusion The microbial phytase supplement could improve growth performance, AID of some AA and apparent utilization of other nutrients in Youxian Sheldrakes, and reduce excreta P load to environment.

  10. Ground-water contamination from lead shot at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Miller, Cherie V.

    2003-01-01

    Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge is located in southeastern Delaware in coastal lowlands along the margin of Delaware Bay. For 37 years, the Broadkiln Sportsman?s Club adjacent to the refuge operated a trap-shooting range, with the clay-target launchers oriented so that the expended lead shot from the range dropped into forested wetland areas on the refuge property. Investigators have estimated that up to 58,000 shotgun pellets per square foot are present in locations on the refuge where the lead shot fell to the ground. As part of the environmental risk assessment for the site, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated the potential for lead contamination in ground water. Results from two sampling rounds in 19 shallow wells indicate that elevated levels of dissolved lead are present in ground water at the site. The lead and associated metals, such as antimony and arsenic (common shotgun pellet alloys), are being transported along shallow ground-water flowpaths toward an open-water slough in the forested wetland adjacent to the downrange target area. Water samples from wells located along the bank of the slough contained dissolved lead concentrations higher than 400 micrograms per liter, and as high as 1 milligram per liter. In contrast, a natural background concentration of lead from ground water in a well upgradient from the site is about 1 microgram per liter. Two water samples collected several months apart from the slough directly downgradient of the shooting range contained 24 and 212 micrograms per liter of lead, respectively. The data indicate that lead from a concentrated deposit of shotgun pellets on the refuge has been mobilized through a combination of acidic water conditions and a very sandy, shallow, unconfined aquifer, and is moving along ground-water flowpaths toward the surface-water drainage. Data from this study will be used to help delineate the lead plume, and determine the fate and transport of lead from the source area.

  11. Phosphate reactivity in long-term poultry litter-amended southern Delaware sandy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Y.; Livi, K.J.T.; Sparks, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by dissolved P from poultry litter (PL)-amended agricultural soils has been a serious environmental concern in the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia Peninsula (Delmarva), USA. To evaluate state and federal nutrient management strategies for reducing the environmental impact of soluble P from long-term PL-amended Delaware (DE) soils, we investigated (i) inorganic P speciation; (ii) P adsorption capacity; and (iii) the extent of P desorption. Although the electron microprobe (EMP) analyses showed a strong correlation between P and Al/Fe, crystalline Al/Fe-P precipitates were not detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Instead, the inorganic P fractionation analyses showed high levels of oxalate extractable P, Al, and Fe fractions (615-858, 1215-1478, and 337-752 mg kg-1, respectively), which were susceptible to slow release during the long-term (30-d) P desorption experiments at a moderately acidic soil pHwater. The labile P in the short-term (24-h) desorption studies was significantly associated with oxalate and F extractable Fe and Al, respectively. This was evident in an 80% reduction maximum in total desorbable P from NH4 oxalate/F pretreated soils. In the adsorption experiments, P was strongly retained in soils at near targeted pH of lime (???6.0), but P adsorption gradually decreased with decreasing pH near the soil pHwater (???5.0). The overall findings suggest that P losses from the can be suppressed by an increase in the P retention capacity of soils via (i) an increase in the number of lime applications to maintain soil pHwater at near targeted pH values, and/or (ii) alum/iron sulfate amendments to provide additional Al- and Fe-based adsorbents. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  12. Proximate causes of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus Polyphemus) of the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.R.; Mandt, M.T.; Macdonald, P.D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The unresolved status of the proximate cause for sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs has practical consequence, because harvest recommendations rely on assumptions about sex-specific growth and maturity. We propose and evaluate competing hypotheses for the proximate cause of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) by comparing size and estimated age frequencies from spring-captured juveniles (n = 9,075) and adults (n = 36,274) to predictions from the competing hypotheses. We found that the number of identifiable juvenile size distributions was greater for females than males and the probability of remaining a juvenile was higher for females than males among older juveniles. These findings are consistent with males maturing earlier than females. Molt increments and mean sizes were similar for male and female juveniles, which is not consistent with differential growth. Among adults, one size distribution accounted for ???90% of females regardless of carapace wear. Also, size ratio of adult females to males was 1.26, and size ratio of the largest adult to largest juvenile female was 1.28. These observations are not consistent with females continuing to molt as adults. Differential-maturity is the most parsimonious explanation for sexual size dimorphism in Delaware Bay horseshoe crabs. In addition, because of a low frequency of juvenile females >195 mm relative to adult females and male-biased sex ratios starting at 105 mm, we hypothesize that females, more than males, migrate as older juveniles and mature in the ocean. Management implications include that (1) minimum size limits, as previously suggested, would not allocate harvest to older adults as intended because size does not indicate age among adult horseshoe crabs in the Delaware Bay population, and (2) the Shuster Horseshoe Crab Reserve, which has reduced harvest on the continental shelf, could be protecting older juveniles and newly mature females from harvest prior to their first

  13. Hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) under field conditions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguti, Aki; Ohigashi, Kentaro; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Kaga, Akito; Kuroda, Yosuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of information about natural hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) is required for risk assessment evaluation and to establish biosafety regulations in Japan. This is particularly important in areas where wild relatives of cultivated soybean are grown (i.e. East Asia including Japan). To collect information on temporal and spatial factors affecting variation in hybridization between wild and GM soybean, a two year hybridization experiment was established that included one wild soybean and five GM soybean cultivars with different maturity dates. Hybridization frequencies ranged from 0 to 0.097%. The maximum hybridization frequency (0.097%) was obtained from wild soybean crossed with GM soybean cv. AG6702RR, which were adjacently cultivated with wild soybean, with 25 hybrids out of 25 741 seedlings tested. Cultivar AG6702RR had the most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Ten hybrids out of 25 741 were produced by crossing with cv. AG5905RR, which had the second most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Most hybrids were found where GM and wild soybeans were adjacently cultivated, whereas only one hybrid was detected from wild soybean plants at 2 m, 4 m and 6 m from a pollen source (GM soybean). Differences in flowering phenology, isolation distance and presence of buffer plants accounted for half of the variation in hybridization frequency in this study. Temporal and spatial isolation will be effective strategies to minimize hybridization between GM and wild soybean.

  14. Fluorescence imaging of soybean flavonol isolines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Edward H.; Mulchi, Charles L.; McMurtrey, James E., III; Chappelle, Emmett W.; Rowland, Randy A.

    1998-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to characterize the fluorescence emission of leaves from four soybean ('Harosoy') plants containing different concentrations of flavonols (kaempferol glycosides). The investigation utilized genetically mutated soybean flavonol isolines grown in a constant environment, thus limiting factors known to affect fluorescence emission characteristics other than different kaempferol glycosides concentrations. Flavonol isolines included OX922, OX941, OX942, OX944. The first two isolines contain kaempferol (K) glycosides; K3, K6, and K9, and the latter two did not have K3, K6, and K9. A fluorescence imaging system (FIS) was used to characterize steady state florescence images of the sample leaves measured at wavelengths centered at 450, 550, 680, and 740 nm with an excitation at 360 nm. Images taken with FIS greatly complement non-imaging fluorescence measurements by characterizing the spatial variation of fluorescence within leaves. We also acquired fluorescence emission spectra to characterize spectral features of the soybean flavonol isolines. The emission spectral shape of the fluorescence emission characteristics were not significantly different between the soybeans that contain kaempferol glycosides and the ones that do not contain kaempferol glycosides. Typical emission maxima of green vegetation in the blue, green, red, and far-red bands were noticed in all four soybean isolines. However, plants containing kaempferol glycosides, OX922 and OX941 had significantly lower intensities throughout the wavelength regions. These results imply that fluorescence emission intensities in the fluorescence emission bands studied are significantly affected by the presence and absence of kaempferol glycosides concentrations (UV radiation screening compounds). Pure kaempferol glycoside dissolved in solution show minimal fluorescence emission when excited with the absorption maximum radiation at 365 nm. However, a broad band emission can be seen in the green

  15. An index method to evaluate growers' pesticide use for identifying on-farm innovations and effective alternative pest management strategies: a case study of winegrape in Madera County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-juan; Qin, Zhi-hao; Zhang, Ming-hua; Browde, Joe

    2011-03-01

    Winegrape is an important perennial crop in California, USA. Each year California winegrape farming consumes about 20 million kilograms of pesticides that have been a pollutant source to the fresh water systems of the state. The variation of pesticide use among winegrape growers has been significant. It has been observed that some growers have developed effective ways to reduce pesticide use, yet control pests efficiently to ensure harvest. Identification of the growers with low and high pesticide use is very helpful to extension programs that aim on reducing pesticide environmental risk. In this study, an index approach is proposed to quantitatively measure pesticide use intensity at grower level. An integrated pesticide use index is developed by taking pesticide quantity and toxicity into account. An additive formula and a multiplying formula were used to calculate the pesticide use index, i.e., PUI and PUIM. It was found that both PUI and PUIM were capable of identifying the low and high pesticide users while PUI was slightly more conservative than PUIM. All pesticides used in California winegrape farming were taken into account for calculating the indices. Madera County, one of the largest winegrape producers in California, was taken as an example to test the proposed approach. In year 2000, among the total 208 winegrape growers, 28 with PUI≤10 and 34 with 1060, identified as high pesticide users, had large-sized vineyards, i.e., more fields and large planted areas. They used all types of pesticides and many compounds, which indicated that their pest controls heavily depended on pesticides rather than on-farm management. Through the case study, the proposed approach proved to be useful for analyzing the growers' pesticide use intensities and interpreting their pesticide use behaviors, which led to a new start point for further investigation of searching ways to reduce pesticide environmental risk.

  16. An index method to evaluate growers' pesticide use for identifying on-farm innovations and effective alternative pest management strategies: a case study of winegrape in Madera County, California

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-juan LI; Zhi-hao QIN; Ming-hua ZHANG; Joe BROWDE

    2011-01-01

    Winegrape is an important perennial crop in California, USA. Each year California winegrape farming consumes about 20 million kilograms of pesticides that have been a pollutant source to the fresh water systems of the state. The variation of pesticide use among winegrape growers has been significant. It has been observed that some growers have developed effective ways to reduce pesticide use, yet control pests efficiently to ensure harvest. Identification of the growers with low and high pesticide use is very helpful to extension programs that aim on reducing pesticide environmental risk. In this study, an index approach is proposed to quantitatively measure pesticide use intensity at grower level. An integrated pesticide use index is developed by taking pesticide quantity and toxicity into account. An additive formula and a multiplying formula were used to calculate the pesticide use index, i.e., PUl and PUIM It was found that both PUl and PUIM were capable of identifying the low and high pesticide users while PUI was slightly more conservative than PUIM. All pesticides used in California winegrape farming were taken into account for calculating the indices. Madera County, one of the largest winegrape producers in California, was taken as an example to test the proposed approach. In year 2000, among the total 208 winegrape growers, 28 with PUI≤10 and 34 with 10growers had small-sized vineyards, i.e., one field and small planted areas. Furthermore, they had very low pesticide use intensity, used only 1-2 types of pesticides (mainly fungicides), applied few pesticides (1-3 only), and emphasized the use of low toxicity compounds. Meanwhile, 19 growers with PUI>60, identified as high pesticide users, had large-sized vineyards, i.e., more fields and large planted areas. They used all types of pesticides and many compounds

  17. Phytophthora root rot resistance in soybean E00003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR), caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae, is a devastating disease in soybean production. Using resistant cultivars has been suggested as the best solution for disease management. Michigan elite soybean E00003 is resistant to P. sojae and has been used as a PRR resist...

  18. Synthesis of lubrication fluids and surfactant precursors from soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starting with soybean oil or soybean oil derived methyl oleate, a variety of compounds have been synthesized. The epoxidation of oleochemicals is a simple way to use the unsaturation naturally available in the vegetable oil and convert it into a variety of other useful chemicals. Epoxidized methyl...

  19. Dyeing Performance of Soybean Fiber Treated with Low Temperature Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ming; SHEN Yong; DING Ying; ZHANG Hui-fang

    2006-01-01

    The soybean fiber was treated with low temperature plasma and the dyeing performance of the treated soybean fiber was also researched. The results show that the speed of dyeing and the percentages of balance dyeing have a sharp increase after being treated. So the dyeing temperature and the dosage of acid can be reduced without damaging the bulk fiber structure.

  20. Effects of differently processed soybean substituted diets on nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of differently processed soybean substituted diets on nutrient ... 3.38% and food conversion ratio (FCR) of 5.78 of the formulated diets respectively were ... The Juveniles fed raw soybean gave the least growth performance (Diet T3) and ...

  1. Reaction of Drought Tolerant Soybean Genotypes to Macrophomina phaseolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is a common disease of soybean, and resistant genotypes are not available. Level of soybean genotype resistance and susceptibility to M. phaseolina is most frequently measured by determining colony forming units of M. phaseolina/g root, but using this ...

  2. Evaluation of soybean genotypes for resistance to charcoal rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina causes more yield loss in soybean than most other diseases in the southern U.S.A. There are no commercial genotypes marketed as resistant to charcoal rot of soybean. Reactions of 27 maturity group (MG) III, 29 Early MG IV, 34 Late MG IV, and 59 MG V gen...

  3. Management Practices of Soybean Producers in Marion County, Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William A.; And Others

    The purposes of the study were to: (1) determine some major characteristics of Marion County soybean producers and their farms; (2) more accurately determine which recommended production practices soybean producers were using in 1968 and 1969; (3) study the relation between use of recommended production practices and yield levels; and (4) identify…

  4. Functionality of soybean CBF/DREB1 transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yuji; Randall, Stephen K

    2016-05-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is considered to be cold intolerant and is not able to significantly acclimate to cold/freezing stress. In most cold tolerant plants, the C-repeat/DRE Binding Factors (CBF/DREBs) are critical contributors to successful cold-responses; rapidly increasing following cold treatment and regulating the induction of many cold responsive genes. In soybean vegetative tissue, we found strong, transient accumulation of CBF transcripts in response to cold stress; however, the soybean transcripts of typical cold responsive genes (homologues to Arabidopsis genes such as dehydrins, ADH1, RAP2.1, and LEA14) were not significantly altered. Soybean CBFs were found to be functional, as when expressed constitutively in Arabidopsis they increased the levels of AtCOR47 and AtRD29a transcripts and increased freezing tolerance as measured by a decrease in leaf freezing damage and ion leakage. Furthermore the constitutive expression of GmDREB1A;2 and GmDREB1B;1 in Arabidopsis led to stronger up-regulation of downstream genes and more freezing tolerance than GmDREB1A;1, the gene whose transcript is the major contributor to total CBF/DREB1 transcripts in soybean. The inability for the soybean CBFs to significantly up regulate the soybean genes that contribute to cold tolerance is consistent with poor acclimation capability and the cold intolerance of soybean.

  5. Polymercaptanized soybean oil – properties and tribological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymercaptanized vegetable oils are produced in industrial scale by the addition of hydrogen sulfide across double bonds or epoxides of vegetable oils, in the presence of UV-light. To date, soybean oil, epoxidized soybean oil, and castor oil has been mercaptanized using such a procedure. Depending ...

  6. The nucleotide sequences of two leghemoglobin genes from soybean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, O; Hyldig-Nielsen, J J; Jensen, E O

    1982-01-01

    We present the complete nucleotide sequences of two leghemoglobin genes isolated from soybean DNA. Both genes contain three intervening sequences in identical positions. Comparison of the coding sequences with known amino-acid sequences of soybean leghemoglobins suggest that the two genes...

  7. Utility of Proteomic tools for assessing protein expression in soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean is the second most important cash crop in the U.S. with an estimated value of $19.8 billion in 2006. Genetically modified (GM) crops are commonly grown globally to enhance quality, productivity, and disease resistance. Some of the examples are, herbicide resistance (Roundup Ready soybeans)...

  8. Analysis of the carbon and nitrogen limitations to soybean yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinclair, T.R.; Wit, de C.T.

    1976-01-01

    Soybeans are hypothesized to be “self-destructive” since they apparently need to translocate large amounts of nitrogen from vegetative tissues during seed-fill to sustain seed growth. To assess the possible limitations of this characteristic on soybean seed yield, a simple, dynamic simulation model

  9. Mapping Eight Male-Sterile, Female-Sterile Soybean Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    In soybean, mutations in genes involved in meiosis can lead to altered chromosome pairing and result in non-functional gametes.Mutability of the w4 flower color locus in soybean is due to an unstable allele designated w4-m (mutable). Several germinal revertant studies using the w4-m system resulted ...

  10. Delivering More Nutritious Soybeans After Molecular Genetic Detective Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil is an important, but hidden, component of the American diet. Both positive and negative impacts from the fatty acid components of oils have been demonstrated for human nutrition needs. The objective of this research was to identify soybean genes that underlie important oil quality trai...

  11. Framing the issues of resistance management in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean insect-pest complex consists of both long-established and new invasive pests. Management of these pests has been achieved by various means, but often relies heavily on the application of insecticides and the development of insect-resistant soybean varieties. Pest management practitione...

  12. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  13. Rheological properties of soybean protein isolate gels containing emulsion droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, K.H.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Vliet, van T.

    2001-01-01

    Rheological properties of soybean protein gels containing various volume fractions oil droplets have been studied at small and large deformations. Dynamic viscoelastic properties of soybean protein isolate gels were determined as a function of the volume fraction of oil droplets stabilised by the sa

  14. Management of Hoplolaimus columbus with Tolerant Soybean and Nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D P; Imbriani, J L

    1987-10-01

    Two experiments, one site per year, were conducted in Scotland County, North Carolina, to determine the usefulness of selected cultivars and nematicides for limiting soybean losses due to Hoplolaimus columbus. Coker 317 was relatively tolerant to this nematode, and Coker 156, Centennial, Dehapine 105, and Gordon were generally intolerant. Most nematicides significantly increased soybean yields, and many gave an economic return.

  15. Zygomycota associated with traditional meju, a fermented soybean starting material for soy sauce and soybean paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.B.; Kim, D.H.; Lee, M.; Baek, S.Y.; Kwon, S.; Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various zygomycota species were detected during a study of the mycobiota of meju, a brick of dried fermented soybeans, used in Korean cuisine. Two hundred and sixty-eight strains were isolated from 98 finished meju products collected in various regions of Korea from 2009 to 2011, and 96 strains were

  16. Evaluation of late vegetative and reproductive stage soybeans for resistance to soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T J; Pierson, L M; Baldin, E L L; Hunt, T E; Heng-Moss, T M; Reese, J C

    2013-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, has become the most significant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] insect pest in the north central soybean production region of North America. The objectives of this research were to measure selected genotypes for resistance to the soybean aphid in the later vegetative and reproductive stages under field conditions, and confirm the presence of tolerance in KS4202. The results from 2007 to 2011 indicate that KS4202 can support aphid populations with minimal yield loss at levels where significant yield loss would be expected in most other genotypes. The common Nebraska cultivar, 'Asgrow 2703', appears to show signs of tolerance as well. None of the yield parameters were significantly different between the aphid infested and noninfested treatments. Based on our results, genotypes may compensate for aphid feeding in different ways. Asgrow 2703 appears to produce a similar number of seeds as its noninfested counterpart, although the seeds produced are slightly smaller. Field evaluation of tolerance in KS4202 indicated a yield loss of only 13% at 34,585-53,508 cumulative aphid-days, when 24-36% yield loss would have been expected.

  17. The soybean GmSNAP18 gene underlies two types of resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiming; Kandoth, Pramod K.; Lakhssassi, Naoufal; Kang, Jingwen; Colantonio, Vincent; Heinz, Robert; Yeckel, Greg; Zhou, Zhou; Bekal, Sadia; Dapprich, Johannes; Rotter, Bjorn; Cianzio, Silvia; Mitchum, Melissa G.; Meksem, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Two types of resistant soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) sources are widely used against soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe). These include Peking-type soybean, whose resistance requires both the rhg1-a and Rhg4 alleles, and PI 88788-type soybean, whose resistance requires only the rhg1-b allele. Multiple copy number of PI 88788-type GmSNAP18, GmAAT, and GmWI12 in one genomic segment simultaneously contribute to rhg1-b resistance. Using an integrated set of genetic and genomic approaches, we demonstrate that the rhg1-a Peking-type GmSNAP18 is sufficient for resistance to SCN in combination with Rhg4. The two SNAPs (soluble NSF attachment proteins) differ by only five amino acids. Our findings suggest that Peking-type GmSNAP18 is performing a different role in SCN resistance than PI 88788-type GmSNAP18. As such, this is an example of a pathogen resistance gene that has evolved to underlie two types of resistance, yet ensure the same function within a single plant species. PMID:28345654

  18. Overexpression of soybean isoflavone reductase (GmIFR enhances resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun eCheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavone reductase (IFR is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. The cDNA of GmIFR was 1199 bp containing a 939 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 312 amino acids. Sequence analysis suggested that GmIFR contained a NAD(P domain of 107 amino acids. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET, abscisic acid (ABA, salicylic acid (SA. It is located in the cytoplasmic when transiently expressed in Arabidopsis protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while levels of genistein and glycitein had little change compared to that of control plants. Furthermore, we also found that the reactive oxygen species (ROS content of transgenic soybean plants was significantly lower than that of control plants, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean.

  19. Replacement of raw soybean with roasted soybean increased milk production in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Sebastião Dias Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of total replacement of raw whole soybean (RAW for roastedwhole soybean (ROS on the production performance of Holstein cows. Two experiments were carried out usinga simple reversal design where RAW has been completely replaced by ROS. In experiment 1, 22 cows (175±60 days in milkwere used, and the dietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 3.7% of dry matter (DM. In experiment 2, 16 cows (130±50 days in milkwere used, and thedietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 11% of DM. In both experiments, ROS increased milk production by 1.1kgday-1 without changing fat and protein production. Dry matter intake or milk urea nitrogenwere not affected by dietary soy source. In experiment 2, plasma glucose concentration was decreased, and allantoin/creatinine ratio in urine tended to decreasein ROS. Experiment 2 also evaluated the nutrient digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein in two soybean sources. Roasting had no effect on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber. Roasted whole soybean hadgreater fraction B and lower protein degradation rate than did RAW; this showed that heat treatment was effective in increasing therumen undegradable amino acid flowto the animal, which suggesteda potential mechanism of action for improved performance observed in ROS.

  20. Effect of storage and heating on good mature and green immature soybean and soybean dehulling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Mature and immature soybeans were stored for 6 months. Every month, soybeans were analysed for oil content, moisture percentage, acid value, peroxide value, fatty acid analysis, meal protein and urease activity in soybean meal. In addition, soybean samples were heated to different temperatures and times and the effect of heating on dehulling was studied. Finally control charts of acid and peroxide values were constructed and discussed.

    Soja madura e inmadura se almacenó durante seis meses. Mensualmente, la soja fue analizada por su contenido en aceite, porcentaje de humedad, índice de acidez, índice de peróxido, análisis de ácidos grasos y, proteína y actividad ureásica en la harina de soja. Además, las muestras de soja se calentaron a diferentes temperaturas y tiempos, estudiándose el efecto del calentamiento sobre el descascarado. Finalmente, se construyeron y discutieron gráficas controles de índices de acidez y peróxido.

  1. Delaware basin/Central basin platform margin: The development of a subthrust deep-gas province in the Permian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, W.J. (Mobil Oil Corp., Midland, TX (USA)); Ting, S.C. (Mobil, Farmers Branch, TX (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A deep-gas-prone province was identified along the Delaware basin/Central Basin platform margin, a margin conventionally interpreted to be bounded by high-angle normal or high-angle reverse structures. Redefinition of the tectonic style between the Delaware basin and the adjacent platform resulted in the identification of this Delaware basin/Central Basin platform subthrust province and a giant prospect within it. Definition of a giant-sized gas prospect in northern Pecos County, Texas, revealed that portions of this margin may be characterized by shingled, low-angle, eastward-dipping, basement involved thrust faults. Interpretations suggest that hidden, subthrust footwall structures may trend discontinuously for greater than 100 mi along this structural margin. Subthrust footwall structures formed as basinal buttress points for the Central Basin platform to climb over the Delaware basin. In this area, structural relief of over 19,000 ft over a 10-mi width is believed due to stacking of low-angle thrust sheets. Seismic resolution of this subthrust margin has been complexed by allochtonous hanging-wall gravity-glide blocks and folds and by velocity changes in overlying syn- and posttectonic sediments associated with basin-to-shelf lithofacies changes. Statistical studies indicate that this deep-gas province has a play potential of greater than 10 tcf of gas, with individual prospect sizes exceeding 1 tcfg. The prospects defined along this trend are deep (approximately 20,000 ft) subthrust structural traps that are indigenously sourced and reservoired by dual-matrix porosity. Vitrinite supported maturation modeling suggests that these subthrust structures formed prior to catagenic conversion of the oldest source rocks to oil and later to gas. Tectonically fractured Ordovician Ellenburger and Devonian sediments are considered the principal reservoirs. Shales overlying reservoir intervals form vertical seals.

  2. Rapid population decline in red knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, AJ; Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Niles, LJ; do Nascimento, IDS; Atkinson, PW; Clark, NA; Minton, CDT; Peck, MK; Aarts, G.

    2004-01-01

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego, which undertakes marathon 30,000 km hemispheric migrations annually. In spring, migrant birds forage voraciously on horseshoe crab eggs in Delaware Bay in the eastern USA before departing to breed in A...

  3. Invasive Species Guidebook for Department of Defense Installations in the Delaware River Basin: Identification, Control, and Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    wildflowers and their related organisms. Fig buttercup’s early growth period allows it to become well established before native spring plants begin...pest of waterways from coastal Virginia to Florida and west to Texas, with a disjunct population in California . It exhibits both aquatic and...University of California -Davis database, and Washington State Department of Ecology. 112 INVASIVE SPECIES GUIDEBOOK FOR DOD INSTALLATIONS IN THE DELAWARE

  4. Effects of Microbial and Heavy Metal Contaminants on Environmental/Ecological Health and Revitalization of Coastal Ecosystems in Delaware Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnihal Ozbay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals, excess nutrients, and microbial contaminants in aquatic systems of coastal Delaware has become a public concern as human population increases and land development continues. Delaware's coastal lagoons have been subjected to problems commonly shared by other coastal Mid-Atlantic states: turbidity, sedimentation, eutrophication, periodic hypoxic/anoxic conditions, toxic substances, and high bacterial levels. The cumulative impact of pollutants from run-off and point sources has degraded water quality, reduced the diversity and abundance of various fish species, invertebrates, and submerged aquatic vegetation. The effects are especially pronounced within the manmade dead end canal systems. In this article, we present selected case studies conducted in the Delaware Inland Bays. Due to the ecological services provided by bivalves, our studies in Delaware Inland Bays are geared toward oysters with special focus on the microbial loads followed by the water quality assessments of the bay. The relationships between oysters (Crassostrea virginica, microbial loads and nutrient levels in the water were investigated. The heavy metal levels monitored further away from the waste water treatment plant in the inland bays are marginally higher than the recommended EPA limits. Also, our studies confirmed that aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae levels are salinity dependent. Total bacteria in oysters increased when nitrate and total suspended solids increased in the waters. Studies such as these are important because every year millions of Americans consume raw oysters. Data collected over the last 10 years from our studies may be used to build a predictive index of conditions that are favorable for the proliferation of human pathogenic bacteria. Results from this study will benefit the local community by helping them understand the importance of oyster aquaculture and safe consumption of oysters while making them appreciate their

  5. The Timber Resources of Delaware. A Report on tbe Forest survey made by the U.S. Forest Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland H. Ferguson; Roland H. Ferguson

    1959-01-01

    This is a report on the findings of the first comprehensive survey of the timber resources of Delaware. It describes, as of 1957, the area and condition of the forest land, the volume of standing timber, the annual growth and mortality of the forest growing stock, and the extent of timber cutting. The survey made by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,...

  6. Effect of gestating sow body condition, feed refusals, and group housing on growth and feed intake in grower-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell-Kubiak, E; van der Waaij, E H; Bijma, P

    2013-08-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify sow gestation features that affect growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of their offspring during grower-finishing stage. Because the sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation, certain features (e.g., BW of the sow), feed refusals or gestation group, may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. Data on 17,743 grower-finishing pigs, coming from 604 sires and 681 crossbred sows, were obtained from the Institute for Pigs Genetics. Sow gestation features were collected during multiple gestations and divided into 3 clusters describing i) sow body condition (i.e., BW, backfat, and gestation length), ii) sow feed refusals (FR), the difference between offered and eaten feed during 3 periods of gestation: 1 to 28, 25 to 50, 45 to 80 d, and iii) sow group features (i.e., number of sows, and average parity). Sow gestation features were added to the base model 1 at a time to study their effect on GR and FI. Significant gestation features (P Gestation length had effect on GR [1.4 (g/d)/d; P = 0.04] and FI [6.8 (g/d)/d; P = 0.007]. Body weights of the sow at insemination [0.07 (g/d)/kg; P = 0.08], at farrowing [0.14 (g/d)/kg; P gestation and average FR during 45 to 80 d of gestation had negative effect on GR and when substantially increased had also a positive effect on FI. Sow FR from 1 to 28 d of gestation were not significant. Number of sows in gestation group had effect on FI [-9 (g/d)/group member; P = 0.04] and day sow entered group had an effect on GR [-0.9 (g/d)/day; P = 0.04]. Sow gestation features explained 1 to 3% of the total variance in grower-finishing pigs. Gestation features did explain phenotypic variance due to permanent sow and part of phenotypic variance due to common litter effects for FI but not for GR.

  7. Recent Achievement in Gene Cloning and Functional Genomics in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a model plant for photoperiodism as well as for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. However, a rather low efficiency in soybean transformation hampers functional analysis of genes isolated from soybean. In comparison, rapid development and progress in flowering time and photoperiodic response have been achieved in Arabidopsis and rice. As the soybean genomic information has been released since 2008, gene cloning and functional genomic studies have been revived as indicated by successfully characterizing genes involved in maturity and nematode resistance. Here, we review some major achievements in the cloning of some important genes and some specific features at genetic or genomic levels revealed by the analysis of functional genomics of soybean.

  8. FORAGE AND GRAIN YIELD PERFORMANCES OF SOYBEAN LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur BILGILI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the yield and yield components of twelve soybean genotypes as a forage and a grain crop in Marmara Region of Turkey in 2003-2004 growing seasons. Forage and dry matter yield and yield components at one vegetative stage (V5 and two reproductive stages (R2, and R4 and seed yield was determined in all soybean genotypes. The experiments showed that the harvest stages had signifi cant effects on forage and dry matter yield, and R4 reproductive stage had the highest forage and dry matter yield. Dry matter partitioning of soybean plant parts was greatly affected by harvest stages, while the genotypes had little effect on dry matter partitioning of soybean plant parts. There were statistically signifi cant differences between soybean genotypes in seed yield, but the differences were small. The correlations between forage and dry matter yield and seed yield were not statistically signifi cant.

  9. An Integrated Map of Soybean Physical Map and Genetic Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Zhaoming; LI Hui; WU Qiong; SUN Yanan; LIU Chunyan; HU Guohua; CHEN Qingshan

    2009-01-01

    Soybean is a major crop in the world, and it is a main source of plant proteins and oil. A lot of soybean genetic maps and physical maps have been constructed, but there are no integrated map between soybean physical map and genetic map. In this study, soybean genome sequence data, released by JGI (US Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute), had been downloaded. With the software Blast 2.2.16, a total of 161 super sequences were mapped on the soybean public genetic map to construct an integrated map. The length of these super sequences accounted for 73.08% of all the genome sequence. This integrated map could be used for gene cloning, gene mining, and comparative genome of legume.

  10. Impact of Rag1 aphid resistant soybeans on Binodoxys communis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghising, Kiran; Harmon, Jason P; Beauzay, Patrick B; Prischmann-Voldseth, Deirdre A; Helms, Ted C; Ode, Paul J; Knodel, Janet J

    2012-04-01

    Multiple strategies are being developed for pest management of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura; however, there has been little published research thus far to determine how such strategies may influence each other, thereby complicating their potential effectiveness. A susceptible soybean (Glycine max L.) variety without the Rag1 gene and a near isogenic resistant soybean variety with the Rag1 gene were evaluated in the laboratory for their effects on the fitness of the soybean aphid parasitoid, Binodoxys communis (Gahan). The presence or absence of the Rag1 gene was verified by quantifying soybean aphid growth. To test for fitness effects, parasitoids were allowed to attack soybean aphids on either a susceptible or resistant plant for 24 h and then aphids were kept on the same plant throughout parasitoid development. Parasitoid fitness was measured by mummy and adult parasitoid production, adult parasitoid emergence, development time, and adult size. Parasitoids that attacked soybean aphids on susceptible plants produced more mummies, more adult parasitoids, and had a higher emergence rate compared with those on resistant plants. Adult parasitoids that emerged from resistant plants took 1 d longer and were smaller compared with those from susceptible plants. This study suggests that biological control by B. communis may be compromised when host plant resistance is widely used for pest management of soybean aphids.

  11. Feeding and maturation by soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on soybean affected by weed, fungus, and nematode pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Russin, John S; Boethel, David J; Griffin, James L; McGawley, Eduward C

    2004-02-01

    Feeding and maturation by the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were investigated in a 2-yr study on 'Davis' soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., grown alone and combined with the weed hemp sesbania, Sesbania exaltata (Raf.) Rybd. ex. A. W. Hill, the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, and the charcoal rot fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. Of the three pests, hemp sesbania had the greatest effects on plant growth and insect feeding and maturation. When fed foliage from soybean stressed by hemp sesbania, soybean looper larvae remained longer in feeding stages, consumed more foliage, and showed altered weight gain compared with larvae fed control foliage. Results suggest that nutrient (s) critical for proper development of larvae may have been limited in weed-stressed soybean foliage. Less dramatic results were observed when larvae fed on foliage from soybean with roots colonized by the charcoal rot fungus. Such larvae consumed more foliage, weighed more, and showed a slight increase in larval feeding period, but only in 1 yr of the study. Colonization of soybean roots by the root-knot nematode had no consistent effects on either the soybean host or insect.

  12. Registration of G07-6012 and G07-6029 soybean germplasm which derive 50% pedigree from wild soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two soybean germplasm lines, G07-6012 and G07-6029 were developed and released by the Univ. of Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations. Both G07-6012 and G07-6029 are agronomic F4-derived lines from the hybridization of cultivar ‘N7103’ x Plant Introduction (PI) 366122, a wild soybean accession [G....

  13. BRS Celeste: nova cultivar de soja para o sistema de produção de grãos no cerrado BRS Celeste - new soybean cultivar to the grain production system of the Brazilian savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLÍNIO ITAMAR DE MELLO DE SOUZA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A manutenção ou a elevação dos níveis de tecnologia no cultivo da soja no Cerrado é fundamental à produtividade econômica, a qual tem se revelado superior à obtida na Região Sul do Brasil. Entre as contribuições da pesquisa ao desempenho destacado da cultura da soja no Cerrado estão as novas cultivares, que representam papel fundamental para a estabilidade produtiva. A cultivar de soja BRS Celeste é uma opção para atender à demanda dos produtores. Apresenta ciclo semelhante ao da BR/EMGOPA 314 (Garça Branca, porém com produtividade superior, e com resistência às principais doenças, em especial ao cancro-da-haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis.Maintenance or improvement of technology to soybean cultivation is necessary to reach economical productivity in the Brazilian Savannah, where it has shown to be superior to that obtained in the South of Brazil. New cultivars are among the contributions of research to high crop performance and yield stability. The soybean cv. BRS Celeste is an alternative to suit growers demand. It belongs to the same maturity group of cv. BR/EMGOPA 314 (Garça Branca, although it has higher yielding and shows resistance to the main diseases, especially stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis.

  14. The Utilization of Soybean Wild Relatives: How Can It Be Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. & Zucc.) is the progenitor of soybean and is native to China, Taiwan, Japan, eastern Russia and the Korean peninsula. Research has repeatedly demonstrated that wild soybean is more genetically diverse than the cultivated soybean. There are 26 perennial Glycine species tha...

  15. Subcellular Proteomics of Soybean under Flooding Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Setsuko Komatsu

    2012-01-01

    Flooding is an environmental stress found worldwide and may increase in frequency due to changes in global climate,and causes significant reductions in the growth and yield of several crops.The application of proteomics techniques to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying crop responses to flooding stress may facilitate the development of flood tolerant crops.To understand the response mechanism of soybean under flooding stress,proteomics analysis was carried out.Especially,subcellular proteomics studies have led to a better understanding of the mechanism of flooding stress tolerance in soybean.The effects of flooding stress on root plasma membrane were analyzed using an aqueous two-phase partitioning method in combination with gel-based and gel-free proteomics techniques.The results led to the following conclusions:proteins located in the cell wall were increased in the plasma membrane of flooded plants,indicating the contribution of plasma membrane to modification of the cell wall; superoxide dismutase was increased,indicating that the antioxidative system may play a crucial role in protecting cells from oxidative damage following exposure to flooding stress; heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein likely plays a significant role in protecting other proteins from denaturation and degradation during flooding stress; and signaling proteins might work cooperatively to regulate plasma membrane H +-ATPase and maintain ion homeostasis.Cell wall proteins were isolated from root of flooding stressed plants via sucrose gradient centrifugation and analyzed using gel-based proteomics technique.Cell wall proteins identified were related to lignification,and these results indicated that a decrease of lignification-related proteins is related to flooding decreased ROS and jasmonate biosynthesis.And also,lignin staining confirmed that lignification was suppressed in the roots of flooding stressed soybeans.Mitochondrial fractions were purified from root of flooding stressed

  16. Production of top quality soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa, Dr. Ahmad

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper comments the most adequate conditions required to produce to quality soybean oil. It is essential to avoid contaminations (water, metallic, oxidation products, overheating, undue exposition to air, as well as an appropriate control of the different steps of the refining process.

    El trabajo presenta las condiciones recomendadas para obtener aceite de soja de la mejor calidad. Es importante evitar las contaminaciones (agua, metales y compuestos oxidados, los sobrecalentamientos, la exposición al aire, así como el adecuado control de los diferentes pasos del proceso de refinación.

  17. CORPORATE LAW - MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS - DELAWARE COURT OF CHANCERY IMPOSES REVLON DUTIES ON BOARD OF DIRECTORS IN MIXED CASH-STOCK STRATEGIC MERGER. - In re Smurfit-Stone Container Corp. Shareholder Litigation, No. 6164-VCP, 2011 WL 2028076 (Del. Ch. May 24, 2011)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    In Revlon Inc v. MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings Inc, the Delaware Supreme Court held that, when a Delaware corporation sells itself for cash, its directors are transformed "from defenders of the corporate bastion to auctioneers...

  18. Metabolite changes during natural and lactic acid bacteria fermentations in pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna Austen; Ostlie, Hilde Marit; Mwangwela, Agnes Mbachi; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-11-01

    The effect of natural and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation processes on metabolite changes in pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends was studied. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and were fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LFP). LAB fermentation processes were facilitated through back-slopping using a traditional fermented gruel, thobwa as an inoculum. Naturally fermented pastes were designated 100S, 90S, and 75S, while LFP were designated 100SBS, 90SBS, and 75SBS. All samples, except 75SBS, showed highest increase in soluble protein content at 48 h and this was highest in 100S (49%) followed by 90SBS (15%), while increases in 100SBS, 90S, and 75S were about 12%. Significant (P phytic acid (85% in NFP and 49% in LFP by 72 h).

  19. Fermentation of soybean meal with Aspergillus usamii improves zinc availability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, M; Matsui, T; Yano, H

    1998-02-01

    Soybean meal was fermented with Aspergillus usamii to improve zinc availability through the degradation of phytic acid. Rats fed a diet containing fermented soybean meal showed greater femoral zinc than did animals fed a diet containing regular soybean meal. Zinc solubility in the small intestine was higher in the rats fed fermented soybean meal than in the rats fed regular soybean meal. These results suggested that fermentation with Aspergillus usamii improved zinc availability in dietary soybean meal, which was induced by the increase of zinc solubility in the small intestine. Adding the same amount of phytate that was contained in the regular soybean meal-based diet did not affect the amount of zinc present in rats fed a fermented soybean meal-based diet with sodium phytate. Phytase activity was found in fermented soybean meal, and this activity may degrade added phytate in fermented soybean meal-based diet.

  20. Efficacy and value of prophylactic vs. integrated pest management approaches for management of cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in wheat and ramifications for adoption by growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Bacheler, Jack S; Herbert, D Ames; Kuhar, Thomas; Malone, Sean; Philips, Chris; Weisz, Randy

    2012-10-01

    Cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus L., can be effectively managed in southeastern U.S. wheat, Triticum aestivum L., with scouting and a single insecticide treatment, applied at the recommended economic threshold. However, many growers eschew this approach for a prophylactic treatment, often tank mixed with a nitrogen application before wheat growth stage 30. The efficacy of a prophylactic and an integrated pest management (IPM) approach was compared for 2 yr using small plot studies in North Carolina and regional surveys across North Carolina and Virginia. Economic analyses were performed, comparing the total cost of management of each approach using the regional survey data. From a cost perspective, the prophylactic approach was riskier, because when cereal leafbeetle densities were high, economic loss was also high. However, fields under the prophylactic approach did not exceed threshold as often as fields using IPM. Total cost of prophylactic management was also $20.72 less per hectare, giving this approach an economic advantage over IPM. The majority of fields under the IPM approach did not exceed the economic threshold. Hence, from an economic perspective, both the prophylactic and IPM approaches have advantages and disadvantages. This helps explains the partial, rather than complete, adoption of IPM by southeastern U.S. wheat growers. Cereal leaf beetle was spatially aggregated across the region in 2010, but not in 2011. As a result, from an economic standpoint, prophylaxis or IPM may have a better fit in localized areas of the region than others. Finally, because IPM adoption is favored when it has a strong economic advantage over alternative management approaches, more emphasis should be placed on research to reduce costs within the IPM approach.

  1. LAND STREAMER SEISMIC DATA FROM NORTHERN DELAWARE: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR IMAGING AQUIFERS IN SUBURBAN AREAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, C. C.; McLaughlin, P. P.; McGeary, S. E.; Sargent, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Potomac Formation includes the most important confined aquifers in the Coastal Plain of northern Delaware. Development and a growing suburban population are increasing demand for groundwater in the area, making accurate assessment of groundwater water supply increasingly important. Previous studies of subsurface geology indicate that the Potomac Formation is characterized by laterally discontinuous fluvial sand bodies, making it difficult to precisely delineate the distribution and geometry of the aquifer facies based on well correlations alone. A 20-km high-resolution seismic reflection dataset was collected using a land-streamer system in 2008 to constrain subsurface stratigraphy between disparate well locations. The data were collected along roadways in an area of mixed development that includes suburban housing tracts, farmlands, and large industry. A 152-m-deep continuous-cored test hole was drilled in the summer of 2009 adjacent to one of the lines and a full suite of borehole geophysical logs obtained. The land-streamer data are compared to a 3-km dataset collected also in 2008 using conventional methods on farmland in the northern part of the study area. The land streamer system proved to be more effective than conventional seismic reflection methods in this area. Several advantages are evident for the land streamer: 1) overall, the conventional dataset has a higher S/N, 2) on average, collecting data with the land streamer system is four times faster, and 3) the land streamer lines can be longer and therefore more continuous than the conventional lines in a developed area. The land-streamer system has minor disadvantages: traffic control, traffic noise, and in some cases a need for larger crews. Regardless, the land streamer dataset is easier to process, of higher quality, and more cost effective. The final depth images from the land streamer data indicate that the minimum and maximum depths imaged are ~18 m and ~ 268m, with a resolution of ~4 m. This

  2. Bridging the GAPS from Space: A Research/Educational Partnership in the Upper Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown de Colstoun, E.; Robin, J.; Minelli, S.; Katsaros, M.; Peterec, I.; Sandt, K.

    2006-05-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program is currently developing scientific protocols to inventory and monitor the natural resources of 270 park units at the national level. These are aimed at providing critical tools needed by park managers for effective decision-making regarding the management and stewardship of the resources they are charged with protecting. We are currently developing a satellite-based regional land cover and land use monitoring protocol that addresses the immediate needs of the NPS I&M. This is a pilot project that examines land cover/use changes in and around the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River and Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area national parks from Landsat data for the period 1984 to 2005, in one the fastest growing regions in the country. The products resulting from the application of the protocols are then used to guide the simulation of land cover/use changes within a simple Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) model called GAPS in order to better understand the consequences of the measured land cover/use change on the water and energy cycles of the parks and surrounding areas. The data needed for product validation and model parameterization are being acquired with the assistance of students and educators from area schools using protocols established through the GLOBE program. Through focused workshops organized in collaboration with NPS educational specialists and PA regional educational service agencies called Intermediate Units, and participation in hands-on field measurement campaigns, students and educators are learning about satellite remote sensing interpretation, land cover classification, and how to measure/monitor changes in land cover/use in their communities. Students will also assist in the model simulations using the data they acquire in the field. This partnership between the Principal Investigator, the NPS, Intermediate Units and area students and educators is

  3. Consumption, nutrient digestibility and lactation performance of dairy cows fed soybeans in different forms

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Maria de Vasconcelos; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Marcia Dias; Vinicio Araujo Nascimento; Débora Andréa Evangelista Façanha; Juliano José de Resende Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Twelve Holstein cows were given diets containing soybean supplied in different ways in order to identify possible changes in lactation performance and evaluate the economic feasibility of the diets. The diets included: soybean meal only (SM-control); raw soybean (RaS); roasted soybean (RoS) and soybean meal plus 5% urea (SMU). The forage consisted of corn silage. We analyzed the dry matter intake, milk production and collected milk samples. To estimate digestibility, we collected six samples ...

  4. Sowing seasons and quality of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Marizangela Rizzatti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the difficulties of producing high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds during the traditional cropping period in some areas of the State of Paraná, Brazil, a research project was carried out with the objective of evaluating the influence of sowing dates on the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds, during the 1998/99 and 1999/00 cropping seasons, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The experiment consisted of five cultivar competition assays, arranged in a completely randomized block design, with each assay sown at different dates (10/15, 10/30, 11/15, 11/30 and 12/15 for each cropping season. The evaluated cultivars were BRS 132 (early, BRS 133 (semi-early, BR 16 (semi-early, BRS 134 (intermediate and FT- Estrela (late. Seeds obtained at the sowing dates were evaluated in the laboratory by germination, accelerated aging, and health tests. Sowing in November resulted in seeds with superior physiological and health quality. Cultivar BRS 133 showed the greatest stability in seed production with better quality for the different sowing dates. Cultivars BRS 134 and BRS 133, which were sown during the period from 10/15 to 11/30, produced seeds that had higher percentages of normal seedlings in the germination and accelerated aging tests. Advancing or delaying sowing dates had adverse effects on soybean seed production with regard to their sanitary quality.

  5. Etiology of phomopsis root rot in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cecília Ghissi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of damages caused by soybean root rot to crops in the south of Brazil for several years, a root rot caused by Phomopsis sp has been found with increasing frequency. The primary symptoms are seen when the main root is cut longitudinally, including the death of the wood which shows white coloration and well-defined black lines that do not have a defined format. Thus, based on similarity, it has been called geographic root rot due to its aspect resembling irregular lines that separate regions on a map. In isolations, colonies and alpha spores of Phomopsis have prevailed. Pathogenicity test was done by means of inoculation in the crown of plants cultivated in a growth chamber. The geographic symptoms were reproduced in plants and the fungus Phomopsis sp. was reisolated. In soybean stems naturally infected with pod and stem blight, geographic symptoms caused by Phomopsis phaseoli are found. To the known symptoms on stems, pods and grains, that of root rot caused by P. phaseoli is now added.

  6. Methyl and ethyl soybean esters production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Park, Kil Jin; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel obtained from triglycerides found in nature, like vegetable oils and animal fats. Nowadays it has been the subject of many researches impulses by the creation of the Brazilian law that determined the blend of 2% of biodiesel with petrodiesel. Basically, there are no limitations on the oilseed type for chemical reaction, but due to high cost of this major feedstock, it is important to use the grain that is available in the region of production. Soybean is the oilseed mostly produced in Brazil and its oil is the only one that is available in enough quantity to supply the current biodiesel demand. The objective of this work was to study the effects of reaction time and temperature on soybean oil transesterification reaction with ethanol and methanol. A central composite experimental design with five variation levels was used and response surface methodology applied for the data analysis. The statistical analysis of the results showed that none of the factors affected the ethyl esters production. However, the methyl esters production suffered the influence of temperature (linear effect), reaction time (linear and quadratic) and interaction of these two variables. None of the generated models showed significant regression consequently it was not possible to build the response surface. The experiments demonstrated that methanol is the best alcohol for transesterification reactions and the ester yield was up to 85%. (author)

  7. Integrating microarray analysis and the soybean genome to understand the soybeans iron deficiency response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannon Steven

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soybeans grown in the upper Midwestern United States often suffer from iron deficiency chlorosis, which results in yield loss at the end of the season. To better understand the effect of iron availability on soybean yield, we identified genes in two near isogenic lines with changes in expression patterns when plants were grown in iron sufficient and iron deficient conditions. Results Transcriptional profiles of soybean (Glycine max, L. Merr near isogenic lines Clark (PI548553, iron efficient and IsoClark (PI547430, iron inefficient grown under Fe-sufficient and Fe-limited conditions were analyzed and compared using the Affymetrix® GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array. There were 835 candidate genes in the Clark (PI548553 genotype and 200 candidate genes in the IsoClark (PI547430 genotype putatively involved in soybean's iron stress response. Of these candidate genes, fifty-eight genes in the Clark genotype were identified with a genetic location within known iron efficiency QTL and 21 in the IsoClark genotype. The arrays also identified 170 single feature polymorphisms (SFPs specific to either Clark or IsoClark. A sliding window analysis of the microarray data and the 7X genome assembly coupled with an iterative model of the data showed the candidate genes are clustered in the genome. An analysis of 5' untranslated regions in the promoter of candidate genes identified 11 conserved motifs in 248 differentially expressed genes, all from the Clark genotype, representing 129 clusters identified earlier, confirming the cluster analysis results. Conclusion These analyses have identified the first genes with expression patterns that are affected by iron stress and are located within QTL specific to iron deficiency stress. The genetic location and promoter motif analysis results support the hypothesis that the differentially expressed genes are co-regulated. The combined results of all analyses lead us to postulate iron inefficiency in

  8. Performance of lambs fed alternative protein sources to soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe José Lins Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of alternative protein sources (castor bean cake, sunflower cake, and sunflower seed to soybean meal on the intake and performance of 40 lambs, initially weighing 19.8±1.84 kg, fed diets based on Tifton grass hay. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks. There were no differences in the nutrient intake of castor bean diets compared with soybean meal. The intake of nutrients in the sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets was decreased compared with soybean meal. The apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber of sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets were decreased compared with soybean meal. The average daily weight gain of animals fed the castor bean diet (0.190 kg was not different from that of the animals fed the soybean meal diet (0.217 kg. The sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets provided less weight gain (0.171 and 0.135 kg d-1, respectively than soybean meal due to the lower nutrient intake. The hot carcass yield and true yield were not affected by the protein sources. The neck, ribs, and ham weights were similar in lambs fed soybean meal and castor bean cake diets. It is recommended to use castor bean as an alternative protein source in the diet of lambs.

  9. Tracing soybean domestication history: From nucleotide to genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Young; Van, Kyujung; Kang, Yang Jae; Kim, Kil Hyun; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2012-01-01

    Since the genome sequences of wild species may provide key information about the genetic elements involved in speciation and domestication, the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.), a wild relative of the current cultivated soybean (G. max), was sequenced. In contrast to the current hypothesis of soybean domestication, which holds that the current cultivated soybean was domesticated from G. soja, our previous work has suggested that soybean was domesticated from the G. soja/G. max complex that diverged from a common ancestor of these two species of Glycine. In this review, many structural genomic differences between the two genomes are described and a total of 705 genes are identified as structural variations (SVs) between G. max and G. soja. After protein families database of alignments and hidden Markov models IDs and gene ontology terms were assigned, many interesting genes are discussed in detail using four domestication related traits, such as flowering time, transcriptional factors, carbon metabolism and disease resistance. Soybean domestication history is explored by studying these SVs in genes. Analysis of SVs in genes at the population-level may clarify the domestication history of soybean.

  10. Archaeological Soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does Size Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Sasaki, Yuka; Chen, Xuexiang

    2011-01-01

    The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred) soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the length×width×thickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 9000–8600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon) and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun). Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia. PMID:22073186

  11. Lady Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Communities in Soybean and Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, K K; Andow, D A

    2016-02-01

    Coccinellids provide the most effective natural control of soybean aphid, but outbreaks remain common. Previous work suggests that native coccinellids are rare in soybean, potentially limiting soybean aphid control. We compared the coccinellid community in soybean with that of maize to identify differences in how coccinellid species use these habitats. As maize has long been used by coccinellids in the Americas, we hypothesized that coccinellids native to the Americas would use maize habitats, while exotic coccinellids would be more common in soybean. We identified and quantified aphids and all species and stages of coccinellids in a randomized complete block experiment with four blocks of 10 by 10 -m plots of soybean and maize in central Minnesota during 2008 and 2009. Coccinellid egg masses were identified by hatching in the laboratory. We used repeated-measures ANOVA to identify the dominant species in each habitat and compared species richness and Shannon's diversity with a paired t-test. Aphids and coccinellids had a similar phenology across habitats, but the coccinellid species composition differed significantly between soybean and maize. In soybean, the exotic, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, was the dominant species, while in maize, H. axyridis and the native, Coleomegilla maculata De Geer, were co-dominant. Eggs of H. axyridis were abundant in both habitats. In contrast, C. maculata eggs were very rare in soybean, despite being abundant in adjacent plots of maize. Species diversity was higher in maize. These findings were consistent with other published studies of coccinellid communities in these habitats. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Novel and conserved microRNAs in soybean floral whorls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcheski, F R; Molina, L G; da Fonseca, G C; de Morais, G L; de Oliveira, L F V; Margis, R

    2016-01-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) correspond to a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs (19-24 nt) that regulates the gene expression, through mRNA target cleavage or translation inhibition. In plants, miRNAs have been shown to play pivotal roles in a wide variety of metabolic and biological processes like plant growth, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stress. Soybean is one of the most important crops worldwide, due to the production of oil and its high protein content. The reproductive phase is considered the most important for soybean yield, which is mainly intended to produce the grains. The identification of miRNAs is not yet saturated in soybean, and there are no studies linking them to the different floral organs. In this study, three different mature soybean floral whorls were used in the construction of sRNA libraries. The sequencing of petal, carpel and stamen libraries generated a total of 10,165,661 sequences. Subsequent analyses identified 200 miRNAs sequences, among which, 41 were novel miRNAs, 80 were conserved soybean miRNAs, 31 were new antisense conserved soybean miRNAs and 46 were soybean miRNAs isoforms. We also found a new miRNA conserved in other plant species, and finally one miRNA-sibling of a soybean conserved miRNA. Conserved and novel miRNAs were evaluated by RT-qPCR. We observed a differential expression across the three whorls for six miRNAs. Computational predicted targets for miRNAs analyzed by RT-qPCR were identified and present functions related to reproductive process in plants. In summary, the increased accumulation of specific and novel miRNAs in different whorls indicates that miRNAs are an important part of the regulatory network in soybean flower.

  13. 7 CFR 1220.312 - Remittance of assessments and submission of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.312 Section 1220.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. (a) Each first purchaser...

  14. Bioactive Components of Soybeans and Their Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Özcan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Depending on scientific developments and advancement in consumer awareness differences in types of nutrition and choice of foods resulted in increment on tendance to functional foods which have favorable effects on human health. The occurrence of positive effects on human health and inclusion of functional characteristics of the bioactive components in soybean compound has made possible adding of these soybean components in to the foods. In this compilation the importance of soybean active components in food are mentioned and along with this their positive effects on human health are introduced.

  15. Modeling the Tensile Properties of Soybean Protein Yarns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石风俊; 崔世忠

    2003-01-01

    The tensile properties of a series of soybean protein yarns are tested in USTER THINKPAID Ⅲ.A nonlinear viscoelastic model has been proposed to describe the tensile behavior of soybean protein yarns.The model is composed of a Maxwell element,a linear spring and a nonlinear spring.The tensile properties of soybean protein yarn are analyzed.The stress-strain curves of the yarns are fitted.The average breaking tenacity and specific work of rupture are calculated using the average breaking strain.Comparisons indicate that theoretical predictions conform the experimental results very well.

  16. Transcription of the soybean leghemoglobin genes during nodule development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcker, Anne; Lund, Marianne; Jensen, Erik Ø

    1984-01-01

    During the early stages of soybean nodule development the leghemoglobin (Lb) genes are activated sequentially in the opposite order to which they are arranged in the soybean genome. At a specific stage after the initial activation of all the Lb genes, a large increment occurs in the transcription...... of the Lb(c1), Lb(c3) and Lb(a) genes while the transcription of the Lb(c2) gene is not amplified to a similar extent. All the Lb genes retain significant activity for a long period during the lifetime of a nodule. Consequently the soybean Lb genes are not regulated by a developmental gene switching...

  17. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina: Myths and realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semino, S; Jelsoee, E [Department of Environment, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde University Universitetsvej 1, DK-4000, Roskilde (Denmark); Paul, H [ECONEXUS, PO Box 1455, Oxford OX4 9BS (United Kingdom); Tomei, J [UCL Energy Institute, Central House, 14 Upper Woburn Place, London, WC1H 0HY (United Kingdom); Joensen, L [Grupo de Reflexion Rural, Rondeau, 812 Marcos Paz, 1727, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Monti, M, E-mail: semino@ruc.d, E-mail: stella.semino@mail.d [Direccion de Extension e Investigacion Agropecuaria, Ministerio de la Produccion, Provincia de Santa Fe, Pte Peron y Garay, 6100, Rufino, Provincia de Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2009-11-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel alternatives. To ensure that the production of biofuels is 'sustainable', EU institutions and national governments are designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. In this paper, we question the validity of these proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. We highlight the negative environmental and social impacts of intensive soybean production, and conclude that certification schemes are unlikely to be able to address the detrimental impacts of increased biofuel production and trade.

  18. Compatibility of Soybean Protein and Poly (vinyl alcohol)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈婕; 肖茹; 顾利霞

    2004-01-01

    Bicomponent fibers were wet-spun from soybean protein and poly (vinyl alcohol). The fiber was brittle and showed a high frequency of breakage upon drawing and the bad compatibility between soybean protein and poly (vinyl alcohol) was thought to be the causes for the poor drawability. Our effort was then to study the soybean protein and poly (vinyl alcohol) solution, with the aim of trying to improve the components' compatibility and to determine the proper solution condition for dissolving them.The effects of alkali, sodium sulfite and urea on the compatibility of the solution were examined.

  19. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, Raimundo Braga [Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical, Rua Dra. Sara Mesquita, 2270, CEP 60511-110 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: braga@cnpat.embrapa.br; Caceres, Carlos; Islam, Amirul; Wornoayporn, Vivat [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: C.Caceres@iaea.org; Enkerlin, Walter [Insect Pest Control Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: W.Enkerlin@iaea.org

    2006-04-15

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagasse, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagasse in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein. (author)

  20. Genetic diversity in soybean genotypes with resistance to Heterodera glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Oliveira Nogueira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity among soybean genotypes inoculated with Heteroderaglycines race 3. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse. In two performance tests of morphological characteristics andresistance to the pathogen, 27 soybean genotypes were assessed. The coefficient of genotypic determination was estimated by themethod of analysis of variance and the genetic diversity analyzed based on dendrograms and optimization method. The estimatedcoefficients of determination indicated a predominantly genetic origin of the genotypic differences in the traits. The genetic variabilitywas maintained in the superior genotypes, which can be used in breeding programs for resistance to soybean cyst nematode