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Sample records for delaware bay eastern

  1. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  2. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Grabs 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  3. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  4. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  5. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  6. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  7. Delaware Bay, Delaware Sediment Distribution 2003 to 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 38 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2003 to 2004 along the middle to lower Delaware Bay Coast. The bottom sediment map...

  8. 33 CFR 165.511 - Security Zone; Atlantic Ocean, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... escorted passenger vessels in the Captain of the Port, Delaware Bay zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.25-05. (b... vessel in order to ensure safe passage in accordance with the Navigation Rules as seen in 33 CFR...

  9. Delaware Bay Database; Delaware Sea Grant College Program, 28 June 1988 (NODC Accession 8900151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delaware Bay database contains records of discrete quality observations, collected on 40 oceanographic cruises between May 1978 and October 1985. Each record...

  10. Evaluation of Contaminant Residues in Delaware Bay Bald Eagle Nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagle (Naliacetus leucocephalus) nesting attempts have steadily increased over the past decade in the Delaware Bay and River drainage basin; however, nesting...

  11. 33 CFR 334.120 - Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.120 Section 334.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....120 Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular...

  12. 33 CFR 167.173 - Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.173 Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic...

  13. Rapid population decline in red knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, AJ; Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Niles, LJ; do Nascimento, IDS; Atkinson, PW; Clark, NA; Minton, CDT; Peck, MK; Aarts, G.

    2004-01-01

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego, which undertakes marathon 30,000 km hemispheric migrations annually. In spring, migrant birds forage voraciously on horseshoe crab eggs in Delaware Bay in the eastern USA before departing to breed in A...

  14. Delaware Bay Upper Shelf Bottom Sediments 2008-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  15. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Delaware Bay Summary Database (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  16. Summary of the 1998 Spawning Survey of Horseshoe Crabs Along the Delaware Bay Shore

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The spawning survey of horseshoe crabs was conducted along the shores of Delaware Bay for the ninth year. Counts of spawning horseshoe crabs was performed by trained...

  17. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Delaware Bay Summary Database (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system...

  18. Surface Currents and Winds at the Delaware Bay Mouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscarella, P A; Barton, N P; Lipphardt, B L; Veron, D E; Wong, K C; Kirwan, A D

    2011-04-06

    Knowledge of the circulation of estuaries and adjacent shelf waters has relied on hydrographic measurements, moorings, and local wind observations usually removed from the region of interest. Although these observations are certainly sufficient to identify major characteristics, they lack both spatial resolution and temporal coverage. High resolution synoptic observations are required to identify important coastal processes at smaller scales. Long observation periods are needed to properly sample low-frequency processes that may also be important. The introduction of high-frequency (HF) radar measurements and regional wind models for coastal studies is changing this situation. Here we analyze synoptic, high-resolution surface winds and currents in the Delaware Bay mouth over an eight-month period (October 2007 through May 2008). The surface currents were measured by two high-frequency radars while the surface winds were extracted from a data-assimilating regional wind model. To illustrate the utility of these monitoring tools we focus on two 45-day periods which previously were shown to present contrasting pictures of the circulation. One, the low-outflow period is from 1 October through 14 November 2007; the other is the high-outflow period from 3 March through 16 April 2008. The large-scale characteristics noted by previous workers are clearly corroborated. Specifically the M2 tide dominates the surface currents, and the Delaware Bay outflow plume is clearly evident in the low frequency currents. Several new aspects of the surface circulation were also identified. These include a map of the spatial variability of the M2 tide (validating an earlier model study), persistent low-frequency cross-mouth flow, and a rapid response of the surface currents to a changing wind field. However, strong wind episodes did not persist long enough to set up a sustained Ekman response.

  19. Mycobacterial infections in striped bass from Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, C.A.; Brown, J.J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Starliper, C.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Weyers, H.S.; Beauchamp, K.A.; Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.

    2007-01-01

    Eighty striped bass Morone saxatilis were obtained from Delaware Bay using commercial gill nets set adjacent to Woodland Beach (n = 70) and Bowers Beach (n = 10) in December 2003. Fish were examined for gross lesions. Total lengths (TLs) and eviscerated weights were determined to calculate condition factors (K). Portions of spleens were aseptically harvested for bacterial culture, and portions of spleens, kidneys (anterior and posterior), livers, and gonads were obtained for histological examination. The size distribution of the striped bass was relatively homogeneous; the mean TL was about 600 mm for all samples. Mean K exceeded 0.95 in all samples and was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among samples. Significant differences in mycobacterial infection prevalence (P ??? 0.05) were observed among samples; samples obtained at Woodland Beach (WB) on December 10 (53.8%, n = 13) and December 17 (7.1%, n = 42) exhibited the most striking differences in prevalence. Mycobacterial infection intensity ranged from 1 ?? 102 to 1 ?? 107 colony-forming units per gram of spleen. Acanthocephalan infection prevalence and intensity, non-acid-fast bacterial infection prevalence, and fish sex ratio were also significantly different among the samples (P ??? 0.05). Similar to the mycobacterial infections, differences in sex ratio, acanthocephalan infection, and non-acid-fast bacterial infection were observed between the WB samples taken on December 10 and 17. However, no significant associations (P > 0.05) were observed between sex ratio or these infections and mycobacterial infection. The differences in bacterial and parasite infection prevalence and intensity and fish sex ratio in some samples indicate that these fish had a different history and that the epizootiology of mycobacterial infection in striped bass from Delaware Bay may be relatively complex. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  20. Composition and temporal patterns of larval fish communities in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparing larval fish assemblages in different estuaries provides insights about the coastal distribution of larval populations, larval transport, and adult spawning locations (Ribeiro et al. 2015. We simultaneously compared the larval fish assemblages entering two Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB estuaries (Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay, USA through weekly sampling from 2007 to 2009. In total, 43 taxa (32 families and 36 taxa (24 families were collected in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, respectively. Mean taxonomic diversity, mean richness, and evenness were generally lower in Delaware Bay. Communities of both bays were dominated by Anchoa spp., Gobiosoma spp., Micropogonias undulatus, and Brevoortia tyrannus; Paralichthys spp. was more abundant in Delaware Bay and Microgobius thalassinus was more abundant in Chesapeake Bay. Inter-annual variation in the larval fish communities was low at both sites, with a relatively consistent composition across years, but strong seasonal (intra-annual variation in species composition occurred in both bays. Two groups were identified in Chesapeake Bay: a ‘winter’ group dominated by shelf-spawned species (e.g. M. undulatus and a ‘summer’ group comprising obligate estuarine species and coastal species (e.g. Gobiosoma spp. and Cynoscion regalis, respectively. In Delaware Bay, 4 groups were identified: a ‘summer’ group of mainly obligate estuarine fishes (e.g. Menidia sp. being replaced by a ‘fall’ group (e.g. Ctenogobius boleosoma and Gobionellus oceanicus; ‘winter’ and ‘spring’ groups were dominated by shelf-spawned (e.g. M. undulatus and Paralichthys spp. and obligate estuarine species (e.g. Leiostomus xanthurus and Pseudopleuronectes americanus, respectively. This study demonstrates that inexpensive and simultaneous sampling in different estuaries provides important insights into the variability in community structure of fish assemblages at large spatial scales.

  1. Measuring Macrobenthos Biodiversity at Oyster Aquaculture Sites in the Delaware Inland Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, M. J.; Ozbay, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Delaware Inland Bays consists of three shallow coastal bays located in the southern portion of Delaware. Anthropogenic activities have led to the degradation of water quality, because the bays are surrounded by highly developed areas and have low flushing rates. This results in loss of biodiversity and abundance of organisms. Ongoing degradation of the bays has led to a dramatic decline in local oyster populations since the late 1800s. Oysters are keystone species, which provide habitats for organisms and help to improve water quality. This study aims to find if the introduction of oyster aquaculture improves local biodiversity and abundance of macrobenthos. The study was conducted in Rehoboth Bay, Indian River Bay and Little Assawoman Bay. Aquaculture gear was placed at one location in each of the bays and 24 sediment core samples were taken once a month. From these core samples all worms were fixed and stained in a 10% Formalin Rose Bengal solution and preserved in 70% Ethanol for later identification. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of oyster tissue will also be performed to assess the health of the bay. The goals of this research are to better understand the role of oyster aquaculture in restoring the viability and health of the Delaware Inland Bays.

  2. 78 FR 63972 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report... methodology proposed to be used in the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report is...: Comments will be accepted via email to john.yagecic@drbc.state.nj.us , with ``Water Quality Assessment 2014...

  3. 76 FR 50188 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality... methodology proposed to be used in the 2012 Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality Assessment is... to 609-883-9522; by U.S. Mail to DRBC, Attn: Water Quality Assessment 2012, P.O. Box 7360, West...

  4. Rapid population decline in red knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allan J; González, Patricia M; Piersma, Theunis; Niles, Lawrence J; do Nascimento, Inês de Lima Serrano; Atkinson, Philip W; Clark, Nigel A; Minton, Clive D T; Peck, Mark K; Aarts, Geert

    2004-04-22

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego, which undertakes marathon 30,000 km hemispheric migrations annually. In spring, migrant birds forage voraciously on horseshoe crab eggs in Delaware Bay in the eastern USA before departing to breed in Arctic polar deserts. From 1997 to 2002 an increasing proportion of knots failed to reach threshold departure masses of 180-200 g, possibly because of later arrival in the Bay and food shortage from concurrent over-harvesting of crabs. Reduced nutrient storage, especially in late-arriving birds, possibly combined with reduced sizes of intestine and liver during refuelling, had severe fitness consequences for adult survival and recruitment of young in 2000-2002. From 1997 to 2002 known survivors in Delaware Bay were heavier at initial capture than birds never seen again, annual survival of adults decreased by 37% between May 2000 and May 2001, and the number of second-year birds in wintering flocks declined by 47%. Population size in Tierra del Fuego declined alarmingly from 51,000 to 27,000 in 2000-2002, seriously threatening the viability of this subspecies. Demographic modelling predicts imminent endangerment and an increased risk of extinction of the subspecies without urgent risk-averse management.

  5. RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Data Points - Rehoboth Bay, Delaware Algae Mapping with Single Beam Acoustics: June 12 - 16, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs(DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  6. NOAA Office for Coastal Management RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Benthic Habitat Data, Rehoboth Bay, Delaware, 2000 (NODC Accession 0089461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs (DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  7. Biological, chemical, and physical data collected in Delaware Bay from 2 Sep 1997 to 8 Oct 1997 (NODC Accession 0118720)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  8. Comparative status and assessment of Limulus polyphemus with emphasis on the New England and Delaware Bay populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Millard, Michael J.; Carmichael, Ruth H.

    2009-01-01

    Increases in harvest of the American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) during the 1990s, particularly for whelk bait, coupled with decreases in species that depend on their eggs has reduced horseshoe crab abundance, threatened their ecological relationships, and dictated precautionary management of the horseshoe crab resource. Accordingly, population assessments and monitoring programs have been developed throughout much of the horseshoe crab’s range. We review and discuss implications for several recent assessments of Delaware Bay and New England populations and a meta-analysis of region-specific trends. These assessments show that the western Atlantic distribution of the horseshoe crab is comprised of regional or estuarine-specific meta-populations, which exhibit distinct population dynamics and require management as separate units. Modeling of Delaware Bay and Cape Cod populations confirmed that overharvest caused declines, but indicated that some harvest levels are sustainable and consistent with population growth. Coast-wide harvest was reduced by 70% from 1998 to 2006, with the greatest reductions within Delaware Bay states. Harvest regulations in Delaware Bay starting in the late 1990s, such as harvest quotas, seasonal closures, male-only harvest, voluntary use of bait-saving devices, and establishment of the Carl N. Shuster Jr. Horseshoe Crab Reserve, were followed by stabilization and recent evidence of increase in abundance of horseshoe crabs in the region. However, decreased harvest of the Delaware Bay population has redirected harvest to outlying populations, particularly in New York and New England. While the recent Delaware Bay assessments indicate positive population growth, increased harvest elsewhere is believed to be unsustainable. Two important considerations for future assessments include (1) managing Delaware Bay horseshoe crab populations within a multi-species context, for example, to help support migratory shorebirds and (2

  9. Effects of horseshoe crab harvest in delaware bay on red knots: Are harvest restrictions working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, L.J.; Bart, J.; Sitters, H.P.; Dey, A.D.; Clark, K.E.; Atkinson, P.W.; Baker, A.J.; Bennett, K.A.; Kalasz, K.S.; Clark, N.A.; Clark, J.; Gillings, S.; Gates, A.S.; Gonzalez, P.M.; Hernandez, D.E.; Minton, C.D.T.; Morrison, R.I.G.; Porter, R.R.; Ross, R.K.; Veitch, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Each May, red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) congregate in Delaware Bay during their northward migration to feed on horseshoe crab eggs (Limulus polyphemus) and refuel for breeding in the Arctic. During the 1990s, the Delaware Bay harvest of horseshoe crabs for bait increased 10-fold, leading to a more than 90% decline in the availability of their eggs for knots. The proportion of knots achieving weights of more than 180 grams by 26-28 May, their main departure period, dropped from 0.6-0.8 to 0.14-0.4 over 1997-2007. During the same period, the red knot population stopping in Delaware Bay declined by more than 75%, in part because the annual survival rate of adult knots wintering in Tierra del Fuego declined. Despite restrictions, the 2007 horseshoe crab harvest was still greater than the 1990 harvest, and no recovery of knots was detectable. We propose an adaptive management strategy with recovery goals and annual monitoring that, if adopted, will both allow red knot and horseshoe crab populations to recover and permit a sustainable harvest of horseshoe crabs.

  10. Multispecies modeling for adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and red knots in the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David; Sweka, John A.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; Wong, Richard; Lyons, James E.; Niles, Lawrence J.; Kalasz, Kevin; Brust, Jeffrey; Klopfer, Michelle; Spear, Braddock

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management requires that predictive models be explicit and transparent to improve decisions by comparing management actions, directing further research and monitoring, and facilitating learning. The rufa subspecies of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa), which has recently exhibited steep population declines, relies on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs as their primary food source during stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. We present a model with two different parameterizations for use in the adaptive management of horseshoe crab harvests in the Delaware Bay that links red knot mass gain, annual survival, and fecundity to horseshoe crab dynamics. The models reflect prevailing hypotheses regarding ecological links between these two species. When reported crab harvest from 1998 to 2008 was applied, projections corresponded to the observed red knot population abundances depending on strengths of the demographic relationship between these species. We compared different simulated horseshoe crab harvest strategies to evaluate whether, given this model, horseshoe crab harvest management can affect red knot conservation and found that restricting harvest can benefit red knot populations. Our model is the first to explicitly and quantitatively link these two species and will be used within an adaptive management framework to manage the Delaware Bay system and learn more about the specific nature of the linkage between the two species.

  11. Organochlorine contaminant exposure and effects in pipping black-crowned night-herons in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Olsen, G.H.; Parsons, K.C.; Schmidt, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Pea Patch Island in Delaware Bay is the site of the largest heronry north of Florida. From 1989-93. the population of 9 species of wading birds numbered approximately 12,000 pairs. but has recently declined to 7,000 pairs. Because Delaware Bay is a major shipping channel. and receives anthropogenic releases of toxic substances from agricultural, industrial and municipal point and nonpoint sources, contaminant exposure and effects to the heronry have been an ongoing concern. In 1997, piping black-crowned night-herons (BCNHs) wee collected from separate nests at Pea Patch Island (N=l5), and from a coastal reference site, Middle Island (N=9), in Rehoboth Bay. DE. There was neither evidence of malformations nor hepatic histopathological lesions, and body and liver weights did not differ between sites. Biomarkers of petroleum hydrocarbons, polyhalogenated contaminant and metal exposure (cytochrome P450 induction and oxidative stress responses) did not differ (P>0.05) between sites, however, activities of benzyloxy- and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were greater in 3 of 15 embryos from Pea Patch Island compared to Middle Island. Concentrations of 21 organochlorine pesticides and metabolites were relatively low at both sites. with p,.p'DDE values well below the threshold associated with eggshell thinning. Although total PCB concentration was modestly elevated (Pdioxins, dibenzofurans and Toxic Equivalents were low and did not differ between sites. Surprisingly, organochlorine contaminant exposure and effects in Delaware Bay BCNHs appear to be considerably less than that observed and recently reported (ETC 16:2315-2322,1997) for herons residing in the Chesapeake Bay.

  12. Mercury concentrations in tidal marsh sparrows and their use as bioindicators in Delaware Bay, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Sarah E; Shriver, W Gregory; Pepper, Margaret A; Taylor, Robert J

    2010-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination from industrial sources is pervasive throughout North America and is recognized by the US Environmental Protection Agency as a health hazard for wildlife and humans. Avian species are commonly used as bioindicators of Hg because they are sensitive to contaminants in the environment and are relatively easy to sample. However, it is important to select the appropriate avian species to use as a bioindicator, which should be directly related to the project objectives. In this study, we tested the utility of two tidal marsh sparrows, Seaside (Ammodramus maritimus) and Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) sparrows, as bioindicator species of the extent of Hg contamination in tidal marshes along the Delaware Bay. To determine the possibility of using one or both of these species, we estimated sparrow blood Hg burden in five Delaware watersheds. We found no difference in Hg concentrations between species (F (1,133) bioindicator species given their habitat specificity, relative abundance, widespread distribution in marsh habitats, ease of sampling, and limited variation in blood Hg estimates within a sampling area. In Delaware Bay, Saltmarsh Sparrows may be too rare (making them difficult to sample) to be a viable tidal marsh Hg bioindicator.

  13. Impact of sea level rise on tidal range in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Serena Blyth; Li, Ming; Zhang, Fan

    2017-05-01

    Coastal inundation is affected not only by rising mean sea level but also by changing tides. A numerical model is developed to investigate how sea level rise and coastline changes may impact tides in two coastal-plain estuaries, Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay. Despite their different tidal characteristics, the two estuaries display similar responses to the sea level rise and shoreline management scenarios. When hypothetic sea walls are erected at the present coastline to prevent low-lying land from flooding, tidal range increases, with greater amplification in the upper part of the two estuaries. When low-lying land is allowed to become permanently inundated by higher sea level, however, tidal range in both estuaries decreases. Analyses of the tidal energy budget show that the increased dissipation over the shallow water and newly inundated areas compensates for the reduced dissipation in deep water, leading to smaller tidal range. The changes in the tidal range are not proportional to the changes in the mean sea level, indicating a nonlinear tidal response to sea level rise. The ratio of tidal range change to sea level rise varies between -0.05 and 0.1 in Chesapeake Bay and between -0.2 and 0.25 in Delaware Bay. The model results suggest a potential adaptation strategy that uses inundation over low-lying areas to reduce tidal range at up-estuary locations.

  14. Implementation of a framework for multi-species, multi-objective adaptive management in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David R.; Nichols, James D.; Lyons, James E.; Sweka, John A.; Kalasz, Kevin; Niles, Lawrence J.; Wong, Richard; Brust, Jeffrey; Davis, Michelle C.; Spear, Braddock

    2015-01-01

    Decision analytic approaches have been widely recommended as well suited to solving disputed and ecologically complex natural resource management problems with multiple objectives and high uncertainty. However, the difference between theory and practice is substantial, as there are very few actual resource management programs that represent formal applications of decision analysis. We applied the process of structured decision making to Atlantic horseshoe crab harvest decisions in the Delaware Bay region to develop a multispecies adaptive management (AM) plan, which is currently being implemented. Horseshoe crab harvest has been a controversial management issue since the late 1990s. A largely unregulated horseshoe crab harvest caused a decline in crab spawning abundance. That decline coincided with a major decline in migratory shorebird populations that consume horseshoe crab eggs on the sandy beaches of Delaware Bay during spring migration. Our approach incorporated multiple stakeholders, including fishery and shorebird conservation advocates, to account for diverse management objectives and varied opinions on ecosystem function. Through consensus building, we devised an objective statement and quantitative objective function to evaluate alternative crab harvest policies. We developed a set of competing ecological models accounting for the leading hypotheses on the interaction between shorebirds and horseshoe crabs. The models were initially weighted based on stakeholder confidence in these hypotheses, but weights will be adjusted based on monitoring and Bayesian model weight updating. These models were used together to predict the effects of management actions on the crab and shorebird populations. Finally, we used a dynamic optimization routine to identify the state dependent optimal harvest policy for horseshoe crabs, given the possible actions, the stated objectives and our competing hypotheses about system function. The AM plan was reviewed, accepted and

  15. Niche dynamics of shorebirds in Delaware Bay: Foraging behavior, habitat choice and migration timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novcic, Ivana

    2016-08-01

    Niche differentiation through resource partitioning is seen as one of the most important mechanisms of diversity maintenance contributing to stable coexistence of different species within communities. In this study, I examined whether four species of migrating shorebirds, dunlins (Calidris alpina), semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), least sandpipers (Calidris minutilla) and short-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus), segregate by time of passage, habitat use and foraging behavior at their major stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. I tested the prediction that most of the separation between morphologically similar species will be achieved by differential migration timing. Despite the high level of overlap along observed niche dimensions, this study demonstrates a certain level of ecological separation between migrating shorebirds. The results of analyses suggest that differential timing of spring migration might be the most important dimension along which shorebird species segregate while at stopover in Delaware Bay. Besides differences in time of passage, species exhibited differences in habitat use, particularly least sandpipers that foraged in vegetated areas of tidal marshes more frequently than other species, as well as short-billed dowitchers that foraged in deeper water more often than small sandpipers did. Partitioning along foraging techniques was less prominent than segregation along temporal or microhabitat dimensions. Such ranking of niche dimensions emphasizes significance of temporal segregation of migratory species - separation of species by time of passage may reduce the opportunity for interspecific aggressive encounters, which in turn can have positive effects on birds' time and energy budget during stopover period.

  16. 33 CFR 162.40 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., between Reedy Point, Delaware River, and Old Town Point Wharf, Elk River. (b) Speed. No vessel in the..., are required to travel at all times at a safe speed throughout the canal and its approaches so as to...

  17. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers RWJ Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Niles, Lawrence [Conserve Wildlife, 109 Market Lane, Greenwich, NJ (United States); Dey, Amanda [NJ Department of Environmental Protection, Endangered and Nongame Species Program, Trenton, NJ (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Rd, Bernardsville, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-15

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  18. Faunal community use of enhanced and natural oyster reefs in Delaware Bay: A field study and classroom inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Jenny L.

    In addition to its value as a fisheries resource, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, is a reef building, cornerstone species that provides ecosystem services to the environment. Oysters provide habitat for associated resident and transient species. With widespread declines in oyster populations, restoration efforts have focused on improving oyster stocks and enhancing the ecosystem services they provide. Community-based oyster restoration programs engage the public and local community in planning, construction and/or monitoring of restoration projects. Since 2007, a K-12 student centered community-based restoration venture, Project PORTS, Promoting Oyster Restoration Through Schools, has been working to educate students, promote stewardship values, and enhance oyster habitat in the Delaware Bay. The overarching goals of the present study were to (1) assess fish and macroinvertebrate utilization on the Project PORTS community-created, subtidal, low-relief oyster restoration area in the Delaware Bay, and (2) convert the data collected into a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) activity that can be implemented in the classroom. I examined six subtidal natural oyster reefs of varying oyster densities and one community-based restoration reef as habitat for fishes and invertebrates. Sampling methods on these low-relief reefs consisted of otter trawl tows and benthic habitat tray collections. Results revealed that the enhancement area supported a diverse faunal community consistent with nearby, natural oyster habitats. Data collected during the field study were then transformed into an educational lesson plan, "One Fish, Two Fish-Assessing Habitat Value of Restored Oyster Reefs", that fulfilled national and state (NJ) curriculum standards. The lesson was piloted in a middle school classroom and student learning was evaluated through summative assessments pre and post-participation in the activity. Results of the assessments indicated that

  19. Skylab/EREP application to ecological, geological, and oceanographic investigations of Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V.; Bartlett, D. S.; Philpot, W. D.; Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    Skylab/EREP S190A and S190B film products were optically enhanced and visually interpreted to extract data suitable for; (1) mapping coastal land use; (2) inventorying wetlands vegetation; (3) monitoring tidal conditions; (4) observing suspended sediment patterns; (5) charting surface currents; (6) locating coastal fronts and water mass boundaries; (7) monitoring industrial and municipal waste dumps in the ocean; (8) determining the size and flow direction of river, bay and man-made discharge plumes; and (9) observing ship traffic. Film products were visually analyzed to identify and map ten land-use and vegetation categories at a scale of 1:125,000. Digital tapes from the multispectral scanner were used to prepare thematic maps of land use. Classification accuracies obtained by comparison of derived thematic maps of land-use with USGS-CARETS land-use maps in southern Delaware ranged from 44 percent to 100 percent.

  20. Current direction and CTD data from moored current meter and CTD casts in the Delaware Bay from 01 January 1984 - 01 December 1984 (NODC Accession 8600001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and CTD data were collected using moored current meter and CTD casts in the Delaware Bay from January 1, 1984 to December 1, 1985. Data were...

  1. Current direction data from moored current meter casts in the Delaware Bay from 23 February 1976 - 23 September 1985 (NODC Accession 8600005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Delaware Bay from February 23, 1976 to September 23, 1985. Data were submitted by...

  2. Proximate causes of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus Polyphemus) of the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.R.; Mandt, M.T.; Macdonald, P.D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The unresolved status of the proximate cause for sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs has practical consequence, because harvest recommendations rely on assumptions about sex-specific growth and maturity. We propose and evaluate competing hypotheses for the proximate cause of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) by comparing size and estimated age frequencies from spring-captured juveniles (n = 9,075) and adults (n = 36,274) to predictions from the competing hypotheses. We found that the number of identifiable juvenile size distributions was greater for females than males and the probability of remaining a juvenile was higher for females than males among older juveniles. These findings are consistent with males maturing earlier than females. Molt increments and mean sizes were similar for male and female juveniles, which is not consistent with differential growth. Among adults, one size distribution accounted for ???90% of females regardless of carapace wear. Also, size ratio of adult females to males was 1.26, and size ratio of the largest adult to largest juvenile female was 1.28. These observations are not consistent with females continuing to molt as adults. Differential-maturity is the most parsimonious explanation for sexual size dimorphism in Delaware Bay horseshoe crabs. In addition, because of a low frequency of juvenile females >195 mm relative to adult females and male-biased sex ratios starting at 105 mm, we hypothesize that females, more than males, migrate as older juveniles and mature in the ocean. Management implications include that (1) minimum size limits, as previously suggested, would not allocate harvest to older adults as intended because size does not indicate age among adult horseshoe crabs in the Delaware Bay population, and (2) the Shuster Horseshoe Crab Reserve, which has reduced harvest on the continental shelf, could be protecting older juveniles and newly mature females from harvest prior to their first

  3. Effects of Microbial and Heavy Metal Contaminants on Environmental/Ecological Health and Revitalization of Coastal Ecosystems in Delaware Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnihal Ozbay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals, excess nutrients, and microbial contaminants in aquatic systems of coastal Delaware has become a public concern as human population increases and land development continues. Delaware's coastal lagoons have been subjected to problems commonly shared by other coastal Mid-Atlantic states: turbidity, sedimentation, eutrophication, periodic hypoxic/anoxic conditions, toxic substances, and high bacterial levels. The cumulative impact of pollutants from run-off and point sources has degraded water quality, reduced the diversity and abundance of various fish species, invertebrates, and submerged aquatic vegetation. The effects are especially pronounced within the manmade dead end canal systems. In this article, we present selected case studies conducted in the Delaware Inland Bays. Due to the ecological services provided by bivalves, our studies in Delaware Inland Bays are geared toward oysters with special focus on the microbial loads followed by the water quality assessments of the bay. The relationships between oysters (Crassostrea virginica, microbial loads and nutrient levels in the water were investigated. The heavy metal levels monitored further away from the waste water treatment plant in the inland bays are marginally higher than the recommended EPA limits. Also, our studies confirmed that aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae levels are salinity dependent. Total bacteria in oysters increased when nitrate and total suspended solids increased in the waters. Studies such as these are important because every year millions of Americans consume raw oysters. Data collected over the last 10 years from our studies may be used to build a predictive index of conditions that are favorable for the proliferation of human pathogenic bacteria. Results from this study will benefit the local community by helping them understand the importance of oyster aquaculture and safe consumption of oysters while making them appreciate their

  4. Age and sex specific timing, frequency, and spatial distribu-tion of horseshoe crab spawning in Delaware Bay: Insights from a large-scale radio telemetry array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. SMITH, Lorne J. BROUSSEAU, Mary T. MANDT, Michael J. MILLARD

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To study horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus spawning behavior and migration over a large-spatial extent (>100 km, we arrayed fixed station radio receivers throughout Delaware Bay and deployed radio transmitters and archival tags on adult horseshoe crabs prior to their spawning season. We tagged and released 160 females and 60 males in 2004 and 217 females in 2005. The array covered approximately 140 km of shoreline. Recapture rates were >70% with multi-year recaptures. We categorized adult age by carapace wear. Older females tended to spawn earlier in the season and more frequently than young females, but those tendencies were more apparent in 2004 when spawning overall occurred earlier than in 2005 when spawning was delayed possibly due to decreased water temperatures. Timing of initial spawning within a year was correlated with water temperature. After adjusting for day of first spring tide, the day of first spawning was 4 days earlier for every 1 degree (°C rise in mean daily water temperature in May. Seventy nine % of spawning occurred during nighttime high tides. Fifty five % of spawning occurred within 3 d of a spring tide, which was slightly higher than the 47% expected if spawning was uniformly distributed regardless of tidal cycle. Within the same spawning season, males and females were observed spawning or intertidally resting at more than one beach separated by >5 km. Between years, most (77% did not return to spawn at the same beach. Probability of stranding was strongly age dependent for males and females with older adults experiencing higher stranding rates. Horseshoe crabs staging in the shallow waters east of the channel spawned exclusively along the eastern (NJ shoreline, but those staging west of the channel spawned throughout the bay. Overall, several insights emerged from the use of radio telemetry, which advances our understanding of horseshoe crab ecology and will be useful in conserving the Delaware Bay horseshoe crab

  5. Intra- and inter-annual trends in phosphorus loads and comparison with nitrogen loads to Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, J.A.; Scudlark, J.R.; Savidge, K.B.; Andres, A.S.; Stenger, R.J.; Ullman, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Monthly phosphorus loads from uplands, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater to Rehoboth Bay (Delaware) were determined from October 1998 to April 2002 to evaluate the relative importance of these three sources of P to the Bay. Loads from a representative subwatershed were determined and used in an areal extrapolation to estimate the upland load from the entire watershed. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and dissolved organic P (DOP) are the predominant forms of P in baseflow and P loads from the watershed are highest during the summer months. Particulate phosphorus (PP) becomes more significant in stormflow and during periods with more frequent or larger storms. Atmospheric deposition of P is only a minor source of P to Rehoboth Bay. During the period of 1998-2002, wastewater was the dominant external source of P to Rehoboth Bay, often exceeding all other P sources combined. Since 2002, however, due to technical improvements to the sole wastewater plant discharging directly to the Bay, the wastewater contribution of P has been significantly reduced and upland waters are now the principal source of P on an annualized basis. Based on comparison of N and P loads, primary productivity and biomass carrying capacity in Rehoboth Bay should be limited by P availability. However, due to the contrasting spatial and temporal patterns of N and P loading and perhaps internal cycling within the ecosystem, spatial and temporal variations in N and P-limitation within Rehoboth Bay are likely. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Concentrations of metals in blood and feathers of nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Golden, N.H.; Toschik, P.C.; McGowan, P.C.; Custer, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    In 2000, 2001, and 2002, blood and feather samples were collected from 40-45-day-old nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) from Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay and River. Concentrations of 18 metals, metalloids, and other elements were determined in these samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, and Hg concentrations were measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. When compared to concurrent reference areas (South, West, and Rhode Rivers), mean As and Hg concentrations in blood were greater (p mean Al, Ba, Hg, Mn, and Pb concentrations in feathers were substantially greater (p < 0.05) in one or more Chesapeake regions of concern (Anacostia River [Al: 206 vs. 62.1 mug/g dw; Ba: 3.31 vs. 0.823 mug/g dw; Mn: 65.4 vs. 22.9 mug/g dw] and Elizabeth River [Al: 165 vs. 63.5 mug/g dw; Hg: 1.24 vs. 0.599 mug/g dw; Pb 1.47 vs. 0.543 mug/g dw]). When compared to the coastal Inland Bays reference area, feathers of nestlings from northern Delaware Bay and River had greater concentrations (p < 0.05) of Ba (1.90 vs. 0.660 mug/g dw), Fe (258 vs. 109 mug/g dw), Mn (18.5 vs. 4.66 mug/g dw), Mo (0.130 vs. 0.040 mug/g dw), Pb (1.96 vs. 0.624 mug/g dw), and V (0.671 vs. 0.325 mug/g dw), presumably due to extensive metal-working and petroleum refinery activities. Concentrations of Hg in nestling feathers from Delaware were frequently greater than in the Chesapeake. The present findings and those of related reproductive studies suggest that concentrations of several heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Hg, Pb) in nestling blood and feathers from Chesapeake and Delaware Bays were below toxicity thresholds and do not seem to be affecting chick survival during the nestling period.

  7. Inventory and Evaluation of Information on Delaware Bay, vol. 2, November 1972 (NODC Accession 7310520)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the second section of a three part study describing the history, land use, and legal mechanisms which operate in the tideland region of the lower Delaware...

  8. Assessment of blood contaminant residues in Delaware Bay bald eagle nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The bald eagle population around the lower Delaware River Basin is rebounding from near extirpation in the early 1970's to 14 active breeding pairs today....

  9. Late Quaternary sedimentation in eastern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O; Mascarenhas, A; Paropkari, A; Rao, Ch.M.

    This study presents variations in various size measures, calcium carbonate, organic carbon, clay mineralogy and major and trace elements in a core (5.40 m long, 2713 m depth) from the eastern Bay of Bengal. On a CM diagram, the sediments of the core...

  10. BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL ON THE SHORELINE OF DELAWARE BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 1994, a field study was undertaken in Delaware in which light crude oil was intentionally released onto plots to evaluate bioremediation. The objectives were to obtain credible statistical evidence to determine if bioremediation with inorganic mineral nutrients ...

  11. Continuous resistivity profiling and seismic-reflection data collected in April 2010 from Indian River Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Michael, H.A.; Kroeger, K.D.; Green, Adrian; Bergeron, Emile M.

    2014-01-01

    A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was carried out in April 2010. This included surveying at higher spatial resolution in the vicinity of a study site at Holts Landing, where intensive onshore and offshore studies were subsequently completed. The total length of continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) survey lines was 145 kilometers (km), with 36 km of chirp seismic lines surveyed around the perimeter of the bay. Medium-resolution CRP surveying was performed using a 50-meter streamer in a baywide grid. Results of the surveying and data inversion showed the presence of many buried paleochannels beneath Indian River Bay that generally extended perpendicular from the shoreline in areas of modern tributaries, tidal creeks, and marshes. An especially wide and deep paleochannel system was imaged in the southeastern part of the bay near White Creek. Many paleochannels also had high-resistivity anomalies corresponding to low-salinity groundwater plumes associated with them, likely due to the presence of fine-grained estuarine mud and peats in the channel fills that act as submarine confining units. Where present, these units allow plumes of low-salinity groundwater that was recharged onshore to move beyond the shoreline, creating a complex fresh-saline groundwater interface in the subsurface. The properties of this interface are important considerations in construction of accurate coastal groundwater flow models. These models are required to help predict how nutrient-rich groundwater, recharged in agricultural watersheds such as this one, makes its way into coastal bays and impacts surface-water quality and estuarine ecosystems.

  12. Bacteriology data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean during the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS-Mid Atlantic Ocean) project, 05 November 1976 - 16 August 1977 (NODC Accession 7800207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 5, 1976 to August 16, 1977....

  13. Raw and modified raw continuous resistivity profiling data collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 15, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  14. Zooplankton data from zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 03 November 1976 - 18 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7800340)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 3, 1976 to November 18,...

  15. IR_ROUTES_CALIB.SHP: Shot-point calibrated trackline navigation for chirp seismic data collected in Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  16. JD105HYPACK.SHP: Parsed HYPACK navigation from April 15, 2010 of U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA in Indian River Bay, Delaware (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  17. IR_SEISNAV.SHP: Unique shot point navigation for chirp seismic data collected in Indian River Bay, Delaware, April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  18. Preliminary assessment of the effects of Delaware Bay water and a known endocrine disrupting compound on horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) using proteomics and observation of embryonic development and survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The eggs, larvae, and juveniles of horseshoe crabs (L. polyphemus) contribute significantly to the forage base of many species in Delaware Bay. The eggs also provide...

  19. Hydrodynamics and Eutrophication Model Study of Indian River and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Millsboro Townsend’s 1 21.8 6 0.1 0 18 Inc. Vlmssic 0.06 3.1 1.36 0.064 0.066 18 Food Colonial 9.7 6.85 9.7 2.2 OA 18 East Moble Home Pk. Rehoboth 0.95...Delaware," Proceedings of the Third Annual National Beach Preservation Technology Conference, St. Petersburg, FL pp 280-294. Andres, A. S. (1992...Wen, C., Kao, J., Wang, L., and Liaw, C. (1984). "Effect of salinity on reaeration coefficient of receiving waters," Water Science and Technology , 16

  20. Abundance of walruses in Eastern Baffin Bay and Davis Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus are exploited for subsistence purposes in West Greenland. However, current information about the abundance of walruses subject to harvest in eastern Baffin Bay subject to harvest has been unavailable despite being critical for maintaining sustainable catch levels. Three visual aerial surveys were conducted in 2006 (21 March to 19 April 2006, 2008 (3 to 12 April and 2012 (24 March to 14 April to estimate the number of walruses on the wintering grounds in eastern Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. Data on the fraction of walruses that were submerged below a 2m detection threshold during the surveys were obtained from 24 walruses instrumented with satellite-linked-time-depth-recorders in northern Baffin Bay in May-June 2010-2012. An availability correction factor was estimated at 36.5% (cv=0.08 after filtering of data for an observed drift of the pressure transducer of more than 2.5 m. The surveys resulted in walrus abundance estimates that were corrected for walruses submerged below a detection threshold and for walruses that were missed by the observers. The estimates of abundance were 1,105 (cv=0.31, 95% CI 610-2,002 in 2006, 1,137 (0.48, 468-2,758 in 2008 and 1,408 (0.22, 922-2,150 in 2012.

  1. Developing objectives with multiple stakeholders: adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and Red Knots in the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Lyons, James E.; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Structured decision making (SDM) is an increasingly utilized approach and set of tools for addressing complex decisions in environmental management. SDM is a value-focused thinking approach that places paramount importance on first establishing clear management objectives that reflect core values of stakeholders. To be useful for management, objectives must be transparently stated in unambiguous and measurable terms. We used these concepts to develop consensus objectives for the multiple stakeholders of horseshoe crab harvest in Delaware Bay. Participating stakeholders first agreed on a qualitative statement of fundamental objectives, and then worked to convert those objectives to specific and measurable quantities, so that management decisions could be assessed. We used a constraint-based approach where the conservation objectives for Red Knots, a species of migratory shorebird that relies on horseshoe crab eggs as a food resource during migration, constrained the utility of crab harvest. Developing utility functions to effectively reflect the management objectives allowed us to incorporate stakeholder risk aversion even though different stakeholder groups were averse to different or competing risks. While measurable objectives and quantitative utility functions seem scientific, developing these objectives was fundamentally driven by the values of the participating stakeholders.

  2. Beach characteristics mitigate effects of onshore wind on horseshoe crab spawning: Implications for matching with shorebird migration in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.R.; Jackson, N.L.; Nordstrom, K.F.; Weber, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of food availability by unfavorable physical processes at energetically demanding times can limit recruitment of migratory species as predicted by the match-mismatch hypothesis. Identification and protection of disruption-resistant habitat could contribute to system resilience. For example, horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus spawning and shorebird stopover must match temporally in Delaware Bay for eggs to be available to shorebirds. Onshore winds that generate waves can create a mismatch by delaying horseshoe crab spawning. We examined effects of beach characteristics and onshore winds on spawning activity at five beaches when water temperatures were otherwise consistent with early spawning activity. Onshore winds resulted in reduced spawning activity during the shorebird stopover, when spawning typically peaks in late May. During the period with high onshore wind, egg density was highest on the foreshore exposed to the lowest wave heights. Onshore wind was low in early June, and spawning and egg densities were high at all sites, but shorebirds had departed. Beaches that can serve as a refuge from wind and waves can be identified by physical characteristics and orientation to prevailing winds and should receive special conservation status, especially in light of predicted increases in climate change-induced storm frequency. These results point to a potential conservation strategy that includes coastal management for adapting to climate change-induced mismatch of migrations. ?? 2011 The Authors. Animal Conservation ?? 2011 The Zoological Society of London.

  3. IndianRivBayYSI.xls: Temperature, conductivity and salinity data collected with a YSI 600 XLM multi-parameter sonde in Indian River Bay, Delaware, from April 12 to April 15, 2010 on U.S. Geological Survey Cruise 2010-006-FA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  4. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium and Selenium in Feathers of Shorebirds during Migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey: Comparing the 1990s and 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Burger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal changes in contaminant levels in coastal environments requires comparing levels of contaminants from the same species from different time periods, particularly if species are declining. Several species of shorebirds migrating through Delaware Bay have declined from the 1980s to the present. To evaluate some contaminants as cause for the declines, we examine levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and selenium in feathers of red knot (Calidris canutus, N = 46 individuals, semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla, N = 70 and sanderling (Calidris alba, N = 32 migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA, from 1991 to 1992 (N = 40, 1995 (N = 28, and 2011–2012 (N = 80 to determine if levels have changed. We found: (1 arsenic, chromium, and lead increased in red knot and decreased in semipalmated sandpiper; (2 cadmium decreased in semipalmated sandpipers; (3 mercury decreased in red knot and sanderlings; (4 selenium decreased in red knot and increased in semipalmated sandpipers. In 2011/2012 there were significant interspecific differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium. Except for selenium, the element levels were well below levels reported for feathers of other species. The levels in feathers in red knots, sanderling, and semipalmated sandpipers from Delaware Bay in 2011/2012 were well below levels in feathers that are associated with effect levels, except for selenium. Selenium levels ranged from 3.0 µg·g−1 dry weight to 5.8 µg·g−1 (semipalmated sandpiper, within the range known to cause adverse effects, suggesting the need for further examination of selenium levels in birds. The levels of all elements were well below those reported for other marine species, except for selenium, which was near levels suggesting possible toxic effects.

  5. Chemical and histological comparisons between Brevoortia sp. (menhaden) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA and Delaware Bay, NJ following the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivegna, Carolyn S; Cooper, Keith R; Olson, Gregory; Pena, Edwin A; Millemann, Daniel R; Portier, Ralph J

    2015-12-01

    Body burdens of PAHs were compared to histological effects in menhaden (Family: Clupeidae, Genus: Brevoortia) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA (BBLA) and Delaware Bay, NJ (DBNJ). Barataria Bay was heavily oiled during the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, while Delaware Bay although urbanized had no reported recent oil spills. GCMS analyses of pre-spill 2009, BBLA and DBNJ fish found predominantly C2/C3 phenanthrene (1.28-6.52 ng/mg). However, BBLA also contained five higher molecular weight PAHs (0.06-0.34 ng/mg DW). Fluorescent aromatic compound spectroscopy (FACS) of gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissue showed statistically higher levels of hydroxypyrene-like PAHs in DBNJ than BBLA fish. Histopathologic lesions were more prevalent in BBLA than DBNJ fish. The lesion prevalence (gill, trunk kidney, epidermis, stomach) in the BBLA menhaden were significantly higher and more severe than observed in the DBNJ menhaden. Reversible lesions included gill lamellar hyperplasia, adhesions, edema, and epidermal hyperplasia. The increased pigmented macrophage centers were indicative of activated macrophages responding to connective tissue damage or other antigens. The liver hepatic necrosis and renal tissue mineralization may well have undergone repair, but damage to the kidney nephrons and hepatic/biliary regions of the liver would be slower to resolve and apparently remained after elimination of PAHs. Therefore, a direct cause and effect between DWH oil spill and increased lesion prevalence in BBLA menhaden could not be established.

  6. Assessment and Mmanagement of North American horseshoe crab populations, with emphasis on a multispecies framework for Delaware Bay, U.S.A. populations: Chapter 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Michael J.; Sweka, John A.; McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The horseshoe crab fishery on the US Atlantic coast represents a compelling fishery management story for many reasons, including ecological complexity, health and human safety ramifications, and socio-economic conflicts. Knowledge of stock status and assessment and monitoring capabilities for the species have increased greatly in the last 15 years and permitted managers to make more informed harvest recommendations. Incorporating the bioenergetics needs of migratory shorebirds, which feed on horseshoe crab eggs, into the management framework for horseshoe crabs was identified as a goal, particularly in the Delaware Bay region where the birds and horseshoe crabs exhibit an important ecological interaction. In response, significant effort was invested in studying the population dynamics, migration ecology, and the ecologic relationship of a key migratory shorebird, the Red Knot, to horseshoe crabs. A suite of models was developed that linked Red Knot populations to horseshoe crab populations through a mass gain function where female spawning crab abundance determined what proportion of the migrating Red Knot population reached a critical body mass threshold. These models were incorporated in an adaptive management framework wherein optimal harvest decisions for horseshoe crab are recommended based on several resource-based and value-based variables and thresholds. The current adaptive framework represents a true multispecies management effort where additional data over time are employed to improve the predictive models and reduce parametric uncertainty. The possibility of increasing phenologic asynchrony between the two taxa in response to climate change presents a potential challenge to their ecologic interaction in Delaware Bay.

  7. Continental Shelf Embayments of the Eastern Margin of the Philippines; Lamon Bay Stratification & Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Continental shelf embayments of the eastern margin of the Philippines; Lamon Bay stratification & circulation Arnold L. Gordon Lamont-Doherty...0275 Final Report The spatial and temporal shelf /slope interactions processes within and at the boundaries of Lamon Bay may be instrumental in the...characteristic, and shelf /slope interaction. The objectives of the Lamon Bay program, a component of the OKMC DRI, are to quantity the spatial and temporal

  8. Eutrophication influence on phytoplankton community composition in three bays on the eastern Adriatic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Bužančić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the influence of eutrophication pressure on the phytoplankton community structure, abundance and biodiversity in the investigated bays with different hydromorphological features. Šibenik Bay is a highly stratified estuary of the karstic river Krka; Kaštela Bay is a semi-enclosed coastal bay, which is influenced by the relatively small river Jadro; and Mali Ston Bay is located at the Neretva River estuary, the largest river on the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea. All of the areas are affected by urban pressure, which is reflected in the trophic status of the waters. The greatest anthropogenic influence was found in Kaštela Bay while the lowest influence was found in Mali Ston Bay. In this study, the highest biomass concentration and maximum abundance of phytoplankton were recorded at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence. Those stations show a dominance of abundance compared to the biomass and a dominance of opportunistic species, which is reflected in the lower biodiversity of phytoplankton community. Diatoms were the most represented group of the phytoplankton community in all three bays, followed by the dinoflagellates. Diatoms that were highlighted as significant for the difference between the bays were Skeletonema marinoi in Šibenik Bay, Leptocylindrus minimus in Kaštela Bay and the genus Chaetoceros spp. in Mali Ston Bay. Dinoflagellates were more abundant at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence, and most significant were Prorocentrum triestinum in Kaštela Bay and Gymnodinium spp. in Šibenik Bay and Mali Ston Bay.

  9. Understanding nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and implications for management and restoration: the Eastern Shore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.

    2015-03-12

    The Eastern Shore includes only a small part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but contributes disproportionately large loads of the excess nitrogen and phosphorus that have contributed to ecological and economic degradation of the bay in recent decades. Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States and a vital ecological and economic resource. The bay and its tributaries have been degraded in recent decades by excessive nitrogen and phosphorus in the water column, however, which cause harmful algal blooms and decreased water clarity, submerged aquatic vegetation, and dissolved oxygen. The disproportionately large nitrogen and phosphorus yields from the Eastern Shore to Chesapeake Bay are attributable to human land-use practices as well as natural hydrogeologic and soil conditions. Applications of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds to the Eastern Shore from human activities are intensive. More than 90 percent of nitrogen and phosphorus reaching the land in the Eastern Shore is applied as part of inorganic fertilizers or manure, or (for nitrogen) fixed directly from the atmosphere in cropland. Also, hydrogeologic and soil conditions promote the movement of these compounds from application areas on the landscape to groundwater and (or) surface waters, and the proximity of much of the Eastern Shore to tidal waters limits opportunities for natural removal of these compounds in the landscape. The Eastern Shore only includes 7 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but receives nearly twice as much nitrogen and phosphorus applications (per area) as the remainder of the watershed and yields greater nitrogen and phosphorus, on average, to the bay. Nitrogen and phosphorus commonly occur in streams at concentrations that may adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and have increased in recent decades.

  10. JD103GPS_LINES_SPLITS.SHP: Ship tracklines along which continuous resistivity profiling data were collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  11. JD105GPS_LINES_SPLIT.SHP: Ship tracklines along which continuous resistivity profiling data were collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 15, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  12. JD105GPS_BESTDEPTH.SHP: Point shapefile of navigation and best depth values at ship positions during continuous resistivity profiling data collection in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 15, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  13. JD104GPS_LINES.SHP: Ship tracklines along which continuous resistivity profiling data were collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 14, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  14. JD104GPS_BESTDEPTH.SHP: Point shapefile of navigation and best depth values at ship positions during continuous resistivity profiling data collection in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 14, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  15. MRGWCON_ALLXYZRES.SHP: Point shapefile of continuous resistivity profiling data below the sediment water interface processed with a varying water conductivity value from Indian River Bay, Delaware, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA in April 2010 (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  16. JD103GPS_BESTDEPTH.SHP: Point shapefile of navigation and best depth values at ship positions during continuous resistivity profiling data collection in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  17. MRGAPR14_ALLXYZRES.SHP: Point shapefile of processed continuous resistivity profiling data below the sediment water interface collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 14, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  18. MRGAPR13_ALLXYZRES.SHP: Point shapefile of processed continuous resistivity profiling data below the sediment water interface collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  19. MRGAPR15_ALLXYZRES.SHP: Point shapefile of processed continuous resistivity profiling data below the sediment water interface collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 15, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  20. IR_100SHOT_SORT.SHP: Point shapefile (100 shot interval) of navigation for chirp seismic data collected in the Indian River Bay, Delaware, on April 13, 2010, on U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2010-006-FA (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A geophysical survey to delineate the fresh-saline groundwater interface and associated sub-bottom sedimentary structures beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware, was...

  1. Comprehensive computerized diabetes registry. Serving the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (eastern James Bay).

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenbaum, D.; Verronneau, M.; Torrie, J.; Smeja, H.; Robinson, E; Dumont, C.; Kovitch, I.; Webster, T.

    1999-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Diabetes is rapidly evolving as a major health concern in the Cree population of eastern James Bay (Eeyou Istchee). The Cree Board of Health and Social Services of James Bay (CBHSSJB) diabetes registry was the initial phase in the development of a comprehensive program for diabetes in this region. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: The CBHSSJB diabetes registry was developed to provide a framework to track the prevalence of diabetes and the progression of diabetic complications. T...

  2. Paleotsunamis Evidence In The Augusta Bay (Eastern Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedile, A.; de Martini, P.; Barbano, M. S.; Pantosti, D.; Gerardi, F.; Del Carlo, P.; Bellucci, L. G.; Gasperini, L.; Sagnotti, L.; Polonia, A.; Pirrotta, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Augusta Bay, in Eastern Sicily (Italy), was repeatedly hit by tsunami waves related to large historical earthquakes (e.g. 1908, 1693, 1169). The area is characterized by coastal lowlands or lagoons, and by a relatively wide continental shelf with a thick late-Holocene record that has been investigated through the acquisition of a tight grid of CHIRP-sonar profiles. Well targeted sediment samples have been collected both offshore and inland. The integrated interpretation of the geophysical and geological data has been carried out in order to recognize, date and correlate key-layers in the sediment column that may be directly or indirectly related to tsunami events. A total of 26 cores were collected inland at a maximum distance of 530 m from the present coastline. The clay and silt dominated stratigraphy is intercalated by at least 5 high-energy or anomalous depositional layers, repeatedly found in several cores. These layers are made of coarse to fine sand with sharp basal contacts and present a bioclastic component made of microfauna (foraminifera) and shell fragments both suggestive of a marine provenance. Chronological constraints on the age of these deposits is based on AMS radiocarbon datings and on the attribution of a tephra layer to the 122 BC Etna eruption (thanks to petro- chemical and morphoscopic analyses). Integrating these data, the inland sequence spans the last 4100 yrs and the two uppermost high-energy events could be related to the AD 1169 and 1693 historical tsunamis. The offshore record was studied from a 6.7 m-long piston-core collected at 70 m water depth. The homogeneous sequence of dark gray mud is interrupted at -3 m by the same Etna tephra deposit found inland. Through the analysis of tephrostratigraphy, radiocarbon datings, high resolution paleomagnetic analysis and radioactive tracers, the entire core sequence has been dated back to the last 4500 yrs. Moreover, the quantitative micropaleontological analysis on the benthic

  3. Continental Shelf Embayments of the Eastern Margin of the Philippines; Lamon Bay Stratification & Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    circulation, stratification and the Shelf-Slope interaction within Lamon Bay of the eastern margin of the Philippines, marking the ’ birth ’ of the...blue ship track) and 24 April - 13 May 2012 (green track). The 2011 CTD stations are shown as blue stars for the 2011 cruise, and as green discs for

  4. Progressive change of tidal wave characteristics from the eastern Yellow Sea to the Asan Bay, a strongly convergent bay in the west coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon-Jin; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Cai, Huayang; Jee, Eui Kyu; Kim, Nam Hoon

    2017-09-01

    Although there have been studies on the tide in convergent bay (or estuary), the tide change in terms of phase speed, amplitude, and phase difference between elevation and tidal current from a coastal ocean to a convergent bay has not been clearly shown so far. This study systematically examines the change of tidal wave characteristics from the eastern Yellow Sea to the Asan Bay, a strongly convergent bay on the west coast of Korea, using observations and an analytical model. As the tidal wave propagates from the eastern Yellow Sea into the Asan Bay, the phase speed, amplitude, and phase difference between elevation and tidal current increase along the channel. Such a phenomenon represents a unique example of tide change from a coastal ocean to a convergent bay, indicating dominance of convergence over friction in the Asan Bay. Both analytically computed tidal amplitude and travelling time compare well with observations. In the Asan Bay, the influence of the reflected wave is only felt in the upper one fifth of the bay and is almost unperceivable in the rest of the bay. The analytical analyses presented in this paper are particularly useful for understanding the relative importance of channel convergence, bottom friction, and reflected wave on the tidal characteristics change along the channel and the proposed method could be applicable to other estuaries.

  5. Neogene Tectonics And Paleomagnetism Of The Western And Eastern Of Palu Bay, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muin, M. R.; Pramumijoyo, S.; Warmada, I. W.; Suryanto, W.

    2017-04-01

    Geologic observations and paleo magnetic studies of the western and eastern Palu Bay was undertaken, in order to study the extent of rotated areas and to develop constraints on tectonic models concerning the formation of this bay. Characteristic of remanent magentization (ChRM) results from Palu bay, the western show that; yield a pole at -39.116°N, 119.895°E with R=13.99, α95 =0,42, Dm/Im=61.76/-26.7 and the Eastern Palu bay show that; yield a pole at -81.855°N, 52.913°E, R=8.99, α95=0.29, Dm/Im =67.1/-5.42. The granitic rocks in these areas are dominated by granite and Monzonit-Quartz in composition, with high-K calc-alkaline photasik (KAP) and show metaluminous-peraluminous affinity. This suggests that the rotational motion on both sides of the bay are similar during the Neogen.

  6. An age-structured population model for horseshoe crabs in the Delaware Bay area to assess harvest and egg availability for shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweka, J.A.; Smith, D.R.; Millard, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this simulation study was to create an age-structured population model for horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphenols) in the Delaware Bay region using best available estimates of age-specific mortality and recent harvest levels. Density dependence was incorporated using a spatial model relating egg mortality with abundance of spawning females. Combinations of annual female harvest (0, 50, 100, and 200 thousand), timing of female harvest (before or after spawning), and three levels of density-dependent egg mortality were simulated. The probability of the population increasing was high (> 80%) with low and medium egg mortality and harvest less than 200 thousand females per year. Under the high egg mortality case, the probability of the population increasing was < 50% regardless of harvest. Harvest occurring after spawning increased the probability of population growth. The number of eggs available to shorebirds was highest when egg mortality was lowest and female abundance was at its highest levels. Although harvest and egg mortality influenced population growth and food availability to shorebirds, sensitivity and elasticity analyses showed that early-life stage mortality, age 0 mortality in particular, was the most important parameter for population growth. Our modeling results indicate areas where further research is needed and suggest effective management will involve a combination of harvest management and actions to increase early juvenile survival. ?? 2007 Estuarine Research Federation.

  7. Reconstructing the history of eastern and central Florida Bay using mollusk-shell isotope records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, R.B.; Roulier, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Stable isotopic ratios of carbon and oxygen (??13C and ??18O) from mollusk shells reflect the water quality characteristics of Florida Bay and can be used to characterize the great temporal variability of the bay. Values of ?? 18O are directly influenced by temperature and evaporation and may be related to salinity. ??13C values of ??13C are sensitive to organic and inorganic sources of carbon and are influenced by productivity. Analyses of eight mollusk species from five short-core localities across Florida Bay show large ranges in the values of ??13C and ??18O, and reflect the variation of the bay over decades. Samples from southwestern Florida Bay have distinct ??13C values relative to samples collected in northeastern Florida Bay, and intermediate localities have intermediate values. 13C values of ??13C grade from marine in the southwest bay to more estuarine in the northeast. Long cores (> 1 m) with excellent chronologies were analyzed from central and eastern Florida Bay. Preliminary analyses of Brachiodontes exustus and Transenella spp. from the cores showed that both ??13C and ??18O changed during the first part of the twentieth century. After a century of relative stability during the 1800s, ??13C decreased between about 1910 and 1940, then stabilized at these new values for the next five decades. The magnitude of the reduction in ??13C values increased toward the northeast. Using a carbon budget model, reduced ??13C values are interpreted as resulting from decreased circulation in the bay, probably associated with decreased freshwater flow into the Bay. Mollusk shell ??18O values display several negative excursions during the 1800s, suggesting that the bay was less evaporitic than during the twentieth century. The isotope records indicate a fundamental change took place in Florida Bay circulation early in the twentieth century. The timing of the change links it to railroad building and early drainage efforts in South Florida rather than to flood control

  8. The ecology of the Ostracoda (Crustacea) species obtained from the coasts of Iskenderun Bay (Eastern Mediterranean Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Paçal, Ferda Perçin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to understand the ecology of the ostracoda species obtained from Iskenderun Bay, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Ecological parameters like temperature and salinity, affecting the distribution of the live ostracoda species are considerably higher in Iskenderun Bay than the middle and western parts of the Mediterranean Sea. This study was carried out along the coasts of Iskenderun Bay between 22-26 September 2002. Total of 27 genera and 56 ostracoda species we...

  9. Habitat use by Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa): Experiments with oyster racks and reefs on the beach and intertidal of Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Niles, Lawrence J.

    2017-07-01

    Sea level rise and increasing human activities have decreased intertidal habitat in many places in the world. The expansion of aquaculture in intertidal areas may impact birds and other organisms using these habitats, leading to questions of sustainability of both aquaculture and functioning estuarine ecosystems. Understanding the effect of oyster culture on shorebird activity, particularly on Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa), a species on the U.S. Threatened List, is important for adaptive management and the expansion of oyster culture. In May 2013 we experimentally compared Red Knot and shorebird use of a beach section with racks and a control, and in 2016 we compared the use of sections with artificial reefs, oyster racks, and control on Delaware Bay, New Jersey (USA). The data included only times when no workers or other people were present. Censuses, conducted every 30 min throughout the day (279 censuses in 2013, 231 censuses in 2016), included the number of Red Knots and other shorebirds in each treatment section. In 2013, the total number of shorebirds was significantly higher in the rack section than in the control section, except for Red Knots and Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres) that occurred in higher numbers in the control than in the rack section. In 2016 Red Knot numbers were also significantly lower in the rack section. In 2013, the mean number of Red Knots/census was 13 for racks vs 59 for the control (P < 0.0002). In 2016, the mean number of Red Knots/census was 13 for racks and over 68 for other treatments (P < 0.0001). Treatment, date, and number of non-Knot shorebirds explained 60% (2013) and 69% (2016) of the variation in Red Knot numbers. Red Knots avoided the sections with racks while both foraging and roosting, suggesting that caution should be used before placing oyster racks in areas used for foraging by Red Knots.

  10. The curious case of eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica stock status in Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Pine III

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Apalachicola Bay, Florida, eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica industry has annually produced about 10% of the U.S. oyster harvest. Today's simple individual-operator, hand-tonging, small-vessel fishery is remarkably similar to the one that began in the 1800s. Unprecedented attention is currently being given to the status of oyster resources in Apalachicola Bay because this fishery has become central to the decision making related to multistate water disputes in the southeastern United States, as well as millions of dollars in funding for restoration programs related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The oyster fishery collapsed in 2012, leading to large economic losses and community concerns over the current and future status of oyster resources, ecosystem health, and local economic opportunities. We used best available data to assess what mechanism(s may have led to the collapse of the Apalachicola Bay oyster fishery. We then assessed the efficacy of alternative management strategies (e.g., restoration, fishery closure to accelerate oyster population recovery. Our results suggest that the Apalachicola Bay oyster population is not overfished in the sense that recruitment has been limited by harvest, but that the 2012 collapse was driven by lower-than-average numbers and/or poor survival of juvenile oysters in the years preceding the collapse. This reduction in recruitment not only reduced the biomass of oysters available to harvest, but from a population resilience perspective, likely reduced the amount of dead shell material available as larval settlement area. Although the Apalachicola Bay oyster fishery has proven resilient over its >150-year history to periods of instability, this fishery now seems to be at a crossroads in terms of continued existence and possibly risks an irreversible collapse. How to use the restoration funds available, and which restoration and management practices to follow, are choices that will determine the

  11. Evaluation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments and sentinel benthic organisms of the Delaware Bay Division, Cape May National Wildlife Refuge and adjoining marshes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This pilot study was conducted to characterize ambient petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in marshes of the Cape May NWR and adjacent areas bordering the Delaware...

  12. Ground water hydrochemical characteristics:seawater intruded area in eastern and southern coast of Laizhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Eastern and southern coastal zones of Laizhou Bay are the mostrepresentative seawater intruded areas in the world, with two intrusion sources of contemporary seawater and paleobrine. In order to reveal the complicated hydrochemical changing process and the mechanism of fresh groundwater being polluted by saltwater, we conducted long-term observation and hydroehemical analysis at four observing sections of typical salt-fresh water transitional zone. The study indicates that seawater and brine intrusion processes have different hydrochemical features, and that ion exchange and adsorption actions between water and aquifer produce great influence on the intrusion.

  13. Shift in detrital sedimentation in the eastern Bay of Bengal during the late Quaternary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Prakash Babu; J N Pattan; K Dutta; N Basavaiah; G V Ravi Prasad; D K Ray; P Govil

    2010-06-01

    Down-core variations of granulometric, geochemical and mineral magnetism of a 70-cm long sediment core retrieved from the eastern Bay of Bengal abyssal region were studied to understand sedimentation pattern and sediment provenance during the last ∼12 kyr BP. Based on down-core physical and elemental variations, three units were identified: unit 3 (70–43 cm) is a ∼30 cm thick clayey silt organic carbon-rich (0.5–0.92%) turbidite probably delivered by the Brahmaputra River during the late Quaternary period. Units 2 (43–24 cm) and 1 (24–0 cm) represent enhanced and reduced supply of coarse-grained detrital sediments from the Ganges River during early and late Holocene period, respectively. Increased terrigenous supply dilutes calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and biogenic elements (P, Ba and Cu) in units 3 and 2. On the contrary, a reduction in detrital input enhances CaCO3 and biogenic elements in unit 1. Lithogenic elements (Ti, Al, K and Rb) and shale-normalized REE patterns in all three units suggest terrigenous source. The shift in provenance from the Brahmaputra to the Ganges derived sediments is evident by a sharp increase in sediment grain size, increased concentration and grain size assemblages of magnetic minerals, lithogenic elements concentration and Lan/Ybn ratio. This study highlights terrigenous dilution on biogenic sedimentation in the eastern Bay of Bengal sediments.

  14. Wind-induced flow velocity effects on nutrient concentrations at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Abdul; Li, Yiping; Du, Wei; Wang, Jianwei; Gao, Xiaomeng; Wang, Wencai; Acharya, Kumud

    2017-07-01

    Shallow lakes are highly sensitive to respond internal nutrient loading due to wind-induced flow velocity effects. Wind-induced flow velocity effects on nutrient suspension were investigated at a long narrow bay of large shallow Lake Taihu, the third largest freshwater lake in China. Wind-induced reverse/compensation flow and consistent flow field probabilities at vertical column of the water were measured. The probabilities between the wind field and the flow velocities provided a strong correlation at the surface (80.6%) and the bottom (65.1%) layers of water profile. Vertical flow velocity profile analysis provided the evidence of delay response time to wind field at the bottom layer of lake water. Strong wind field generated by the west (W) and west-north-west (WNW) winds produced displaced water movements in opposite directions to the prevailing flow field. An exponential correlation was observed between the current velocities of the surface and the bottom layers while considering wind speed as a control factor. A linear model was developed to correlate the wind field-induced flow velocity impacts on nutrient concentration at the surface and bottom layers. Results showed that dominant wind directions (ENE, E, and ESE) had a maximum nutrient resuspension contribution (nutrient resuspension potential) of 34.7 and 43.6% at the surface and the bottom profile layers, respectively. Total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) average concentrations were 6.38, 1.5, and 0.03 mg/L during our field experiment at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu. Overall, wind-induced low-to-moderate hydrodynamic disturbances contributed more in nutrient resuspension at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu. The present study can be used to understand the linkage between wind-induced flow velocities and nutrient concentrations for shallow lakes (with uniform morphology and deep margins) water quality management and to develop further models.

  15. Refraction studies between Icy Bay and Kayak Island, eastern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, K.C.; Mattick, R.E.; Bruns, T.R.; Plafker, George

    1978-01-01

    Results of five seismic refraction lines shot by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Gulf of Alaska between Icy Bay and Kayak Island indicate the following: (1) The Continental Shelf is underlain by as much as 11 km of sedimentary rock of probable Tertiary age where refraction velocities range from 1.2 to 5.5 kilometers per second; (2) a section approximately 5 km thick, which has velocities of 4.1-5.5 km/s and which could represent the Orca Group (lower Tertiary), is present in the western part of the study area but not in the eastern part; and (3) consistent basement velocities of approximately 7.0 km/s could indicate oceanic crust underlying the continental margin.

  16. Seismic velocity structure and seismotectonics of the eastern San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, J.L.; Michael, A.J.; Brocher, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Hayward Fault System is considered the most likely fault system in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, to produce a major earthquake in the next 30 years. To better understand this fault system, we use microseismicity to study its structure and kinematics. We present a new 3D seismic-velocity model for the eastern San Francisco Bay region, using microseismicity and controlled sources, which reveals a ???10% velocity contrast across the Hayward fault in the upper 10 km, with higher velocity in the Franciscan Complex to the west relative to the Great Valley Sequence to the east. This contrast is imaged more sharply in our localized model than in previous regional-scale models. Thick Cenozoic sedimentary basins, such as the Livermore basin, which may experience particularly strong shaking during an earthquake, are imaged in the model. The accurate earthquake locations and focal mechanisms obtained by using the 3D model allow us to study fault complexity and its implications for seismic hazard. The relocated hypocenters along the Hayward Fault in general are consistent with a near-vertical or steeply east-dipping fault zone. The southern Hayward fault merges smoothly with the Calaveras fault at depth, suggesting that large earthquakes may rupture across both faults. The use of the 3D velocity model reveals that most earthquakes along the Hayward fault have near-vertical strike-slip focal mechanisms, consistent with the large-scale orientation and sense of slip of the fault, with no evidence for zones of complex fracturing acting as barriers to earthquake rupture.

  17. South-Eastern Bay of Biscay eddy-induced anomalies and their effect on chlorophyll distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Ainhoa; Rubio, Anna; Ruiz, Simón; Le Cann, Bernard; Testor, Pierre; Mader, Julien; Hernández, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of deep-water glider hydrographic and fluorescence data, together with satellite measurements provides a new insight into eddy-induced anomalies within the South-Eastern Bay of Biscay, during summer. Two cyclonic eddies and a SWODDY have been observed in different glider transects and by means of different sources of satellite data. Vertical profiles reveal complex structures (characteristic of the second baroclinic mode): upward/downward displacement of the seasonal/permanent thermocline in the case of X13 and the opposite thermocline displacements in the case of the cyclones. This is a typical behaviour of mode-water and "cyclonic thinny" eddies. A qualitative analysis of the vertical velocities in the anticyclone indicates that though geostrophy dominates the main water column, depressing the isopycnals, near the sea-surface the eddy-wind interaction affects the vertical currents, favouring Ekman pumping and upwelling. The analysis of the Θ-S properties corroborates that inside cyclones and between the 26 and 27 isopycnals, net downwelling occurs. These two types of intra-thermocline lenses appear to deeply impact the Chl-a fluorescence profiles, since the maximum Chl-a fluorescence is located just below the seasonal thermocline. The mean Chl-a fluorescence was higher in the anticyclone than within the cyclones and the mean for the entire study period; the highest values were observed in the centre of the anticyclone. These results are in agreement with previous findings concerning the SWODDY F90 and surrounding cyclones, located in the South-Western Bay of Biscay. Significant differences in the Θ-S properties of the two cyclonic mesoscale structures have been observed: higher temperatures and lower salinity in the easternmost cyclone. Finally, time variation of the salinity content of the shallowest water masses of the anticyclone (salinity decreasing over time), probably indicates advective mixing processes occurred during the mission.

  18. A Survey of Macro-invertebrate Gleaning in the Banate Bay Intertidal Area, Eastern Panay Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle del Norte-Campos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The gleaning fishery on the intertidal areas of Banate Bay, eastern Panay was surveyed monthly fromFebruary 2002 to January 2003, to derive information on species composition, catch, catch rates, andannual value. Total biomass, gleaning and turnover rates were determined from a fishery-independentsurvey conducted in June 2005. Catches of the fishery consisted of a total of 17 species, comprised ofmollusks, crustaceans and a brachiopod. The bivalves Katelysia hiantina, Scapharca inaequivalvis, andGafrarium tumidum were the top three species, together comprising 88.79 % of the total catch. The totalmean daily catch per gleaner for all species was equivalent to 73.75 g/m-2/gleaner-1. Catch rate and catchvolume for the mollusks were highest between May-July and November-December, coinciding with thesouthwest and northeast monsoons, respectively. The large riverine inputs to the area, together with themangrove-derived organic matter, periodically resuspended by the tidal fluctuations, are seen asresponsible for increasing organic matter content of the substrates and abundance of the species. Totalannual catch of the fishery is estimated to range from 20,988.7 to 43, 527.62 kg, with a median value of31,205.6 kg. This latter value divided by the estimated total biomass in the area of 2,441. 03 kg gives aturnover rate of 12.8. The total annual catch for the entire fishery is equivalent to a total value of PhP421T to 897T/yr-1. The latter correspond to an annual income of PhP 14,043.90 to 29,904.67/gleaner-1/yr-1, small amounts which may be sustainable due to the high turnover rate of the system.

  19. Cenozoic lithospheric evolution of the Bohai Bay Basin, eastern North China Craton: Constraint from tectono-thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiongying; He, Lijuan; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Linyou

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the lithosphere beneath the eastern North China Craton (NCC) had been thinned before the Cenozoic. A 2D multi-phase extension model, in which the initial crustal and lithospheric thicknesses are variable, is presented to reconstruct the initial thicknesses of the crust and lithosphere in the early Cenozoic and to further investigate the lithospheric evolution beneath the eastern NCC through the Cenozoic. We conduct thermal modeling along three profiles from east to west in the Bohai Bay Basin, which is the center of the lithospheric destruction and thinning of the NCC. Using multiple constraints, such as tectonic subsidence, the present-day heat flow and the Moho depth, we determine the initial crustal and lithospheric thicknesses of the Bohai Bay Basin before the Cenozoic rift to be 33-36 km and 80-105 km, respectively. The model results show that the most rapid lithospheric thinning during the Cenozoic occurred in the middle Eocene for most depressions, and the thinning activity ceased at the end of the Oligocene, reaching a minimum lithospheric thickness of 53-74 km, followed by a thermal relaxation phase. Combined with previous studies, we infer that the lithosphere beneath the eastern NCC experienced two stages of alternating thinning and thickening: notable thinning in the Early Cretaceous and Paleogene, and thickening in the Late Cretaceous and late Cenozoic. We believe that thermo-chemical erosion, together with extension, was probably the major mechanism of the significant lithospheric removal during the Mesozoic, whereas the Cenozoic lithospheric thinning was mainly dominated by tectonic extension in the eastern NCC; lithospheric thickening was generally a result of thermal cooling.

  20. Fatty acid composition of birds and game hunted by the Eastern James Bay Cree people of Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoise Proust

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indigenous peoples have traditionally relied on foods hunted and gathered from their immediate environment. The Eastern James Bay Cree people consume wild game and birds, and these are believed to provide health as well as cultural benefits. Objective: To determine the fatty acid (FA composition of traditional game and bird meats hunted in the Eastern James Bay area. Design: Harvested traditional game and birds were analysed for FA composition. A total of 52 samples from six wildlife species were collected in the areas of Chisasibi, Waswanipi and Mistissini, of which 35 were from birds (white partridge and Canada goose and 17 were from land animals (beaver, moose, caribou and black bear. Results: Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA was the most common n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA in all samples except for the black bear flesh, in which it was docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3. In white partridge, beaver and caribou flesh, PUFAs (mainly n-6 were the most common category of fats while in goose, moose and black bear flesh, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs predominated. In all species, saturated fatty acids (SFAs were the second most important FAs. It would appear that in the land animals and birds that were analysed, the SFA content was lower and the PUFA content was higher than store-bought meats giving them a more heart-healthy profile. Conclusions: These results showed that the FA composition of game species consumed by the James Bay Cree population is consistent with a beneficial diet and that traditional foods should continue to be promoted among the Cree people to provide better physical health as well as social and spiritual benefits.

  1. Use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to Obtain High-Resolution Elevation Data for Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Roger A.; Nardi, Mark R.; Reyes, Betzaida

    2008-01-01

    Sussex County, Delaware, occupies a 938-square-mile area of low relief near sea level in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The county is bounded on the east by the Delaware Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, including a barrier-island system, and inland bays that provide habitat for valuable living resources. Eastern Sussex County is an area of rapid population growth with a long-established beach-resort community, where land elevation is a key factor in determining areas that are appropriate for development. Of concern to State and local planners are evacuation routes inland to escape flooding from severe coastal storms, as most major transportation routes traverse areas of low elevation that are subject to inundation. The western half of the county is typically rural in character, and land use is largely agricultural with some scattered forest land cover. Western Sussex County has several low-relief river flood-prone areas, where accurate high-resolution elevation data are needed for Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) studies. This fact sheet describes the methods and techniques used to collect and process LiDAR elevation data, the generation of the digital elevation model (DEM) and the 2-foot contours, and the quality-assurance procedures and results. It indicates where to view metadata on the data sets and where to acquire bare-earth mass points, DEM data, and contour data.

  2. EAARL Coastal Topography--Maryland and Delaware, post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the eastern Maryland and Delaware coastline, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter), was produced from remotely...

  3. EAARL Coastal Topography--Maryland and Delaware, post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the eastern Maryland and Delaware coastline, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter), was produced from remotely...

  4. The influence of a river plume on the sea-ice meiofauna in south-eastern Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, E. H.

    1988-08-01

    Outflow from the Great Whale River produces a substantial freshwater layer (plume) beneath the winter ice cover and above water of higher salinity in south-eastern Hudson Bay. In 1983, samples of the lower-ice fauna and of zooplankton beneath the ice, were taken within, below and beyond the offshore reach of the plume. Nematodes accounted for the highest numbers (mean of 1956 1 1in the lower 3 cm of ice), and copepods, mainly Harpacticus and Halectinosoma with fewer Tisbe and Oithona, for the greatest biomass. All ice-inhabiting taxa were also found in the water below the ice, but many zooplankters occurring immediately beneath the ice did not form part of the ice fauna. No major qualitative differences were evident between the ice communities existing above the plume and offshore from it, but quantitative distinctions were readily apparent. Animals were consistently more concentrated (by 2-3 orders of magnitude) in the lower 3 cm of the ice than in the water immediately below, both over the plume and outside it. Except for the dominant rotifers in the plume, the concentration of zooplankton there was only 10% of that found in the surface water outside the plume. The river plume exerts a strong influence over the quantity of the fauna in the sea ice immediately above it. Changes in location and extent of the plume therefore may have an important effect on the food chain based in the sea ice.

  5. Field data sets for seagrass biophysical properties for the Eastern Banks, Moreton Bay, Australia, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Chris M; Kovacs, Eva M; Phinn, Stuart R

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes seagrass species and percentage cover point-based field data sets derived from georeferenced photo transects. Annually or biannually over a ten year period (2004-2014) data sets were collected using 30-50 transects, 500-800 m in length distributed across a 142 km(2) shallow, clear water seagrass habitat, the Eastern Banks, Moreton Bay, Australia. Each of the eight data sets include seagrass property information derived from approximately 3000 georeferenced, downward looking photographs captured at 2-4 m intervals along the transects. Photographs were manually interpreted to estimate seagrass species composition and percentage cover (Coral Point Count excel; CPCe). Understanding seagrass biology, ecology and dynamics for scientific and management purposes requires point-based data on species composition and cover. This data set, and the methods used to derive it are a globally unique example for seagrass ecological applications. It provides the basis for multiple further studies at this site, regional to global comparative studies, and, for the design of similar monitoring programs elsewhere.

  6. Geometry, kinematics and dynamic characteristics of a compound transfer zone: the Dongying anticline, Bohai Bay Basin, eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Fei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dongying anticline is an E-W striking complex fault-bounded block unit which located in the central Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin. The anticline covers an area of approximately 12 km2. The overlying succession, which is mainly composed of Tertiary strata, is cut by normal faults with opposing dips. In terms of the general structure, the study area is located in a compound transfer zone with major bounding faults to the west (Ying 1 fault and east (Ying -8 and -31 faults. Using three-dimensional seismic data, wireline log and checkshot data, the geometries and kinematics of faults in the transfer zone were studied, and fault displacements were calculated. The results show that when activity on the Ying 1 fault diminished, displacement was transferred to the Ying -8, Ying -31 and secondary faults so that total displacement increased. Dynamic analysis shows that the stress fields in the transfer zone were complex: the northern portion was a left-lateral extensional shear zone, and the southern portion was a right-lateral extensional shear zone. A model of potential hydrocarbon traps in the Dongying transfer zone was constructed based on the above data combined with the observed reservoir rock distribution and the sealing characteristics of the faults. The hydrocarbons were mainly expulsed from Minfeng Sag during deposition periods of Neogene Guantao and Minghuazhen Formations, and migrated along major faults from source kitchens to reservoirs. The secondary faults acted as barriers, resulting in the formation of fault-bound compartments. The high points of the anticline and well-sealed traps near secondary faults are potential targets. This paper provides a reservoir formation model of the low-order transfer zone and can be applied to the hydrocarbon exploration in transfer zones, especially the complex fault block oilfields in eastern China.

  7. Evaluations of heavy metal pollution in sediment and Mullus barbatus from the Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean) during 1997-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuksezgin, Filiz; Kontas, Aynur; Uluturhan, Esin

    2011-07-01

    Izmir Bay is one of the great natural bays of the Mediterranean. The surface sediment and fish samples were collected during 1997-2009. The sediment concentrations of inner bay showed significant enrichments during sampling periods. Outer and middle bays exhibited low levels of metal enrichments except the estuary of Gediz River. The concentrations were generally higher than the background levels from the Mediterranean and Aegean except Cd and Pb levels gradually decreased. Metal EF is used as an index to evaluate anthropogenic influences of metals in sediments. Maximum metal enrichment was found for Hg in the outer bay, while Pb indicated maximum enrichment in the middle-inner bays. Metal levels were evaluated in sediments in accordance with the numerical SQG of the USEPA. The levels of fish tissues were lower than the results reported from polluted areas of the Mediterranean. The highest BAFs were detected for Hg and Cd in fish.

  8. Delaware's first serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  9. GPS Instrumentation and Remote Sensing Study of Slow Moving Landslides in the Eastern San Francisco Bay Hills, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Waeber, J.; Burgmann, R.; Sitar, N.; Ferretti, A.; Giannico, C.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize slope deformation as a result of static and dynamic forces, using the most current geodetic technologies that measure active ground surface displacement. Recent advances in geodetic and remote data collection, such as with continuous GPS and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) allow for a level of primary site characterization and eventual risk assessment due to landsliding that was previously not possible. Active landsliding across the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) site and the greater Berkeley Hills region, in the Eastern San Francisco Bay, California, has been the object of many investigations over recent decades, though the mechanisms of currently mobile slides are still poorly understood. Previous studies suggest a trend in landslide mobility is closely associated with precipitation and regional active tectonic conditions in addition to the geologic setting (Alan Kropp and Associates, 2002). InSAR time-series analysis has been shown to successfully track creeping landslides in the Berkeley Hills with millimeter scale accuracy (Hilley et al., 2004) and documents displacement primarily during periods of high precipitation (Quigley et al., 2010). However, displacement of creeping landslides due to seismic activity has yet to be measured. A first focus of this project is therefore to study the spatial and temporal distribution of active Berkeley Hills landsliding in relation to local precipitation and ground shaking events by a careful observational program. This program includes the instrumentation of individual landslides with permanent continuously streaming GPS stations (beginning 2012), and regional monitoring of slope surface deformation by InSAR time series analysis (beginning 1992). To date, continuous GPS tracking of select landslides has recorded up to 2 cm of total surface deformation driven by the onset of precipitation, with displacement response times of less than 5 days

  10. The record of major quaternary sea-level changes in a large coastal plain estuary, Chesapeake Bay, Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Steven M.; Mixon, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Seismic-reflection surveys of the Chesapeake Bay, combined with geologic mapping and analysis of boreholes on the Delmarva Peninsula, provide evidence of at least three generations of the Susquehanna River system and three generations of the Chesapeake Bay. The evidence for ancient courses of the Susquehanna River is preserved as three distinct paleochannels, and evidence for ancient versions of the Chesapeake Bay is preserved as three sets of paleochannel fill beneath the bay and three generations of barrier-spit deposits on the southern Delmarva Peninsula. The paleochannels represent relative sea-level minima and the channel-fill and barrier-spit deposits represents relative sea-level maxima. A history of three major marine transgressions is recorded in the stratigraphy preserved in the filled paleochannels and in the overlying barrier-spit complexes: three systematic progressions from fluvial to estuarine to bay or nearshore marine environments. This sea-level record seems to be compatible with the saw-toothed pattern of the marine oxygen-isotope record and with the concept of glacial-interglacial terminations. It also seems to have a climax character in which most of the preserved evidence is related to the largest terminations and to the extreme sea-level positions that bound those terminations. The three paleochannel-fill and barrier-spit complexes appear to correspond to oxygen-isotope stages 1,5, and either 7 or 11; the three related paleochannels correspond to stages 2, 6, and either 8 or 12. ?? 1988.

  11. Libraries in Delaware: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/delaware.html Libraries in Delaware To use the sharing features on ... Newark Christiana Care Health System Lewis B. Flinn Library 4755 Ogletown-Stanton Road / PO BOX 6001 Newark, ...

  12. Thirty years - Alexandrium fundyense cyst, bloom dynamics and shellfish toxicity in the Bay of Fundy, eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L.; LeGresley, Murielle M.; Hanke, Alex R.

    2014-05-01

    Sediment and water samples were collected for Alexandrium fundyense spatial and temporal distribution and abundance at more than 120 locations throughout the Bay of Fundy during the summers and winters of 1980-1984. These broad surveys have been repeated at various times through the past 30 years, with more regular sampling since 2004. In addition, A. fundyense abundance has been monitored at several locations within the Bay of Fundy at weekly intervals from April to November and monthly during the remaining months since 1988. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish (notably Mya arenaria) have also been monitored at multiple locations in the Bay of Fundy since 1943. The datasets were examined to determine relationships and roles between overwintering resting cysts, bloom initiation, bloom decline, motile cell dispersal and A. fundyense motile populations and resulting shellfish toxicity since 1980. Cysts are widely dispersed throughout the Bay of Fundy in the offshore, inshore and intertidal zones with the largest deposits located in the offshore in silt/clay sediments to the east and north of Grand Manan Island at depths of 60-180 m. Results show that there is a constant stable source of cysts in the Bay of Fundy with highest concentrations of cysts (9780 cysts cm-3) observed in 2010 and highest concentrations of A. fundyense motile cells (18×106 cells L-1) observed in 1980. Interannual changes in abundance in A. fundyense populations, resting cysts and the temporal trends in M. arenaria toxicity are discussed. Results show that there was no relationship between the abundance of overwintering cysts and the magnitude of A. fundyense blooms. The offshore seed beds appear to be relatively constant in cyst density among most years and serve as an important source for the motile cells that lead to initiation of major blooms and resulting shellfish toxicity throughout the Bay of Fundy.

  13. g178eg.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity G-1-78-EG in Eastern Gulf of Alaska, Glacier Bay from 09/12/1978 to 09/23/1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity G-1-78-EG in Eastern Gulf of Alaska, Glacier Bay from 09/12/1978...

  14. g178eg.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity G-1-78-EG in Eastern Gulf of Alaska, Glacier Bay from 09/12/1978 to 09/23/1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity G-1-78-EG in Eastern Gulf of Alaska, Glacier Bay from 09/12/1978...

  15. Informing Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) with numerical modelling: A case-study on shellfish aquaculture in Malpeque Bay (Eastern Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Guyondet, Thomas; Bacher, Cédric; Comeau, Luc A

    2015-11-15

    A moratorium on further bivalve leasing was established in 1999-2000 in Prince Edward Island (Canada). Recently, a marine spatial planning process was initiated explore potential mussel culture expansion in Malpeque Bay. This study focuses on the effects of a projected expansion scenario on productivity of existing leases and available suspended food resources. The aim is to provide a robust scientific assessment using available datasets and three modelling approaches ranging in complexity: (1) a connectivity analysis among culture areas; (2) a scenario analysis of organic seston dynamics based on a simplified biogeochemical model; and (3) a scenario analysis of phytoplankton dynamics based on an ecosystem model. These complementary approaches suggest (1) new leases can affect existing culture both through direct connectivity and through bay-scale effects driven by the overall increase in mussel biomass, and (2) a net reduction of phytoplankton within the bounds of its natural variation in the area.

  16. Internal Structure of the Incised Valley Fill in the Hangzhou Bay,Eastern China and Its Geological Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chunming; LI Guangyue; WANG Baichang; GU Lianxing; ZHUO Hongchun

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the sedimentary facies and formation of the Qiantangjiang and Taihu incised valleys, and the characteristics of shallow gas reservoir distribution, based on a large number of data of drilling, static sounding and chemical analysis obtained from the present Hangzhou Bay coastal plain. The incised valleys were formed during the last glacial maximum and were subsequently filled with fluvial facies during the post-glacial period. All commercial gases are stored in the flood plain sand lenses of the incised valleys.

  17. Enzyme activities in the Delaware Estuary affected by elevated suspended sediment load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziervogel, K.; Arnosti, C.

    2009-09-01

    Extracellular enzyme activities were compared among surface water, bottom water, and sediments of the Delaware Estuary using six fluorescently labeled, structurally distinct polysaccharides to determine the effects of suspended sediment transport on water column hydrolytic activities. Potential hydrolysis rates in surface waters were also measured for the nearby shelf. Samples were taken in December 2006, 6 months after a major flood event in the Delaware Basin that was followed by high freshwater run-off throughout the fall of 2006. All substrates were hydrolyzed in sediments and in the water column, including two (pullulan and fucoidan) that previously were not hydrolyzed in surface waters of the Delaware estuary. At the time of sampling, total particulate matter (TPM) in surface waters at the lower bay, bay mouth, and shelf ranged between 31 mg l -1 and 48 mg l -1 and were 2 to 20 times higher than previously reported. The presence of easily resuspended sediments at the lower bay and bay mouth indicated enhanced suspended sediment transport in the estuary prior to our sampling. Bottom water hydrolysis rates at the two sites affected by sediment resuspension were generally higher than those in surface waters from the same site. Most notably, fucoidan and pullulan hydrolysis rates in bay mouth bottom waters were 22.6 and 6.2 nM monomer h -1, respectively, and thus three and five times higher than surface water rates. Our data suggest that enhanced mixing processes between the sediment and the overlying water broadened the spectrum of water column hydrolases activity, improving the efficiency of enzymatic degradation of high molecular weight organic matter in the water with consequences for organic matter cycling in the Delaware estuary.

  18. Application of geologic map information to water quality issues in the southern part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Maryland and Virginia, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartan, L.; Peper, J.D.; Bachman, L.J.; Horton, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Geologic map units contain much information about the mineralogy, chemistry, and physical attributes of the rocks mapped. This paper presents information from regional-scale geologic maps in Maryland and Virginia, which are in the southern part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed in the eastern United States. The geologic map information is discussed and analyzed in relation to water chemistry data from shallow wells and stream reaches in the area. Two environmental problems in the Chesapeake Bay watershed are used as test examples. The problems, high acidity and high nitrate concentrations in streams and rivers, tend to be mitigated by some rock and sediment types and not by others. Carbonate rocks (limestone, dolomite, and carbonate-cemented rocks) have the greatest capacity to neutralize acidic ground water and surface water in contact with them. Rocks and sediments having high carbon or sulfur contents (such as peat and black shale) potentially contribute the most toward denitrification of ground water and surface water in contact with them. Rocks and sediments that are composed mostly of quartz, feldspar, and light-colored clay (rocks such as granite and sandstone, sediments such as sand and gravel) tend not to alter the chemistry of waters that are in contact with them. The testing of relationships between regionally mapped geologic units and water chemistry is in a preliminary stage, and initial results are encouraging.Geologic map units contain much information about the mineralogy, chemistry, and physical attributes of the rocks mapped. This paper presents information from regional-scale geologic maps in Maryland and Virginia, which are in the southern part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed in the eastern United States. The geologic map information is discussed and analyzed in relation to water chemistry data from shallow wells and stream reaches in the area. Two environmental problems in the Chesapeake Bay watershed are used as test examples. The problems, high

  19. 2D soil and engineering-seismic bedrock modeling of eastern part of Izmir inner bay/Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamuk, Eren; Akgün, Mustafa; Özdağ, Özkan Cevdet; Gönenç, Tolga

    2017-02-01

    Soil-bedrock models are used as a base when the earthquake-soil common behaviour is defined. Moreover, the medium which is defined as bedrock is classified as engineering and seismic bedrock in itself. In these descriptions, S-wave velocity is (Vs) used as a base. The mediums are called soil where the Vs is < 760 m/s, the bigger ones are called bedrock as well. Additionally, the parts are called engineering bedrock where the Vs is between 3000 m/s and 760 m/s, the parts where are bigger than 3000 m/s called seismic bedrock. The interfacial's horizontal topography where is between engineering and seismic bedrock is effective on earthquake's effect changing on the soil surface. That's why, 2D soil-bedrock models must be used to estimate the earthquake effect that could occur on the soil surface. In this research, surface wave methods and microgravity method were used for occuring the 2D soil-bedrock models in the east of İzmir bay. In the first stage, velocity values were obtained by the studies using surface wave methods. Then, density values were calculated from these velocity values by the help of the empiric relations. 2D soil-bedrock models were occurred based upon both Vs and changing of density by using these density values in microgravity model. When evaluating the models, it was determined that the soil is 300-400 m thickness and composed of more than one layers in parts where are especially closer to the bay. Moreover, it was observed that the soil thickness changes in the direction of N-S. In the study area, geologically, it should be thought the engineering bedrock is composed of Bornova melange and seismic bedrock unit is composed of Menderes massif. Also, according to the geophysical results, Neogene limestone and andesite units at between 200 and 400 m depth show that engineering bedrock characteristic.

  20. University of Delaware Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Michael T

    2012-09-30

    The main goal of this project funded through this DOE grant is to help in the establishment of the University of Delaware Energy Institute (UDEI) which is designed to be a long-term, on-going project. The broad mission of UDEI is to develop collaborative programs encouraging research activities in the new and emerging energy technologies and to partner with industry and government in meeting the challenges posed by the nation's pressing energy needs.

  1. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site at a local control area suggest the migration of contaminants off-site. Tree species exhibit different concentrations of BTEX constituents, indicating selective uptake and accumulation. Toluene in wood exhibited the highest concentrations, which may also be due to endogenous production. Meanwhile, MTBE was not found in the tree cores and is considered to be absent in the groundwater. The results demonstrate that tree-core analysis can be useful for detecting anomalous concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX compounds, in subarctic sites with shallow unconfined aquifers and permeable soils. This method can therefore aid in the proper management of contamination during landfill operations and after site closures.

  2. Mississippi-Louisiana Estuarine Area Study: Salinity and Circulation at and Near Bay Boudreau in Biloxi Marshes Eastern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Bay Boudreau Plot of SALN4O6O*ATE. Legend: A a I obs, 5 2 abs, etc. 30+ A BA IANS A Ab At 20. AAM BC Be B A AAA A ACCA I B A A SALN4O66 I AA A BA A...Lake River R**2 Wt Pontchartrain R**2 wt Weights for Station 4 PO 0.60 0.24 LPO 0.48 0.19 P1 0.91 0.36 LPI 0.90 0.36 P2 0.56 0.22 LP2 0.59 0.23 P3 0.32...0.13 LP3 0.38 0.15 P4 0.10 0.04 LP4 0.17 0.07 Weights for Stations 5 and 8 PO 0.41 0.22 LPO 0.33 0.17 P1 0.70 0.37 LPI 0.75 0.40 P2 0.48 0.25 LP2 0.47

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL CAPACITY ASSESSMENT IN EASTERN LIAODONG BAY FOR SEA SAND MINING%辽东湾东部海砂开采环境效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许振强

    2012-01-01

    According to the data collected from drilling holes and tidal current observations, using numerical simulation methods, the environmental capacity for sea sand mining is studied in the eastern Liaodong Bay. The average thickness of the sand layer ranges between 4. 0 ~ 6. 0 m. The total reserve of sand is about 3818×104m3. The sand content is generally in the range of 84. 4%~92. 4%. The results of simulation indicates that the suspended mater caused by sand mining is less than 10 mg/L and mainly spread in the experimental area of the germplasm resources conservation area and the Natural Reserve of Spotted Seal of the Liaodong Bay. However, the suspended sediment has no severe impact on the core area of the above two experimental areas. After the mining of marine sands, the erosion rate will decrease in an a-mount of 0. 002~0. 02 m/a in the subbottom pipeline section, even though it may increase by 0. 001 ~0. 005 m/a in some areas. But in general sand mining will not have influence on the pipeline. The erosion and deposition rate is less than 0. 001m/a in the eastern beach. It is suggested that the mining depth, mining area and mining amount and intensity should be controlled, and in-situ monitoring and other measures should be enforced to mitigate the impact of sea sand mining activities on the marine environment.%依据辽东湾东部海砂开采区近期钻探、海流观测等实际资料,采用数值模拟方法,探讨了该区海砂开采环境容量.调查结果显示,该区海砂矿层厚度为4.0~6.0 m,海砂总资源量约3 818×104 m3,砂组分含量为84.4%~92.4%.模拟结果表明,控制采砂强度后,10 mg/L的悬浮泥沙主要在辽东湾种质资源和斑海豹自然保护区的实验区内扩散,不会对以上两个保护区的核心区水质环境产生影响;海砂开采后,海底管线部分管段年侵蚀量减小值为0.002~0.02m,部分年侵蚀量增加0.001~0.005 m,不会对管线造成影响;东侧

  4. 2005 Delaware Coastal Program Lidar: Sussex County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data were acquired in March 2005 using the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) platform in Sussex County, Delaware. Once acquired, the...

  5. H09699: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay Entrance, Delaware, 1977-08-09

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  6. H10533: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Delaware Bay, Delaware, 1994-04-25

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  7. H10084: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, Delaware, 1983-05-03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  8. H10079: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, Delaware, 1983-04-27

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  9. H10573: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Delaware Bay, Delaware, 1994-09-13

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  10. H10931: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay and Approaches, Delaware, 1999-10-27

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  11. H10935: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay and Approaches, Delaware, 1999-10-31

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. H10854: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay and Approaches, Delaware, 1999-10-17

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  13. Distribution, Origin, and Realtions to Flow of Salty Ground Water Along the Western Margin of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure in Eastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, R.; Bruce, S.

    2002-05-01

    The Chesapeake Bay impact structure closely coincides with parts of some aquifers in eastern Virginia that contain saltwater as much as 30 miles landward of the coast. The impact structure has thereby been inferred to play some role in controlling the presence of this "inland saltwater wedge", which formed under unstressed conditions prior to present-day ground-water withdrawals. That the impact severely disrupted the previously stratified sediments casts doubt on conceptualizations of a regionally contiguous, vertically layered system of aquifers and confining units. In addition, large and increasing ground-water withdrawals have resulted in continuing water-level declines and altered flow directions that create the potential for saltwater intrusion. Hence, the origin and emplacement of the saltwater must be known to predict its reaction to stresses being placed upon the flow system. Specific conductances and concentrations of chloride in ground water along the western margin of the impact structure reflect a transitional interface between freshwater to the west and seawater to the east that coincides aerially with the margin of the impact structure. Ratios of bromide to chloride and chlorine-36 to total chloride, and of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, indicate chloride to have originated primarily from mixing of freshwater and seawater across the interface. In addition, deep ground water east of the interface having specific conductances which exceed that of seawater likely resulted from partial evaporation of seawater, either (1) in restricted coastal environments under arid conditions, (2) by rapid vaporization caused by the impact event, and (or) (3) by residual heat and associated hydrothermal activity following the impact. Mixing of freshwater and seawater has been theorized to take place in a "differential flushing" manner that left residual seawater to form the saltwater wedge. Seawater emplaced during inundation of the land surface persisted around

  14. Upper Cenozoic sediments of the lower Delaware Valley and the northern Delmarva Peninsula, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, James Patrick; Minard, James Pierson

    1979-01-01

    The 'yellow gravels' referred to by R. D. Salisbury in 1898 and the 'Trenton gravel,' as defined by H. C. Lewis in 1880, were investigated along the inner edge of the New Jersey Coastal Plain in southern New Jersey and in the northern Delmarva Peninsula. The highest level deposits, the Beacon Hill gravel, are found on only the highest hills in the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Their distribution suggests deposition from north to south across the plain. After deposition of the Beacon Hill, probably in middle or late Miocene time, a narrow valley was formed paralleling the inner edge of the New Jersey Coastal Plain between Raritan Bay and Camden. South of Camden, the valley broadened, covering much of southern New Jersey. The deposits in this valley are largely the Bridgeton Formation as we have redefined it. A second narrow valley was entrenched through the Bridgeton between Trenton and Salem, N.J. This valley broadens and covers much of the northern Delmarva Peninsula west of the Delaware River. The fill in the valley is largely the Pensauken Formation, as we have redefined it in our report. Collectively, the Beacon Hill, the Bridgeton, and the Pensauken were originally the 'yellow gravels' of Salisbury. These deposits are all fluviatile in origin and were largely formed as a series of step like downcutting channels. The Delaware Valley between Trenton and the lower Delaware Bay region is occupied by the 'Trenton gravel,' which is below the average level of the 'yellow gravels.' Two units recognized throughout the area and informally named the Spring Lake beds and the Van Sciver Lake beds are lithologically distinct from the 'yellow gravel' formations. The lithologies of the Spring Lake beds and the Van Sciver Lake beds are much more heterogeneous than those of the older formations. These two units, particularly, contain much greater amounts of silt and clay, often in thick beds. The depositional environments associated with the two units include fluviatile, estuarine

  15. 78 FR 14060 - Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware AGENCY... and seeks a waiver of the Commission's freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by televisions... with its first local television service, and that Seaford will remain well-served after the...

  16. Galveston Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor,; Thatcher, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    The Galveston Bay estuary is located on the upper Texas Gulf coast (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). It is composed of four major sub-bays—Galveston, Trinity, East, and West Bays. It is Texas’ largest estuary on the Gulf Coast with a total area of 155,399 hectares (384,000 acres) and 1,885 km (1,171 miles) of shoreline (Burgan and Engle, 2006). The volume of the bay has increased over the past 50 years due to subsidence, dredging, and sea level rise. Outside of ship channels, the maximum depth is only 3.7 m (12 ft), with the average depth ranging from 1.2 m (4 ft) to 2.4 m (8 ft)— even shallower in areas with widespread oyster reefs (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). The tidal range is less than 0.9 m (3 ft), but water levels and circulation are highly influenced by wind. The estuary was formed in a drowned river delta, and its bayous were once channels of the Brazos and Trinity Rivers. Today, the watersheds surrounding the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers, along with many other smaller bayous, feed into the bay. The entire Galveston Bay watershed is 85,470 km2 (33,000 miles2 ) large (Figure 1). Galveston Island, a 5,000 year old sand bar that lies at the western edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf of Mexico, impedes the freshwater flow of the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers into the Gulf, the majority of which comes from the Trinity. The Bolivar Peninsula lies at the eastern edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf. Water flows into the Gulf at Bolivar Roads, 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 Galveston Pass, between Galveston Island and Bolivar Peninsula, and at San Luis Pass, between the western side of Galveston Island and Follets Island.

  17. 33 CFR 117.235 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. 117.235 Section 117.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.235 Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile...

  18. Lithospheric stretching and the long wavelength free-air gravity anomaly of the Eastern Continental margin of India and the 85 degree E Ridge, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajesh, S.; Majumdar, T.J.; Krishna, K.S.

    Among the submarine ridge systems in the northern Indian Ocean, the 85 degree E Ridge in the Bay of Bengal is more enigmatic owing to its peculiar anomalous negative free-air gravity. In general, this has been attributed to the isostatic...

  19. OYSTER POPULATUION ESTIMATION IN SUPPORT OF THE TEN-YEAR GOAL FOR OYSTER RESOTRATION IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY: DEVELOPING STRATEGIES FOR RESTORING AND MANAGING THE EASTERN OYSTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Roger, Steve Jordan, Gary Smith, Kennedy Paynter, James Wesson, Mary Christman, Jessica Vanisko, Juliana Harding, Kelly Greenhawk and Melissa Southworth. 2003. Oyster Population Estimation in Support of the Ten-Year Goal for Oyster Restoration in the Chesapeake Bay: Develop...

  20. Middle cretaceous geomagnetic field anomalies in the eastern Indian Ocean and their implication to the tectonic evolution of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, M.; Ramana, M.V.

    . Identification of these markers aided to confirm the timing of spreading ridge extinction in the Perth Basin as 102 Ma. In the Bay of Bengal, these markers facilitated to infer the evolution of the Middle Cretaceous crust, east of the buried 85°E Ridge. The age...

  1. U. of Delaware Abandons Sessions on Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The University of Delaware spent years refining its residence-life education program. One week of public criticism unraveled it. Late last month, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, a free-speech group, accused the university of promoting specific views on race, sexuality, and morality in a series of discussions held in dormitories.…

  2. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in four areas: single-parent families, births to teenage mothers, juvenile crime and violence, and education. Following brief sections on the state's demographics and economic status, the fact book…

  3. Results of the 1975 Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    During the Spring semester of 1975, the University of Delaware initiated a PLATO project with the dual purpose of demonstrating how a computer system might function in a university and of evaluating what part such a system might play in the future of the university and its supporting community. The demonstration phase of the project, which…

  4. Water, organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus contents in sediment of a large-scale mariculture area in the Zhelin Bay of eastern Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qiaoxiang; LIN Junda; SHANG Xu; LI Jin; HUANG Changjiang

    2008-01-01

    The Zhelin Bay is one of the most important bays for large-scale maricuhure in Guangdong Province,China.Owing to the increas-ing human population and the expanding marieuhure in the last two decades,the ecological environment has greatly changed with frequent harmful algal blooms.A monthly survey of water content,organic matter ( TOM ),and various forms of nitrogen and phosphorous in sediment from July 2002 to July 2003 in the bay was conducted.The results showed that the water content was cor-related significantly with TOM and various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus and can be used as proxy for quick and rough estimate of these factors in the future surveys.TOM was also correlated significantly with various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus,indica-ting that it was one of the key factors affecting the concentrations and distributions of nitrogen and phosphorus in the investigated waters. Average total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TkN) Content was( 1113.1±382.5 )μg/g and average total phosphorus (TP) content was(567.2 ± 223.3)μg/g, and both were much higher than those of similar estuaries in China and elsewhere. Average nitrogen and phosphorus tended to be higher inside than outside the bay,higher at aquaculture than non-aquacuhure areas,and higher at fish-cage culture than oyster culture areas,suggesting that large-scale mariculture inside the bay played an important role in the eutrophication of the Zhelin Bay.Various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were higher during the warm season (July--September),which was due to the increased decomposition and concentration of organic matter resulted from the fast growth and high mortality of the cultured species.Compared with July 2002,TkN and TP contents were much higher in July 2003,in consonance with the eut~'ophication of the Zhelin Bay.Because exchangeable phosphorus ( Ex-P),iron-bounded phos-phorus (Fe-P) and organic phosphorus (OP) combined accounted for 34.3% of the TP and authigenie phosphorus (Au-P) ac

  5. THE ECOLOGICAL STRUCTURE MACROFAULING COMMUNITY OF THE EASTERN SHORE OF THE POMERANIAN BAY (SOUTHERN BALTIC SEA IN 2008 ON THE ANTHROPOGENIC SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Rosińska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, observations carried out on groups of biofauling organisms Pomeranian Bay. Appointed position in Międzyzdroje, Kołobrzeg and Niechorze. Samples of organisms were collected from the pillars of the pier, wooden spurs and conctrte starblocks as part of the breakwaters in each village. The biological material has been collected in the spring (11 May 2008, summer (July 27, 2008 and early autumn (September 14, 2008. There have been qualitative and quantitative analysis of any invertebrate organisms collected.

  6. Thickness of the surficial aquifer, Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    A digital map of the thickness of the surficial unconfined aquifer, including from the land surface and unsaturated zone to the bottom of sediments of geologic units identified as part of the surficial aquifer, was produced to improve understanding of the hydrologic system in the Maryland and Delaware portions of the Delmarva Peninsula. The map is intended to be used in conjunction with other environmental coverages (such land use, wetlands, and soil characteristics) to provide a subsurface hydrogeologic component to studies of nitrate transport that have historically relied on maps of surficial features. It could also be used to study the transport of other water soluble chemicals. The map was made using the best currently available data, which was of varying scales. It was created by overlaying a high resolution land surface and bathymetry digital elevation model (DEM) on a digital representation of the base of the surficial aquifer, part of hydrogeologic framework, as defined by Andreasen and others (2013). Thickness was calculated as the difference between the top of land surface and the bottom of the surficial aquifer sediments, which include sediments from geologic formations of late-Miocene through Quaternary age. Geologic formations with predominantly sandy surficial sediments that comprise the surficial aquifer on the Delmarva Peninsula include the Parsonsburg Sand, Sinepuxent Formation (Fm.), and parts of the Omar Fm. north of Indian River Bay in Delaware, the Columbia Fm., Beaverdam Fm., and Pennsauken Fm. (Ator and others 2005; Owens and Denney, 1986; Mixon, 1985; Bachman and Wilson, 1984). Formations with mixed texture and sandy stratigraphy including the Scotts Corner Fm. and Lynch Heights Fm. in Delaware are also considered part of the surficial aquifer (Ramsey, 1997). Subcropping aquifers and confining beds underlie the surficial aquifer throughout the Peninsula and may increase or limit its thickness, respectively (Andreasen and others, 2013

  7. Records available to September 30, 1956, on use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, John C.

    1957-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize data on the use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area (fig. 2) and to list the principal data sources that are available in published form. The tables and bibliography will assist Geological Survey personnel assigned to the Delaware Basin Project in evaluating the scope and deficiencies of previous studies of the basin. Information is also given on the use of water by public supplies in the New York-New Jersey region comprising the New York City Metropolitan Area and in the remaining north-central and south-eastern parts of New Jersey. These regions may depend increasingly on water from the Delaware River basin for part of their public supplies. The Geological Survey has the responsibility for appraising and describing the water resources of the Nation as a guide to use, development, control, and conservation of these resources. Cooperative Federal-State water-resources investigations in the Delaware Basin States have been carried on the the Geological Survey for more than 50 years. In July 1956 the Survey began the "Delaware Basin Project," a hydrologic study of the Delaware River basin in order to: 1) Determine present status and trends in water availability, quality, and use, 2) assess and improve the adequacy of the Survey's basic water data program in the basin, 3) interpret and evaluate the water-resources data in terms of past and possible future water-use and land-use practices, and 4) disseminate promptly the results of this investigation for the benefit of all interested agencies and the general public. The Geological Survey is working closely with the U.S. Corps of Engineers and other cooperating Federal and State agencies in providing water data which will contribute to the present coordinated investigation aimed at developing a plan for long-range water development in the Delaware River basin. Estimates of quantities of water used are given for water withdrawn from streams and aquifers during calendar

  8. Fourth Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    A brief history of the Delaware PLATO project and descriptions of new developments in facilities, applications, user services, research, evaluation, and courseware produced since the Third Summative Report (1978) are provided, as well as an overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Sample lessons, illustrations, and activity…

  9. Fifth Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    A brief history of the Delaware PLATO project and descriptions of the new developments in facilities, applications, user services, research, evaluation, and courseware produced since the Fourth Summative Report (1979) are provided, as well as an overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Sample lessons, illustrations, and…

  10. The Courts, the Legislature, and Delaware's Resegregation: A Report on School Segregation in Delaware, 1989-­2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Arielle

    2014-01-01

    Delaware's history with school desegregation is complicated and contradictory. The state both advanced and impeded the goals of "Brown v. Board of Education." After implementing desegregation plans that were ineffective by design, Delaware was ultimately placed under the first metropolitan, multi-district desegregation court order in the…

  11. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy......-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site...... was not found in the tree cores and is considered to be absent in the groundwater. The results demonstrate that tree-core analysis can be useful for detecting anomalous concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX compounds, in subarctic sites with shallow unconfined aquifers and permeable soils...

  12. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, DIBENZOFURANS, AND BIPHENYLS IN FREGATA MAGNIFICENS FROM ILHA GRANDE BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, SOUTH-EASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to perform analyses in a fish-eating seabird species which is recognized to be at risk of accumulating toxic contaminants due to its high position in the trophic web and to its low ability to metabolize xenobiotic compounds. Fregata magnificens were collected at Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (23°8'26"S, 44°14'50"W between February, 2009 and April, 2013. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, dibenzofurans (PCDFs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, were analyzed in tissue composites, being subsequently identified and quantified using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The concentrations were below the range of concern established by World Health Organization. The sum of PCB-congeners analyzed had the concentration of 968 pg/g lipid weight, and 13.9 pg TEQ/g lipid weight. The PCDD/F-congeners analyzed had the concentration of 331.04 pg/g lipid weight, and 13.4 pg TEQ/g lipid weight. This type of study aims to integrate information from analyses of seabirds with halogenated hydrocarbons and could also make contribution to the scientific support for political decisions on coastal zone management.

  13. Recent peat accumulation rates in minerotrophic peatlands of the Bay James region, Eastern Canada, inferred by 210Pb and 137Cs radiometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Adam A; Ghaleb, Bassam; Garneau, Michelle; Asnong, Hans; Loisel, Julie

    2008-10-01

    (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating techniques are used to characterise recent peat accumulation rates of two minerotrophic peatlands located in the La Grande Rivière hydrological watershed, in the James Bay region (Canada). Several cores were collected during the summer 2005 in different parts of the two selected peatlands. These minerotrophic patterned peatlands are presently affected by erosion processes, expressed by progressive mechanical destruction of their pools borders. This erosion process is related to a water table rise induced by a regional increase of humidity since the last century. The main objective of the present paper is to (1) evaluate if (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating techniques can be applied to build accurate chronologies in these environments and (2) detect changes in the peat accumulation rates in regard to this amplification of humidity. In both sites, unsupported (210)Pb shows an exponential decreasing according to the depth. Chronologies inferred from (210)Pb allow to reconstruct peat accumulation rates since ca. 1855 AD. The (137)Cs data displayed evident mobility and diffusion, preventing the establishment of any sustained chronology based on these measurements. In the two sites, peat accumulation rates inferred from (210)Pb chronologies fluctuate between 0.005 and 0.038 g cm(-2) yr(-1). As a result, the rise of the water table during the last decade has not yet affected peat accumulation rates.

  14. Acid rains over semi-urban atmosphere at eastern Himalaya and near coast of Bay of Bengal and alkaline rains over typical urban atmosphere in India: A study on precipitation chemistry during monsoon, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arindam; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chirantan; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji

    A study has been made on precipitation chemistry over three different atmosphere in India. Rain samples were collected during the entire period of monsoon (June-October) in the year of 2013 over Kolkata (22.6 (°) N, 89.4 (°) E), a mega city with typical urban atmosphere; Falta (22.3 (°) N, 88.1 (°) E), a rural atmosphere near eastern coast of Bay of Bengal and Darjeeling (27.01 (°) N, 88.15 (°) E), a high altitude (2200 m asl)hill station over eastern Himalaya in India. The major focus of the study is to investigate the composition of various types of aerosol ionic components scavenged and its effect on the acidity and how it differs between these three distinctly different atmospheres. The results showed that the sea-salt components were higher in Falta (140 mueqv/lit) followed by Kolkata (120 mueqv/lit) and minimum in Darjeeling (30 mueqv/lit). Over all the stations, Na (+) and Cl (-) showed strong correlations indicating common marine source. The marine air masses originated from Bay of Bengal (BoB) were found to significantly enrich sea-salt particles over Falta, the nearest station from BoB and having least effect on Darjeeling, the farthest station from BoB. Dust and anthropogenic aerosols particles were significantly higher over Kolkata compared to other two stations. Dust particles were found to scavenge more in the initial phase of monsoon and it gradually decreased as the monsoon progressed. The average pH of rain water over Kolkata was 6.0 indicating alkaline in nature. pH over Falta was 5.2 indicating slightly acidic in nature and the most important fact is that pH over Darjeeling was 4.6 indicating highly acidic in nature. It was found that Ca (2+) , Mg (2+) and NH _{4} (+) neutralized the acidity of rain water over all the stations with the maximum neutralizing factor for Ca (2+) . However, NH _{4} (+) played important role over Darjeeling in neutralizing rain water acidity. The major reason for high acidity of rain water was not due to high

  15. The impact of land and sea surface variations on the Delaware sea breeze at local scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher P.

    The summertime climate of coastal Delaware is greatly influenced by the intensity, frequency, and location of the local sea breeze circulation. Sea breeze induced changes in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation influence many aspects of Delaware's economy by affecting tourism, farming, air pollution density, energy usage, and the strength, and persistence of Delaware's wind resource. The sea breeze front can develop offshore or along the coastline and often creates a near surface thermal gradient in excess of 5°C. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the dynamics of the Delaware sea breeze with a focus on the immediate coastline using observed and modeled components, both at high resolutions (~200m). The Weather Research and Forecasting model (version 3.5) was employed over southern Delaware with 5 domains (4 levels of nesting), with resolutions ranging from 18km to 222m, for June 2013 to investigate the sensitivity of the sea breeze to land and sea surface variations. The land surface was modified in the model to improve the resolution, which led to the addition of land surface along the coastline and accounted for recent urban development. Nine-day composites of satellite sea surface temperatures were ingested into the model and an in-house SST forcing dataset was developed to account for spatial SST variation within the inland bays. Simulations, which include the modified land surface, introduce a distinct secondary atmospheric circulation across the coastline of Rehoboth Bay when synoptic offshore wind flow is weak. Model runs using high spatial- and temporal-resolution satellite sea surface temperatures over the ocean indicate that the sea breeze landfall time is sensitive to the SST when the circulation develops offshore. During the summer of 2013 a field campaign was conducted in the coastal locations of Rehoboth Beach, DE and Cape Henlopen, DE. At each location, a series of eleven small, autonomous thermo-sensors (i

  16. 2007 Delaware Coastal Programs Lidar: Kent and New Castle Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data acquisition occurred in 7 missions between March 31 and April 5, 2007 in Kent and New Castle Counties, Delaware. The data have been classified and were...

  17. NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  18. 2007 Delaware Coastal Program Lidar: Kent and New Castle Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data acquisition occurred in 7 missions between March 31 and April 5, 2007 in Kent and New Castle Counties, Delaware. The data have been classified and were...

  19. Geomorphic and Structural Analysis of the Verona-Williams-Pleasanton fault zone and implications for seismic hazard, eastern San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, T. L.; Unruh, J. R.; Hoirup, D. F.; Barry, G.; Pearce, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    Folds and thrust faults adjacent to and beneath the Livermore Valley have accommodated Quaternary crustal shortening between major dextral faults of the eastern San Andreas fault system. The Verona and Williams faults are NE-dipping thrust or reverse faults that have uplifted the Pliocene-Pleistocene Livermore gravels along the western and southern margins of the valley. The Williams fault extends ~13 km northwest from the Mt. Lewis seismic trend to the sinistral Las Positas fault, which forms the southern margin of the valley. A 3-km left step along the Las Positas fault separates the surface traces of the Verona and Williams faults. The Verona fault extends ~8 km northwest from the stepover to southwestern Livermore Valley. It is possible that the Las Positas fault extends to the base of the seismogenic crust and separates the Verona and Williams faults into two kinematically independent structures. Alternatively, the Verona and Williams faults may merge downdip into a common thrust fault plane, with the Las Positas fault confined to the hanging wall as a tear fault. The Verona and Williams faults exhibit geomorphic evidence for late Quaternary fault rupture propagating to or very near the ground surface. The Williams fault tightly folds and overturns the Livermore gravels, and appears to form scarps that impound late Quaternary alluvium and cross Holocene landslide deposits. Many Holocene(?) alluvial fans exhibit distinct convex longitudinal profiles across the fault trace suggesting active folding above the Verona fault. The geomorphic position of a stream-terrace remnant suggests that >7 m of tectonic uplift is possible across the Verona fault during the late Quaternary. Surficial geologic mapping and geomorphic analysis of the ancestral Arroyo Valle drainage system reveals numerous paleochannels that generally decrease in elevation (age) to the northwest, and provide useful isochronous markers delineating a subtle tectonic uplift in western Livermore Valley

  20. F00437A: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, Delaware, Vicinity of Big Stone Anchorage Area, 1997-11-17

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  1. F00437B: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, Delaware, Vicinity of Big Stone Anchorage Area, 1997-11-17

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  2. H11081: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware River and Bay, Delaware and New Jersey, 2002-05-07

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  3. F00437: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, Delaware, Vicinity of Big Stone Anchorage Area, 1997-11-17

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  4. Water quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and vibrionaceae loads in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster gardening sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae conc...

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Delaware. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Delaware.

  6. 75 FR 76036 - Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise Disbursement Divisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise... of Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc., including the Accounts Payable, Rent, and Merchandise... the same division, are engaged in activities related to the supply of accounts payable,...

  7. 75 FR 54026 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... safety zone in an area of the Delaware River, Camden, NJ, described as North of the Wiggins park Marina... traffic from navigating on the Delaware River in an area described as north of the Wiggins Park Marina...

  8. Forcing mechanisms of the Bay of Bengal circulation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.; Sengupta, D.; Gadgil, S.

    be linked to two coastal Kelvin wave pulses which originate along the eastern boundary of the Bay during the summer and winter monsoons. When the Bay is forced with observed winds, the wind stress curl strengthens the poleward EICC during February...

  9. Flood Plain Information, Delhi New York, West Branch Delaware River and Little Delaware River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    1,383.9 1,382.4 1,391.3 Little Delaware River Back River Road 0.15 1,346.4 1,346.9 1,352.1 College Golf Course Footbridge 0.28 1,349.4 1,350.0 1,353.2...College Golf Course Footbridge 0.36 1,353.7 1,353.6 1,356.1 Bridge by USGS Gaging Station 1.79 1,395.9 1,396.9 1,403.6 N.Y. Rte. 28 5.93 1,533.9

  10. Smoke-free law did affect revenue from gaming in Delaware

    OpenAIRE

    Michael R. Pakko

    2005-01-01

    A paper recently published in the journal Tobacco Control purports to show that the implementation of a smoking prohibition in Delaware had no statistically significant effect on the revenues of three gaming facilities in that state. After correcting for evident errors in that analysis, I find that the smoke-free law did affect revenues from gaming in Delaware. Total gaming revenues are estimated to have declined by at least $6 million per month after the implementation of Delaware*s Clean In...

  11. 78 FR 4167 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Offshore Delaware. SUMMARY: BOEM has issued a commercial wind energy lease to Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Commercial Wind Lease Issuance on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Delaware AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  12. Ground-water contamination from lead shot at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Miller, Cherie V.

    2003-01-01

    Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge is located in southeastern Delaware in coastal lowlands along the margin of Delaware Bay. For 37 years, the Broadkiln Sportsman?s Club adjacent to the refuge operated a trap-shooting range, with the clay-target launchers oriented so that the expended lead shot from the range dropped into forested wetland areas on the refuge property. Investigators have estimated that up to 58,000 shotgun pellets per square foot are present in locations on the refuge where the lead shot fell to the ground. As part of the environmental risk assessment for the site, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated the potential for lead contamination in ground water. Results from two sampling rounds in 19 shallow wells indicate that elevated levels of dissolved lead are present in ground water at the site. The lead and associated metals, such as antimony and arsenic (common shotgun pellet alloys), are being transported along shallow ground-water flowpaths toward an open-water slough in the forested wetland adjacent to the downrange target area. Water samples from wells located along the bank of the slough contained dissolved lead concentrations higher than 400 micrograms per liter, and as high as 1 milligram per liter. In contrast, a natural background concentration of lead from ground water in a well upgradient from the site is about 1 microgram per liter. Two water samples collected several months apart from the slough directly downgradient of the shooting range contained 24 and 212 micrograms per liter of lead, respectively. The data indicate that lead from a concentrated deposit of shotgun pellets on the refuge has been mobilized through a combination of acidic water conditions and a very sandy, shallow, unconfined aquifer, and is moving along ground-water flowpaths toward the surface-water drainage. Data from this study will be used to help delineate the lead plume, and determine the fate and transport of lead from the source area.

  13. Environmental drivers of dissolved organic matter molecular composition in the Delaware Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholz, Helena; Kirchman, David L.; Niggemann, Jutta; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    Estuaries as connectors of freshwater and marine aquatic systems are hotspots of biogeochemical element cycling. In one of the best studied temperate estuaries, the Delaware Estuary (USA), we investigated the variability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) over five sampling cruises along the salinity gradient in August and November of 3 consecutive years. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were more variable in the upper reaches of the estuary (245±49 µmol L-1) than at the mouth of the estuary (129±14 µmol L-1). Bulk DOC decreased conservatively along the transect in November but was non-conservative with increased DOC concentrations mid-estuary in August. Detailed analysis of the solid-phase extractable DOM pool via ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS) revealed compositional differences at the molecular level that were not reflected in changes in concentration. Besides the mixing of terrestrial and marine endmember signatures, river discharge levels and biological activity were found to impact DOM molecular composition. DOM composition changed less between August and November than along the salinity gradient. Relative contributions of presumed photolabile DOM compounds did not reveal non-conservative behavior indicative of photochemical processing; suggesting that on the timescales of estuarine mixing photochemical removal of molecules plays a minor role in the turbid Delaware Bay. Overall, a large portion of molecular formulae overlapped between sampling campaigns and persisted during estuarine passage. Extending the analysis to the structural level via the fragmentation of molecular masses in the FT-ICR-MS cell, we found that the relative abundance of isomers along the salinity gradient did not change, indicating a high structural similarity of aquatic DOM independent of the origin. These results point towards a recalcitrant character of the DOM supplied by the Delaware

  14. Environmental drivers of dissolved organic matter molecular composition in the Delaware Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Osterholz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries as connectors of freshwater and marine aquatic systems are hotspots of biogeochemical element cycling. In one of the best studied temperate estuaries, the Delaware Estuary (USA, we investigated the variability of dissolved organic matter (DOM over five sampling cruises along the salinity gradient in August and November of 3 consecutive years. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were more variable in the upper reaches of the estuary (245±49 µmol L-1 than at the mouth of the estuary (129±14 µmol L-1. Bulk DOC decreased conservatively along the transect in November but was non-conservative with increased DOC concentrations mid-estuary in August. Detailed analysis of the solid-phase extractable DOM pool via ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT-ICR-MS revealed compositional differences at the molecular level that were not reflected in changes in concentration. Besides the mixing of terrestrial and marine endmember signatures, river discharge levels and biological activity were found to impact DOM molecular composition. DOM composition changed less between August and November than along the salinity gradient. Relative contributions of presumed photolabile DOM compounds did not reveal non-conservative behavior indicative of photochemical processing; suggesting that on the timescales of estuarine mixing photochemical removal of molecules plays a minor role in the turbid Delaware Bay. Overall, a large portion of molecular formulae overlapped between sampling campaigns and persisted during estuarine passage. Extending the analysis to the structural level via the fragmentation of molecular masses in the FT-ICR-MS cell, we found that the relative abundance of isomers along the salinity gradient did not change, indicating a high structural similarity of aquatic DOM independent of the origin. These results point towards a recalcitrant character of the DOM supplied by the

  15. 27 CFR 9.49 - Central Delaware Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Delaware Valley. 9.49 Section 9.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU.... (ix) From there northward along Covered Bridge Road to Green Sergeant Covered Bridge. (x) From...

  16. Sex, Lies, and Residence Life: Delaware's Thought Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The University of Delaware has a zero-tolerance policy for anything remotely resembling "hate speech." As such, the school implemented a mandatory training for all 7,000-odd students in its dorms. The sessions were part of a thorough thought-reform curriculum, designed by the school's Office of Residence Life, psychologically to…

  17. Manual for School Building Commissions of the State of Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    This manual contains provisions of Delaware state law and recommended procedures for construction programs. Areas discussed include--(1) financing, (2) school construction formulae for space allowances, (3) proposed school building budget, (4) procedures for school building construction, (5) a check list for an accounting system, (6) purchase…

  18. 3.0 Foundation programs for the Delaware CEMRI framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Murdoch

    2008-01-01

    A complete review of all the national monitoring programs that could possibly contribute to the Delaware River Basin (DRB) CEMRI Framework is beyond the scope of this report. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment developed a Web-based annotated inventory of such monitoring programs for the mid-Atlantic region. Olsen et al. (...

  19. Second Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    Begun on an experimental basis in March 1975, the ongoing PLATO project at the University of Delaware has become an established part of the University's academic program. This descriptive report is divided into three sections: (1) project history and development, including organization, utilization, instructor and author training, and projections…

  20. Third Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    Descriptions of new developments in the areas of facilities, applications, user services, support staff, research, evaluation, and courseware production since the Second Summative Report (1977) are provided, as well as a summative overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Through the purchase of its own PLATO system, this…

  1. Mesohabitat use of threatened hemlock forests by breeding birds of the Delaware River basin in northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R.M.; Redell, L.A.; Bennett, R.M.; Young, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Avian biodiversity may be at risk in eastern parks and forests due to continued expansion of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an exotic homopteran insect native to East Asia. To assess avian biodiversity, mesohabitat relations, and the risk of species loss with declining hemlock forests in Appalachian park lands, 80 randomly distributed fixed-radius plots were established in which territories of breeding birds were estimated on four forest-terrain types (hemlock and hardwood benches and ravines) in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Both species richness and number of territories were higher in hardwood than hemlock forest types and in bench than ravine terrain types. Four insectivorous species, Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), blue-headed vireo (Vireo solitarius), black-throated green warbler (Dendroica virens), and Blackburnian warbler (Dendroica fusca), showed high affinity for hemlock forest type and exhibited significantly greater numbers of territories in hemlock than hardwood sites. These species are hemlock-associated species at risk from continued hemlock decline in the Delaware River valley and similar forests of the mid-Atlantic east slope. Two of these species, the blue-headed vireo and Blackburnian warbler, appeared to specialize on ravine mesohabitats of hemlock stands, the vireo a low-to-mid canopy species, the warbler a mid-to-upper canopy forager. Unchecked expansion of the exotic adelgid and subsequent hemlock decline could negatively impact 3,600 pairs from the park and several million pairs from northeastern United States hemlock forests due to elimination of preferred habitat.

  2. Lipid composition in particulate and dissolved organic matter in the Delaware Estuary: Sources and diagenetic patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannino, A.; Harvey, H.R. [Univ. of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.

    1999-08-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated from surface waters of Delaware Bay along a transect from freshwater to the coastal ocean and fractionated by tangential flow ultrafiltration into high (1--30 kDa; HDOM) and very high (30 kDa--0.2 {micro}m; VHDOM) nominal molecular mass fractions. Carbon content, stable carbon isotopes, and lipid composition were measured for each DOM fraction, and particles collected in parallel. Lipids, excluding hydrocarbons, comprised up to 0.33% of HDOM organic carbon, 1.6% of VHDOM carbon, and 10% of POC, the majority of which were fatty acids. Although lipids comprised a small fraction of HDOM, fatty acids and sterols provided valuable information on the origins of DOM. Molecular composition of particulate and dissolved lipids and bulk stable carbon isotopes demonstrated differences in organic sources along the estuarine gradient with distinct terrestrial signals in the river and turbid middle estuary and an algal signal in the lower estuary and coastal ocean. Both particulate organic matter and VHDOM samples were enriched in lipids on a carbon basis compared to the HDOM fraction, which suggests that the HDOM fraction was less labile than particulate organic matter or VHDOM. Selective degradation of labile lipids by the microbial community can account for the depletions of unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and phytol within HDOM relative to particles.

  3. Can Vertical Migrations of Dinoflagellates Explain Observed Bioluminescence Patterns During an Upwelling Event in Monterey Bay, California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    transect (Figure 1). The REMUS transect began near Santa Cruz in the SA, ran out to the buoy Ml (Figure 1), and then returned back to shore. Inshore...Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo , California, USA. ’Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California...University, San Luis Obispo , CA 93407, USA. M. J. Oliver, College of Earth, Ocean and Environment, University of Delaware, 700 Pilottown Rd., Lewes, DE 19958, USA. 10 of 10

  4. Differential modulation of eastern oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) disease parasites by the El-Niño-Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soniat, Thomas M.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Klinck, John M.; Powell, Eric N.

    2009-02-01

    The eastern oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) is affected by two protozoan parasites, Perkinsus marinus which causes Dermo disease and Haplosporidium nelsoni which causes MSX (Multinucleated Sphere Unknown) disease. Both diseases are largely controlled by water temperature and salinity and thus are potentially sensitive to climate variations resulting from the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which influences climate along the Gulf of Mexico coast, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which influences climate along the Atlantic coast of the United States. In this study, a 10-year time series of temperature and salinity and P. marinus infection intensity for a site in Louisiana on the Gulf of Mexico coast and a 52-year time series of air temperature and freshwater inflow and oyster mortality from Delaware Bay on the Atlantic coast of the United States were analyzed to determine patterns in disease and disease-induced mortality in C. virginica populations that resulted from ENSO and NAO climate variations. Wavelet analysis was used to decompose the environmental, disease infection intensity and oyster mortality time series into a time-frequency space to determine the dominant modes of variability and the time variability of the modes. For the Louisiana site, salinity and Dermo disease infection intensity are correlated at a periodicity of 4 years, which corresponds to ENSO. The influence of ENSO on Dermo disease along the Gulf of Mexico is through its effect on salinity, with high salinity, which occurs during the La Niña phase of ENSO at this location, favoring parasite proliferation. For the Delaware Bay site, the primary correlation was between temperature and oyster mortality, with a periodicity of 8 years, which corresponds to the NAO. Warmer temperatures, which occur during the positive phase of the NAO, favor the parasites causing increased oyster mortality. Thus, disease prevalence and intensity in C. virginica populations along the Gulf of Mexico

  5. Transport and potential vorticity in the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Murty, C.S.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.; Rao, G.R.L.

    In the Bay of Bengal, the water transport and potential vorticity (PV) during the southwest monsoon are examined through the prevailing thermohaline and wind-driven circulation. The Indian Monsoon Current (IMC) and the north flowing Eastern Boundary...

  6. Bayes and empirical Bayes: do they merge?

    CERN Document Server

    Petrone, Sonia; Scricciolo, Catia

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian inference is attractive for its coherence and good frequentist properties. However, it is a common experience that eliciting a honest prior may be difficult and, in practice, people often take an {\\em empirical Bayes} approach, plugging empirical estimates of the prior hyperparameters into the posterior distribution. Even if not rigorously justified, the underlying idea is that, when the sample size is large, empirical Bayes leads to "similar" inferential answers. Yet, precise mathematical results seem to be missing. In this work, we give a more rigorous justification in terms of merging of Bayes and empirical Bayes posterior distributions. We consider two notions of merging: Bayesian weak merging and frequentist merging in total variation. Since weak merging is related to consistency, we provide sufficient conditions for consistency of empirical Bayes posteriors. Also, we show that, under regularity conditions, the empirical Bayes procedure asymptotically selects the value of the hyperparameter for ...

  7. H10255: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, 1987-11-05

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  8. F00290: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, 1987-11-14

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  9. H10217: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, 1986-09-30

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  10. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  11. H10489: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, New Jersey, 1993-08-19

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  13. Availability of contaminants to migratory shorebirds consuming horseshoe crab eggs on Delaware Bay Beaches

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A perceived decline in the shorebird population has raised concern regarding contamination at shorebird breeding, staging, and wintering grounds. Thousands of...

  14. Ports of Delaware Bay: Industry And Public Sector Cooperation For Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    meetings to socialize the MIST process, formatting flip chart sheets prior to the workshop to capture specific feedback, and including two researchers...the small groups are also very valuable in allowing quieter people to participate. The additional structure provided by preformatted flip charts was...beneficial. The formatting of the flip chart pads facilitated more consistent sharing of small group outcomes. Recommendation  Rework flip charts by

  15. H10199: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, 1986-06-05

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. H10167: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, New Jersey, 1984-12-04

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  17. H10200: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, 1986-06-12

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. H12568: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay and Approaches, 2013-08-27

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  19. SHEWANELLA AND PHOTOBACTERIUM IN OYSTERS AND SEAWATER FROM THE DELAWARE BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewanella algae, S. putrefaciens, and Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae are indigenous marine bacteria and human pathogens causing cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, abscesses, septicemia, and death. Infections are rare and are most often associated with the immunocompromized host. A study ...

  20. H10446: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Delaware Bay, New Jersey, 1993-08-15

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  1. 75 FR 73116 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ..., Pennsylvania 19147. Send written material and requests to make oral presentations to Gerald Conrad, Liaison to... CONTACT: Gerald Conrad, Liaison to the DFO of the DRBOSAC, telephone 215-271-4824. SUPPLEMENTARY... possible. Dated: November 23, 2010. Joseph M. Re, Captain, U.S. Coast Guard, Office of...

  2. 75 FR 18524 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... presentations to Gerald Conrad, Liaison to the Designated Federal Officer (DFO) of the DRBOSAC, at the address...-0333. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gerald Conrad, Liaison to the DFO of the DRBOSAC, telephone 215..., contact the Liaison to the DFO as soon as possible. Dated: April 7, 2010. Joseph M. Re, Captain,...

  3. H12571: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay and Approaches, 2013-10-28

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  4. Endocrine disrupter - estradiol - in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorabawila, Nelum [University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States); Gupta, Gian [University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States)]. E-mail: gcgupta@umes.edu

    2005-04-11

    Exogenous chemicals that interfere with natural hormonal functions are considered endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Estradiol (17{beta}-estradiol or E2) is the most potent of all xenoestrogens. Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) production in male fish occurs at E2 concentrations as low as 1 ng l{sup -1}. E2 reaches aquatic systems mainly through sewage and animal waste disposal. Surface water samples from ponds, rivers (Wicomico, Manokin and Pocomoke), sewage treatment plants (STPs), and coastal bays (Assawoman, Monie, Chincoteague, and Tangier Sound - Chesapeake Bay) on the Eastern Shore of Maryland were analyzed for E2 using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). E2 concentrations in river waters varied between 1.9 and 6.0 ng l{sup -1}. Highest E2 concentrations in river waters were observed immediately downstream of STPs. E2 concentrations in all the coastal bays tested were 2.3-3.2 ng l{sup -1}.

  5. EASTERN UGANDA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EVALUATION OF SELECTED ELITE POTATO GENOTYPES IN. EASTERN ... Significant

  6. Spatial and temporal characterizations of water quality in Kuwait Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutairi, N; Abahussain, A; El-Battay, A

    2014-06-15

    The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay have been investigated using data from six stations between 2009 and 2011. The results showed that most of water quality parameters such as phosphorus (PO4), nitrate (NO3), dissolved oxygen (DO), and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) fluctuated over time and space. Based on Water Quality Index (WQI) data, six stations were significantly clustered into two main classes using cluster analysis, one group located in western side of the Bay, and other in eastern side. Three principal components are responsible for water quality variations in the Bay. The first component included DO and pH. The second included PO4, TSS and NO3, and the last component contained seawater temperature and turbidity. The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay are mainly controlled by seasonal variations and discharges from point sources of pollution along Kuwait Bay's coast as well as from Shatt Al-Arab River.

  7. 78 FR 22840 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; State Board Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA) for all criteria pollutants of the national ambient air quality... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; State Board Requirements,'' that is located in the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; State...

  8. The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative: Lessons Learned in Designing a GIS-Based Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Silberman, Jordan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative is a Web- and GIS-based set of lesson units for teaching geographic concepts and research methods within the context of the state's high school geography standards. Each unit follows a research-based, inquiry-centered model addressing questions of health because of Delaware's high incidence of cancer,…

  9. 33 CFR 100.T05-0443 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Delaware River, New Hope, PA. 100.T05-0443 Section 100.T05-0443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA. (a) Location. The safety zone will restrict.... Bridge located in New Hope, PA, and 400 ft east of the shoreline of New Hope, PA. (b) Regulations. (1)...

  10. 75 FR 33690 - Safety Zone, Lights on the River Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ..., Delaware River, New Hope, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Delaware River in New Hope, PA. The safety zone... downriver of the bridge in New Hope, PA. DATES: This rule is effective from June 15, 2010 through July...

  11. The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative: Lessons Learned in Designing a GIS-Based Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Silberman, Jordan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative is a Web- and GIS-based set of lesson units for teaching geographic concepts and research methods within the context of the state's high school geography standards. Each unit follows a research-based, inquiry-centered model addressing questions of health because of Delaware's high incidence of cancer,…

  12. 33 CFR 110.70 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md. 110.70 Section 110.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.70 Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of...

  13. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by The University of Delaware

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The University of Delaware along with MAGPI (Metropolitan Area GigaPoP in Philadelphia for Internet2) and Internet2 are excited to host "Network Delaware Day: Advancing Research and Education Initiatives Across the First State." Discover the power of advanced networking opportunities in research and education throughout the First State.

  14. Evaluation of Delaware Stars for Early Success: Year 1 Report. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Tamargo, Jennifer; Setodji, Claude Messan

    2014-01-01

    Delaware was in the first group of states to receive a federal grant in 2012 to improve early care and education services and increase the number of infants, toddlers, and preschool-age children in high-quality programs. One component of the state's grant is a rigorous validation process for Delaware Stars for Early Success, a voluntary quality…

  15. Literacy at the Core of the Delaware World Language Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton-Archer, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Certain aspects of the implementation of language immersion programs in Delaware are unique given the state's size, demographics, and role in national education initiatives including Race to the Top, Common Core, and Smarter Balance. The Delaware experience typifies what every state, district, or even school goes through as they try to provide…

  16. 33 CFR 334.860 - San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.860 San Diego... Middle San Diego Bay in an area extending from the northern and eastern boundary of the Naval Amphibious...

  17. Quantification and probabilistic modeling of CRT obsolescence for the State of Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Kelsea A., E-mail: kschum@udel.edu [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy, University of Delaware, 278 Graham Hall, Newark, 19716 (United States); Schumacher, Thomas, E-mail: schumact@udel.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, 19711 (United States); Agbemabiese, Lawrence, E-mail: agbe@udel.edu [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy, University of Delaware, 272 Graham Hall, Newark, 19716 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We modeled the obsolescence of cathode ray tube devices in the State of Delaware. • 411,654 CRT units or ∼16,500 metric tons have been recycled in Delaware since 2002. • The peak of the CRT obsolescence in Delaware passed by 2012. • The Delaware average CRT recycling rate between 2002 and 13 was approximately 27.5%. • CRTs will continue to infiltrate the system likely until 2033. - Abstract: The cessation of production and replacement of cathode ray tube (CRT) displays with flat screen displays have resulted in the proliferation of CRTs in the electronic waste (e-waste) recycle stream. However, due to the nature of the technology and presence of hazardous components such as lead, CRTs are the most challenging of electronic components to recycle. In the State of Delaware it is due to this challenge and the resulting expense combined with the large quantities of CRTs in the recycle stream that electronic recyclers now charge to accept Delaware’s e-waste. Therefore it is imperative that the Delaware Solid Waste Authority (DSWA) understand future quantities of CRTs entering the waste stream. This study presents the results of an assessment of CRT obsolescence in the State of Delaware. A prediction model was created utilizing publicized sales data, a variety of lifespan data as well as historic Delaware CRT collection rates. Both a deterministic and a probabilistic approach using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) were performed to forecast rates of CRT obsolescence to be anticipated in the State of Delaware. Results indicate that the peak of CRT obsolescence in Delaware has already passed, although CRTs are anticipated to enter the waste stream likely until 2033.

  18. The Impact of the 2002 Delaware Smoking Ordinance on Heart Attack and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. Solis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, smoking is the leading cause of death - having a mortality rate of approximately 435,000 people in 2000—accounting for 8.1% of all US deaths recorded that year. Consequently, we analyzed the Delaware Hospital Discharge Database, and identified state and non-state residents discharged with AMI or asthma for the years 1999 to 2004. Statistical data analysis compared the incidence of AMI or asthma for each group before (1999–2002 and after (2003–2004 the amendment. As a result, we found that pre-ordinance and post-ordinance quarterly rates of AMI for Delaware residents were 451 (se = 21 and 430 (se = 21 respectively, representing a 4.7% reduction. Over the same time period, there was negligible change in the incidence of AMI for non-Delaware residents. After adjusting for population growth, the Risk Ratio (RR for asthma in Delaware residents post-ordinance was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.999, which represented a significant reduction (P = 0.046. By comparison, non-Delaware residents had an increased RR for asthma post-ordinance of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.86; P < 0.0001.The results suggest that Delaware’s comprehensive non-smoking ordinance effectively was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of AMI and asthma in Delaware residents when compared to non-Delaware residents.

  19. Watershed nutrient inputs, phytoplankton accumulation, and C stocks in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, T. R.; Boynton, W. R.; Hagy, J. D.

    2002-12-01

    Inputs of N and P to Chesapeake Bay have been enhanced by anthropogenic activities. Fertilizers, urbanization, N emissions, and industrial effluents contribute to point and diffuse sources currently 2-7X higher for P and 5-20X higher for N than those from undisturbed watersheds. Enhanced nutrient inputs cause phytoplankton blooms which obscure visibility, eliminate submerged grasses, and influence the distribution of C within the Bay. Accumulations of dissolved organic and particulate organic C lead to enhanced microbial respiration in isolated bottom waters, and dissolved oxygen is seasonally reduced to trace levels during summer. Cultural eutrophication is not unique to Chesapeake Bay. Although some estuaries such as the Delaware, Hudson, and San Francisco Bay also have high anthropogenic inputs, these estuaries have much shorter residence times, and much of the N and P may be exported to the coastal ocean. However, in Chesapeake Bay, with residence times >2 months, internal processing of watershed inputs results in local algal blooms within the estuary. Watershed restoration strategies for Chesapeake watersheds have had limited success to date. Groundwaters are enriched with nitrate, and the long residence times of groundwaters mean slow responses to watershed improvements. The few successes in the Chesapeake have been associated with point source reductions, although continued human population growth can easily override restoration efforts. Widespread improvement in water quality has yet to occur, but the limited successes show that the Bay responds to load changes.

  20. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURALLY IMPACTED TIDAL BLACKBIRD CREEK, DELAWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blackbird Creek, Delaware is a small watershed in northern Delaware that has a significant proportion of land designated for agricultural land use. The Blackbird Creek water monitoring program was initiated in 2012 to assess the condition of the watershed’s habitats using multiple measures of water quality. Habitats were identified based on percent adjacent agricultural land use. Study sites varying from five to fourteen were sampled biweekly during April and November, 2012-2015. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and generalized linear modeling. Results from these first four years of data documented no significant differences in water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity, inorganic nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphate, alkalinity, and turbidity between the two habitats, although both orthophosphate and turbidity were elevated beyond EPA-recommended values. There were statistically significant differences for all of the parameters between agriculture seasons. The lack of notable differences between habitats suggests that, while the watershed is generally impacted by agricultural land use practices, there appears to be no impact on the surface water chemistry. Because there were no differences between habitats, it was concluded that seasonal differences were likely due to basic seasonal variation and were not a function of agricultural land use practices.

  1. Pseudo-outbreak of tuberculosis in poultry plant workers, Sussex County, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dennis Y; Ridzon, Renee; Giles, Beverly; Mireles, Teresa

    2002-12-01

    Delaware is a leading US poultry-producing state, and foreign-born workers make up a significant percentage of those employed by Delaware's poultry plants. In Sussex County, Delaware, a high percentage of the poultry workers are from two countries with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), Mexico and Guatemala, and thus are at risk for TB infection and disease. Furthermore, their risk of TB may be increased because many of these workers live in crowded conditions and lack access to medical care.

  2. Water quality of the Delaware and Raritan Canal, New Jersey, 1998-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, Jacob; Gray, Bonnie; Rice, Donald E.; Tessler, Steven; Barringer, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1934, the Delaware and Raritan Canal has been used to transfer water from the Delaware River Basin to the Raritan River Basin. The water transported by the Delaware and Raritan Canal in New Jersey is used primarily for public supply after it has been treated at drinking-water treatment plants located in the Raritan River Basin. Recently (1999), the raw water taken from the canal during storms has required increased amounts of chemical treatments for removal of suspended solids, and the costs of removing the additional sludge or residuals generated during water treatment have increased. At present, action to control algae is unnecessary.

  3. Vulnerbility of production wells in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system to saltwater intrusion from the Delaware River in Camden, Gloucester, and Salem Counties, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navoy, Anthony S.; Voronin, Lois M.; Modica, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system is hydraulically connected to the Delaware River in parts of Camden and Gloucester Counties, New Jersey, and has more limited contact with the river in Salem County, New Jersey. The aquifer system is used widely for water supply, and 122 production wells that are permitted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection to pump more than 100,000 gallons per year in the three counties are within 2 miles of the river. During drought, saltwater may encroach upstream from the Atlantic Ocean and Delaware Bay to areas where the aquifer system is recharged by induced infiltration through the Delaware River streambed. During the drought of the mid-1960's, water with a chloride concentration in excess of potability standards (250 mg/L (milligrams per liter)) encroached into the reach of the river that recharges the aquifer system. The vulnerability of the major production wells in the area to similar saltwater encroachment in the future is a concern to water managers. This vulnerability was evaluated by investigating two scenarios: (1) a one-time recurrence of the conditions approximating those that occurred in the1960's, and (2) the recurrence of those same conditions on an annual basis. Results of ground-water-flow simulation in conjunction with particle tracking and one-dimensional transport analysis indicate that the wells that are most vulnerable to saltwater intrusion are those in the Morris and Delair well fields in Camden County. A single 30-day event during which the concentration of dissolved chloride or sodium exceeds 2,098 mg/L or 407 mg/L, respectively, in the Delaware River would threaten the potability of water from these wells, given New Jersey drinking-water standards of 250 mg/L for dissolved chloride and 50 mg/L for dissolved sodium. This chloride concentration is about six times that observed in the river during the 1960's drought. An annually occurring 1-month event during which the concentrations of

  4. Distribution Pattern of Heavy Metals in the Surface Sediments of the Jiaozhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Grain size analysis and chemical analysis of heavy metals are made for 312 surface samples of the Jiaozhou Bay. Nineteen samples of the waste water taken from the sewage discharge outlets along the eastern coast of the bay are also analyzed for heavy metals. Results show that heavy metals are richer in the east and poorer in the west of the bay. Sedimentary dynamic studies reveal that the distribution of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the Jiaozhou Bay is under the control of hydrodynamics.

  5. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Delmarva Peninsula, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, L.J.; Shedlock, R.J.; Phillips, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation 's surface water and groundwater resources. This National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is designed to acquire and interpret information about a wide range of water quality issues. Three groundwater pilot projects have been started, including the project on the Delmarva Peninsula, which covers eastern Maryland and Virginia and most of Delaware. The objectives of the Delmarva project are to: (1) investigate regional groundwater quality on the Delmarva Peninsula, emphasizing a description of the occurrence of trace elements and manmade organic compounds; (2) relate groundwater quality to land use and geohydrologic conditions; and (3) provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected water quality problems prevalent in the study area. The shallow aquifer system and the deeper aquifers used for public water supply will be addressed. The shallow aquifer system in the Delmarva Peninsula consists of permeable unconsolidated sand and gravel. Flow systems are localized and small-scale. Farming is common on the peninsula, and the migration of agricultural chemicals to the groundwater system is a local water quality concern. To assess the water quality of the groundwater resources, a regional survey for a wide range of constituents will be conducted in all of the pilot projects to provide a representative sample of groundwater analyses for a national assessment of groundwater quality. Results of this survey may be used as a baseline to monitor future water quality trends. (Lantz-PTT)

  6. 基于多源信息的辽东湾顶东部海岸时空变化研究%Multi-Source-Based Space-Time Analysis of Shoreline Changes in Eastern Liaodong Bay Top

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武芳; 苏奋振; 平博; 吴文周; 朱良

    2013-01-01

    Due to the development of the local economy and exploitation of the shoreline, Liaodong Bay has changed. The analysis of shoreline changes plays a pivotal role in the development of the economy and policy. Prior to the 1990s, wetland degradation, sandy shoreline erosion and man-made land projects were responsible for changes in Liaodong Bay' s shoreline. We analyze changes in the shoreline across the study area, examining the impacts of comprehensive development and management, and raise scientific alternatives for improved outcomes. Since RS and GIS based spatial analysis can detect shoreline changes immediately and accurately, this research adopted band 7, band 4 and band 1 TM data to compose false color images using ArcGIS. We propose six principles to distinguish different types of shoreline. According to field surveys and monitoring data, we found that trends in the length of shoreline have not changed and show a consistent increase in length while curvature is declining. The shape of the coast has trended from arc to jagged and has been driven by man-made development. Wetland resources have been converted from dimension change to qualitative change. The area of man-made land has shown index increase and breakwater is effective to reduce erosion of the sandy shoreline. These patterns indicate that in a relatively stable environment, social and economic factors are the main causes of shoreline change. Different institutions and different shaping shoreline policies cause various impacts. A combination of short-term high-density shoreline detection and traditional large scale detection will be highly effective in analyzing the impact caused by human activities. Monitoring shoreline development and management as well as intervention will also benefit from combined detection.%根据对辽东湾顶东部的实地考察,本文综合利用RS/GIS技术方法,提出了岸线解译原则,采用多期TM/ETM+影像、CEBERS-02B高分辨率多

  7. A Sea Change : Exotics In the eastern Mediterranean.

    OpenAIRE

    Galil, B.S.; Zenetos, A

    2002-01-01

    The eastern Mediterranean is susceptible to biological invasions because of its placement between the Atlantic, Pontic and Erythrean regions, busy maritime traffic, and lagoons and bays that are crowded with fish and shellfish farms. However, the greatest influx of invaders resulted from the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, which allowed entry of Indo-Pacific and Erythrean biota. Exotic macro phytes, invertebrates and fish are found in most coastal habitats in the eastern Med...

  8. 76 FR 26679 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for Preconstruction Review, Prevention of Significant Deterioration AGENCY: Environmental... Regulation 1125, Requirements for Preconstruction Review, Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) found...

  9. 77 FR 39456 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Section 110(a)(2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ..., 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401, Dover, Delaware 19903. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rose Quinto... from Stephen D. Page, Director, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards to the Regional...

  10. Accuracy Assessment Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation and fire fuel model mapping in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this...

  11. Field Plot Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots use to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this data set,...

  12. Field Plot Points for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots used to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River.

  13. NOAA orthorectified Digital Elevation Model (DEM) image tiles, Bombay Hook, Delaware, 2011 (NODC Accession 0112173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Bombay Hook Project covers 177 square kilometers of the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge and surrounding areas in Kent County, Delaware. The Dewberry...

  14. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Delaware based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Delaware census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  15. 2011 Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) Lidar: Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected LiDAR for over 177 square kilometers of the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge in Kent County, Delaware. The nominal pulse spacing for this...

  16. Three Year Investigation Of Mosquito Breeding In Natural And Impounded Tidal Marshes In Delaware

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1953 to 1955 the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the University of Delaware Agricultural Experiment Station conducted a cooperative investigation of...

  17. Spatial Vegetation Data for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  18. Delaware River Dredging Disposal Study, Stage 1 Reconnaissance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    Ca :1 0 0 $ 41 >0 I pI1C 3 c a x oa C4 i-i :4n .- kip 0 *1 4+4 A.>A 44 C)p 0)- 144 to ~ 5 -4$ %4 a Lo 0 1 0) C: Go 14 V2 U) 4 14 1* 4 t $4 U 4 Cd 0 g a...a bank building to a private residence, this brick structure survives as an example of Greek Revival architecture. Nat. Reg. DK 116 Thorne Mansion...of Sydenham Thorne , an Anglican minister and co-founder of Milford, A.William Burton, Governor of Delaware and John M. Clayton, Secretary of State

  19. Water resources of the Green Bay area, Wisconsin: G in Water resources of industrial regions: A summary of the source, occurrence, availability, and use of water in the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Doyle Blewer; Dreher, F.C.; Whetstone, George Walter

    1964-01-01

    The Green Bay area comprises an area of about 525 square miles in eastern Wisconsin at the south end of Green Bay. It includes the western three-fourths of Brown County and the eastern one-ninth of Outagamie County. In 1960, the population of the area was estimated at 124,000.

  20. Magnetic Characteristics of Surface Sediments of Liaodong Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ShuangP; WANG Yonghong; LIU Jian; YU Yiyong

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of magnetic properties of marine surface sediments has been gradually proved to be one of the effective means for researching the source of marine sediments. In this paper, samples from 39 sites in Liaodong Bay were collected to analyze the magnetic characteristics of the surface sediments. Magnetic study indicated that the surface sediments of the Liaodong Bay are char-acterized by magnetite. In the middle and eastern part and the southwest corner of the Bay, the main magnetic grains were coarse multi-domain and pseudo-single-domain particles, while in other areas single-domain and pseudo-single-domain particles constitute the majority. Based on grain size and environmental magnetism data, the content of magnetic minerals has a positive correlation with the hydrodynamic environment when the magnetic mineral domain is finer. However, the content of magnetic minerals is in a complex relationship with the hydrodynamic environment in the coarse magnetic domain of magnetic minerals found in central Liaodong Bay and places outside the Fuzhou Bay, implying that the strong hydrodynamic environment accelerates the sedimentation of coarse magnetic minerals. Based on geographic pattern of magnetic properties, it can be inferred that the main provenance of the surface sediments of the Liaodong Bay is the surrounding rivers, and the comparative analysis indicates that Yellow River substances maybe also exist in the bay.

  1. Upper Cenozoic deposits of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, James Patrick; Denny, Charles Storrow

    1979-01-01

    represents the highest stand of the Quaternary seas in the Delmarva region. The Ironshire and Kent Island Formations overlie or cut into the Omar Formation and are probably late Sangamon and middle Wisconsin, respectively, in age. Near Ocean City, the Ironshire forms a seaward-facing scarp with a toe nearly 4.5 m (15 ft) above sea level. A warm-temperate microfloral assemblage from the fluviatile-estuarine facies of the Ironshire Formation in the Delaware Bay region suggests that the formation is interglacial, probably late Sangamon in age. The Ironshire and Omar Formations are overlain unconformably by the Sinepuxent Formation. The top of this marine unit is slightly above present sea level and has been dated by radiocarbon as about 30,000 years old or middle Wisconsin. The microflora from this formation is a cold to cool-temperate assemblage (high proportion of spruce pollen). The outer fringes of the Delmarva Peninsula are being overlapped by deposits of a Holocene marine transgression.

  2. Derivation of habitat-specific dissolved oxygen criteria for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiuk, R.A.; Breitburg, D.L.; Diaz, R.J.; Cronin, T. M.; Secor, D.H.; Thursby, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Chesapeake 2000 Agreement committed its state and federal signatories to "define the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources" in the Chesapeake Bay (USA) and its tidal tributaries. Hypoxia is one of the key water quality issues addressed as a result of the above Agreement. This paper summarizes the protection goals and specific criteria intended to achieve those goals for addressing hypoxia. The criteria take into account the variety of Bay habitats and the tendency towards low dissolved oxygen in some areas of the Bay. Stressful dissolved oxygen conditions were characterized for a diverse array of living resources of the Chesapeake Bay by different aquatic habitats: migratory fish spawning and nursery, shallow-water, open-water, deep-water, and deep-channel. The dissolved oxygen criteria derived for each of these habitats are intended to protect against adverse effects on survival, growth, reproduction and behavior. The criteria accommodate both spatial and temporal aspects of low oxygen events, and have been adopted into the Chesapeake Bay states - Maryland, Virginia, and Delaware - and the District of Columbia's water quality standards regulations. These criteria, now in the form of state regulatory standards, are driving an array of land-based and wastewater pollution reduction actions across the six-watershed.

  3. CASCO BAY PLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casco Bay lies at the heart of Maine's most populated area. The health of its waters, wetlands, and wildlife depend in large part on the activities of the quarter-million residents who live in its watershed. Less than 30 years ago, portions of Casco Bay were off-limits to recr...

  4. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  5. Assessment for water quality by artificial neural network in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, artificial neural network such as a self-organizing map (SOM) was used to assess for the effects caused by climate change and human activities on the water quality in Daya Bay, South China Sea. SOM has identified the anthropogenic effects and seasonal characters of water quality. SOM grouped the four seasons as four groups (winter, spring, summer and autumn). The Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to the next April and southwesterly from May to September have also an important influence on the water quality in Daya Bay. Spatial pattern is mainly related to anthropogenic activities and hydrodynamics conditions. In spatial characteristics, the water quality in Daya Bay was divided into two groups by chemometrics. The monitoring stations (S3, S8, S10 and S11) were in these area (Dapeng Ao, Aotou Harbor) and northeast parts of Daya Bay, which are areas of human activity. The thermal pollution has been observed near water body in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (S5). The rest of the monitoring sites were in the south, central and eastern parts of Daya Bay, which are areas that experience water exchanges from South China Sea. The results of this study may provide information on the spatial and temporal patterns in Daya Bay. Further research will be carry out more research concerning functional changes in the bay ecology with respect to changes in climatic factor, human activities and bay morphology in Daya Bay.

  6. Designing virtual science labs for the Islamic Academy of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZahrani, Nada Saeed

    Science education is a basic part of the curriculum in modern day classrooms. Instructional approaches to science education can take many forms but hands-on application of theory via science laboratory activities for the learner is common. Not all schools have the resources to provide the laboratory environment necessary for hands-on application of science theory. Some settings rely on technology to provide a virtual laboratory experience instead. The Islamic Academy of Delaware (IAD), a typical community-based organization, was formed to support and meet the essential needs of the Muslim community of Delaware. IAD provides science education as part of the overall curriculum, but cannot provide laboratory activities as part of the science program. Virtual science labs may be a successful model for students at IAD. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of implementing virtual science labs at IAD and to develop an implementation plan for integrating the virtual labs. The literature has shown us that the lab experience is a valuable part of the science curriculum (NBPTS, 2013, Wolf, 2010, National Research Council, 1997 & 2012). The National Research Council (2012) stressed the inclusion of laboratory investigations in the science curriculum. The literature also supports the use of virtual labs as an effective substitute for classroom labs (Babateen, 2011; National Science Teachers Association, 2008). Pyatt and Simms (2011) found evidence that virtual labs were as good, if not better than physical lab experiences in some respects. Although not identical in experience to a live lab, the virtual lab has been shown to provide the student with an effective laboratory experience in situations where the live lab is not possible. The results of the IAD teacher interviews indicate that the teachers are well-prepared for, and supportive of, the implementation of virtual labs to improve the science education curriculum. The investigator believes that with the

  7. The Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, John; Palmer, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    A pilot Coastal Observatory has been established in Liverpool Bay which integrates (near) real-time measurements with coupled models and whose results are displayed on the web. The aim is to understand the functioning of coastal seas, their response to natural forcing and the consequences of human activity. The eastern Irish Sea is an apt test site, since it encompasses a comprehensive range of processes found in tidally dominated coastal seas, including near-shore physical and biogeochemical processes influenced by estuarine inflows, where both vertical and horizontal gradients are important. Applications include hypernutrification, since the region receives significantly elevated levels of nutrient inputs, shoreline management (coastal flooding and beach erosion/accretion), and understanding present conditions to predict the impact of climate change (for instance if the number and severity of storms, or of high or low river flows, change). The integrated measurement suite which started in August 2002 covers a range of space and time scales. It includes in situ time series, four to six weekly regional water column surveys, an instrumented ferry, a shore-based HF radar system measuring surface currents and waves, coastal tide gauges and visible and infra-red satellite data. The time series enable definition of the seasonal cycle, its inter-annual variability and provide a baseline from which the relative importance of events can be quantified. A suite of nested 3D hydrodynamic, wave and ecosystem models is run daily, focusing on the observatory area by covering the ocean/shelf of northwest Europe (at 12-km resolution) and the Irish Sea (at 1.8 km), and Liverpool Bay at the highest resolution of 200 m. The measurements test the models against events as they happen in a truly 3D context. All measurements and model outputs are displayed freely on the Coastal Observatory website (http://cobs.pol.ac.uk) for an audience of researchers, education, coastal managers and the

  8. Estimated use of water in the Delaware River Basin in Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Susan S.; Linsey, Kristin S.; Ludlow, Russell A.; Reyes, Betzaida; Shourds, Jennifer L.

    2016-11-07

    The Delaware River Basin (DRB) was selected as a Focus Area Study in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the USGS National Water Census. The National Water Census is a USGS research program that focuses on national water availability and use and then develops new water accounting tools and assesses water availability at both the regional and national scales. One of the water management needs that the DRB study addressed, and that was identified by stakeholder groups from the DRB, was to improve the integration of state water use and water-supply data and to provide the compiled water use information to basin users. This water use information was also used in the hydrologic modeling and ecological components of the study.Instream and offstream water use was calculated for 2010 for the DRB based on information received from Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Water withdrawal, interbasin transfers, return flow, and hydroelectric power generation release data were compiled for 11 categories by hydrologic subregion, basin, subbasin, and subwatershed. Data availability varied by state. Site-specific data were used whenever possible to calculate public supply, irrigation (golf courses, nurseries, sod farms, and crops), aquaculture, self-supplied industrial, commercial, mining, thermoelectric, and hydroelectric power withdrawals. Where site-specific data were not available, primarily for crop irrigation, livestock, and domestic use, various techniques were used to estimate water withdrawals.Total water withdrawals in the Delaware River Basin were calculated to be about 7,130 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 2010. Calculations of withdrawals by source indicate that freshwater withdrawals were about 4,130 Mgal/d (58 percent of the total) and the remaining 3,000 Mgal/d (42 percent) were from saline water. Total surface-water withdrawals were calculated to be 6,590 Mgal/d, or 92 percent of the total; about 54 percent (3,590 Mgal/d) of surface

  9. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  10. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  11. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  12. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  13. Chesapeake Bay Tributary Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesapeake Bay Tributary Strategies were developed by the seven watershed jurisdictions and outlined the river basin-specific implementation activities to reduce nutrient and sediment pollutant loads from point and nonpoint sources.

  14. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  15. 76 FR 4716 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware, Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the... public notice of a proposed lease area for commercial wind development on the OCS off Delaware and... from Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC (Bluewater) and another from Occidental Development & Equities, LLC...

  16. Climate Change Impacts in the State of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, C.

    2011-12-01

    The State of Delaware is currently completing its first statewide climate impacts and vulnerability assessment that will provide the foundation for a new statewide adaptation planning process. The assessment focuses on both the observed impacts and the projected impacts on five main sectors: public health and safety; infrastructure and water; industry, agriculture, and forestry; tourism and recreation; and wildlife, plants, and natural ecosystems. Examples of key impacts to the State include loss of wetlands from sea level rise and public health impacts from increased tropospheric ozone and heatwaves. The assessment is a result of collaboration across state agencies, universities, local governments, and non-governmental organizations. We discuss several challenges in translating national and regional research to locally-specific and locally-meaningful impacts necessary for the policy process, adaptation planning, and public outreach. We identify information and research gaps that continue to slow progress at the local and state level. There are lessons learned on how to best engage with policymakers and be relevant and useful for policy planning. Lastly, we give examples of successes in diverse collaborations, public communication of the results, and early policy actions resulting from the findings.

  17. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company......’s purpose: selling millions of goods, some of which are ‘designer’ items and some of which are considered design icons....

  18. Detecting the spatial and temporal variability of chlorophylla concentration and total suspended solids in Apalachicola Bay, Florida using MODIS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongfang; Hladik, C.M.; Huang, W.; Milla, K.; Edmiston, L.; Harwell, M.A.; Schalles, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Apalachicola Bay, Florida, accounts for 90% of Florida's and 10% of the nation's eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) harvesting. Chlorophyll-a concentration and total suspended solids (TSS) are two important water quality variables, among other environmental factors such as salinity, for eastern oyster production in Apalachicola Bay. In this research, we developed regression models of the relationships between the reflectance of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra 250 m data and the two water quality variables based on the Bay-wide field data collected during 14-17 October 2002, a relatively dry period, and 3-5 April 2006, a relatively wet period, respectively. Then we selected the best regression models (highest coefficient of determination, R2) to derive Bay-wide maps of chlorophylla concentration and TSS for the two periods. The MODIS-derived maps revealed large spatial and temporal variations in chlorophylla concentration and TSS across the entire Apalachicola Bay. ?? 2010 Taylor & Francis.

  19. Sediment Sample Locations Collected in May 2014 from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey (U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity Number 2014-310-FA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Barnegat Bay, located along the eastern shore of New Jersey, was significantly impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. Scientists from the U.S. Geological...

  20. Barnegat Bay surface and subsurface sediment physical parameters data from May 2014 (U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity Number 2014-310-FA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Barnegat Bay, located along the eastern shore of New Jersey, was significantly impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. Scientists from the U.S. Geological...

  1. Gamma spectroscopy data for box core sediments collected from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey in May 2014 (U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity Number 2014-310-FA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Barnegat Bay, located along the eastern shore of New Jersey, was significantly impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. Scientists from the U.S. Geological...

  2. Barnegat Bay surface and subsurface sediment physical parameters data from May 2014 (U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity Number 2014-310-FA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Barnegat Bay, located along the eastern shore of New Jersey, was significantly impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. Scientists from the U.S. Geological...

  3. Contaminant profiles for surface water, sediment, flora and fauna associated with the mangrove fringe along middle and lower East Tampa Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminant concentrations are reported for surface water, sediment, seagrass, mangroves, Florida Crown conch, blue crabs and fish collected during 2010-2011 from the mangrove fringe along eastern Tampa Bay. Concentrations of trace metals, chlorinated pesticides, atrazine, total ...

  4. Sediment Sample Locations Collected in May 2014 from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey (U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity Number 2014-310-FA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Barnegat Bay, located along the eastern shore of New Jersey, was significantly impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. Scientists from the U.S. Geological...

  5. EAARL Coastal Topography-Maryland and Delaware, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Nayegandhi, Amar; Sallenger, A.H.; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Klipp, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Maryland and Delaware coastline beachface, acquired post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter) on November 28 and 30, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA

  6. The tectonic origin of the Bay of Bengal and Bangladesh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Talwani, M.; Desa, M.; Ismaiel, M.; Krishna, K.S.

    reliable determination of the rate and direction of spreading in the Bay of Bengal ob- tained from seafloor spreading type magnetic anomalies. Together with the anomalies in the conjugate Enderby Basin (discussed later), they enable us to reconstruct... anomaly strip is at a boundary between continental and ocean- ic crusts.  5. Magnetic Anomalies in the Enderby Basin In order to obtain an Early Cretaceous reconstruction of the Eastern Indian Ocean from magnetic linea- tions, we need to examine...

  7. Module bay with directed flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  8. First occurrence of the invasive alien species Polydora cornuta Bosc, 1802 (Polychaeta: Spionidae on the coast of Greece (Elefsis Bay; Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports on the occurrence of two specimens of the alien species Polydora cornutaBosc, 1802, in Elefsis Bay, the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea, eastern Mediterranean. This is the firstrecord of this invasive alien species on the coast of Greece and the second report in the eastern MediterraneanSea after its first finding in Izmir Bay (on the Turkish Aegean coast. This finding enhances its distributionalpattern within the Mediterranean

  9. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  10. Matemáticas de Infantil en Delaware, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Fábrega

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Estados Unidos se encuentra en momento de cambio en el sistema educativo. La implantación de los estándares comunes para todas las etapas de educación obligatoria proporciona una estructura normalizada para todo el territorio estadounidense. En este documento, se presenta un ejemplo de cómo trabajar los estándares matemáticos en una clase bilingüe de alumnos de 5 a 6 años. La implementación difiere de estado a estado. En este caso concreto se sigue un currículo bastante estricto, con un material pautado y guías del profesor. No obstante, el maestro/a siempre puede complementar este currículo con otros talleres y juegos matemáticos. Arte, juegos de mesa y actividades motrices, entre otros, ayudan a los alumnos/as a entender y, lo más importante, a aplicar las capacidades matemáticas trabajadas.Mathematics in a Kindergarten School in Delaware, USA. The education system in United States of America is undergoing significant changes. The implementation of the new Common Core Standards in K - 12 provides for a unified structure for the entire territory. This article presents examples of how to work those new standards for mathematics in a bilingual kindergarten classroom.The implementation differs from State to State. In this specific case we follow a very strict curriculum, which includes learning materials and teacher guides. Nevertheless, teachers can always complement the curriculum with any other mathematic workshops and games. Art, board games and motor activities, among others, can help students understand - and more importantly - to apply the mathematic skills learned.

  11. Subsurface structure of the East Bay Plain ground-water basin: San Francisco Bay to the Hayward fault, Alameda County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.; Borchers, J.W.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.; Ponce, D.A.; Steedman, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    The area of California between the San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Santa Clara Valley, and the Diablo Ranges (East Bay Hills), commonly referred to as the 'East Bay', contains the East Bay Plain and Niles Cone ground-water basins. The area has a population of 1.46 million (2003 US Census), largely distributed among several cities, including Alameda, Berkeley, Fremont, Hayward, Newark, Oakland, San Leandro, San Lorenzo, and Union City. Major known tectonic structures in the East Bay area include the Hayward Fault and the Diablo Range to the east and a relatively deep sedimentary basin known as the San Leandro Basin beneath the eastern part of the bay. Known active faults, such as the Hayward, Calaveras, and San Andreas pose significant earthquake hazards to the region, and these and related faults also affect ground-water flow in the San Francisco Bay area. Because most of the valley comprising the San Francisco Bay area is covered by Holocene alluvium or water at the surface, our knowledge of the existence and locations of such faults, their potential hazards, and their effects on ground-water flow within the alluvial basins is incomplete. To better understand the subsurface stratigraphy and structures and their effects on ground-water and earthquake hazards, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD), acquired a series of high-resolution seismic reflection and refraction profiles across the East Bay Plain near San Leandro in June 2002. In this report, we present results of the seismic imaging investigations, with emphasis on ground water.

  12. The Fermi's Bayes Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostini, G

    2005-01-01

    It is curious to learn that Enrico Fermi knew how to base probabilistic inference on Bayes theorem, and that some influential notes on statistics for physicists stem from what the author calls elsewhere, but never in these notes, {\\it the Bayes Theorem of Fermi}. The fact is curious because the large majority of living physicists, educated in the second half of last century -- a kind of middle age in the statistical reasoning -- never heard of Bayes theorem during their studies, though they have been constantly using an intuitive reasoning quite Bayesian in spirit. This paper is based on recollections and notes by Jay Orear and on Gauss' ``Theoria motus corporum coelestium'', being the {\\it Princeps mathematicorum} remembered by Orear as source of Fermi's Bayesian reasoning.

  13. Foraminiferal data for Chincoteague Bay and the marshes of Assateague Island and the adjacent vicinity, Maryland and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Alisha; Shaw, Jaimie; Osterman, Lisa; Smith, Christopher G.

    2017-01-01

    Foraminiferal samples were collected from Chincoteague Bay, Newport Bay, and Tom’s Cove as well as the marshes on the back-barrier side of Assateague Island and the Delmarva (Delaware-Maryland-Virginia) mainland by USGS researchers from the St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center in March, April (14CTB01), and October (14CTB02) 2014. Samples were also collected by the Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center in July 2014 and shipped to the St. Petersburg office for processing. The dataset includes raw foraminiferal and normalized counts for the estuarine (G), terrestrial (S), and inner shelf (G) samples. For further information regarding data collection, processing methods, or related data sets, please refer to USGS Open-File Report 2015–1219 (https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151219), and USGS Open-File Report 2015-1169 (https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151169).

  14. Macrobenthos of the shelf off north eastern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Parulekar, A.H.

    .6 (x = 10.61 + or - 3.2 gm/2) and from nil to 12.572 (x = 839 + or - 120 m/2) respectively. Loose sand sheltered rich fauna whereas muddy substrata has very poor fauna. Twenty nine major taxa were identified. Polychaeta formed the dominant group...

  15. 77 FR 28489 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... to the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions From Industrial Boilers and Process Heaters at Petroleum... Delaware's regulation that establishes controls for nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions from industrial... amend the regulation that establishes controls for NO X emissions from industrial boilers and...

  16. 77 FR 3211 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions From Industrial Boilers and Process Heaters at Petroleum Refineries... amends Delaware's regulation that establishes controls for nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions from industrial boilers and process heaters at petroleum refineries by including a NO X emission limit for...

  17. 77 FR 22224 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... revision amends the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from industrial cleaning solvents... meet the requirements to implement reasonably available control technology (RACT) controls on emission... developments and expand VOC emission controls. The revision is part of Delaware's strategy to achieve...

  18. 78 FR 39601 - Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display... out zone that covers part of the Delaware River. Sugar House Casino has contracted with Pyrotecnico... Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display will pose significant risks to the public. The purpose of the...

  19. Monitoring hemlock crown health in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; Bradley Onken; Richard A. Evans; Richard A. Evans

    2005-01-01

    Decline of the health of hemlocks in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area was noticeable in the southern areas of the park by 1992. The following year, a series of plots were established to monitor hemlock health and the abundance of hemlock woolly adelgid. This poster examines only the health rating of the hemlocks in the monitoring plots.

  20. TOXICITY TRENDS DURING AN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION EXPERIMENT ON A SANDY SHORELINE IN DELAWARE, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 13-week, refereed, inter-agency toxicity testing program involving five bioassay methods was used to document the effectiveness of shoreline bioremediation to accelerate toxicity reduction of an oiled sandy shoreline at Fowler Beach, Delaware, USA. The study was part of an inte...

  1. 76 FR 20367 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the... notice provides BOEMRE's determination that no competitive interest exists in acquiring a commercial wind... 21653). Bluewater Wind Delaware, LLC submitted the only valid expression of commercial interest in...

  2. Delaware Stars for Early Success. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Delaware's Stars for Early Success prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  3. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  4. The Politics of Race and Educational Disparities in Delaware's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Theodore J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Delaware has long played a pivotal role in the nation's struggle to end school segregation and promote educational equality. This article discusses racial disparities in educational achievement and outcomes by examining the state's political history and the politics of race in public education. This article explores educational disparities from a…

  5. Improving Anti-Rape Policy and Education at the University of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    It is incumbent on colleges and universities to evaluate the conditions that lead to sexual assault on their campuses and to address those that may support a climate that encourages or tolerates rape. Though various policies and educational programs attempt to mitigate the problem, still it persists. The University of Delaware has not engaged in a…

  6. 78 FR 57573 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Attainment Plan for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... expeditiously as practicable in a given area.\\21\\ Thus, assuming no presumptions under 40 CFR 51.1002, a state... in a given nonattainment area.\\35\\ \\34\\ See 40 CFR 51.1008. \\35\\ See 2007 PM 2.5 Implementation Rule... Plan for the Philadelphia-Wilmington, Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware Nonattainment Area for the...

  7. State of Delaware Science Curriculum Framework Content Standards [and] Performance Indicators, 6-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover.

    Part of the Delaware Department of Education's ongoing efforts to provide assistance and support to local school districts in their development of a standards-based curriculum, this document presents the eight science standards for middle school. The standards for grades 6-8 are: (1) nature and application of science and technology; (2) materials…

  8. Climate change effects on forests, water resources, and communities of the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will Price; Susan Beecher

    2014-01-01

    The Delaware River provides drinking water to 5 percent of the United States, or approximately 16.2 million people living in 4 states, 42 counties, and over 800 municipalities. The more than 1.5 billion gallons withdrawn or diverted daily for drinking water is delivered by more than 140 purveyors, yet constitutes less than 20 percent of the average daily withdrawals....

  9. 77 FR 58953 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control... published in the Federal Register. This action is not a ``major rule'' as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2). C... compounds. Dated: September 7, 2012. Shawn M. Garvin, Regional Administrator, Region III. 40 CFR part 52...

  10. Environmental Assessment. Increase Fuel Storage Capacity, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    in 1998. Grasshopper Sparrow 2 Observed on Bergold Farm 16 July 2003 and in 1998. Great blue heron 2 Observed many times foraging along both Pipe...ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES Increase Fuels Capacity Dover Air Force Base, Delaware 28 calculations were derived from the same EPA software utilized to

  11. Synopsis of the University of Delaware's Office of Computer-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    This brief paper presents background information and a description of the organizational structure and educational objectives of the Office of Computer-Based Instruction, formerly the Delaware PLATO project, whose name was changed to reflect the University's ongoing commitment to providing leadership in educational computing following the…

  12. Connecting onshore and offshore near-surface geology: Delaware's sand inventory project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, K.W.; Jordan, R.R.; Talley, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1988, the Delaware Geological Survey began a program to inventory on-land sand resources suitable for beach nourishment. The inventory included an assessment of the native beach textures using existing data and developing parameters of what would be considered suitable sand textures for Delaware's Atlantic beaches. An assessment of the economics of on-land sand resources was also conducted, and it was determined that the cost of the sand was competitive with offshore dredging costs. In addition, the sand resources were put into a geologic context for purposes of predicting which depositional environments and lithostratigraphic units were most likely to produce suitable sand resources. The results of the work identified several suitable on-land sand resource areas in the Omar and Beaverdam formations that were deposited in barrier-tidal delta and fluvial-estuarine environments, respectively. The identified on-land resources areas have not been utilized due to difficulties of truck transport and development pressures in the resource areas. The Delaware Geological Survey's participation in years 8, 9, and 10 of the Continental Margins Program was developed to extend the known resource areas onshore to offshore Delaware in order to determine potential offshore sand resources for beach nourishment. Years 8 and 9 involved primarily the collection of all available data on the offshore geology. These data included all seismic lines, surface grab samples, and cores. The data were filtered for those that had reliable locations and geologic information that could be used for geologic investigations. Year 10 completed the investigations onshore by construction of a geologic cross-section from data along the coast of Delaware from Cape Henlopen to Fenwick. This cross section identified the geologic units and potential sand resource bodies as found immediately along the coast. These units and resources are currently being extended offshore and tied to known and

  13. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available This report discusses the adequate provision for waste disposal is an essential part of the infrastructure needed in the development of Richards Bay as a deepwater harbour and industrial/metropolitan area. Having considered various options for waste...

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  15. Radium mass balance and submarine groundwater discharge in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Christian J.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.; Moore, Willard S.

    2012-11-01

    Radium-226 and 228Ra activities were determined in water samples from within and adjacent to Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in 1998, 2005 and 2007. Surface waters in Sepetiba Bay were substantially higher in 226Ra and 228Ra compared to ocean end member samples. Using the residence time of water in the bay we calculated the flux required to maintain the observed enrichment over the ocean end members. We then applied a radium mass balance to estimate the volume of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the bay. The estimates of SGD into Sepetiba Bay (in 1010 L day-1) were 2.56, 3.75, and 1.0, respectively for 1998, 2005, and 2007. These estimates are equivalent to approximately 1% of the total volume of the bay each day or 50 L m-2 day-1. It is likely that a substantial portion of the SGD in Sepetiba Bay consists of infiltrated seawater. This large flux of SGD has the potential to supply substantial quantities of nutrients, carbon and metals into coastal waters. The SGD found here is greater than what is typically found in SGD studies along the eastern United States and areas with similar geologic characteristics. Considering there are many coastal areas around the world like Sepetiba Bay, this could revise upward the already important contribution of SGD to coastal as well as oceanic budgets.

  16. Goddard DEVELOP Students: Using NASA Remote Sensing Technology to Study the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program is an Earth Science research internship, operating under NASA s Applied Sciences Program. Each spring, summer, and fall, DEVELOP interns form teams to investigate Earth Science related issues. Since the Fall of 2003, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been home to one of 10 national DEVELOP teams. In past terms, students completed a variety of projects related to the Applied Sciences Applications of National Priority, such as Public Health, Natural Disasters, Water Resources, and Ecological Forecasting. These projects have focused on areas all over the world, including the United States, Africa, and Asia. Recently, Goddard DEVELOP students have turned their attention to a local environment, the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Watershed is a complex and diverse ecosystem, spanning approximately 64,000 square miles. The watershed encompasses parts of six states: Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, as well as the District of Columbia. The Bay itself is the biggest estuary in the United States, with over 100,000 tributaries feeding into it. The ratio of fresh water to salt water varies throughout the Bay, allowing for a variety of habitats. The Bay s wetlands, marshes, forests, reefs, and rivers support more than 3,600 plant and animal species, including birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and crabs. The Bay is also commercially significant. It is ranked third in the nation in fishery catch, and supplies approximately 500 million pounds of seafood annually. In addition to its abundant flora and fauna, the Chesapeake Bay watershed is home to approximately 16.6 million people, who live and work throughout the watershed, and who use its diverse resources for recreational purposes. Over the past several decades, the population throughout the watershed has increased rapidly, resulting in land use changes, and ultimately decreasing the health of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Over the

  17. Early diagenesis and authigenic mineral formation in anoxic sediments of Kau Bay, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, Jack

    1990-01-01

    Kau Bay (island of Halmahera, Eastern Indonesia) is a 470 m deep basin separated from the Pacific Ocean by a sill that is at present only 40 m below sea-level. The presence of this sill has two major implications. Firstly, during Weichselian time, the sea-level dropped below the depth of the sill, K

  18. SETTLEMENT AND SURVIVAL OF THE OYSTER CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA ON CREATED OYSTER REEF HABITATS IN CHESAPEAKE BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts to restore the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reef habitats in Chesapeake Bay typically begin with the placement of hard substrata to form three-dimensional mounds on the seabed to serve as a base for oyster recruitment and growth. A shortage of oyster shell for ...

  19. Pawcatuck and Woonasquatucket River Basins and Narragansett Bay Local Drainage Area. Appendixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Refining Corporation terminal 40-foot channel from Mount Hope Bay through the eastern part of the Braga Bridge and then northerly to the terminals north 1...but serious communicatin problems still exist for sudden flood events. To be optimally useful, flood warnings must allow sufficient time for the

  20. Paleoenvironmental interpretation of the Plio-Pleistocene Kallithea Bay Section, Rhodes, Greece, based on Ostracods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Annette; Thomsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene deposits exposed in the Kallithea Bay section on the eastern coast of Rhodes comprise an overall transgressive sequence ranging from brackish water sand and gravel at the base to deep-water marl at the top. Variations in the distribution of ostracods were investigated in 41 s...

  1. nowCOAST's Map Service for NOAA NOS Delaware Bay Operational Forecast System (DBOFS) Forecast Guidance (Time Offsets)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST time-offsets map service provides maps of the latest nowcasts and forecast guidance of surface water temperature, salinity, water...

  2. Gastro-intestinal microbiota of two migratory shorebird species during spring migration staging in Delaware Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migratory birds travel long distances and use diverse habitats, potentially exposing them to a broad range of microbes that could negatively affect their health and survival. Gut microbiota composition has been shown to be closely related to organismal health through interactions...

  3. 33 CFR 165.510 - Delaware Bay and River, Salem River, Christina River and Schuylkill River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... otherwise authorized by the COTP, no vessel to vessel oil transfer operations, excluding bunkering, may be... with COTP permission; (4) Not transfer dangerous cargo while the vessel is at anchor or bunkering;...

  4. nowCOAST's Map Service for NOAA NOS Delaware Bay Operational Forecast System (DBOFS) Forecast Guidance (Time Enabled)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST time-enabled map service provides maps of the latest nowcasts and forecast guidance of surface water temperature, salinity, and water...

  5. Gastro-intestinal microbiota of two migratory shorebird species during spring migration staging in Delaware Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migratory birds travel long distances and use diverse habitats, potentially exposing them to a broad range of microbes that could negatively affect their health and survival. Gut microbiota composition has been shown to be closely related to organismal health through interactions...

  6. Rapid population decline in red knots : fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, AJ; Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Niles, LJ; do Nascimento, IDS; Atkinson, PW; Clark, NA; Minton, CDT; Peck, MK; Aarts, G

    2004-01-01

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego, whic

  7. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014793)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania from 1969 to 2000(May 2002 v.3). ESI data...

  8. Radioisotopic data of sediment collected in Mobile and Bon Secour Bays, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot, Marci E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study was to determine the extent of natural and (or) anthropogenic impacts on the sedimentary records of Mobile and Bon Secour Bays, Alabama during the last 150 years. These bays are unique in that anthropogenic activities are generally widespread and span both the eastern and western shorelines. However, there is a clear distinction in the types of human development and infrastructure between the western and eastern shorelines. These activities and the differences in land-use and -change influence the overall supply and remobilization of sediment to and within the bay. These factors could subsequently threaten the health and integrity of these environments and their ability to mitigate against long-term processes associated with climate change. In an attempt to characterize long-term accretion rates within the Mobile Bay Estuarine System (MBES), seven box cores were collected and analyzed for excess lead-210 (210Pbxs, the difference between total and supported 210Pb) and cesium-137 (137Cs) activities. The MBES receives sediment and water from the Alabama and Tombigbee River watersheds, which converge into the Mobile-Tensaw River (MTR) system just prior to discharging into Mobile Bay. Riverine discharge from the MTR system to the bay is second only to the Mississippi River discharge to the Gulf of Mexico for the conterminous United States.

  9. Report of the River Master of the Delaware River for the period December 1, 2008–November 30, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Paulachok, Gary N.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Owens, Marie

    2016-04-06

    A Decree of the Supreme Court of the United States, entered June 7, 1954, established the position of Delaware River Master within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In addition, the Decree authorizes diversions of water from the Delaware River Basin and requires compensating releases from certain reservoirs, owned by New York City, to be made under the supervision and direction of the River Master. The Decree stipulates that the River Master will furnish reports to the Court, not less frequently than annually. This report is the 56th Annual Report of the River Master of the Delaware River. It covers the 2009 River Master report year, the period from December 1, 2008, to November 30, 2009.During the report year, precipitation in the upper Delaware River Basin was 50.89 inches (in.) or 116 percent of the long-term average. Combined storage in Pepacton, Cannonsville, and Neversink Reservoirs remained high throughout the year and did not decline below 80 percent of combined capacity at any time. Delaware River operations during the year were conducted as stipulated by the Decree and the Flexible Flow Management Program (FFMP).Diversions from the Delaware River Basin by New York City and New Jersey were in full compliance with the Decree. Reservoir releases were made as directed by the River Master at rates designed to meet the flow objective for the Delaware River at Montague, New Jersey, on 25 days during the report year. Releases were made at conservation rates—rates designed to relieve thermal stress and protect the fishery and aquatic habitat in the tailwaters of the reservoirs—on all other days.During the report year, New York City and New Jersey complied fully with the terms of the Decree, and directives and requests of the River Master.As part of a long-term program, the quality of water in the Delaware Estuary between Trenton, New Jersey, and Reedy Island Jetty, Delaware, was monitored at various locations. Data on water temperature, specific conductance

  10. The University of Delaware Carlson International Polar Year Events: Collaborative and Educational Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, F. E.; Bryant, T.; Wellington, P.; Dooley, J.; Bird, M.

    2008-12-01

    Delaware is a small state with, by virtue of its coastal location, a large stake in climatic change in the polar regions. The University of Delaware has maintained a strong presence in cold-regions research since the mid-1940s, when William Samuel Carlson, a highly accomplished Arctic explorer, military strategist, and earth scientist, was named 20th President (1946-50) of the University. Carlson played a leading role in two of the University of Michigan's Greenland expeditions in the late 1920s and early 1930s. As Director of the Arctic, Desert, and Tropic Branch of the US Army Air Forces Tactical Center during World War II, Colonel Carlson played a role in developing several air transportation routes through the Arctic that helped to facilitate the Allied victory in Europe. Carlson authored many scientific and popular publications concerned with the Arctic, including the books Greenland Lies North (1940) and Lifelines Through the Arctic (1962). Although the University of Delaware has maintained a vigorous and continuous program of polar research since Carlson's tenure, the faculty, staff, and students involved are diffused throughout the University's colleges and departments, without an institutional focal point. Consequently, although many of these individuals are well known in their respective fields, the institution has not until recently been perceived widely as a center of polar-oriented research. The goals of the Carlson International Polar Year Events are to: (a) develop a sense of community among UD's diffuse polar-oriented researchers and educators; (b) create a distinctive and highly visible role for UD in the milieu of IPY activities; (c) promote interest in and knowledge about the polar regions in the State of Delaware, at all educational levels; (d) forge a close relationship between UD and the American Geographical Society, a national organization involved closely with previous International Polar Years; and (e) create a new basis for development

  11. Sediment Grain-size Data from sediment grab samples and box cores collected in May 2014 from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey (U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity Numbers 2014-310-FA).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Barnegat Bay, located along the eastern shore of New Jersey, was significantly impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. Scientists from the U.S. Geological...

  12. Alpha spectroscopy radioisotopic data for box core sediments collected from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey in May 2014 (U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity Number 2014-310-FA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Barnegat Bay, located along the eastern shore of New Jersey, was significantly impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. Scientists from the U.S. Geological...

  13. Alpha spectroscopy radioisotopic data for box core sediments collected from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey in May 2014 (U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity Number 2014-310-FA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Barnegat Bay, located along the eastern shore of New Jersey, was significantly impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. Scientists from the U.S. Geological...

  14. Sediment Grain-size Data from sediment grab samples and box cores collected in May 2014 from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey (U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity Numbers 2014-310-FA).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Barnegat Bay, located along the eastern shore of New Jersey, was significantly impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. Scientists from the U.S. Geological...

  15. Remarks on kernel Bayes' rule

    OpenAIRE

    Johno, Hisashi; Nakamoto, Kazunori; Saigo, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Kernel Bayes' rule has been proposed as a nonparametric kernel-based method to realize Bayesian inference in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. However, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the prediction result by kernel Bayes' rule is in some cases unnatural. We consider that this phenomenon is in part due to the fact that the assumptions in kernel Bayes' rule do not hold in general.

  16. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  17. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  18. Modelling the shelf circulation off eastern Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Eric C. J.; Herzfeld, Mike; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2016-11-01

    The marine waters across Tasmanian's eastern continental shelf are biologically productive and home to economically important fisheries and aquaculture industries. However, the marine climate there is poorly understood. We use a high-resolution (∼2 km in the horizontal), three-dimensional ocean model for eastern Tasmania (ETAS) to examine the simulated mean state and seasonal cycle of temperature, salinity and three-dimensional flow field, and the evaluation of daily model outputs against in situ and remote observations for the 1993-2014 period. We also use the model to examine the roles of river input and tidal forcing. The model is evaluated against remotely-sensed sea surface temperature and in-situ observations of sea level and subsurface temperature, salinity, and currents. The mean state demonstrates the influence of two well-known boundary currents (the East Australian Current, EAC, and the Zeehan Current, ZC) as well as the effects of local freshwater input from river runoff. The EAC is dominant in summer and the ZC in winter; the influence of the EAC also increases northwards and in the offshore direction. In addition, the model indicates the presence of a semi-permanent subsurface (50-100 m depth) northward flow trapped near the coast. Cool freshwater runoff from the Derwent and Huon Rivers directly impacts the temperature and salinity in their estuaries but has little influence further across the shelf. Tidal forcing impacts the mean state through tide-river interactions which flush Frederick Henry Bay and Norfolk Bay with freshwater. Tidal forcing also impacts the variability of temperature all along the coastline, most likely due to changes in the turbulent mixing near to the coast. The ETAS model output data are available as a high-resolution representation of the mean state, seasonal variations, and interannual variability of Tasmania's eastern continental shelf marine climate.

  19. Oceanic heat sources to Pine Island Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloff, M. R.; Gilroy, A. R.; Gille, S. T.; Subramanian, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    The rapid melting of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica has been attributed to increased basal melting of its grounded ice-shelf. Recent work suggests that an increased ocean heat supply to Pine Island Bay (PIB) is responsible for this increased melting. There is no consensus, however, on the origin of this increased ocean heat. We use a 2008-2010 state estimate of the Southern Ocean to diagnose the heat budget on the PIB continental shelf. In times of minimal sea-ice coverage, air-sea fluxes dominate the budget. Sea-ice is present over much of the year, however, and on average advection and parameterized small-scale mixing are equally important. The average air-sea fluxes and small scale mixing both act to cool the continental shelf waters, while advection by the large-scale circulation tends to warm these waters. The warmest waters are found on the eastern PIB continental shelf where bathymetric features cause increased advective fluxes and mixing. The average circulation along the PIB continental shelf is eastward consisting of approximately 1 Sv along shelf flow augmented by 1 Sv of across shelf flow to be balanced by a 2 Sv outflow along the eastern PIB shelf. Numerical simulations of passive tracer releases reveal the advective pathways of these waters that reach the continental shelf.

  20. Tradition and Culture Change in the Oklahoma Delaware Big House Community: 1867-1924.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Viburnum prunifolium), pecans ( Carya adult Delaware settlers. Nor is their use of the illinoensis ), persimmon (Diospyro virginiana), cabin divergent from...preparations Sycamore Platanus occidentails xaxakw "tree" Chips of heartwood boiled to make a tea Pecans Carya illinoensis KIT:m Nuts eaten in fall I...Bark used to sweeten and preserve fat; inner bark used to repair baskets Hickory Carya hickori t~tpan%.ma;i "bitter nut tree" Used in basketry and for

  1. Revenue management education (RevME), 30 April-2 May 2015, University of Delaware, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Koupriouchina, Larissa; van der Rest, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Xuan Lorna

    2015-01-01

    On 30 April–2 May, 2015, an inaugural Revenue Management Education Workshop on teaching Revenue Management (RM) was held at the University of Delaware. Made possible through generous support from Hyatt, the initiative was launched by Prof. Dr. Zvi Schwartz in order to facilitate a dialog among a selected group of hospitality RM educators and key industry players including: major international hotel chains, RM related technology and service providers and leading hospitality educators from worl...

  2. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Delaware, a watercourse is not to be confused with surface water. Each gives rise to certain riparian rights, but the law makes certain distinctions between the two. The presence of both surface waters and watercourses give rise to private and public rights related to the presence of the water. Some of these rights are vested in riparian owners. Recent Delaware case law has described the riparian owner as one who owns land on the bank of a river, or who is owner of land along, bordering upon, bounded by, fronting upon, abutting, or adjacent and contiguous to and in contact with a river. But, ownership of the bank does not give the riparian ownership of the water. Some law cases are cited to discuss the laws in Delaware.

  3. Estimation of daily mean streamflow for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin, water years 1960–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Marla H.

    2016-06-09

    The ability to characterize baseline streamflow conditions, compare them with current conditions, and assess effects of human activities on streamflow is fundamental to water-management programs addressing water allocation, human-health issues, recreation needs, and establishment of ecological flow criteria. The U.S. Geological Survey, through the National Water Census, has developed the Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET) to estimate baseline (minimally altered) and altered (affected by regulation, diversion, mining, or other anthropogenic activities) and altered streamflow at a daily time step for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin for water years 1960–2010. Daily mean baseline streamflow is estimated by using the QPPQ method to equate streamflow expressed as a percentile from the flow-duration curve (FDC) for a particular day at an ungaged stream location with the percentile from a FDC for the same day at a hydrologically similar gaged location where streamflow is measured. Parameter-based regression equations were developed for 22 exceedance probabilities from the FDC for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin. Water use data from 2010 is used to adjust the baseline daily mean streamflow generated from the QPPQ method at ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin to reflect current, or altered, conditions. To evaluate the effectiveness of the overall QPPQ method contained within DRB-SET, a comparison of observed and estimated daily mean streamflows was performed for 109 reference streamgages in and near the Delaware River Basin. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values were computed as a measure of goodness of fit. The NSE values (using log10 streamflow values) ranged from 0.22 to 0.98 (median of 0.90) for 45 streamgages in the Upper Delaware River Basin and from -0.37 to 0.98 (median of 0.79) for 41 streamgages in the Lower Delaware River Basin.

  4. Annual and interannual variations of sea-level anomaly in the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Annual and interannual variations of sea-level anomaly (SLA) in the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea are investigated using altimeter-derived SLA data from 1993 to 2003. It is found that the SLA annual variation in the study area can be divided into three phases with distinctive patterns. During the southwest monsoon (May-September), positive SLA presents in the equatorial region and extends northward along the eastern boundary of the bay, and the SLA distribution in the interior bay appears to be high in the east and low in the west with two cyclonic cells developing in the north and south of the western bay respectively, between which an anticyclonic cell exists. During the early northeast monsoon (October-December), the whole bay is dominated by a large cyclonic cell with the pattern of high SLA in the east and low in the west still retained, and the SLA distribution outside the bay is changed in response to the reversal of the Indian Monsoon Current (IMC) in November. During the late northeast monsoon (January-April), a large anticyclonic cell of SLA develops in the bay with negative SLA prevailing in the equatorial region and extending northward along the eastern boundary of bay. Therefore, the SLA distribution in the interior bay reverses to be high in the west and low in the east. It is suggested that the SLA annual variation in the bay is primarily driven by the local wind stress curl, involving Sverdrup balance while the abrupt SLA variation during the peak of northeast monsoon may be partly caused by the semiannual fluctuation of wind in the equatorial region. This fast adjustment in the interior bay is induced by the upwelling coastal Kelvin wave excited by the decay of Wyrtki jet during December through January. Besides the annual variation, in the bay, there are obvious SLA fluctuations with the periods of 2 and 3~7 a, which are driven by the interannual variability of large-scale wind field in the equatorial region. The coastal Kelvin wave also

  5. A POTENTIAL ECOFORECAST FOR PROTOZOAL INFECTIONS OF THE EASTERN OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Shawn M. and Stephen J. Jordan. 2003. Potential Ecoforecast for Protozoal Infections of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) in the Upper Chesapeake Bay. In: Ecological Forecasting: New Tools for Coastal Marine Ecosystem Management. Nathalie Valette-Silver and D...

  6. The Bayes Inference Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are developing a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to provide the means to make inferences about models of physical reality within a Bayesian framework. The construction of complex nonlinear models is achieved by a fully object-oriented design. The models are represented by a data-flow diagram that may be manipulated by the analyst through a graphical programming environment. Maximum a posteriori solutions are achieved using a general, gradient-based optimization algorithm. The application incorporates a new technique of estimating and visualizing the uncertainties in specific aspects of the model.

  7. Late Pleistocene eolian features in southeastern Maryland and Chesapeake Bay region indicate strong WNW-NW winds accompanied growth of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, H.W.; Litwin, R.J.; Pavich, M.J.; Brook, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Inactive parabolic dunes are present in southeastern Maryland, USA, along the east bank of the Potomac River. More elongate and finer-grained eolian deposits and paha-like ridges characterize the Potomac River-Patuxent River upland and the west side of Chesapeake Bay. These ridges are streamlined erosional features, veneered with eolian sediment and interspersed with dunes in the low-relief headwaters of Potomac- and Patuxent-river tributaries. Axis data for the dunes and ridges indicate formation by WNW-NW winds. Optically stimulated luminescence and radiocarbon age data suggest dune formation from ??? 33-15??ka, agreeing with the 30-13??ka ages Denny, C.S., Owens, J.P., Sirkin, L., Rubin, M., 1979. The Parsonburg Sand in the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 1067-B, 16??pp. suggested for eolian deposits east of Chesapeake Bay. Age range and paleowind direction(s) for eolian features in the Bay region approximate those for late Wisconsin loess in the North American midcontinent. Formation of midcontinent loess and Bay-region eolian features was coeval with rapid growth of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and strong cooling episodes (??18O minima) evident in Greenland ice cores. Age and paleowind-direction coincidence, for eolian features in the midcontinent and Bay region, indicates strong mid-latitude WNW-NW winds for several hundred kilometers south of the Laurentide glacial terminus that were oblique to previously simulated anticyclonic winds for the last glacial maximum.

  8. The Eastern Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the EaP ...

  9. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  10. Dynamic Management of Releases for the Delaware River Basin using NYC's Operations Support Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Wang, L.; Murphy, T.; Muralidhar, D.; Tarrier, B.

    2011-12-01

    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has initiated design of an Operations Support Tool (OST), a state-of-the-art decision support system to provide computational and predictive support for water supply operations and planning. Using an interim version of OST, DEP and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) have developed a provisional, one-year Delaware River Basin reservoir release program to succeed the existing Flexible Flow Management Program (FFMP) which expired on May 31, 2011. The FFMP grew out of the Good Faith Agreement of 1983 among the four Basin states (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware) that established modified diversions and flow targets during drought conditions. It provided a set of release schedules as a framework for managing diversions and releases from New York City's Delaware Basin reservoirs in order to support multiple objectives, including water supply, drought mitigation, flood mitigation, tailwaters fisheries, main stem habitat, recreation, and salinity repulsion. The provisional program (OST-FFMP) defines available water based on current Upper Delaware reservoir conditions and probabilistic forecasts of reservoir inflow. Releases are then set based on a set of release schedules keyed to the water availability. Additionally, OST-FFMP attempts to provide enhanced downstream flood protection by making spill mitigation releases to keep the Delaware System reservoirs at a seasonally varying conditional storage objective. The OST-FFMP approach represents a more robust way of managing downstream releases, accounting for predicted future hydrologic conditions by making more water available for release when conditions are forecasted to be wet and protecting water supply reliability when conditions are forecasted to be dry. Further, the dynamic nature of the program allows the release decision to be adjusted as hydrologic conditions change. OST simulations predict that this

  11. Bayes Multiple Decision Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Wensong

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach for this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for the use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow in this paper a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through...

  12. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Swim, Great South Bay, NY, in the Federal Register (74 FR 32428). We did not receive any comments or... published at 74 FR 32428 on July 8, 2009, is adopted as a final rule with the following changes: PART 100... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  13. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and refined conceptual model of groundwater flow for Coastal Plain aquifers at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2005-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Myers, Luke; Degnan, James R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.

    2015-01-01

    From 1966 to 2002, activities at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware chemical facility in New Castle County, Delaware resulted in the contamination of groundwater, soils, and wetland sediment. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, and the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control began a multi-year investigation of the hydrogeologic framework and hydrology of the confined aquifer system. The goals of the ongoing study at the site (the Potomac Aquifer Study) are to determine the hydraulic connection between the Columbia and Potomac aquifers, determine the direction of groundwater flow in the Potomac aquifer, and identify factors affecting the fate of contaminated groundwater. This report describes progress made towards these goals based on available data collected through September 2012.

  14. Chesapeake Bay: Introduction to an Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the contiguous United States. The Bay and its tidal tributaries make up the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. This document, which focuses of various aspects of this ecosystem, is divided into four major parts. The first part traces the geologic history of the Bay, describes the overall physical structure of…

  15. Bayes multiple decision functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting

  16. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  17. Island Bay Wilderness study area : Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  18. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bite of an infected mosquito. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare illness in humans, and only ... EEEV have no apparent illness. Severe cases of EEE (involving encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain) begin ...

  19. Hydrogeologic characterization and assessment of bioremediation of chlorinated benzenes and benzene in wetland areas, Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles W.; Baker, Anna C.; Teunis, Jessica A.; Majcher, Emily H.; Brayton, Michael J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site (SCD) in New Castle County, Delaware, are affected by contamination with chlorobenzenes and benzene from past waste storage and disposal, spills, leaks, and contaminated groundwater discharge. In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey began an investigation in June 2009 to characterize the hydrogeology and geochemistry in the wetlands and assess the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation as remedial strategies. Groundwater flow in the wetland study area is predominantly vertically upward in the wetland sediments and the underlying aquifer, and groundwater discharge accounts for a minimum of 47 percent of the total discharge for the subwatershed of tidal Red Lion Creek. Thus, groundwater transport of contaminants to surface water could be significant. The major contaminants detected in groundwater in the wetland study area included benzene, monochlorobenzene, and tri- and di-chlorobenzenes. Shallow wetland groundwater in the northwest part of the wetland study area was characterized by high concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (maximum about 75,000 micrograms per liter [μg/L]), low pH, and high chloride. In the northeast part of the wetland study area, wetland groundwater had low to moderate concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (generally not greater than 10,000 μg/L), moderate pH, and high sulfate concentrations. Concentrations in the groundwater in excess of 1 percent of the solubility of the individual chlorinated benzenes indicate that a contaminant source is present in the wetland sediments as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Consistently higher contaminant concentrations in the shallow wetland groundwater than deeper in the wetland sediments or the aquifer also indicate a continued source in the wetland sediments, which could include dissolution of DNAPLs and

  20. Chemical characteristics of Delaware River water, Trenton, New Jersey, to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfor, Charles N.; Keighton, Walter B.

    1954-01-01

    This progress report gives the results of an investigation of the quality of water in the Delaware River from Trenton, N. J. to Marcus Hook, Pa., for the period August 1949 to December 1952. The Delaware River is the principal source of water for the many industries and municipal water supplies along this reach of the river and both industries and municipalities use it for the disposal of their wastes. Consequently, a study of the quality of the water and variations in the quality caused by changes in streamflow, tidal effects, pollution and other factors is important to the many users. In both New Jersey and Pennsylvania steps are being taken to abate pollution, thus it is of more than passing interest to measure the effects of waste treatment on the quality of the Delaware River water. At average or higher rates of streamflow the mineral content of the water increases slightly from Trenton to Marcus Hook. There is little variation in the concentration of dissolved minerals from bank to bank or from top to bottom of the river. At times of protracted low rates of flow the effect of ocean water mixing with the river water may be noted as far upstream as Philadelphia. At such times the salinity is often greater near the bottom of the river than near the top. The increase in chloride concentration upstream from Philadelphia is small compared to the rapid increase downstream from Philadelphia. Temperatures of offshore water vary with the season, but on a given day are substantially uniform throughout the reach of the river from Trenton to Marcus Hook. The water contains less dissolved oxygen as it flows downstream indicating that oxygen is being consumed by oxidizable matter. From Philadelphia downstream there are periods, especially in late summer, when the dissolved oxygen is barely sufficient to meet the oxygen demands of the pollution load.

  1. Origin of Atlantic Sturgeon collected off the Delaware coast during spring months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirgin, Isaac; Breece, Matthew W.; Fox, Dewayne A.; Maceda, Lorraine; Wark, Kevin W.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus was federally listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as five distinct population segments (DPS). Currently, at least 18 estuaries coastwide host spawning populations and the viability of these vary, requiring differing levels of protection. Subadults emigrate from their natal estuaries to marine waters where they are vulnerable to bycatch; one of the major threats to the rebuilding of populations. As a result, identifying the population origin of Atlantic Sturgeon in coastal waters is critical to development of management plans intended to minimize interactions of the most imperiled populations with damaging fisheries. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequencing and microsatellite DNA analyses to determine the origin of 261 Atlantic Sturgeon collected off the Delaware coast during the spring months. Using individual-based assignment (IBA) testing and mixed stock analysis, we found that specimens originated from all nine of our reference populations and the five DPSs used in the listing determination. Using IBA, we found that the Hudson River population was the largest contributor (38.3%) to our coastal collection. The James (19.9%) and Delaware (13.8%) river populations, at one time thought to be extirpated or nearly so, were the next largest contributors. The three populations combined in the South Atlantic DPS contributed 21% of specimens; the Altamaha River, the largest population in the South Atlantic DPS, only contributed a single specimen to the collection. While the origin of specimens collected on the Delaware coast was most likely within rivers of the New York Bight DPS (52.1%), specimens that originated elsewhere were also well represented. Genetic analyses provide a robust tool to identify the population origin of individual sturgeon outside of their natal estuaries and to determine the quantitative contributions of individual populations to coastal aggregations that are vulnerable to

  2. Reservoir Operations and Flow Modeling to Support Decision Making in the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinodoz, H. A.

    2006-12-01

    About five percent of the US population depends on the waters from the Delaware River Basin for its water supply, including New York City and Philadelphia. Water management in the basin is governed by a compact signed in 1961 by the four basin states and the federal government. The compact created the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) and gave it broad powers to plan, regulate, and manage the development of the basin water resources. The compact also recognized a pre-existing (1954) U.S. Supreme Court Decree that grants the City of New York the right to export up to 800 million gallons per day out of the basin, provided that a prescribed minimum flow is met at Montague, New Jersey for the use of the lower-basin states. The Delaware River Basin Compact also allows the DRBC to adjust the releases and diversions under the Decree, subject to the unanimous consent of the decree parties. This mechanism has been used several times over the last 30 years, to implement and modify rules governing drought operations, instream flows, minimum flow targets, and control of salinity intrusion. In every case, decision makers have relied upon extensive modeling of alternative proposals, using a basin-wide daily flow model. Often, stakeholders have modified and used the same model to test and refine their proposals prior to consideration by the decision makers. The flow model has been modified over the years, to simulate new features and processes in a river system partially controlled by more than ten reservoirs. The flow model has proved to be an adaptable tool, able to simulate the dynamics of a complex system driven by conflicting objectives. This presentation reviews the characteristics of the daily flow model in its current form, discuss how model simulations are used to inform the decision-making process, and provide a case study of a recent modification of the system-wide drought operating plan.

  3. Vapor Intrusion Facilities - South Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — POINT locations for the South Bay Vapor Instrusion Sites were derived from the NPL data for Region 9. One site, Philips Semiconductor, was extracted from the...

  4. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  5. Annual report, Bristol Bay, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Bristol Bay for 1958, including lists of operators, extensive statistics, and descriptions of enforcement activities.

  6. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  7. CHWAKA BAY MANGROVE SEDIMENTS, ZANZIBAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammed-Studies on Benthic denitrification in the Chwaka bay mangrove. Extensive mangrove ... In this case, six sediment cores were taken randomly from the three study sites as above and a ..... Academic Press. Orlando. pp. 277-293.

  8. Annual report, Bristol Bay, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Bristol Bay for 1955, including lists of operators, extensive statistics, descriptions of enforcement activities, and...

  9. Back Bay Wilderness area description

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a description of the lands located within the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Within these lands, it designates which area is suitable for...

  10. Hydrologic landscapes on the Delmarva Peninsula - Part 2: Estimates of base-flow nitrogen load to Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bachman L.; Phillips, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Base-flow samples were collected from 47 sampling sites for four seasons from 1990-91 on the Delmarva Peninsula in Delaware and Maryland to relate stream chemistry to a "hydrologic landscape" and season. Two hydrologic landscapes were determined: (1) a well-drained landscape, characterized by a combination of a low percentage of forest cover, a low percentage of poorly drained soil, and elevated channel slope; and (2) poorly drained landscape, characterized by a combination of an elevated percentage of forest cover, an elevated percentage of poorly drained soil, and low channel slope. Concentrations of nitrogen were significantly related to the hydrologic landscape. Nitrogen concentrations tended to be higher in well-drained landscapes than in poorly drained ones. The highest instantaneous nitrogen yields occurred in well-drained landscapes during the winter. These yields were extrapolated over the part of the study area draining to Chesapeake Bay in order to provide a rough estimate of nitrogen load from base flow to the Bay and its estuarine tributaries. This estimate was compared to an estimate made by extrapolating from an existing long-term monitoring station. The load estimate from the stream survey data was 5 ?? 106 kg of N per year, which was about four times the estimate made from the existing long-term monitoring station. The stream-survey estimate of base flow represents about 40 percent of the total nitrogen load that enters the Bay and estuarine tributaries from all sources in the study area.

  11. Health Service Utilization of Children in Delaware Foster Care, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Erin K; McDuffie, May Joan; Gifford, Katie; Zorc, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Children in foster care represent some of the most vulnerable children in the U.S. Their higher prevalence of a range of physical and behavioral health problems can lead to greater health care utilization and higher costs. However, many children in foster care have undiagnosed conditions and unmet needs. The purpose of this study was to provide a description of health services accessed by children in foster care in Delaware. The data serves as a baseline and informs current efforts to improve the health care of children in foster care. We analyzed rates of emergency room visits, behavioral health visits, hospitalizations, and costs of care for children in foster care and made comparisons with other children participating in Medicaid. We also looked at utilization before and after entry into care and assessed rates of appropriate medical screening for children on entering foster care. This study was conducted as part of a larger analysis guided by the Delaware Task Force on the Health of Children in Foster Care with funding appropriated by the Delaware General Assembly. Using a unique identification number, we linked Medicaid claims data with demographic information and characteristics associated with foster care from the Delaware Department of Services for Children, Youth and Their Families. We examined diagnoses, patterns of utilization, and costs for children in foster care (n = 1,458) and a comparable cohort of other children in Medicaid (n = 124,667) during fiscal years 2013 and 2014. Compared with other children in Medicaid, children in foster care had similar rates of emergency department utilization, but relatively high rates of outpatient behavioral health visits. Similarly, compared with other children in Medicaid, those in foster care had particularly high rates of psychotropic drug utilization. Entry into foster care was associated with increased utilization of overall health care services, including receipt of well-child care. However, just 31 percent

  12. Delaware River water quality Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, August 1949 to December 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighton, Walter B.

    1965-01-01

    During the 14-year period from August 1949 to July 1963, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Philadelphia, collected samples of river water once each month in the 43-mile reach of the Delaware River from Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pa., and daily at Trenton, 10 miles upstream from Bristol. This part of the Delaware is an estuary into which salt water is brought by tides; fresh water flows into the estuary at Trenton, NJ, and farther downstream from the Schuylkill River and other tributaries of the Delaware. In March, April, and May, when fresh-water flow is high, the average concentration of dissolved solids in the water at Bristol was 76 ppm (parts per million), and at Marcus Hook 112 PPM In August and September, streamflow is lower, and the average concentration of dissolved solids increased to 117 PPM at Bristol and 804 PPM at Marcus Hook. Major salinity invasions of the Delaware River occurred in 1949, 1953, 1954, 1957, and 1963. In each of these years the fresh-water flow into the tidal river at Trenton was low during the period from July to October. The greatest dissolved-solids concentrations in these monthly samples were 160 PPM at Bristol and 4,000 PPM at Marcus Hook. At times the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the river water has become dangerously low, especially in that reach of the river between Wharton Street and League Island. At the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, one-third of the samples of river water were less than 30 percent saturated with oxygen; however, no trend, either for better or for worse, was apparent during the 14-year period. It is useful now to summarize these monthly analyses for the period 1949-63 even though a much more detailed description of water quality in this reach of the estuary will soon become available through the use of recording instrumental conditions. This compendium of water-quality data is useful as an explicit statement of water quality during the 14-year study period and is valuable for directing

  13. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Delaware River, Delhi, New York, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Breaker, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5-mile reach of the West Branch Delaware River through the Village and part of the Town of Delhi, New York, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Village of Delhi, the Delaware County Soil and Water Conservation District, and the Delaware County Planning Department. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the Federal Flood Inundation Mapper Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) referenced to the USGS streamgage at West Branch Delaware River upstream from Delhi, N.Y. (station number 01421900). In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model that had been used to produce the flood insurance rate maps for the most recent flood insurance study for the Town and Village of Delhi. This hydraulic model was used to compute 10 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft or near bankfull to 16 ft, which exceeds the stages that correspond to both the estimated 0.2-percent annual-exceedance-probability flood (500-year recurrence interval flood) and the maximum recorded peak flow. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model, which was derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with a 1.2-ft (0.61-ft root mean squared error) vertical accuracy and 3.3-ft (1-meter) horizontal resolution, to delineate the area flooded at each water level. A map that was produced using this method to delineate the inundated area for the flood that occurred on August 28, 2011, agreed well with highwater marks that had been located in the field using a

  14. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar energy system located at the Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware is described. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat - new addition, domestic water - entire facility, and pool heating - entire facility. On a cost basis for 2920 hours of operation, the heat reclaimed would cost $969.66 annually if provided by gas at 3.79 per million Btu's. At 5.5 centers per kwh, heat recovery costs of $481.80 percent a net savings of $487.86 annually.

  15. Groundwater quality in the Delaware and St. Lawrence River Basins, New York, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 10 production and domestic wells in the Delaware River Basin in New York and from 20 production and domestic wells in the St. Lawrence River Basin in New York from August through November 2010 to characterize groundwater quality in the basins. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria.

  16. Physical and chemical oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship RONALD H BROWN during the Joint Air-Sea Monsoon Interaction Experiment (JASMINE) in the Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal, and the Timor Sea from 1999-04-10 to 1999-06-06 (NCEI Accession 0001029)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — JASMINE is the first comprehensive study of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system in the eastern Indian Ocean and the southern Bay of Bengal. Observations made during...

  17. Application of Sediment Trend Analysis in the Examination of Sediment Transport Dynamics of Missisquoi Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, M. P.; Manley, P.; Singer, J.; Manley, T.; McLaren, P.

    2013-12-01

    Missisquoi Bay is located between Vermont and Quebec in the northeast sector of the Restricted Arm of Lake Champlain. The average depth of the Bay is slightly less than 3 meters with a surface area covering 77.5 km2. The Bay receives water from eastern and western catchment basins, most notably via the Missisquoi, Rock, and Pike Rivers. Circulation within Missisquoi Bay has been altered by the construction of railroad causeways in the late 19th century and highway construction in the early 20th century. Over the past several decades there have also been changes in land-use practices, including the intensification of agriculture, increased animal husbandry, and urbanization. As a consequence of construction and changing land use, loadings of nitrogen and phosphorus to the Bay have increased seasonal oxygen depletion causing eutrophication. Since monitoring began in 1992, Missisquoi Bay has displayed the highest mean total phosphorus concentrations and chlorophyll a concentrations in Lake Champlain. Various efforts have taken place to reduce nutrient loading to Missisquoi Bay, but persistent release of phosphorus from bottom sediments will continue to delay for decades the recovery from nutrient diversion. To better understand the causes and timing of eutrophication in Missisquoi Bay, one component of a 5-year integrated VT EPSCoR - RACC program included an examination of N and P loadings and their distribution throughout the Bay. Internal circulation patterns are also being studied. To determine the pattern of net sediment transport and determine sediment behavior (erosion and accretion), a Sediment Trend Analysis (STA) was performed using 369 grab samples collected in the Bay. Grain size distributions for the surface sediment samples were determined using a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 particle size analyzer. Sediment maps showing the proportion of gravel, sand, and mud show that near major river distributaries sand-sized sediment was dominant with muds becoming more

  18. Predicted liquefaction of East Bay fills during a repeat of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, T.L.; Blair, J.L.; Noce, T.E.; Bennett, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Predicted conditional probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction during a repeat of the 1906 San Francisco (M7.8) earthquake range from 0.54 to 0.79 in the area underlain by the sandy artificial fills along the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay near Oakland, California. Despite widespread liquefaction in 1906 of sandy fills in San Francisco, most of the East Bay fills were emplaced after 1906 without soil improvement to increase their liquefaction resistance. They have yet to be shaken strongly. Probabilities are based on the liquefaction potential index computed from 82 CPT soundings using median (50th percentile) estimates of PGA based on a ground-motion prediction equation. Shaking estimates consider both distance from the San Andreas Fault and local site conditions. The high probabilities indicate extensive and damaging liquefaction will occur in East Bay fills during the next M ??? 7.8 earthquake on the northern San Andreas Fault. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  19. Abundance of Atlantic walrus in Western Nares Strait, Baffin Bay Stock, during summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert EA Stewart

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus belonging to the Baffin Bay subpopulation occur year round in the North Water polynya (NOW between NW Greenland and eastern Ellesmere Island (Canada. They are hunted for subsistence purposes by residents of the Qaanaaq area (NW Greenland bordering the NOW to the east and by Canadian Inuit at the entrance to Jones Sound in Nunavut. During the open-water period NW Greenland is virtually devoid of walruses which concentrate along eastern and southern Ellesmere Island at this time of the year. To determine the abundance of walruses in the NOW area, aerial surveys were conducted in August of 1999, 2008, and 2009. In July 2009, nine satellite-linked transmitters were deployed in nearby Kane Basin. Surveys on 9 and 20 August 2009 along eastern Ellesmere Island were the most extensive and were augmented with concomitant data on haul-out and at water surface activity from three (1 F, 2 M of the nine tags that were still functioning. We therefore focus on the 2009 surveys. Walruses were observed on the ice and in water primarily in Buchanan Bay and Princess Marie Bay where the remaining functional tags were located. The Minimum Counted population (MCP was 571 on 20 August. Adjusting the MCP of walruses on ice for those not hauled out, the estimate of abundance of walruses in the Baffin Bay stock was 1,251(CV=1.00, 95% CI = 1,226 when adjusted by the proportion of tags ‘dry’ at the time of the survey and 1,249 (CV=1.12, 95% CI = 1,370 when adjusted by the average time tags were dry. The surveys did not cover all potential walrus summering habitat along eastern Ellesmere Island and are negatively biased to an unknown degree.

  20. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Dave Martin and Associates, Inc., Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, limits development with conventional drilling. Combinations of vertical and horizontal wells combined with selective completions are being evaluated to optimize production performance. Based on the production response of similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Draw Pool. A detailed reservoir model of pilot area was developed, and enhanced recovery options, including waterflooding, lean gas, and carbon dioxide injection, are being evaluated.

  1. User’s guide for the Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Marla H.; Ulrich, James E.

    2016-06-09

    IntroductionThe Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET) is a tool for the simulation of streamflow at a daily time step for an ungaged stream location in the Delaware River Basin. DRB-SET was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and funded through WaterSMART as part of the National Water Census, a USGS research program on national water availability and use that develops new water accounting tools and assesses water availability at the regional and national scales. DRB-SET relates probability exceedances at a gaged location to those at an ungaged stream location. Once the ungaged stream location has been identified by the user, an appropriate streamgage is automatically selected in DRB-SET using streamflow correlation (map correlation method). Alternately, the user can manually select a different streamgage or use the closest streamgage. A report file is generated documenting the reference streamgage and ungaged stream location information, basin characteristics, any warnings, baseline (minimally altered) and altered (affected by regulation, diversion, mining, or other anthropogenic activities) daily mean streamflow, and the mean and median streamflow. The estimated daily flows for the ungaged stream location can be easily exported as a text file that can be used as input into a statistical software package to determine additional streamflow statistics, such as flow duration exceedance or streamflow frequency statistics.

  2. The effect of Marmara (Izmit) Earthquake on the chemical oceanography of Izmit Bay, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkis, Nuray

    2003-07-01

    After the Marmara (Izmit) Earthquake (magnitude 7.4) on 17 August 1999, chemical oceanographical characteristics of Izmit Bay were investigated in order to examine the possible effects of the refinery fire and uncontrolled entrance of domestic wastes to the surface waters. The dissolved oxygen (DO) content of the water column in August 1999 was the lowest value of all the measurement periods. It was found to be lower than the detection limit of the method (0.03 mgl(-1)) in the lower layer of eastern and central basins of the Bay, whereas the dissolved hydrogen sulfide (DHS) values were high, varying between 0.14 and 1.28 mgl(-1). The deficiency of DO and in turn formation of DHS were caused by the spreading petroleum from the refinery fire onto the sea surface and waste loads from the damaged municipal waste effluent system. The increasing organic/inorganic loads into the Bay stimulated the phytoplankton blooms which cause locally saturated DO concentrations in the eastern basin during autumn 1999. DO concentrations increased in lower layer waters during winter, whilst DHS formation disappeared when water originating from the Marmara Sea replenish the water column of Izmit Bay. However, DHS formation established again in August 2000.

  3. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  4. Circulation and haline structure of a microtidal bay in the Sea of Japan influenced by the winter monsoon and the Tsushima Warm Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Sachihiko; Kasai, Akihide; Takeshige, Aigo; Zenimoto, Kei; Kimura, Shingo; Suzuki, Keita W.; Miyake, Yoichi; Funahashi, Tatsuhiro; Yamashita, Yoh; Watanabe, Yoshiro

    2016-08-01

    Mooring and hydrographic surveys were conducted in Tango Bay, a microtidal region of freshwater influence (ROFI) in the Sea of Japan, in order to clarify the circulation pattern in the bay and its driving forces. Monthly mean velocity records at four stations revealed an inflow and outflow at the eastern and northern openings of the bay, respectively, indicating an anticyclonic circulation across the bay mouth. The circulation was significantly intensified in winter, in accordance with the prevailing NW wind component of the winter monsoon. The anticyclonic circulation at the bay mouth was connected to an estuarine circulation that was evident near the mouth of the Yura River at the bay head. Surface salinity just offshore of the river mouth was closely related to the Yura River discharge, whereas in lower layers the offshore water had a stronger influence on salinity. Prior to a seasonal increase in the Yura River discharge, summer salinity decreased markedly through the water column in Tango Bay, possibly reflecting intrusion of the Changjiang Diluted Water transported by the Tsushima Warm Current. In contrast with the traditional assumption that estuarine circulation is controlled mainly by river discharge and tidal forcing, the circulation in Tango Bay is strongly influenced by seasonal wind and the Tsushima Warm Current. The narrow shelf may be responsible for the strong influence of the Tsushima Warm Current on circulation and water exchange processes in Tango Bay.

  5. 75 FR 21653 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware-Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Minerals Management Service Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore... more commercial leases for the construction of a wind energy project(s) on the OCS offshore Delaware... offshore wind facility proposed on the OCS, about 12.5 miles off of Rehoboth Beach. The agreement...

  6. A numerical model to evaluate potential impacts of sea-level rise on groundwater resources in the Delaware coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, C.; McKenna, T. E.; Wang, L.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise on the U.S. East Coast has accelerated much faster than in other parts of the world. In Delaware, the estimated sea level could rise as high as 1.5 meters by the year 2100 based on the information in IPCC (2007) and CCSP (2009). In this study, we used a 3-D variable-density groundwater flow model to study the movement of the fresh-water/salt-water interface and water table changes due to sea-level rise. Rather than developing a site-specific model, we analyzed the geospatial features of a serious of sub-watersheds along the coastline of the Delaware Estuary in Delaware using ArcGIS and constructed a representative model to capture the generalized flow patterns and saltwater intrusion rates that occur in typical area. Different scenarios with varying parameters were simulated. The simulation results were then applied to the Delaware River region to evaluate potential impacts of groundwater level changes on the potential land lose.

  7. Uniting Rural, Urban and Suburban America! Live Internet-Based Paraeducator and Teacher Training in Idaho, Utah, Delaware, and Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, David E.; Morgan, Robert L.

    This paper describes Project Impact*Net, a model project for delivering training to paraeducators and teachers in light of requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act. The project delivered four semester-length courses to instructional sites serving 69 participants in Delaware, Idaho, Pennsylvania, and Utah. The Project Impact*Net delivery system…

  8. 76 FR 7589 - Bob Evans Farms, Inc., an Ohio Corporation, a Subsidiary of Bob Evans Farms, Inc., a Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bob Evans Farms, Inc., an Ohio Corporation, a Subsidiary of Bob Evans... Assistance (TAA), applicable to workers and former workers of Bob Evans Farms, Inc., an Ohio Corporation, a subsidiary of Bob Evans Farms, Inc., a Delaware Corporation, Galva, Illinois. The negative determination...

  9. Past permafrost on the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, H.; Demitroff, M.; Newell, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Sand-wedge casts, soil wedges and other non-diastrophic, post-depositional sedimentary structures suggest that Late-Pleistocene permafrost and deep seasonal frost on the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain extended at least as far south as southern Delaware, the Eastern Shore and southern Maryland. Heterogeneous cold-climate slope deposits mantle lower valley-side slopes in central Maryland. A widespread pre-existing fragipan is congruent with the inferred palaeo-permafrost table. The high bulk density of the fragipan was probably enhanced by either thaw consolidation when icy permafrost degraded at the active layer-permafrost interface or by liquefaction and compaction when deep seasonal frost thawed. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  11. Late 20th Century benthic foraminiferal distribution in Central San Francisco Bay, California: Influence of the Trochammina hadai invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of foraminifera in most of San Francisco Bay is well documented, but this is not the case for the subembayment known as Central Bay. To resolve this, 55 grab samples obtained in 1998 were analyzed to characterize the foraminiferal fauna in the surface sediments of the area. Thirty-five species were identified, including the invasive Japanese species Trochammina hadai that was introduced into the bay in the early 1980s. A cluster analysis of the samples from Central Bay produced three groups (biofacies) and one outlier. The Shallow Subtidal Biofacies is characterized by a marsh to shallow-subtidal agglutinated fauna, dominated by T. hadai but also including T. inflata, T. macrescens, Haplophragmoides subinvolutum, and Miliammina fusca. The Intermediate Subtidal Biofacies, the Intermediate Subtidal Outlier, and the Deep Subtidal Biofacies are dominated by calcareous taxa, most notably Ammonia tepida, Elphidium excavatum, and Elphidiella hannai. Ammonia tepida is most abundant in the warmer, intermediate depths of eastern Central Bay, abundances of E. excavatum peak in the cooler estuarine water near Alcatraz Island, and E. hannai thrives in the cold water west of Angel Island in a transitional setting between the deep subtidal estuarine and the nearshore marine environments. The recovery of oceanic species as far east as Angel Island indicate that western Central Bay is the most marine-influenced region of San Francisco Bay.

  12. 75 FR 36292 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim III, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... of Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, near Erie, Pennsylvania between 9 a.m. to 11 a.m. on June 26, 2010.... The safety zone will encompass specified waters of Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania starting at... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim III, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA...

  13. 77 FR 18739 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Presque Island Bay during the Bay Swim...

  14. 77 FR 35860 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ..., Erie, PA in the Federal Register (77 FR 18739). We received no letters commenting on the proposed rule... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... restrict vessels from a portion of the Presque Island Bay during the Bay Swim V swimming event. The...

  15. 78 FR 34575 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim VI, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule A. Regulatory History... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim VI, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... portion of Presque Isle bay during the Bay Swim VI swimming event. This temporary safety zone is...

  16. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  17. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  18. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  19. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  20. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  1. Humboldt Bay Benthic Habitats 2009 Aquatic Setting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  2. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled

  3. Reliable positioning in a sparse GPS network, eastern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi Alinia, H.; Tiampo, K.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Canada hosts two regions that are prone to large earthquakes: western British Columbia, and the St. Lawrence River region in eastern Canada. Although eastern Ontario is not as seismically active as other areas of eastern Canada, such as the Charlevoix/Ottawa Valley seismic zone, it experiences ongoing moderate seismicity. In historic times, potentially damaging events have occurred in New York State (Attica, 1929, M=5.7; Plattsburg, 2002, M=5.0), north-central Ontario (Temiskaming, 1935, M=6.2; North Bay, 2000, M=5.0), eastern Ontario (Cornwall, 1944, M=5.8), Georgian Bay (2005, MN=4.3), and western Quebec (Val-Des-Bois,2010, M=5.0, MN=5.8). In eastern Canada, the analysis of detailed, high-precision measurements of surface deformation is a key component in our efforts to better characterize the associated seismic hazard. The data from precise, continuous GPS stations is necessary to adequately characterize surface velocities from which patterns and rates of stress accumulation on faults can be estimated (Mazzotti and Adams, 2005; Mazzotti et al., 2005). Monitoring of these displacements requires employing high accuracy GPS positioning techniques. Detailed strain measurements can determine whether the regional strain everywhere is commensurate with a large event occurring every few hundred years anywhere within this general area or whether large earthquakes are limited to specific areas (Adams and Halchuck, 2003; Mazzotti and Adams, 2005). In many parts of southeastern Ontario and western Québec, GPS stations are distributed quite sparsely, with spacings of approximately 100 km or more. The challenge is to provide accurate solutions for these sparse networks with an approach that is capable of achieving high-accuracy positioning. Here, various reduction techniques are applied to a sparse network installed with the Southern Ontario Seismic Network in eastern Ontario. Recent developments include the implementation of precise point positioning processing on acquired

  4. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1122 - San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches-Regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and... Coast Guard District § 165.1122 San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches—Regulated navigation... waters of San Diego Bay, Mission Bay, and their approaches encompassed by a line commencing at Point La...

  6. DISCOVERING BEIJING Eastern Promise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dongcheng District, literally meaning eastern city, covers Beijing’s downtown area to the northeast of the central axis of old Beijing. The district has a total area of 25 square km and a population of 600,000. With a large number of cultural and historical sites and tourist attractions,

  7. Eastern Spruce Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Baker; Joseph O' Brien; R. Mathiasen; Mike Ostry

    2006-01-01

    Eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) is a parasitic flowering plant that causes the most serious disease of black spruce (Picea mariana) throughout its range. The parasite occurs in the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; in the Lake States of Minnesota,...

  8. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  9. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  10. Bayes' postulate for trinomial trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, M. A.; Polpo, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss Bayes' postulate and its interpretation. We extend the binomial trial method proposed by de Finetti [1] to trinomial trials, for which we argue that the consideration of equiprobability a priori for the possible outcomes of the trinomial trials implies that the parameter vector has Dirichlet(1,1) as prior. Based on this result, we agree with Stigler [2] in that the notion in Bayes' postulate stating "absolutely know nothing" is related to the possible outcomes of an experiment and not to "non-information" about the parameter.

  11. Landscape characteristics affecting streams in urbanizing regions of the Delaware River Basin (New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, U.S.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva-Murray, K.; Riemann, R.; Murdoch, P.; Fischer, J.M.; Brightbill, R.

    2010-01-01

    Widespread and increasing urbanization has resulted in the need to assess, monitor, and understand its effects on stream water quality. Identifying relations between stream ecological condition and urban intensity indicators such as impervious surface provides important, but insufficient information to effectively address planning and management needs in such areas. In this study we investigate those specific landscape metrics which are functionally linked to indicators of stream ecological condition, and in particular, identify those characteristics that exacerbate or mitigate changes in ecological condition over and above impervious surface. The approach used addresses challenges associated with redundancy of landscape metrics, and links landscape pattern and composition to an indicator of stream ecological condition across a broad area of the eastern United States. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected during 2000-2001 from forty-two sites in the Delaware River Basin, and landscape data of high spatial and thematic resolution were obtained from photointerpretation of 1999 imagery. An ordination-derived 'biotic score' was positively correlated with assemblage tolerance, and with urban-related chemical characteristics such as chloride concentration and an index of potential pesticide toxicity. Impervious surface explained 56% of the variation in biotic score, but the variation explained increased to as high as 83% with the incorporation of a second land use, cover, or configuration metric at catchment or riparian scales. These include land use class-specific cover metrics such as percent of urban land with tree cover, forest fragmentation metrics such as aggregation index, riparian metrics such as percent tree cover, and metrics related to urban aggregation. Study results indicate that these metrics will be important to monitor in urbanizing areas in addition to impervious surface. ?? 2010 US Government.

  12. HEAVY METAL CONTENTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS AND SEAWATER AT TOTOK BAY AREA, NORTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyuzar Ilahude

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in north-eastern part of Tomini Bay, approximately 80 km south of Manado city, North Sulawesi. This area is closed to submarine tailing disposal system in Buyat Bay. Five marine sediment samples and four water samples from seawater and dig wells have been used for heavy metals (Hg, As, CN analyses by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. This study is a part of research conducted by Marine Geological Institute of Indonesia on morphological changes of seabed in the Totok Bay. The result shows that concentration of mercury (Hg in water samples taken from Ratatotok estuary is higher than standards stipulated Government Regulation (Peraturan Pemerintah/PP No. 82/2001. Meanwhile, concentration of arsenic (As is almost reaching its standard threshold, and conversely cyanide (CN concentration is low. This value of mercury (Hg concentration taken from Ratatotok estuary is much higher than water samples from of Buyat Bay estuary. Significant concentration of mercury (Hg analysed from those particular sampling sites indicated high mercury contamination. Therefore, further examination on ground water of dig wells is necessary, especially for mercury analysis (Hg. Furthermore, comparing the formerly obtained data of mercury concentration in the sediment, this particular study concludes that the sediments in the Totok Bay had contaminated by mercury from gold-processing of illegal mining.

  13. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the DELAWARE from 10 May 1967 to 01 June 1967 (NODC Accession 7000769)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the DELAWARE from 10 May 1967 to 01 June 1967. Data were submitted by the National Marine...

  14. A summary of the test procedures and operational details of a Delaware River and an ocean dumping pollution monitoring experiment conducted 28 August 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Ohlhorst, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Two remote sensor evaluation experiments are discussed. One experiment was conducted at the DuPont acid-dump site off the Delaware coast. The second was conducted at an organic waste outfall in the Delaware River. The operational objective of obtaining simultaneous sea truth sampling with remote sensors overpasses was met. Descriptions of the test sites, sensors, sensor platforms, flight lines, sea truth data collected, and operational chronology are presented.

  15. Some hydrological impacts of climate change for the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    To gain insight into possible impacts of climate change on water availability in the Delaware River, two models are linked. The first model is a monthly water balance model that converts the temperature and precipitation values generated by a random number generator to monthly streamflow values. The monthly streamflow values are input to a second model that simulates the operation of reservoirs and diversions within the basin. The output for the two linked models consists of time series of reservoir levels and streamflow at key points in the basin. Model results for a base case, in which monthly temperature and precipitation statistics are unchanged from historical records, are compared to several changed-climate scenarios under a standard set of rules of operation.

  16. Spatial pattern of hormone and antibiotic concentrations in surface waters in Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaicunas, R.; Inamdar, S. P.; Dutta, S.; Aga, D.; Zimmerman, L. R.

    2011-12-01

    Water quality surveys of the U.S. have confirmed the presence of hormones and antibiotics in some surface waters. Although the reported concentrations of these substances are extremely low, there is substantial concern about their effect on aquatic species. For example, chronic exposure to estradiol (E2β) concentrations as low as 40 ng/L have been shown to cause endocrine disruption in fish. Furthermore, there is potential for contaminants to enter our drinking supply. Significant sources of hormones and antibiotics include discharge from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and wastewater treatment plants as well as runoff from agricultural land receiving application of animal manure. Since Sussex County, Delaware is one of the leading poultry producing counties in the nation, and many farmers in the state use poultry litter as fertilizer for their crops, it is critical to study the concentrations of contaminants in surface waters. Fifty surface water (streams, lakes, and ponds) sampling locations throughout the state of Delaware were chosen based on DNREC (Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control) data. Locations with the highest nitrogen and phosphorus levels were assumed to be associated with agriculture and wastewater sources and therefore were likely to be contaminated with hormones and antibiotics. The first set of sampling occurred in April representing high-flow conditions, and the second set will occur in September representing low-flow conditions. Water samples will be screened through the cost-effective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method followed by more rigorous analyses of selected samples using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). ELISA screening includes estradiol (E2β), sulfamethazine and triclosan, while LC/MS/MS will quantify both free and conjugated forms of estrone (E1), estradiol (E2β), estriol (E3), as well as selected sulfa and tetracycline antibiotics. Initial ELISA results

  17. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System located at the Wilmington, Swim School, New Castle, Delaware. This active solar system is composed of 2,700 square feet of Revere liquid flat plate collectors piped to a 2,800 gallon concrete storage tank located below ground near the building. A micro-computer based control system selects the optimal applications of the stored energy among space, domestic water and pool alternatives. The controlled logic is planned for serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat-new addition, domestic water-entire facility, and pool heating-entire facility. A modified trombe wall passive operation the active system will bypass the areas being served passively. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution.

  18. Sweden in the Delaware Valley: Everyday Life and Material Culture in New Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    In 1637 the Swedish Crown, encouraged by Dutch merchants, developed a plan to establish a colonial outpost in America to tap into profitable tobacco and beaver pelt trade. The same year the first cargo ships left Sweden and sailed westwards to claim their piece of America along the Delaware River....... Although in many ways unsuccessful and short-lived (the colony collapsed in 1656), New Sweden became a home for generations of colonists. This chapter focuses on the different aspects of their daily life: their longing and desperation, practices of homemaking and domesticating the landscape......, their perception and interactions with the neighbouring Native American groups. It discusses the ways material culture was used, exchanged and appropriated by the colonists and the local Lenape and Susquehannock in the processes of meeting, negotiations and daily coexistence....

  19. Understanding water column and streambed thermal refugia for endangered mussels in the Delaware River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A; Voytek, Emily B; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Rosenberry, Donald O; Lane, John W

    2013-10-15

    Groundwater discharge locations along the upper Delaware River, both discrete bank seeps and diffuse streambed upwelling, may create thermal niche environments that benefit the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon). We seek to identify whether discrete or diffuse groundwater inflow is the dominant control on refugia. Numerous springs and seeps were identified at all locations where dwarf wedgemussels still can be found. Infrared imagery and custom high spatial resolution fiber-optic distributed temperature sensors reveal complex thermal dynamics at one of the seeps with a relatively stable, cold groundwater plume extending along the streambed/water-column interface during midsummer. This plume, primarily fed by a discrete bank seep, was shown through analytical and numerical heat-transport modeling to dominate temperature dynamics in the region of potential habitation by the adult dwarf wedgemussel.

  20. Backscatter imagery in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1x1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The backscatter values are in relative 8-bit (0 –...

  1. Phosphate reactivity in long-term poultry litter-amended southern Delaware sandy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Y.; Livi, K.J.T.; Sparks, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by dissolved P from poultry litter (PL)-amended agricultural soils has been a serious environmental concern in the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia Peninsula (Delmarva), USA. To evaluate state and federal nutrient management strategies for reducing the environmental impact of soluble P from long-term PL-amended Delaware (DE) soils, we investigated (i) inorganic P speciation; (ii) P adsorption capacity; and (iii) the extent of P desorption. Although the electron microprobe (EMP) analyses showed a strong correlation between P and Al/Fe, crystalline Al/Fe-P precipitates were not detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Instead, the inorganic P fractionation analyses showed high levels of oxalate extractable P, Al, and Fe fractions (615-858, 1215-1478, and 337-752 mg kg-1, respectively), which were susceptible to slow release during the long-term (30-d) P desorption experiments at a moderately acidic soil pHwater. The labile P in the short-term (24-h) desorption studies was significantly associated with oxalate and F extractable Fe and Al, respectively. This was evident in an 80% reduction maximum in total desorbable P from NH4 oxalate/F pretreated soils. In the adsorption experiments, P was strongly retained in soils at near targeted pH of lime (???6.0), but P adsorption gradually decreased with decreasing pH near the soil pHwater (???5.0). The overall findings suggest that P losses from the can be suppressed by an increase in the P retention capacity of soils via (i) an increase in the number of lime applications to maintain soil pHwater at near targeted pH values, and/or (ii) alum/iron sulfate amendments to provide additional Al- and Fe-based adsorbents. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  2. 1982 Bald Eagle Nest Survey, Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data refers to the 1982 nesting season for the Bald Eagle in the Chesapeake area to include Virginia, Maryland and Delaware. For the third year in succession we have...

  3. Tectonic Origin of the 1899 Yakutat Bay Earthquakes, Alaska, and Insights into Future Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, S. S.; LeVoir, M. A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Saustrup, S.

    2012-12-01

    On September 10th the largest of four earthquakes (Mw 8.2) that occurred in southeast Alaska on 1899 produced a 6 m tsunami and may have produced as much as 14 m of co-seismic uplift. This earthquake had an epicenter somewhere near Yakutat or Disenchantment Bays. These bays lie at the transition between the Fairweather Fault (the Pacific-North American strike-slip plate boundary), and the Yakutat Terrane-North American subduction zone. The deformation front of this subduction zone is thought to include the eastern fault in the Pamplona Zone offshore, the Malaspina Fault onshore, and the Esker Creek Fault near Yakutat Bay. The 10 September 1899 event could have taken place on a Yakutat-North American megathrust that daylights in Yakutat or Disenchantment Bay. Alternatively, the 10 September 1899 earthquake could have originated from the Fairweather-Boundary and Yakutat faults, transpressive components of the Fairweather strike-slip system present in the Yakutat Bay region, or from thrusting along the Yakutat and Otemaloi Faults on the southeast flank of Yakutat Bay. Characterizing fault slip during the Alaskan earthquakes of 1899 is vital to assessing both subduction zone structure and seismic hazards in the Yakutat Bay area. Each possible fault model has a different implication for modern hazards. These results will be used to update seismic hazard and fault maps and assess future risk to the Yakutat Bay and surrounding communities. During Aug. 6-17th, we anticipate acquiring high-resolution, marine multichannel seismic data aboard the USGS vessel Alaskan Gyre in Yakutat and Disenchantment Bays to search for evidence of recent faulting and directly test these competing theories for the 10 September 1899 event. This survey uses the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics' mini-GI gun, 24-channel seismic streamer, portable seismic compressor system, and associated gun control and data acquisition system to acquire the data. The profiles have a nominal common

  4. Observations on inshore and pelagic Dolphins on the South-Eastern Cape coast of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S Saayman

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence, size and seaward distribution of schools of inshore and pelagic dolphins is described for three study areas on the south-eastern Cape coast (Algoa Bay; the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park and Plettenberg Bay. Inshore dolphins {Tursiops and Sousa sp. frequented the coastline in relatively small schools whereas pelagic dolphins {Delphinus delphis and Stenella caeruleoalba occurred in very large schools far out to sea. Different ecological zones were used by Sousa for feeding and for social behaviour and maintenance activities. The frequency of occurrence of Sousa at Plettenberg Bay was not affected by seasonal fluctuations in sea surface temperatures. The role of dolphins as predators and their implication in the regulation of the ecosystem of the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park is discussed.

  5. Guest editorial for the special issue ‘‘Tectonics of Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea with special emphasis on coastal and marine geohazards’’

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Chaubey, A.K.; Radhakrishna, M.

    and Arabian Sea particularly along the Eastern and Western Continental Margins of India,Andaman-Sumatra Arc/Trench in the Bay of Bengal, and the Makran coast in the northern Arabian Sea. Initially, we received 13 research papers related to the theme...

  6. Foraminifera and paleoenvironment of the Plio-Pleistocene Kallithea Bay section, Rhodes, Greece: Evidence for cyclic sedimentation and shallow-water sapropels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tine Lander; Thomsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Nearly 250 species of benthic foraminifera have been identified from the Plio-Pleistocene strata of the Kallithea Bay section on the eastern coast of Rhodes. The section comprises an overall transgressive succession ranging from fluviatile and brackish-water gravel at the base to fine-grained dee...

  7. Modelling the response of Placentia Bay to hurricanes Igor and Leslie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhimin; Han, Guoqi; de Young, Brad

    2017-04-01

    A three-dimensional, baroclinic, finite-volume ocean model (FVCOM) is used to examine hurricane induced responses in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland. Hurricane Igor (2010) and Hurricane Leslie (2012) made landfall within 100 km of the mouth of the bay, with the former to the eastern side and the latter on the western side. The model results have reasonable agreement with field observations on sea level, near-surface currents and sea surface temperature (SST). During landfall the two hurricanes cause the opposite shifts in inner bay circulation. Hurricane Igor overwhelms the mean inflow into the inner bay and shifts the currents to outflow. Hurricane Leslie reinforces the inflow into the inner bay. The peak storm surge is significantly influenced by local wind and air pressure during Leslie, accounting for 34% and 62% at the Argentia and St. Lawrence tide-gauge stations respectively, but predominately due to remote forcing entering the upstream eastern open boundary during Igor. There is a strong near-surface near-inertial response during Leslie, but a weak one during Igor. Stratification plays an important role in both generation and dissipation of near-inertial oscillation. A strong pre-storm stratification during Leslie favours the generation of near-inertia oscillation. Strong turbulent mixing induced on the right side of Leslie generates large vertical movement of the thermocline and thus contributes to strong near-inertia oscillation inside the mixed layer. The barotropic simulation results in a significant underestimation of near-surface currents and near-inertial oscillation. The baroclinic simulation shows a large increase of the current gradient in the vertical, as the first baroclinic mode in response to the hurricane forcing.

  8. Offshore observations of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis in the Mid-Atlantic United States using multiple survey methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaylyn K Hatch

    Full Text Available Little is known about the migration and movements of migratory tree-roosting bat species in North America, though anecdotal observations of migrating bats over the Atlantic Ocean have been reported since at least the 1890s. Aerial surveys and boat-based surveys of wildlife off the Atlantic Seaboard detected a possible diurnal migration event of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis in September 2012. One bat was sighted approximately 44 km east of Rehoboth Beach, Delaware during a boat-based survey. Eleven additional bats were observed between 16.9 and 41.8 km east of New Jersey, Delaware, and Virginia in high definition video footage collected during digital aerial surveys. Observations were collected incidentally as part of a large baseline study of seabird, marine mammal, and sea turtle distributions and movements in the offshore environment. Digital survey methods also allowed for altitude estimation for several of these bats at >100 m above sea level. These observations provide new evidence of bat movements offshore, and offer insight into their flight heights above sea level and the times of day at which such migrations may occur.

  9. Impact of Ganges–Brahmaputra interannual discharge variations on Bay of Bengal salinity and temperature during 1992–1999 period

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fabien Durand; Fabrice Papa; Atiqur Rahman; Sujit Kumar Bala

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the impact of monthly Ganges–Brahmaputra river discharge variations on Bay of Bengal salinity and temperature during the period 1992–1999. The Ganges–Brahmaputra river discharge is characterized by a well-defined seasonal cycle with strong interannual variations. The highest/lowest yearly peak discharge occurs in summer 1998/summer 1992, with 1998 value amounting to twice that of 1992. This river discharge is then used to force an ocean general circulation model. Our main result is that the impact of these rivers on the variability of Bay of Bengal sea surface salinity is strong in the northern part, with excess run-off forcing fresh anomalies, and vice versa. Most of the years, the influence of the interannual variability of river discharge on the Bay salinity does not extend south of ∼10° N. This stands in contrast with the available observations and is probably linked to the relatively coarse resolution of our model. However, the extreme discharge anomaly of 1998 is exported through the southern boundary of the Bay and penetrates the south-eastern Arabian Sea a few months after the discharge peak. In response to the discharge anomalies, the model simulates significant mixed-layer temperature anomalies in the northern Bay of Bengal. This has the potential to influence the climate of the area. From our conclusions, it appears necessary to use a numerical model with higher resolution (both on the horizontal and vertical) to quantitatively investigate the upper Bay of Bengal salinity structure.

  10. Delaware basin/Central basin platform margin: The development of a subthrust deep-gas province in the Permian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, W.J. (Mobil Oil Corp., Midland, TX (USA)); Ting, S.C. (Mobil, Farmers Branch, TX (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A deep-gas-prone province was identified along the Delaware basin/Central Basin platform margin, a margin conventionally interpreted to be bounded by high-angle normal or high-angle reverse structures. Redefinition of the tectonic style between the Delaware basin and the adjacent platform resulted in the identification of this Delaware basin/Central Basin platform subthrust province and a giant prospect within it. Definition of a giant-sized gas prospect in northern Pecos County, Texas, revealed that portions of this margin may be characterized by shingled, low-angle, eastward-dipping, basement involved thrust faults. Interpretations suggest that hidden, subthrust footwall structures may trend discontinuously for greater than 100 mi along this structural margin. Subthrust footwall structures formed as basinal buttress points for the Central Basin platform to climb over the Delaware basin. In this area, structural relief of over 19,000 ft over a 10-mi width is believed due to stacking of low-angle thrust sheets. Seismic resolution of this subthrust margin has been complexed by allochtonous hanging-wall gravity-glide blocks and folds and by velocity changes in overlying syn- and posttectonic sediments associated with basin-to-shelf lithofacies changes. Statistical studies indicate that this deep-gas province has a play potential of greater than 10 tcf of gas, with individual prospect sizes exceeding 1 tcfg. The prospects defined along this trend are deep (approximately 20,000 ft) subthrust structural traps that are indigenously sourced and reservoired by dual-matrix porosity. Vitrinite supported maturation modeling suggests that these subthrust structures formed prior to catagenic conversion of the oldest source rocks to oil and later to gas. Tectonically fractured Ordovician Ellenburger and Devonian sediments are considered the principal reservoirs. Shales overlying reservoir intervals form vertical seals.

  11. Invasive Species Guidebook for Department of Defense Installations in the Delaware River Basin: Identification, Control, and Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    wildflowers and their related organisms. Fig buttercup’s early growth period allows it to become well established before native spring plants begin...pest of waterways from coastal Virginia to Florida and west to Texas, with a disjunct population in California . It exhibits both aquatic and...University of California -Davis database, and Washington State Department of Ecology. 112 INVASIVE SPECIES GUIDEBOOK FOR DOD INSTALLATIONS IN THE DELAWARE

  12. The Timber Resources of Delaware. A Report on tbe Forest survey made by the U.S. Forest Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland H. Ferguson; Roland H. Ferguson

    1959-01-01

    This is a report on the findings of the first comprehensive survey of the timber resources of Delaware. It describes, as of 1957, the area and condition of the forest land, the volume of standing timber, the annual growth and mortality of the forest growing stock, and the extent of timber cutting. The survey made by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,...

  13. 基性岩油气储层白CO2封存潜力及可行性初探——以下辽河坳陷青龙台辉绿岩油气藏为例%POTENTIAL CAPACITY AND FEASIBILITY OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS OF BASALTIC ROCKS: EXAMPLE FROM THE QINGLONGTAI DIABASE HYDROCARBON RESERVOIR IN THE EASTERN SAG OF XIALIAOHE DEPRESSION,BOHAI BAY BASIN,EAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震宇; 吴昌志; 季峻峰; 陈振岩; 陈旸; 李军; 杨光达; 顾连兴

    2011-01-01

    The Liaohe oilfield, situated in Xialiaohe Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China, is famous for their igneous-related hydrocarbon reservoirs. The Qinglongtai diabase hydrocarbon reservoir, located in the central part of the eastern sag of the depression, covers an area of 1.3km2, with a proven oil geological reserve of 750, 000 tons and an output of 31.96 t of oil and current amount of 7856m3 of gas per day. In this paper,we analyze the geological features and reservoir characteristics of Qinglongtai diabase hydrocarbon reservoir. Combined with mineral and chemical compositions of four diabase core samples, we evaluate the feasibility of CO2 sequestration in petroleum reservoirs of basaltic rocks, and then estimate the CO2 storage capacity of minerals and oil and gas reservoir of the Qinglongtai diabase hydrocarbon reservoir. Our results show that reservoir spaces and minerals which suffer carbonation easily are favorable spots for CO2 sequestration, while the cap rocks can prevent the emission of CO2,and the stability of hydrocarbon reservoir can guarantee the safety of CO2 injection ,and should be an ideal target for CO2 sequestration. Estimates of theoretical capacity for CO2 storage assume that all the pore space freed up by the production of recoverable hydrocarbon reserves will be replaced by CO2. Therefore the theoretical storage capacity of oil and gas reservoirs can be estimated using most recent reserve databases from the Liaohe oilfield. Based on the principle of water-CO2-rock reaction, the capacity of the marie minerals in diabase for CO2 sequestration can also be calculated. According to the preliminary calculation, potential mineral capacity for reaction with CO2 is 46. 0 × 106 tons, while capacity of oil and gas reservoir to storage CO2 supercritical fluid is 4.90× 106 tons, and total capacity of CO2 sequestration for the Qinglongtai hydrocarbon reservoir is 18.4×l06 tons.%辉绿岩油气藏储层一方面含有大量可与CO2反应生成

  14. Wind-induced circulation in a large tropical lagoon: Chetumal Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, E.; Carrillo, L.

    2013-05-01

    Chetumal Bay is a large tropical lagoon located at the Mesoamerican Reef System. Windinduced circulation in this basin was investigated by using direct measurements of current, sea level, and 2d barotropic numerical model. Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP) transects covering the north of Chetumal Bay during two campaigns September 2006 and March 2007 were used. The 2d barotropic numerical model was ROMs based and wind forced. Wind information was obtained from a meteorological station located at ECOSUR Chetumal. Sea level data was collected from a pressure sensor deployed in the lagoon. A seasonal pattern of circulation was observed. From observations, during September 2006, a northward flow was shown in most part of the bay and a southward flow in the eastern coast was observed with velocities ranged from 6 cm s-1 to 36 cm s-1. In March 2007, the current pattern was more complex; divergences and converges were identified. The dominant circulation was northward in eastern portion, and southward in the central and western zone. The average current speed was 6 cm s-1 with maximum values of 26 -34 cm s-1. During September 2006 predominant wind was easternsoutheastern and during March 2007, northerly wind events were recorded. Sea level amplitude responded quickly to changes in the magnitude and direction of the wind. Results of sea level and circulation from the 2d barotropic numerical model agreed with observations at first approximation.

  15. Bayes reconstruction of missing teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff

    2008-01-01

     We propose a method for restoring the surface of tooth crowns in a 3D model of a human denture, so that the pose and anatomical features of the tooth will work well for chewing. This is achieved by including information about the position and anatomy of the other teeth in the mouth. Our system...... contains two major parts: A statistical model of a selection of tooth shapes and a reconstruction of missing data. We use a training set consisting of 3D scans of dental cast models obtained with a laser scanner, and we have build a model of the shape variability of the teeth, their neighbors...... regularization of the log-likelihood estimate based on differential geometrical properties of teeth surfaces, and we show general conditions under which this may be considered a Bayes prior.Finally we use Bayes method to propose the reconstruction of missing data, for e.g. finding the most probable shape...

  16. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  17. Probability Theory without Bayes' Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriques, Samuel G.

    2014-01-01

    Within the Kolmogorov theory of probability, Bayes' rule allows one to perform statistical inference by relating conditional probabilities to unconditional probabilities. As we show here, however, there is a continuous set of alternative inference rules that yield the same results, and that may have computational or practical advantages for certain problems. We formulate generalized axioms for probability theory, according to which the reverse conditional probability distribution P(B|A) is no...

  18. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  19. CORPORATE LAW - MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS - DELAWARE COURT OF CHANCERY IMPOSES REVLON DUTIES ON BOARD OF DIRECTORS IN MIXED CASH-STOCK STRATEGIC MERGER. - In re Smurfit-Stone Container Corp. Shareholder Litigation, No. 6164-VCP, 2011 WL 2028076 (Del. Ch. May 24, 2011)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    In Revlon Inc v. MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings Inc, the Delaware Supreme Court held that, when a Delaware corporation sells itself for cash, its directors are transformed "from defenders of the corporate bastion to auctioneers...

  20. Zooplankton Biomass Data from Prince William Sound, Icy Bay and Yakutat Bay, Alaska 2010-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes zooplankton biomass from Prince William Sound, Icy Bay and Yakutat Bay, Alaska. Zooplankton were sampled with a ring net (0.6 m diameter with...

  1. Lithospheric Architecture Beneath Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, R. W.; Miller, M. S.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches 􏰂350 km thick but is thinner (􏰂200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  2. Simulation of Pollutant Transport in Marmaris Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lale BALAS

    2001-01-01

    The circulation pattern and the pollutant transport in the Marmaris Bay are simulated by the developed three-dimensional baroclinic model. The Marmaris Bay is located at the Mediterranean Sea coast of Turkey. Since the sp ring tidal range is typically 20~30 cm, the dominant forcing for the circulation and water exchange is due to the wind action. In the Marmaris Bay, there is sea outfall discharging directly into the bay, and that threats the bay water quality significantly. The current patterns in the vicinity of the outfall have been observed by tracking drogues which are moved by currents at different water depths. In the simulations of pollutant transport, the coliforms-counts is used as the tracer.The model provides realistic predictions for the circulation and pollutant transport in the Marmaris Bay. The transport model component predictions well agree with the results of a laboratory model study.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF COASTAL CONDITIONS TO TSUNAMI INUNDATION OF BIMA BAY, WEST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhicara Yudhicara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Area along the coast that includes the territorial waters of the Bima Bay, West Nusa Tenggara, is prone to tsunamis, evidenced by the historical tsunamis record in 1815 due to the volcanic eruption of Tambora, 1818, 1836 and 1992 caused by earthquakes associated with tectonic system in the north of the island of Sumbawa, and 1892 were sourced from a distant source. Based on the coastal characteristics, the research area was divided into four types of beaches, namely: Steep rocky beach; Coastal walled plain; Flat coastal mangroves; and Flat sandy beaches. According to the lateral measurement, houses were built in the plains with a minimum height difference of 0.04 m at Rababuntu beach and a maximum of 22.63 m in New Asakota area. The settlement closest distance to the coastline is 10.3 m in Rababuntu, while the farthest extent is at Kawananta 194.58 m from the shoreline. The local bathymetry range between 1 and 42.5 m, where the inside of the very shallow waters of the Bay of Bima, gradually steeper at the mouth of the bay to the open sea. This conditions will influence the wave when entering the bay. It will come with large enough speed at the mouth of the bay, spread along the coastal waters of the eastern and continue spreading to all parts with the diminishing velocity, but the height increasing when it reaches shallow water, especially in the waters of the western Gulf of Bima. Several factors can affect the amount of risk that would be caused by the tsunami, in the research area include are: (1 The research area is located in an enclosed bay; (2 The local sea floor depths around the bay is relatively shallow waters; (3 Coastal characteristics of the research area is dominated by a gently sloping beach morphology with low relief, especially in the area of ??Bajo, Rababuntu and Bontokape and other beaches in the city of Bima; (4 Residential location very close to the shoreline; (5 Minimal vegetation cover; and (6 The presence of the

  4. Spectral aerosol optical depths over Bay of Bengal and Chennai: I—measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, S.; Jayaraman, A.

    A cruise experiment to study the aerosol optical characteristics was conducted in February-March 2001 over the Bay of Bengal, a data void region. An analysis of aerosol optical depths (AODs) measured onboard Sagar Kanya shows that the AODs are higher when compared to those measured over the west coast of India and the Arabian Sea. The mean AODs at 0.5 μm over the Bay of Bengal are in the range of 0.2-0.7, and are found to show a variation of about 40-50% in the wavelength region of 0.4- 0.85 μm. The mean wavelength exponent α over the Bay of Bengal is found to be 1.80, higher than the Arabian Sea value of 1.46, indicating a relatively higher concentration of submicron size particles. The mean Ångström coefficient β, which represents the columnar aerosol loading, over the Bay of Bengal is found to be 0.10. Measurements of AODs, made before and after the cruise in Chennai, an urban station located on the eastern coast of India, show higher values compared to the Bay of Bengal data. The mean α for Chennai is found to be 1.53, which is lower than the Bay of Bengal value while the mean β is higher at 0.18. While a higher α value indicates the dominance of smaller size particles over Bay of Bengal, a higher β and a higher AOD at all wavelengths indicate the dominance of both bigger and smaller particles over Chennai. A comparison of AODs obtained over a coastal station Trivandrum, located on the southwest coast of India, during March 2001 showed that in the smaller wavelength range the Chennai AODs are higher while above 0.6 μm the AODs are comparable. The day-to-day variations of AODs measured at Chennai are less significant when compared to Bay of Bengal and are below 10%. As Chennai is an urban, industrial and a well-populated city, and is a constant source of aerosol particles, there are lesser day-to-day variations in the AOD, while over the Bay of Bengal the air masses come from different source regions carrying aerosols of different chemical and

  5. LAND STREAMER SEISMIC DATA FROM NORTHERN DELAWARE: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR IMAGING AQUIFERS IN SUBURBAN AREAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, C. C.; McLaughlin, P. P.; McGeary, S. E.; Sargent, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Potomac Formation includes the most important confined aquifers in the Coastal Plain of northern Delaware. Development and a growing suburban population are increasing demand for groundwater in the area, making accurate assessment of groundwater water supply increasingly important. Previous studies of subsurface geology indicate that the Potomac Formation is characterized by laterally discontinuous fluvial sand bodies, making it difficult to precisely delineate the distribution and geometry of the aquifer facies based on well correlations alone. A 20-km high-resolution seismic reflection dataset was collected using a land-streamer system in 2008 to constrain subsurface stratigraphy between disparate well locations. The data were collected along roadways in an area of mixed development that includes suburban housing tracts, farmlands, and large industry. A 152-m-deep continuous-cored test hole was drilled in the summer of 2009 adjacent to one of the lines and a full suite of borehole geophysical logs obtained. The land-streamer data are compared to a 3-km dataset collected also in 2008 using conventional methods on farmland in the northern part of the study area. The land streamer system proved to be more effective than conventional seismic reflection methods in this area. Several advantages are evident for the land streamer: 1) overall, the conventional dataset has a higher S/N, 2) on average, collecting data with the land streamer system is four times faster, and 3) the land streamer lines can be longer and therefore more continuous than the conventional lines in a developed area. The land-streamer system has minor disadvantages: traffic control, traffic noise, and in some cases a need for larger crews. Regardless, the land streamer dataset is easier to process, of higher quality, and more cost effective. The final depth images from the land streamer data indicate that the minimum and maximum depths imaged are ~18 m and ~ 268m, with a resolution of ~4 m. This

  6. Bridging the GAPS from Space: A Research/Educational Partnership in the Upper Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown de Colstoun, E.; Robin, J.; Minelli, S.; Katsaros, M.; Peterec, I.; Sandt, K.

    2006-05-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program is currently developing scientific protocols to inventory and monitor the natural resources of 270 park units at the national level. These are aimed at providing critical tools needed by park managers for effective decision-making regarding the management and stewardship of the resources they are charged with protecting. We are currently developing a satellite-based regional land cover and land use monitoring protocol that addresses the immediate needs of the NPS I&M. This is a pilot project that examines land cover/use changes in and around the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River and Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area national parks from Landsat data for the period 1984 to 2005, in one the fastest growing regions in the country. The products resulting from the application of the protocols are then used to guide the simulation of land cover/use changes within a simple Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) model called GAPS in order to better understand the consequences of the measured land cover/use change on the water and energy cycles of the parks and surrounding areas. The data needed for product validation and model parameterization are being acquired with the assistance of students and educators from area schools using protocols established through the GLOBE program. Through focused workshops organized in collaboration with NPS educational specialists and PA regional educational service agencies called Intermediate Units, and participation in hands-on field measurement campaigns, students and educators are learning about satellite remote sensing interpretation, land cover classification, and how to measure/monitor changes in land cover/use in their communities. Students will also assist in the model simulations using the data they acquire in the field. This partnership between the Principal Investigator, the NPS, Intermediate Units and area students and educators is

  7. 33 CFR 80.1114 - San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1114 San Pedro Bay—Anaheim Bay,...

  8. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This... with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31, 2013. DATES: This rule is...

  9. 75 FR 73121 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... of Neskowin, Oregon. Neskowin Marsh incorporates unique freshwater wetland and bog habitats and... Fish and Wildlife Service Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos... prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for the Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz...

  10. 78 FR 39610 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA... temporary safety zones upon the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay for the annual Port of San Diego... Sector San Diego, Coast Guard; telephone 619-278-7261, email d11marineeventssd@uscg.mil . If you have...

  11. 78 FR 29289 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA... establish four temporary safety zones upon the navigable waters of San Diego ] Bay for the Port of San Diego... Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Diego; telephone (619) 278-7261, email John.E.Bannon@uscg.mil . If...

  12. Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chesapeake Information Management System (CIMS), designed in 1996, is an integrated, accessible information management system for the Chesapeake Bay Region....

  13. Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning: Implications for Helping Children With Mathematics Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C; Resnick, Ilyse; Rodrigues, Jessica; Hansen, Nicole; Dyson, Nancy

    2016-08-09

    The goal of the present article is to synthesize findings to date from the Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning. The study followed a large cohort of children (N = 536) between Grades 3 and 6. The findings showed that many students, especially those with diagnosed learning disabilities, made minimal growth in fraction knowledge and that some showed only a basic grasp of the meaning of a fraction even after several years of instruction. Children with low growth in fraction knowledge during the intermediate grades were much more likely to fail to meet state standards on a broad mathematics measure at the end of Grade 6. Although a range of general and mathematics-specific competencies predicted fraction outcomes, the ability to estimate numerical magnitudes on a number line was a uniquely important marker of fraction success. Many children with mathematics difficulties have deep-seated problems related to whole number magnitude representations that are complicated by the introduction of fractions into the curriculum. Implications for helping students with mathematics difficulties are discussed.

  14. Sensitivity of water resources in the Delaware River basin to climate variability and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Mark A.; Wolock, David M.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the greenhouse effect, projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels might cause global warming, which in turn could result in changes in precipitation patterns and evapotranspiration and in increases in sea level. This report describes the greenhouse effect; discusses the problems and uncertainties associated with the detection, prediction, and effects of climate change; and presents the results of sensitivity analyses of how climate change might affect water resources in the Delaware River basin. Sensitivity analyses suggest that potentially serious shortfalls of certain water resources in the basin could result if some scenarios for climate change come true . The results of model simulations of the basin streamflow demonstrate the difficulty in distinguishing the effects that climate change versus natural climate variability have on streamflow and water supply . The future direction of basin changes in most water resources, furthermore, cannot be precisely determined because of uncertainty in current projections of regional temperature and precipitation . This large uncertainty indicates that, for resource planning, information defining the sensitivities of water resources to a range of climate change is most relevant . The sensitivity analyses could be useful in developing contingency plans for evaluating and responding to changes, should they occur.

  15. Monitoring the dispersion of ocean waste disposal plumes from ERTS-1 and Skylab. [Delaware coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Myers, T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. About forty miles off the Delaware coast is located the disposal site for waste discharged from a plant processing titanium dioxide. The discharge is a greenish-brown; 15-20% acid liquid which consists primarily of iron chlorides and sulfates. The barge which transports this waste has a 1,000,000 gallon capacity and makes approximately three trips to the disposal site per week. ERTS-1 MSS digital tapes are being used to study the dispersion patterns and drift velocities of the iron-acid plume. Careful examination of ERTS-1 imagery disclosed a fishhook-shaped plume about 40 miles east of Cape Henlopen caused by a barge disposing acid wastes. The plume shows up more strongly in the green band than in the red band. Since some acids have a strong green component during dumping and turn slowly more brownish-reddish with age, the ratio of radiance signatures between the green and red bands may give an indication of how long before the satellite overpass the acid was dumped. Enlarged enhancements of the acid waste plumes, prepared from the ERTS-1 MSS digital tapes aided considerably in studies of the dispersion of the waste plume. Currently acid dumps are being coordinated with ERTS-1 overpasses.

  16. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Ten. Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Delaware governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Delaware. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  18. The Levels and Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH Contamination in Bottom Sediments in Manila Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangeline Santiago

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration levels of 18 PAH compounds extracted from 19 bottom sediments from the Limay Coast and 16 bottom sediments from the coast along Metro Manila and Cavitc Province of Manila Bay were determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.The PAH contamination, the levels of other non-PAH petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. and total organic content in the sediments were assessed in relation to the location and depth of the sampling sites. The PAH concentrations and the levels of other petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediments showed that the spatial distribution of PAH and other hydrocarbon contamination in Manila Bay is largely dependent on the proximity of the sediment deposition site to known point sources of pollution. On the western side, the highest levels of PAH contamination normalized to % TOC (1.29 X 104 at Ll2, 1.28 x 104 at Ll6, 0.55 at Ll3, and 0.54 at Ll5 were obtained from sediments collected at deposition sites near the outfall of the Petron Oil Refinery. On the eastern side. sediments located at the effiuent zones of the Paranaque and Malabon Rivers showed excessively higher levels of PAH normalized to % TOC (3.32 x 104 and 2.87 x 104: respectively compared to those obtained from other sites in the area.The PAH contamination in the sediments from Manila Bay is dominated by alkylated naphthalenes and phenanthrenes which are associated with petrogenic sources. This indicates that the surface sediments in Manila Bay are ex-posed to chronic contamination of petroleum hydrocarbons introduced mainly by direct spillage on the western side and by urban run-off on the eastern side.

  19. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section 117.1101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon...

  20. Integrating Federal and State data records to report progress in establishing agricultural conservation practices on Chesapeake Bay farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, W. Dean; Devereux, Olivia H.; Claggett, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In response to the Executive Order for Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration (E.O. #13508, May 12, 2009), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) took on the task of acquiring and assessing agricultural conservation practice data records for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs, and transferred those datasets in aggregated format to State jurisdictional agencies for use in reporting conservation progress to the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership (CBP Partnership). Under the guidelines and regulations that have been developed to protect and restore water-quality in the Chesapeake Bay, the six State jurisdictions that fall within the Chesapeake Bay watershed are required to report their progress in promoting agricultural conservation practices to the CBP Partnership on an annual basis. The installation and adoption of agricultural best management practices is supported by technical and financial assistance from both Federal and State conservation programs. The farm enrollment data for USDA conservation programs are confidential, but agencies can obtain access to the privacy-protected data if they are established as USDA Conservation Cooperators. The datasets can also be released to the public if they are first aggregated to protect farmer privacy. In 2012, the USGS used its Conservation Cooperator status to obtain implementation data for conservation programs sponsored by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) for farms within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Three jurisdictions (Delaware, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) used the USGS-provided aggregated dataset to report conservation progress in 2012, whereas the remaining three jurisdictions (Maryland, New York, and Virginia) used jurisdictional Conservation Cooperator Agreements to obtain privacy-protected data directly from the USDA. This report reviews the status of conservation data sharing between the USDA and the various jurisdictions, discusses the

  1. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe...... an instance are conditionally independent given the class of that instance. When this assumption is violated (which is often the case in practice) it can reduce classification accuracy due to “information double-counting” and interaction omission. In this paper we focus on a relatively new set of models......, termed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models. Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models extend the modeling flexibility of Naïve Bayes models by introducing latent variables to relax some of the independence statements in these models. We propose a simple algorithm for learning Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models...

  2. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  3. Assimilation of HF Radar Observations in the Chesapeake-Delaware Bay Region Using the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) and the Four-Dimensional Variational (4DVAR) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Forget G, Kohl A, Terrill E. Assessing 40 -VAR for dynamical mapping of coastal high-frequency radar in San Diego . Dyn Allnos Oceans 2009;48:175-97...Mon Weather Rev 20 14;142(4): 1509- 24. 10. Roarty H, Glenn S, Kohut J, Gong D, Handel E, Rivera E, et at. Operation and applica- tion of a regional

  4. Vulnerability of Population and Transportation Infrastructure at the East Bank of Delaware Bay Due to Coastal Flooding in Sea-Level Rise Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    and area of study 144 Nat Hazards (2013) 69:141–163 123 meteorological conditions: no storm, a 10-year storm, and a 50-year storm. The situation with...May and Cumberland Counties (US Census Bureau 2013) Table 2 Population 2010 in municipals for Cape May and Cumberland counties (US Census Bureau 2013...larger the region containing runoff flooding will be. The value of b depends on the rainfall intensity and topography of the study region. In this

  5. ABUNDANCE AND BIOMASS ESTIMATES OF COMMERCIAL FISH SPECIES USING HYDRO-ACOUSTIC METHOD IN JAKARTA BAY, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria Ansri Utama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jakarta Bay is known as a fishing ground area for several traditional types of fishing gears. The fishery has important role to provide nutrition, sustainable livelihoods, and poverty alleviation around the area. Abundance estimation of commercial fish species in the Jakarta Bay is essential particularly comparable of series data in order to evaluate the potential changes in distribution and abundance. The purpose of this study is analyzing the distribution of commercial fish species in the Jakarta Bay and estimate their abundance and biomass. Fish assemblages were concentrated in the eastern and central part of bay. Apparently salinity and DO associated with rich density of phytoplankton and zooplankton may explain the spatial variability of short-bodied mackerel and pony fish, while assemblages pattern of spiny hairtail and croaker might be driven by the availability of small planktivorous fish as their diet. The most abundant commercial fish in the Jakarta Bay are Short-bodied mackerel (Rastrelliger brachysoma, Ponyfish (Leiognathus sp., Croaker (Johnius sp. dan Spiny hairtail (Lepturacanthus savala respectively. Furthermore, biomass estimates for those species showed short-bodied mackerel has the highest biomass followed by spiny hairtail, croaker, and ponyfish.

  6. Multivariate statistical analysis of water quality and phytoplankton characteristics in Daya Bay, China, from 1999 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Shao Wang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed seasonal physicochemical and phytoplanktondata collected at 12 marine monitoring stations in Daya Bay from1999 to 2002. Cluster analysis based on water quality and phytoplanktonparameters measured at the 12 stations could be grouped intothree clusters: cluster I - stations S1, S2, S7 and S11 in thesouthern part and the north-eastern part of Daya Bay; clusterII - stations S5, S6, S9, S10 and S12 in the central and north-easternparts of Daya Bay; cluster III - stations S3, S4 and S8 in the cageculture areas in the south-western part of Daya Bay and in thenorth-western part of the Bay near Aotou harbor. Bivariate correlationsbetween phytoplankton density and the major physical and nutrientfactors were calculated for all stations. Factor analysis showsthat there were high positive loadings of pH, TIN and the ratioof TIN to PO4-P in the three clusters, which indicates thatall the stations in the three clusters were primarily groupedaccording to their respective nutrient conditions.

  7. Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Fish Tissue and Bed Sediment in the Delaware River Basin, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, and Delaware, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Brightbill, Robin; Bilger, Michael

    2006-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program activities in the Delaware River Basin (DELR), samples of fish tissue from 21 sites and samples of bed sediment from 35 sites were analyzed for a suite of organic compounds and trace elements. The sampling sites, within subbasins ranging in size from 11 to 600 square miles, were selected to represent 5 main land-use categories in the DELR -forest, low-agricultural, agricultural, urban, and mixed use. Samples of both fish tissue and bed sediment were also collected from 4 'large-river' sites that represented drainage areas ranging from 1,300 to 6,800 square miles, areas in which the land is used for a variety of purposes. One or more of the organochlorine compounds-DDT and chlordane metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs), and dieldrin- were detected frequently in samples collected over a wide geographic area. One or more of these compounds were detected in fish-tissue samples from 92 percent of the sites and in bed-sediment samples from 82 percent of the sites. Concentrations of total DDT, total chlordanes, total PCBs, and dieldrin in whole white suckers and in bed sediment were significantly related to urban/industrial basin characteristics, such as percentage of urban land use and population density. Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs)-total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total phthalates, and phenols- were detected frequently in bed-sediment samples. All three types of SVOCs were detected in samples from at least one site in each land-use category. The highest detection rates and concentrations typically were in samples from sites in the urban and mixed land-use categories, as well as from the large-river sites. Concentrations of total PAHs and total phthalates in bed-sediment samples were found to be statistically related to percentages of urban land use and to population density in the drainage areas represented by the sampling sites. The samples of fish tissue and bed

  8. Taxonomic composition, abundance and biomass of mesozooplankton in the Zhelin Bay-an estuary with intensive aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qiaoxiang; LIN Xiaoping; HE Xin; KELSO W E; HUANG Changjiang

    2006-01-01

    The Zhelin Bay is an estuary that supports intensive aquaculture in South China. Aside from traditional nutrient inputs derived from waste water and agriculture, the increased intensification of aquaculture has accelerated eutrophication during the past decade, jeopardizing aquacultural production. Annual variations of mesozooplankton in the Zhelin Bay were described, providing baseline data for long-term ecological studies. The taxonomic composition, abundance and biomass of mesozooplankton were studied monthly from July 2001 to July 2002 at 19 stations. Collections yielded 73 taxa, including 60 species of copepods, three species of cladocerans, as well as tunicates, chaetognaths, polychaetes, medusae, ostracods, rotatori, amphipods, planktonic mollusks, pelagic larvae, and planktonic shrimps. The Zhelin Bay was dominated by small mesozooplankton, with 76% of the species smaller than 1.4 mm, and 97% of the individuals smaller than 1.0 mm. Dominant species (Paracalanus crassirostris, Oithona brevicornis,and Penilia avirostris) accounting for 60% of the total abundance were less than 0.6 mm in body length. Species diversity, biomass, and total abundance of mesozooplankton were greater in the samples collected outside the bay than inside the bay. Samples from the outer and eastern boundaries of the bay had greater biomass, diversity, and abundance than those from the inner and western boundaries. Total abundance and biomass had a unimodal annual pattern and were the greatest in August 2001 when water temperature was maximum, and the least in February 2002 when water temperature was minimum. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that temperature, turbidity, nutrients and salinity were the main determinants of spatial and temporal distributions of mesozooplankton in the Zhelin Bay, and six distinct zones were identified across the 19 sampling stations.

  9. Element patterns in feathers of nestling Black-Crowned Night-Herons, Nycticorax nycticorax L., from four colonies in Delaware, Maryland, and Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Golden, Nancy H.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2008-01-01

    The pattern of elements in nestling black-crowned night-heron feathers from a rural Minnesota colony differed from colonies in industrialized regions of Maryland and Delaware. Except for chromium, however, the differences did not reflect the elements associated with waters and sediments of the Maryland and Delaware colonies. Therefore, elements in water and sediment do not necessarily bioaccumulate in night-heron feathers in relation to potential exposure. Although trace element patterns in feathers indicated differences among geographical locations, they did not separate all locations well and their usefulness as an indicator of natal colony location may be limited.

  10. Sediment Deposition, Erosion, and Bathymetric Change in Central San Francisco Bay: 1855-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregoso, Theresa A.; Foxgrover, Amy C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2008-01-01

    rates of net sediment change. Central San Francisco Bay experienced periods of both deposition and erosion, but overall experienced a net gain in sediment from 1855 to 1979 of approximately 42x106 m3 (0.33x106 m3 / yr). Over this same time period, 92 percent of the tidal marsh and 69 percent of the intertidal mudflats were lost as human activity increased and the shorefront was developed. During the first time period, from 1855 to 1895, Central San Francisco Bay was erosional, losing roughly 2x106 m3 / yr of sediment. The next time period was depositional, with a net gain of approximately 3x106 m3 / yr of sediment from 1895 to 1947. The last time period, from 1947 to 1979, was erosional again, losing roughly 2x106 m3 / yr of sediment. Sedimentation patterns also varied spatially. The northern part of Central San Francisco Bay was depositional during all change periods while the eastern region alternated between erosional and depositional. Central San Francisco Bay sedimentation patterns have also been strongly impacted by anthropogenic activities, such as dredging and dredge disposal, borrow pits, and sand mining. For example, bathymetric change at a borrow pit created near Bay Farm Island sometime between the 1947 and 1979 surveys indicates roughly 25x106 m3 of sediment was removed from the system.

  11. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: a case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58–1.311, NSE = 0.99–0.97, d = 0.98–0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = −0.10 to −1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed

  12. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: A case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-11-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58-1.311, NSE = 0.99-0.97, d = 0.98-0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = -0.10 to -1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed well; the

  13. Inferring the biogeographic origins of inter-continental disjunct endemics using a Bayes-DIVA approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AJ HARRIS; Jun WEN; Qiu-Yun (Jenny) XIANG

    2013-01-01

    The arcto-Tertiary relictual flora is comprised of many genera that occur non-contiguously in the temperate zones of eastern Asia,Europe,eastern North America,and westem North America.Within each distributional area,species are typically endemic and may thus be widely separated from closely related species within the other areas.It is widely accepted that this common pattern of distribution resulted from of the fragmentation of a once morecontinuous arcto-Tertiary forest.The historical biogeographic events leading to the present-day disjunction have often been investigated using a phylogenetic approach.Limitations to these previous studies have included phylogenetic uncertainty and uncertainty in ancestral range reconstructions.However,the recently described Bayes-DIVA method handles both types of uncertainty.Thus,we used Bayes-DIVA analysis to reconstruct the stem lineage distributions for 185 endemic lineages from 23 disjunct genera representing 17 vascular plant families.In particular,we asked whether endemic lineages within each of the four distributional areas more often evolved from (1) widespread ancestors,(2) ancestors dispersed from other areas,or (3) endemic ancestors.We also considered which of these three biogeographic mechanisms may best explain the origins of arcto-Tertiary disjunct endemics in the neotropics.Our results show that eastern Asian endemics more often evolved from endemic ancestors compared to endemics in Europe and eastern and western North America.Present-day endemic lineages in the latter areas more often arose from widespread ancestors.Our results also provide anecdotal evidence for the importance of dispersal in the biogeographic origins of arcto-Tertiary species endemic in the neotropics.

  14. Eastern Siberia terrain intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1942-01-01

    The following folio of terrain intelligence maps, charts and explanatory tables represent an attempt to bring together available data on natural physical conditions such as will affect military operations in Eastern Siberia. The area covered is the easternmost section of the U.S.S.R.; that is the area east of the Yenisei River. Each map and accompanying table is devoted· to a specialized set of problems; together they cover such subjects as geology, construction materials, mineral fuels, terrain, water supply, rivers and climate. The data is somewhat generalized due to the scale of treatment as well as to the scarcity of basic data. Each of the maps are rated as to reliability according to the reliability scale on the following page. Considerable of the data shown is of an interpretative nature, although precise data from literature was used wherever possible. The maps and tables were compiled  by a special group from the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Intelligence Branch of the Office, Chief of Engineers, War Department.

  15. Host-feeding patterns of suspected West Nile virus mosquito vectors in Delaware, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Jack B; Williams, Gregory M

    2005-06-01

    Paucity of data on host-feeding patterns and behavior of 43 mosquito species that are reported as suspected West Nile virus (WN) vectors has limited full evaluation of their vectorial capacity. Recent studies addressing this issue need additional confirmation and should also be expanded to include collections of species or subpopulations attracted to humans. We used 4 types of collection methods to collect mosquitoes, including omnidirectional Fay-Prince traps, Centers for Disease Control-type light traps, gravid traps, and human-landing collections. Mosquitoes were collected during 2 full WN transmission seasons in 2001 and 2002, at 9 different sites across Delaware. We collected from various habitats, including salt marshes, brackish water areas, woodlands, a tire dump, a racetrack, and a mushroom farm. Blood-meal analyses were performed on parous mosquitoes by using a sandwich-type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We tested primarily for 5 common host species, including rabbits, dogs, deer, horses, and chickens. We obtained substantial host-feeding data from 8 mosquito species. The most mammalophilic species were Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, and Aedes albopictus, whereas the most ornithophilic species was Culex pipiens. Aedes albopictus was the most anthropophilic species, whereas Ae. vexans and Cq. perturbans exhibited relatively low attraction to humans. Culex salinarius was the species with the most diverse host-feeding activity. Based on feeding behavior, Cx. pipiens and Cx. salinarius appear to be the most likely bridge vectors. Other species may have opportunities to be bridge vectors under special circumstances, as discussed in the paper.

  16. Legacies in Urban Stormwater Management: A Case Study of a Gully Network in Northern Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, C. E.; Claessens, L.; Santangelo, T.; Soroka, A.

    2013-12-01

    Increased stormwater runoff from urban surfaces could lead to erosion and gully formation in areas of steep topographic relief. To reduce these impacts, stormwater management practices are currently required through federal and state stormwater regulations. Before 1990, stormwater was not regulated and would often be directly routed into adjacent lands. Particularly in areas of steep terrain, this would potentially induce erosion and gully formation. This study reports on a wide-scale examination of gully formation from urban stormwater, using a model that examines the increase of runoff from impervious cover and the potential for gully formation. Here we report on a case study for an area on the University of Delaware campus. The area is located in the Piedmont region and drains into the White Clay Creek, a National Wild and Scenic River. Pre-regulation development in this area has led to the formation of a series of gullies with distinct morphological characteristics. This study examines in detail the reach-scale and contributing area controls on gully formation. We conducted a GIS analysis of the local hydrologic network, determined peak flow of each gully, developed a gully susceptibility model that we compared with the site characteristics, and sampled the sediment concentrations of the gully flow during storm events. We also characterized historical land use data and performed field observations for our analysis. We found that the development changed the hydrology of the site, altering the contributing areas of each gully. In addition, field observations revealed distinct rates of incision across gullies as well as along different sections of each gully. We also found that the gullies are still actively eroding, contributing large sediment loads to the downstream White Clay Creek. Our research provides a better understanding of the local and regional factors governing erosion and gully formation. The model that we created will help to identify sites that

  17. The role of surface and subsurface processes in keeping pace with sea level rise in intertidal wetlands of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Bennion, Vicki; Grinham, Alistair; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    Increases in the elevation of the soil surfaces of mangroves and salt marshes are key to the maintenance of these habitats with accelerating sea level rise. Understanding the processes that give rise to increases in soil surface elevation provides science for management of landscapes for sustainable coastal wetlands. Here, we tested whether the soil surface elevation of mangroves and salt marshes in Moreton Bay is keeping up with local rates of sea level rise (2.358 mm y-1) and whether accretion on the soil surface was the most important process for keeping up with sea level rise. We found variability in surface elevation gains, with sandy areas in the eastern bay having the highest surface elevation gains in both mangrove and salt marsh (5.9 and 1.9 mm y-1) whereas in the muddier western bay rates of surface elevation gain were lower (1.4 and -0.3 mm y-1 in mangrove and salt marsh, respectively). Both sides of the bay had similar rates of surface accretion (~7–9 mm y-1 in the mangrove and 1–3 mm y-1 in the salt marsh), but mangrove soils in the western bay were subsiding at a rate of approximately 8 mm y-1, possibly due to compaction of organic sediments. Over the study surface elevation increments were sensitive to position in the intertidal zone (higher when lower in the intertidal) and also to variation in mean sea level (higher at high sea level). Although surface accretion was the most important process for keeping up with sea level rise in the eastern bay, subsidence largely negated gains made through surface accretion in the western bay indicating a high vulnerability to sea level rise in these forests.

  18. Particle tracking in the eastern Irish Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Judith; Amoudry, Karen; Phillips, Hazel; Brown, Jenny

    2017-04-01

    The unstructured grid finite volume community ocean model (FVCOM) has been applied to the west coast of the UK, in order to examine the circulation and transport in the eastern Irish Sea. Tides, freshwater river discharge and meteorological forcing for the year 2008 were used to force the baroclinic hydrodynamic circulation. The hydrodynamics of the Irish Sea are largely governed by the semidiurnal tide, which has a tidal range reaching 10m at Liverpool is the eastern Irish Sea. Tidal currents reach 1 ms-1 over the majority of the area, which means that much of Irish Sea is vertically well-mixed throughout the year period, with a few areas affected by seasonal stratification, such as the cyclonic gyre in the deep channel off Ireland in the western Irish Sea which experiences thermal stratification in summer. In Liverpool Bay, horizontal density gradients, created through freshwater influence from estuaries along the coastline interact with the strong tidal current to produce a phenomenon known as strain-induced periodic stratification (SIPS). There are water quality concerns due to the tendency to eutrophication, as the area is often exposed to industrial pollution and excess nutrients from effluent waters and rivers. There is also concern about the fate of radioactive materials discharged from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant since 1952. In addition to the present discharges from the site, it has been estimated that it is likely that all of the americium and plutonium and around 10% of the caesium entering the Irish Sea were originally assimilated into deposits of silt and mud sediments; this material may be regarded as a considerable potential source of radionuclides. Determining suspended sediment pathways in this region is important in order to identify potential areas vulnerable to deposition of radioactive material, particularly as radionuclide uptake onto sediments takes place in the offshore 'mud patch' before returning to the coast to be deposited

  19. Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L; Ramana, M.V; Subrahmanyam, V; Krishna, K.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.

    -1 J. Ind. Geophys. Union (2000) Vol. 4, No.2, pp. 185-190 Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal K.V.L.N.S.Sarma, M.V.Ramana1 , V.Subrahmanyam1 K.S.Krishna1, T.Ramprasad1 and Maria Desa1 National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre 176... of magnetic anomalies, Ramana et al. (1994) inferred some fracture zones. Due to huge sediment overburden in the Bay of Bengal surface expression of these 185 K.V.L.N.S.Sarma et al. Figure la. Bathymetry map of the Bay of Bengal. Contour interval 500 m...

  20. Analysis and Applications API eBay

    OpenAIRE

    ŠIK, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis "Analysis and Applications API eBay" is to create application based on the use of Application Programming Interface (API), released by eBay. The theoretical part is focused on explaining the fundamental issue of Internet auctions, e-commmerce, comparsion of auction portals and term "trust" as a key attribute of e-commerce. The practical part is based on analyse of principles and instruments of eBay API and create an application based on this interface. The ...

  1. THz identification and Bayes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolnikov, Andre

    2017-05-01

    THz Identification is a developing technology. Sensing in the THz range potentially gives opportunity for short range radar sensing because THz waves can better penetrate through obscured atmosphere, such as fog, than visible light. The lower scattering of THz as opposed to the visible light results also in significantly better imaging than in IR spectrum. A much higher contrast can be achieved in medical trans-illumination applications than with X-rays or visible light. The same THz radiation qualities produce better tomographical images from hard surfaces, e.g. ceramics. This effect comes from the delay in time of reflected THz pulses detection. For special or commercial applications alike, the industrial quality control of defects is facilitated with a lower cost. The effectiveness of THz wave measurements is increased with computational methods. One of them is Bayes modeling. Examples of this kind of mathematical modeling are considered.

  2. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Darren J

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...

  3. 76 FR 37641 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Half Moon Bay, off of Pillar Point Harbor beach, Half Moon Bay, CA in support of the Independence Day...

  4. 78 FR 62293 - Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Oyster Bay near Oyster Bay, NY for the...

  5. Description of gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; John L. Chin,; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-27

    Seventy-two gravity cores were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990, 1991, and 2000 from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, California. The gravity cores collected within San Pablo Bay contain bioturbated laminated silts and sandy clays, whole and broken bivalve shells (mostly mussels), fossil tube structures, and fine-grained plant or wood fragments. Gravity cores from the channel wall of Carquinez Strait east of San Pablo Bay consist of sand and clay layers, whole and broken bivalve shells (less than in San Pablo Bay), trace fossil tubes, and minute fragments of plant material.

  6. New technique to isolate anthocyanins from Delaware grapes by forming an aluminium complex using a Discovery DPA-6S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Takayuki; Koi, Yoriko; Tamura, Hirotoshi

    2015-01-01

    An aluminium complex of crude Delaware grape anthocyanins, bearing an ortho-dihydroxyl group on the B ring and/or a p-coumaroyl group as an ester with flavocommelin, was formed and isolated by ethanol precipitation. Using a Discovery DPA-6S short column, selected anthocyanins were isolated to give cyanidin 3-glucoside (Cy3G, 48.2% yield with 95.2% purity) and cyanidin 3-(6-O-p-coumaroylglucoside) (Cy3-pC·G, 44.9% yield with 91.4% purity) from natural Delaware grape skin extracts without ODS-HPLC column chromatography. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the complex pigment was 3.4 ± 0.10 μmol TE/mg. Moreover, isolated pure anthocyanins from the complex pigment showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activity [4.5 ± 0.08 μmol TE/mg (Cy3G) and 4.5 ± 0.04 μmol TE/mg (Cy3-pC·G), (p<0.05)].

  7. Effects of climatic change and climatic variability on the Thornthwaite moisture index in the Delaware River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Thornthwaite moisture index is useful as an indicator of the supply of water in an area relative to the demand under prevailing climatic conditions. This study examines the effects of long-term changes in climate (temperature and precipitation) on the Thornthwaite moisture index in the Delaware River basin. Temperature and precipitation estimates for doubled-CO2 conditions derived from three general circulation models (GCMs) are used to study the response of the moisture index for steady-state doubled-CO2 conditions and for gradual changes from present to doubled-CO2 conditions. Results of the study indicate that temperature and precipitation under doubled-CO2 conditions will cause the Thornthwaite moisture index to decrease, implying significantly drier conditions in the Delaware River basin than currently exist. The amount of decrease depends, however, on the GCM climatic-change scenario used. The results also indicate that future changes in the moisture index will be partly masked by natural year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation. ?? 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  8. Climate signals in Late Holocene sediments from Maxwell Bay and English Strait (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, H. Christian; Schröder, Simon; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    Climate fluctuations of the past two millennia such as the Little Ice Age and the Medieval Warm Period are reported mainly from the Northern Hemisphere. Evidence from Antarctica is comparably sparse and reveals regional and temporal differences, which are particularly evident at the western and eastern sides of the Antarctic Peninsula. High-resolution coastal-marine sediment cores from the northernmost tip of the West Antarctic Peninsula reveal periods dominated by finer sediments between periods that lack the finer sediment component. In Maxwell Bay this fine sediment (grain size mode around 16 µm) has been traced back to sediment related to the occurrence of glacial meltwater. It was found in sheltered places and meltwater creeks of Potter Cove, a small tributary fjord to Maxwell Bay. In the sediment core this sediment occurs predominantly between 600 and 1250 AD (Medieval Warm Period) whereas it is only sparsely affecting the record between 1450 and 1900 AD (Little Ice Age). The temporal pattern is very similar to global-temperature reconstructions and even resembles temperature reconstructions from the Northern Hemisphere. To avoid local effects that may occur in Maxwell Bay more sediment cores were taken from bays and straits further south of King George Island during Cruise PS97 of RV "Polarstern" in 2016. A core from English Strait reveals completely different sedimentary conditions with no detectable meltwater signal (16 µm). However, the mean grain size record resembles that of the cores from Maxwell Bay. The lack of a clear-cut meltwater sediment class as it occurs further north is likely the result of a much smaller hinterland (Greenwich and Robert islands) when compared to Maxwell Bay between Nelson Island and the much bigger King George Island where glaciers and ice sheets discharge large quantities of very turbid meltwater directly into the bay. It is concluded that during the warmer climate periods a large amount of meltwater was released along the

  9. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  10. Corpus ChristiEast Matagorda Bay 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of habitat utilization were compared among transplanted and natural Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Halls Lake area of Chocolate Bay in the Galveston...

  11. South Bay Salt Ponds : Initial stewardship plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will operate and maintain the South Bay Salt Ponds under this Initial Stewardship...

  12. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, located in the city of Virginia Beach, Virginia, comprises 4,608 acres of barrier beach, fresh and brackish marsh, small...

  13. Historical methyl mercury in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — San Francisco Bay, California is considered a mercury-impaired watershed. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in water and sediment as well as fish and...

  14. Contours--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is...

  15. Watermass structure in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; Rao, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Suryanarayana, A.; Babu, M.T.

    The distributions of temperature, salinity thermosteric anomaly, density flux function and stability along 88 degrees E in the Bay of Bengal are presented. The surface salinities showed strong gradients both horizontally and vertically in northern...

  16. FL BAY SPECTROUT-POPULATION STATUS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  17. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  18. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  19. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  20. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  1. Habitat--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  2. 2004 Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data over an area along the coast of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron,...

  3. Bathymetry--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California (raster data file is included in...

  4. Bay Scallop Spawning, Survival, Growth Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bay Scallops are selected and cultured according to criteria of growth and survival. Morphological attributes have also been selected to assess heretibility....

  5. Hydrogeomorphic Regions in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Generalized lithology (rock type) and physiography based on geologic formations were used to characterize hydrgeomorphic regions (HGMR) within the Chesapeake Bay...

  6. Saginaw Bay Restoration Assessment Degree Flowlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This represents the flowline network in Sagina Bay Restoration Assessment (SBRA). It is attributed with the number of disconnections between the reach and the...

  7. Differential productivity of Bristol Bay spawning grounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bristol Bay escapement surveys covering a period of several years show that, irrespective of fluctuations in total numbers on a system, certain grounds display a...

  8. Chesapeake Bay Bald Eagle Nesting Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chesapeake Bay population of breeding bald eagles increased dramatically in 1981 in not only the number of breeding pairs but in the number of nests hatching...

  9. Mercury distribution in the Jiaozhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Jiaozhou Bay is a semi-enclosed bay, Qingdao, China. More than 10 rivers enter the bay, of which most take wastes from industrial and household discharges. According to historical seasonal investigations in May, August, November 1979, the content,distribution, and development of heavy metal mercury are analyzed as a historical reference. Water samples were taken from the surface and bottom. The results revealed clear seasonal and regional changes in both horizontal and vertical directions, and close relation with major discharging rivers and plankton production. The seawater was polluted more seriously in spring than in any other seasons.However, it was the cleanest in winter during which least waste was input with low plankton production. According to historical data,the state of mercury pollution in seawater was worsening in the period, and has been improving in recent years. Terrestrial contamination was the main reason for mercury pollution in the bay.

  10. Pb distribution and translocation in Jiaozhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The trends of distribution, translocation and seasonal change of heavy metal Pb were studied based on the surface and bottom water sampling in Jiaozhou Bay in 1979, and compared with those in 1990's. The results showed that the source of Pb in the bay was from wastewater and sewage in the east of Jiaozhou Bay from ocean vessels. Pb concentration was higher in spring and lower in summer and autumn, and remained stable through sedimentation in the bottom layer. The overall water quality was good in 1970's. Compared with the environmental monitoring data of 1995-1999, Pb pollution had become serious. Therefore, more efforts should be made to protect the bay from Pb pollution.

  11. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  12. San Antonio Bay 1986-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effect of salinity on utilization of shallow-water nursery habitats by aquatic fauna was assessed in San Antonio Bay, Texas. Overall, 272 samples were collected...

  13. Bayes Factors via Savage-Dickey Supermodels

    CERN Document Server

    Mootoovaloo, A; Kunz, M

    2016-01-01

    We outline a new method to compute the Bayes Factor for model selection which bypasses the Bayesian Evidence. Our method combines multiple models into a single, nested, Supermodel using one or more hyperparameters. Since the models are now nested the Bayes Factors between the models can be efficiently computed using the Savage-Dickey Density Ratio (SDDR). In this way model selection becomes a problem of parameter estimation. We consider two ways of constructing the supermodel in detail: one based on combined models, and a second based on combined likelihoods. We report on these two approaches for a Gaussian linear model for which the Bayesian evidence can be calculated analytically and a toy nonlinear problem. Unlike the combined model approach, where a standard Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) struggles, the combined-likelihood approach fares much better in providing a reliable estimate of the log-Bayes Factor. This scheme potentially opens the way to computationally efficient ways to compute Bayes Factors in...

  14. 2002 Willapa Bay LiDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA contracted with Spencer B. Gross, Inc. (SBG) to obtain airborne LiDAR of Willapa Bay, Washington during low tide conditions. The LiDAR data was processed to...

  15. Back Bay Wilderness study : Public hearing analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an analysis of the public hearing that took place on May 15th, 1974 which discussed the Back Bay Wilderness. The analysis shows that there is...

  16. Back Bay Stormwater Monitoring Project Final Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this project was to assess the influx of nutrients and solid material into Back Bay and its tributaries during and immediately following such storm...

  17. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a collection of regulations pertaining to the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Most of the regulations concern motor vehicle use on the refuge.

  18. Back Bay Wilderness study : Proposed recommendations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a list of recommendations for the proposed wilderness area on the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. The recommendations come as a result of the...

  19. Bathymetry--Offshore Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore Half Moon Bay, California (raster data file is included in...

  20. Biscayne Bay Florida Bottlenose Dolphin Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of small vessel based studies of bottlenose dolphins that reside within Biscayne Bay, Florida, adjacent estuaries and nearshore...