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Sample records for delaware ece spring

  1. Origin of Atlantic Sturgeon collected off the Delaware coast during spring months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirgin, Isaac; Breece, Matthew W.; Fox, Dewayne A.; Maceda, Lorraine; Wark, Kevin W.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus was federally listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as five distinct population segments (DPS). Currently, at least 18 estuaries coastwide host spawning populations and the viability of these vary, requiring differing levels of protection. Subadults emigrate from their natal estuaries to marine waters where they are vulnerable to bycatch; one of the major threats to the rebuilding of populations. As a result, identifying the population origin of Atlantic Sturgeon in coastal waters is critical to development of management plans intended to minimize interactions of the most imperiled populations with damaging fisheries. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequencing and microsatellite DNA analyses to determine the origin of 261 Atlantic Sturgeon collected off the Delaware coast during the spring months. Using individual-based assignment (IBA) testing and mixed stock analysis, we found that specimens originated from all nine of our reference populations and the five DPSs used in the listing determination. Using IBA, we found that the Hudson River population was the largest contributor (38.3%) to our coastal collection. The James (19.9%) and Delaware (13.8%) river populations, at one time thought to be extirpated or nearly so, were the next largest contributors. The three populations combined in the South Atlantic DPS contributed 21% of specimens; the Altamaha River, the largest population in the South Atlantic DPS, only contributed a single specimen to the collection. While the origin of specimens collected on the Delaware coast was most likely within rivers of the New York Bight DPS (52.1%), specimens that originated elsewhere were also well represented. Genetic analyses provide a robust tool to identify the population origin of individual sturgeon outside of their natal estuaries and to determine the quantitative contributions of individual populations to coastal aggregations that are vulnerable to

  2. ECE Successfully Acquire Haoze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>In order to improve sustainable development capability, optimize mineral resources, East China Mineral Exploration and Development Bureau (ECE) have worked hard to create new achievements both in the domestic and over-

  3. ECE6010 - Stochastic Processes, Spring 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Todd K.

    2006-01-01

    This course provides an introduction to stochastic processes in communications, signal processing, digital and computer systems, and control. Topics include continuous and discrete random processes, correlation and power spectral density, optimal filtering, Markov chains, and queuing theory. Technical Requirements: MATLAB

  4. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  5. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Grabs 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  6. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  7. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  8. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  9. Summary of ECE Presentations at EC-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, M. E.

    2017-07-01

    At the EC-19 workshop there were ten presentations in the topic of diagnosing and heating plasmas with Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) and Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW). Innovations continue in designs of ECE systems while tried-and-true instruments still provide adequate data to explore new areas of research. Heterodyne radiometers and Michelson interferometers carry on as the bedrock of ECE electron temperature (Te) measurements while ECE imaging systems continue expanding their capabilities. The design of the ITER-ECE diagnostic system is in its advanced stages; solutions are being found for challenges in the transmission lines and front-end calibration sources.

  10. Summary of ECE Presentations at EC-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There were nine ECE and one EBE presentation at EC-18. Four of the presentations were on various aspects of ECE on ITER. The ITER ECE diagnostic has entered an important detailed preliminary design phase and faces several design challenges in the next 2-3 years. Most of the other ECE presentations at the workshop were focused on applications of ECE diagnostics to plasma measurements, rather than improvements in technology, although it was apparent that heterodyne receiver technology continues to improve. CECE, ECE imaging and EBE imaging are increasingly providing valuable insights into plasma behavior that is important to understand if future burning plasma devices, such as ITER, FNSF and DEMO, are to be successful.

  11. ECE for NTM control on ITER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerhof E.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Control of Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs requires an accurate and low latency detection of the mode position. For a burning H-mode ITER plasma, simulations are conducted for both ECE detected via the equatorial port plug and along the line-of-sight of the ECCD launchers. Simulated ECE is detected using synthetic radiometers, with settings chosen to meet the required accuracy. A video bandwidth of 2 kHz is used which allows for an intermediate frequency bandwidth of BIF = 400 MHz for ECE detected via the equatorial port plug. For ECE detected via the ECCD line-of-sight, an intermediate frequency bandwidth of 1.5 GHz and 1 GHz for the 2/1 and 3/2 NTM respectively suffices for accurate location detection. For both ECE systems, the latency requirements for NTM suppression are fulfilled.

  12. Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James J. Kilpatrick

    2006-01-01

    @@ Springs are not always the same. In some years, April bursts upon our Virginia hills in one prodigious leap-and all the stage is filled at once, whole choruses of tulips, arabesques of forsythia, cadenzas of flowering plum. The trees grow leaves overnight

  13. Results of the 1975 Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    During the Spring semester of 1975, the University of Delaware initiated a PLATO project with the dual purpose of demonstrating how a computer system might function in a university and of evaluating what part such a system might play in the future of the university and its supporting community. The demonstration phase of the project, which…

  14. ECE Measurements of Helical Plasmas in LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Y.; Inagaki, S.; Ito, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Sasao, H.; de Vries, P.

    1999-11-01

    This paper presents ECE measurements on LHD, which is the l=2, n=10 heriotron with the major radius of 3.8 m, with the averaged minor radius of 60 cm and with the helical field of up to 3 T. The ECE is collected from both inner and outer sides, since the magnetic field has a peaked profile. ECE is detcted with Michelson, GPC and 70 GHz and 140 GHz radiometers. The LHD plasma is generated using ECH of up to 1 MW and is heated using NBI of up to 8 GW. Notch filters reduce the ECH leakage. The polarization of ECE is theoretically and experimentally investigated in the heriotoron system, where the field angle rotates -30 to 30^o. The polarization follows as the field angle changes. Since the density profile is flat, ECE is cut off in the edge region in the high density LHD plasma. An interesting observation is the breathing phenomena, which is as follows: the electron temperature and other plasma parameters oscillate with frequency of 0.5-1Hz like a sine-wave when the NBI power is about 1 MW.

  15. ECE Imaging Bandwidth Upgrade for TEXTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domier, C. W.; Zhang, P.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Park, H. K.; van de Pol, M. J.; Spakman, G. W.; Jaspers, R.; Donne, A. J. H.

    2007-11-01

    The 128 channel 2-D Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) Imaging system collects time-resolved 16x8 images of electron temperature profiles and fluctuations on the TEXTOR tokamak. This instrument was upgraded in February 2007 with new wideband ECE electronics which increased the instantaneous frequency coverage by >50% to 6.4 GHz with a corresponding increase in horizontal plasma coverage. Frequency extenders have been developed to combine modules together to double the instantaneous coverage to 12.8 GHz. Technical details regarding both the electronics upgrade and the frequency extenders as well as the preliminary physics results will be presented. Implementation of a similar but new ECEI instrument on the DIII-D tokamak will be extensively discussed.

  16. Gender and professionalisation in the Danish ECE workforce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Baagøe

    and the linking of these strategies, which in the international literature is often considered two sides of the same coin. Through the narratives of men and women in the ECE workforce in Denmark the paper discusses experiences of men and women in ECE institutions, and consequences for training and the transition...

  17. ECE imaging of electron temperature and electron temperature fluctuations (invited)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, B.H.; Domier, C.W.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Brower, D.L.; Cima, G.; Donne, A. J. H.; Oyevaar, T.; van de Pol, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECE imaging or ECEI) is a novel plasma diagnostic technique for the study of electron temperature profiles and fluctuations in magnetic fusion plasma devices. Instead of a single receiver located in the tokamak midplane as in conventional ECE radiometers, ECEI sy

  18. Update on the status of the ITER ECE diagnostic design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Austin, M. E.; Basile, A.; Beno, J. H.; Danani, S.; Feder, R.; Houshmandyar, S.; Hubbard, A. E.; Johnson, D. W.; Khodak, A.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Ouroua, A.; Padasalagi, S. B.; Pandya, H. K. B.; Phillips, P. E.; Rowan, W. L.; Stillerman, J.; Thomas, S.; Udintsev, V. S.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.; Weeks, D.

    2017-07-01

    Considerable progress has been made on the design of the ITER electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic over the past two years. Radial and oblique views are still included in the design in order to measure distortions in the electron momentum distribution, but the oblique view has been redirected to reduce stray millimeter radiation from the electron cyclotron heating system. A major challenge has been designing the 1000 K calibration sources and remotely activated mirrors located in the ECE diagnostic shield module (DSM) in the equatorial port plug #09. These critical systems are being modeled and prototypes are being developed. Providing adequate neutron shielding in the DSM while allowing sufficient space for optical components is also a significant challenge. Four 45-meter long low-loss transmission lines transport the 70-1000 GHz ECE from the DSM to the ECE instrumentation room. Prototype transmission lines are being tested, as are the polarization splitter modules that separate O-mode and X-mode polarized ECE. A highly integrated prototype 200-300 GHz radiometer is being tested on the DIII-D tokamak in the USA. Design activities also include integration of ECE signals into the ITER plasma control system and determining the hardware and software architecture needed to control and calibrate the ECE instruments.

  19. A Synoptic Snapshot of the East Cape Eddy (ECE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; LIU Qinyu

    2005-01-01

    A synoptic snapshot in this study is made for the East Cape Eddy (ECE) based on the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) P14C Hydrographic Section and Shipboard ADCP velocity vector data collected in September 1992.The ECE is an anticyclonic eddy, barotropically structured and centered at 33.64°S and 176.21°E, with warm and salinouscored subsurface water. The radius of the eddy is of the order O (110 km) and the maximum circumferential velocity is O(40cms-1); as a result, the relative vorticity is estimated to be O (7 × 10-6s-1). Due to the existence of the ECE, the mixed layer north of New Zealand becomes deeper, reaching a depth of 300 m in the austral winter. The ECE plays an important role in the formation and distribution of the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW) over a considerable area in the South Pacific.

  20. Gender and professionalisation in the Danish ECE workforce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Baagøe

    to practice. The research highlights the importance of reflecting gender aspects at an important step of vocational carreers. ECE research, practice and policy have to regard gender equity as a basic aspect of diversity and equality in ECE. The research explores and sheds light on the parallel difficulties...... of the gender equal recruitment and the strategies of professionalization. The aim is to discuss future possibilities of policies targeted at recruiting men....

  1. RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Data Points - Rehoboth Bay, Delaware Algae Mapping with Single Beam Acoustics: June 12 - 16, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs(DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  2. NOAA Office for Coastal Management RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Benthic Habitat Data, Rehoboth Bay, Delaware, 2000 (NODC Accession 0089461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs (DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  3. Extending the physics studied by ECE on ITER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandya H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE diagnostic provides essential information for plasma operation and for establishing performance characteristics in ITER. Recently, the design of the ITER ECE diagnostic has been taken through the conceptual design review and now entering the detailed design phase [1, 2]. The baseline ECE system on ITER permits measurements of both the X- and O-mode radiation in the frequency range from 70 GHz up to 1 THz along two lines-of-sight, perpendicular and oblique at about 10 degrees, in the equatorial port. The system as planned meets the ITER measurement requirements. Nevertheless, there are several other mm-wave diagnostics in ITER, such as HFS, LFS and plasma position reflectometry, as well as Collective Thomson scattering system, whose transmission lines allow, in principle, additional measurements of parts of the ECE spectrum with upgrades of their back-ends, improvements in filtering and/or additional receivers. A discussion of whether and how supposedly to enable such ECE measurements is given here.

  4. Status of the design of the ITER ECE diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The baseline design for the ITER electron cyclotron emission (ECE diagnostic has entered the detailed preliminary design phase. Two plasma views are planned, a radial view and an oblique view that is sensitive to distortions in the electron momentum distribution near the average thermal momentum. Both views provide high spatial resolution electron temperature profiles when the momentum distribution remains Maxwellian. The ECE diagnostic system consists of the front-end optics, including two 1000 K calibration sources, in equatorial port plug EP9, the 70-1000 GHz transmission system from the front-end to the diagnostics hall, and the ECE instrumentation in the diagnostics hall. The baseline ECE instrumentation will include two Michelson interferometers that can simultaneously measure ordinary and extraordinary mode ECE from 70 to 1000 GHz, and two heterodyne radiometer systems, covering 122-230 GHz and 244-355 GHz. Significant design challenges include 1 developing highly-reliable 1000 K calibration sources and the associated shutters/mirrors, 2 providing compliant couplings between the front-end optics and the polarization splitter box that accommodate displacements of the vacuum vessel during plasma operations and bake out, 3 protecting components from damage due to stray ECH radiation and other intense millimeter wave emission and 4 providing the low-loss broadband transmission system.

  5. Delaware's first serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  6. Cadence Feedback With ECE PEDO to Monitor Physical Activity Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardic, Fusun; Göcer, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the monitoring capabilities of the equipment for clever exercise pedometer (ECE PEDO) that provides audible feedback when the person exceeds the upper and lower limits of the target step numbers per minute and to compare step counts with Yamax SW-200 (YX200) as the criterion pedometer. A total of 30 adult volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were classified as normal weight (n = 10), overweight (n = 10), and obese (n = 10). After the submaximal exercise test on a treadmill, the moderate intensity for walking was determined by using YX200 pedometer and then the number of steps taken in a minute was measured. Lower and upper limits of steps per minute (cadence) were recorded in ECE PEDO providing audible feedback when the person's walking speed gets out of the limits. Volunteers walked for 30 minutes in the individual step count range by attaching the ECE PEDO and YX200 pedometer on both sides of the waist belt in the same session. Step counts of the volunteers were recorded. Wilcoxon, Spearman correlation, and Bland–Altman analyses were performed to show the relationship and agreement between the results of 2 devices. Subjects took an average of 3511 ± 426 and 3493 ± 399 steps during 30 minutes with ECE PEDO and criterion pedometer, respectively. About 3500 steps taken by ECE PEDO reflected that this pedometer has capability of identifying steps per minute to meet moderate intensity of physical activity. There was a strong correlation between step counts of both devices (P PEDO and YX200 pedometer in the Bland–Altman analysis. Although both devices showed a strong similarity in counting steps, the ECE PEDO provides monitoring of intensity such that a person can walk in a specified time with a desired speed. PMID:26962822

  7. Reconnaissance of the hydrology, water quality, and sources of bacterial and nutrient contamination in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and Cave Springs Branch of Honey Creek, Delaware County, Oklahoma, March 1999-March 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Samadpour, Mansour

    2000-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of hydrology and water quality was conducted to evaluate possible sources of bacteria and nutrient contamination in the Cave Springs Branch basin and the underlying karstic Ozark Plateau aquifer system. Objectives were to: (1) determine the directions of ground-water flow in the basin and determine whether Cave Springs Branch interacts with ground water, (2) compare water quality in Cave Springs Branch with water quality in nearby wells to determine whether the stream is contaminating nearby wells, and (3) determine sources of fecal coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination in Cave Springs Branch and ground water. Potential sources of bacteria and nitrate in the area include cultivated agriculture, cow and horse on pasture, poultry production, households, and wildlife. Presence of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria directly indicate fecal contamination and the potential for the presence of other pathogenic organisms in a water supply. Nitrate in drinking water poses health risks and may indicate the presence of additional contaminants. Fecal coliform bacteria colony counts were least in wells, intermediate in the poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall and Honey Creek above the confluence with Cave Springs Branch, and greatest in Cave Springs Branch. Bacteria strains and resistance to antibiotics by some bacteria indicate that livestock may have been sources of some bacteria in the water samples. Multiple antibiotic resistances were not present in the isolates from the water samples, indicating that the bacteria may not be from human or poultry sources. Ribotyping indicates that Escherichia coli bacteria in water samples from the basin were from bird, cow, horse, dog, deer, and human sources. The presence of multiple ribotypes from each type of animal source except bird indicates that most of the bacteria are from multiple populations of source animals. Identifiable sources of bacteria in Cave Springs Branch at the

  8. Optical design of the oblique Ece antenna system for JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozzi, C. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: sozzi@ifp.cnr.it; Bruschi, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milan (Italy); Simonetto, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milan (Italy); DeLaLuna, E. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Fessey, J. [EURATOM-UKAEA Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Riccardo, V. [EURATOM-UKAEA Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-15

    Systematic disagreements between Ece and Thomson Scattering diagnostics observed in various fusion devices led to the proposal of the so called Oblique Ece diagnostics on JET. This system will allow the study of the electron distribution function at low energies to reveal deviations from the Maxwellian distribution. This paper is devoted to the design of the quasi optical antenna for this diagnostics. The physical bases of the diagnostics imply two lines of sight at about 10{sup o} and 20{sup o} respectively from the magnetic field gradient. Severe geometrical constraints are imposed by the location of the antenna. The design strategy and physical optics calculations used to validate it are presented.

  9. ECE diagnostic of high temperature ECRH heated plasmas on FTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbini, M; Buratti, P; Tudisco, O; Giruzzi, G; Bruschi, A; Cirant, S; Granucci, G; Simonetto, A; Sozzi, C; Gandini, F; Pacella, D; Fournier, K B; Finkenthal, M

    2000-01-31

    The Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) diagnostic on FTU tokamak is routinely performed with a Michelson interferometer with spectral range extending up to 1300 GHz. The diagnostic allowed accurate electron temperature measurements during the recent 140 Ghz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) experiments on FTU. Very accurate measurements have been performed on a wide range of electron temperatures and profile peaking. The ECE measurements have been compared with Thomson Scattering and with observations of X-ray spectra from highly stripped molybdenum ions. The suprathermal emission in these conditions has been studied.

  10. Spatial Resolution of the ECE for JET Typical Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribaldos, V. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to obtain estimations of the spatial resolution of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) phenomena for the typical plasmas found in JET tokamak. The analysis of the spatial resolution of the ECE is based on the underlying physical process of emission and a working definition is presented and discussed. In making these estimations a typical JET pulse is being analysed taking into account the magnetic configuration, the density and temperature profiles, obtained with the EFIT code and from the LIDAR diagnostic. Ray tracing simulations are performed for a Maxwellian plasma taking into account the antenna pattern. (Author) 5 refs.

  11. Delaware Bay, Delaware Sediment Distribution 2003 to 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 38 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2003 to 2004 along the middle to lower Delaware Bay Coast. The bottom sediment map...

  12. New millimeter-wave access for JET reflectometry and ECE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupido, L. [EURATOM-IST Association, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: cupido@mail.ua.pt; Luna, E. de la [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Antonucci, C. [Close Support Unit-EURATOM, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)] (and others)

    2005-11-15

    Millimeter-wave diagnostics at JET, mainly reflectometry, are employing state of art electronics, but are limited in performance by the existing waveguides and antenna system that are inadequate and obsolete. The use of long run waveguides with high losses and non-optimized antennas (in some cases, not pointing to relevant plasma positions) lead to difficult measurement conditions for reflectometry. The new access system presented in this article has been designed to improve the performance of reflectometry measurements and enable the installation of antennas for oblique viewing ECE. These two new antennae will allow the Ece radiation to be collected at different angles with respect to the magnetic field. This set-up, known as oblique ECE , is expected to be extremely useful in improving the interpretation of ECE temperature measurements in all fusion experiments with significant additional heating. For reflectometry, there is an urgent need to improve the edge density measurements as both the lithium beam and Thomson scattering exhibit limitations of resolution at lower densities. The project proposal states that the expected improvement in reflectometry S/N ratio is 30 dB. If realized, this will allow broad band reflectometry, for the measurement of the electron density profile, for the first time in JET.

  13. IEA SHC Task 42/ECES Annex 29 WG A1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ristić, Alenka; Furbo, Simon; Moser, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    An overview on the recent results on the engineering and characterization of sorption materials, PCMs and TCMs investigated in the working group WG A1 “Engineering and processing of TES materials” of IEA SHC Task 42 / ECES Annex 29 (Task 4229) entitled “Compact Thermal Energy Storage” is presented....

  14. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  15. Libraries in Delaware: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/delaware.html Libraries in Delaware To use the sharing features on ... Newark Christiana Care Health System Lewis B. Flinn Library 4755 Ogletown-Stanton Road / PO BOX 6001 Newark, ...

  16. ECE-imaging of the H-mode pedestal (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, B. J.; Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Austin, M. E. [University of Texas-Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Boom, J. E.; Classen, I. G. J. [Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Burrell, K. H.; Snyder, P. B. [General Atomics, P.O.Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr. [University of California-Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A synthetic diagnostic has been developed that reproduces the highly structured electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrum radiated from the edge region of H-mode discharges. The modeled dependence on local perturbations of the equilibrium plasma pressure allows for interpretation of ECE data for diagnosis of local quantities. Forward modeling of the diagnostic response in this region allows for improved mapping of the observed fluctuations to flux surfaces within the plasma, allowing for the poloidal mode number of coherent structures to be resolved. In addition, other spectral features that are dependent on both T{sub e} and n{sub e} contain information about pedestal structure and the electron energy distribution of localized phenomena, such as edge filaments arising during edge-localized mode (ELM) activity.

  17. Infusing Technical Communication and Teamwork within the ECE Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    KEDROWICZ, By April; WATANABE, Sundy

    2006-01-01

    This paper highlights a unique approach to infusing formal training and practice in oral and written communication and teamwork development in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) at the University of Utah. Faculty and graduate (Ph.D.) students from the College of Humanities have teamed up with faculty from engineering to develop communication and teamwork instruction that is integrated into the existing engineering curriculum. These skills are used as a vehicle ...

  18. ECE RADIOMETER UPGRADE ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AUSTIN, ME; LOHR, J

    2002-08-01

    OAK A271 ECE RADIOMETER UPGRADE ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK. The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) heterodyne radiometer diagnostic on DIII-D has been upgraded with the addition of eight channels for a total of 40. The new, higher frequency channels allow measurements of electron temperature into the magnetic axis in discharges at maximum field, 2.15 T. The complete set now extends over the full usable range of second harmonic emission frequencies at 2.0 T covering radii from the outer edge inward to the location of third harmonic overlap on the high field side. Full coverage permits the measurement of heat pulses and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations on both sides of the magnetic axis. In addition, the symmetric measurements are used to fix the location of the magnetic axis in tokamak magnetic equilibrium reconstructions. Also, the new higher frequency channels have been used to determine central T{sub e} with good time resolution in low field, high density discharges using third harmonic ECE in the optically gray and optically thick regimes.

  19. Delaware Bay Upper Shelf Bottom Sediments 2008-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  20. University of Delaware Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Michael T

    2012-09-30

    The main goal of this project funded through this DOE grant is to help in the establishment of the University of Delaware Energy Institute (UDEI) which is designed to be a long-term, on-going project. The broad mission of UDEI is to develop collaborative programs encouraging research activities in the new and emerging energy technologies and to partner with industry and government in meeting the challenges posed by the nation's pressing energy needs.

  1. Upgraded ECE radiometer on the Tore Supra Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segui, J.L.; Molina, D.; Goniche, M.; Maget, P.; Udintsev, V.S. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Antar, G.Y. [Center for Energy Research, UCSD, La Jolla CA (United States); Kraemer-Flecken, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik

    2004-07-01

    An upgraded 32-channel heterodyne radiometer, 1 GHz spaced, is used on the Tore-Supra tokamak to measure the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) in the frequency range 78-110 GHz for the ordinary mode (O1) and 94-126.5 GHz for the extraordinary mode (X2). From now radial resolution is essentially limited by ECE relativistic effects related to electron temperature and density, not by the channels frequency spacing. For example, this leads to precise electron temperature mapping during magneto hydrodynamic activities (MHD). In the equatorial plane, we use a dual polarisation Gaussian optics lens antenna. It has low spreading and a perpendicular line-of-sight that gives ECE measurements very low refraction and Doppler effects. Assuming that the plasma is a black body and there is no overlap between ECE harmonics, one can deduce the electron temperature profile by using the first harmonic ordinary mode (O1) or the second harmonic extraordinary mode (X2). The principle radio frequency emitter (RF) has its frequencies down shifted into intermediary frequencies (IF) that span from 2 to 18 GHz in the single side band mode (SSB). It is amplified by low noise IF amplifiers before forming channels. A separate O/X mode RF front-end allows the use of an IF electronic mode selector. This gives the potentiality of simultaneous O/X mode measurements in the 94-110 GHz. RF and IF filters reject the gyrotron frequency (118 GHz) in order to perform electron temperature measurements during electron cyclotron resonance heated plasmas. A precise absolute spectral calibration is performed outside the tokamak vacuum vessel by using a 600 deg C black body hot source, a double coherent digital signal averaging (trigger, turn and clock) on the waveform generated by a mechanical chopper, and a simulated tokamak window. The use of differential electronics and strong electromagnetic shielding improves also the calibration precision. The fast and slow data acquisition systems are free of aliasing

  2. Shared Services: A Powerful Strategy to Support Sustainability of ECE Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, Louise

    2009-01-01

    As Co-Founder of the Alliance for Early Childhood Finance, it is the author's job to think about how they pay for early care and education (ECE) services in the United States. Generating the operating revenue needed to establish and sustain a high-quality ECE program has never been easy--and in a recession economy it is becoming even more…

  3. Optical-Thickness Corrections to Transient Ece Temperature-Measurements in Tokamak and Stellarator Plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M.; Gorini, G.; Mantica, P.

    1995-01-01

    The conditions are examined under which optical thickness (tau) corrections to electron cyclotron emission (ECE) measurements of electron temperature (T-e) can be neglected. By means of simple algebra it is demonstrated that for measurements of T-e transients the ECE radiation temperature (T-rad) ca

  4. Shared Services: A Powerful Strategy to Support Sustainability of ECE Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, Louise

    2009-01-01

    As Co-Founder of the Alliance for Early Childhood Finance, it is the author's job to think about how they pay for early care and education (ECE) services in the United States. Generating the operating revenue needed to establish and sustain a high-quality ECE program has never been easy--and in a recession economy it is becoming even more…

  5. Conceptual Design of the ITER ECE Diagnostic – An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouroua A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ITER ECE diagnostic has recently been through a conceptual design review for the entire system including front end optics, transmission line, and back-end instruments. The basic design of two viewing lines, each with a single ellipsoidal mirror focussing into the plasma near the midplane of the typical operating scenarios is agreed upon. The location and design of the hot calibration source and the design of the shutter that directs its radiation to the transmission line are issues that need further investigation. In light of recent measurements and discussion, the design of the broadband transmission line is being revisited and new options contemplated. For the instruments, current systems for millimeter wave radiometers and broad-band spectrometers will be adequate for ITER, but the option for employing new state-of-the-art techniques will be left open.

  6. Study of high frequency MHD modes from ECE radiometer in Tore Supra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubuit N.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tore Supra ECE diagnostic has been recently upgraded to study MHD modes driven by energetic particles up to 400 kHz. To improve the measurement sensitivity, the ECE signals of the 32 channels radiometer were amplified just below the saturation limit and sources of noise were investigated in order to keep it as low as possible. With such an improvement, fast particle driven modes with frequencies up to 200 kHz were detected. A 4-channel correlation ECE system using YIG filters with tuneable frequency was also installed. It allows fine radial scans of MHD modes and correlation length measurements. For the two kinds of YIG filter in use, the minimum frequency separation between two ECE channels that could be achieved was established measuring the correlation coefficient between the respective radiation noises. Finally, by modelling the ECE radiometer taking into account the antenna radiation pattern and the vertical position of the ECE beam relative to the plasma centre we improved the data analysis tools, thus giving a better determination of the phase radial structure of ECE oscillations. The poloidal structure of MHD modes can then be identified from ECE data and, for off axis ECE lines of sight, the direction of the plasma rotation can also be determined. This method allows identifying the occurrence of an inverse cascade of electron fishbone modes ranging from m/n=4/4 to 1/1 (m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively which appears in lower hybrid current drive plasmas.

  7. 33 CFR 165.511 - Security Zone; Atlantic Ocean, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... escorted passenger vessels in the Captain of the Port, Delaware Bay zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.25-05. (b... vessel in order to ensure safe passage in accordance with the Navigation Rules as seen in 33 CFR...

  8. Pitfalls in Using Limitation Clauses in the International General Conditions ECE 188 and Orgalime S 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz

    2008-01-01

    The article centers on the rules on the limitation of liability in the general conditions ECE 188 and Orgalime S 2000. ECE 188 differ considerably from S 2000, as the provisions in ECE 188 do not give the necessary consideration to the development in industry practices and legal rules, including...... the approximation and harmonization of legal systems that have taken place during the last 50 years. S 2000 reflects an international trend that increasingly recognizes the importance of striking a balance between the interests of the parties. However, in practice the parties often derogate considerably from......-balanced system with the result that the seller may end up being fully liable for any loss suffered. This is clearly reflected in national case law. International general conditions such as ECE 188 and Orgalime S 2000 should be applied with great caution, so that the parties avoid the pitfalls illustrated...

  9. Combining phylogenetic and syntenic analyses for understanding the evolution of TCP ECE genes in eudicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citerne, Hélène L; Le Guilloux, Martine; Sannier, Julie; Nadot, Sophie; Damerval, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    TCP ECE genes encode transcription factors which have received much attention for their repeated recruitment in the control of floral symmetry in core eudicots, and more recently in monocots. Major duplications of TCP ECE genes have been described in core eudicots, but the evolutionary history of this gene family is unknown in basal eudicots. Reconstructing the phylogeny of ECE genes in basal eudicots will help set a framework for understanding the functional evolution of these genes. TCP ECE genes were sequenced in all major lineages of basal eudicots and Gunnera which belongs to the sister clade to all other core eudicots. We show that in these lineages they have a complex evolutionary history with repeated duplications. We estimate the timing of the two major duplications already identified in the core eudicots within a timeframe before the divergence of Gunnera and after the divergence of Proteales. We also use a synteny-based approach to examine the extent to which the expansion of TCP ECE genes in diverse eudicot lineages may be due to genome-wide duplications. The three major core-eudicot specific clades share a number of collinear genes, and their common evolutionary history may have originated at the γ event. Genomic comparisons in Arabidopsis thaliana and Solanumlycopersicum highlight their separate polyploid origin, with syntenic fragments with and without TCP ECE genes showing differential gene loss and genomic rearrangements. Comparison between recently available genomes from two basal eudicots Aquilegiacoerulea and Nelumbonucifera suggests that the two TCP ECE paralogs in these species are also derived from large-scale duplications. TCP ECE loci from basal eudicots share many features with the three main core eudicot loci, and allow us to infer the makeup of the ancestral eudicot locus.

  10. TIMAP-protein phosphatase 1-complex controls endothelin-1 production via ECE-1 dephosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratkó, Anita; Veréb, Zoltán; Petrovski, Goran; Csortos, Csilla

    2016-04-01

    Endothelin induced signaling pathways can affect blood pressure and vascular tone, but the influence of endothelins on tumor cells is also significant. We have detected elevated endothelin-1 secretion from TIMAP (TGF-β inhibited membrane associated protein) depleted vascular endothelial cells. The autocrine signaling activated by the elevated endothelin-1 level through the ETB receptors evoked an angiogenic-like phenotype, the cells assumed an elongated morphology, and enhanced tube formation and wound healing abilities. The depleted protein, TIMAP, is a highly specific and abundant protein in the endothelial cells, and it is a regulatory/targeting subunit for the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c). Protein-protein interaction between the TIMAP-PP1c complex and the endothelin converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) was detected, the latter of which is a transmembrane protein that produces the biologically active 21-amino acid form of endothelin-1 from proendothelin. The results indicate that silencing of TIMAP induces a reduction in TIMAP-PP1c activity connected to ECE-1. This leads to an increase in the amount of ECE-1 protein in the plasma membrane and a consequent increase in endothelin-1 secretion. Similarly, activation of PKC, the kinase responsible for ECE-1 phosphorylation increased ECE-1 protein level in the membrane fraction of the endothelial cells. The elevated ECE-1 level was mitigated in time in normal cells, but was clearly preserved in TIMAP-depleted cells. Overall, our results indicate that PKC-phosphorylated ECE-1 is a TIMAP-PP1c substrate and this phosphatase complex has an important role in endothelin-1 production of EC through the regulation of ECE-1 activity.

  11. 2005 Delaware Coastal Program Lidar: Sussex County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data were acquired in March 2005 using the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) platform in Sussex County, Delaware. Once acquired, the...

  12. 78 FR 14060 - Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware AGENCY... and seeks a waiver of the Commission's freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by televisions... with its first local television service, and that Seaford will remain well-served after the...

  13. Spring Outing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳

    2011-01-01

    It is springtime.The days are getting warmer and the flowers are in bloom.With the pleasantly warm sunshine,gentle breeze and fresh air,it is high time for spring outing and sightseeing.Are you still hesitating? Let’s see what benefits spring outing brings about and then pay attention to some matters while taking a trip out in spring. Benefits of spring outing Spring outing is especially popular with children and teenagers.But many adults also like to go on spring trips.The reason might be that spring outing can have several benefits.

  14. Using Digital Resources for the ECE Curriculum in China: Current Needs and Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Using digital resources is an important development in the Early Childhood Education (ECE curriculum in China. Guo and Wang (2005 report that 98% of urban ECE programs have computers with Internet connections, in addition to other technical facilities, which are used daily in ECE classrooms. However, the lack of curriculum-related digital resources and of a network to share them makes it difficult for teachers to share these resources for teaching. Further, this development of digital resources for ECE should consider Chinese cultures of learning (Jin & Cortazzi, 2006 in order to meet the needs of Chinese learners and maximize the learning effect. This paper focuses on the major features of digital resources in Chinese ECE and a framework for developing the content through examining existing digital resources and materials. Methods of inquiry and evaluation include the use of focus groups of kindergarten teachers in different provinces in China.The findings (Chen & Zhou, 2009; Zhou & Chen, 2009 indicate that an ECE digital resource should have features of individualization, interaction, sharing and sociability in networking in Chinese educational contexts, for supporting teaching design, practice, evaluation and reflection. An effective framework of ECE digital resources is recommended to contain three key parts:1 A Teacher Planning System to support teachers’ information searches, classified according to themes, subjects or types of activities.2 A Children’s Learning System to offer interactive learning at school or home following the classroom curriculum.3 A Family Support System to involve parents in their children’s learning and development.

  15. Upper Cenozoic sediments of the lower Delaware Valley and the northern Delmarva Peninsula, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, James Patrick; Minard, James Pierson

    1979-01-01

    The 'yellow gravels' referred to by R. D. Salisbury in 1898 and the 'Trenton gravel,' as defined by H. C. Lewis in 1880, were investigated along the inner edge of the New Jersey Coastal Plain in southern New Jersey and in the northern Delmarva Peninsula. The highest level deposits, the Beacon Hill gravel, are found on only the highest hills in the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Their distribution suggests deposition from north to south across the plain. After deposition of the Beacon Hill, probably in middle or late Miocene time, a narrow valley was formed paralleling the inner edge of the New Jersey Coastal Plain between Raritan Bay and Camden. South of Camden, the valley broadened, covering much of southern New Jersey. The deposits in this valley are largely the Bridgeton Formation as we have redefined it. A second narrow valley was entrenched through the Bridgeton between Trenton and Salem, N.J. This valley broadens and covers much of the northern Delmarva Peninsula west of the Delaware River. The fill in the valley is largely the Pensauken Formation, as we have redefined it in our report. Collectively, the Beacon Hill, the Bridgeton, and the Pensauken were originally the 'yellow gravels' of Salisbury. These deposits are all fluviatile in origin and were largely formed as a series of step like downcutting channels. The Delaware Valley between Trenton and the lower Delaware Bay region is occupied by the 'Trenton gravel,' which is below the average level of the 'yellow gravels.' Two units recognized throughout the area and informally named the Spring Lake beds and the Van Sciver Lake beds are lithologically distinct from the 'yellow gravel' formations. The lithologies of the Spring Lake beds and the Van Sciver Lake beds are much more heterogeneous than those of the older formations. These two units, particularly, contain much greater amounts of silt and clay, often in thick beds. The depositional environments associated with the two units include fluviatile, estuarine

  16. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than 14 mill

  17. 33 CFR 117.235 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. 117.235 Section 117.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.235 Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile...

  18. New approach to ECE measurements based on Hilbert-transform spectral analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandya Hitesh Kumar B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopy of Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE has been established as adequate diagnostic technique for fusion research machines. Among various instruments for ECE diagnostics, only Fourier-transform spectrometers with Martin-Puplett interferometers can measure electron cyclotron radiation in a broadband frequency range from 70 to 1000 GHz. Before these measurements, a complete system including a frontend radiation collector, a transmission line, an interferometer and a radiation detector should be absolutely calibrated. A hot/cold calibration source and data-averaging technique are used to calibrate the total ECE diagnostic system. It takes long time to calibrate the ECE system because of the low power level of the calibration source and high values of the noise equivalent power (NEP of the detection system. A new technique, Hilbert-transform spectral analysis, is proposed for the ITER plasma ECE spectral measurements. An operation principle, characteristics and advantages of the corresponding Hilbert-transform spectrum analyser (HTSA based on a high-Tc Josephson detector are discussed. Due to lower NEP-values of the Josephson detector, this spectrum analyser might demonstrate shorter calibration times than that for the Martin-Puplett interferometer.

  19. Design and first plasma measurements of the ITER-ECE prototype radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, M. E.; Brookman, M. W.; Rowan, W. L.; Danani, S.; Bryerton, E. W.; Dougherty, P.

    2016-11-01

    On ITER, second harmonic optically thick electron cyclotron emission (ECE) in the range of 220-340 GHz will supply the electron temperature (Te). To investigate the requirements and capabilities prescribed for the ITER system, a prototype radiometer covering this frequency range has been developed by Virginia Diodes, Inc. The first plasma measurements with this instrument have been carried out on the DIII-D tokamak, with lab bench tests and measurements of third through fifth harmonic ECE from high Te plasmas. At DIII-D the instrument shares the transmission line of the Michelson interferometer and can simultaneously acquire data. Comparison of the ECE radiation temperature from the absolutely calibrated Michelson and the prototype receiver shows that the ITER radiometer provides accurate measurements of the millimeter radiation across the instrument band.

  20. Standardbetingelser i nationale og internationale køb: ECE 188, NL 01 og S 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz

    2006-01-01

    ECE 188, NL 01 og S 2000 hører blandt dansk erhvervslivs foretrukne standardbetingelser, når det gælder handel med maskiner og andet elektrisk, mekanisk og elektronisk udstyr. I artiklen gennemgås betingelsernes baggrund og formål, ligesom deres indbyrdes forskelle og ligheder beskrives. Endvidere...... analyseres forholdet til baggrundsretten og betingelsernes mulige status som udfyldende ret. Det konkluderes, at selvom hverken ECE 188, NL 01 eller S 2000 kan tages som udtryk for almindeligt gældende udfyldende regler, så spiller de dog en vigtig rolle bl.a. i forbindelse med fortolkning og ugyldighed....... Endvidere bør anvendelsen af ECE 188 nøje overvejes, til fordel for en anvendelse af NL 01 og S 2000. Udgivelsesdato: 01112006...

  1. A Nordic approach to Early Childhood Education (ECE) and socially endangered children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    2009-01-01

    system fails to provide equal social and intellectual opportunities to all children, further development in this area is required. Based on an analysis of the Nordic situation, a recent Danish intervention involving some 60 centres and 2.700 pre-school children and some preliminary results are presented......Summary In this paper I examine the Nordic model, i.e. a child-centred and holistic approach, in order to discuss Early Childhood Education (ECE) as a key policy instrument for fighting social inequality. Since 1999 it has been an important goal for the Danish government to ensure equal...... into the situation in the Nordic countries shows growing awareness of how to identify target groups for ECE-intervention as well as an increased focus on pre-school school teachers' education and the need for new assessment and evaluation methods for determining best practice. Since it would appear that the ECE...

  2. Development of KSTAR ECE imaging system for measurement of temperature fluctuations and edge density fluctuationsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, G. S.; Lee, W.; Choi, M. J.; Kim, J. B.; Park, H. K.; Domier, C. W.; Tobias, B.; Liang, T.; Kong, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Donné, A. J. H.

    2010-10-01

    The ECE imaging (ECEI) diagnostic tested on the TEXTOR tokamak revealed the sawtooth reconnection physics in unprecedented detail, including the first observation of high-field-side crash and collective heat transport [H. K. Park, N. C. Luhmann, Jr., A. J. H. Donné et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 195003 (2006)]. An improved ECEI system capable of visualizing both high- and low-field sides simultaneously with considerably better spatial coverage has been developed for the KSTAR tokamak in order to capture the full picture of core MHD dynamics. Direct 2D imaging of other MHD phenomena such as tearing modes, edge localized modes, and even Alfvén eigenmodes is expected to be feasible. Use of ECE images of the optically thin edge region to recover 2D electron density changes during L/H mode transitions is also envisioned, providing powerful information about the underlying physics. The influence of density fluctuations on optically thin ECE is discussed.

  3. Cadence Feedback With ECE PEDO to Monitor Physical Activity Intensity: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardic, Fusun; Göcer, Esra

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the monitoring capabilities of the equipment for clever exercise pedometer (ECE PEDO) that provides audible feedback when the person exceeds the upper and lower limits of the target step numbers per minute and to compare step counts with Yamax SW-200 (YX200) as the criterion pedometer.A total of 30 adult volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were classified as normal weight (n = 10), overweight (n = 10), and obese (n = 10). After the submaximal exercise test on a treadmill, the moderate intensity for walking was determined by using YX200 pedometer and then the number of steps taken in a minute was measured. Lower and upper limits of steps per minute (cadence) were recorded in ECE PEDO providing audible feedback when the person's walking speed gets out of the limits. Volunteers walked for 30 minutes in the individual step count range by attaching the ECE PEDO and YX200 pedometer on both sides of the waist belt in the same session. Step counts of the volunteers were recorded. Wilcoxon, Spearman correlation, and Bland-Altman analyses were performed to show the relationship and agreement between the results of 2 devices.Subjects took an average of 3511 ± 426 and 3493 ± 399 steps during 30 minutes with ECE PEDO and criterion pedometer, respectively. About 3500 steps taken by ECE PEDO reflected that this pedometer has capability of identifying steps per minute to meet moderate intensity of physical activity. There was a strong correlation between step counts of both devices (P PEDO and YX200 pedometer in the Bland-Altman analysis.Although both devices showed a strong similarity in counting steps, the ECE PEDO provides monitoring of intensity such that a person can walk in a specified time with a desired speed.

  4. SPRING 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinberger, Jessica; Unknown, [Unknown

    SPRING 2016, 11th edition of the SPRING series, is a single-track event that was sponsored by the special interest group Security – Intrusion Detection and Response (SIDAR) of the German Informatics Society (GI). The purpose of SPRING is to provide young researchers the opportunity to discuss their

  5. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donné A.J.H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A CW capable inline electron cyclotron emission (ECE separation system for feedback control, featuring oversized corrugated waveguides, is commissioned on ASDEX upgrade (AUG. The system is based on a combination of a polarization independent, non-resonant, Mach-Zehnder diplexer equipped with dielectric plate beam splitters [2, 3] employed as corrugated oversized waveguide filter, and a resonant Fast Directional Switch, FADIS [4, 5, 6, 7] as ECE/ECCD separation system. This paper presents an overview of the system, the low power characterisation tests and first high power commissioning on AUG.

  6. Delaware Bay Database; Delaware Sea Grant College Program, 28 June 1988 (NODC Accession 8900151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delaware Bay database contains records of discrete quality observations, collected on 40 oceanographic cruises between May 1978 and October 1985. Each record...

  7. Rapid population decline in red knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, AJ; Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Niles, LJ; do Nascimento, IDS; Atkinson, PW; Clark, NA; Minton, CDT; Peck, MK; Aarts, G.

    2004-01-01

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego, which undertakes marathon 30,000 km hemispheric migrations annually. In spring, migrant birds forage voraciously on horseshoe crab eggs in Delaware Bay in the eastern USA before departing to breed in A...

  8. Invasive Species Guidebook for Department of Defense Installations in the Delaware River Basin: Identification, Control, and Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    wildflowers and their related organisms. Fig buttercup’s early growth period allows it to become well established before native spring plants begin...pest of waterways from coastal Virginia to Florida and west to Texas, with a disjunct population in California . It exhibits both aquatic and...University of California -Davis database, and Washington State Department of Ecology. 112 INVASIVE SPECIES GUIDEBOOK FOR DOD INSTALLATIONS IN THE DELAWARE

  9. U. of Delaware Abandons Sessions on Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The University of Delaware spent years refining its residence-life education program. One week of public criticism unraveled it. Late last month, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, a free-speech group, accused the university of promoting specific views on race, sexuality, and morality in a series of discussions held in dormitories.…

  10. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in four areas: single-parent families, births to teenage mothers, juvenile crime and violence, and education. Following brief sections on the state's demographics and economic status, the fact book…

  11. Disarming Contankerous People: Coping with Difficult Personalities in ECE Work Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Luis; Smith, Connie Jo

    2009-01-01

    Difficult personalities come in a variety of roles in just about every setting. While types have been identified in the typical corporate and business culture, difficult work personalities also inhabit the world of early childhood education (ECE) workplaces. Because difficult people have an impact on workplace morale and productivity, the topic…

  12. Detailed Analysis of Language Development of Preschool Children in ECE Program. Technical Report No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Brainard W.

    This report is concerned with the language skills category of objectives of the Early Childhood Education (ECE) Program. The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Ability (ITPA) was the primary instrument used for evaluation of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in three treatment groups: (1) mobile educational facility, TV, and paraprofessional, (2) TV…

  13. Results of an ECE Varying Degrees of Corrosion and Time of Application of the Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espericueta-González D.E.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE is to remove the chloride ions (Cl- which are embedded in concrete, since these ions are considered to result in accelerating the process of corrosion in steel reinforcement. The ECE is an electrochemical technique in which ions Cl- are transported to the outside of the concrete by means of an electric field. In this paper we present the results of mortar samples made in the laboratory. The specimens were previously contaminated with 2% NaCl by mass of cement, and stored in water curing tanks at constant laboratory of 95% RH for one and sixty days. Afterward, mortars underwent an ECE in times of 15, 30 and 60 days of treatment. The results obtained under these conditions show that increasing the duration of the ECE will get a higher amount of Cl-ions removed from the mortar. It should be noted that the extent of the corroded reinforcement is a critical variable in the effectiveness of the technique.

  14. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bongers, W. A.; Kasparek, W.; Doelman, N.;

    2012-01-01

    with dielectric plate beam splitters [2, 3] employed as corrugated oversized waveguide filter, and a resonant Fast Directional Switch, FADIS [4, 5, 6, 7] as ECE/ECCD separation system. This paper presents an overview of the system, the low power characterisation tests and first high power commissioning on AUG....

  15. Disarming Contankerous People: Coping with Difficult Personalities in ECE Work Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Luis; Smith, Connie Jo

    2009-01-01

    Difficult personalities come in a variety of roles in just about every setting. While types have been identified in the typical corporate and business culture, difficult work personalities also inhabit the world of early childhood education (ECE) workplaces. Because difficult people have an impact on workplace morale and productivity, the topic…

  16. Multispecies modeling for adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and red knots in the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David; Sweka, John A.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; Wong, Richard; Lyons, James E.; Niles, Lawrence J.; Kalasz, Kevin; Brust, Jeffrey; Klopfer, Michelle; Spear, Braddock

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management requires that predictive models be explicit and transparent to improve decisions by comparing management actions, directing further research and monitoring, and facilitating learning. The rufa subspecies of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa), which has recently exhibited steep population declines, relies on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs as their primary food source during stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. We present a model with two different parameterizations for use in the adaptive management of horseshoe crab harvests in the Delaware Bay that links red knot mass gain, annual survival, and fecundity to horseshoe crab dynamics. The models reflect prevailing hypotheses regarding ecological links between these two species. When reported crab harvest from 1998 to 2008 was applied, projections corresponded to the observed red knot population abundances depending on strengths of the demographic relationship between these species. We compared different simulated horseshoe crab harvest strategies to evaluate whether, given this model, horseshoe crab harvest management can affect red knot conservation and found that restricting harvest can benefit red knot populations. Our model is the first to explicitly and quantitatively link these two species and will be used within an adaptive management framework to manage the Delaware Bay system and learn more about the specific nature of the linkage between the two species.

  17. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  18. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  19. Just Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  20. Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Spring Festival is the most important festival in China. It's to celebrate the lunar calendar's new year. In the evening before the Spring Festival, families get together and have a big meal. In many places people like to set off firecrackers. Dumplings are

  1. The effect of pulse current on energy saving during Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Geiker, Mette R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is a factor influencing the cost of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete. The aims of this work were to investigate the possibility for energy saving when using a pulsed electric field during ECE and the effect of the pulsed current on removal of chloride. Four...... experiments with artificially polluted concrete under same charge transfer were conducted. Results showed that the energy consumption was decreased 15% by pulse current in experiments with 0.2 mA/cm2 current density, which was higher than that of 0.1 mA/cm2 experiments with a decrease of 9.6%. When comparing...... the voltage drop at different parts of the experimental cells, it was found that the voltage drop of the area across the concrete was the major contributor to energy consumption, and results indicated that the pulse current could decrease the voltage drop of this part by re-distribution of ions in pore fluid...

  2. Quasi 3D ECE imaging system for study of MHD instabilities in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, G. S., E-mail: gunsu@postech.ac.kr; Choi, M. J.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.; Leem, J.; Nam, Y.; Choe, G. H. [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.; Park, H. K. [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Park, H.; Woo, D. S.; Kim, K. W. [School of Electrical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Ito, N. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Mase, A. [Ube National College of Technology, Ube-shi, Yamaguchi 755-8555 (Japan); Lee, S. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A second electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system has been installed on the KSTAR tokamak, toroidally separated by 1/16th of the torus from the first ECEI system. For the first time, the dynamical evolutions of MHD instabilities from the plasma core to the edge have been visualized in quasi-3D for a wide range of the KSTAR operation (B{sub 0} = 1.7∼3.5 T). This flexible diagnostic capability has been realized by substantial improvements in large-aperture quasi-optical microwave components including the development of broad-band polarization rotators for imaging of the fundamental ordinary ECE as well as the usual 2nd harmonic extraordinary ECE.

  3. Niche dynamics of shorebirds in Delaware Bay: Foraging behavior, habitat choice and migration timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novcic, Ivana

    2016-08-01

    Niche differentiation through resource partitioning is seen as one of the most important mechanisms of diversity maintenance contributing to stable coexistence of different species within communities. In this study, I examined whether four species of migrating shorebirds, dunlins (Calidris alpina), semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), least sandpipers (Calidris minutilla) and short-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus), segregate by time of passage, habitat use and foraging behavior at their major stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. I tested the prediction that most of the separation between morphologically similar species will be achieved by differential migration timing. Despite the high level of overlap along observed niche dimensions, this study demonstrates a certain level of ecological separation between migrating shorebirds. The results of analyses suggest that differential timing of spring migration might be the most important dimension along which shorebird species segregate while at stopover in Delaware Bay. Besides differences in time of passage, species exhibited differences in habitat use, particularly least sandpipers that foraged in vegetated areas of tidal marshes more frequently than other species, as well as short-billed dowitchers that foraged in deeper water more often than small sandpipers did. Partitioning along foraging techniques was less prominent than segregation along temporal or microhabitat dimensions. Such ranking of niche dimensions emphasizes significance of temporal segregation of migratory species - separation of species by time of passage may reduce the opportunity for interspecific aggressive encounters, which in turn can have positive effects on birds' time and energy budget during stopover period.

  4. Preliminary study of ECE imaging concept for W7-X, using the Talbot effect in rectangular waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Daniel; Plaum, Burkhard; Kasparek, Walter; Hirth, Thomas [IGVP, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Hirsch, Matthias [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For spatially resolved measurements of Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) in W7-X, an imaging antenna based on a corrugated rectangular waveguide can be used. The imaging characteristics of the antenna allow a simultaneous operation at multiple angles and frequencies. As a result it is possible to localize a set of points inside the plasma, where the ECE can be measured without the need of mobile components facing the plasma.

  5. Precision and Resolution on Tore-Supra Ece Electron Temperature Profile Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ségui, J. L.; Molina, D.; Goniche, M.

    2003-02-01

    A 16-channel heterodyne radiometer, 2 GHz spaced, is used on Tore-Supra to measure the electron cyclotron emission in the frequency range 78-110 GHz for the O mode and 94 -126 GHz for the Xmode. In the equatorial plane, a dual polarisation gaussian optics lens antenna, with a perpendicular line of sight (with respect to the magnetic field), gives ECE measurements with very low refraction and Doppler effects. A separate O/X mode RF front-end allows the use of an IF electronic mode selector. This improves time stability calibration and gives the potentiality of simultaneous O/X mode measurements in the 94 -110 Ghz RF band for polarisation studies. RF and IF filters reject the gyrotron frequency (118 Ghz) in order to perform temperature measurements during ECRH plasmas. A precise absolute spectral calibration is performed outside the vacuum vessel by using a 600°C black body, a digital signal averaging on the waveform generated by a mechanical chopper placed directly in front of it, and a simulation window without Fabry-Pérot effects. The calibration precision leads to ECE temperature profiles which are very consistent with Thomson scattering measurements and guarantees a good stability of the ECE profiles for small changes on the magnetic field (absolute precision +/-6%, relative precision between channels +/-3%). Post-pulse data processing takes routinely into account the total magnetic field (Bvacuum with ripple, Bpara, Bdia, Bpol, all with analytical formulations), the radial relativistic shift (analytical formulation is used), the refractionREFID="9789812705082_0032FN001"> (cut-offs detection with safety margin to avoid strong refraction), the nonthermal ECE spectraREFID="9789812705082_0032FN001"> during LHCD (using an electron density threshold criterion). These previous analytical formulations are compatible with real time processing. Relativistic radial broadening simulations show that it is useful to fulfil 32 channels (1GHz spaced).

  6. Engineering aspects of design and integration of ECE diagnostic in ITER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udintsev V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ITER ECE diagnostic [1] needs not only to meet measurement requirements, but also to withstand various loads, such as electromagnetic, mechanical, neutronic and thermal, and to be protected from stray ECH radiation at 170 GHz and other millimeter wave emission, like Collective Thomson scattering which is planned to operate at 60 GHz. Same or similar loads will be applied to other millimetre-wave diagnostics [2], located both in-vessel and in-port plugs. These loads must be taken into account throughout the design phases of the ECE and other microwave diagnostics to ensure their structural integrity and maintainability. The integration of microwave diagnostics with other ITER systems is another challenging activity which is currently ongoing through port integration and in-vessel integration work. Port Integration has to address the maintenance and the safety aspects of diagnostics, too. Engineering solutions which are being developed to support and to operate ITER ECE diagnostic, whilst complying with safety and maintenance requirements, are discussed in this paper.

  7. Fourth Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    A brief history of the Delaware PLATO project and descriptions of new developments in facilities, applications, user services, research, evaluation, and courseware produced since the Third Summative Report (1978) are provided, as well as an overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Sample lessons, illustrations, and activity…

  8. Fifth Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    A brief history of the Delaware PLATO project and descriptions of the new developments in facilities, applications, user services, research, evaluation, and courseware produced since the Fourth Summative Report (1979) are provided, as well as an overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Sample lessons, illustrations, and…

  9. The Courts, the Legislature, and Delaware's Resegregation: A Report on School Segregation in Delaware, 1989-­2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Arielle

    2014-01-01

    Delaware's history with school desegregation is complicated and contradictory. The state both advanced and impeded the goals of "Brown v. Board of Education." After implementing desegregation plans that were ineffective by design, Delaware was ultimately placed under the first metropolitan, multi-district desegregation court order in the…

  10. Quantum Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou

    In this paper, we will give a short review on quantum spring, which is a Casimir effect from the helix boundary condition that proposed in our earlier works. The Casimir force parallel to the axis of the helix behaves very much like the force on a spring that obeys the Hooke's law when the ratio r of the pitch to the circumference of the helix is small, but in this case, the force comes from a quantum effect, so we would like to call it quantum spring. On the other hand, the force perpendicular to the axis decreases monotonously with the increasing of the ratio r. Both forces are attractive and their behaviors are the same in two and three dimensions.

  11. Implementation of a framework for multi-species, multi-objective adaptive management in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David R.; Nichols, James D.; Lyons, James E.; Sweka, John A.; Kalasz, Kevin; Niles, Lawrence J.; Wong, Richard; Brust, Jeffrey; Davis, Michelle C.; Spear, Braddock

    2015-01-01

    Decision analytic approaches have been widely recommended as well suited to solving disputed and ecologically complex natural resource management problems with multiple objectives and high uncertainty. However, the difference between theory and practice is substantial, as there are very few actual resource management programs that represent formal applications of decision analysis. We applied the process of structured decision making to Atlantic horseshoe crab harvest decisions in the Delaware Bay region to develop a multispecies adaptive management (AM) plan, which is currently being implemented. Horseshoe crab harvest has been a controversial management issue since the late 1990s. A largely unregulated horseshoe crab harvest caused a decline in crab spawning abundance. That decline coincided with a major decline in migratory shorebird populations that consume horseshoe crab eggs on the sandy beaches of Delaware Bay during spring migration. Our approach incorporated multiple stakeholders, including fishery and shorebird conservation advocates, to account for diverse management objectives and varied opinions on ecosystem function. Through consensus building, we devised an objective statement and quantitative objective function to evaluate alternative crab harvest policies. We developed a set of competing ecological models accounting for the leading hypotheses on the interaction between shorebirds and horseshoe crabs. The models were initially weighted based on stakeholder confidence in these hypotheses, but weights will be adjusted based on monitoring and Bayesian model weight updating. These models were used together to predict the effects of management actions on the crab and shorebird populations. Finally, we used a dynamic optimization routine to identify the state dependent optimal harvest policy for horseshoe crabs, given the possible actions, the stated objectives and our competing hypotheses about system function. The AM plan was reviewed, accepted and

  12. Comparison of the regulated air pollutant emission characteristics of real-world driving cycle and ECE cycle for motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Lai, Yen-Ming; Lee, Ting-Yi

    2014-04-01

    Motorcycles are an important means of transportation, and their numbers have increased significantly in recent years. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics and driving patterns of motorcycles are necessary baseline information for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. The selected motorcycles were equipped with global positioning systems (GPS) to obtain speed-time data for determination of the characteristics of real-world driving parameters, and an on-board exhaust gas analyser with data logger was employed to determine the instantaneous concentration of regulated air pollutants from motorcycle exhaust. Results indicated that the time proportions of acceleration, cruising, and deceleration are different from those of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycle, and the time percentages of acceleration and deceleration of the ECE cycle are much less than those in Taichung city. In general, the emission factors of the Taichung motorcycle driving cycle (TMDC) were higher HC and lower NOx emission than those of the ECE cycle. The average fuel consumption of tested motorcycles on three roads during workdays was 5% higher than that on weekends. The fuel consumption in the real-world motorcycle driving cycle was also about 7% higher than that of the ECE cycle, which again indicates that the ECE cycle is unsuitable for measuring fuel consumption in the Taichung metropolitan area. Therefore, understanding the local driving cycle is necessary for developing accurate emission data for air pollution control measures for urban areas.

  13. Evaluation of Contaminant Residues in Delaware Bay Bald Eagle Nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagle (Naliacetus leucocephalus) nesting attempts have steadily increased over the past decade in the Delaware Bay and River drainage basin; however, nesting...

  14. 2007 Delaware Coastal Programs Lidar: Kent and New Castle Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data acquisition occurred in 7 missions between March 31 and April 5, 2007 in Kent and New Castle Counties, Delaware. The data have been classified and were...

  15. NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  16. 2007 Delaware Coastal Program Lidar: Kent and New Castle Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data acquisition occurred in 7 missions between March 31 and April 5, 2007 in Kent and New Castle Counties, Delaware. The data have been classified and were...

  17. A Nordic approach to Early Childhood Education (ECE) and socially endangered children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    2009-01-01

    Summary In this paper I examine the Nordic model, i.e. a child-centred and holistic approach, in order to discuss Early Childhood Education (ECE) as a key policy instrument for fighting social inequality. Since 1999 it has been an important goal for the Danish government to ensure equal opportuni......Summary In this paper I examine the Nordic model, i.e. a child-centred and holistic approach, in order to discuss Early Childhood Education (ECE) as a key policy instrument for fighting social inequality. Since 1999 it has been an important goal for the Danish government to ensure equal...... opportunities for all by starting with early intervention. This is particularly especially relevant in Denmark, where >95% of all children attend in day-care. International research shows that early interventions can make a positive difference, and as shown in American Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) studies...... system fails to provide equal social and intellectual opportunities to all children, further development in this area is required. Based on an analysis of the Nordic situation, a recent Danish intervention involving some 60 centres and 2.700 pre-school children and some preliminary results are presented...

  18. Does Gender Make a Difference? Results from the German "Tandem Study" on the Pedagogical Activity of Female and Male ECE Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Holger; Andrä, Markus; Röseler, Wenke; Schneider-Andrich, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Based on an everyday quasi-experimental situation with multiple materials, the behavior of male and female early childhood education (ECE) workers is recorded and compared. The research is based on a sample of 41 female and 41 male ECE workers, who in each case work together in tandem in a kindergarten class, as well as a control group of 12…

  19. Sulfato-bridged ECE-pincer palladium(II) complexes: structures in the solid-state and in solution, and catalytic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, C.A.; Berger, A.; Dijkstra, H.P.; Soulimani, F.; Visser, T.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.; van Koten, G.

    2009-01-01

    ECE-pincer sulfato palladium complexes (pincer = [C(6)H(3)(CH(2)E)(2)-2,6](-); E = SPh (), SMe (), S(t)Bu (), NMe(2) ()) were synthesized and characterized. In the solid-state (X-ray determinations) and exist as neutral ECE-pincer palladium sulfato complexes with a mu(2)-O,O' bridging sulfato ligand

  20. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 553 - Statement of Policy: Implementation of the United Nations/Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the United Nations/Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) 1998 Agreement on Global Technical... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statement of Policy: Implementation of the United Nations/Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) 1998 Agreement on Global Technical...

  1. The ECE Pre-Service Teachers' Perception on Factors Affecting the Integration of Educational Computer Games in Two Conditions: Selecting versus Redesigning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancar Tokmak, Hatice; Ozgelen, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    This case study aimed to examine early childhood education (ECE) pre-service teachers' perception on the factors affecting integration of educational computer games to their instruction in two areas: selecting and redesigning. Twenty-six ECE pre-service teachers participated in the study. The data was collected through open-ended questionnaires,…

  2. 33 CFR 162.40 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., between Reedy Point, Delaware River, and Old Town Point Wharf, Elk River. (b) Speed. No vessel in the..., are required to travel at all times at a safe speed throughout the canal and its approaches so as to...

  3. Understanding water column and streambed thermal refugia for endangered mussels in the Delaware River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A; Voytek, Emily B; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Rosenberry, Donald O; Lane, John W

    2013-10-15

    Groundwater discharge locations along the upper Delaware River, both discrete bank seeps and diffuse streambed upwelling, may create thermal niche environments that benefit the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon). We seek to identify whether discrete or diffuse groundwater inflow is the dominant control on refugia. Numerous springs and seeps were identified at all locations where dwarf wedgemussels still can be found. Infrared imagery and custom high spatial resolution fiber-optic distributed temperature sensors reveal complex thermal dynamics at one of the seeps with a relatively stable, cold groundwater plume extending along the streambed/water-column interface during midsummer. This plume, primarily fed by a discrete bank seep, was shown through analytical and numerical heat-transport modeling to dominate temperature dynamics in the region of potential habitation by the adult dwarf wedgemussel.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Delaware. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Delaware.

  5. 75 FR 76036 - Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise Disbursement Divisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise... of Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc., including the Accounts Payable, Rent, and Merchandise... the same division, are engaged in activities related to the supply of accounts payable,...

  6. 75 FR 54026 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... safety zone in an area of the Delaware River, Camden, NJ, described as North of the Wiggins park Marina... traffic from navigating on the Delaware River in an area described as north of the Wiggins Park Marina...

  7. Teaching in ECE: Promoting Children's Language Learning and Cooperation on Knowledge Construction in Everyday Conversations in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjems, Liv

    2013-01-01

    The intention of this study is to examine how early childhood education (ECE) teachers can promote children's language learning and the construction of knowledge about their environment in everyday conversations. Young children primarily learn through interactions with adults and peers, with conversations representing important arenas for language…

  8. Teaching in ECE: Promoting Children's Language Learning and Cooperation on Knowledge Construction in Everyday Conversations in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjems, Liv

    2013-01-01

    The intention of this study is to examine how early childhood education (ECE) teachers can promote children's language learning and the construction of knowledge about their environment in everyday conversations. Young children primarily learn through interactions with adults and peers, with conversations representing important arenas for language…

  9. Flood Plain Information, Delhi New York, West Branch Delaware River and Little Delaware River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    1,383.9 1,382.4 1,391.3 Little Delaware River Back River Road 0.15 1,346.4 1,346.9 1,352.1 College Golf Course Footbridge 0.28 1,349.4 1,350.0 1,353.2...College Golf Course Footbridge 0.36 1,353.7 1,353.6 1,356.1 Bridge by USGS Gaging Station 1.79 1,395.9 1,396.9 1,403.6 N.Y. Rte. 28 5.93 1,533.9

  10. Dynamic changes in the secondary structure of ECE-1 and XCE account for their different substrate specificities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ul-Haq Zaheer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-converting enzyme (XCE involved in nervous control of respiration, is a member of the M13 family of zinc peptidases, for which no natural substrate has been identified yet. In contrast, it’s well characterized homologue endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1 showed broad substrate specificity and acts as endopeptidase as well as dipeptidase. To explore the structural differences between XCE and ECE-1, homology model of XCE was built using the complex structure of ECE-1 with phosphoramidon (pdb-id: 3DWB as template. Phosphoramidon was docked into the binding site of XCE whereas phosphate oxygen of the inhibitor was used as water molecule to design the apo forms of both enzymes. Molecular dynamics simulation of both enzymes was performed to analyze the dynamic nature of their active site residues in the absence and presence of the inhibitor. Results Homology model of XCE explained the role of non-conserved residues of its S2’ subsite. Molecular dynamics (MD simulations identified the flexible transitions of F149/I150, N566/N571, W714/W719, and R145/R723 residues of ECE-1/XCE for the strong binding of the inhibitor. Secondary structure calculations using DSSP method reveals the folding of R145/R723 residue of ECE-1/XCE into β-sheet structure while unfolding of the S2’ subsite residues in aECE-1 and sustained compact folding of that of aXCE. The results evaluated are in good agreement with available experimental data, thus providing detailed molecular models which can explain the structural and specificities differences between both zinc peptidases. Conclusions Secondary structure changes of both enzymes during the simulation time revealed the importance of β-sheet structure of R145/R723 for its binding with the terminal carboxylate group of the inhibitor. Unfolding of the α-helix comprising the S2’ subsite residues in aECE-1 correlate well with its endopeptidase activity while their compact folding in aXCE may

  11. Smoke-free law did affect revenue from gaming in Delaware

    OpenAIRE

    Michael R. Pakko

    2005-01-01

    A paper recently published in the journal Tobacco Control purports to show that the implementation of a smoking prohibition in Delaware had no statistically significant effect on the revenues of three gaming facilities in that state. After correcting for evident errors in that analysis, I find that the smoke-free law did affect revenues from gaming in Delaware. Total gaming revenues are estimated to have declined by at least $6 million per month after the implementation of Delaware*s Clean In...

  12. Build-up and decline of organic matter during PeECE III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Schulz

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations due to anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion currently change the ocean's chemistry. Increasing oceanic [CO2] and subsequent decreasing seawater pH have the potential to significantly impact marine life. Here we describe and analyze the build-up and decline of a natural phytoplankton bloom initiated during the 2005 mesocosm Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment study (PeECE III. We show that processes of inorganic carbon uptake in mixed surface waters and organic carbon export to depth were significantly enhanced at elevated CO2, while ammonium regeneration in deep waters was substantially reduced. This has important implications for our understanding of pelagic ecosystem functioning and future carbon cycling.

  13. ECE diagnostic for the TARA tandem mirror machine using a fast-scanning Michelson interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guharay, S.K.; Boyd, D.A.; Ellis, R.F.

    1986-08-01

    This ECE (electron cyclotron emission) diagnostic utilizes a fast-scanning Michelson interferometer to determine two parameters, the temperature and the loss cone angle, of the distribution function of the hot electrons (T-italicapprox. >100 keV) generated in the axisymmetric plug plasma of the TARA tandem mirror device. The radiation transport system employs a lens relay and a low-pass grating filter in order to transmit the synchrotron radiation over a spectral range of 2.9--18.6 cm/sup -1/. This enables us to study the emitted radiation spectrum up to the 40th harmonic of the electron--cyclotron frequency in the plug plasma (B-italic = 5 kG). Details of the design principles and the development of the diagnostic at TARA will be presented.

  14. A Nordic approach to ECE-system and social differences - a Danish trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    . Preliminary results from the Danish trial: Action Competencies in Social Pedagogical Work with Socially Endangered Children (The ASP-project) based on a Bourdiean perspective - indicate that there is reason to focus more on teachers' professional skills and qualifications concerning new challenges....... It is demanding for teachers working with the entire ECE/ASPimplementation process because they have to reflect upon their own practice and role in relation to create and implement new knowledge of socially endangered children. Based on an analysis of the Nordic situation, the paper discusses preliminary results...... emphasizing the question of the challenges for the professionals working with evidencebased knowledge and learning in the ASP-project, a RCT study which aims at social innovation in 60 centres, covering 2700 preschool children....

  15. Inequality, Economic Growth and Trade Openness: a Study Case for Central and Eastern Countries (ECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the phenomenon of income inequality in ten countries from Eastern and Central Europe (ECE, by highlighting two aspects: (1 the link between growth and income inequality; (2 the effects of trade openess and other key factors on income inequality, such as: foreign direct investment (FDI, market capitalization and educational level of labour force. The method used was the Panel Data Analysis with statistical data from the period of 2000-2014. An increasing effect in income inequality was identified due to the trade openess, the inward stock of ISD and the market capitalization and an equalizing effect in the income distribution generated by the educational level of labour force. A positive association was also found between the growth of PIB per capita level and the increase of income inequality in the examined countries.

  16. 8th Annual report 1999. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 1998/99 including: - a short summary of previous data assessments - a short status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and the present geographical coverage of the monitoring network - a documentation of the scientific strategies to carry out data assessment on two priority topics: - assessment of heavy metal pools and fluxes - assessment of cause-effect relationships for understorey vegetation - a description of the WATBAL-model for estimating monthly water balance components, including soil water fluxes. (orig.)

  17. 78 FR 4167 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Offshore Delaware. SUMMARY: BOEM has issued a commercial wind energy lease to Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Commercial Wind Lease Issuance on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Delaware AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  18. Rates of mass gain and energy deposition in red knot on their final spring staging site is both time- and condition-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, Philip W.; Baker, Allan J.; Bennett, Karen A.; Clark, Nigel A.; Clark, Jacquie A.; Cole, Kimberly B.; Dekinga, Anne; Dey, Amanda; Gillings, Simon; Gonzalez, Patricia M.; Kalasz, Kevin; Minton, Clive D. T.; Newton, Jason; Niles, Lawrence J.; Piersma, Theunis; Robinson, Robert A.; Sitters, Humphrey P.; Stevens, Phil

    2007-01-01

    1. Millions of shorebirds migrate each year through a small number of highly productive staging areas where they often conflict with fisheries interests. Delaware Bay, USA, is a major shorebird stopover site where, in spring, many thousands of shorebirds undergo rapid mass gain by feeding on the egg

  19. Proximate causes of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus Polyphemus) of the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.R.; Mandt, M.T.; Macdonald, P.D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The unresolved status of the proximate cause for sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs has practical consequence, because harvest recommendations rely on assumptions about sex-specific growth and maturity. We propose and evaluate competing hypotheses for the proximate cause of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) by comparing size and estimated age frequencies from spring-captured juveniles (n = 9,075) and adults (n = 36,274) to predictions from the competing hypotheses. We found that the number of identifiable juvenile size distributions was greater for females than males and the probability of remaining a juvenile was higher for females than males among older juveniles. These findings are consistent with males maturing earlier than females. Molt increments and mean sizes were similar for male and female juveniles, which is not consistent with differential growth. Among adults, one size distribution accounted for ???90% of females regardless of carapace wear. Also, size ratio of adult females to males was 1.26, and size ratio of the largest adult to largest juvenile female was 1.28. These observations are not consistent with females continuing to molt as adults. Differential-maturity is the most parsimonious explanation for sexual size dimorphism in Delaware Bay horseshoe crabs. In addition, because of a low frequency of juvenile females >195 mm relative to adult females and male-biased sex ratios starting at 105 mm, we hypothesize that females, more than males, migrate as older juveniles and mature in the ocean. Management implications include that (1) minimum size limits, as previously suggested, would not allocate harvest to older adults as intended because size does not indicate age among adult horseshoe crabs in the Delaware Bay population, and (2) the Shuster Horseshoe Crab Reserve, which has reduced harvest on the continental shelf, could be protecting older juveniles and newly mature females from harvest prior to their first

  20. Simulations with LS-DYNA for Registration Approval of a Coach according to ECE R66 Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Wolfgang; Kvocic, Ch.; Lesti, Klaus; Schott, Klaus; Vaculin, Ondrej

    2004-01-01

    During the last years the increasing number of fatal coach accidents with tragic consequences for passengers showed the importance of passive safety in addition to the driver’s competence and active safety. In the European countries the certification of sufficient deformation strength when overturning is compulsory for the approval of a coach according to the ECE R66 regulation. The certification is granted after positive results from crash tests or computer simulations with partial or full b...

  1. ECE1 gene variant shows tendency toward chronic kidney disease advancement among autosomal polycystic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Nagendra Reddy Annapareddy

    2016-04-01

    結論: 我們觀察到,在 ADPKD 患者間,高血壓是 CKD 病情發展的一個明顯的干擾因素。以上結果意味著,在 ADPKD 患者間,ECE1 基因變體可影響 CKD 的病情發展。

  2. 春天%Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Days get longer and warmer in the spring. There are new leaves on the trees. Flowers begin to grow. Spring rain makes the grass green and helps the plants grow. Nature wears new clothes in many colors red, yellow, blue, white and purple. Spring is the time of new life. I love spring.

  3. 27 CFR 9.49 - Central Delaware Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Delaware Valley. 9.49 Section 9.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU.... (ix) From there northward along Covered Bridge Road to Green Sergeant Covered Bridge. (x) From...

  4. Sex, Lies, and Residence Life: Delaware's Thought Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The University of Delaware has a zero-tolerance policy for anything remotely resembling "hate speech." As such, the school implemented a mandatory training for all 7,000-odd students in its dorms. The sessions were part of a thorough thought-reform curriculum, designed by the school's Office of Residence Life, psychologically to…

  5. Manual for School Building Commissions of the State of Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    This manual contains provisions of Delaware state law and recommended procedures for construction programs. Areas discussed include--(1) financing, (2) school construction formulae for space allowances, (3) proposed school building budget, (4) procedures for school building construction, (5) a check list for an accounting system, (6) purchase…

  6. 3.0 Foundation programs for the Delaware CEMRI framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Murdoch

    2008-01-01

    A complete review of all the national monitoring programs that could possibly contribute to the Delaware River Basin (DRB) CEMRI Framework is beyond the scope of this report. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment developed a Web-based annotated inventory of such monitoring programs for the mid-Atlantic region. Olsen et al. (...

  7. Second Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    Begun on an experimental basis in March 1975, the ongoing PLATO project at the University of Delaware has become an established part of the University's academic program. This descriptive report is divided into three sections: (1) project history and development, including organization, utilization, instructor and author training, and projections…

  8. Third Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    Descriptions of new developments in the areas of facilities, applications, user services, support staff, research, evaluation, and courseware production since the Second Summative Report (1977) are provided, as well as a summative overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Through the purchase of its own PLATO system, this…

  9. Preliminary results of modeled ozone uptake for Fagus sylvatica L. trees at selected EU/UN-ECE intensive monitoring plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaub, Marcus [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: marcus.schaub@wsl.ch; Emberson, Lisa [Stockholm Environment Institute at York, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Bueker, Patrick [Stockholm Environment Institute at York, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Kraeuchi, Norbert [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2007-02-15

    The objective of this study was to establish whether EU and UN-ECE/ICP-Forests monitoring data (i) provide the variables necessary to apply the flux-based modeling methods and (ii) meet the quality criteria necessary to apply the flux-based critical level concept. Application of this model has been possible using environmental data collected from the EU and UN-ECE/ICP-Forests monitoring network in Switzerland and Italy for 2000-2002. The test for data completeness and plausibility resulted in 6 out of a possible total of 20 Fagus sylvatica L. plots being identified as suitable from Switzerland, Italy, Spain, and France. The results show that the collected data allow the identification of different spatial and temporal areas and periods as having higher risk to ozone than those identified using the AOT40 approach. However, it was also apparent that the quality and completeness of the available data may severely limit a complete risk assessment across Europe. - Data sets of the EU and UN-ECE/ICP-Forests monitoring network are examined regarding their suitability for the modeling of ozone uptake in trees in the view of risk assessment.

  10. Expressions of ECE-CYC2 clade genes relating to abortion of both dorsal and ventral stamens in Opithandra (Gesneriaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chun-Feng; Lin, Qi-Bing; Liang, Rong-Hua; Wang, Yin-Zheng

    2009-10-07

    ECE-CYC2 clade genes known in patterning floral dorsoventral asymmetry (zygomorphy) in Antirrhinum majus are conserved in the dorsal identity function including arresting the dorsal stamen. However, it remains uncertain whether the same mechanism underlies abortion of the ventral stamens, an important morphological trait related to evolution and diversification of zygomorphy in Lamiales sensu lato, a major clade of predominantly zygomorphically flowered angiosperms. Opithandra (Gesneriaceae) is of particular interests in addressing this question as it is in the base of Lamiales s.l., an early representative of this type zygomorphy. We investigated the expression patterns of four ECE-CYC2 clade genes and two putative target cyclinD3 genes in Opithandra using RNA in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. OpdCYC gene expressions were correlated with abortion of both dorsal and ventral stamens in Opithandra, strengthened by the negatively correlated expression of their putative target OpdcyclinD3 genes. The complement of OpdcyclinD3 to OpdCYC expressions further indicated that OpdCYC expressions were related to the dorsal and ventral stamen abortion through negative effects on OpdcyclinD3 genes. These results suggest that ECE-CYC2 clade TCP genes are not only functionally conserved in the dorsal stamen repression, but also involved in arresting ventral stamens, a genetic mechanism underlying the establishment of zygomorphy with abortion of both the dorsal and ventral stamens evolved in angiosperms, especially within Lamiales s.l.

  11. Expressions of ECE-CYC2 clade genes relating to abortion of both dorsal and ventral stamens in Opithandra (Gesneriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yin-Zheng

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ECE-CYC2 clade genes known in patterning floral dorsoventral asymmetry (zygomorphy in Antirrhinum majus are conserved in the dorsal identity function including arresting the dorsal stamen. However, it remains uncertain whether the same mechanism underlies abortion of the ventral stamens, an important morphological trait related to evolution and diversification of zygomorphy in Lamiales sensu lato, a major clade of predominantly zygomorphically flowered angiosperms. Opithandra (Gesneriaceae is of particular interests in addressing this question as it is in the base of Lamiales s.l., an early representative of this type zygomorphy. Results We investigated the expression patterns of four ECE-CYC2 clade genes and two putative target cyclinD3 genes in Opithandra using RNA in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. OpdCYC gene expressions were correlated with abortion of both dorsal and ventral stamens in Opithandra, strengthened by the negatively correlated expression of their putative target OpdcyclinD3 genes. The complement of OpdcyclinD3 to OpdCYC expressions further indicated that OpdCYC expressions were related to the dorsal and ventral stamen abortion through negative effects on OpdcyclinD3 genes. Conclusion These results suggest that ECE-CYC2 clade TCP genes are not only functionally conserved in the dorsal stamen repression, but also involved in arresting ventral stamens, a genetic mechanism underlying the establishment of zygomorphy with abortion of both the dorsal and ventral stamens evolved in angiosperms, especially within Lamiales s.l.

  12. Survey of the TS-ECE Discrepancy and recent investigations in ICRF heated plasmas at Alcator C-Mod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinke M. L.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a new investigation of the long-standing, unresolved discrepancy between Thomson Scattering (TS and Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE measurements of electron temperature in high temperature tokamak plasmas. At the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF heating is used to produce high temperature conditions where the TS- ECE discrepancy, as observed in the past at JET and TFTR, should appear. Plasmas with Te(0 up to 8 keV are obtained using three different heating scenarios: Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH, ICRF mode conversion heating and a combination of the two heating methods. This is done in order to explore the hypothesis that ICRH-generated fast ions may be related to the discrepancy. In all high temperature cases at C-Mod, we find no evidence for the type of discrepancy reported at JET and TFTR. Here we present the C-Mod results along with a summary of past work on the TS-ECE discrepancy.

  13. Build-up and decline of organic matter during PeECE III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Schulz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations due to anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion are currently changing the ocean's chemistry. Increasing oceanic [CO2] and consequently decreasing seawater pH have the potential to significantly impact marine life. Here we describe and analyze the build-up and decline of a natural phytoplankton bloom initiated during the 2005 mesocosm Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment study (PeECE III. The draw-down of inorganic nutrients in the upper surface layer of the mesocosms was reflected by a concomitant increase of organic matter until day t11, the peak of the bloom. From then on, biomass standing stocks steadily decreased as more and more particulate organic matter was lost into the deeper layer of the mesocosms. We show that organic carbon export to the deeper layer was significantly enhanced at elevated CO2. This phenomenon might have impacted organic matter remineralization leading to decreased oxygen concentrations in the deeper layer of the high CO2 mesocosms as indicated by deep water ammonium concentrations. This would have important implications for our understanding of pelagic ecosystem functioning and future carbon cycling.

  14. Rapid population decline in red knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allan J; González, Patricia M; Piersma, Theunis; Niles, Lawrence J; do Nascimento, Inês de Lima Serrano; Atkinson, Philip W; Clark, Nigel A; Minton, Clive D T; Peck, Mark K; Aarts, Geert

    2004-04-22

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego, which undertakes marathon 30,000 km hemispheric migrations annually. In spring, migrant birds forage voraciously on horseshoe crab eggs in Delaware Bay in the eastern USA before departing to breed in Arctic polar deserts. From 1997 to 2002 an increasing proportion of knots failed to reach threshold departure masses of 180-200 g, possibly because of later arrival in the Bay and food shortage from concurrent over-harvesting of crabs. Reduced nutrient storage, especially in late-arriving birds, possibly combined with reduced sizes of intestine and liver during refuelling, had severe fitness consequences for adult survival and recruitment of young in 2000-2002. From 1997 to 2002 known survivors in Delaware Bay were heavier at initial capture than birds never seen again, annual survival of adults decreased by 37% between May 2000 and May 2001, and the number of second-year birds in wintering flocks declined by 47%. Population size in Tierra del Fuego declined alarmingly from 51,000 to 27,000 in 2000-2002, seriously threatening the viability of this subspecies. Demographic modelling predicts imminent endangerment and an increased risk of extinction of the subspecies without urgent risk-averse management.

  15. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  16. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  17. Air pollutants and toxic emissions of various mileage motorcycles for ECE driving cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2017-03-01

    Motorcycles were selected to determine their fuel consumption and exhaust emissions following ECE driving cycles. Exhaust constituents including CO2, CO, NOx, total hydrocarbons (THC) and hydrocarbon species (27 paraffins, 9 olefins, 16 aromatics and 15 carbonyls) were investigated for this work. The age of 10- 90% of the selected motorcycles ranged from 2.5 to 12.4 years, and their mileage ranged from 5400 to 39,300 km. CO emission ranged from 1.4 to 6.4 g/km (median value: 2.98 g/km), THC from 0.41 to 1.54 g/km (median value: 0.98 g/km), NOx from 0.16 to 0.28 g/km (median value: 0.21 g/km), CO2 from 58.9 to 62.2 g/km (median value: 60.5 g/km) and fuel consumption from 30.7 to 36.4 km/L (median value: 33.4 km/L), corresponding to the percentage cumulative data from 10 to 90% of the selected motorcycles. Results indicated that the motorcycle exhaust emission and fuel consumption depended on their mileage and ages. An increase in mileage of 1000 km resulted in an increase of 103 mg for CO emission and 14.7 mg for hydrocarbon emission and a reduction of 1.52 mg NOx emission and 0.11 km per liter fuel consumption. For various VOC groups, a mileage increase of 1000 km corresponding to the increased exhaust emission of paraffins was 6.71 mg, olefins 1.90 mg, aromatics 7.04 mg, carbonyls 0.283 mg and 67 VOC species 15.9 mg. Fuel consumption and emissions of CO and hydrocarbon increased in motorcycles over the guaranteed mileage of 15,000 km.

  18. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  19. A Study on Control Strategy of Regenerative Braking in the Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Based on ECE Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a mathematic model of composite braking in the hydraulic hybrid vehicle and analyzes the constraint condition of parallel regenerative braking control algorithm. Based on regenerative braking system character and ECE (Economic Commission of Europe regulations, it introduces the control strategy of regenerative braking in parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV. Finally, the paper establishes the backward simulation model of the hydraulic hybrid vehicle in Matlab/simulink and makes a simulation analysis of the control strategy of regenerative braking. The results show that this strategy can equip the hydraulic hybrid vehicle with strong brake energy recovery power in typical urban drive state.

  20. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  1. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  2. Characterization of saturated MHD instabilities through 2D electron temperature profile reconstruction from 1D ECE measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoli, M.; Horváth, L.; Pokol, G. I.; Igochine, V.; Barrera, L.

    2013-05-01

    A new method for the reconstruction of two-dimensional (2D) electron temperature profiles in the presence of saturated magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) modes from the one-dimensional (1D) electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic is presented. The analysis relies on harmonic decomposition of the electron temperature oscillations through short time Fourier transforms and requires rigid poloidal mode rotation as the only assumption. The method is applicable to any magnetic perturbation as long as the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers m and n are known. Its application to the case of a (m, n) = (1, 1) internal kink mode on ASDEX Upgrade is presented and a new way to estimate the mode displacement is explained. For such modes, it is shown that the higher order harmonics usually visible in the ECE spectrogram arise also for the pure m = n = 1 mode and that they cannot be directly associated with m = n > 1 magnetic perturbations. This method opens up new possibilities for electron heat transport studies in the presence of saturated MHD modes and a way to disentangle the impurity density contributions from electron temperature effects in the analysis of the soft x-ray data.

  3. 78 FR 22840 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; State Board Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA) for all criteria pollutants of the national ambient air quality... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; State Board Requirements,'' that is located in the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; State...

  4. The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative: Lessons Learned in Designing a GIS-Based Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Silberman, Jordan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative is a Web- and GIS-based set of lesson units for teaching geographic concepts and research methods within the context of the state's high school geography standards. Each unit follows a research-based, inquiry-centered model addressing questions of health because of Delaware's high incidence of cancer,…

  5. 33 CFR 100.T05-0443 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Delaware River, New Hope, PA. 100.T05-0443 Section 100.T05-0443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA. (a) Location. The safety zone will restrict.... Bridge located in New Hope, PA, and 400 ft east of the shoreline of New Hope, PA. (b) Regulations. (1)...

  6. 75 FR 33690 - Safety Zone, Lights on the River Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ..., Delaware River, New Hope, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Delaware River in New Hope, PA. The safety zone... downriver of the bridge in New Hope, PA. DATES: This rule is effective from June 15, 2010 through July...

  7. 33 CFR 334.120 - Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.120 Section 334.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....120 Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular...

  8. 33 CFR 167.173 - Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.173 Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic...

  9. The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative: Lessons Learned in Designing a GIS-Based Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Silberman, Jordan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative is a Web- and GIS-based set of lesson units for teaching geographic concepts and research methods within the context of the state's high school geography standards. Each unit follows a research-based, inquiry-centered model addressing questions of health because of Delaware's high incidence of cancer,…

  10. 33 CFR 110.70 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md. 110.70 Section 110.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.70 Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of...

  11. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by The University of Delaware

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The University of Delaware along with MAGPI (Metropolitan Area GigaPoP in Philadelphia for Internet2) and Internet2 are excited to host "Network Delaware Day: Advancing Research and Education Initiatives Across the First State." Discover the power of advanced networking opportunities in research and education throughout the First State.

  12. Evaluation of Delaware Stars for Early Success: Year 1 Report. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Tamargo, Jennifer; Setodji, Claude Messan

    2014-01-01

    Delaware was in the first group of states to receive a federal grant in 2012 to improve early care and education services and increase the number of infants, toddlers, and preschool-age children in high-quality programs. One component of the state's grant is a rigorous validation process for Delaware Stars for Early Success, a voluntary quality…

  13. Literacy at the Core of the Delaware World Language Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton-Archer, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Certain aspects of the implementation of language immersion programs in Delaware are unique given the state's size, demographics, and role in national education initiatives including Race to the Top, Common Core, and Smarter Balance. The Delaware experience typifies what every state, district, or even school goes through as they try to provide…

  14. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  15. Quantification and probabilistic modeling of CRT obsolescence for the State of Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Kelsea A., E-mail: kschum@udel.edu [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy, University of Delaware, 278 Graham Hall, Newark, 19716 (United States); Schumacher, Thomas, E-mail: schumact@udel.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, 19711 (United States); Agbemabiese, Lawrence, E-mail: agbe@udel.edu [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy, University of Delaware, 272 Graham Hall, Newark, 19716 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We modeled the obsolescence of cathode ray tube devices in the State of Delaware. • 411,654 CRT units or ∼16,500 metric tons have been recycled in Delaware since 2002. • The peak of the CRT obsolescence in Delaware passed by 2012. • The Delaware average CRT recycling rate between 2002 and 13 was approximately 27.5%. • CRTs will continue to infiltrate the system likely until 2033. - Abstract: The cessation of production and replacement of cathode ray tube (CRT) displays with flat screen displays have resulted in the proliferation of CRTs in the electronic waste (e-waste) recycle stream. However, due to the nature of the technology and presence of hazardous components such as lead, CRTs are the most challenging of electronic components to recycle. In the State of Delaware it is due to this challenge and the resulting expense combined with the large quantities of CRTs in the recycle stream that electronic recyclers now charge to accept Delaware’s e-waste. Therefore it is imperative that the Delaware Solid Waste Authority (DSWA) understand future quantities of CRTs entering the waste stream. This study presents the results of an assessment of CRT obsolescence in the State of Delaware. A prediction model was created utilizing publicized sales data, a variety of lifespan data as well as historic Delaware CRT collection rates. Both a deterministic and a probabilistic approach using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) were performed to forecast rates of CRT obsolescence to be anticipated in the State of Delaware. Results indicate that the peak of CRT obsolescence in Delaware has already passed, although CRTs are anticipated to enter the waste stream likely until 2033.

  16. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  17. Spring A Developer's Notebook

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    This no-nonsense book quickly gets you up to speed on the new Spring open source framework. Favoring examples and practical application over theory, Spring: A Developer's Notebook features 10 code-intensive labs that'll reveal the many assets of this revolutionary, lightweight architecture. In the end, you'll understand how to produce simple, clean, and effective applications.

  18. Mockito for Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  19. Ontwikkeling en selectie van een methode voor de bepaling van hydronium ter vervanging van de methode die in het kader van het ECE-EMEP-project is voorgeschreven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele J; Slob W; Reijnders HFR

    1989-01-01

    In de afdeling Algemene Analytische Methoden en Ionchromatografie van het Laboratorium voor Anorganische Chemie werd hydronium bepaald volgens de methode, die in het ECE-EMEP kader is voorgeschreven en berust op de "Gran's plot"-methode. Door de grotere hoeveelheid te analyseren

  20. Korean Early Childhood Educators' Multi-Dimensional Teacher Self-Efficacy and ECE Center Climate and Depression Severity in Teachers as Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Ha; Kim, Yang Eun

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated profiles of South Korean early childhood educators' teacher self-efficacy and contributing factors to teacher self-efficacy. The contributing factors were examined with a focus on early childhood education (ECE) center climate and depression severity in teachers as well as teacher and classroom characteristics. The results…

  1. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    led to a number of insights into the social organization of the mound cemeteries that will be presented in the paper. It is obvious that there existed a close spatial relation between freshwater springs and the compact mounds cemeteries that emerged c.2050 BC. The mound cemeteries appear to have been...... flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... high status type right above the head of each spring. These tombs of the masters of the springs are distinguished by their larger size and vertical shaft entrance. It is argued that this particular strategy of power was employed after population growth had intensified conflicts over the rights...

  2. The Impact of the 2002 Delaware Smoking Ordinance on Heart Attack and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. Solis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, smoking is the leading cause of death - having a mortality rate of approximately 435,000 people in 2000—accounting for 8.1% of all US deaths recorded that year. Consequently, we analyzed the Delaware Hospital Discharge Database, and identified state and non-state residents discharged with AMI or asthma for the years 1999 to 2004. Statistical data analysis compared the incidence of AMI or asthma for each group before (1999–2002 and after (2003–2004 the amendment. As a result, we found that pre-ordinance and post-ordinance quarterly rates of AMI for Delaware residents were 451 (se = 21 and 430 (se = 21 respectively, representing a 4.7% reduction. Over the same time period, there was negligible change in the incidence of AMI for non-Delaware residents. After adjusting for population growth, the Risk Ratio (RR for asthma in Delaware residents post-ordinance was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.999, which represented a significant reduction (P = 0.046. By comparison, non-Delaware residents had an increased RR for asthma post-ordinance of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.86; P < 0.0001.The results suggest that Delaware’s comprehensive non-smoking ordinance effectively was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of AMI and asthma in Delaware residents when compared to non-Delaware residents.

  3. IEA SHC Task 42/ECES Annex 29 – A Simple Tool for the Economic Evaluation of Thermal Energy Storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathgeber, Christoph; Hiebler, Stefan; Lävemann, Eberhard;

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of IEA SHC Task 42 / ECES Annex 29, a simple tool for the economic evaluation of thermal energy storages has been developed and tested on various existing storages. On that account, the storage capacity costs (costs per installed storage capacity) of thermal energy storages...... have been evaluated via a Top-down and a Bottom-up approach. The Top-down approach follows the assumption that the costs of energy supplied by the storage should not exceed the costs of energy from the market. The maximum acceptable storage capacity costs depend on the interest rate assigned......, seasonal heat storage is only economical via large sensible hot water storages. Contrary, if the annual number of storage cycles is sufficiently high, all thermal energy storage technologies can become competitive....

  4. IEA SHC Task 42/ECES Annex 29 – A Simple Tool for the Economic Evaluation of Thermal Energy Storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathgeber, Christoph; Hiebler, Stefan; Lävemann, Eberhard

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of IEA SHC Task 42 / ECES Annex 29, a simple tool for the economic evaluation of thermal energy storages has been developed and tested on various existing storages. On that account, the storage capacity costs (costs per installed storage capacity) of thermal energy storages...... have been evaluated via a Top-down and a Bottom-up approach. The Top-down approach follows the assumption that the costs of energy supplied by the storage should not exceed the costs of energy from the market. The maximum acceptable storage capacity costs depend on the interest rate assigned...... to the capital costs, the intended payback period of the user class (e.g. industry or building), the reference energy costs, and the annual number of storage cycles. The Bottom-up approach focuses on the realised storage capacity costs of existing storages. The economic evaluation via Top-down and Bottom...

  5. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURALLY IMPACTED TIDAL BLACKBIRD CREEK, DELAWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blackbird Creek, Delaware is a small watershed in northern Delaware that has a significant proportion of land designated for agricultural land use. The Blackbird Creek water monitoring program was initiated in 2012 to assess the condition of the watershed’s habitats using multiple measures of water quality. Habitats were identified based on percent adjacent agricultural land use. Study sites varying from five to fourteen were sampled biweekly during April and November, 2012-2015. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and generalized linear modeling. Results from these first four years of data documented no significant differences in water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity, inorganic nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphate, alkalinity, and turbidity between the two habitats, although both orthophosphate and turbidity were elevated beyond EPA-recommended values. There were statistically significant differences for all of the parameters between agriculture seasons. The lack of notable differences between habitats suggests that, while the watershed is generally impacted by agricultural land use practices, there appears to be no impact on the surface water chemistry. Because there were no differences between habitats, it was concluded that seasonal differences were likely due to basic seasonal variation and were not a function of agricultural land use practices.

  6. Diffusion of suprathermal electrons measured by means of ECRH and 2nd harmonic ECE O-mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schokker, B.C.; Jaspers, R.J.E.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J. (FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica, Rijnhuizen (Netherlands))

    1991-01-01

    In the study of anomalous transport in thermonuclear plasmas, the diffusion of suprathermal electrons deserves special attention. From certain energies onward electrons are effectively collisionless, and therefore follow the field lines. Thus, they can be used to probe the stochasticity of the magnetic field structure. For high energy, electrons are eventually insensitive to magnetic stochasticity as their curvature B-drift becomes larger than the radial correlation length of the turbulence. Hence, by studying the confinement of collisionless electrons in different energy ranges, both the level of magnetic turbulence and the radial correlation length can be established. A study of the confinement of suprathermal electrons has been reported by Kwon et al, who used measurements of hard X-ray in ASDEX. This study focussed on runaway electrons in the MeV-range, created in the start-up phase of the discharge. In this paper, we concentrate on the transport of suprathermal electrons with an energy of a few times T[sub e]. The advantages of this approach are that (a) the curvature B-drift of these electrons is small, so that the transport is sensitive to small scale magnetic turbulence, and (b) as we shall show, a local study of the diffusion of these electrons can be made using ECE spectroscopy. We describe experiments performed in the RTP tokamak, in which ECRH O-mode was launched from the low-field side. In this way, a population of suprathermals in the center of the plasma is almost instantaneously raised in perpendicular energy. This population is diagnosed by ECE with a grating polychromator in the optically thin 2nd harmonic O-mode. (author) 2 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Pseudo-outbreak of tuberculosis in poultry plant workers, Sussex County, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dennis Y; Ridzon, Renee; Giles, Beverly; Mireles, Teresa

    2002-12-01

    Delaware is a leading US poultry-producing state, and foreign-born workers make up a significant percentage of those employed by Delaware's poultry plants. In Sussex County, Delaware, a high percentage of the poultry workers are from two countries with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), Mexico and Guatemala, and thus are at risk for TB infection and disease. Furthermore, their risk of TB may be increased because many of these workers live in crowded conditions and lack access to medical care.

  8. Water quality of the Delaware and Raritan Canal, New Jersey, 1998-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, Jacob; Gray, Bonnie; Rice, Donald E.; Tessler, Steven; Barringer, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1934, the Delaware and Raritan Canal has been used to transfer water from the Delaware River Basin to the Raritan River Basin. The water transported by the Delaware and Raritan Canal in New Jersey is used primarily for public supply after it has been treated at drinking-water treatment plants located in the Raritan River Basin. Recently (1999), the raw water taken from the canal during storms has required increased amounts of chemical treatments for removal of suspended solids, and the costs of removing the additional sludge or residuals generated during water treatment have increased. At present, action to control algae is unnecessary.

  9. The Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧平

    2005-01-01

    Everybody likes to have the Spring Festival, so do I.Because during the Spring Festival there are many good things to eat, to drink and to play with. During the last Spring Festival I had a very good time. On the eve of the festival, our family had a big dinner. My uncle, aunt and cousin came back from Canada to celebrate(庆祝) my grandma's eightieth birthday. They also brought many beautiful gifts to me. My cousin and I watched TV and played games the whole night, while the grown-ups had a long talk. I didn't know when I fell asleep.

  10. Streamflow and water-quality monitoring in response to young-of-year smallmouth bass (micropterus dolomieu) mortality in the Susquehanna River and major tributaries, with comparisons to the Delaware and Allegheny Rivers, Pennsylvania, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; Crawford, J. Kent

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005, spring hatched young-of-year (YOY) smallmouth bass in Pennsylvania reaches of the Susquehanna River have experienced above-normal mortality when summertime streamflows are near or lower than normal. Stress factors include, but are not limited to, low dissolved oxygen and elevated water temperatures during times critical for survival and development (critical period is May 1 through July 31). At this time (2010), widespread disease and mortality are believed to be more prevalent for YOY smallmouth bass in the Susquehanna River Basin than in the Delaware or Allegheny River Basins.

  11. Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  12. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  13. Learning Spring application development

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  14. Harbingers of Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrao, John

    1976-01-01

    Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

  15. The Springs at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_springs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 5 points representing the springs, natural and man-made, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The springs were...

  16. 76 FR 26679 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for Preconstruction Review, Prevention of Significant Deterioration AGENCY: Environmental... Regulation 1125, Requirements for Preconstruction Review, Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) found...

  17. Inventory and Evaluation of Information on Delaware Bay, vol. 2, November 1972 (NODC Accession 7310520)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the second section of a three part study describing the history, land use, and legal mechanisms which operate in the tideland region of the lower Delaware...

  18. 77 FR 39456 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Section 110(a)(2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ..., 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401, Dover, Delaware 19903. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rose Quinto... from Stephen D. Page, Director, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards to the Regional...

  19. Accuracy Assessment Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation and fire fuel model mapping in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this...

  20. Field Plot Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots use to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this data set,...

  1. Field Plot Points for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots used to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River.

  2. EAARL Coastal Topography--Maryland and Delaware, post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the eastern Maryland and Delaware coastline, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter), was produced from remotely...

  3. NOAA orthorectified Digital Elevation Model (DEM) image tiles, Bombay Hook, Delaware, 2011 (NODC Accession 0112173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Bombay Hook Project covers 177 square kilometers of the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge and surrounding areas in Kent County, Delaware. The Dewberry...

  4. Assessment of blood contaminant residues in Delaware Bay bald eagle nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The bald eagle population around the lower Delaware River Basin is rebounding from near extirpation in the early 1970's to 14 active breeding pairs today....

  5. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Delaware Bay Summary Database (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  6. EAARL Coastal Topography--Maryland and Delaware, post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the eastern Maryland and Delaware coastline, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter), was produced from remotely...

  7. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Delaware based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Delaware census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  8. 2011 Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) Lidar: Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected LiDAR for over 177 square kilometers of the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge in Kent County, Delaware. The nominal pulse spacing for this...

  9. Three Year Investigation Of Mosquito Breeding In Natural And Impounded Tidal Marshes In Delaware

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1953 to 1955 the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the University of Delaware Agricultural Experiment Station conducted a cooperative investigation of...

  10. Summary of the 1998 Spawning Survey of Horseshoe Crabs Along the Delaware Bay Shore

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The spawning survey of horseshoe crabs was conducted along the shores of Delaware Bay for the ninth year. Counts of spawning horseshoe crabs was performed by trained...

  11. Spatial Vegetation Data for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  12. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Delaware Bay Summary Database (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system...

  13. Delaware River Dredging Disposal Study, Stage 1 Reconnaissance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    Ca :1 0 0 $ 41 >0 I pI1C 3 c a x oa C4 i-i :4n .- kip 0 *1 4+4 A.>A 44 C)p 0)- 144 to ~ 5 -4$ %4 a Lo 0 1 0) C: Go 14 V2 U) 4 14 1* 4 t $4 U 4 Cd 0 g a...a bank building to a private residence, this brick structure survives as an example of Greek Revival architecture. Nat. Reg. DK 116 Thorne Mansion...of Sydenham Thorne , an Anglican minister and co-founder of Milford, A.William Burton, Governor of Delaware and John M. Clayton, Secretary of State

  14. Surface Currents and Winds at the Delaware Bay Mouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscarella, P A; Barton, N P; Lipphardt, B L; Veron, D E; Wong, K C; Kirwan, A D

    2011-04-06

    Knowledge of the circulation of estuaries and adjacent shelf waters has relied on hydrographic measurements, moorings, and local wind observations usually removed from the region of interest. Although these observations are certainly sufficient to identify major characteristics, they lack both spatial resolution and temporal coverage. High resolution synoptic observations are required to identify important coastal processes at smaller scales. Long observation periods are needed to properly sample low-frequency processes that may also be important. The introduction of high-frequency (HF) radar measurements and regional wind models for coastal studies is changing this situation. Here we analyze synoptic, high-resolution surface winds and currents in the Delaware Bay mouth over an eight-month period (October 2007 through May 2008). The surface currents were measured by two high-frequency radars while the surface winds were extracted from a data-assimilating regional wind model. To illustrate the utility of these monitoring tools we focus on two 45-day periods which previously were shown to present contrasting pictures of the circulation. One, the low-outflow period is from 1 October through 14 November 2007; the other is the high-outflow period from 3 March through 16 April 2008. The large-scale characteristics noted by previous workers are clearly corroborated. Specifically the M2 tide dominates the surface currents, and the Delaware Bay outflow plume is clearly evident in the low frequency currents. Several new aspects of the surface circulation were also identified. These include a map of the spatial variability of the M2 tide (validating an earlier model study), persistent low-frequency cross-mouth flow, and a rapid response of the surface currents to a changing wind field. However, strong wind episodes did not persist long enough to set up a sustained Ekman response.

  15. Mycobacterial infections in striped bass from Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, C.A.; Brown, J.J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Starliper, C.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Weyers, H.S.; Beauchamp, K.A.; Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.

    2007-01-01

    Eighty striped bass Morone saxatilis were obtained from Delaware Bay using commercial gill nets set adjacent to Woodland Beach (n = 70) and Bowers Beach (n = 10) in December 2003. Fish were examined for gross lesions. Total lengths (TLs) and eviscerated weights were determined to calculate condition factors (K). Portions of spleens were aseptically harvested for bacterial culture, and portions of spleens, kidneys (anterior and posterior), livers, and gonads were obtained for histological examination. The size distribution of the striped bass was relatively homogeneous; the mean TL was about 600 mm for all samples. Mean K exceeded 0.95 in all samples and was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among samples. Significant differences in mycobacterial infection prevalence (P ??? 0.05) were observed among samples; samples obtained at Woodland Beach (WB) on December 10 (53.8%, n = 13) and December 17 (7.1%, n = 42) exhibited the most striking differences in prevalence. Mycobacterial infection intensity ranged from 1 ?? 102 to 1 ?? 107 colony-forming units per gram of spleen. Acanthocephalan infection prevalence and intensity, non-acid-fast bacterial infection prevalence, and fish sex ratio were also significantly different among the samples (P ??? 0.05). Similar to the mycobacterial infections, differences in sex ratio, acanthocephalan infection, and non-acid-fast bacterial infection were observed between the WB samples taken on December 10 and 17. However, no significant associations (P > 0.05) were observed between sex ratio or these infections and mycobacterial infection. The differences in bacterial and parasite infection prevalence and intensity and fish sex ratio in some samples indicate that these fish had a different history and that the epizootiology of mycobacterial infection in striped bass from Delaware Bay may be relatively complex. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  16. Thickness of the surficial aquifer, Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    A digital map of the thickness of the surficial unconfined aquifer, including from the land surface and unsaturated zone to the bottom of sediments of geologic units identified as part of the surficial aquifer, was produced to improve understanding of the hydrologic system in the Maryland and Delaware portions of the Delmarva Peninsula. The map is intended to be used in conjunction with other environmental coverages (such land use, wetlands, and soil characteristics) to provide a subsurface hydrogeologic component to studies of nitrate transport that have historically relied on maps of surficial features. It could also be used to study the transport of other water soluble chemicals. The map was made using the best currently available data, which was of varying scales. It was created by overlaying a high resolution land surface and bathymetry digital elevation model (DEM) on a digital representation of the base of the surficial aquifer, part of hydrogeologic framework, as defined by Andreasen and others (2013). Thickness was calculated as the difference between the top of land surface and the bottom of the surficial aquifer sediments, which include sediments from geologic formations of late-Miocene through Quaternary age. Geologic formations with predominantly sandy surficial sediments that comprise the surficial aquifer on the Delmarva Peninsula include the Parsonsburg Sand, Sinepuxent Formation (Fm.), and parts of the Omar Fm. north of Indian River Bay in Delaware, the Columbia Fm., Beaverdam Fm., and Pennsauken Fm. (Ator and others 2005; Owens and Denney, 1986; Mixon, 1985; Bachman and Wilson, 1984). Formations with mixed texture and sandy stratigraphy including the Scotts Corner Fm. and Lynch Heights Fm. in Delaware are also considered part of the surficial aquifer (Ramsey, 1997). Subcropping aquifers and confining beds underlie the surficial aquifer throughout the Peninsula and may increase or limit its thickness, respectively (Andreasen and others, 2013

  17. JINAN: the City of Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Attractions Jinan is not a hot tourist destination in China, but it has Something special to offer, such as the 72 springs scattered throughout the city. Jinan has an alias of the Spring City (Quan Cheng)because of ouver 700 natural springs run through the city. Among them,the Baotu Spring is the most famous.

  18. Walking with springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Thomas G.; Hollander, Kevin W.; Hitt, Joseph K.

    2011-04-01

    Developing bionic ankles poses great challenges due to the large moment, power, and energy that are required at the ankle. Researchers have added springs in series with a motor to reduce the peak power and energy requirements of a robotic ankle. We developed a "robotic tendon" that reduces the peak power by altering the required motor speed. By changing the required speed, the spring acts as a "load variable transmission." If a simple motor/gearbox solution is used, one walking step would require 38.8J and a peak motor power of 257 W. Using an optimized robotic tendon, the energy required is 21.2 J and the peak motor power is reduced to 96.6 W. We show that adding a passive spring in parallel with the robotic tendon reduces peak loads but the power and energy increase. Adding a passive spring in series with the robotic tendon reduces the energy requirements. We have built a prosthetic ankle SPARKy, Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics, that allows a user to walk forwards, backwards, ascend and descend stairs, walk up and down slopes as well as jog.

  19. Tropospheric ozone and adverse crop response : results of some italian experiments carried out within UN/ECE during 1994; Ozono troposferico e danni su colture agricole : risulati di alcuni esperimenti italiani condotti in ambito UN/ECE nel 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumagalli, I. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy); Mignanego, L. [Phytos sns, Milan (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Within the international co-operative programme on the effects of air pollutants on crops (ICP-Crops) promoted by the UN/ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution, a series of experiments were performed in Italy on different crops. Results on bean and white clover of the 1994 experimental season carried out at a field site near Milan are presented. The aim of the trial was to assess the effects of tropospheric ozone on bean plants and white clover exposed to ambient air and treated with the antioxidant ethylene diurea (EDU). Additionally bean plants and white clover were exposed to filtered (F) and unfiltered (NF) air in open-top chambers. Bean plants were sowed in june and harvested in september, two experiments with white clover were conducted from may to september. Mai parameters investigated have been ozone visible injury on leaves, photosynthesis, number and dry weight at final harvest. Air quality data and the diagnostic features of plants about this trial allow to identify ozone as an important air pollutant with levels often above threshold for phytotoxic effects.

  20. Tropospheric ozone and adverse crop response : results of some italian experiments carried out within UN/ECE during 1994; Ozono troposferico e danni su colture agricole : risulati di alcuni esperimenti italiani condotti in ambito UN/ECE nel 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumagalli, I. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy); Mignanego, L. [Phytos sns, Milan (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Within the international co-operative programme on the effects of air pollutants on crops (ICP-Crops) promoted by the UN/ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution, a series of experiments were performed in Italy on different crops. Results on bean and white clover of the 1994 experimental season carried out at a field site near Milan are presented. The aim of the trial was to assess the effects of tropospheric ozone on bean plants and white clover exposed to ambient air and treated with the antioxidant ethylene diurea (EDU). Additionally bean plants and white clover were exposed to filtered (F) and unfiltered (NF) air in open-top chambers. Bean plants were sowed in june and harvested in september, two experiments with white clover were conducted from may to september. Mai parameters investigated have been ozone visible injury on leaves, photosynthesis, number and dry weight at final harvest. Air quality data and the diagnostic features of plants about this trial allow to identify ozone as an important air pollutant with levels often above threshold for phytotoxic effects.

  1. Age and sex specific timing, frequency, and spatial distribu-tion of horseshoe crab spawning in Delaware Bay: Insights from a large-scale radio telemetry array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. SMITH, Lorne J. BROUSSEAU, Mary T. MANDT, Michael J. MILLARD

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To study horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus spawning behavior and migration over a large-spatial extent (>100 km, we arrayed fixed station radio receivers throughout Delaware Bay and deployed radio transmitters and archival tags on adult horseshoe crabs prior to their spawning season. We tagged and released 160 females and 60 males in 2004 and 217 females in 2005. The array covered approximately 140 km of shoreline. Recapture rates were >70% with multi-year recaptures. We categorized adult age by carapace wear. Older females tended to spawn earlier in the season and more frequently than young females, but those tendencies were more apparent in 2004 when spawning overall occurred earlier than in 2005 when spawning was delayed possibly due to decreased water temperatures. Timing of initial spawning within a year was correlated with water temperature. After adjusting for day of first spring tide, the day of first spawning was 4 days earlier for every 1 degree (°C rise in mean daily water temperature in May. Seventy nine % of spawning occurred during nighttime high tides. Fifty five % of spawning occurred within 3 d of a spring tide, which was slightly higher than the 47% expected if spawning was uniformly distributed regardless of tidal cycle. Within the same spawning season, males and females were observed spawning or intertidally resting at more than one beach separated by >5 km. Between years, most (77% did not return to spawn at the same beach. Probability of stranding was strongly age dependent for males and females with older adults experiencing higher stranding rates. Horseshoe crabs staging in the shallow waters east of the channel spawned exclusively along the eastern (NJ shoreline, but those staging west of the channel spawned throughout the bay. Overall, several insights emerged from the use of radio telemetry, which advances our understanding of horseshoe crab ecology and will be useful in conserving the Delaware Bay horseshoe crab

  2. Spring of women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  3. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  4. Pro Spring security

    CERN Document Server

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  5. What's Behind Spring Festival?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Similar to what the Christmas Day means for the westerners,the Spring Festival is the most important celebration for Chinese people.This big event according to Chinese traditional lunar calendar relaxes and pleases the whole country as the happiest gathering time of the year.National-wide crusade for going back home,too-difficult-to-get train tickets,generous family-going-out shopping,Miaohui laundering,New Year Eve reunion dinner,visiting friends and relatives,watching annual TV gala……each piece of clue reminds us of the smell of Chinese Spring Festival.

  6. Marine ecosystem community carbon and nutrient uptake stoichiometry under varying ocean acidification during the PeECE III experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. J. Bellerby

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic carbon and nutrient biogeochemical responses were studied during the 2005 Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment (PeECE III study. Inverse analysis of the temporal inorganic carbon dioxide system and nutrient variations was used to determine the net community stoichiometric uptake characteristics of a natural pelagic ecosystem production perturbed over a range of pCO2 scenarios (350, 700 and 1050 μatm. Nutrient uptake showed no sensitivity to CO2 treatment. There was enhanced carbon production relative to nutrient consumption in the higher CO2 treatments which was positively correlated with the initial CO2 concentration. There was no significant calcification response to changing CO2 in Emiliania huxleyi by the peak of the bloom and all treatments exhibited low particulate inorganic carbon production (~15 μmol kg−1. With insignificant air-sea CO2 exchange across the treatments, the enhanced carbon uptake was due to increase organic carbon production. The inferred cumulative C:N:P stoichiometry of organic production increased with CO2 treatment from 1:6.3:121 to 1:7.1:144 to 1:8.25:168 at the height of the bloom. This study discusses how ocean acidification may incur modification to the stoichiometry of pelagic production and have consequences for ocean biogeochemical cycling.

  7. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  8. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  9. Renaissance Administrator, Spring 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, June P., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This spring 1998 issue of Renaissance Administrator features the following articles: (1) "Servant Leadership and Higher Education--What is Leadership?" (Richard E. Hasselbach); (2) "Teaching Writing in the 90's--Carnivorous Printers and Dying Grandmothers" (Helen Ruggieri); (3) Assignment--Journal Writing" (Lynn Muscato); and (4) "A Business…

  10. Editors' Spring Picks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

  11. Computational studies on ECE spectrum for ITER, in the presence of a small fraction of non-thermals and radial resolution evolution for oblique view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash P.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In tokamaks, the temperature measurement using different techniques like Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE, Thomson scattering etc. shows differences because of various phenomena. The physical reasons for this are not entirely understood. Thus to have comprehensive understanding of these difference, the contribution from each phenomenon needs to be individually understood. The phenomenon affecting radial temperature profile measurement includes harmonics overlap, relativistic down shifting, presence of non-thermals etc. For ITER like plasma, radial temperature profiles can be obtained from the first harmonics ordinary (O mode or second harmonic extra-ordinary(X mode of ECE spectrum. It is possible that, higher harmonics produced from the non-thermals can be relativistically downshifted to second harmonics and results a deviation in the measured temperature profile. We performed a parametric study on the effect of non-thermal electrons on measured ECE temperature for ITER scenario-2. All the numerical calculations reported in this paper are performed using NOTEC computer code which is capable of handling non-thermal populations. After proper validation of numerical methods using normal electron population (without non-thermals a parametric study with non-thermals is performed. In the parametric study radial locations of non-thermals, energy of non-thermals and fraction of non-thermals are considered. This study is initially performed for normal view and later extended in to oblique views. The range of deviation of temperature over the examined parametric regime as well as the possible physical reasons will be presented. The effect of parallel component of non-thermal energy is also examined. Finally results of one set of study for oblique view (where the detector is not exactly normal to the magnetic field with non-thermal electrons are also presented. In ITER apart from an Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE detector placed normal to magnetic field

  12. Fish Springs molluscan studies: House and Percy Springs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a limited survey of House and Percy Springs molluscan fauna within Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Various...

  13. Designing virtual science labs for the Islamic Academy of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZahrani, Nada Saeed

    Science education is a basic part of the curriculum in modern day classrooms. Instructional approaches to science education can take many forms but hands-on application of theory via science laboratory activities for the learner is common. Not all schools have the resources to provide the laboratory environment necessary for hands-on application of science theory. Some settings rely on technology to provide a virtual laboratory experience instead. The Islamic Academy of Delaware (IAD), a typical community-based organization, was formed to support and meet the essential needs of the Muslim community of Delaware. IAD provides science education as part of the overall curriculum, but cannot provide laboratory activities as part of the science program. Virtual science labs may be a successful model for students at IAD. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of implementing virtual science labs at IAD and to develop an implementation plan for integrating the virtual labs. The literature has shown us that the lab experience is a valuable part of the science curriculum (NBPTS, 2013, Wolf, 2010, National Research Council, 1997 & 2012). The National Research Council (2012) stressed the inclusion of laboratory investigations in the science curriculum. The literature also supports the use of virtual labs as an effective substitute for classroom labs (Babateen, 2011; National Science Teachers Association, 2008). Pyatt and Simms (2011) found evidence that virtual labs were as good, if not better than physical lab experiences in some respects. Although not identical in experience to a live lab, the virtual lab has been shown to provide the student with an effective laboratory experience in situations where the live lab is not possible. The results of the IAD teacher interviews indicate that the teachers are well-prepared for, and supportive of, the implementation of virtual labs to improve the science education curriculum. The investigator believes that with the

  14. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  15. Estimated use of water in the Delaware River Basin in Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Susan S.; Linsey, Kristin S.; Ludlow, Russell A.; Reyes, Betzaida; Shourds, Jennifer L.

    2016-11-07

    The Delaware River Basin (DRB) was selected as a Focus Area Study in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the USGS National Water Census. The National Water Census is a USGS research program that focuses on national water availability and use and then develops new water accounting tools and assesses water availability at both the regional and national scales. One of the water management needs that the DRB study addressed, and that was identified by stakeholder groups from the DRB, was to improve the integration of state water use and water-supply data and to provide the compiled water use information to basin users. This water use information was also used in the hydrologic modeling and ecological components of the study.Instream and offstream water use was calculated for 2010 for the DRB based on information received from Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Water withdrawal, interbasin transfers, return flow, and hydroelectric power generation release data were compiled for 11 categories by hydrologic subregion, basin, subbasin, and subwatershed. Data availability varied by state. Site-specific data were used whenever possible to calculate public supply, irrigation (golf courses, nurseries, sod farms, and crops), aquaculture, self-supplied industrial, commercial, mining, thermoelectric, and hydroelectric power withdrawals. Where site-specific data were not available, primarily for crop irrigation, livestock, and domestic use, various techniques were used to estimate water withdrawals.Total water withdrawals in the Delaware River Basin were calculated to be about 7,130 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 2010. Calculations of withdrawals by source indicate that freshwater withdrawals were about 4,130 Mgal/d (58 percent of the total) and the remaining 3,000 Mgal/d (42 percent) were from saline water. Total surface-water withdrawals were calculated to be 6,590 Mgal/d, or 92 percent of the total; about 54 percent (3,590 Mgal/d) of surface

  16. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  17. Warm Springs pupfish recovery plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document gives a history of pupfish and focuses on the warm springs pupfish. The warm springs pupfish is endangered, and this is a plan to help recover the...

  18. 78 FR 63972 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report... methodology proposed to be used in the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report is...: Comments will be accepted via email to john.yagecic@drbc.state.nj.us , with ``Water Quality Assessment 2014...

  19. 76 FR 4716 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware, Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the... public notice of a proposed lease area for commercial wind development on the OCS off Delaware and... from Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC (Bluewater) and another from Occidental Development & Equities, LLC...

  20. 76 FR 50188 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality... methodology proposed to be used in the 2012 Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality Assessment is... to 609-883-9522; by U.S. Mail to DRBC, Attn: Water Quality Assessment 2012, P.O. Box 7360, West...

  1. Climate Change Impacts in the State of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, C.

    2011-12-01

    The State of Delaware is currently completing its first statewide climate impacts and vulnerability assessment that will provide the foundation for a new statewide adaptation planning process. The assessment focuses on both the observed impacts and the projected impacts on five main sectors: public health and safety; infrastructure and water; industry, agriculture, and forestry; tourism and recreation; and wildlife, plants, and natural ecosystems. Examples of key impacts to the State include loss of wetlands from sea level rise and public health impacts from increased tropospheric ozone and heatwaves. The assessment is a result of collaboration across state agencies, universities, local governments, and non-governmental organizations. We discuss several challenges in translating national and regional research to locally-specific and locally-meaningful impacts necessary for the policy process, adaptation planning, and public outreach. We identify information and research gaps that continue to slow progress at the local and state level. There are lessons learned on how to best engage with policymakers and be relevant and useful for policy planning. Lastly, we give examples of successes in diverse collaborations, public communication of the results, and early policy actions resulting from the findings.

  2. Hot Spring Metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalla López-López

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hot springs have been investigated since the XIX century, but isolation and examination of their thermophilic microbial inhabitants did not start until the 1950s. Many thermophilic microorganisms and their viruses have since been discovered, although the real complexity of thermal communities was envisaged when research based on PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes arose. Thereafter, the possibility of cloning and sequencing the total environmental DNA, defined as metagenome, and the study of the genes rescued in the metagenomic libraries and assemblies made it possible to gain a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities—their diversity, structure, the interactions existing between their components, and the factors shaping the nature of these communities. In the last decade, hot springs have been a source of thermophilic enzymes of industrial interest, encouraging further study of the poorly understood diversity of microbial life in these habitats.

  3. Magnetic Spring Device

    OpenAIRE

    Hassam, A. B.; Rodgers, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an a...

  4. Marine ecosystem community carbon and nutrient uptake stoichiometry under varying ocean acidification during the PeECE III experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. J. Bellerby

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes to seawater inorganic carbon and nutrient concentrations in response to the deliberate CO2 perturbation of natural plankton assemblages were studied during the 2005 Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment (PeECE III experiment. Inverse analysis of the temporal inorganic carbon dioxide system and nutrient variations was used to determine the net community stoichiometric uptake characteristics of a natural pelagic ecosystem perturbed over a range of pCO2 scenarios (350, 700 and 1050 μatm. Nutrient uptake showed no sensitivity to CO2 treatment. There was enhanced carbon production relative to nutrient consumption in the higher CO2 treatments which was positively correlated with the initial CO2 concentration. There was no significant calcification response to changing CO2 in Emiliania huxleyi by the peak of the bloom and all treatments exhibited low particulate inorganic carbon production (~15 μmol kg−1. With insignificant air-sea CO2 exchange across the treatments, the enhanced carbon uptake was due to increase organic carbon production. The inferred cumulative C:N:P stoichiometry of organic production increased with CO2 treatment from 1:6.3:121 to 1:7.1:144 to 1:8.25:168 at the height of the bloom. This study discusses how ocean acidification may incur modification to the stoichiometry of pelagic production and have consequences for ocean biogeochemical cycling.

  5. BACKGROUND TRACK DENSITY REDUCTION OF 50-HZ-HV ECE-PROCESSED THICK POLYCARBONATE DETECTORS TO IMPROVE LOWER DETECTION LIMIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, M; Hakimi, A; Soltani, Z

    2016-12-01

    A recent novel development of 50-Hz-HV ECE of 1-mm-thick and 250-µm-thick polycarbonate track detectors (PCTDs) has proved some promising results for some health physics, dosimetry and ion-beam-related applications. The method while proved having some good characteristics for some applications provided a relatively higher background track density (BGTD) in particular when very high voltages are applied to the PCTDs. In order to decrease the minimum detection limit (MDL) of the PCTDs and to further promote its applications for low dose, the BGTD was reduced by applying a layer removal methodology applying ethylendiamine (EDA). The effects of EDA concentrations (50, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85 and 90 %) in water at room temperature (26°C) and soaking durations up to 100 min at different EDA concentration on BGTD reduction were studied. The thickness of the layer removed from the surface of a PCTD highly depends on the soaking time and EDA concentration; it increases as the EDA concentration increases up to for example 700 µm after 2 h of soaking in the EDA solution. After ∼10 min of soaking duration at any of the above-stated concentrations, the BGTD reaches its minimum value, a value which differs from concentration to concentration. An EDA concentration of 85 % in water provided the lowest BGTD of 64.06 ± 3.12 tracks cm(- 2); ∼6 times lower than that of its original value. It is shown that the layer removal process does not change the registration characteristics of the PCTD and its appearance significantly. The MDL of the PCTDs depends strongly on the BGTD. The MDL values for a desired confidence level were also studied by three calculation methods. The results of the BGTD and the MDL studies under different conditions applied are presented and discussed.

  6. Gastro-intestinal microbiota of two migratory shorebird species during spring migration staging in Delaware Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migratory birds travel long distances and use diverse habitats, potentially exposing them to a broad range of microbes that could negatively affect their health and survival. Gut microbiota composition has been shown to be closely related to organismal health through interactions...

  7. Gastro-intestinal microbiota of two migratory shorebird species during spring migration staging in Delaware Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migratory birds travel long distances and use diverse habitats, potentially exposing them to a broad range of microbes that could negatively affect their health and survival. Gut microbiota composition has been shown to be closely related to organismal health through interactions...

  8. 基于坡度和ECE法规的制动力分配研究%Research on Braking Force Distribution Based on Gradient and ECE Regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯强; 张晓龙; 吴涛; 陈奇

    2015-01-01

    为了使汽车在上、下坡制动时前后制动力分配能够满足ECE法规的要求。通过对汽车在上、下坡制动时进行受力分析,得到汽车上、下坡制动时前、后轴的利用附着系数,根据ECE法规和汽车在上、下坡及平直路面上制动时前、后轴利用附着系数的大小关系进行前、后制动力分配系数设计,最后对分配效果进行验证,结果表明:该方法设计的制动力分配系数在汽车上、下坡制动时可以满足ECE法规的要求。%To make sure the front and back braking force distribution can meet the requirements of ECE regulations when the vehicle brakes uphill and downhill, the front and rear axle utilization adhesion co⁃efficient of the vehicle were obtained by force analysis during braking uphill and downhill, then the braking force distribution coefficients were designed according to ECE regulations and the magnitude relation of the front and rear axle utilization adhesion coefficients during braking uphill, downhill and straight, finally distribution effects were verified. The results show the braking force distribution coeffi⁃cients designed by this method can meet the requirements of ECE regulations when the vehicle brakes uphill and downhill.

  9. Matemáticas de Infantil en Delaware, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Fábrega

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Estados Unidos se encuentra en momento de cambio en el sistema educativo. La implantación de los estándares comunes para todas las etapas de educación obligatoria proporciona una estructura normalizada para todo el territorio estadounidense. En este documento, se presenta un ejemplo de cómo trabajar los estándares matemáticos en una clase bilingüe de alumnos de 5 a 6 años. La implementación difiere de estado a estado. En este caso concreto se sigue un currículo bastante estricto, con un material pautado y guías del profesor. No obstante, el maestro/a siempre puede complementar este currículo con otros talleres y juegos matemáticos. Arte, juegos de mesa y actividades motrices, entre otros, ayudan a los alumnos/as a entender y, lo más importante, a aplicar las capacidades matemáticas trabajadas.Mathematics in a Kindergarten School in Delaware, USA. The education system in United States of America is undergoing significant changes. The implementation of the new Common Core Standards in K - 12 provides for a unified structure for the entire territory. This article presents examples of how to work those new standards for mathematics in a bilingual kindergarten classroom.The implementation differs from State to State. In this specific case we follow a very strict curriculum, which includes learning materials and teacher guides. Nevertheless, teachers can always complement the curriculum with any other mathematic workshops and games. Art, board games and motor activities, among others, can help students understand - and more importantly - to apply the mathematic skills learned.

  10. Effects of CO2 on particle size distribution and phytoplankton abundance during a mesocosm bloom experiment (PeECE II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schartau

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seawater carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration on the size distribution of suspended particles (2–60 μm and on phytoplankton abundance was investigated during a mesocosm experiment at the large scale facility (LFS in Bergen, Norway, in the frame of the Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment study (PeECE II. In nine outdoor enclosures the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater was modified by an aeration system to simulate past (~190 μatm CO2, present (~370 μatm CO2 and future (~700 μatm CO2 CO2 conditions in triplicates. Due to the initial addition of inorganic nutrients, phytoplankton blooms developed in all mesocosms and were monitored over a period of 19 days. Seawater samples were collected daily for analysing the abundance of suspended particles and phytoplankton with the Coulter Counter and with Flow Cytometry, respectively. During the bloom period, the abundance of small particles (2 levels. At that time, a direct relationship between the total-surface-to-total-volume ratio of suspended particles and DIC concentration was determined for all mesocosms. Significant changes with respect to the CO2 treatment were also observed in the phytoplankton community structure. While some populations such as diatoms seemed to be insensitive to the CO2 treatment, others like Micromonas spp. increased with CO2, or showed maximum abundance at present day CO2 (i.e. Emiliania huxleyi. The strongest response to CO2 was observed in the abundance of small autotrophic nano-plankton that strongly increased during the bloom in the past CO2 mesocosms. Together, changes in particle size distribution and phytoplankton community indicate a complex interplay between the ability of the cells to physiologically respond to changes in CO2 and size selection. Size of cells is of general importance for a variety of processes in marine systems such as diffusion-limited uptake of substrates, resource allocation, predator-prey interaction, and gravitational settling

  11. Preliminary Assessment Screening, First Army Recreation Area, Lewes, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    launcher, pull out the safety pin , unlock the trigger, and squeeze the trigger spring boot. For more information pertaining, to this launcher refer...the weapon will be kept trained on the target. i After I minute, return the trigger safety handle to the safe position. Replace the safety pin in the... safety pin . During all this time the w,.3pon must remain as near the on-target position as possible. Next the weapon must be I reaimed and the

  12. BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL ON THE SHORELINE OF DELAWARE BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 1994, a field study was undertaken in Delaware in which light crude oil was intentionally released onto plots to evaluate bioremediation. The objectives were to obtain credible statistical evidence to determine if bioremediation with inorganic mineral nutrients ...

  13. 77 FR 28489 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... to the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions From Industrial Boilers and Process Heaters at Petroleum... Delaware's regulation that establishes controls for nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions from industrial... amend the regulation that establishes controls for NO X emissions from industrial boilers and...

  14. 77 FR 3211 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions From Industrial Boilers and Process Heaters at Petroleum Refineries... amends Delaware's regulation that establishes controls for nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions from industrial boilers and process heaters at petroleum refineries by including a NO X emission limit for...

  15. 77 FR 22224 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... revision amends the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from industrial cleaning solvents... meet the requirements to implement reasonably available control technology (RACT) controls on emission... developments and expand VOC emission controls. The revision is part of Delaware's strategy to achieve...

  16. 78 FR 39601 - Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display... out zone that covers part of the Delaware River. Sugar House Casino has contracted with Pyrotecnico... Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display will pose significant risks to the public. The purpose of the...

  17. Monitoring hemlock crown health in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; Bradley Onken; Richard A. Evans; Richard A. Evans

    2005-01-01

    Decline of the health of hemlocks in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area was noticeable in the southern areas of the park by 1992. The following year, a series of plots were established to monitor hemlock health and the abundance of hemlock woolly adelgid. This poster examines only the health rating of the hemlocks in the monitoring plots.

  18. TOXICITY TRENDS DURING AN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION EXPERIMENT ON A SANDY SHORELINE IN DELAWARE, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 13-week, refereed, inter-agency toxicity testing program involving five bioassay methods was used to document the effectiveness of shoreline bioremediation to accelerate toxicity reduction of an oiled sandy shoreline at Fowler Beach, Delaware, USA. The study was part of an inte...

  19. 76 FR 20367 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the... notice provides BOEMRE's determination that no competitive interest exists in acquiring a commercial wind... 21653). Bluewater Wind Delaware, LLC submitted the only valid expression of commercial interest in...

  20. Delaware Stars for Early Success. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Delaware's Stars for Early Success prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  1. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  2. The Politics of Race and Educational Disparities in Delaware's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Theodore J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Delaware has long played a pivotal role in the nation's struggle to end school segregation and promote educational equality. This article discusses racial disparities in educational achievement and outcomes by examining the state's political history and the politics of race in public education. This article explores educational disparities from a…

  3. Improving Anti-Rape Policy and Education at the University of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    It is incumbent on colleges and universities to evaluate the conditions that lead to sexual assault on their campuses and to address those that may support a climate that encourages or tolerates rape. Though various policies and educational programs attempt to mitigate the problem, still it persists. The University of Delaware has not engaged in a…

  4. 78 FR 57573 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Attainment Plan for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... expeditiously as practicable in a given area.\\21\\ Thus, assuming no presumptions under 40 CFR 51.1002, a state... in a given nonattainment area.\\35\\ \\34\\ See 40 CFR 51.1008. \\35\\ See 2007 PM 2.5 Implementation Rule... Plan for the Philadelphia-Wilmington, Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware Nonattainment Area for the...

  5. State of Delaware Science Curriculum Framework Content Standards [and] Performance Indicators, 6-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover.

    Part of the Delaware Department of Education's ongoing efforts to provide assistance and support to local school districts in their development of a standards-based curriculum, this document presents the eight science standards for middle school. The standards for grades 6-8 are: (1) nature and application of science and technology; (2) materials…

  6. Climate change effects on forests, water resources, and communities of the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will Price; Susan Beecher

    2014-01-01

    The Delaware River provides drinking water to 5 percent of the United States, or approximately 16.2 million people living in 4 states, 42 counties, and over 800 municipalities. The more than 1.5 billion gallons withdrawn or diverted daily for drinking water is delivered by more than 140 purveyors, yet constitutes less than 20 percent of the average daily withdrawals....

  7. 77 FR 58953 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control... published in the Federal Register. This action is not a ``major rule'' as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2). C... compounds. Dated: September 7, 2012. Shawn M. Garvin, Regional Administrator, Region III. 40 CFR part 52...

  8. Environmental Assessment. Increase Fuel Storage Capacity, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    in 1998. Grasshopper Sparrow 2 Observed on Bergold Farm 16 July 2003 and in 1998. Great blue heron 2 Observed many times foraging along both Pipe...ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES Increase Fuels Capacity Dover Air Force Base, Delaware 28 calculations were derived from the same EPA software utilized to

  9. Synopsis of the University of Delaware's Office of Computer-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    This brief paper presents background information and a description of the organizational structure and educational objectives of the Office of Computer-Based Instruction, formerly the Delaware PLATO project, whose name was changed to reflect the University's ongoing commitment to providing leadership in educational computing following the…

  10. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  11. Several Moments of the Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛竹晨

    2003-01-01

    Spring has finally fallen on Cambridge. After a long, wet and dark winter, sky finally brightens up. The first messenger of spring is the daffodil (水仙花). English daffodils are slightly different from the Chinese ones that we are all familiar with. First of all, they bloom in spring, not in winter as the Chinese daffodils do. Second, they do not grow in water, but on the ground, though they

  12. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  13. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Mankale, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  14. Connecting onshore and offshore near-surface geology: Delaware's sand inventory project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, K.W.; Jordan, R.R.; Talley, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1988, the Delaware Geological Survey began a program to inventory on-land sand resources suitable for beach nourishment. The inventory included an assessment of the native beach textures using existing data and developing parameters of what would be considered suitable sand textures for Delaware's Atlantic beaches. An assessment of the economics of on-land sand resources was also conducted, and it was determined that the cost of the sand was competitive with offshore dredging costs. In addition, the sand resources were put into a geologic context for purposes of predicting which depositional environments and lithostratigraphic units were most likely to produce suitable sand resources. The results of the work identified several suitable on-land sand resource areas in the Omar and Beaverdam formations that were deposited in barrier-tidal delta and fluvial-estuarine environments, respectively. The identified on-land resources areas have not been utilized due to difficulties of truck transport and development pressures in the resource areas. The Delaware Geological Survey's participation in years 8, 9, and 10 of the Continental Margins Program was developed to extend the known resource areas onshore to offshore Delaware in order to determine potential offshore sand resources for beach nourishment. Years 8 and 9 involved primarily the collection of all available data on the offshore geology. These data included all seismic lines, surface grab samples, and cores. The data were filtered for those that had reliable locations and geologic information that could be used for geologic investigations. Year 10 completed the investigations onshore by construction of a geologic cross-section from data along the coast of Delaware from Cape Henlopen to Fenwick. This cross section identified the geologic units and potential sand resource bodies as found immediately along the coast. These units and resources are currently being extended offshore and tied to known and

  15. Measurement of photoneutron doses in and out of high-energy X-ray beam of a SATURNE-20 medical linear accelerator by ECE polycarbonate detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrabi, M

    1999-01-01

    Photoneutron contaminations in and out of high energy X-ray beams of the medical linear accelerator SATURNE 20 (CGR) of the Radiotherapy Department of Omeed Hospital in Isfahan, Iran, have been determined using 250 mu m polycarbonate (PC) dosimeters, in strips or in sheets, processed by electrochemical etching (ECE) using specially designed ECE chambers to etch larger sheets. A two dimensional or topographical distribution of neutron contamination was also determined in a full size beam. The neutron dose equivalents (Hn) in the beam of 18 MV X-rays at 80 cm FSD were determined to be linear functions of X-ray dose equivalents (Hx) up to 1400 cSv. The distribution of the Hn at different X-ray doses showed bell-shape profiles with maxima at the isocenter. The ratios of dose equivalents of neutrons to those of X-rays increased as the field size increased having values of 0.22%, 0.28%, 0.31% and 0.37% for field sizes of 10x10, 20x20, 30x30, and 40x40 cm sup 2 respectively. Although such neutron dose equivalents ca...

  16. Composition and temporal patterns of larval fish communities in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparing larval fish assemblages in different estuaries provides insights about the coastal distribution of larval populations, larval transport, and adult spawning locations (Ribeiro et al. 2015. We simultaneously compared the larval fish assemblages entering two Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB estuaries (Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay, USA through weekly sampling from 2007 to 2009. In total, 43 taxa (32 families and 36 taxa (24 families were collected in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, respectively. Mean taxonomic diversity, mean richness, and evenness were generally lower in Delaware Bay. Communities of both bays were dominated by Anchoa spp., Gobiosoma spp., Micropogonias undulatus, and Brevoortia tyrannus; Paralichthys spp. was more abundant in Delaware Bay and Microgobius thalassinus was more abundant in Chesapeake Bay. Inter-annual variation in the larval fish communities was low at both sites, with a relatively consistent composition across years, but strong seasonal (intra-annual variation in species composition occurred in both bays. Two groups were identified in Chesapeake Bay: a ‘winter’ group dominated by shelf-spawned species (e.g. M. undulatus and a ‘summer’ group comprising obligate estuarine species and coastal species (e.g. Gobiosoma spp. and Cynoscion regalis, respectively. In Delaware Bay, 4 groups were identified: a ‘summer’ group of mainly obligate estuarine fishes (e.g. Menidia sp. being replaced by a ‘fall’ group (e.g. Ctenogobius boleosoma and Gobionellus oceanicus; ‘winter’ and ‘spring’ groups were dominated by shelf-spawned (e.g. M. undulatus and Paralichthys spp. and obligate estuarine species (e.g. Leiostomus xanthurus and Pseudopleuronectes americanus, respectively. This study demonstrates that inexpensive and simultaneous sampling in different estuaries provides important insights into the variability in community structure of fish assemblages at large spatial scales.

  17. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  18. Influence of groundwater on distribution of dwarf wedgemussels (Alasmidonta heterodon) in the upper reaches of the Delaware River, northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Briggs, Martin A.; Voytek, Emily B.; Lane, John W.

    2016-10-01

    The remaining populations of the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (DWM) (Alasmidonta heterodon) in the upper Delaware River, northeastern USA, were hypothesized to be located in areas of greater-than-normal groundwater discharge to the river. We combined physical (seepage meters, monitoring wells and piezometers), thermal (fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing, infrared, vertical bed-temperature profiling), and geophysical (electromagnetic-induction) methods at several spatial scales to characterize known DWM habitat and explore this hypothesis. Numerous springs were observed using visible and infrared imaging along the river banks at all three known DWM-populated areas, but not in adjacent areas where DWM were absent. Vertical and lateral groundwater gradients were toward the river along all three DWM-populated reaches, with median upward gradients 3 to 9 times larger than in adjacent reaches. Point-scale seepage-meter measurements indicated that upward seepage across the riverbed was faster and more consistently upward at DWM-populated areas. Discrete and areally distributed riverbed-temperature measurements indicated numerous cold areas of groundwater discharge during warm summer months; all were within areas populated by DWM. Electromagnetic-induction measurements, which may indicate riverbed geology, showed patterning but little correlation between bulk streambed electromagnetic conductivity and areal distribution of DWM. In spite of complexity introduced by hyporheic exchange, multiple lines of research provide strong evidence that DWM are located within or directly downstream of areas of substantial focused groundwater discharge to the river. Broad scale thermal-reconnaissance methods (e.g., infrared) may be useful in locating and protecting other currently unknown mussel populations.

  19. Large springs of east Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pao-chang P.; Criner, J.H.; Poole, J.L.

    1963-01-01

    Springs constitute an important source of water in east Tennessee, and many individual springs are capable of supplying the large quantities needed for municipal and industrial supplies. Most of the springs in east Tennessee issue from solution openings and fractured and faulted zones in limestone and dolomite of the Knox Group, Chickamauga Limestone, and Conasauga Group. The ability of these rocks to yield a sustained flow of water to springs is dependent on a system of interconnected openings through which water can infiltrate from the land surface and move to points of natural discharge. Ninety springs were selected for detailed study, and 84 of these are analyzed in terms of magnitude and variability of discharge. Of the 84 springs analyzed, 4 flow at an average rate of 10 to 100 cfs (cubic feet per second), 62 at an average rate of 1 to 10 cfs, and 18 at an average rate of 1 cfs or less. Of the 90 springs, 75 are variable in their discharge; that is, the ratio of their fluctuations to their average discharges exceeds 100 percent. Mathematical analysis of the flow recession curve of Mill Spring near Jefferson City shows that the hydrologic system contributing to the flow of the spring has an effective capacity of about 70 million cubic feet of water. The rate of depletion of this volume of water, in the absence of significant precipitation, averages 0.0056 cfs per day between the time when the hydrologic system is full and the time when the spring ceases to flow. From such a curve it is possible to determine at any time the residual volume of water remaining in the system and the expected rate of decrease in discharge from that time to cessation of flow. Correlation of discharge measurements of 22 springs with those of Mill Spring shows that rough approximations of discharge can be projected for springs for which few measurements are available. Seventeen of the springs analyzed in this manner show good correlation with Mill Spring: that is, their coefficients

  20. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  1. The phosphoric acid leak from the wreck of the MV Ece in the English Channel in 2006: Assessment with a ship of opportunity, an operational ecosystem model and historical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Gerreyn, Boris A; Hydes, David J; Hartman, Mark C; Siddorn, John; Hyder, Patrick; Holt, Martin W

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluates the ship of opportunity (Ferrybox) concept for both sustained monitoring of UK shelf sea waters and numerical model validation. Release of phosphate from the wreck of a chemical tanker (MV Ece) in the western English Channel (49.73 degrees N, 3.25 degrees W) in March 2006 is used to demonstrate the importance of sustained observations in decision support systems and policy development. The Ferrybox system continuously collects sea surface (5m) data from a suite of autonomous electronic sensors installed on a passenger ferry operating year-round between Portsmouth (UK) and Bilbao (Spain). The detection of anomalously high concentrations of phosphate (1.54mmolm(-3), four times the usual level) and onset of phytoplankton growth close to the wreck site in March 2006 was placed in the context of multiple years of measurements (phosphate, nitrate, silicate and chlorophyll) collected from the Ferrybox system (2003-2006) and the long-term time series station E1 (50.03 degrees N, 4.65 degrees W, 1930-1987) in the English Channel. With regard to decision support, release of phosphate from the tanker is unlikely to pose a threat as phytoplankton growth at the end of winter is not unusual in this region and dissolved inorganic nitrogen rather than phosphate (DIN:DIP=10-18) is likely to ultimately limit algal growth in spring 2006. With regard to policy development, the Oslo and Paris (OSPAR) commissions recommendation of sampling every three years in "non-problem areas" is likely to provide statistically inadequate data, given the interannual and decadal variability identified in the Ferrybox and E1 data: the Ferrybox data show that oceanic winter nutrient concentrations varied by 35-50% between 2003/2004 and 2005/2006 due to deeper mixing of water off-shelf in early 2005/2006 and comparisons between the Ferrybox and E1 years show that the western English Channel is currently experiencing a low in phosphate concentrations similar to those in the 1960s. The

  2. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014793)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania from 1969 to 2000(May 2002 v.3). ESI data...

  3. Biological, chemical, and physical data collected in Delaware Bay from 2 Sep 1997 to 8 Oct 1997 (NODC Accession 0118720)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  4. Mallow Springs, County Cork, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldwell, C. R.

    1996-03-01

    Because of its copious and reliable rainfall, Ireland has an abundance of springs. Many of the larger ones issue from the Carboniferous limestone that occurs in over 40% of the country. The spring water is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type with a temperature of about 10°C. In the 18th century, warm and cold springs were developed as spas in various parts of Ireland. The popularity of these springs was short and most were in major decline by 1850. Today only one cold spa at Lisdoonvarna, Co. Clare is still operating. Springs in Ireland were places of religious significance for the pre-Christian Druidic religion. In the Christian period they became holy wells, under the patronage of various saints. Cures for many different ailments were attributed to water from these wells.

  5. Report of the River Master of the Delaware River for the period December 1, 2008–November 30, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Paulachok, Gary N.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Owens, Marie

    2016-04-06

    A Decree of the Supreme Court of the United States, entered June 7, 1954, established the position of Delaware River Master within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In addition, the Decree authorizes diversions of water from the Delaware River Basin and requires compensating releases from certain reservoirs, owned by New York City, to be made under the supervision and direction of the River Master. The Decree stipulates that the River Master will furnish reports to the Court, not less frequently than annually. This report is the 56th Annual Report of the River Master of the Delaware River. It covers the 2009 River Master report year, the period from December 1, 2008, to November 30, 2009.During the report year, precipitation in the upper Delaware River Basin was 50.89 inches (in.) or 116 percent of the long-term average. Combined storage in Pepacton, Cannonsville, and Neversink Reservoirs remained high throughout the year and did not decline below 80 percent of combined capacity at any time. Delaware River operations during the year were conducted as stipulated by the Decree and the Flexible Flow Management Program (FFMP).Diversions from the Delaware River Basin by New York City and New Jersey were in full compliance with the Decree. Reservoir releases were made as directed by the River Master at rates designed to meet the flow objective for the Delaware River at Montague, New Jersey, on 25 days during the report year. Releases were made at conservation rates—rates designed to relieve thermal stress and protect the fishery and aquatic habitat in the tailwaters of the reservoirs—on all other days.During the report year, New York City and New Jersey complied fully with the terms of the Decree, and directives and requests of the River Master.As part of a long-term program, the quality of water in the Delaware Estuary between Trenton, New Jersey, and Reedy Island Jetty, Delaware, was monitored at various locations. Data on water temperature, specific conductance

  6. Comparative status and assessment of Limulus polyphemus with emphasis on the New England and Delaware Bay populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Millard, Michael J.; Carmichael, Ruth H.

    2009-01-01

    Increases in harvest of the American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) during the 1990s, particularly for whelk bait, coupled with decreases in species that depend on their eggs has reduced horseshoe crab abundance, threatened their ecological relationships, and dictated precautionary management of the horseshoe crab resource. Accordingly, population assessments and monitoring programs have been developed throughout much of the horseshoe crab’s range. We review and discuss implications for several recent assessments of Delaware Bay and New England populations and a meta-analysis of region-specific trends. These assessments show that the western Atlantic distribution of the horseshoe crab is comprised of regional or estuarine-specific meta-populations, which exhibit distinct population dynamics and require management as separate units. Modeling of Delaware Bay and Cape Cod populations confirmed that overharvest caused declines, but indicated that some harvest levels are sustainable and consistent with population growth. Coast-wide harvest was reduced by 70% from 1998 to 2006, with the greatest reductions within Delaware Bay states. Harvest regulations in Delaware Bay starting in the late 1990s, such as harvest quotas, seasonal closures, male-only harvest, voluntary use of bait-saving devices, and establishment of the Carl N. Shuster Jr. Horseshoe Crab Reserve, were followed by stabilization and recent evidence of increase in abundance of horseshoe crabs in the region. However, decreased harvest of the Delaware Bay population has redirected harvest to outlying populations, particularly in New York and New England. While the recent Delaware Bay assessments indicate positive population growth, increased harvest elsewhere is believed to be unsustainable. Two important considerations for future assessments include (1) managing Delaware Bay horseshoe crab populations within a multi-species context, for example, to help support migratory shorebirds and (2

  7. Spring comes for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  8. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  9. The University of Delaware Carlson International Polar Year Events: Collaborative and Educational Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, F. E.; Bryant, T.; Wellington, P.; Dooley, J.; Bird, M.

    2008-12-01

    Delaware is a small state with, by virtue of its coastal location, a large stake in climatic change in the polar regions. The University of Delaware has maintained a strong presence in cold-regions research since the mid-1940s, when William Samuel Carlson, a highly accomplished Arctic explorer, military strategist, and earth scientist, was named 20th President (1946-50) of the University. Carlson played a leading role in two of the University of Michigan's Greenland expeditions in the late 1920s and early 1930s. As Director of the Arctic, Desert, and Tropic Branch of the US Army Air Forces Tactical Center during World War II, Colonel Carlson played a role in developing several air transportation routes through the Arctic that helped to facilitate the Allied victory in Europe. Carlson authored many scientific and popular publications concerned with the Arctic, including the books Greenland Lies North (1940) and Lifelines Through the Arctic (1962). Although the University of Delaware has maintained a vigorous and continuous program of polar research since Carlson's tenure, the faculty, staff, and students involved are diffused throughout the University's colleges and departments, without an institutional focal point. Consequently, although many of these individuals are well known in their respective fields, the institution has not until recently been perceived widely as a center of polar-oriented research. The goals of the Carlson International Polar Year Events are to: (a) develop a sense of community among UD's diffuse polar-oriented researchers and educators; (b) create a distinctive and highly visible role for UD in the milieu of IPY activities; (c) promote interest in and knowledge about the polar regions in the State of Delaware, at all educational levels; (d) forge a close relationship between UD and the American Geographical Society, a national organization involved closely with previous International Polar Years; and (e) create a new basis for development

  10. SPRING FESTIVAL ON THE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亦西; 杨延康

    2005-01-01

    How Spring Festival is celebrated Although the date of the Spring Festival was switched from the beginning of spring to the first day of the first lunar month, the main ways of celebrating it, from bygone days, remain popular.

  11. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half.

  12. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Records available to September 30, 1956, on use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, John C.

    1957-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize data on the use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area (fig. 2) and to list the principal data sources that are available in published form. The tables and bibliography will assist Geological Survey personnel assigned to the Delaware Basin Project in evaluating the scope and deficiencies of previous studies of the basin. Information is also given on the use of water by public supplies in the New York-New Jersey region comprising the New York City Metropolitan Area and in the remaining north-central and south-eastern parts of New Jersey. These regions may depend increasingly on water from the Delaware River basin for part of their public supplies. The Geological Survey has the responsibility for appraising and describing the water resources of the Nation as a guide to use, development, control, and conservation of these resources. Cooperative Federal-State water-resources investigations in the Delaware Basin States have been carried on the the Geological Survey for more than 50 years. In July 1956 the Survey began the "Delaware Basin Project," a hydrologic study of the Delaware River basin in order to: 1) Determine present status and trends in water availability, quality, and use, 2) assess and improve the adequacy of the Survey's basic water data program in the basin, 3) interpret and evaluate the water-resources data in terms of past and possible future water-use and land-use practices, and 4) disseminate promptly the results of this investigation for the benefit of all interested agencies and the general public. The Geological Survey is working closely with the U.S. Corps of Engineers and other cooperating Federal and State agencies in providing water data which will contribute to the present coordinated investigation aimed at developing a plan for long-range water development in the Delaware River basin. Estimates of quantities of water used are given for water withdrawn from streams and aquifers during calendar

  14. Fish Springs weather CY 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2011 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...

  15. Fish Springs weather CY 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2010 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...

  16. Steller's Eider spring migration surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual spring aerial surveys were conducted most years from 1992 to 2008, to monitor the population status and habitat use of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri)...

  17. Report on Fish Springs - 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses field survey results from several trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge during the summer of 1958. The following information is...

  18. Tradition and Culture Change in the Oklahoma Delaware Big House Community: 1867-1924.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Viburnum prunifolium), pecans ( Carya adult Delaware settlers. Nor is their use of the illinoensis ), persimmon (Diospyro virginiana), cabin divergent from...preparations Sycamore Platanus occidentails xaxakw "tree" Chips of heartwood boiled to make a tea Pecans Carya illinoensis KIT:m Nuts eaten in fall I...Bark used to sweeten and preserve fat; inner bark used to repair baskets Hickory Carya hickori t~tpan%.ma;i "bitter nut tree" Used in basketry and for

  19. Enzyme activities in the Delaware Estuary affected by elevated suspended sediment load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziervogel, K.; Arnosti, C.

    2009-09-01

    Extracellular enzyme activities were compared among surface water, bottom water, and sediments of the Delaware Estuary using six fluorescently labeled, structurally distinct polysaccharides to determine the effects of suspended sediment transport on water column hydrolytic activities. Potential hydrolysis rates in surface waters were also measured for the nearby shelf. Samples were taken in December 2006, 6 months after a major flood event in the Delaware Basin that was followed by high freshwater run-off throughout the fall of 2006. All substrates were hydrolyzed in sediments and in the water column, including two (pullulan and fucoidan) that previously were not hydrolyzed in surface waters of the Delaware estuary. At the time of sampling, total particulate matter (TPM) in surface waters at the lower bay, bay mouth, and shelf ranged between 31 mg l -1 and 48 mg l -1 and were 2 to 20 times higher than previously reported. The presence of easily resuspended sediments at the lower bay and bay mouth indicated enhanced suspended sediment transport in the estuary prior to our sampling. Bottom water hydrolysis rates at the two sites affected by sediment resuspension were generally higher than those in surface waters from the same site. Most notably, fucoidan and pullulan hydrolysis rates in bay mouth bottom waters were 22.6 and 6.2 nM monomer h -1, respectively, and thus three and five times higher than surface water rates. Our data suggest that enhanced mixing processes between the sediment and the overlying water broadened the spectrum of water column hydrolases activity, improving the efficiency of enzymatic degradation of high molecular weight organic matter in the water with consequences for organic matter cycling in the Delaware estuary.

  20. Revenue management education (RevME), 30 April-2 May 2015, University of Delaware, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Koupriouchina, Larissa; van der Rest, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Xuan Lorna

    2015-01-01

    On 30 April–2 May, 2015, an inaugural Revenue Management Education Workshop on teaching Revenue Management (RM) was held at the University of Delaware. Made possible through generous support from Hyatt, the initiative was launched by Prof. Dr. Zvi Schwartz in order to facilitate a dialog among a selected group of hospitality RM educators and key industry players including: major international hotel chains, RM related technology and service providers and leading hospitality educators from worl...

  1. Mercury concentrations in tidal marsh sparrows and their use as bioindicators in Delaware Bay, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Sarah E; Shriver, W Gregory; Pepper, Margaret A; Taylor, Robert J

    2010-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination from industrial sources is pervasive throughout North America and is recognized by the US Environmental Protection Agency as a health hazard for wildlife and humans. Avian species are commonly used as bioindicators of Hg because they are sensitive to contaminants in the environment and are relatively easy to sample. However, it is important to select the appropriate avian species to use as a bioindicator, which should be directly related to the project objectives. In this study, we tested the utility of two tidal marsh sparrows, Seaside (Ammodramus maritimus) and Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) sparrows, as bioindicator species of the extent of Hg contamination in tidal marshes along the Delaware Bay. To determine the possibility of using one or both of these species, we estimated sparrow blood Hg burden in five Delaware watersheds. We found no difference in Hg concentrations between species (F (1,133) bioindicator species given their habitat specificity, relative abundance, widespread distribution in marsh habitats, ease of sampling, and limited variation in blood Hg estimates within a sampling area. In Delaware Bay, Saltmarsh Sparrows may be too rare (making them difficult to sample) to be a viable tidal marsh Hg bioindicator.

  2. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Delaware, a watercourse is not to be confused with surface water. Each gives rise to certain riparian rights, but the law makes certain distinctions between the two. The presence of both surface waters and watercourses give rise to private and public rights related to the presence of the water. Some of these rights are vested in riparian owners. Recent Delaware case law has described the riparian owner as one who owns land on the bank of a river, or who is owner of land along, bordering upon, bounded by, fronting upon, abutting, or adjacent and contiguous to and in contact with a river. But, ownership of the bank does not give the riparian ownership of the water. Some law cases are cited to discuss the laws in Delaware.

  3. Effects of horseshoe crab harvest in delaware bay on red knots: Are harvest restrictions working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, L.J.; Bart, J.; Sitters, H.P.; Dey, A.D.; Clark, K.E.; Atkinson, P.W.; Baker, A.J.; Bennett, K.A.; Kalasz, K.S.; Clark, N.A.; Clark, J.; Gillings, S.; Gates, A.S.; Gonzalez, P.M.; Hernandez, D.E.; Minton, C.D.T.; Morrison, R.I.G.; Porter, R.R.; Ross, R.K.; Veitch, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Each May, red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) congregate in Delaware Bay during their northward migration to feed on horseshoe crab eggs (Limulus polyphemus) and refuel for breeding in the Arctic. During the 1990s, the Delaware Bay harvest of horseshoe crabs for bait increased 10-fold, leading to a more than 90% decline in the availability of their eggs for knots. The proportion of knots achieving weights of more than 180 grams by 26-28 May, their main departure period, dropped from 0.6-0.8 to 0.14-0.4 over 1997-2007. During the same period, the red knot population stopping in Delaware Bay declined by more than 75%, in part because the annual survival rate of adult knots wintering in Tierra del Fuego declined. Despite restrictions, the 2007 horseshoe crab harvest was still greater than the 1990 harvest, and no recovery of knots was detectable. We propose an adaptive management strategy with recovery goals and annual monitoring that, if adopted, will both allow red knot and horseshoe crab populations to recover and permit a sustainable harvest of horseshoe crabs.

  4. Measuring Macrobenthos Biodiversity at Oyster Aquaculture Sites in the Delaware Inland Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, M. J.; Ozbay, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Delaware Inland Bays consists of three shallow coastal bays located in the southern portion of Delaware. Anthropogenic activities have led to the degradation of water quality, because the bays are surrounded by highly developed areas and have low flushing rates. This results in loss of biodiversity and abundance of organisms. Ongoing degradation of the bays has led to a dramatic decline in local oyster populations since the late 1800s. Oysters are keystone species, which provide habitats for organisms and help to improve water quality. This study aims to find if the introduction of oyster aquaculture improves local biodiversity and abundance of macrobenthos. The study was conducted in Rehoboth Bay, Indian River Bay and Little Assawoman Bay. Aquaculture gear was placed at one location in each of the bays and 24 sediment core samples were taken once a month. From these core samples all worms were fixed and stained in a 10% Formalin Rose Bengal solution and preserved in 70% Ethanol for later identification. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of oyster tissue will also be performed to assess the health of the bay. The goals of this research are to better understand the role of oyster aquaculture in restoring the viability and health of the Delaware Inland Bays.

  5. Estimation of daily mean streamflow for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin, water years 1960–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Marla H.

    2016-06-09

    The ability to characterize baseline streamflow conditions, compare them with current conditions, and assess effects of human activities on streamflow is fundamental to water-management programs addressing water allocation, human-health issues, recreation needs, and establishment of ecological flow criteria. The U.S. Geological Survey, through the National Water Census, has developed the Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET) to estimate baseline (minimally altered) and altered (affected by regulation, diversion, mining, or other anthropogenic activities) and altered streamflow at a daily time step for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin for water years 1960–2010. Daily mean baseline streamflow is estimated by using the QPPQ method to equate streamflow expressed as a percentile from the flow-duration curve (FDC) for a particular day at an ungaged stream location with the percentile from a FDC for the same day at a hydrologically similar gaged location where streamflow is measured. Parameter-based regression equations were developed for 22 exceedance probabilities from the FDC for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin. Water use data from 2010 is used to adjust the baseline daily mean streamflow generated from the QPPQ method at ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin to reflect current, or altered, conditions. To evaluate the effectiveness of the overall QPPQ method contained within DRB-SET, a comparison of observed and estimated daily mean streamflows was performed for 109 reference streamgages in and near the Delaware River Basin. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values were computed as a measure of goodness of fit. The NSE values (using log10 streamflow values) ranged from 0.22 to 0.98 (median of 0.90) for 45 streamgages in the Upper Delaware River Basin and from -0.37 to 0.98 (median of 0.79) for 41 streamgages in the Lower Delaware River Basin.

  6. Dynamic Management of Releases for the Delaware River Basin using NYC's Operations Support Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Wang, L.; Murphy, T.; Muralidhar, D.; Tarrier, B.

    2011-12-01

    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has initiated design of an Operations Support Tool (OST), a state-of-the-art decision support system to provide computational and predictive support for water supply operations and planning. Using an interim version of OST, DEP and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) have developed a provisional, one-year Delaware River Basin reservoir release program to succeed the existing Flexible Flow Management Program (FFMP) which expired on May 31, 2011. The FFMP grew out of the Good Faith Agreement of 1983 among the four Basin states (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware) that established modified diversions and flow targets during drought conditions. It provided a set of release schedules as a framework for managing diversions and releases from New York City's Delaware Basin reservoirs in order to support multiple objectives, including water supply, drought mitigation, flood mitigation, tailwaters fisheries, main stem habitat, recreation, and salinity repulsion. The provisional program (OST-FFMP) defines available water based on current Upper Delaware reservoir conditions and probabilistic forecasts of reservoir inflow. Releases are then set based on a set of release schedules keyed to the water availability. Additionally, OST-FFMP attempts to provide enhanced downstream flood protection by making spill mitigation releases to keep the Delaware System reservoirs at a seasonally varying conditional storage objective. The OST-FFMP approach represents a more robust way of managing downstream releases, accounting for predicted future hydrologic conditions by making more water available for release when conditions are forecasted to be wet and protecting water supply reliability when conditions are forecasted to be dry. Further, the dynamic nature of the program allows the release decision to be adjusted as hydrologic conditions change. OST simulations predict that this

  7. Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular

  8. Mechanics of anisotropic spring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Schwarz, J. M.; Das, Moumita

    2014-12-01

    We construct and analyze a model for a disordered linear spring network with anisotropy. The modeling is motivated by, for example, granular systems, nematic elastomers, and ultimately cytoskeletal networks exhibiting some underlying anisotropy. The model consists of a triangular lattice with two different bond occupation probabilities, px and py, for the linear springs. We develop an effective medium theory (EMT) to describe the network elasticity as a function of px and py. We find that the onset of rigidity in the EMT agrees with Maxwell constraint counting. We also find beyond linear behavior in the shear and bulk modulus as a function of occupation probability in the rigid phase for small strains, which differs from the isotropic case. We compare our EMT with numerical simulations to find rather good agreement. Finally, we discuss the implications of extending the reach of effective medium theory as well as draw connections with prior work on both anisotropic and isotropic spring networks.

  9. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  10. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and refined conceptual model of groundwater flow for Coastal Plain aquifers at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2005-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Myers, Luke; Degnan, James R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.

    2015-01-01

    From 1966 to 2002, activities at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware chemical facility in New Castle County, Delaware resulted in the contamination of groundwater, soils, and wetland sediment. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, and the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control began a multi-year investigation of the hydrogeologic framework and hydrology of the confined aquifer system. The goals of the ongoing study at the site (the Potomac Aquifer Study) are to determine the hydraulic connection between the Columbia and Potomac aquifers, determine the direction of groundwater flow in the Potomac aquifer, and identify factors affecting the fate of contaminated groundwater. This report describes progress made towards these goals based on available data collected through September 2012.

  11. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  12. Yarn Expo Spring Concluded the Spring Fair in Beijing Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the 2009 Yarn Expo Spring, organized by Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd, the Sub-Council of Textile Industry - CCPIT, China Cotton Textile Association, China Wool Textile Association, China Chemical Fibers Association, China Bast & Leaf Fiber Textiles Association, and China Textile Information Centre, came to an end on 1 April, the organizers had something to smile about.

  13. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  14. SPring-8 twin helical undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, T; Tanaka, T; Tanabe, T; Maréchal, X M; Kumagai, K; Kitamura, H

    1998-05-01

    There are several ways of producing circularly polarized light, such as using asymmetric devices, crossed undulators etc. The SPring-8 helical undulator introduces a simple way of producing both horizontal and vertical fields in one undulator. All the magnet arrays are arranged above and below the plane of the electron orbit, so there is no limitation of access from the sides of the undulator. For the SPring-8 BL25SU, two helical undulators will be installed in tandem, and the helicity of the polarization can be switched at up to 10 Hz using five kicker magnets.

  15. Hydrogeologic characterization and assessment of bioremediation of chlorinated benzenes and benzene in wetland areas, Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles W.; Baker, Anna C.; Teunis, Jessica A.; Majcher, Emily H.; Brayton, Michael J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site (SCD) in New Castle County, Delaware, are affected by contamination with chlorobenzenes and benzene from past waste storage and disposal, spills, leaks, and contaminated groundwater discharge. In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey began an investigation in June 2009 to characterize the hydrogeology and geochemistry in the wetlands and assess the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation as remedial strategies. Groundwater flow in the wetland study area is predominantly vertically upward in the wetland sediments and the underlying aquifer, and groundwater discharge accounts for a minimum of 47 percent of the total discharge for the subwatershed of tidal Red Lion Creek. Thus, groundwater transport of contaminants to surface water could be significant. The major contaminants detected in groundwater in the wetland study area included benzene, monochlorobenzene, and tri- and di-chlorobenzenes. Shallow wetland groundwater in the northwest part of the wetland study area was characterized by high concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (maximum about 75,000 micrograms per liter [μg/L]), low pH, and high chloride. In the northeast part of the wetland study area, wetland groundwater had low to moderate concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (generally not greater than 10,000 μg/L), moderate pH, and high sulfate concentrations. Concentrations in the groundwater in excess of 1 percent of the solubility of the individual chlorinated benzenes indicate that a contaminant source is present in the wetland sediments as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Consistently higher contaminant concentrations in the shallow wetland groundwater than deeper in the wetland sediments or the aquifer also indicate a continued source in the wetland sediments, which could include dissolution of DNAPLs and

  16. Finding Spring on Planet X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

  17. Sources of antibiotics: Hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Girish B; Balachandran, Lakshmi

    2017-06-15

    The discovery of antibiotics heralded an era of improved health care. However, the over-prescription and misuse of antibiotics resulted in the development of resistant strains of various pathogens. Since then, there has been an incessant search for discovering novel compounds from bacteria at various locations with extreme conditions. The soil is one of the most explored locations for bioprospecting. In recent times, hypersaline environments and symbiotic associations have been investigated for novel antimicrobial compounds. Among the extreme environments, hot springs are comparatively less explored. Many researchers have reported the presence of microbial life and secretion of antimicrobial compounds by microorganisms in hot springs. A pioneering research in the corresponding author's laboratory resulted in the identification of the antibiotic Fusaricidin B isolated from a hot spring derived eubacteria, Paenibacillus polymyxa, which has been assigned a new application for its anti-tubercular properties. The corresponding author has also reported anti-MRSA and anti-VRE activity of 73 bacterial isolates from hot springs in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Finding Spring on Planet X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

  19. NOVA Spring 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Luann; Gregoire, Tanya; Ransick, Kristina; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lost on Everest"; (2) "Lost Tribes of Israel"; (3) "Crocodiles"; (4) "Lost at Sea: The Search for Longitude"; (5) "Global Warming"; and (6) "Secrets of…

  20. Spring for It: First Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  1. Spring for It: First Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  2. Chemical characteristics of Delaware River water, Trenton, New Jersey, to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfor, Charles N.; Keighton, Walter B.

    1954-01-01

    This progress report gives the results of an investigation of the quality of water in the Delaware River from Trenton, N. J. to Marcus Hook, Pa., for the period August 1949 to December 1952. The Delaware River is the principal source of water for the many industries and municipal water supplies along this reach of the river and both industries and municipalities use it for the disposal of their wastes. Consequently, a study of the quality of the water and variations in the quality caused by changes in streamflow, tidal effects, pollution and other factors is important to the many users. In both New Jersey and Pennsylvania steps are being taken to abate pollution, thus it is of more than passing interest to measure the effects of waste treatment on the quality of the Delaware River water. At average or higher rates of streamflow the mineral content of the water increases slightly from Trenton to Marcus Hook. There is little variation in the concentration of dissolved minerals from bank to bank or from top to bottom of the river. At times of protracted low rates of flow the effect of ocean water mixing with the river water may be noted as far upstream as Philadelphia. At such times the salinity is often greater near the bottom of the river than near the top. The increase in chloride concentration upstream from Philadelphia is small compared to the rapid increase downstream from Philadelphia. Temperatures of offshore water vary with the season, but on a given day are substantially uniform throughout the reach of the river from Trenton to Marcus Hook. The water contains less dissolved oxygen as it flows downstream indicating that oxygen is being consumed by oxidizable matter. From Philadelphia downstream there are periods, especially in late summer, when the dissolved oxygen is barely sufficient to meet the oxygen demands of the pollution load.

  3. Organochlorine contaminant exposure and effects in pipping black-crowned night-herons in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Olsen, G.H.; Parsons, K.C.; Schmidt, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Pea Patch Island in Delaware Bay is the site of the largest heronry north of Florida. From 1989-93. the population of 9 species of wading birds numbered approximately 12,000 pairs. but has recently declined to 7,000 pairs. Because Delaware Bay is a major shipping channel. and receives anthropogenic releases of toxic substances from agricultural, industrial and municipal point and nonpoint sources, contaminant exposure and effects to the heronry have been an ongoing concern. In 1997, piping black-crowned night-herons (BCNHs) wee collected from separate nests at Pea Patch Island (N=l5), and from a coastal reference site, Middle Island (N=9), in Rehoboth Bay. DE. There was neither evidence of malformations nor hepatic histopathological lesions, and body and liver weights did not differ between sites. Biomarkers of petroleum hydrocarbons, polyhalogenated contaminant and metal exposure (cytochrome P450 induction and oxidative stress responses) did not differ (P>0.05) between sites, however, activities of benzyloxy- and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were greater in 3 of 15 embryos from Pea Patch Island compared to Middle Island. Concentrations of 21 organochlorine pesticides and metabolites were relatively low at both sites. with p,.p'DDE values well below the threshold associated with eggshell thinning. Although total PCB concentration was modestly elevated (Pdioxins, dibenzofurans and Toxic Equivalents were low and did not differ between sites. Surprisingly, organochlorine contaminant exposure and effects in Delaware Bay BCNHs appear to be considerably less than that observed and recently reported (ETC 16:2315-2322,1997) for herons residing in the Chesapeake Bay.

  4. Reservoir Operations and Flow Modeling to Support Decision Making in the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinodoz, H. A.

    2006-12-01

    About five percent of the US population depends on the waters from the Delaware River Basin for its water supply, including New York City and Philadelphia. Water management in the basin is governed by a compact signed in 1961 by the four basin states and the federal government. The compact created the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) and gave it broad powers to plan, regulate, and manage the development of the basin water resources. The compact also recognized a pre-existing (1954) U.S. Supreme Court Decree that grants the City of New York the right to export up to 800 million gallons per day out of the basin, provided that a prescribed minimum flow is met at Montague, New Jersey for the use of the lower-basin states. The Delaware River Basin Compact also allows the DRBC to adjust the releases and diversions under the Decree, subject to the unanimous consent of the decree parties. This mechanism has been used several times over the last 30 years, to implement and modify rules governing drought operations, instream flows, minimum flow targets, and control of salinity intrusion. In every case, decision makers have relied upon extensive modeling of alternative proposals, using a basin-wide daily flow model. Often, stakeholders have modified and used the same model to test and refine their proposals prior to consideration by the decision makers. The flow model has been modified over the years, to simulate new features and processes in a river system partially controlled by more than ten reservoirs. The flow model has proved to be an adaptable tool, able to simulate the dynamics of a complex system driven by conflicting objectives. This presentation reviews the characteristics of the daily flow model in its current form, discuss how model simulations are used to inform the decision-making process, and provide a case study of a recent modification of the system-wide drought operating plan.

  5. Health Service Utilization of Children in Delaware Foster Care, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Erin K; McDuffie, May Joan; Gifford, Katie; Zorc, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Children in foster care represent some of the most vulnerable children in the U.S. Their higher prevalence of a range of physical and behavioral health problems can lead to greater health care utilization and higher costs. However, many children in foster care have undiagnosed conditions and unmet needs. The purpose of this study was to provide a description of health services accessed by children in foster care in Delaware. The data serves as a baseline and informs current efforts to improve the health care of children in foster care. We analyzed rates of emergency room visits, behavioral health visits, hospitalizations, and costs of care for children in foster care and made comparisons with other children participating in Medicaid. We also looked at utilization before and after entry into care and assessed rates of appropriate medical screening for children on entering foster care. This study was conducted as part of a larger analysis guided by the Delaware Task Force on the Health of Children in Foster Care with funding appropriated by the Delaware General Assembly. Using a unique identification number, we linked Medicaid claims data with demographic information and characteristics associated with foster care from the Delaware Department of Services for Children, Youth and Their Families. We examined diagnoses, patterns of utilization, and costs for children in foster care (n = 1,458) and a comparable cohort of other children in Medicaid (n = 124,667) during fiscal years 2013 and 2014. Compared with other children in Medicaid, children in foster care had similar rates of emergency department utilization, but relatively high rates of outpatient behavioral health visits. Similarly, compared with other children in Medicaid, those in foster care had particularly high rates of psychotropic drug utilization. Entry into foster care was associated with increased utilization of overall health care services, including receipt of well-child care. However, just 31 percent

  6. Delaware River water quality Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, August 1949 to December 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighton, Walter B.

    1965-01-01

    During the 14-year period from August 1949 to July 1963, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Philadelphia, collected samples of river water once each month in the 43-mile reach of the Delaware River from Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pa., and daily at Trenton, 10 miles upstream from Bristol. This part of the Delaware is an estuary into which salt water is brought by tides; fresh water flows into the estuary at Trenton, NJ, and farther downstream from the Schuylkill River and other tributaries of the Delaware. In March, April, and May, when fresh-water flow is high, the average concentration of dissolved solids in the water at Bristol was 76 ppm (parts per million), and at Marcus Hook 112 PPM In August and September, streamflow is lower, and the average concentration of dissolved solids increased to 117 PPM at Bristol and 804 PPM at Marcus Hook. Major salinity invasions of the Delaware River occurred in 1949, 1953, 1954, 1957, and 1963. In each of these years the fresh-water flow into the tidal river at Trenton was low during the period from July to October. The greatest dissolved-solids concentrations in these monthly samples were 160 PPM at Bristol and 4,000 PPM at Marcus Hook. At times the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the river water has become dangerously low, especially in that reach of the river between Wharton Street and League Island. At the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, one-third of the samples of river water were less than 30 percent saturated with oxygen; however, no trend, either for better or for worse, was apparent during the 14-year period. It is useful now to summarize these monthly analyses for the period 1949-63 even though a much more detailed description of water quality in this reach of the estuary will soon become available through the use of recording instrumental conditions. This compendium of water-quality data is useful as an explicit statement of water quality during the 14-year study period and is valuable for directing

  7. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Delaware River, Delhi, New York, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Breaker, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5-mile reach of the West Branch Delaware River through the Village and part of the Town of Delhi, New York, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Village of Delhi, the Delaware County Soil and Water Conservation District, and the Delaware County Planning Department. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the Federal Flood Inundation Mapper Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) referenced to the USGS streamgage at West Branch Delaware River upstream from Delhi, N.Y. (station number 01421900). In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model that had been used to produce the flood insurance rate maps for the most recent flood insurance study for the Town and Village of Delhi. This hydraulic model was used to compute 10 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft or near bankfull to 16 ft, which exceeds the stages that correspond to both the estimated 0.2-percent annual-exceedance-probability flood (500-year recurrence interval flood) and the maximum recorded peak flow. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model, which was derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with a 1.2-ft (0.61-ft root mean squared error) vertical accuracy and 3.3-ft (1-meter) horizontal resolution, to delineate the area flooded at each water level. A map that was produced using this method to delineate the inundated area for the flood that occurred on August 28, 2011, agreed well with highwater marks that had been located in the field using a

  8. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar energy system located at the Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware is described. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat - new addition, domestic water - entire facility, and pool heating - entire facility. On a cost basis for 2920 hours of operation, the heat reclaimed would cost $969.66 annually if provided by gas at 3.79 per million Btu's. At 5.5 centers per kwh, heat recovery costs of $481.80 percent a net savings of $487.86 annually.

  9. Hydrodynamics and Eutrophication Model Study of Indian River and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Millsboro Townsend’s 1 21.8 6 0.1 0 18 Inc. Vlmssic 0.06 3.1 1.36 0.064 0.066 18 Food Colonial 9.7 6.85 9.7 2.2 OA 18 East Moble Home Pk. Rehoboth 0.95...Delaware," Proceedings of the Third Annual National Beach Preservation Technology Conference, St. Petersburg, FL pp 280-294. Andres, A. S. (1992...Wen, C., Kao, J., Wang, L., and Liaw, C. (1984). "Effect of salinity on reaeration coefficient of receiving waters," Water Science and Technology , 16

  10. Groundwater quality in the Delaware and St. Lawrence River Basins, New York, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 10 production and domestic wells in the Delaware River Basin in New York and from 20 production and domestic wells in the St. Lawrence River Basin in New York from August through November 2010 to characterize groundwater quality in the basins. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria.

  11. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-27

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  12. Fish Springs NWR Water Use Report : 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) for 2010. A general background is presented on historical spring water...

  13. Top 5 Spring Festival Customs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁小明

    2016-01-01

    The Spring Festival is the largest and most important festival in China.It is the first day of the lunar calendar~1 and usually occurs somewhere between January30 and February 20,heralding~2 the beginning of spring,thus it is known as the Spring Festival.1.Spring Couplets On the Chinese New Year,families in China decorate their front doors with poetic couplets

  14. An Evaluation of Chinese Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳蕊

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays,many Chinese people felt that Spring Festival is bored;feeling of celebrating Spring Festival is not as strong as before.Some experts stated that the physical part of Spring Festival shrouded the cultural celebrations.This article analysis the phenomenon through comparing how Chinese people had Spring Festivals in the past and now,and comparing different economic status Chinese people have in these two periods.

  15. Qatar and the Arab Spring

    KAUST Repository

    Coates Ulrichsen, Kristian

    2014-11-15

    This chapter examines how Qatar assumed an extraordinarily visible and interventionist role during the Arab Spring upheaval in 2011. It argues that, after an initial period of caution in January 2011, Qatari officials quickly recognised the changing contours of the Arab Spring and pragmatically readjusted their policy-responses. The lack of domestic constraints on decision-making enabled officials, led by the Emir and the Prime minister, to reposition Qatar (somewhat improbably) as a champion of the popular uprisings in North Africa and later as a key external player in the Syrian Civil War. The chapter also provides historical context to Qatar’s close relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood, and documents why Qatari officials saw the outbreak of the uprisings as far more of an opportunity than a challenge.

  16. Impact of sea level rise on tidal range in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Serena Blyth; Li, Ming; Zhang, Fan

    2017-05-01

    Coastal inundation is affected not only by rising mean sea level but also by changing tides. A numerical model is developed to investigate how sea level rise and coastline changes may impact tides in two coastal-plain estuaries, Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay. Despite their different tidal characteristics, the two estuaries display similar responses to the sea level rise and shoreline management scenarios. When hypothetic sea walls are erected at the present coastline to prevent low-lying land from flooding, tidal range increases, with greater amplification in the upper part of the two estuaries. When low-lying land is allowed to become permanently inundated by higher sea level, however, tidal range in both estuaries decreases. Analyses of the tidal energy budget show that the increased dissipation over the shallow water and newly inundated areas compensates for the reduced dissipation in deep water, leading to smaller tidal range. The changes in the tidal range are not proportional to the changes in the mean sea level, indicating a nonlinear tidal response to sea level rise. The ratio of tidal range change to sea level rise varies between -0.05 and 0.1 in Chesapeake Bay and between -0.2 and 0.25 in Delaware Bay. The model results suggest a potential adaptation strategy that uses inundation over low-lying areas to reduce tidal range at up-estuary locations.

  17. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Dave Martin and Associates, Inc., Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, limits development with conventional drilling. Combinations of vertical and horizontal wells combined with selective completions are being evaluated to optimize production performance. Based on the production response of similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Draw Pool. A detailed reservoir model of pilot area was developed, and enhanced recovery options, including waterflooding, lean gas, and carbon dioxide injection, are being evaluated.

  18. User’s guide for the Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Marla H.; Ulrich, James E.

    2016-06-09

    IntroductionThe Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET) is a tool for the simulation of streamflow at a daily time step for an ungaged stream location in the Delaware River Basin. DRB-SET was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and funded through WaterSMART as part of the National Water Census, a USGS research program on national water availability and use that develops new water accounting tools and assesses water availability at the regional and national scales. DRB-SET relates probability exceedances at a gaged location to those at an ungaged stream location. Once the ungaged stream location has been identified by the user, an appropriate streamgage is automatically selected in DRB-SET using streamflow correlation (map correlation method). Alternately, the user can manually select a different streamgage or use the closest streamgage. A report file is generated documenting the reference streamgage and ungaged stream location information, basin characteristics, any warnings, baseline (minimally altered) and altered (affected by regulation, diversion, mining, or other anthropogenic activities) daily mean streamflow, and the mean and median streamflow. The estimated daily flows for the ungaged stream location can be easily exported as a text file that can be used as input into a statistical software package to determine additional streamflow statistics, such as flow duration exceedance or streamflow frequency statistics.

  19. KUNMING: The City of Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Kunming is the political, economic and cultural center of Yunnan province and the most popular center for tourism in Southwest China. Kunming enjoys a pleasant climate and does its best to live up to its title of "the City of Spring". Whenever you are planning to go, the temperature is always pleasant. With its convenient transport links in and out of the city, Kunming welcomes tens of thousands of tourists every day.

  20. The Arab Spring in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Elsa Annaklara; Hansen, Ditte Ingemann

    2013-01-01

    This project contains analysis and discussion of several social movements in Jordan. The uprising in Jordan and demands for more democratization are inspired by the Arab Spring observed in the Middle East. The most highlighted Jordanian social movements being the religious Muslim Brotherhood, the radical Salafi Movement and the newly proclaimed Popular Mobilization. Questions concerning the identification of them, their goals and ways of mobilizing and the hindrances for these movements to mo...

  1. Spring Framework 5: Themes & Trends

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Spring Framework 5.0/5.1, scheduled for release in early/late 2017, focuses on several key themes: reactive web applications based on Reactive Streams, comprehensive support for JDK 9 and HTTP/2, as well as the latest API generations in the Enterprise Java ecosystem. This talk presents the overall story in the context of wider industry trends, highlighting Spring’s unique programming model strategy.

  2. Controlling proteins through molecular springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the mechanical control of proteins-the notion of controlling chemical reactions and processes by mechanics-is conceptually interesting. We give a brief review of the main accomplishments so far, leading to our present approach of using DNA molecular springs to exert controlled stresses on proteins. Our focus is on the physical principles that underlie both artificial mechanochemical devices and natural mechanisms of allostery.

  3. Strategic Studies Quarterly- Spring 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, bordering Afghanistan. A number of analysts agree that if conflict breaks out with India, Pakistan would immediately rede - ploy...the military should not risk its capacity to fight just to become an instrument of social progress but at the same rook pride in ending the...the " social experiments" conducted during his tenure are not yet known. The former Secretary STRATEGIC STUDIES QuARTERLY + SPRING 2016 [ 149] Book

  4. 14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 27.687 Section 27.687... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  5. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must...

  6. 14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 29.687 Section 29.687... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  7. Spring-forward in composite plate elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijskamp, Sebastiaan; Lamers, E.A.D.; Akkerman, Remko; Banabic, D.

    2005-01-01

    Spring-forward is a distortion of corner sections in continuous fibre reinforced composite products. The linear thermoelastic prediction for the spring-forward of single curved geometries is incorporated in a FE formulation for plate elements in order to simulate the spring-forward of doubly curved

  8. Radon in Himalayan springs: a geohydrological control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M.; Bartarya, S.K. [Wadia Inst. of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun (India); Ramola, R.C. [Garhwal Univ., Srinagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). Dept. of Physics

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents the results of radon measurements in springs of the Himalayan region by using radon emanometry technique. The radon was measured in different springs, draining from different geohydrological setups, and from stream water in order to find the geohydrological control over radon concentration in groundwater emanating in the form of spring. The radon values were found to vary from 0.4 Bq/l to 887 Bq/l, being observed lowest for a turbulent stream and highest for the spring. The radon values were recorded highest in the springs draining through gneiss, granite, mylonite, etc. Radon concentrations have been related with four spring types viz. fracture-joint related spring, fault-lineament related spring, fluvial related spring and colluvial related spring, showing geohydrological characteristics of the rocks through which they are emanating. The high radon concentration in fracture-joint and fault-lineament springs is related to increased ratio of rock surface area to water volume and uranium mineralisation in the shear zones present in the close vicinity of fault and thrust. The low concentration of radon in fluvial and colluvial springs is possibly because of high transmissivity and turbulent flow within such deposits leading to natural de-emanation of gases. (orig.)

  9. Spring-forward in composite plate elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijskamp, S.; Lamers, E.A.D.; Akkerman, R.

    2005-01-01

    Spring-forward is a distortion of corner sections in continuous fibre reinforced composite products. The linear thermoelastic prediction for the spring-forward of single curved geometries is incorporated in a FE formulation for plate elements in order to simulate the spring-forward of doubly curved

  10. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original...

  11. Skillful Use of Imagery in Two Odes to Spring--Comment on The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯海荣

    2002-01-01

    The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring are two lyrics that sing the praise of spring. The common feature of the two lyrics is that the two poets depict a series of pictures of the sweet spring by rich and varied imagery for readers.When these pictures are presented to readers ,readers feel as if they are participating in them,and the enchanting beauty of spring makes readers feel intoxicated with happiness. The two poets express their different feelings toward nature.

  12. The first CERN Spring Campus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    From 14 to 16 April, the first edition of the CERN Spring Campus took place in Spain. Taking place over three intensive days, this event brought experts from CERN together at the University of Oviedo, where they met the engineers and scientists of the future in a programme of scientific and technological dissemination and cultural exchange.   The young participants of the first CERN Spring Campus and their instructors show their enthusiasm after the intensive three-day course. “This three-day school focuses on preparing young engineers for the job market, with a particular emphasis on computing,” explains Derek Mathieson, Advanced Information Systems Group Leader in the GS Department and Head of the CERN Spring Campus organising committee. “We organised talks on entrepreneurship and IT, as well as on job interviews and CV writing. It was also an important opportunity for the participants to meet CERN computing engineers to find out what it is like to work in I...

  13. Disaggregation modelling of spring discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirilova Bojilova Elena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Disaggregation models are basically divided into three main groups: temporal, spatial and temporal-spatial. The focus of this paper is the application of temporal disaggregation models to disaggregate the seasonal flow in some large time intervals to sub-seasonal flows in some shorter time intervals. Two basic models are applied: the original model of Mejia and Rousselle and the corrected extended Lin model one-stage disaggregation. The flow totals from some karstic springs are used. Data for five springs in different areas of Bulgaria for the aims of the study are executed. The synthetic data generation for the chosen spring stations for a new realisation of thirty years is obtained. The multi-variate lag-one auto regressive model (AR(1 model is applied for generation of the annual flow sequences. The Lin model single- site is performed for thirty years generation period. The Lin model is an improvement compared to the original extended model. The new Lin approach succeeds in the preservation of the additivity as well as the moments. Applying the Lin model one-stage disaggregation results in consistent model parameter estimates. As a second step in the research multi-site disaggregation schemes are also applied.

  14. The impact of land and sea surface variations on the Delaware sea breeze at local scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher P.

    The summertime climate of coastal Delaware is greatly influenced by the intensity, frequency, and location of the local sea breeze circulation. Sea breeze induced changes in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation influence many aspects of Delaware's economy by affecting tourism, farming, air pollution density, energy usage, and the strength, and persistence of Delaware's wind resource. The sea breeze front can develop offshore or along the coastline and often creates a near surface thermal gradient in excess of 5°C. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the dynamics of the Delaware sea breeze with a focus on the immediate coastline using observed and modeled components, both at high resolutions (~200m). The Weather Research and Forecasting model (version 3.5) was employed over southern Delaware with 5 domains (4 levels of nesting), with resolutions ranging from 18km to 222m, for June 2013 to investigate the sensitivity of the sea breeze to land and sea surface variations. The land surface was modified in the model to improve the resolution, which led to the addition of land surface along the coastline and accounted for recent urban development. Nine-day composites of satellite sea surface temperatures were ingested into the model and an in-house SST forcing dataset was developed to account for spatial SST variation within the inland bays. Simulations, which include the modified land surface, introduce a distinct secondary atmospheric circulation across the coastline of Rehoboth Bay when synoptic offshore wind flow is weak. Model runs using high spatial- and temporal-resolution satellite sea surface temperatures over the ocean indicate that the sea breeze landfall time is sensitive to the SST when the circulation develops offshore. During the summer of 2013 a field campaign was conducted in the coastal locations of Rehoboth Beach, DE and Cape Henlopen, DE. At each location, a series of eleven small, autonomous thermo-sensors (i

  15. 75 FR 21653 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware-Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Minerals Management Service Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore... more commercial leases for the construction of a wind energy project(s) on the OCS offshore Delaware... offshore wind facility proposed on the OCS, about 12.5 miles off of Rehoboth Beach. The agreement...

  16. A numerical model to evaluate potential impacts of sea-level rise on groundwater resources in the Delaware coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, C.; McKenna, T. E.; Wang, L.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise on the U.S. East Coast has accelerated much faster than in other parts of the world. In Delaware, the estimated sea level could rise as high as 1.5 meters by the year 2100 based on the information in IPCC (2007) and CCSP (2009). In this study, we used a 3-D variable-density groundwater flow model to study the movement of the fresh-water/salt-water interface and water table changes due to sea-level rise. Rather than developing a site-specific model, we analyzed the geospatial features of a serious of sub-watersheds along the coastline of the Delaware Estuary in Delaware using ArcGIS and constructed a representative model to capture the generalized flow patterns and saltwater intrusion rates that occur in typical area. Different scenarios with varying parameters were simulated. The simulation results were then applied to the Delaware River region to evaluate potential impacts of groundwater level changes on the potential land lose.

  17. Uniting Rural, Urban and Suburban America! Live Internet-Based Paraeducator and Teacher Training in Idaho, Utah, Delaware, and Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, David E.; Morgan, Robert L.

    This paper describes Project Impact*Net, a model project for delivering training to paraeducators and teachers in light of requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act. The project delivered four semester-length courses to instructional sites serving 69 participants in Delaware, Idaho, Pennsylvania, and Utah. The Project Impact*Net delivery system…

  18. 76 FR 7589 - Bob Evans Farms, Inc., an Ohio Corporation, a Subsidiary of Bob Evans Farms, Inc., a Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bob Evans Farms, Inc., an Ohio Corporation, a Subsidiary of Bob Evans... Assistance (TAA), applicable to workers and former workers of Bob Evans Farms, Inc., an Ohio Corporation, a subsidiary of Bob Evans Farms, Inc., a Delaware Corporation, Galva, Illinois. The negative determination...

  19. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  20. Spring Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Josh; Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    With over 3 Million users/developers, Spring Framework is the leading "out of the box" Java framework. Spring addresses and offers simple solutions for most aspects of your Java/Java EE application development, and guides you to use industry best practices to design and implement your applications. The release of Spring Framework 3 has ushered in many improvements and new features. Spring Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Second Edition continues upon the bestselling success of the previous edition but focuses on the latest Spring 3 features for building enterprise Java applications.

  1. Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A

    2013-04-01

    Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices.

  2. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers RWJ Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Niles, Lawrence [Conserve Wildlife, 109 Market Lane, Greenwich, NJ (United States); Dey, Amanda [NJ Department of Environmental Protection, Endangered and Nongame Species Program, Trenton, NJ (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Rd, Bernardsville, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-15

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  3. Environmental drivers of dissolved organic matter molecular composition in the Delaware Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholz, Helena; Kirchman, David L.; Niggemann, Jutta; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    Estuaries as connectors of freshwater and marine aquatic systems are hotspots of biogeochemical element cycling. In one of the best studied temperate estuaries, the Delaware Estuary (USA), we investigated the variability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) over five sampling cruises along the salinity gradient in August and November of 3 consecutive years. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were more variable in the upper reaches of the estuary (245±49 µmol L-1) than at the mouth of the estuary (129±14 µmol L-1). Bulk DOC decreased conservatively along the transect in November but was non-conservative with increased DOC concentrations mid-estuary in August. Detailed analysis of the solid-phase extractable DOM pool via ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS) revealed compositional differences at the molecular level that were not reflected in changes in concentration. Besides the mixing of terrestrial and marine endmember signatures, river discharge levels and biological activity were found to impact DOM molecular composition. DOM composition changed less between August and November than along the salinity gradient. Relative contributions of presumed photolabile DOM compounds did not reveal non-conservative behavior indicative of photochemical processing; suggesting that on the timescales of estuarine mixing photochemical removal of molecules plays a minor role in the turbid Delaware Bay. Overall, a large portion of molecular formulae overlapped between sampling campaigns and persisted during estuarine passage. Extending the analysis to the structural level via the fragmentation of molecular masses in the FT-ICR-MS cell, we found that the relative abundance of isomers along the salinity gradient did not change, indicating a high structural similarity of aquatic DOM independent of the origin. These results point towards a recalcitrant character of the DOM supplied by the Delaware

  4. Environmental drivers of dissolved organic matter molecular composition in the Delaware Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Osterholz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries as connectors of freshwater and marine aquatic systems are hotspots of biogeochemical element cycling. In one of the best studied temperate estuaries, the Delaware Estuary (USA, we investigated the variability of dissolved organic matter (DOM over five sampling cruises along the salinity gradient in August and November of 3 consecutive years. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were more variable in the upper reaches of the estuary (245±49 µmol L-1 than at the mouth of the estuary (129±14 µmol L-1. Bulk DOC decreased conservatively along the transect in November but was non-conservative with increased DOC concentrations mid-estuary in August. Detailed analysis of the solid-phase extractable DOM pool via ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS revealed compositional differences at the molecular level that were not reflected in changes in concentration. Besides the mixing of terrestrial and marine endmember signatures, river discharge levels and biological activity were found to impact DOM molecular composition. DOM composition changed less between August and November than along the salinity gradient. Relative contributions of presumed photolabile DOM compounds did not reveal non-conservative behavior indicative of photochemical processing; suggesting that on the timescales of estuarine mixing photochemical removal of molecules plays a minor role in the turbid Delaware Bay. Overall, a large portion of molecular formulae overlapped between sampling campaigns and persisted during estuarine passage. Extending the analysis to the structural level via the fragmentation of molecular masses in the FT-ICR-MS cell, we found that the relative abundance of isomers along the salinity gradient did not change, indicating a high structural similarity of aquatic DOM independent of the origin. These results point towards a recalcitrant character of the DOM supplied by the

  5. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  6. Evaluation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments and sentinel benthic organisms of the Delaware Bay Division, Cape May National Wildlife Refuge and adjoining marshes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This pilot study was conducted to characterize ambient petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in marshes of the Cape May NWR and adjacent areas bordering the Delaware...

  7. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the DELAWARE from 10 May 1967 to 01 June 1967 (NODC Accession 7000769)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the DELAWARE from 10 May 1967 to 01 June 1967. Data were submitted by the National Marine...

  8. Current direction and CTD data from moored current meter and CTD casts in the Delaware Bay from 01 January 1984 - 01 December 1984 (NODC Accession 8600001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and CTD data were collected using moored current meter and CTD casts in the Delaware Bay from January 1, 1984 to December 1, 1985. Data were...

  9. Current direction data from moored current meter casts in the Delaware Bay from 23 February 1976 - 23 September 1985 (NODC Accession 8600005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Delaware Bay from February 23, 1976 to September 23, 1985. Data were submitted by...

  10. A summary of the test procedures and operational details of a Delaware River and an ocean dumping pollution monitoring experiment conducted 28 August 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Ohlhorst, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Two remote sensor evaluation experiments are discussed. One experiment was conducted at the DuPont acid-dump site off the Delaware coast. The second was conducted at an organic waste outfall in the Delaware River. The operational objective of obtaining simultaneous sea truth sampling with remote sensors overpasses was met. Descriptions of the test sites, sensors, sensor platforms, flight lines, sea truth data collected, and operational chronology are presented.

  11. Slightly thermal springs and non-thermal springs at Mount Shasta, California: Chemistry and recharge elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, M.; Thompson, J.M.; White, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Temperature measurements, isotopic contents, and dissolved constituents are presented for springs at Mount Shasta to understand slightly thermal springs in the Shasta Valley based on the characteristics of non-thermal springs. Non-thermal springs on Mount Shasta are generally cooler than mean annual air temperatures for their elevation. The specific conductance of non-thermal springs increases linearly with discharge temperature. Springs at higher and intermediate elevations on Mount Shasta have fairly limited circulation paths, whereas low-elevation springs have longer paths because of their higher-elevation recharge. Springs in the Shasta Valley are warmer than air temperatures for their elevation and contain significant amounts of chloride and sulfate, constituents often associated with volcanic hydrothermal systems. Data for the Shasta Valley springs generally define mixing trends for dissolved constituents and temperature. The isotopic composition of the Shasta Valley springs indicates that water fell as precipitation at a higher elevation than any of the non-thermal springs. It is possible that the Shasta Valley springs include a component of the outflow from a proposed 210??C hydrothermal system that boils to supply steam for the summit acid-sulfate spring. In order to categorize springs such as those in the Shasta Valley, we introduce the term slightly thermal springs for springs that do not meet the numerical criterion of 10??C above air temperature for thermal springs but have temperatures greater than non-thermal springs in the area and usually also have dissolved constituents normally found in thermal waters. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Some hydrological impacts of climate change for the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    To gain insight into possible impacts of climate change on water availability in the Delaware River, two models are linked. The first model is a monthly water balance model that converts the temperature and precipitation values generated by a random number generator to monthly streamflow values. The monthly streamflow values are input to a second model that simulates the operation of reservoirs and diversions within the basin. The output for the two linked models consists of time series of reservoir levels and streamflow at key points in the basin. Model results for a base case, in which monthly temperature and precipitation statistics are unchanged from historical records, are compared to several changed-climate scenarios under a standard set of rules of operation.

  13. Spatial pattern of hormone and antibiotic concentrations in surface waters in Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaicunas, R.; Inamdar, S. P.; Dutta, S.; Aga, D.; Zimmerman, L. R.

    2011-12-01

    Water quality surveys of the U.S. have confirmed the presence of hormones and antibiotics in some surface waters. Although the reported concentrations of these substances are extremely low, there is substantial concern about their effect on aquatic species. For example, chronic exposure to estradiol (E2β) concentrations as low as 40 ng/L have been shown to cause endocrine disruption in fish. Furthermore, there is potential for contaminants to enter our drinking supply. Significant sources of hormones and antibiotics include discharge from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and wastewater treatment plants as well as runoff from agricultural land receiving application of animal manure. Since Sussex County, Delaware is one of the leading poultry producing counties in the nation, and many farmers in the state use poultry litter as fertilizer for their crops, it is critical to study the concentrations of contaminants in surface waters. Fifty surface water (streams, lakes, and ponds) sampling locations throughout the state of Delaware were chosen based on DNREC (Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control) data. Locations with the highest nitrogen and phosphorus levels were assumed to be associated with agriculture and wastewater sources and therefore were likely to be contaminated with hormones and antibiotics. The first set of sampling occurred in April representing high-flow conditions, and the second set will occur in September representing low-flow conditions. Water samples will be screened through the cost-effective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method followed by more rigorous analyses of selected samples using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). ELISA screening includes estradiol (E2β), sulfamethazine and triclosan, while LC/MS/MS will quantify both free and conjugated forms of estrone (E1), estradiol (E2β), estriol (E3), as well as selected sulfa and tetracycline antibiotics. Initial ELISA results

  14. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System located at the Wilmington, Swim School, New Castle, Delaware. This active solar system is composed of 2,700 square feet of Revere liquid flat plate collectors piped to a 2,800 gallon concrete storage tank located below ground near the building. A micro-computer based control system selects the optimal applications of the stored energy among space, domestic water and pool alternatives. The controlled logic is planned for serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat-new addition, domestic water-entire facility, and pool heating-entire facility. A modified trombe wall passive operation the active system will bypass the areas being served passively. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution.

  15. Skylab/EREP application to ecological, geological, and oceanographic investigations of Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V.; Bartlett, D. S.; Philpot, W. D.; Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    Skylab/EREP S190A and S190B film products were optically enhanced and visually interpreted to extract data suitable for; (1) mapping coastal land use; (2) inventorying wetlands vegetation; (3) monitoring tidal conditions; (4) observing suspended sediment patterns; (5) charting surface currents; (6) locating coastal fronts and water mass boundaries; (7) monitoring industrial and municipal waste dumps in the ocean; (8) determining the size and flow direction of river, bay and man-made discharge plumes; and (9) observing ship traffic. Film products were visually analyzed to identify and map ten land-use and vegetation categories at a scale of 1:125,000. Digital tapes from the multispectral scanner were used to prepare thematic maps of land use. Classification accuracies obtained by comparison of derived thematic maps of land-use with USGS-CARETS land-use maps in southern Delaware ranged from 44 percent to 100 percent.

  16. Sweden in the Delaware Valley: Everyday Life and Material Culture in New Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    In 1637 the Swedish Crown, encouraged by Dutch merchants, developed a plan to establish a colonial outpost in America to tap into profitable tobacco and beaver pelt trade. The same year the first cargo ships left Sweden and sailed westwards to claim their piece of America along the Delaware River....... Although in many ways unsuccessful and short-lived (the colony collapsed in 1656), New Sweden became a home for generations of colonists. This chapter focuses on the different aspects of their daily life: their longing and desperation, practices of homemaking and domesticating the landscape......, their perception and interactions with the neighbouring Native American groups. It discusses the ways material culture was used, exchanged and appropriated by the colonists and the local Lenape and Susquehannock in the processes of meeting, negotiations and daily coexistence....

  17. Ground-water contamination from lead shot at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Miller, Cherie V.

    2003-01-01

    Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge is located in southeastern Delaware in coastal lowlands along the margin of Delaware Bay. For 37 years, the Broadkiln Sportsman?s Club adjacent to the refuge operated a trap-shooting range, with the clay-target launchers oriented so that the expended lead shot from the range dropped into forested wetland areas on the refuge property. Investigators have estimated that up to 58,000 shotgun pellets per square foot are present in locations on the refuge where the lead shot fell to the ground. As part of the environmental risk assessment for the site, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated the potential for lead contamination in ground water. Results from two sampling rounds in 19 shallow wells indicate that elevated levels of dissolved lead are present in ground water at the site. The lead and associated metals, such as antimony and arsenic (common shotgun pellet alloys), are being transported along shallow ground-water flowpaths toward an open-water slough in the forested wetland adjacent to the downrange target area. Water samples from wells located along the bank of the slough contained dissolved lead concentrations higher than 400 micrograms per liter, and as high as 1 milligram per liter. In contrast, a natural background concentration of lead from ground water in a well upgradient from the site is about 1 microgram per liter. Two water samples collected several months apart from the slough directly downgradient of the shooting range contained 24 and 212 micrograms per liter of lead, respectively. The data indicate that lead from a concentrated deposit of shotgun pellets on the refuge has been mobilized through a combination of acidic water conditions and a very sandy, shallow, unconfined aquifer, and is moving along ground-water flowpaths toward the surface-water drainage. Data from this study will be used to help delineate the lead plume, and determine the fate and transport of lead from the source area.

  18. Phosphate reactivity in long-term poultry litter-amended southern Delaware sandy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Y.; Livi, K.J.T.; Sparks, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by dissolved P from poultry litter (PL)-amended agricultural soils has been a serious environmental concern in the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia Peninsula (Delmarva), USA. To evaluate state and federal nutrient management strategies for reducing the environmental impact of soluble P from long-term PL-amended Delaware (DE) soils, we investigated (i) inorganic P speciation; (ii) P adsorption capacity; and (iii) the extent of P desorption. Although the electron microprobe (EMP) analyses showed a strong correlation between P and Al/Fe, crystalline Al/Fe-P precipitates were not detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Instead, the inorganic P fractionation analyses showed high levels of oxalate extractable P, Al, and Fe fractions (615-858, 1215-1478, and 337-752 mg kg-1, respectively), which were susceptible to slow release during the long-term (30-d) P desorption experiments at a moderately acidic soil pHwater. The labile P in the short-term (24-h) desorption studies was significantly associated with oxalate and F extractable Fe and Al, respectively. This was evident in an 80% reduction maximum in total desorbable P from NH4 oxalate/F pretreated soils. In the adsorption experiments, P was strongly retained in soils at near targeted pH of lime (???6.0), but P adsorption gradually decreased with decreasing pH near the soil pHwater (???5.0). The overall findings suggest that P losses from the can be suppressed by an increase in the P retention capacity of soils via (i) an increase in the number of lime applications to maintain soil pHwater at near targeted pH values, and/or (ii) alum/iron sulfate amendments to provide additional Al- and Fe-based adsorbents. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  19. Investigaciones sobre la Entrevista Conductual Estructurada (ECE) en la Selección de Personal en la Administración General del País Vasco: Meta-análisis de la Fiabilidad

    OpenAIRE

    JESUS F. SALGADO; SILVIA MOSCOSO; MIKEL GORRITI

    2004-01-01

    Este artículo tiene por objetivos: (1) presentar las entrevistas conductuales estructuradas (ECE) como una técnica apropiada para la selección de personal en las organizaciones tanto privadas como públicas; (2) describir el proceso de implementación de las entrevistas conductuales estructuradas en la Administración General del País Vasco (AGPV) y mostrar cómo instrumentos desarrollados inicialmente en el ámbito de las organizaciones privadas pueden utilizarse sin merma de calidad ni de garant...

  20. Running springs: speed and animal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, C T; Glasheen, J; McMahon, T A

    1993-12-01

    Trotting and hopping animals use muscles, tendons and ligaments to store and return elastic energy as they bounce along the ground. We examine how the musculoskeletal spring system operates at different speeds and in animals of different sizes. We model trotting and hopping as a simple spring-mass system which consists of a leg spring and a mass. We find that the stiffness of the leg spring (k(leg)) is nearly independent of speed in dogs, goats, horses and red kangaroos. As these animals trot or hop faster, the leg spring sweeps a greater angle during the stance phase, and the vertical excursion of the center of mass during the ground contact phase decreases. The combination of these changes to the spring system causes animals to bounce off the ground more quickly at higher speeds. Analysis of a wide size range of animals (0.1-140 kg) at equivalent speeds reveals that larger animals have stiffer leg springs (k(leg) [symbol: see text] M0.67, where M is body mass), but that the angle swept by the leg spring is nearly independent of body mass. As a result, the resonant period of vertical vibration of the spring-mass system is longer in larger animals. The length of time that the feet are in contact with the ground increases with body mass in nearly the same way as the resonant period of vertical vibration.

  1. Work Term Assignment Spring 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sico, Mallory

    2017-01-01

    My tour in the Engineering Robotics directorate exceeded my expectations. I learned lessons about Creo, manufacturing and assembly, collaboration, and troubleshooting. During my first tour, last spring, I used Creo on a smaller project, but had limited experience with it before starting in the Dynamic Systems Test branch this spring. I gained valuable experience learning assembly design, sheet metal design and designing with intent for manufacturing and assembly. These skills came from working both on the hatch and the floor. I also learned to understand the intent of other designers on models I worked with. While redesigning the floor, I was modifying an existing part and worked to understand what the previous designer had done to make it fit with the new model. Through working with the machine shop and in the mock-up, I learned much more about manufacturing and assembly. I used a Dremel, rivet gun, belt sander, and countersink for the first time. Through taking multiple safety training for different machine shops, I learned new machine shop safety skills specific to each one. This semester also gave me new collaborative opportunities. I collaborated with engineers within my branch as well as with Human Factors and the building 10 machine shop. This experience helped me learn how to design for functionality and assembly, not only for what would be easiest in my designs. In addition to these experiences, I learned many lessons in troubleshooting. I was the first person in my office to use a Windows 10 computer. This caused unexpected issues with NASA services and programs, such as the Digital Data Management Server (DDMS). Because of this, I gained experience finding solutions to lockout and freeze issues as well as Creo specific settings. These will be useful skills to have in the future and will be implemented in future rotations. This co-op tour has motivated me more to finish my degree and pursue my academic goals. I intend to take a machining Career Gateway

  2. 7th annual report 1998. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1998-11-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. The monitoring and prediction of complex ecosystem effects on undisturbed reference areas require a continuous effort to improve the collection and assessment of data on the international scale. At the 1997 Task Force meeting it was decided that future annual reports from ICP IM would have a more technical character. The report could include some scientific material but also short technical descriptions of recent national activities and publications. Scientific articles should preferably be published in recognised scientific journals. The responsibility for producing annual reports would still lie on the Programme Centre, but more contributions from National Focal Points were welcomed. The content of the present Annual Report reflects the decisions of the Task Force meeting. The report gives a general overview of the ICP IM activities, the present content of the ICP IM database, and presents results from assessment activities carried out by several collaborating institutes and the ICP IM Programme Centre during the programme year 1997/98. The resources of the Programme Centre have been targeted to the revision of the Programme Manual and the EU/LIFE-project `Development of Assessment and Monitoring Techniques at Integrated Monitoring Sites in Europe`, which has limited the possibilities to carry out additional evaluations of ICP IM data. Section 1 is a short status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, including the contents of the GIS database, and the present geographical coverage of the monitoring network. Section 2 contains a report on multivariate gradient analysis applied to relate chemical and biological observations (prepared by D. de Zwart, RIVM

  3. Protein-ECE MEtallopincer Hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Modification of proteins with metal complexes is a promising and a relatively new field which conceals many challenges and potential applications. The field is a balance of contributions from the biological (protein engineering, bioconjugation) and chemical sciences (organic, inorganic and organomet

  4. Delaware basin/Central basin platform margin: The development of a subthrust deep-gas province in the Permian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, W.J. (Mobil Oil Corp., Midland, TX (USA)); Ting, S.C. (Mobil, Farmers Branch, TX (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A deep-gas-prone province was identified along the Delaware basin/Central Basin platform margin, a margin conventionally interpreted to be bounded by high-angle normal or high-angle reverse structures. Redefinition of the tectonic style between the Delaware basin and the adjacent platform resulted in the identification of this Delaware basin/Central Basin platform subthrust province and a giant prospect within it. Definition of a giant-sized gas prospect in northern Pecos County, Texas, revealed that portions of this margin may be characterized by shingled, low-angle, eastward-dipping, basement involved thrust faults. Interpretations suggest that hidden, subthrust footwall structures may trend discontinuously for greater than 100 mi along this structural margin. Subthrust footwall structures formed as basinal buttress points for the Central Basin platform to climb over the Delaware basin. In this area, structural relief of over 19,000 ft over a 10-mi width is believed due to stacking of low-angle thrust sheets. Seismic resolution of this subthrust margin has been complexed by allochtonous hanging-wall gravity-glide blocks and folds and by velocity changes in overlying syn- and posttectonic sediments associated with basin-to-shelf lithofacies changes. Statistical studies indicate that this deep-gas province has a play potential of greater than 10 tcf of gas, with individual prospect sizes exceeding 1 tcfg. The prospects defined along this trend are deep (approximately 20,000 ft) subthrust structural traps that are indigenously sourced and reservoired by dual-matrix porosity. Vitrinite supported maturation modeling suggests that these subthrust structures formed prior to catagenic conversion of the oldest source rocks to oil and later to gas. Tectonically fractured Ordovician Ellenburger and Devonian sediments are considered the principal reservoirs. Shales overlying reservoir intervals form vertical seals.

  5. Effects of Microbial and Heavy Metal Contaminants on Environmental/Ecological Health and Revitalization of Coastal Ecosystems in Delaware Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnihal Ozbay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals, excess nutrients, and microbial contaminants in aquatic systems of coastal Delaware has become a public concern as human population increases and land development continues. Delaware's coastal lagoons have been subjected to problems commonly shared by other coastal Mid-Atlantic states: turbidity, sedimentation, eutrophication, periodic hypoxic/anoxic conditions, toxic substances, and high bacterial levels. The cumulative impact of pollutants from run-off and point sources has degraded water quality, reduced the diversity and abundance of various fish species, invertebrates, and submerged aquatic vegetation. The effects are especially pronounced within the manmade dead end canal systems. In this article, we present selected case studies conducted in the Delaware Inland Bays. Due to the ecological services provided by bivalves, our studies in Delaware Inland Bays are geared toward oysters with special focus on the microbial loads followed by the water quality assessments of the bay. The relationships between oysters (Crassostrea virginica, microbial loads and nutrient levels in the water were investigated. The heavy metal levels monitored further away from the waste water treatment plant in the inland bays are marginally higher than the recommended EPA limits. Also, our studies confirmed that aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae levels are salinity dependent. Total bacteria in oysters increased when nitrate and total suspended solids increased in the waters. Studies such as these are important because every year millions of Americans consume raw oysters. Data collected over the last 10 years from our studies may be used to build a predictive index of conditions that are favorable for the proliferation of human pathogenic bacteria. Results from this study will benefit the local community by helping them understand the importance of oyster aquaculture and safe consumption of oysters while making them appreciate their

  6. The Timber Resources of Delaware. A Report on tbe Forest survey made by the U.S. Forest Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland H. Ferguson; Roland H. Ferguson

    1959-01-01

    This is a report on the findings of the first comprehensive survey of the timber resources of Delaware. It describes, as of 1957, the area and condition of the forest land, the volume of standing timber, the annual growth and mortality of the forest growing stock, and the extent of timber cutting. The survey made by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,...

  7. 75 FR 39241 - Hooper Springs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... of a 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line and a 138/115-kV substation (collectively referred to as the Hooper Springs Project). The new BPA substation would be called Hooper Springs Substation and would be located adjacent to PacifiCorp's existing 345/ 138-kV Threemile Knoll Substation, located near the City of...

  8. Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

    1978-01-01

    Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

  9. 1988 Hanford riverbank springs characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    This reports presents the results of a special study undertaken to characterize the riverbank springs (i.e., ground-water seepage) entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. Radiological and nonradiological analyses were performed. River water samples were also analyzed from upstream and downstream of the Site as well as from the immediate vicinity of the springs. In addition, irrigation return water and spring water entering the river along the shoreline opposite Hanford were analyzed. Hanford-origin contaminants were detected in spring water entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. The type and concentrations of contaminants in the spring water were similar to those known to exist in the ground water near the river. The location and extent of the contaminated discharges compared favorably with recent ground-water reports and predictions. Spring discharge volumes remain very small relative to the flow of the Columbia. Downstream river sampling demonstrates the impact of ground-water discharges to be minimal, and negligible in most cases. Radionuclide concentrations were below US Department of Energy Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) with the exception {sup 90}Sr near the 100-N Area. Tritium, while below the DCG, was detected at concentrations above the US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards in several springs. All other radionuclide concentrations were below drinking water standards. Nonradiological contaminants were generally undetectable in the spring water. River water contaminant concentrations, outside of the immediate discharge zones, were below drinking water standards in all cases. 19 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Joystick With Cable Springs Offers Better Feel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, James; Ecklund, Wayne

    1992-01-01

    Improved joystick allows motion in 6 degrees of freedom, biased toward central position and orientation by 16 segments of cable serving as springs. Improvement in feel and control results from nonlinear compliance of cable-spring assembly. Nonlinear variations accommodate natural reactions of hand and brain. Operator functions as part of feedback control loop. More comfortable, increases ability to exert control and reduces fatigue.

  11. Stabilising springs for fixed lingual retainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, M K; Ramachandraprabhakar; Saravanan, R; Rajvikram, N; Kuppuchamy

    2013-11-01

    Most treated malocclusion needs fixed lingual retention. To stabilise fixed lingual retainer in the exact location needs proper stabilisation. Proper stabilization requires a holding spring. This Stabilising Spring should be easy to fabricate and help the clinician to stabilise the retainer quickly and save the chair side time. More over it should not irritate the mucosa and should be easy to insert and remove.

  12. Analysis on the Residual Braking Performance of Multi-axle Vehicles Based on ECE Regulation%基于ECE法规的多轴汽车剩余制动性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童成前; 何仁; 周燕; 高树新

    2011-01-01

    根据ECE制动法规对行车制动失效条件下的多轴汽车剩余制动性能的要求,提出基于ECE制动法规的多轴汽车剩余制动性能分析方法,包括理论分析和试验验证.在理论分析中,最大减速度采用作图分析方法求得.最后,通过实例来说明本方法的分析过程.结果表明:该方法简单、实用.%According to the requirements of residual braking performance of multi-axle vehicles in the event of service braking failure specified in ECE regulation, an analysis method of residual braking performance of multi-axle vehicles based on ECE regulation is proposed, including theoretical analysis and test verification. In theoretical analysis,the maximum deceleration is evaluated by mapping. Finally,the method is illustrated by an analysis on a real case. The results indicate that the method is simple and practical.

  13. Rocky Mountain Carbonate Spring Deposit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Dustin Kyle

    Relict Holocene carbonate spring deposits containing diverse biotic and abiotic depositional textures are present at Fall Creek cold sulphur springs, Alberta, Fairmont Hot Springs, British Columbia, and Hot Creek cold springs, British Columbia. The relict deposits are formed mainly of low-magnesium crystalline calcite contained in laterally continuous strata. Paleo-flow regimes were characterized by extensive sheet flow that increased the surface area of spring water exposed to the atmosphere. Calcite precipitated inorganically from spring water that attained CaCO3 supersaturation through agitation-induced CO2 degassing that was facilitated by elevated flow rates and a large surface area as spring water flowed down-slope. Thus, the deposits contain only minor amounts of detrital, mechanically deposited, and biogenic carbonate. Evaporation was only a minor contributor to CaCO3 supersaturation, mainly in quiescent environments. Photosynthetic CO2 removal did not measurably contribute to CaCO3 supersaturation. Calcite crystals precipitated in biotic facies formed from low to moderately supersaturated spring water, whereas abiotic dendrite crystals formed rapidly from highly supersaturated spring water. Calcite passively nucleated on cyanobacteria, bryophytes and macrophytes, and was probably facilitated by cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances. Cyanobacterial filaments and stromatolites are integral parts of all three deposits, whereas bryophytes were restricted to the Fall Creek and Hot Creek deposits. Diagenetic microbial degradation of crystalline calcite was common to all three deposits, but recrystallization was limited to the Fall Creek deposit. The amount and location of calcite precipitation relative to the vents was controlled by the concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3- in solution, and discharge volume fluctuations. Spring water with high [Ca2+] and [HCO 3-] precipitated large amounts of calcite proximal to the vents (e.g. Fairmont), whereas spring

  14. Distribution map of hot springs in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumi, K.

    1975-01-01

    This map (scale 1:2,000,000) provides the distribution and locations of hot springs in Japan. A hot spring is defined as hot water, mineral water, vapor or other gases (excluding natural gases containing hydrocarbons as the major component) issuing from underground at a temperature of 25/sup 0/C or higher and/or containing substances listed on the map in specific concentrations. Springs are classified according to their chemical composition. Each class of spring is assigned one of five different symbols (per class) according to its temperature. Where appropriate, the geologic age of the spring location is identified. A comprehensive place name index is provided in both Japanese and English transliteration. The map is also isothermically graduated in HFU and references are given for descriptive textual materials that may be used as supplements.

  15. CORPORATE LAW - MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS - DELAWARE COURT OF CHANCERY IMPOSES REVLON DUTIES ON BOARD OF DIRECTORS IN MIXED CASH-STOCK STRATEGIC MERGER. - In re Smurfit-Stone Container Corp. Shareholder Litigation, No. 6164-VCP, 2011 WL 2028076 (Del. Ch. May 24, 2011)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    In Revlon Inc v. MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings Inc, the Delaware Supreme Court held that, when a Delaware corporation sells itself for cash, its directors are transformed "from defenders of the corporate bastion to auctioneers...

  16. Spring plant phenology and false springs in the conterminous US during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allstadt, Andrew J.; Vavrus, Stephen J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2015-01-01

    The onset of spring plant growth has shifted earlier in the year over the past several decades due to rising global temperatures. Earlier spring onset may cause phenological mismatches between the availability of plant resources and dependent animals, and potentially lead to more false springs, when subsequent freezing temperatures damage new plant growth. We used the extended spring indices to project changes in spring onset, defined by leaf out and by first bloom, and predicted false springs until 2100 in the conterminous United States (US) using statistically-downscaled climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 ensemble. Averaged over our study region, the median shift in spring onset was 23 days earlier in the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario with particularly large shifts in the Western US and the Great Plains. Spatial variation in phenology was due to the influence of short-term temperature changes around the time of spring onset versus season long accumulation of warm temperatures. False spring risk increased in the Great Plains and portions of the Midwest, but remained constant or decreased elsewhere. We conclude that global climate change may have complex and spatially variable effects on spring onset and false springs, making local predictions of change difficult.

  17. Genetic Algorithms Based Approach for Designing Spring Brake Orthosis – Part I: Spring Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Huq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spring brake orthosis (SBO concentrates purely on the knee to generate the swing phase of the paraplegic gait with the required hip flexion occurring passively as a consequence of the ipsilateral knee flexion, generated by releasing the torsion spring mounted at the knee joint. Electrical stimulation then drives the knee back to full extension, as well as restores the spring potential energy. In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA and its variant multi-objective GA (MOGA is used to perform the search operation for the ‘best’ spring parameters for the SBO spring mounted on an average sized subject simulated in the sagittal plane. Conventional torsion spring is tested against constant torque type spring in terms of swing duration as, based on first principles, it is hypothesized that constant torque spring would be able to produce slower SBO swing phase as might be preferred in assisted paraplegic gait. In line with the hypothesis, it is found that it is not possible to delay the occurrence of the flexion peak of the SBO swing phase further than its occurrence in the natural gait. The use of conventional torsion spring causes the swing knee flexion peak to appear rather faster than that of the natural gait, resulting in a potentially faster swing phase and hence gait cycle. The constant torque type spring on the other hand is able to stretch duration of the swing phase to some extent, rendering it the preferable spring type in SBO.

  18. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  19. LAND STREAMER SEISMIC DATA FROM NORTHERN DELAWARE: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR IMAGING AQUIFERS IN SUBURBAN AREAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, C. C.; McLaughlin, P. P.; McGeary, S. E.; Sargent, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Potomac Formation includes the most important confined aquifers in the Coastal Plain of northern Delaware. Development and a growing suburban population are increasing demand for groundwater in the area, making accurate assessment of groundwater water supply increasingly important. Previous studies of subsurface geology indicate that the Potomac Formation is characterized by laterally discontinuous fluvial sand bodies, making it difficult to precisely delineate the distribution and geometry of the aquifer facies based on well correlations alone. A 20-km high-resolution seismic reflection dataset was collected using a land-streamer system in 2008 to constrain subsurface stratigraphy between disparate well locations. The data were collected along roadways in an area of mixed development that includes suburban housing tracts, farmlands, and large industry. A 152-m-deep continuous-cored test hole was drilled in the summer of 2009 adjacent to one of the lines and a full suite of borehole geophysical logs obtained. The land-streamer data are compared to a 3-km dataset collected also in 2008 using conventional methods on farmland in the northern part of the study area. The land streamer system proved to be more effective than conventional seismic reflection methods in this area. Several advantages are evident for the land streamer: 1) overall, the conventional dataset has a higher S/N, 2) on average, collecting data with the land streamer system is four times faster, and 3) the land streamer lines can be longer and therefore more continuous than the conventional lines in a developed area. The land-streamer system has minor disadvantages: traffic control, traffic noise, and in some cases a need for larger crews. Regardless, the land streamer dataset is easier to process, of higher quality, and more cost effective. The final depth images from the land streamer data indicate that the minimum and maximum depths imaged are ~18 m and ~ 268m, with a resolution of ~4 m. This

  20. Bridging the GAPS from Space: A Research/Educational Partnership in the Upper Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown de Colstoun, E.; Robin, J.; Minelli, S.; Katsaros, M.; Peterec, I.; Sandt, K.

    2006-05-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program is currently developing scientific protocols to inventory and monitor the natural resources of 270 park units at the national level. These are aimed at providing critical tools needed by park managers for effective decision-making regarding the management and stewardship of the resources they are charged with protecting. We are currently developing a satellite-based regional land cover and land use monitoring protocol that addresses the immediate needs of the NPS I&M. This is a pilot project that examines land cover/use changes in and around the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River and Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area national parks from Landsat data for the period 1984 to 2005, in one the fastest growing regions in the country. The products resulting from the application of the protocols are then used to guide the simulation of land cover/use changes within a simple Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) model called GAPS in order to better understand the consequences of the measured land cover/use change on the water and energy cycles of the parks and surrounding areas. The data needed for product validation and model parameterization are being acquired with the assistance of students and educators from area schools using protocols established through the GLOBE program. Through focused workshops organized in collaboration with NPS educational specialists and PA regional educational service agencies called Intermediate Units, and participation in hands-on field measurement campaigns, students and educators are learning about satellite remote sensing interpretation, land cover classification, and how to measure/monitor changes in land cover/use in their communities. Students will also assist in the model simulations using the data they acquire in the field. This partnership between the Principal Investigator, the NPS, Intermediate Units and area students and educators is

  1. Thermal springs of Malaysia and their potentialdevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim Samsudin, Abdul; Hamzah, Umar; Rahman, Rakmi Ab.; Siwar, Chamhuri; Fauzi Mohd. Jani, Mohd; Othman, Redzuan

    The study on the potential development of hot springs for the tourism industry in Malaysiawas conducted. Out of the 40 hot springs covered, the study identified 9 hot springs having a high potential for development, 14 having medium potential and the remaining 17 having low or least potential for development. This conclusion was arrived at after considering the technical and economic feasibility of the various hot springs. Technical feasibility criteria includes geological factors, water quality, temperature and flow rate. The economic feasibility criteria considers measures such as accessibility, current and market potentials in terms of visitors, surrounding attractions and existing inventory and facilities available. A geological input indicates that high potential hot springs are located close to or within the granite body and associated with major permeable fault zones. They normally occur at low elevation adjacent to topographic highs. High potential hot springs are also characterised by high water temperature, substantial flowrate and very good water quality which is important for water-body contact activities such as soaking. Economic criteria for high potential hot springs are associated with good accessibility, good market, good surrounding attractions like rural and village setting and well developed facilities and infrastructures.

  2. Fabrication and experimentation of FRP helical spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanthappa, J.; Shiva Shankar, G. S.; Amith, B. M.; Gagan, M.

    2016-09-01

    In present scenario, the automobile industry sector is showing increased interest in reducing the unsprung weight of the automobile & hence increasing the fuel Efficiency. One of the feasible sub systems of a vehicle where weight reduction may be attempted is vehicle- suspension system. Usage of composite material is a proven way to lower the component weight without any compromise in strength. The composite materials are having high specific strength, more elastic strain energy storage capacity in comparison with those of steel. Therefore, helical coil spring made of steel is replaceable by composite cylindrical helical coil spring. This research aims at preparing a re-usable mandrel (mould) of Mild steel, developing a setup for fabrication, fabrication of FRP helical spring using continuous glass fibers and Epoxy Resin (Polymer). Experimentation has been conducted on fabricated FRP helical spring to determine its strength parameters & for failure analysis. It is found that spring stiffness (K) of Glass/Epoxy helical-spring is greater than steel-coil spring with reduced weight.

  3. Biogeochemistry of hypersaline springs supporting a mid-continent marine ecosystem: an analogue for martian springs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasby, Stephen E; Londry, Kathleen L

    2007-08-01

    Hypersaline springs that host unique mid-continent marine ecosystems were examined in central Manitoba, Canada. The springs originate from a reflux of glacial meltwater that intrudes into underlying bedrock and dissolved buried salt beds. Two spring types were distinguished based both on flow rate and geochemistry. High flow springs (greater than 10 L/s) hosted extensive marine microbial mats, which were dominated by algae but also included diverse microbes. These varied somewhat between springs as indicated by changes in profiles of fatty acid methyl esters. Culture studies confirmed the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in sediments at the high flow sites. In contrast, low flow springs were affected by solar evaporation, increasing salinity, and temperature. These low flow springs behaved more like closed nutrient-limited systems and did not support microbial mats. Direct comparison of the high and low flow springs revealed interesting implications for the potential to record biosignatures in the rock record. High flow springs have abundant, well-developed microbial mats, which desiccate and are cemented along the edges of the spring pools; however, the high mass flux overwhelms any geochemical signature of microbial activity. In contrast, the nutrient-limited low flow sites develop strong geochemical signatures of sulfate reduction, even in the absence of microbial mats, due to less dilution with the lower flows. Geochemical and physical evidence for life did not correlate with the abundance of microbial life but, rather, with the extent to which the biological system formed a closed ecosystem.

  4. Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning: Implications for Helping Children With Mathematics Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C; Resnick, Ilyse; Rodrigues, Jessica; Hansen, Nicole; Dyson, Nancy

    2016-08-09

    The goal of the present article is to synthesize findings to date from the Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning. The study followed a large cohort of children (N = 536) between Grades 3 and 6. The findings showed that many students, especially those with diagnosed learning disabilities, made minimal growth in fraction knowledge and that some showed only a basic grasp of the meaning of a fraction even after several years of instruction. Children with low growth in fraction knowledge during the intermediate grades were much more likely to fail to meet state standards on a broad mathematics measure at the end of Grade 6. Although a range of general and mathematics-specific competencies predicted fraction outcomes, the ability to estimate numerical magnitudes on a number line was a uniquely important marker of fraction success. Many children with mathematics difficulties have deep-seated problems related to whole number magnitude representations that are complicated by the introduction of fractions into the curriculum. Implications for helping students with mathematics difficulties are discussed.

  5. Sensitivity of water resources in the Delaware River basin to climate variability and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Mark A.; Wolock, David M.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the greenhouse effect, projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels might cause global warming, which in turn could result in changes in precipitation patterns and evapotranspiration and in increases in sea level. This report describes the greenhouse effect; discusses the problems and uncertainties associated with the detection, prediction, and effects of climate change; and presents the results of sensitivity analyses of how climate change might affect water resources in the Delaware River basin. Sensitivity analyses suggest that potentially serious shortfalls of certain water resources in the basin could result if some scenarios for climate change come true . The results of model simulations of the basin streamflow demonstrate the difficulty in distinguishing the effects that climate change versus natural climate variability have on streamflow and water supply . The future direction of basin changes in most water resources, furthermore, cannot be precisely determined because of uncertainty in current projections of regional temperature and precipitation . This large uncertainty indicates that, for resource planning, information defining the sensitivities of water resources to a range of climate change is most relevant . The sensitivity analyses could be useful in developing contingency plans for evaluating and responding to changes, should they occur.

  6. Monitoring the dispersion of ocean waste disposal plumes from ERTS-1 and Skylab. [Delaware coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Myers, T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. About forty miles off the Delaware coast is located the disposal site for waste discharged from a plant processing titanium dioxide. The discharge is a greenish-brown; 15-20% acid liquid which consists primarily of iron chlorides and sulfates. The barge which transports this waste has a 1,000,000 gallon capacity and makes approximately three trips to the disposal site per week. ERTS-1 MSS digital tapes are being used to study the dispersion patterns and drift velocities of the iron-acid plume. Careful examination of ERTS-1 imagery disclosed a fishhook-shaped plume about 40 miles east of Cape Henlopen caused by a barge disposing acid wastes. The plume shows up more strongly in the green band than in the red band. Since some acids have a strong green component during dumping and turn slowly more brownish-reddish with age, the ratio of radiance signatures between the green and red bands may give an indication of how long before the satellite overpass the acid was dumped. Enlarged enhancements of the acid waste plumes, prepared from the ERTS-1 MSS digital tapes aided considerably in studies of the dispersion of the waste plume. Currently acid dumps are being coordinated with ERTS-1 overpasses.

  7. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Ten. Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Delaware governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  8. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Delaware. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  9. Lipid composition in particulate and dissolved organic matter in the Delaware Estuary: Sources and diagenetic patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannino, A.; Harvey, H.R. [Univ. of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.

    1999-08-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated from surface waters of Delaware Bay along a transect from freshwater to the coastal ocean and fractionated by tangential flow ultrafiltration into high (1--30 kDa; HDOM) and very high (30 kDa--0.2 {micro}m; VHDOM) nominal molecular mass fractions. Carbon content, stable carbon isotopes, and lipid composition were measured for each DOM fraction, and particles collected in parallel. Lipids, excluding hydrocarbons, comprised up to 0.33% of HDOM organic carbon, 1.6% of VHDOM carbon, and 10% of POC, the majority of which were fatty acids. Although lipids comprised a small fraction of HDOM, fatty acids and sterols provided valuable information on the origins of DOM. Molecular composition of particulate and dissolved lipids and bulk stable carbon isotopes demonstrated differences in organic sources along the estuarine gradient with distinct terrestrial signals in the river and turbid middle estuary and an algal signal in the lower estuary and coastal ocean. Both particulate organic matter and VHDOM samples were enriched in lipids on a carbon basis compared to the HDOM fraction, which suggests that the HDOM fraction was less labile than particulate organic matter or VHDOM. Selective degradation of labile lipids by the microbial community can account for the depletions of unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and phytol within HDOM relative to particles.

  10. Process for Forming a High Temperature Single Crystal Canted Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J (Inventor); Ritzert, Frank J (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V (Inventor); Dunlap, Patrick H (Inventor); Steinetz, Bruce M (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A process for forming a high temperature single crystal canted spring is provided. In one embodiment, the process includes fabricating configurations of a rapid prototype spring to fabricate a sacrificial mold pattern to create a ceramic mold and casting a canted coiled spring to form at least one canted coil spring configuration based on the ceramic mold. The high temperature single crystal canted spring is formed from a nickel-based alloy containing rhenium using the at least one coil spring configuration.

  11. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

  12. Spring Enterprise Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Spring Framework is a widely adopted enterprise and general Java framework. The release of Spring Framework 3.0 has added many improvements and new features for Spring development. Written by Gary Mak of the best-selling Spring Recipes and Josh Long, an expert Spring user and developer, Spring Enterprise Recipes is one of the first books on the new Spring 3. This key book focuses on Spring Framework 3.0, the latest version available, and a framework-related suite of tools, extensions, plug-ins, modules, and more-all of which you may want and need for building three-tier Java EE application

  13. 2012 Fish Springs NWR predator report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on a 2012 study to determine a relative index of predator populations, primarily coyote, on fish Springs National Wildlife refuge. Scat deposition transects...

  14. Status report on Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a life history of the pond snail (Lymnaea Hinkleyia pilsbryi) at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following information is included;...

  15. Fish Springs pond snail : Refuge communication scenario

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  16. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge habitat map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat map for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This habitat map was created along with the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) map of the refuge. Refuge...

  17. Coastal Energy Corporation, Willow Springs, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Coastal Energy Corporation, located at 232 Burnham Road, Willow Springs, Missouri, for alleged violations at the facility located at or near that facility.

  18. Spring staging waterfowl on the Naknek River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuge staff conducted a survey of spring staging waterfowl on the Naknek River in the Bristol Bay drainage, Alaska...

  19. Seney Wildlife Refuge Spring migration report -- 1938

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to compare the numbers of migratory waterfowl using the Seney National Wildlife Refuge area during the spring of 1938 with the numbers...

  20. SPring-8 and application of nuclear scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harami, Taikan [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The SPring-8 has Linac synchrotron, incidence type facility and an accumulation ring. By preparing a beam line to take out light at the accumulation ring, the SPring-8 is supplied for common applications. Development of science adopting new method to study of properties and organisms by using high brightness source is expected. Construction of the SPring-8 accelerator was finished and adjusting test and commissioning of apparatuses are now in proceeding. At pre-use inspection of the accumulation ring on March, 1997, beam lines for R and D and crystalline structure analysis are applied to the Science and Technology Agency to inspect them simultaneously. And, by activating character of the SPring-8 radiation facility of high brightness and high energy X-ray generator, property study using Moessbauer nuclide to a probe can be conducted. (G.K.)

  1. EASTER- a floating holiday in spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雷生

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 260 million North Americans(85%) are Christians. As in other Christian lands,the greatest religious festival of the year in Canada and the United States is Easter. Easter is a joyous spring day commemorating the res-

  2. Optical spring effect in nanoelectromechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Zhou, Guangya; Du, Yu; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie

    2014-08-01

    In this Letter, we report a hybrid system consisting of nano-optical and nano-mechanical springs, in which the optical spring effect works to adjust the mechanical frequency of a nanoelectromechanical systems resonator. Nano-scale folded beams are fabricated as the mechanical springs and double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities are used to pump the "optical spring." The dynamic characteristics of this hybrid system are measured and analyzed at both low and high input optical powers. This study leads the physical phenomenon of optomechanics in complex nano-opto-electro-mechanical systems (NOEMS) and could benefit the future applications of NOEMS in chip-level communication and sensing.

  3. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife list

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This checklist is a comprehensive list of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge wildlife species. The checklist contains all wildlife species documented on the...

  4. Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring. Canticum sacrum

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring. Canticum sacrum. Requiem canticles. Choral Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch". Lausanne Pro Arte Choir, Suisse Romande Chamber Choir and Orchestra, Neeme Järvi" Chandos CHAN 9408 (75 minutes:DDD)

  5. Coffee Cravings May Spring from Your DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160628.html Coffee Cravings May Spring From Your DNA Genes appear ... research suggests that your genes influence how much coffee you drink. Researchers analyzed genetic data from more ...

  6. Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring. Canticum sacrum

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring. Canticum sacrum. Requiem canticles. Choral Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch". Lausanne Pro Arte Choir, Suisse Romande Chamber Choir and Orchestra, Neeme Järvi" Chandos CHAN 9408 (75 minutes:DDD)

  7. Spring Creek Common Allotment habitat management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management plan for the Spring Creek Common Allotment on Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, in McCone and Garfield Counties, Montana. This plan discusses...

  8. Fish Springs NWR Water Use Report : 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual Water Management Plan for water use on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in 1981. This plan discusses expected water levels of management units and the...

  9. Inspection report: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses results of a reconnaissance trip conducted at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following is outlined; land condition, presence of...

  10. Pagosa Springs geothermal project. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-19

    This booklet discusses some ideas and methods for using Colorado geothermal energy. A project installed in Pagosa Springs, which consists of a pipeline laid down 8th street with service to residences retrofitted to geothermal space heating, is described. (ACR)

  11. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  12. Preparation of biomimetic photoresponsive polymer springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Supitchaya; Villemin, Elise; Lancia, Federico; Aβhoff, Sarah-Jane; Fletcher, Stephen P; Katsonis, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    Polymer springs that twist under irradiation with light, in a manner that mimics how plant tendrils twist and turn under the effect of differential expansion in different sections of the plant, show potential for soft robotics and the development of artificial muscles. The soft springs prepared using this protocol are typically 1 mm wide, 50 μm thick and up to 10 cm long. They are made from liquid crystal polymer networks in which an azobenzene derivative is introduced covalently as a molecular photo-switch. The polymer network is prepared by irradiation of a twist cell filled with a mixture of shape-persistent liquid crystals, liquid crystals having reactive end groups, molecular photo-switches, some chiral dopant and a small amount of photoinitiator. After postcuring, the soft polymer film is removed and cut into springs, the geometry of which is determined by the angle of cut. The material composing the springs is characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile strength measurements. The springs operate at ambient temperature, by mimicking the orthogonal contraction mechanism that is at the origin of plant coiling. They shape-shift under irradiation with UV light and can be pre-programmed to either wind or unwind, as encoded in their geometry. Once illumination is stopped, the springs return to their initial shape. Irradiation with visible light accelerates the shape reversion.

  13. Spring-back deformation in tube bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-xin E; Hua-hui He; Xiao-yi Liu; Ru-xin Ning

    2009-01-01

    The spring-back of a bending metal tube was studied through extensive experiments and finite element method (FEM) analysis. An approximate equation for the spring-back angle of bending was deduced. It is noted that the mechanical properties of the material (in a tubular form) are quite different from those found in the standard tensile tests (when the materials are in bar forms). This is one of the major reasons that result in the discrepancies in the outcomes of experimental study, FEM calculations, and spring-back analysis. It is therefore of crucial importance to study the mechanical properties of the materials in their tubular forms. The experiments and FEM simulations prove that the spring-back angle is significantly affected by the mechanical properties of the materials. The angle decreases accordingly with plastic modulus, but changes inversely with the hardening index and elastic modulus. The spring-back angle is also affected by the conditions of tube deformation: it increases accordingly with the relative bending radius but changes inversely with the relative wall thickness. In addition, the spring-back angle increases nonlinearly with the bending an-gle.

  14. Geochemical and hydrologic data for wells and springs in thermal-spring areas of the Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobba, W.A. Jr.; Chemerys, J.C.; Fisher, D.W.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    Current interest in geothermal potential of thermal-spring areas in the Appalachians makes all data on thermal springs and wells in these areas valuable. Presented here without interpretive comment are maps showing selected springs and wells and tables of physical and chemical data pertaining to these wells and springs. The chemical tables show compositions of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, methane, carbon dioxide, and helium), isotope contents (tritium, carbon (13), and oxygen (18)), trace and minor element chemical data, and the usual complete chemical data.

  15. 扩展Spring MVC模块的Web应用%Web Application of Extended Spring MVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖福保

    2012-01-01

    This paper described the application of Spring MVC framework. It analyzed the controller, model, and view of MVC framework. To compensate for the deficiency of Spring MVC, it introduced the AJAX technology into Spring MVC to have it extended. The extended Spring MVC is easier to maintain, and has been proved to be feasible and valid in a typical Web application.%叙述了Spring MVC模块的应用,对MVC模块中的控制器、模型和视图进行了分析,然后针对目前Spring MVC模块的不足,对此模块进行了扩展,并将AJAX技术引入到Spring MVC模块中,具有易维护性.在扩展Spring MVC模块的基础上设计了1个典型的Web应用,表明了扩展Spring MVC模块的可行性和有效性.

  16. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Martin, Peter; Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  17. Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Fish Tissue and Bed Sediment in the Delaware River Basin, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, and Delaware, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Brightbill, Robin; Bilger, Michael

    2006-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program activities in the Delaware River Basin (DELR), samples of fish tissue from 21 sites and samples of bed sediment from 35 sites were analyzed for a suite of organic compounds and trace elements. The sampling sites, within subbasins ranging in size from 11 to 600 square miles, were selected to represent 5 main land-use categories in the DELR -forest, low-agricultural, agricultural, urban, and mixed use. Samples of both fish tissue and bed sediment were also collected from 4 'large-river' sites that represented drainage areas ranging from 1,300 to 6,800 square miles, areas in which the land is used for a variety of purposes. One or more of the organochlorine compounds-DDT and chlordane metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs), and dieldrin- were detected frequently in samples collected over a wide geographic area. One or more of these compounds were detected in fish-tissue samples from 92 percent of the sites and in bed-sediment samples from 82 percent of the sites. Concentrations of total DDT, total chlordanes, total PCBs, and dieldrin in whole white suckers and in bed sediment were significantly related to urban/industrial basin characteristics, such as percentage of urban land use and population density. Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs)-total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total phthalates, and phenols- were detected frequently in bed-sediment samples. All three types of SVOCs were detected in samples from at least one site in each land-use category. The highest detection rates and concentrations typically were in samples from sites in the urban and mixed land-use categories, as well as from the large-river sites. Concentrations of total PAHs and total phthalates in bed-sediment samples were found to be statistically related to percentages of urban land use and to population density in the drainage areas represented by the sampling sites. The samples of fish tissue and bed

  18. Element patterns in feathers of nestling Black-Crowned Night-Herons, Nycticorax nycticorax L., from four colonies in Delaware, Maryland, and Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Golden, Nancy H.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2008-01-01

    The pattern of elements in nestling black-crowned night-heron feathers from a rural Minnesota colony differed from colonies in industrialized regions of Maryland and Delaware. Except for chromium, however, the differences did not reflect the elements associated with waters and sediments of the Maryland and Delaware colonies. Therefore, elements in water and sediment do not necessarily bioaccumulate in night-heron feathers in relation to potential exposure. Although trace element patterns in feathers indicated differences among geographical locations, they did not separate all locations well and their usefulness as an indicator of natal colony location may be limited.

  19. Concentrations of metals in blood and feathers of nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Golden, N.H.; Toschik, P.C.; McGowan, P.C.; Custer, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    In 2000, 2001, and 2002, blood and feather samples were collected from 40-45-day-old nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) from Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay and River. Concentrations of 18 metals, metalloids, and other elements were determined in these samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, and Hg concentrations were measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. When compared to concurrent reference areas (South, West, and Rhode Rivers), mean As and Hg concentrations in blood were greater (p mean Al, Ba, Hg, Mn, and Pb concentrations in feathers were substantially greater (p < 0.05) in one or more Chesapeake regions of concern (Anacostia River [Al: 206 vs. 62.1 mug/g dw; Ba: 3.31 vs. 0.823 mug/g dw; Mn: 65.4 vs. 22.9 mug/g dw] and Elizabeth River [Al: 165 vs. 63.5 mug/g dw; Hg: 1.24 vs. 0.599 mug/g dw; Pb 1.47 vs. 0.543 mug/g dw]). When compared to the coastal Inland Bays reference area, feathers of nestlings from northern Delaware Bay and River had greater concentrations (p < 0.05) of Ba (1.90 vs. 0.660 mug/g dw), Fe (258 vs. 109 mug/g dw), Mn (18.5 vs. 4.66 mug/g dw), Mo (0.130 vs. 0.040 mug/g dw), Pb (1.96 vs. 0.624 mug/g dw), and V (0.671 vs. 0.325 mug/g dw), presumably due to extensive metal-working and petroleum refinery activities. Concentrations of Hg in nestling feathers from Delaware were frequently greater than in the Chesapeake. The present findings and those of related reproductive studies suggest that concentrations of several heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Hg, Pb) in nestling blood and feathers from Chesapeake and Delaware Bays were below toxicity thresholds and do not seem to be affecting chick survival during the nestling period.

  20. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: a case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58–1.311, NSE = 0.99–0.97, d = 0.98–0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = −0.10 to −1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed

  1. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: A case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-11-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58-1.311, NSE = 0.99-0.97, d = 0.98-0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = -0.10 to -1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed well; the

  2. Upper Cenozoic deposits of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, James Patrick; Denny, Charles Storrow

    1979-01-01

    The surface and shallow subsurface sediments of the lower Delmarva Peninsula include beds ranging in age from Miocene to Holocene. The oldest beds appear to be typical shelf deposits of the Chesapeake Group (Calvert-Choptank age). These marine units are overlain by deltaic deposits, which range from fluviatile facies in the north (Pensauken Formation) to marginal marine and marine beds in the south ('Yorktown(?) and Cohansey(?)' Formations as used by Rasmussen and Slaughter in 1955). This large deltaic mass underlies most of the Delmarva Peninsula. Fossil age determinations supplemented by some radiometric dates indicate the delta to be largely late Miocene in age. The nonmarine facies of the delta, the Pensauken Formation, previously was considered to be Pleistocene in age. The late Miocene delta and possibly the Yorktown Formation (lower to middle Pliocene) are overlain by a feldspathic sand, the Beaverdam, which is at least in part marginal marine. Microflora recovered from this formation include species no longer indigenous to the Delmarva region ('exotics'). On the basis of existing information, microfloral assemblages containing 'exotics' are pre-Pleistocene in age. The Beaverdam therefore is pre-Pleistocene in age, probably late Pliocene. A highly dissected and weathered unit, the Walston Silt, caps the uplands of the central Delmarva Peninsula, where it overlies the Beaverdam. The Walston has a microflora containing 'exotics' and therefore is considered to be the youngest Tertiary unit (uppermost Pliocene) in this area. Sediments forming a barrier-back-barrier sequence fringe most of the southern Maryland-Delaware part of the Delmarva Peninsula and are found at altitudes of as much as 15 m (50 ft) above sea level. This sequence, the Omar Formation, is Sangamon in age and has been dated radiometrically as 60,000 to about 100,000 years old. The microflora in these beds contains no 'exotics,' and the assemblage suggests a warm-temperate environment. The Omar

  3. Host-feeding patterns of suspected West Nile virus mosquito vectors in Delaware, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Jack B; Williams, Gregory M

    2005-06-01

    Paucity of data on host-feeding patterns and behavior of 43 mosquito species that are reported as suspected West Nile virus (WN) vectors has limited full evaluation of their vectorial capacity. Recent studies addressing this issue need additional confirmation and should also be expanded to include collections of species or subpopulations attracted to humans. We used 4 types of collection methods to collect mosquitoes, including omnidirectional Fay-Prince traps, Centers for Disease Control-type light traps, gravid traps, and human-landing collections. Mosquitoes were collected during 2 full WN transmission seasons in 2001 and 2002, at 9 different sites across Delaware. We collected from various habitats, including salt marshes, brackish water areas, woodlands, a tire dump, a racetrack, and a mushroom farm. Blood-meal analyses were performed on parous mosquitoes by using a sandwich-type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We tested primarily for 5 common host species, including rabbits, dogs, deer, horses, and chickens. We obtained substantial host-feeding data from 8 mosquito species. The most mammalophilic species were Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, and Aedes albopictus, whereas the most ornithophilic species was Culex pipiens. Aedes albopictus was the most anthropophilic species, whereas Ae. vexans and Cq. perturbans exhibited relatively low attraction to humans. Culex salinarius was the species with the most diverse host-feeding activity. Based on feeding behavior, Cx. pipiens and Cx. salinarius appear to be the most likely bridge vectors. Other species may have opportunities to be bridge vectors under special circumstances, as discussed in the paper.

  4. Legacies in Urban Stormwater Management: A Case Study of a Gully Network in Northern Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, C. E.; Claessens, L.; Santangelo, T.; Soroka, A.

    2013-12-01

    Increased stormwater runoff from urban surfaces could lead to erosion and gully formation in areas of steep topographic relief. To reduce these impacts, stormwater management practices are currently required through federal and state stormwater regulations. Before 1990, stormwater was not regulated and would often be directly routed into adjacent lands. Particularly in areas of steep terrain, this would potentially induce erosion and gully formation. This study reports on a wide-scale examination of gully formation from urban stormwater, using a model that examines the increase of runoff from impervious cover and the potential for gully formation. Here we report on a case study for an area on the University of Delaware campus. The area is located in the Piedmont region and drains into the White Clay Creek, a National Wild and Scenic River. Pre-regulation development in this area has led to the formation of a series of gullies with distinct morphological characteristics. This study examines in detail the reach-scale and contributing area controls on gully formation. We conducted a GIS analysis of the local hydrologic network, determined peak flow of each gully, developed a gully susceptibility model that we compared with the site characteristics, and sampled the sediment concentrations of the gully flow during storm events. We also characterized historical land use data and performed field observations for our analysis. We found that the development changed the hydrology of the site, altering the contributing areas of each gully. In addition, field observations revealed distinct rates of incision across gullies as well as along different sections of each gully. We also found that the gullies are still actively eroding, contributing large sediment loads to the downstream White Clay Creek. Our research provides a better understanding of the local and regional factors governing erosion and gully formation. The model that we created will help to identify sites that

  5. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Delmarva Peninsula, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, L.J.; Shedlock, R.J.; Phillips, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation 's surface water and groundwater resources. This National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is designed to acquire and interpret information about a wide range of water quality issues. Three groundwater pilot projects have been started, including the project on the Delmarva Peninsula, which covers eastern Maryland and Virginia and most of Delaware. The objectives of the Delmarva project are to: (1) investigate regional groundwater quality on the Delmarva Peninsula, emphasizing a description of the occurrence of trace elements and manmade organic compounds; (2) relate groundwater quality to land use and geohydrologic conditions; and (3) provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected water quality problems prevalent in the study area. The shallow aquifer system and the deeper aquifers used for public water supply will be addressed. The shallow aquifer system in the Delmarva Peninsula consists of permeable unconsolidated sand and gravel. Flow systems are localized and small-scale. Farming is common on the peninsula, and the migration of agricultural chemicals to the groundwater system is a local water quality concern. To assess the water quality of the groundwater resources, a regional survey for a wide range of constituents will be conducted in all of the pilot projects to provide a representative sample of groundwater analyses for a national assessment of groundwater quality. Results of this survey may be used as a baseline to monitor future water quality trends. (Lantz-PTT)

  6. The Cultural Impact on the Traditional Spring Festival Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳琳

    2015-01-01

    Spring Festival will surely be considered as the most important festival among Chinese colorful occasions.This study attempts to analyze several typical rituals of Spring Festival from the cultural aspects,digging out the cultural factors and cultur-al connotation from the activity like the Family Reunion Dinner,Spring Couplets,the Spring Festival Gala,etc.

  7. Experimental Investigation Of Polymeric Compound Cross Section Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayas Al-Mahasne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation of the characteristic of the compound cross section springs on models made from polymeric materials (organic glass. Two constructive variants of the compound spring sections were specified with the help of criteria of similarity. The criterion of similarity of natural and model springs was determined by the simulation method at particular spring deflection. The problem of simulation was brought to accurate determination of the magnitudes that characterize the physical and mechanical properties of materials for natural and model springs. It was experimentally proved that the use of the proposed new type of springs significantly increases the spring stiffness.

  8. Characterization of the hydrogeology of the sacred Gihon Spring, Jerusalem: a deteriorating urban karst spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Ronit Benami; Grodek, Tamir; Frumkin, Amos

    2010-09-01

    The Gihon Spring, Jerusalem, is important for the major monotheistic religions. Its hydrogeology and hydrochemistry is studied here in order to understand urbanization effects on karst groundwater resources, and promote better water management. High-resolution monitoring of the spring discharge, temperature and electrical conductivity, was performed, together with chemical and bacterial analysis. All these demonstrate a rapid response of the spring to rainfall events and human impact. A complex karst system is inferred, including conduit flow, fissure flow and diffuse flow. Electrical conductivity, Na+ and K+ values (2.0 mS/cm, 130 and 50 mg/l respectively) are very high compared to other nearby springs located at the town margins (0.6 mS/cm, 15 and <1 mg/l respectively), indicating considerable urban pollution in the Gihon area. The previously cited pulsating nature of the spring was not detected during the present high-resolution monitoring. This phenomenon may have ceased due to additional water sources from urban leakage and irrigation feeding the spring. The urbanization of the recharge catchment thus affects the spring water dramatically, both chemically and hydrologically. Appropriate measures should therefore be undertaken to protect the Gihon Spring and other karst aquifers threatened by rapid urbanization.

  9. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  10. Geothermal energy and hot springs in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, T. (Hot Springs Therapeutics Research Institute, Kyushu, Univ., Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The hot springs in Ethiopia are concentrated in two areas: the North Afar depression and adjacent Red Sea shore, and a geothermal field 100 km from northeast to southwest in the central part of Ethiopia. The latter extends not only to the Great Rift Valley but also to the Aden Gulf. In the lake district in the central Great Rift Valley, there are a number of hot springs on the lake shore. These are along NE-SW fault lines, and the water is a sodium bicarbonate-type rich in HCO/sub 3/ and Na but low in C1 and Ca. In Dallol in the North Afar depression, CO/sub 2/-containing hot springs with high temperatures (110/sup 0/C) and a specific gravity of 1.4, were observed. In the South Afar depression, located in the northeastern part of the Rift Valley, there are many active volcanoes and hot springs between the lake district and the Danakil depression. The spring water is a sodium bicarbonate saline type. Nine graphs and maps are included.

  11. Prediction of Spring Rate and Initial Failure Load due to Material Properties of Composite Leaf Spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sung Ha [Maxoft Inc., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bok Lok [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This paper presented analysis methods for adapting E-glass fiber/epoxy composite (GFRP) materials to an automotive leaf spring. It focused on the static behaviors of the leaf spring due to the material composition and its fiber orientation. The material properties of the GFRP composite were directly measured based on the ASTM standard test. A reverse implementation was performed to obtain the complete set of in-situ fiber and matrix properties from the ply test results. Next, the spring rates of the composite leaf spring were examined according to the variation of material parameters such as the fiber angles and resin contents of the composite material. Finally, progressive failure analysis was conducted to identify the initial failure load by means of an elastic stress analysis and specific damage criteria. As a result, it was found that damage first occurred along the edge of the leaf spring owing to the shear stresses.

  12. ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING BY USING ANALYTICAL & FEA

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjeet Mithari; Amar Patil; Prof. E. N. Aitavade

    2012-01-01

    Leaf spring are of the oldest suspension component they are still frequently used. The current leaf spring is multiple leaf spring types with a steel material. It has high weight, low natural frequency, high corrosion, more noise. Therefore current multiple leaf spring is replaced by mono composite (E- Glass epoxy) leaf spring which has high natural frequency, low weight etc. The maximum stress produced at the cylindrically joint than fixed joint. Therefore stress analysis of composite materi...

  13. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation...... of Archaea by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. In addition to the three solfataras and the neutral hot spring, 10 soil samples in transects of the soil adjacent to the solfataras were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). The sequence data from the clone libraries...... enzymes AluI and BsuRI. The sequenced clones from this solfatara belonged to Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales or were most closest related to sequences from uncultured Archaea. Sequences related to group I.1b were not found in the neutral hot spring or the hyperthermophilic solfatara (90 degrees C)....

  14. Spring-Assisted Cranioplasty for Bicoronal Synostosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tovetjärn, Robert; Maltese, Giovanni; Kölby, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    surgical technique with advancement and remodeling of the forehead combined with spring distraction of the occipital area. The aim of the current study was to evaluate this operative technique. Eighteen consecutive patients (9 boys and 9 girls) with bicoronal synostosis operated on using this technique......, with a mean perioperative bleeding of 237 (SD, 95) mL. The mean hospital stay was 6.3 (SD, 1.5) days, of which the mean intensive care unit stay was 1.6 (SD, 1.2) days. In 2 patients, one of the springs had to be reinserted because of postoperative dislocation. No other major complications were observed....... CONCLUSIONS: Spring-assisted cranioplasty for bicoronal synostosis is a safe technique, is less invasive than many other cranioplasties, and results in marked improvement in the calvarial shape....

  15. FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF SPRING REINFORCES POLYMER GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal CAN

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Failure of gears, occur surface pressure stress and fracture at base of teeth. For steel gears, it is known that process of carburizing increases fatigue strength. Internal stress on the surface increases of fracture fatigue strength. In this study fatigue properties of polypropylene gear reinforced with 1.2 mm wire diameter metallic springs was investigated. Extension springs were used as reinforcement element and placed into the mould and stretched before injection of polypropylene material into the mould. After injection of polypropylene, stretched springs were loosened in order to obtain pre-stressing. Fatigue tests were performed on the produced gear. Reinforcement increased the strength of gears. At result of experiments, pre-stressing increase in service life 12 times more than that of specimens without reinforcement.

  16. Integrated geophysical investigations of Main Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saribudak, By Mustafa; Hauwert, Nico M.

    2017-03-01

    Barton Springs is a major discharge site for the Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer and is located in Zilker Park, Austin, Texas. Barton Springs actually consists of at least four springs. The Main Barton Springs discharges into the Barton Springs pool from the Barton Springs fault and several outlets along a fault, from a cave, several fissures, and gravel-filled solution cavities on the floor of the pool west of the fault. Surface geophysical surveys [resistivity imaging, induced polarization (IP), self-potential (SP), seismic refraction, and ground penetrating radar (GPR)] were performed across the Barton Springs fault and at the vicinity of the Main Barton Springs in south Zilker Park. The purpose of the surveys was two-fold: 1) locate the precise location of submerged conduits (caves, voids) carrying flow to Main Barton Springs; and 2) characterize the geophysical signatures of the fault crossing Barton Springs pool. Geophysical results indicate significant anomalies to the south of the Barton Springs pool. A majority of these anomalies indicate a fault-like pattern, in front of the south entrance to the swimming pool. In addition, resistivity and SP results, in particular, suggest the presence of a large conduit in the southern part of Barton Springs pool. The groundwater flow-path to the Main Barton Springs could follow the locations of those resistivity and SP anomalies along the newly discovered fault, instead of along the Barton Springs fault, as previously thought.

  17. Mesohabitat use of threatened hemlock forests by breeding birds of the Delaware River basin in northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R.M.; Redell, L.A.; Bennett, R.M.; Young, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Avian biodiversity may be at risk in eastern parks and forests due to continued expansion of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an exotic homopteran insect native to East Asia. To assess avian biodiversity, mesohabitat relations, and the risk of species loss with declining hemlock forests in Appalachian park lands, 80 randomly distributed fixed-radius plots were established in which territories of breeding birds were estimated on four forest-terrain types (hemlock and hardwood benches and ravines) in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Both species richness and number of territories were higher in hardwood than hemlock forest types and in bench than ravine terrain types. Four insectivorous species, Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), blue-headed vireo (Vireo solitarius), black-throated green warbler (Dendroica virens), and Blackburnian warbler (Dendroica fusca), showed high affinity for hemlock forest type and exhibited significantly greater numbers of territories in hemlock than hardwood sites. These species are hemlock-associated species at risk from continued hemlock decline in the Delaware River valley and similar forests of the mid-Atlantic east slope. Two of these species, the blue-headed vireo and Blackburnian warbler, appeared to specialize on ravine mesohabitats of hemlock stands, the vireo a low-to-mid canopy species, the warbler a mid-to-upper canopy forager. Unchecked expansion of the exotic adelgid and subsequent hemlock decline could negatively impact 3,600 pairs from the park and several million pairs from northeastern United States hemlock forests due to elimination of preferred habitat.

  18. New technique to isolate anthocyanins from Delaware grapes by forming an aluminium complex using a Discovery DPA-6S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Takayuki; Koi, Yoriko; Tamura, Hirotoshi

    2015-01-01

    An aluminium complex of crude Delaware grape anthocyanins, bearing an ortho-dihydroxyl group on the B ring and/or a p-coumaroyl group as an ester with flavocommelin, was formed and isolated by ethanol precipitation. Using a Discovery DPA-6S short column, selected anthocyanins were isolated to give cyanidin 3-glucoside (Cy3G, 48.2% yield with 95.2% purity) and cyanidin 3-(6-O-p-coumaroylglucoside) (Cy3-pC·G, 44.9% yield with 91.4% purity) from natural Delaware grape skin extracts without ODS-HPLC column chromatography. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the complex pigment was 3.4 ± 0.10 μmol TE/mg. Moreover, isolated pure anthocyanins from the complex pigment showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activity [4.5 ± 0.08 μmol TE/mg (Cy3G) and 4.5 ± 0.04 μmol TE/mg (Cy3-pC·G), (p<0.05)].

  19. Use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to Obtain High-Resolution Elevation Data for Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Roger A.; Nardi, Mark R.; Reyes, Betzaida

    2008-01-01

    Sussex County, Delaware, occupies a 938-square-mile area of low relief near sea level in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The county is bounded on the east by the Delaware Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, including a barrier-island system, and inland bays that provide habitat for valuable living resources. Eastern Sussex County is an area of rapid population growth with a long-established beach-resort community, where land elevation is a key factor in determining areas that are appropriate for development. Of concern to State and local planners are evacuation routes inland to escape flooding from severe coastal storms, as most major transportation routes traverse areas of low elevation that are subject to inundation. The western half of the county is typically rural in character, and land use is largely agricultural with some scattered forest land cover. Western Sussex County has several low-relief river flood-prone areas, where accurate high-resolution elevation data are needed for Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) studies. This fact sheet describes the methods and techniques used to collect and process LiDAR elevation data, the generation of the digital elevation model (DEM) and the 2-foot contours, and the quality-assurance procedures and results. It indicates where to view metadata on the data sets and where to acquire bare-earth mass points, DEM data, and contour data.

  20. Effects of climatic change and climatic variability on the Thornthwaite moisture index in the Delaware River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Thornthwaite moisture index is useful as an indicator of the supply of water in an area relative to the demand under prevailing climatic conditions. This study examines the effects of long-term changes in climate (temperature and precipitation) on the Thornthwaite moisture index in the Delaware River basin. Temperature and precipitation estimates for doubled-CO2 conditions derived from three general circulation models (GCMs) are used to study the response of the moisture index for steady-state doubled-CO2 conditions and for gradual changes from present to doubled-CO2 conditions. Results of the study indicate that temperature and precipitation under doubled-CO2 conditions will cause the Thornthwaite moisture index to decrease, implying significantly drier conditions in the Delaware River basin than currently exist. The amount of decrease depends, however, on the GCM climatic-change scenario used. The results also indicate that future changes in the moisture index will be partly masked by natural year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation. ?? 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  1. Improving Multimedia Foundations: Design of a Micro-Syllabus for Integrating Multimedia Modules into College Courses at the University of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    At the University of Delaware there has been growth in the use of multimedia technologies to facilitate the process of learning. However, many students entering higher educational institutions today, despite growing up with access to these tools, do not use them in interesting and meaningful ways. When given the opportunity to create multimedia…

  2. Improving Multimedia Foundations: Design of a Micro-Syllabus for Integrating Multimedia Modules into College Courses at the University of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    At the University of Delaware there has been growth in the use of multimedia technologies to facilitate the process of learning. However, many students entering higher educational institutions today, despite growing up with access to these tools, do not use them in interesting and meaningful ways. When given the opportunity to create multimedia…

  3. A Report on the Impact of Special Education on Minority Students in the Brandywine, Christina, Colonial, and Red Clay Consolidated School Districts in Delaware, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cherritta L.

    The study evaluated special education services to minority students in four Delaware school districts (Brandywine, Christina, Colonial, and Red Clay). The study identified three major concerns: (1) reduction of the high percentage of minorities in special education, (2) employment of minority professionals in special education, (3) and services to…

  4. Minority Pre-service Teachers' and Faculty Training on Climate Change Education in Delaware State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, G.; Fox-Lykens, R.; Veron, D. E.; Rogers, M.; Merrill, J.; Harcourt, P.; Mead, H.

    2015-12-01

    Delaware State University is working toward infusing undergraduate education with climate change science and enhancing the climate change learning content of pre-service teacher preparation programs as part of the MADE-CLEAR project (www.madeclear.org). Faculty development workshops have been conducted to prepare and educate a cadre of faculty from different disciplines in global climate science literacy. Following the workshops, the faculty participants have integrated climate literacy tenets into their existing curriculum. Follow up meetings have helped the faculty members to use specific content in their curriculum such as greenhouse gases, atmospheric CO2, sea level rise, etc. Additional training provided to the faculty participants in pedagogical methods of climate change instruction to identify common misconceptions and barriers to student understanding. Some pre-service teachers were engaged in summer internships and learned how to become messenger of climate change science by the state parks staff during the summer. Workshops were offered to other pre-service teachers to teach them specific climate change topics with enhanced hands-on laboratory activities. The participants were provided examples of lesson plans and guided to develop their own lesson plans and present them. Various pedagogical methods have been explored for teaching climate change content to the participants. The pre-service teachers found the climate content very challenging and confusing. Training activities were modified to focus on targeted topics and modeling of pedagogical techniques for the faculty and pre-service teachers. Program evaluation confirms that the workshop participant show improved understanding of the workshop materials by the participants if they were introduced few climate topics. Learning how to use hands-on learning tools and preparing lesson plans are two of the challenges successfully implemented by the pre-service teachers. Our next activity includes pre

  5. EAARL Coastal Topography-Maryland and Delaware, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Nayegandhi, Amar; Sallenger, A.H.; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Klipp, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Maryland and Delaware coastline beachface, acquired post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter) on November 28 and 30, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA

  6. Swash-Induced Infiltration in a Sandy Beach Aquifer, Cape Henlopen, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, J.; Ullman, W. J.; Michael, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge has been shown to be an important source of nutrients, heavy metals, and organic compounds to the coastal ocean. Physical flow and mixing dynamics in the intertidal zone may influence these contaminant fluxes; however the mechanisms that contribute to mixing of saltwater and through-flowing freshwater are not well understood. A study of wave swash-induced infiltration at two sites on Cape Henlopen, Delaware, was performed to quantify effects of swash zone width and tidal elevation on the flux of seawater into the beach aquifer. Porewater salinity measurements indicate the presence of a well-defined intertidal freshwater-seawater mixing zone. High-frequency pressure and soil moisture measurements from shore-perpendicular arrays across the beachface were used to infer influx rates. Measurements were conducted at two sites, one with larger waves and a wide swash zone, and the other with smaller waves and a narrow swash zone. Infiltration occurred during the rising tide at the leading edge of the swash zone and increased in magnitude from low tide to high tide. Infiltration rates were on average 2.2 times greater near mean high water than near mean low water. Measurements revealed that swash zone width influences infiltration: influx rates associated with the beach with a wider swash zone were 2.7 times higher than those of a beach with a narrower swash zone. The field observations are roughly consistent with estimates from analytical models, which are highly sensitive to uncertain model parameters. Pressure measurements during rising tide also indicate changes in hydraulic gradients due to infiltrated seawater. Flow beneath the sensor array was initially seaward and as the swash zone tracked up the beachface, a groundwater mound formed that resulted in net landward flow in the vicinity of the sensor array. The results demonstrate the role of wave swash in driving beach seawater infiltration, indicate spatial trends in flux across the

  7. Foreign Friends Join Spring Tea Picking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong; You

    2013-01-01

    <正>Foreign Friends Picking Spring Tea, one of the activities of the Fourth China Tea Festival, was held in Pujiang County, Sichuan Province on March 17. Pang Te Cheng, Singaporean Consul General in Chengdu, Komate Kamalanavin, Thai Consul General in Chengdu, and Claudia Spahl, German

  8. Spring Season Habitat Suitability Index raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster represents a continuous surface of sage-grouse habitat suitability index (HSI, created using ArcGIS 10.2.2) values for Nevada during spring, which is a...

  9. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Volume 55 of the Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology is dedicated to the study of the brain. The symposium was subdivided into four major sections. Papers were presented in Molecular Mechanisms for Signalling; Neural Development; Sensory and Motor Systems; and Cognitive Neuroscience. Individual papers from the symposium are abstracted separately. (MHB)

  10. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains the first part of the proceeding of the 53rd Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. This years topic was Immune Recognition. Part 1, this volume, contains papers prepared by presenters of the sessions entitled Introduction, Lymphocyte Development and Receptor Selection, and Recognition by Antibodies, Antigen Recognition by T cells. (DT)

  11. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains the second part of the proceedings of the 53rd Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. This years topic was Immune Recognition. This volume, part 2, contains papers prepared by presenters for two sessions entitled Signals for Lymphocyte Activation, Proliferation, and Adhesion, and entitled Tolerance and Self Recognition. (DT)

  12. Keqiao Spring Expo: More Professional, More Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ 2009 (China-Keqiao) International Textile Fabrics & Accessories Exhibition (here named "Spring Expo" for short), organized by Shaoxing County People's Government, China Textile City Exhibition & Convention Co., Ltd., Shanghai Gehua Exhibition Plan Co.,Ltd. as well as Shaoxing City Xingji Exhibition Co.,Ltd., was held during May 8-10, 2009at the China Textile City International Convention & Exhibition Center.

  13. Hydrogeochemistry of Damt thermal springs, Yemen Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fara, M. [Sana' a University, Yemen Republic (Yemen). Dept. of Geology; Chandrasekharam, D. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Earth Sciences; C.N.R. Center for Minerogenesis and Applied Geochemistry, Florence (Italy); Minissale, A. [C.N.R. Center for Minerogenesis and Applied Geochemistry, Florence (Italy)

    1999-04-01

    The Damt thermal springs (40-45{sup o}C), flowing through travertine deposits, belong to the Na-HCO{sub 3} type of water, and have higher pCO{sub 2} (from -1.18 to -0.58 = PCO{sub 2} from 0.07 to 0.26 atm) relative to cold Ca-SO{sub 4}-(Cl) groundwaters. The cold waters have pCO{sub 2} ranging from -1.86 to -2.50 (= PCO{sub 2} from 0.014 to 0.0035 atm). The chemical composition of the cold springs is controlled by evaporate deposits present in the Tawilah sandstone and Amran limestone formations, while simple crustal dissolution, coupled with CO{sub 2}-rich fluid-rock interaction control the chemical signature of the hot spring waters. The temperature of the feeding system, based on the K{sup 2}/Mg geothermometer, varies between 80 and 120{sup o}C. Damt thermal springs appear to be related to a 10,000 year-old volcanic activity that led to the appearance of several craters in the area. (author)

  14. Failure Analysis of Aviation Torsional Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Weiguo; ZHANG Weifang; LIU Xiao; WANG Zongren; DING Meili

    2011-01-01

    Cracks and fractures occur during the assembly process to a type of torsional springs used in the aviation mechanism.Besides visual examination,other experimental techniques used for the investigation are:1) fracture characteristics,damage morphology and ffactography by scanning electron microscopy(SEM),2) spectrum analysis of covering,3) metallographic observation of cracks and 4) hydrogen content testing.The results are obtained through the analysis of manufacture process and experimental data.Since no changes of microstructure are found,failures are irrelevant to the material.The cracks and fractures initiate on the inner surface,cracks initiate before the cadmium plating and after the winding.No obvious stress corrosion cracks are found near the crack source region.The opening direction of cracks is consistent with the residual tensile stress of the spring inner surface,and the springs are easy to contact hydrogen media between the spring winding and the cadmium plating.The cracks are caused by hydrogen-induced delayed cracking under the action of the residual tensile stress and hydrogen.

  15. Registration of ‘Faller’ Spring Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Faller’ (Reg. No. CV-1026, PI 648350) hard red spring wheat (HRSW) (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at North Dakota State University(NDSU) and released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station (NDAES). Faller was derived from the ND2857/ND2814 cross made at NDSU in fall 1997. ND2857 ...

  16. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2016 Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2016 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spri...

  17. Experimental demonstration of coupled optical springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, N. A.; Barr, B. W.; Bell, A.; Graef, C.; Hild, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Leavey, S. S.; Macarthur, J.; Sorazu, B.; Wright, J.; Strain, K. A.

    2017-02-01

    Optical rigidity will play an important role in improving the sensitivity of future generations of gravitational wave (GW) interferometers, which employ high laser power in order to reach and exceed the standard quantum limit. Several experiments have demonstrated the combined effect of two optical springs on a single system for very low-weight mirror masses or membranes. In this paper we investigate the complex interactions between multiple optical springs and the surrounding apparatus in a system of comparable dynamics to a large-scale GW detector. Using three 100 g mirrors to form a coupled cavity system capable of sustaining two or more optical springs, we demonstrate a number of different regimes of opto-mechanical rigidity and measurement techniques. Our measurements reveal couplings between each optical spring and the control loops that can affect both the achievable increase in sensitivity and the stability of the system. Hence this work establishes a better understanding of the realisation of these techniques and paves the way to their application in future GW observatories, such as upgrades to Advanced LIGO.

  18. Magnetically Coupled Magnet-Spring Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.; Martin, P.

    2010-01-01

    A system of two magnets hung from two vertical springs and oscillating in the hollows of a pair of coils connected in series is a new, interesting and useful example of coupled oscillators. The electromagnetically coupled oscillations of these oscillators are experimentally and theoretically studied. Its coupling is electromagnetic instead of…

  19. Nonlinear Study of Industrial Arc Spring Dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar; Hartmann, Henning

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a numerical approach for analyzing parameter excited vibrations on a gas compressor, induced by the nonlinear characteristic of the arc spring feature of certain designs of squeeze film dampers, SFDs. The behavior of the journal is studied in preparation ...

  20. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment.

  1. ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING BY USING ANALYTICAL & FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Mithari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spring are of the oldest suspension component they are still frequently used. The current leaf spring is multiple leaf spring types with a steel material. It has high weight, low natural frequency, high corrosion, more noise. Therefore current multiple leaf spring is replaced by mono composite (E- Glass epoxy leaf spring which has high natural frequency, low weight etc. The maximum stress produced at the cylindrically joint than fixed joint. Therefore stress analysis of composite material mono leaf spring is carried out. The result of finite element method is verified with analytical calculation. Also compare the natural frequency by FFT analyzer with FEA.

  2. Contaminant discharge in habitat springs of the Barton Springs Salamander during storm rainfall events

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aquatic habitat of the endangered Barton Springs salamander, Eurycea sosorum, in Travis County, Texas can potentially be impacted by contaminants in surface runoff...

  3. Radioactivity of the Bulgarian spring waters. I. Springs in the region Svidnja (Province Svoge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamihaylova, E.; Zhelev, Zh.T.

    1975-01-01

    The methods of determining radon, radium and elements of the thorium row in spring waters used in this paper are considered. The various factors and their interrelations which are mainly responsible for the radioactivity of given waters are reviewed. Seventeen cold springs in the region Svidnja (Province Svoge, Sofia District) were investigated. Activity over 44 em was not observed. The radon concentrations in the various springs correspond to the rock composition. Seasonal measurements of the radioactivity and temperature were undertaken for three spring waters. Lesser radioactivity of the water is observed during October after the summer drought and an increase in the radon during May--July before the drought. Radium up to 10/sup -11/ g/dm/sup 3/ and elements of the thorium row up to 5 x 10/sup -4/ g/dm/sup 3/ were not found.

  4. User's manual for the upper Delaware River riverine environmental flow decision support system (REFDSS), Version 1.1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Colin; Maloney, Kelly O.; Holmquist-Johnson, Chris; Hanson, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2006, the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted field surveys, organized workshops, and performed analysis of habitat for trout and shad in the Upper Delaware River Basin. This work culminated in the development of decision support system software (the Delaware River DSS–DRDSS, Bovee and others, 2007) that works in conjunction with the Delaware River Basin Commission’s reservoir operations model, OASIS, to facilitate comparison of the habitat and water-delivery effects of alternative operating scenarios for the Basin. This original DRDSS application was developed in Microsoft Excel and is available to all interested parties through the FORT web site (http://www.fort.usgs.gov/Products/Software/DRDSS/). Initial user feedback on the original Excel-based DSS highlighted the need for a more user-friendly and powerful interface to effectively deliver the complex data and analyses encapsulated in the DSS. In order to meet this need, the USGS FORT and Northern Appalachian Research Branch (NARB) developed an entirely new graphical user interface (GUI) application. Support for this research was through the DOI WaterSmart program (http://www.doi.gov/watersmart/html/index.php) of which the USGS component is the National Water Census (http://water.usgs.gov/watercensus/WaterSMART.html). The content and methodology of the new GUI interface emulates those of the original DSS with a few exceptions listed below. Refer to Bovee and others (2007) for the original information. Significant alterations to the original DSS include: • We moved from Excel-based data storage and processing to a more powerful database back end powered by SQLite. The most notable effect of this is that the previous maximum temporal extent of 10 years has been replaced by a dynamic extent that can now cover the entire period of record for which we have data (1928–2000). • We incorporated interactive geographic information system (GIS

  5. Delaware GK-12: Improvement of Science Education in Vocational Technical High Schools Through Collaborative Learning and Coteaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J.; Skalak, K.; Watson, G.; Scantlebury, K.; Allen, D.; Quillen, A.

    2006-12-01

    With funding from the National Science Foundation, the University of Delaware (UD) in partnership with the New Castle County Vocational Technical School District (NCCoVoTech) in Delaware has initiated a GK-12 Program. In each of year this program, nine full time UD graduate students in the sciences, who have completed all or most of their coursework, will be selected to serve as fellows. Participation in the GK-12 program benefits the graduate fellows in many ways. In addition to gaining general insight into current issues of science education, the fellows enhance their experience as scientific researchers by directly improving their ability to effectively communicate complex quantitative and technical knowledge to an audience with multiple and diverse learning needs. In the first year of this project, fellows have been paired with high school science teachers from NCCoVoTech. These pairs, along with the principal investigators (PIs) of this program have formed a learning community that is taking this opportunity to examine and to reflect on current issues in science education while specifically addressing critical needs in teaching science in vocational technical high schools. By participating in summer workshops and follow-up meetings facilitated by the PIs, the fellows have been introduced to a number of innovative teaching strategies including problem-based learning (PBL). Fellow/teacher pairs have begun to develop and teach PBL activities that are in agreement with State of Delaware science standards and that support student learning through inquiry. Fellows also have the opportunity to engage in coteaching with their teacher partner. In this "teaching at the elbow of another", fellows will gain a better understanding of and appreciation for the complexities and nuances of teaching science in vocational technical high schools. While not taught as a stand-alone course in NCCoVoTech high schools, earth science topics are integrated into the science curriculum at

  6. Manufacturing methods for machining spring ends parallel at loaded length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinke, Patrick Thomas (Inventor); Benson, Dwayne M. (Inventor); Atkins, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A first end surface of a coiled compression spring at its relaxed length is machined to a plane transverse to the spring axis. The spring is then placed in a press structure having first and second opposed planar support surfaces, with the machined spring end surface bearing against the first support surface, the unmachined spring end surface bearing against a planar first surface of a lateral force compensation member, and an opposite, generally spherically curved surface of the compensation member bearing against the second press structure support surface. The spring is then compressed generally to its loaded length, and a circumferentially spaced series of marks, lying in a plane parallel to the second press structure support surface, are formed on the spring coil on which the second spring end surface lies. The spring is then removed from the press structure, and the second spring end surface is machined to the mark plane. When the spring is subsequently compressed to its loaded length the precisely parallel relationship between the machined spring end surfaces substantially eliminates undesirable lateral deflection of the spring.

  7. Carbamazepine breakthrough as indicator for specific vulnerability of karst springs: application on the Jeita spring, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, J.; Geyer, T.; Noedler, K.; Sauter, M.

    2014-12-01

    The pharmaceutical drug carbamazepine is considered an effective wastewater marker. The varying concentration of this drug was analyzed in a mature karst spring following a precipitation event. The results show that carbamazepine is an indicator of wastewater entering the system through a fast flow pathway, leading to an increase of the drug concentrations in spring water shortly after a strong rainfall event. The analysis of the breakthrough curve of carbamazepine along with the electrical conductivity signal and major ions chemograph allowed the development of a conceptual model for precipitation event-based flow and transport in the investigated karst system. Furthermore the amount of newly recharged water and the mass of carbamazepine reaching the aquifer system during the event could be estimated using a simple mixing approach. The distance between the karst spring and the potential carbamazepine source was estimated by the combination of results from artificial tracer tests and the carbamazepine breakthrough curve. The assessment of spring responses to precipitation event using persistent drugs like carbamazepine helps assess the effect of waste water contamination at a spring and gives therefore insights to the specific vulnerability of a karst spring.

  8. Benthic organisms data collected using sediment sampler and net casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms in the New York Blight from 1957-06-19 to 1978-07-20 (NCEI Accession 8000013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms data were collected using sediment sampler and net casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms in the New York Blight from 19 June 1957 to...

  9. Bacteriology data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean during the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS-Mid Atlantic Ocean) project, 05 November 1976 - 16 August 1977 (NODC Accession 7800207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 5, 1976 to August 16, 1977....

  10. Raw and modified raw continuous resistivity profiling data collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 15, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  11. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1971-04-01 to 1972-10-01 (NCEI Accession 7300061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile were collected from XBT casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms from 01 April 1971 to 01 October 1972. Data were collected by the...

  12. Zooplankton data from zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 03 November 1976 - 18 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7800340)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 3, 1976 to November 18,...

  13. IR_ROUTES_CALIB.SHP: Shot-point calibrated trackline navigation for chirp seismic data collected in Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  14. JD105HYPACK.SHP: Parsed HYPACK navigation from April 15, 2010 of U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA in Indian River Bay, Delaware (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  15. IR_SEISNAV.SHP: Unique shot point navigation for chirp seismic data collected in Indian River Bay, Delaware, April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  16. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV in the NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 1986-09-14 to 1986-10-23 (NCEI Accession 8700163)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data...

  17. Preliminary assessment of the effects of Delaware Bay water and a known endocrine disrupting compound on horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) using proteomics and observation of embryonic development and survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The eggs, larvae, and juveniles of horseshoe crabs (L. polyphemus) contribute significantly to the forage base of many species in Delaware Bay. The eggs also provide...

  18. On the Usefulness of Radioactive Hot Springs in Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, J. C.; Bywaters, K. F.; Magnuson, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    We report on a systematic characterization of the radiation environment, water temperatures, and microbial systems of Worswick Hot Springs, as a model for future characterization of polar hot spring environments.

  19. Initial Survey Instructions for Spring Water Monitoring : Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.04 spring water monitoring (quality) and 1.06 management unit water monitoring (quality) at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge....

  20. Automobile trip to Fish Springs, March 16, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These memoranda describe trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The purpose of these trips was to access the condition of the land in the Fish Springs area.

  1. Initial Survey Instructions for Spring Water Monitoring : Flow

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for the Spring Water Monitoring - Flow 1.02 survey at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This coop baseline monitoring survey has...

  2. Archaeological resources of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Preliminary report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document presents results of an archeological survey of two caves located in the Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. It was concluded that the Fish Springs...

  3. Hydrochemical Characteristics of Springs in Oke–Igbo, Ondo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    The presence of bacteria count and Escherichia coli in the springs' water indicated fecal pollution ... The regional geology of Ondo state in which the ... Samples for metals assay were .... of the rock types of the aquifers the springs evolved from.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION & NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. JADHAO,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Automobile Industry has shown keen interest for replacement of steel leaf spring with that of glass fiber composite leaf spring, since the composite material has high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and tailor-able properties. The objective of present study was to replace material for leaf spring. In present study the material selected was glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP and the polyester resin (NETPOL 1011 can be used which was more economical this will reduce total cost of composite leaf spring. A spring with constant width and thickness was fabricated by hand lay-up technique which was very simple and economical. The experiments were conducted on UTM and numerical analysis was done via (FEA using ANSYS software. Stresses and deflection results were verified for analytical and experimental results. Result shows that, the composite spring has stresses much lower than steel leaf spring and weight of composite spring was nearly reduced up to 85%.

  5. The New Media and Arab Spring: A Critical Analysis | Anorue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study critically examined the new media and the Arab awakening phenomenon ... for action as exemplified in its contribution to the success recorded in the Arab spring, it would ... Key words: new media, Arab spring and social movement ...

  6. 1990 snowy plover status report : Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Status report on snowy plovers at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge for 1990. This report discusses the Fish Springs snowy plover population estimates, available...

  7. Quaternary geology of Fish Springs flat, Juab county, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish Springs Flat is a sediment-filled valley between two tilted mountain blocks, the Thomas Range and the Fish Springs Range, in the Basin and Range physiographic...

  8. Cavity optomechanical spring sensing of single molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenyan; Jiang, Wei C.; Lin, Qiang; Lu, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Label-free bio-sensing is a critical functionality underlying a variety of health- and security-related applications. Micro-/nano-photonic devices are well suited for this purpose and have emerged as promising platforms in recent years. Here we propose and demonstrate an approach that utilizes the optical spring effect in a high-Q coherent optomechanical oscillator to dramatically enhance the sensing resolution by orders of magnitude compared with conventional approaches, allowing us to detect single bovine serum albumin proteins with a molecular weight of 66 kDa at a signal-to-noise ratio of 16.8. The unique optical spring sensing approach opens up a distinctive avenue that not only enables biomolecule sensing and recognition at individual level, but is also of great promise for broad physical sensing applications that rely on sensitive detection of optical cavity resonance shift to probe external physical parameters.

  9. Springing response due to bidirectional wave excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2005-01-01

    theories deal with the unidirectional wave excitation. This is quite standard. The problem is how to include more than one directional wave systems described by a wave spectrum with arbitrary heading. The main objective of the present work has been to account for the additional second-order springing...... a discrepancy with full-scale measurements exists, but worse is that no tendency in the measurement trend is captured. An important source of high frequency springing excitation is undoubtedly missing. The full-scale measurements that are presented in the thesis and have been used for the validation are unique...... because, to the author's knowledge, this is the first time that the wave data were collected simultaneously with stress records on the deck of the ship. This is highly appreciated because one can use the precise input and not only the most probable sea state statistics. The actual picture of the sea waves...

  10. Virus Silicification under Simulated Hot Spring Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidler, James R.; Stedman, Kenneth M.

    2010-07-01

    Silicification of organisms in silica-depositing environments can impact both their ecology and their presence in the fossil record. Although microbes have been silicified under laboratory and environmental conditions, viruses have not. Bacteriophage T4 was successfully silicified under laboratory conditions that closely simulated those found in silica-depositing hot springs. Virus morphology was maintained, and a clear elemental signature of phosphorus was detected by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry (EDS).

  11. Reports of the AAAI 2010 Spring Symposia

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, in cooperation with Stanford University’s Department of Computer Science, is pleased to present the 2010 Spring Symposium Series, to be held Monday through Wednesday, March 22–24, 2010 at Stanford University. The titles of the seven symposia are Artificial Intelligence for Development; Cognitive Shape Processing; Educational Robotics and Beyond: Design and Evaluation; Embedded Reasoning: Intelligence in Embedded Systems Intellige...

  12. Dynamical behavior of disordered spring networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yucht, M. G.; Sheinman, M.; Broedersz, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    We study the dynamical rheology of spring networks with a percolation model constructed by bond dilution in a two-dimensional triangular lattice. Hydrodynamic interactions are implemented by a Stokesian viscous coupling between the network nodes and a uniformly deforming liquid. Our simulations show that in a critical connectivity regime, these systems display weak power law rheology in which the complex shear modulus scales with frequency as G^* ~ (i * omega)^Delta where Delta = 0.41, in dis...

  13. A survey of GFRP composite leaf spring

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh, S.; S. Nakkeran; GB. Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Although leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components, they are still frequently used in the automobile vehicles. Weight reduction is the main focus in the automobile industries. Weight reduction can be achieved primarily by the introduction of better materials, design optimization, and better manufacturing processes. The achievement of weight reduction with adequate improvement of mechanical properties has made composite a very good replacement material for conventional steel. Se...

  14. AAAI 2001 Spring Symposium Series Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Fesq, Lorraine; Atkins, Ella; Khatib, Lina (PhD); Pecheur, Charles; Cohen, Paul R.; Stein, Lynn Andrea; van Lent, Michael; Laird, John; Provetti, A.; Cao, S. Tran

    2001-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, in cooperation with Stanford University's Department of Computer Science, presented the 2001 Spring Symposium Series on Monday through Wednesday, 26 to 28 March 2001, at Stanford University. The titles of the seven symposia were (1) Answer Set Programming: Toward Efficient and Scalable Knowledge, Representation and Reasoning, (2) Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Entertainment, (3) Game-Theoretic and Decision-Theoretic Agen...

  15. Effects on wildlife of aerial applications of strobane, DDT, and BHC to tidal marshes in Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J.L.; Darsie, R.F.; Springer, P.F.

    1957-01-01

    The principal purpose of this study was to ascertain what effect on wildlife, if any, would result from the use of the new insecticide, Strobane, for mosquito control on tideland areas. Comparisons were made with DDT and BHC (43 per cent gamma isomer) commonly used in control operations. The investigation was carried out on the tidal marshes of Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge near Smyrna, Delaware. Four areas, all similar in habitat, were chosen-three as test plots for Strobane, BHC, and DDT, respectively, and the fourth as an untreated check. The insecticides in oil solution were applied by airplane at the rates of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 pound per acre for gamma isomer of BHC, DDT, and Strobane, respectively. The first application was made on the morning of July 27; and the second, on the evening of August 23, 1955. To assay the results of spraying, 14 testing devices were set up in each area. They consisted of cages, traps, and microscope slides placed in the streams and ponds. The estuarine fishes, Fundulus heteroclitus, Cyprinodon variegatus, Leiostornus xanthurus, and Ailugil curemu; blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus; fiddler crabs, Uca pugnux, Uca minux, and Sesarma reticulaturn; and certain sessile organisms were included in the tests. Analyses of variance on fish and blue crabs showed no significant difference between deaths occurring in treated and control plots, nor among the three treatments. Differential mortalities were suffered by fish caged in streams and ponds. Greater numbers died in the BHC-treated streams and in the DDT-treated ponds. Local concentrations of insecticide appeared to be the cause, although the magnitude of kill was not significantly greater than in control areas. Field observations and crab-pot counts showed that both the fish and blue crabs avoided the sites of high insecticide concentration. Certainly the majority of the free-living individuals in the treated areas were able to survive the sprays, and at the level tested showed no

  16. Ground-Water Quality in the Delaware River Basin, New York, 2001 and 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Federal Clean Water Act Amendments of 1977 require that States monitor and report on the quality of ground water and surface water. To satisfy part of these requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation have developed a program in which ground-water quality is assessed in 2 to 3 of New York State's 14 major basins each year. To characterize the quality of ground water in the Delaware River Basin in New York, water samples were collected from December 2005 to February 2006 from 10 wells finished in bedrock. Data from 9 samples collected from wells finished in sand and gravel in July and August 2001 for the National Water Quality Assessment Program also are included. Ground-water samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures. Samples were analyzed for more than 230 properties and compounds, including physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon-222, pesticides and pesticide degradates, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. Concentrations of most compounds were less than drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and New York State Department of Health; many of the organic analytes were not detected in any sample. Drinking-water standards that were exceeded at some sites include those for color, turbidity, pH, aluminum, arsenic, iron, manganese, radon-222, and bacteria. pH ranged from 5.6 to 8.3; the pH of nine samples was less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water standard range of 6.5 to 8.5. Water in the basin is generally soft to moderately hard (hardness 120 milligrams per liter as CaCO3 or less). The cation with the highest median concentration was calcium; the anion with the highest median concentrations was bicarbonate. Nitrate was the predominant nutrient detected but no sample exceeded the 10 mg/L U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level. The

  17. 75 FR 76293 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications..., allots FM Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs, Arizona, in order to maintain a first local service at that community. Channel 281C3 can be allotted at Peach Springs, Arizona, in compliance with the...

  18. 77 FR 54493 - Special Anchorage Area; Stockton Springs, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... Number USCG-2012-0172] RIN 1625-AA01 Special Anchorage Area; Stockton Springs, ME AGENCY: Coast Guard... anchorage area in Stockton Springs, Maine. This proposed action is necessary to facilitate safe navigation.... This action is intended to increase the safety of life and property in Stockton Springs, improve...

  19. 75 FR 3694 - Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... Media Licenses, LLC, proposing the allotment of FM Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs, Arizona. The reference coordinates for Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs are 35-33-46 NL and 113-27-12 WL. DATES:...

  20. 78 FR 25861 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... Springs, Arizona. (The symbol `` '' will be used to denote a channel reserved as a Tribal Allotment.) Channel 265A can be allotted at Peach Springs, consistent with the minimum distance...