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  1. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  2. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two main phases. The original objectives of the reservoir-characterization phase of the project were (1) to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two representative fields of the Delaware Mountain Group, Geraldine Ford and Ford West, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, (2) to chose a demonstration area in one of the fields, and (3) to simulate a CO 2 flood in the demonstration area

  3. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  4. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Mendez, Daniel L.

    2001-05-08

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover oil more economically through geologically based field development. This project was focused on East Ford field, a Delaware Mountain Group field that produced from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 9160, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO2 flood was being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  5. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Malik, M.A.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. This project involves reservoir characterization of two Late Permian slope and basin clastic reservoirs in the Delaware Basin, West Texas, followed by a field demonstration in one of the fields. The fields being investigated are Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields in Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Project objectives are divided into two major phases, reservoir characterization and implementation. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project were to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of the two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field. Reservoir characterization utilized 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once reservoir characterized was completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} at the northern end of the Ford Geraldine unit was chosen for reservoir simulation. This report summarizes the results of the second year of reservoir characterization.

  6. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.

    1999-06-08

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  7. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew G. Cole; George B. Asquith; Jose I. Guzman; Mark D. Barton; Mohammad A. Malik; Shirley P. Dutton; Sigrid J. Clift

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based enhanced oil recovery. The study focused on the Ford Geraldine unit, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). Reservoirs in this and other Delaware Mountain Group fields have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Outcrop analogs were studied to better interpret the depositional processes that formed the reservoirs at the Ford Geraldine unit and to determine the dimensions of reservoir sandstone bodies. Facies relationships and bedding architecture within a single genetic unit exposed in outcrop in Culberson County, Texas, suggest that the sandstones were deposited in a system of channels and levees with attached lobes that initially prograded basinward, aggraded, and then turned around and stepped back toward the shelf. Channel sandstones are 10 to 60 ft thick and 300 to 3,000 ft wide. The flanking levees have a wedge-shaped geometry and are composed of interbedded sandstone and siltstone; thickness varies from 3 to 20 ft and length from several hundred to several thousands of feet. The lobe sandstones are broad lens-shaped bodies; thicknesses range up to 30 ft with aspect ratios (width/thickness) of 100 to 10,000. Lobe sandstones may be interstratified with laminated siltstones.

  8. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2001-09-28

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. EPA requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard and must consider inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  9. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. EPA requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard and must consider inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  10. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-21

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  11. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  12. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  13. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  14. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  15. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  16. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  17. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  18. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, west Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual progress report, March 31, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Hovorka, S.D.; Cole, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based field development. Reservoirs in the Delaware Mountain Group have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Detailed correlations of the Ramsey sandstone reservoirs in Geraldine Ford field suggest that lateral sandstone continuity is less than interpreted by previous studies. The degree of lateral heterogeneity in the reservoir sandstones suggests that they were deposited by eolian-derived turbidites. According to the eolian-derived turbidite model, sand dunes migrated across the exposed shelf to the shelf break during sea-level lowstands and provided well sorted sand for turbidity currents or grain flows into the deep basin.

  19. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir-characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Technical progress is summarized for: geophysical characterization; reservoir characterization; outcrop characterization; and recovery technology identification and analysis.

  20. Late Guadalupian evolution of the Delaware Basin: insights from stable isotope and trace element geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.; Kerans, C.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate characterization of mixed carbonate and evaporite deposits requires an understanding of basin-scale physical, chemical, and biological processes. In these settings, carbonate geochemistry often responds to changes in the prevailing conditions in the water column. It follows that the geochemical record presents a potential aid for interpretation of depositional systems provided that it is relatively free of diagenetic overprint. This is seldom the case in shallow-water settings as processes such as meteoric diagenesis and early dolomitization obscure or erase the original geochemical signal. Fine grained deep-water sediments are more likely to retain their original geochemical characteristics. If reliable shelf-to-basin correlations can be established, then basinal deposits provide critical data not only for the interpretation of deep water environments, but overall basin evolution as well. This study examines variations in trace element and stable isotope geochemistry from the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Interpretation of geochemical data within a pre-existing shelf-to-basin stratigraphic framework suggests a link between basin water chemistry and sea level changes during the entirety of the Guadalupian. This link is supported analogies to modern silled basins where changes in sea level and thus recharge across the sill can control nutrient input, circulation, and bottom water oxygenation. In light of these relationships, the filling of the Delaware Basin with basin-centered evaporites at the end of the Guadalupian likely represents the culmination of a more gradual, cyclic evolution towards basin restriction. Ongoing work will continue to focus on tying regional-scale changes in basin water chemistry to the combined geochemical and physical sedimentological records.

  1. Isotope shifts in the late Permian of the Delaware Basin, Texas, precisely timed by varved sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magaritz, M.; Oregon Univ., Eugene; Anderson, R.Y.; Holser, W.T.; Saltzmann, E.S.; Garber, J.

    1983-01-01

    Closely spaced samples (285 in number) of varved sediments from the Upper Permian in Delaware Basin, Texas, have been analyzed for delta 13 Csub(carb), delta 13 Csub(org), delta 18 Osub(carb), Csub(org), Csub(carb) and calcite/dolomite. delta 13 C records a dramatic rise from -2.8 to + 5.7per mille in only 4400 years, detected in three sections across the basin, extrapolating smoothly through a 600-year interruption by a local (west side of the basin) fresh-water inflow evidenced by low delta 18 O. This continuity and low Csub(org) within the basin, both indicate that the excess net deposition of Csub(org), necessary to generate the rise in delta 13 C, took place in the ocean external to the Delaware Basin, Correlation with similar records from the Zechstein Basin suggest that the event was world-wide, although this poses obvious difficulties for the carbon cycle. The rate of rise of delta 13 C, and its sustained high level, must imply conversions of oxidized carbon to reduced carbon that are very large depending on which reservoirs were involved. (orig.)

  2. Deep-seated salt dissolution in the Delaware basin, Texas and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Patterns of salt dissolution in the Delaware Basin are related to the bedrock geometry and hydrology that developed following uplift, tilting, and erosion in the late Cenozoic, and the greatest volume of salt has been removed since that time. During the Permian, some salt was dissolved from the top of the Castile Formation before deposition of the Salado Formation and from the top of the Salado before deposition of the Rustler Formation. In addition, some salt dissolution occurred after the Permian and before the Cretaceous. Post-uplift surface dissolution has progressed across the Delaware Basin from south to north and west to east and generally down the regional dip. Deep-seated dissolution has occurred around the margin of the basin where the Capitan Limestone aquifer is in contact with the Permian evaporites and within the basin where selective dissolution in the lower Salado has undercut the overlying salt beds of the middle and upper Salado. Dissolution has not advanced down regional dip uniformly but has left outliers of salt and has progressed selectively into structurally predisposed areas. This selective advance has significance for the stability of the U.S. Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

  3. Water quality trends in the Delaware River Basin (USA) from 1980 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Gerald J; Homsey, Andrew R; Belden, Andrew C; Sanchez, Jessica Rittler

    2011-06-01

    In 1940, the tidal Delaware River was "one of the most grossly polluted areas in the United States." During the 1950s, water quality was so poor along the river at Philadelphia that zero oxygen levels prevented migration of American shad leading to near extirpation of the species. Since then, water quality in the Delaware Basin has improved with implementation of the 1961 Delaware River Basin Compact and 1970s Federal Clean Water Act Amendments. At 15 gages along the Delaware River and major tributaries between 1980 and 2005, water quality for dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, and sediment improved at 39%, remained constant at 51%, and degraded at 10% of the stations. Since 1980, improved water-quality stations outnumbered degraded stations by a 4 to 1 margin. Water quality remains good in the nontidal river above Trenton and, while improved, remains fair to poor for phosphorus and nitrogen in the tidal estuary near Philadelphia and in the Lehigh and Schuylkill tributaries. Water quality is good in heavily forested watersheds (>50%) and poor in highly cultivated watersheds. Water quality recovery in the Delaware Basin is coincident with implementation of environmental laws enacted in the 1960s and 1970s and is congruent with return of striped bass, shad, blue crab, and bald eagle populations.

  4. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  5. Groundwater quality in the Delaware and St. Lawrence River Basins, New York, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 10 production and domestic wells in the Delaware River Basin in New York and from 20 production and domestic wells in the St. Lawrence River Basin in New York from August through November 2010 to characterize groundwater quality in the basins. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria.

  6. Regional well-log correlation in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.; Shaffer, S.E.

    1985-09-01

    Although well logs provide the most complete record of stratigraphy and structure in the northern Delaware Basin, regional interpretations of these logs generate problems of ambiguous lithologic signatures and on-hole anomalies. Interpretation must therefore be based on log-to-log correlation rather than on inferences from single logs. In this report, logs from 276 wells were used to make stratigraphic picks of Ochoan horizons (the Rustler, Salado, and Castile Formations) in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin. Current log correlation suggests that: (1) the Castile is characterized by lateral thickening and thinning; (2) some Castile thinnings are of Permian age; (3) irregular topography in the Guadalupian Bell Canyon Formation may produce apparent structures in the overlying Ochoan units; and (4) extensive dissolution of the Salado is not apparent in the area of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) site. 13 refs., 37 figs

  7. Estimated use of water in the Delaware River Basin in Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Susan S.; Linsey, Kristin S.; Ludlow, Russell A.; Reyes, Betzaida; Shourds, Jennifer L.

    2016-11-07

    The Delaware River Basin (DRB) was selected as a Focus Area Study in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the USGS National Water Census. The National Water Census is a USGS research program that focuses on national water availability and use and then develops new water accounting tools and assesses water availability at both the regional and national scales. One of the water management needs that the DRB study addressed, and that was identified by stakeholder groups from the DRB, was to improve the integration of state water use and water-supply data and to provide the compiled water use information to basin users. This water use information was also used in the hydrologic modeling and ecological components of the study.Instream and offstream water use was calculated for 2010 for the DRB based on information received from Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Water withdrawal, interbasin transfers, return flow, and hydroelectric power generation release data were compiled for 11 categories by hydrologic subregion, basin, subbasin, and subwatershed. Data availability varied by state. Site-specific data were used whenever possible to calculate public supply, irrigation (golf courses, nurseries, sod farms, and crops), aquaculture, self-supplied industrial, commercial, mining, thermoelectric, and hydroelectric power withdrawals. Where site-specific data were not available, primarily for crop irrigation, livestock, and domestic use, various techniques were used to estimate water withdrawals.Total water withdrawals in the Delaware River Basin were calculated to be about 7,130 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 2010. Calculations of withdrawals by source indicate that freshwater withdrawals were about 4,130 Mgal/d (58 percent of the total) and the remaining 3,000 Mgal/d (42 percent) were from saline water. Total surface-water withdrawals were calculated to be 6,590 Mgal/d, or 92 percent of the total; about 54 percent (3,590 Mgal/d) of surface

  8. The Cost of Clean Water in the Delaware River Basin (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald J. Kauffman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Delaware River has made a marked recovery in the half-century since the adoption of the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC Compact in 1961 and passage of the Federal Clean Water Act amendments during the 1970s. During the 1960s, the DRBC set a 3.5 mg/L dissolved oxygen criterion for the river based on an economic analysis that concluded that a waste load abatement program designed to meet fishable water quality goals would generate significant recreational and environmental benefits. Scientists with the Delaware Estuary Program have recently called for raising the 1960s dissolved oxygen criterion along the Delaware River from 3.5 mg/L to 5.0 mg/L to protect anadromous American shad and Atlantic sturgeon, and address the prospect of rising temperatures, sea levels, and salinity in the estuary. This research concludes, through a nitrogen marginal abatement cost (MAC analysis, that it would be cost-effective to raise dissolved oxygen levels to meet a more stringent standard by prioritizing agricultural conservation and some wastewater treatment investments in the Delaware River watershed to remove 90% of the nitrogen load by 13.6 million kg N/year (30 million lb N/year for just 35% ($160 million of the $449 million total cost. The annual least cost to reduce nitrogen loads and raise dissolved oxygen levels to meet more stringent water quality standards in the Delaware River totals $45 million for atmospheric NOX reduction, $130 million for wastewater treatment, $132 million for agriculture conservation, and $141 million for urban stormwater retrofitting. This 21st century least cost analysis estimates that an annual investment of $50 million is needed to reduce pollutant loads in the Delaware River to raise dissolved oxygen levels to 4.0 mg/L, $150 million is needed for dissolved oxygen levels to reach 4.5 mg/L, and $449 million is needed for dissolved oxygen levels to reach 5.0 mg/L.

  9. Dynamic Management of Releases for the Delaware River Basin using NYC's Operations Support Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Wang, L.; Murphy, T.; Muralidhar, D.; Tarrier, B.

    2011-12-01

    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has initiated design of an Operations Support Tool (OST), a state-of-the-art decision support system to provide computational and predictive support for water supply operations and planning. Using an interim version of OST, DEP and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) have developed a provisional, one-year Delaware River Basin reservoir release program to succeed the existing Flexible Flow Management Program (FFMP) which expired on May 31, 2011. The FFMP grew out of the Good Faith Agreement of 1983 among the four Basin states (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware) that established modified diversions and flow targets during drought conditions. It provided a set of release schedules as a framework for managing diversions and releases from New York City's Delaware Basin reservoirs in order to support multiple objectives, including water supply, drought mitigation, flood mitigation, tailwaters fisheries, main stem habitat, recreation, and salinity repulsion. The provisional program (OST-FFMP) defines available water based on current Upper Delaware reservoir conditions and probabilistic forecasts of reservoir inflow. Releases are then set based on a set of release schedules keyed to the water availability. Additionally, OST-FFMP attempts to provide enhanced downstream flood protection by making spill mitigation releases to keep the Delaware System reservoirs at a seasonally varying conditional storage objective. The OST-FFMP approach represents a more robust way of managing downstream releases, accounting for predicted future hydrologic conditions by making more water available for release when conditions are forecasted to be wet and protecting water supply reliability when conditions are forecasted to be dry. Further, the dynamic nature of the program allows the release decision to be adjusted as hydrologic conditions change. OST simulations predict that this

  10. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Delaware River, Delhi, New York, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Breaker, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5-mile reach of the West Branch Delaware River through the Village and part of the Town of Delhi, New York, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Village of Delhi, the Delaware County Soil and Water Conservation District, and the Delaware County Planning Department. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the Federal Flood Inundation Mapper Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) referenced to the USGS streamgage at West Branch Delaware River upstream from Delhi, N.Y. (station number 01421900). In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model that had been used to produce the flood insurance rate maps for the most recent flood insurance study for the Town and Village of Delhi. This hydraulic model was used to compute 10 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft or near bankfull to 16 ft, which exceeds the stages that correspond to both the estimated 0.2-percent annual-exceedance-probability flood (500-year recurrence interval flood) and the maximum recorded peak flow. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model, which was derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with a 1.2-ft (0.61-ft root mean squared error) vertical accuracy and 3.3-ft (1-meter) horizontal resolution, to delineate the area flooded at each water level. A map that was produced using this method to delineate the inundated area for the flood that occurred on August 28, 2011, agreed well with highwater marks that had been located in the field using a

  11. Potential well yields from unconsolidated deposits in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolcott, Stephen W.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive groundwater protection plan, developed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in 1985, identified the need to delineate significant aquifers within the state. A map of the unconsolidated aquifers in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins was compiled from available data on the surficial geology and well yields. It delineates the significant unconsolidated aquifers and indicates the potential yield of wells that tap these aquifers. The potential well yield is categorized into three ranges: 100 gal/min. No yield range is given for till, but some large diameter or dug wells in till may yield up 10 gal/min. (Lantz-PTT)

  12. Pathogenic bacteria and microbial-source tracking markers in Brandywine Creek Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duris, Joseph W.; Reif, Andrew G.; Olson, Leif E.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2011-01-01

    The City of Wilmington, Delaware, is in the downstream part of the Brandywine Creek Basin, on the main stem of Brandywine Creek. Wilmington uses this stream, which drains a mixed-land-use area upstream, for its main drinking-water supply. Because the stream is used for drinking water, Wilmington is in need of information about the occurrence and distribution of specific fecally derived pathogenic bacteria (disease-causing bacteria) and their relations to commonly measured fecal-indicator bacteria (FIB), as well as information regarding the potential sources of the fecal pollution and pathogens in the basin. This study focused on five routinely sampled sites within the basin, one each on the West Branch and the East Branch of Brandywine Creek and at three on the main stem below the confluence of the West and East Branches. These sites were sampled monthly for 1 year. Targeted event samples were collected on two occasions during high flow and two occasions during normal flow. On the basis of this study, high flows in the Brandywine Creek Basin were related to increases in FIB densities, and in the frequency of selected pathogen and source markers, in the West Branch and main stem of Brandywine Creek, but not in the East Branch. Water exceeding the moderate fullbody-contact single-sample recreational water-quality criteria (RWQC) for Escherichia coli (E. coli) was more likely to contain selected markers for pathogenic E. coli (eaeA,stx1, and rfbO157 gene markers) and bovine fecal sources (E. hirae and LTIIa gene markers), whereas samples exceeding the enterococci RWQC were more likely to contain the same pathogenic markers but also were more likely to carry a marker indicative of human source (esp gene marker). On four sample dates, during high flow between October and March, the West Branch was the only observed potential contributor of selected pathogen and bovine source markers to the main stem of Brandywine Creek. Indeed, the stx2 marker, which indicates a highly

  13. Holocene depocenter migration and sediment accumulation in Delaware Bay: A submerging marginal marine sedimentary basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, C. H.; Knebel, H.J.; Kraft, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Holocene transgression of the Delaware Bay estuary and adjacent Atlantic coast results from the combined effect of regional crustal subsidence and eustasy. Together, the estuary and ocean coast constitute a small sedimentary basin whose principal depocenter has migrated with the transgression. A millenial time series of isopach and paleogeographic reconstructions for the migrating depocenter outlines the basin-wide pattern of sediment distribution and accumulation. Upland sediments entering the basin through the estuarine turbidity maximum accumulate in tidal wetland or open water sedimentary environments. Wind-wave activity at the edge of the tidal wetlands erodes the aggraded Holocene section and builds migrating washover barriers. Along the Atlantic and estuary coasts of Delaware, the area of the upland environment decreases from 2.0 billion m2 to 730 million m2 during the transgression. The area of the tidal wetland environment increases from 140 million to 270 million m2, and due to the widening of the estuary the area of open water increases from 190 million to 1.21 billion m2. Gross uncorrected rates of sediment accumulation for the tidal wetlands decrease from 0.64 mm/yr at 6 ka to 0.48 mm/yr at 1 ka. In the open water environments uncorrected rates decrease from 0.50 mm/yr to 0.04 mm/yr over the same period. We also present data on total sediment volumes within the tidal wetland and open water environments at specific intervals during the Holocene. 

  14. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin's moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers

  15. Sensitivity of water resources in the Delaware River basin to climate variability and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Mark A.; Wolock, David M.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the greenhouse effect, projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels might cause global warming, which in turn could result in changes in precipitation patterns and evapotranspiration and in increases in sea level. This report describes the greenhouse effect; discusses the problems and uncertainties associated with the detection, prediction, and effects of climate change; and presents the results of sensitivity analyses of how climate change might affect water resources in the Delaware River basin. Sensitivity analyses suggest that potentially serious shortfalls of certain water resources in the basin could result if some scenarios for climate change come true . The results of model simulations of the basin streamflow demonstrate the difficulty in distinguishing the effects that climate change versus natural climate variability have on streamflow and water supply . The future direction of basin changes in most water resources, furthermore, cannot be precisely determined because of uncertainty in current projections of regional temperature and precipitation . This large uncertainty indicates that, for resource planning, information defining the sensitivities of water resources to a range of climate change is most relevant . The sensitivity analyses could be useful in developing contingency plans for evaluating and responding to changes, should they occur.

  16. Tectonics in the Northwestern West Philippine Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Xianglong; Wu Shiguo; Shinjo Ryuichi

    2008-01-01

    The West Philippine basin (WPB) is a currently inactive marginal basin belonging to Philippine Sea plate, which has a complex formation history and various crust structures. Based on gravity, magnetic and seismic data, the tectonics in West Philippine basin is characterized by amagnma spreading stage and strike slip fractures. NNE trending Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone is a large fracture zone with apparent geomorphology and shows a right-handed movement. The results of joint gravity-magnetic-seismic inversion suggest that the Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone has intensive deformation and is a transform fault. Western existence of the NW trending fractures under Ryukyu Islands Arc is the main cause of the differences between south and north Okinawa Trough. The Urdaneta plateau is not a remained arc, but remnant of mantle plume although its lava chemistry is similar to oceanic island basalt (OIB).

  17. Evaporite dissolution relevant to the WIPP site, northern Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluation of the threat of natural dissolution of host evaporites to the integrity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico has taken into consideration (1) the volume of missing rock salt, (2) the occurrence (or not) of characteristic dissolution brines, (3) geomorphic features, some of which are unrelated to dissolution, and (4) the time intervals over which dissolution may have been active. Even under the assumption that all missing halite was originally present and has been removed by dissolution, there is no evidence of active preferential removal of the lower Salado Formation halite by any geologically reasonable process. The geologic record contains evidence of dissolution in the Triassic and Jurassic; to constrain all removal of basinal halite to the late Cenozoic yields an unrealistically high rate of removal. Application to the lower Salado of a stratabound mechanism known to be active in Nash Draw, a near-surface feature within the Basin, allows a minimum survival time of 2,500,000 years to be predicted for the subsurface facility for storage of radioactive waste at WIPP. This calculation is based on an analysis of all known dissolution features in the Delaware Basin, and takes into account the wetter (pluvial) climate during the past 600,000 years. 2 figures, 1 table

  18. K West basin isolation barrier leak rate test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehurst, R.; McCracken, K.; Papenfuss, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the procedure for performing the acceptance test on the two isolation barriers being installed in K West basin. This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals

  19. Urban and community forests of the Southern Atlantic region: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; and the District of Columbia by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry...

  20. Climate change effects on forests, water resources, and communities of the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will Price; Susan Beecher

    2014-01-01

    The Delaware River provides drinking water to 5 percent of the United States, or approximately 16.2 million people living in 4 states, 42 counties, and over 800 municipalities. The more than 1.5 billion gallons withdrawn or diverted daily for drinking water is delivered by more than 140 purveyors, yet constitutes less than 20 percent of the average daily withdrawals....

  1. National Dam Inspection Program. Ingham Creek (Aquetong Lake) Dam (NDI ID PA 00224, PA DER 9-49) Delaware River Basin, Ingham Creek, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Delaware River Basing Ingham Justif icaticn--- L Creek, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Do DEL-AWARE RIVER BASIN Availabilit T Co~es Avail and/or D...about 1.5H:IV and an unknown upstream slope below the water surface. The dam impounds a reservoir with a normal pool surface area of 12.4 acres and a...deep. It was once used to direct water to a mill downstream of the dam and is now in poor condition. The spillway Design Flood (SDF) chosen for this

  2. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 11, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Henry; Horn, Marilee A.

    1997-01-01

    Segment 11 consists of the States of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, West Virginia, and the Commonwealths of Pennsylvania and Virginia. All but West Virginia border on the Atlantic Ocean or tidewater. Pennsylvania also borders on Lake Erie. Small parts of northwestern and north-central Pennsylvania drain to Lake Erie and Lake Ontario; the rest of the segment drains either to the Atlantic Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico. Major rivers include the Hudson, the Delaware, the Susquehanna, the Potomac, the Rappahannock, the James, the Chowan, the Neuse, the Tar, the Cape Fear, and the Yadkin-Peedee, all of which drain into the Atlantic Ocean, and the Ohio and its tributaries, which drain to the Gulf of Mexico. Although rivers are important sources of water supply for many cities, such as Trenton, N.J.; Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, Pa.; Baltimore, Md.; Washington, D.C.; Richmond, Va.; and Raleigh, N.C., one-fourth of the population, particularly the people who live on the Coastal Plain, depends on ground water for supply. Such cities as Camden, N.J.; Dover, Del.; Salisbury and Annapolis, Md.; Parkersburg and Weirton, W.Va.; Norfolk, Va.; and New Bern and Kinston, N.C., use ground water as a source of public supply. All the water in Segment 11 originates as precipitation. Average annual precipitation ranges from less than 36 inches in parts of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia to more than 80 inches in parts of southwestern North Carolina (fig. 1). In general, precipitation is greatest in mountainous areas (because water tends to condense from moisture-laden air masses as the air passes over the higher altitudes) and near the coast, where water vapor that has been evaporated from the ocean is picked up by onshore winds and falls as precipitation when it reaches the shoreline. Some of the precipitation returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration (evaporation plus transpiration by plants), but much of it either flows overland into streams as

  3. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Dave Martin and Associates, Inc., Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, limits development with conventional drilling. Combinations of vertical and horizontal wells combined with selective completions are being evaluated to optimize production performance. Based on the production response of similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Draw Pool. A detailed reservoir model of pilot area was developed, and enhanced recovery options, including waterflooding, lean gas, and carbon dioxide injection, are being evaluated.

  4. Salt anticlines in the Castile-Salado evaporite sequence, northern Delaware Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.Y.; Powers, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Anticlines are more common around basin margin but are present in basin-center areas. Both Halite I and Halite II may have flowed but Halite I was movement more extensive. Depressions associated with anticlines may be due to either flowage or subsequent dissolution. Association with brine flows is common. Anticline probably was formed with mid-Cenozoic uplift and tilting of basin and with adjustments around reef margin

  5. Geohydrology and simulation of ground-water flow in the Red Clay Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania, and New Castle County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Karen L.; Reif, Andrew G.

    1993-01-01

    The 54-square-mile Red Clay Creek Basin, located in the lower Delaware River Basin, is underlain primarily by metamorphic rocks that range from Precambrian to Lower Paleozoic in age. Ground water flows through secondary openings in fractured crystalline rock and through primary openings below the water table in the overlying saprolite. Secondary porosity and permeability vary with hydrogeologic unit, topographic setting, and depth. Thirty-nine percent of the water-bearing zones are encountered within 100 feet of the land surface, and 79 percent are within 200 feet. The fractured crystalline rock and overlying saprolite act as a single aquifer under unconfined conditions. The water table is a subdued replica of the land surface. Local ground-water flow systems predominate in the basin, and natural ground-water discharge is to streams, comprising 62 to 71 percent of streamflow. Water budgets for 1988-90 for the 45-square-mile effective drainage area above the Woodale, Del., streamflow-measurement station show that annual precipitation ranged from 43.59 to 59.14 inches and averaged 49.81 inches, annual streamflow ranged from 15.35 to 26.33 inches and averaged 20.24 inches, and annual evapotranspiration ranged from 27.87 to 30.43 inches and averaged 28.98 inches. The crystalline rocks of the Red Clay Creek Basin were simulated two-dimensionally as a single aquifer under unconfined conditions. The model was calibrated for short-term steady-state conditions on November 2, 1990. Recharge was 8.32 inches per year. Values of aquifer hydraulic conductivity in hillside topographic settings ranged from 0.07 to 2.60 feet per day. Values of streambed hydraulic conductivity ranged from 0.08 to 26.0 feet per day. Prior to simulations where ground-water development was increased, the calibrated steady-state model was modified to approximate long-term average conditions in the basin. Base flow of 11.98 inches per year and a ground-water evapotranspiration rate of 2.17 inches per

  6. Analysis of Ignition Testing on K-West Basin Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Abrefah; F.H. Huang; W.M. Gerry; W.J. Gray; S.C. Marschman; T.A. Thornton

    1999-08-10

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from the N-Reactor have been stored underwater at the K-Basins in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The spent fuel has been stored in the K-East Basin since 1975 and in the K-West Basin since 1981. Some of the SNF elements in these basins have corroded because of various breaches in the Zircaloy cladding that occurred during fuel discharge operations and/or subsequent handling and storage in the basins. Consequently, radioactive material in the fuel has been released into the basin water, and water has leaked from the K-East Basin into the soil below. To protect the Columbia River, which is only 380 m from the basins, the SNF is scheduled to be removed and transported for interim dry storage in the 200 East Area, in the central portion of the Site. However, before being shipped, the corroded fuel elements will be loaded into Multi-Canister OverPacks and conditioned. The conditioning process will be selected based on the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) (WHC 1995), which was prepared on the basis of the dry storage concept developed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team (ITA 1994).

  7. Analysis of Ignition Testing on K-West Basin Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrefah, J.; Huang, F.H.; Gerry, W.M.; Gray, W.J.; Marschman, S.C.; Thornton, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from the N-Reactor have been stored underwater at the K-Basins in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The spent fuel has been stored in the K-East Basin since 1975 and in the K-West Basin since 1981. Some of the SNF elements in these basins have corroded because of various breaches in the Zircaloy cladding that occurred during fuel discharge operations and/or subsequent handling and storage in the basins. Consequently, radioactive material in the fuel has been released into the basin water, and water has leaked from the K-East Basin into the soil below. To protect the Columbia River, which is only 380 m from the basins, the SNF is scheduled to be removed and transported for interim dry storage in the 200 East Area, in the central portion of the Site. However, before being shipped, the corroded fuel elements will be loaded into Multi-Canister OverPacks and conditioned. The conditioning process will be selected based on the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) (WHC 1995), which was prepared on the basis of the dry storage concept developed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team (ITA 1994)

  8. Evaluating methods to establish habitat suitability criteria: A case study in the upper Delaware River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cole, Jeffrey C.; Talbert, Colin; Maloney, Kelly O.

    2016-01-01

    Defining habitat suitability criteria (HSC) of aquatic biota can be a key component to environmental flow science. HSC can be developed through numerous methods; however, few studies have evaluated the consistency of HSC developed by different methodologies. We directly compared HSC for depth and velocity developed by the Delphi method (expert opinion) and by two primary literature meta-analyses (literature-derived range and interquartile range) to assess whether these independent methods produce analogous criteria for multiple species (rainbow trout, brown trout, American shad, and shallow fast guild) and life stages. We further evaluated how these two independently developed HSC affect calculations of habitat availability under three alternative reservoir management scenarios in the upper Delaware River at a mesohabitat (main channel, stream margins, and flood plain), reach, and basin scale. In general, literature-derived HSC fell within the range of the Delphi HSC, with highest congruence for velocity habitat. Habitat area predicted using the Delphi HSC fell between the habitat area predicted using two literature-derived HSC, both at the basin and the site scale. Predicted habitat increased in shallow regions (stream margins and flood plain) using literature-derived HSC while Delphi-derived HSC predicted increased channel habitat. HSC generally favoured the same reservoir management scenario; however, no favoured reservoir management scenario was the most common outcome when applying the literature range HSC. The differences found in this study lend insight into how different methodologies can shape HSC and their consequences for predicted habitat and water management decisions. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. 78 FR 63972 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Water Quality Assessment Report AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice....us , with ``Water Quality Assessment 2014'' as the subject line; via fax to 609-883-9522; via U.S. Mail to DRBC, Attn: Water Quality Assessment 2014, P.O. Box 7360, West Trenton, NJ 08628-0360; via...

  10. Assessing potential impacts of a wastewater rapid infiltration basin system on groundwater quality: a delaware case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, A S; Sims, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Rapid infiltration basin systems (RIBS) are receiving increased interest for domestic wastewater disposal in rural areas. They rely on natural treatment processes to filter pollutants and use extremely high effluent loading rates, much greater than natural precipitation, applied to a small geographic area instead of disposal to surface water. Concerns exist today that adopting RIBS in areas with shallow groundwater and sandy soils may increase ground and surface water pollution. We conducted a field study of RIBS effects on N and P concentrations in soils and groundwater at Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware, where a RIBS designed and operated following USEPA guidance has been used for >25 yr. Site and wastewater characteristics (water table of 8 m, Fe- and Al-oxide coatings on soils, organic-rich effluent) were favorable for denitrification and P sorption; however, we found high P saturation, reduced soil P sorption capacity, and significant total P accumulation at depths >1.5 m, factors that could lead to dissolved P leaching. Very low soil inorganic N levels suggest that wastewater N was converted rapidly to NO-N and leached from the RIBS. Extensive groundwater monitoring supported these concerns and showed rapid offsite transport of N and P at concentrations similar to the effluent. Results suggest that high hydraulic loads and preferential flow led to flow velocities that were too large, and contact times between effluent and soils that were too short, for effective N and P attenuation processes. These findings indicate the need for better site characterization and facility designs to reduce and monitor contaminant loss from RIBS in similar settings. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Drainage areas of the Potomac River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Hunt, Michelle L.; Stewart, Donald K.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains data for 776 drainage-area divisions of the Potomac River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Potomac River and the Shenandoah River. Data, compiled in downstream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miles or larger within West Virginia and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits in river miles, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county, and the 7 1/2-minute quadrangle in which the point lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Potomac River Basin downstream of the confluence of the Shenandoah River at the State boundary is 9,367.29 square miles.

  12. Ground-water quality and its relation to hydrogeology, land use, and surface-water quality in the Red Clay Creek basin, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    The Red Clay Creek Basin in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Pennsylvania and Delaware is a 54-square-mile area underlain by a structurally complex assemblage of fractured metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks that form a water-table aquifer. Ground-water-flow systems generally are local, and ground water discharges to streams. Both ground water and surface water in the basin are used for drinking-water supply.Ground-water quality and the relation between ground-water quality and hydrogeologic and land-use factors were assessed in 1993 in bedrock aquifers of the basin. A total of 82 wells were sampled from July to November 1993 using a stratified random sampling scheme that included 8 hydrogeologic and 4 land-use categories to distribute the samples evenly over the area of the basin. The eight hydrogeologic units were determined by formation or lithology. The land-use categories were (1) forested, open, and undeveloped; (2) agricultural; (3) residential; and (4) industrial and commercial. Well-water samples were analyzed for major and minor ions, nutrients, volatile organic compounds (VOC's), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCB's), and radon-222.Concentrations of some constituents exceeded maximum contaminant levels (MCL) or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Concentrations of nitrate were greater than the MCL of 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen (N) in water from 11 (13 percent) of 82 wells sampled; the maximum concentration was 38 mg/L as N. Water from only 1 of 82 wells sampled contained VOC's or pesticides that exceeded a MCL; water from that well contained 3 mg/L chlordane and 1 mg/L of PCB's. Constituents or properties of well-water samples that exceeded SMCL's included iron, manganese, dissolved solids, pH, and corrosivity. Water from 70 (85 percent) of the 82 wells sampled contained radon-222 activities greater than the proposed MCL of

  13. SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, E.G.; Leshikar, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

  14. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  15. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  16. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  17. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  18. Potential Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Cask Drop in the K West Basin South Loadout Pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POWERS, T.B.

    1999-01-01

    This calculation note documents the probabilistic calculation of a potential drop of a multi-canister overpack (MCO) cask or MCO cask and immersion pail at the K West Basin south loadout pit. The calculations are in support of the cask loading system (CLS) subproject alignment of CLS equipment in the K West Basin south loadout pit

  19. Relation of water quality to land use in the drainage basins of six tributaries to the lower Delaware River, New Jersey, 2002-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Esralew, Rachel A.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations and loads of water-quality constituents in six streams in the lower Delaware River Basin of New Jersey were determined in a multi-year study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Two streams receive water from relatively undeveloped basins, two from largely agricultural basins, and two from heavily urbanized basins. Each stream was monitored during eight storms and at least eight times during base flow during 2002-07. Sampling was conducted during base flow before each storm, when stage was first observed to rise, and several times during the rising limb of the hydrographs. Agricultural and urban land use has resulted in statistically significant increases in loads of nitrogen and phosphorus species relative to loads in undeveloped basins. For example, during the growing season, median storm flow concentrations of total nitrogen in the two streams in agricultural areas were 6,290 and 1,760 mg/L, compared to 988 and 823 mg/L for streams in urban areas, and 719 and 333 mg/L in undeveloped areas. Although nutrient concentrations and loads were clearly related to land useurban, agricultural, and undeveloped within the drainage basins, other basin characteristics were found to be important. Residual nutrients entrapped in lake sediments from streams that received effluent from recently removed sewage-treatment plants are hypothesized to be the cause of extremely high levels of nutrient loads to one urban stream, whereas another urban stream with similar land-use percentages (but without the legacy of sewage-treatment plants) had much lower levels of nutrients. One of the two agricultural streams studied had higher nutrient loads than the other, especially for total phosphorous and organic nitrogen. This difference appears to be related to the presence (or absence) of livestock (cattle).

  20. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  1. K West Basin Sand Filter Backwash Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, Deborah S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pool, Karl N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A sand filter is used to help maintain water clarity at the K West Basin where highly radioactive sludge is stored. Eventually that sand filter will require disposal. The radionuclide content of the solids trapped in the sand filter will affect the selection of the sand filter disposal pathway. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by the K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project (operations contractor CH2M Hill) to analyze the radionuclide content of the solids collected from the backwash of the K West Basin sand filter. The radionuclide composition in the sand filter backwash solids will be used by CH2M Hill to determine if the sand filter media and retained sludge solids will be designated as transuranic waste for disposal purposes or can be processed through less expensive means. On October 19, 2015, K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project staff backwashed the sand filter into the North Load-Out Pit (NLOP) and immediately collected sample slurry from a sampling tube positioned 24 in. above the NLOP floor. The 764 g sand filter backwash slurry sample, KW-105 SFBW-001, was submitted to PNNL for analysis on October 20, 2015. Solids from the slurry sample were consolidated into two samples (i.e., a primary and a duplicate sample) by centrifuging and measured for mass (0.82 g combined – wet centrifuged solids basis) and volume (0.80 mL combined). The solids were a dark brown/orange color, consistent with iron oxide/hydroxide. The solids were dried; the combined dry solids mass was 0.1113 g, corresponding to 0.0146 weight percent (wt%) solids in the original submitted sample slurry. The solids were acid-digested using nitric and hydrochloric acids. Insoluble solids developed upon dilution with 0.5 M HNO3, corresponding to an average 6.5 wt% of the initial dry solids content. The acid digestate and insoluble solids were analyzed separately by gamma spectrometry. Nominally, 7.7% of the 60Co was present

  2. Data compilation report: Gas and liquid samples from K West Basin fuel storage canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Forty-one gas and liquid samples were taken from spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin during a March 1995 sampling campaign. (Spent fuel from the N Reactor is stored in sealed canisters at the bottom of the K West Basin.) A description of the sampling process, gamma energy analysis data, and quantitative gas mass spectroscopy data are documented. This documentation does not include data analysis

  3. K-West and K-East basin thermal analyses for dry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, T.R.; Cramer, E.R.; Hinman, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed 3 dimensional thermal analyses of the 100K East and 100 K West basins were conducted to determine the peak fuel temperature for intact fuel in the event of a complete loss of water from the basins. Thermal models for the building, an array of fuel encapsulation canisters on the basin floor, and the fuel within a single canister are described along with conservative predictions for the maximum expected temperatures for the loss of water event

  4. Total mercury and methylmercury in fish fillets, water, and bed sediments from selected streams in the Delaware River basin, New Jersery, New York, and Pennsylvania, 1998-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightbill, Robin A.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Bilger, Michael D.; Byrnes, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Within the Delaware River Basin, fish-tissue samples were analyzed for total mercury (tHg). Water and bed-sediment samples were analyzed for tHg and methylmercury (MeHg), and methylation efficiencies were calculated. This study was part of a National Mercury Pilot Program conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Delaware River Basin was chosen because it is part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program that integrates physical, chemical, and biological sampling efforts to determine status and trends in surface-water and ground-water resources. Of the 35 sites in the study, 31 were sampled for fish. The species sampled at these sites include smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), the target species, and where smallmouth bass could not be collected, brown trout (Salmo trutta), chain pickerel (Esox niger), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris). There were a total of 32 fish samples; 7 of these exceeded the 0.3 ?g/g (micrograms per gram) wet-weight mercury (Hg) concentration set for human health by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and 27 of these exceeded the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria of 0.1 ?g/g wet weight for the protection of fish-eating birds and wildlife. Basinwide analysis of Hg in fish, water, and bed sediment showed tHg concentration in fillets correlated positively with population density, urban land cover, and impervious land surface. Negative correlations included wetland land cover, septic density, elevation, and latitude. Smallmouth bass from the urban sites had a higher median concentration of tHg than fish from agricultural, low intensity-agricultural, or forested sites. Concentrations of tHg and MeHg in water were higher in samples from the more urbanized areas of the basin and were positively correlated with urbanization and negatively correlated with forested land cover. Methylation efficiency of water was negatively correlated with urbanization. Bed

  5. Hydrogeological assessment of Acid mine Drainage impacts in the West Rand Basin, Gauteng Province

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs, PJ

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available HYDROGEOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE IMPACTS IN THE WEST RAND BASIN, GAUTENG PROVINCE Principal Author PJ Hobbs (Pr.Sci.Nat.) Co-author JE Cobbing (Pr.Sci.Nat.) August 2007 Report prepared for CSIR / THRIP Document... it is published. A Hydrogeological Assessment of Acid Mine Drainage Report No. Impacts in the West Rand Basin, Gauteng Province CSIR/NRE/WR/ER/2007/0097/C CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment (i) The “Lodge” spring rising...

  6. User manuals for the Delaware River Basin Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (DRB–WATER) and associated WATER application utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2015-11-18

    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) is a decision support system (DSS) for the nontidal part of the Delaware River Basin (DRB) that provides a consistent and objective method of simulating streamflow under historical, forecasted, and managed conditions. WATER integrates geospatial sampling of landscape characteristics, including topographic and soil properties, with a regionally calibrated hillslope-hydrology model, an impervious-surface model, and hydroclimatic models that have been parameterized using three hydrologic response units—forested, agricultural, and developed land cover. It is this integration that enables the regional hydrologic-modeling approach used in WATER without requiring site-specific optimization or those stationary conditions inferred when using a statistical model. The DSS provides a “historical” database, ideal for simulating streamflow for 2001–11, in addition to land-cover forecasts that focus on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities are provided with the DSS and apply change factors for precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration to a 1981–2011 climatic record provided with the DSS. These change factors were derived from a suite of general circulation models (GCMs) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios. These change factors are based on 25-year monthly averages (normals) that are centere on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities also can be used to apply a 2010 snapshot of water use for the DRB; a factorial approach enables scenario testing of increased or decreased water use for each simulation. Finally, the WATER Application Utilities can be used to reformat streamflow time series for input to statistical or reservoir management software. 

  7. Relating petroleum system and play development to basin evolution: West African South Atlantic basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beglinger, S.E.; Doust, H.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentary basins can be classified according to their structural genesis and evolutionary history and the latter can be linked to petroleumsystem and playdevelopment. We propose an approach in which we use the established concepts in a new way: breaking basins down into their natural basin cycle

  8. Epidemiology of West Nile in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Calistri, P.; Giovannini, A.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Ionescu, A.; Monaco, F.; Savini, G.; Lelli, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2010), s. 29-37 ISSN 1874-3579 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Epidemiology * Europe * West Nile * Mediterranean Basin Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2878979/pdf/TOVJ-4-29.pdf

  9. Aluminum hydroxide coating thickness measurements and brushing tests on K West Basin fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide coating thicknesses were measured on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin using specially developed eddy current probes . The results were used to estimate coating inventories for MCO fuel,loading. Brushing tests successfully demonstrated the ability to remove the coating if deemed necessary prior to MCO loading

  10. Late Eocene sea retreat from the Tarim Basin (west China) and concomitant Asian paleoenvironmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosboom, R.E.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Houben, A.J.P.; Brinkhuis, H.; Villa, G.; Mandic, O.; Stoica, M.; Zachariasse, W.J.; Guo, ZJ.; Li, CX.; Krijgsman, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Paleogene sediments of the southwest Tarim Basin along the West Kunlun Shan in western China include the remnants of the easternmost extent of a large epicontinental sea. This shallow sea once extended across the Eurasian continent before it retreated westward and eventually separated as the

  11. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the White Clay Creek subbasin of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware. Water from the basin is used for recreation, drinking water supply, and to support aquatic life. The Christina River Basin includes the major subbasins of Brandywine Creek, White Clay Creek, and Red Clay Creek. The White Clay Creek is the second largest of the subbasins and drains an area of 108 mi2. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the streams. A multi-agency water-quality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point and nonpoint-source contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in non point-source evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the three major subbasins and for the Christina River, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program—Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in smaller subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint-source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base- flow samples were collected during 1998 at two sites in the White Clay Creek subbasin and at nine sites in the other subbasins.The HSPF model for the White Clay Creek Basin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into 17 reaches draining areas that ranged from 1.37 to 13 mi2. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the White Clay Creek Basin are agricultural, forested

  12. Analysis of flood-magnitude and flood-frequency data for streamflow-gaging stations in the Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Mark A.; Stuckey, Marla H.

    2007-01-01

    The Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins in Pennsylvania experienced severe flooding as a result of intense rainfall during June 2006. The height of the flood waters on the rivers and tributaries approached or exceeded the peak of record at many locations. Updated flood-magnitude and flood-frequency data for streamflow-gaging stations on tributaries in the Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins were analyzed using data through the 2006 water year to determine if there were any major differences in the flood-discharge data. Flood frequencies for return intervals of 2, 5, 10, 50, 100, and 500 years (Q2, Q5, Q10, Q50, Q100, and Q500) were determined from annual maximum series (AMS) data from continuous-record gaging stations (stations) and were compared to flood discharges obtained from previously published Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) and to flood frequencies using partial-duration series (PDS) data. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to determine any statistically significant differences between flood frequencies computed from updated AMS station data and those obtained from FIS. Percentage differences between flood frequencies computed from updated AMS station data and those obtained from FIS also were determined for the 10, 50, 100, and 500 return intervals. A Mann-Kendall trend test was performed to determine statistically significant trends in the updated AMS peak-flow data for the period of record at the 41 stations. In addition to AMS station data, PDS data were used to determine flood-frequency discharges. The AMS and PDS flood-frequency data were compared to determine any differences between the two data sets. An analysis also was performed on AMS-derived flood frequencies for four stations to evaluate the possible effects of flood-control reservoirs on peak flows. Additionally, flood frequencies for three stations were evaluated to determine possible effects of urbanization on peak flows. The results of the Wilcoxon signed

  13. Organic Geochemistry and Rock-Eval Pyrolysis of Eocene fine Sediments, East Ketungau Basin, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Hermiyanto Zajuli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i2.119Indonesia contains many Paleogene and Neogene basins which some of them have been proven to be a very prolific producer of oil and gas. A study on the result of Rock-Eval pyrolysis and biomarker undertaken on the Eocene Mandai Group was able to assess hydrocarbon potential of the Paleogene fine sediments in the frontier basin, especially West Kalimantan area. East Ketungau Basin is located in the western Kalimantan, bounded with Melawi Basin by the Semitau High in the south and West Ketungau Basin in the west. The Mandai Group was deposited in the East Ketungau Basin during Eocene, consisting of sandstone and mudstone facies. Mudstone facies comprises shale, claystone, and coal. Seven samples of Eocene fine sediments collected from East Ketungau Basin were analyzed by Rock-Eval pyrolisis and three samples for biomarker to evaluate their hydrocarbon potential. The Rock-Eval pyrolisis result of Mandai Group shows that TOC value of this facies ranges from 0.34 % to 5.16 %, Potential Yield (PY between 0.06 and 4.78 mg HC/g rock, and Hydrogen Index (HI from 12 to 89. Based on that result, the fine sediments of Mandai Group are included into a gas prone source rock potential with poor to fair categories. Moreover Tmax values vary from 426o C to 451o C. The Eocene fine sediments of Mandai Group fall under kerogen type III. Based on Tmax and biomarker analyses, the maturity of the sediments is situated within immature to mature level. The fine sediments of Mandai Group were deposited in a terrestrial to marine environment under anoxic to sub-oxic condition.

  14. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Red Clay Creek subbasin of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania and Delaware and includes the major subbasins of Red Clay Creek, White Clay Creek, Brandywine Creek, and Christina River. The Red Clay Creek is the smallest of the subbasins and drains an area of 54 mi2. Streams in the Christina River Basin are used for recreation, drinking-water supply, and to support aquatic life. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the stream. A multi-agency, waterquality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point and nonpointsource contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in nonpointsource evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the four main subbasins of the Christina River Basin, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in smaller subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint-source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base-flow samples were collected during 1998 at 1 site in the Red Clay Creek subbasin and at 10 sites elsewhere in the Christina River Basin.The HSPF model for the Red Clay Creek subbasin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into nine reaches draining areas that ranged from 1.7 to 10 mi2. One of the reaches contains a regulated reservoir. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the Red Clay Creek

  15. Evaporite karst geohazards in the Delaware Basin, Texas: review of traditional karst studies coupled with geophysical and remote sensing characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin W. Stafford

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaporite karst throughout the Gypsum Plain of west Texas is complex and extensive, including manifestations ranging from intrastratal brecciation and hypogene caves to epigene features and suffosion caves. Recent advances in hydrocarbon exploration and extraction has resulted in increased infrastructure development and utilization in the area; as a result, delineation and characterization of potential karst geohazards throughout the region have become a greater concern. While traditional karst surveys are essential for delineating the subsurface extent and morphology of individual caves for speleogenetic interpretation, these methods tend to underestimate the total extent of karst development and require surficial manifestation of karst phenomena. Therefore, this study utilizes a composite suite of remote sensing and traditional field studies for improved karst delineation and detection of potential karst geohazards within gypsum karst. Color InfraRed (CIR imagery were utilized for delineation of lineaments associated with fractures, while Normalized Density Vegetation Index (NDVI analyses were used to delineate regions of increased moisture flux and probable zones of shallow karst development. Digital Elevation Models (DEM constructed from high-resolution LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data were used to spatially interpret sinkholes, while analyses of LiDAR intensity data were used in a novel way to categorize local variations in surface geology. Resistivity data, including both direct current (DC and capacitively coupled (CC resistivity analyses, were acquired and interpreted throughout the study area to delineate potential shallow karst geohazards specifically associated with roadways of geohazard concern; however, detailed knowledge of the surrounding geology and local karst development proved essential for proper interpretation of resistivity inversions. The composite suite of traditional field investigations and remotely sensed karst

  16. Future Climate Change Impacts on Streamflows of Two Main West Africa River Basins: Senegal and Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansoumana Bodian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the effect of climate change on the two main river basins of Senegal in West Africa: the Senegal and Gambia River Basins. We used downscaled projected future rainfall and potential evapotranspiration based on projected temperature from six General Circulation Models (CanESM2, CNRM, CSIRO, HadGEM2-CC, HadGEM2-ES, and MIROC5 and two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 to force the GR4J model. The GR4J model was calibrated and validated using observed daily rainfall, potential evapotranspiration from observed daily temperature, and streamflow data. For the cross-validation, two periods for each river basin were considered: 1961–1982 and 1983–2004 for the Senegal River Basin at Bafing Makana, and 1969–1985 and 1986–2000 for the Gambia River Basin at Mako. Model efficiency is evaluated using a multi-criteria function (Fagg which aggregates Nash and Sutcliffe criteria, cumulative volume error, and mean volume error. Alternating periods of simulation for calibration and validation were used. This process allows us to choose the parameters that best reflect the rainfall-runoff relationship. Once the model was calibrated and validated, we simulated streamflow at Bafing Makana and Mako stations in the near future at a daily scale. The characteristic flow rates were calculated to evaluate their possible evolution under the projected climate scenarios at the 2050 horizon. For the near future (2050 horizon, compared to the 1971–2000 reference period, results showed that for both river basins, multi-model ensemble predicted a decrease of annual streamflow from 8% (Senegal River Basin to 22% (Gambia River Basin under the RCP4.5 scenario. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the decrease is more pronounced: 16% (Senegal River Basin and 26% (Gambia River Basin. The Gambia River Basin will be more affected by the climate change.

  17. Evaluation of geological structure and uranium mineralization model in West Lemajung Sector, Kalan Basin, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; Sularto, P.

    2000-01-01

    The fieldwork is based on the data of strike (S0) and schistosity (S1) of cores that could not penetrate the geological structure model and result of observation on some cores has shown that U mineralization veins are not always parallel to S1. The problems were encountered in core drill data to improve the estimation of U resources from indication category to measured category. The purpose of the evaluation is to establish the advisability of geological structure model and U mineralization model which was applied by this time. The research used remapping of geological structure with surface method in the scale of 1:1000. The result of remapping shows the difference of the dipping between new geological structure model and the old model. The dipping of the new model is to South East until vertical and the old model is to North West until vertical and to South East until vertical. Despite the difference between both of them, the substantive of folding system is identical so that the new and old models can be applied in drilling in West Lemajung sector. U mineralization model of remapping result consists of 3 types : type 1 U mineralization lens form with West-East direction and vertical dipping which is associated with tourmaline, type 2 U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East direction and 70 o to North dipping and parallel with S1, and type 3 U mineralization fill in opening fractures with N 110 o - 130 o E the direction and 60 o to North East until subvertical dipping while the old model is only one type. It is U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East the direction and 70 o to North the dipping and parallel with S1. Because of this significant difference, data collection of drill core must follow the new mineralization model. (author)

  18. Gas and liquid sampling for closed canisters in K-West basins - functional design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkoff, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide functions and requirements for the design and fabrication of equipment for sampling closed canisters in the K-West basin. The samples will be used to help determine the state of the fuel elements in closed canisters. The characterization information obtained will support evaluation and development of processes required for safe storage and disposition of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) materials

  19. Chemostratigraphy of Late Cretaceous deltaic and marine sedimentary rocks from high northern palaeolatitudes in the Nuussuaq Basin, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenniger, Marc; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup; Bjerrum, Christian J.

    The Nuussuaq Basin in the Baffin Bay area in West Greenland formed as a result of the opening of the Labrador Sea in Late Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic times. The first rifting and the development of the Nuussuaq Basin took place during the Early Cretaceous and was followed by a second rifting phase...

  20. Lithostratigraphy of the Cretaceous–Paleocene Nuussuaq Group, Nuussuaq Basin, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dam, Gregers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Nuussuaq Basin is the only exposed Cretaceous–Paleocene sedimentary basin in West Greenland and is one of a complex of linked rift basins stretching from the Labrador Sea to northern Baffin Bay. These basins developed along West Greenland as a result of the opening of the Labrador Sea in Late Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic times. The Nuussuaq Basin is exposed in West Greenland between 69°N and 72°N on Disko, Nuussuaq, Upernivik Ø, Qeqertarsuaq, Itsaku and Svartenhuk Halvø and has also been recorded in a number of shallow and deep wells in the region. The sediments are assigned to the more than 6 km thick Nuussuaq Group (new which underlies the Palaeogene plateau basalts of the West Greenland Basalt Group. The sediment thickness is best estimated from seismic data; in the western part of the area, seismic and magnetic data suggest that the succession is at least 6 km and possibly as much as 10 km thick. The exposed Albian–Paleocene part of the succession testifies to two main episodes of regional rifting and basin development: an EarlyCretaceous and a Late Cretaceous – Early Paleocene episode prior to the start of sea-floor spreading in mid-Paleocene time. This exposed section includes fan delta, fluviodeltaic, shelfal and deepmarine deposits. The Nuussuaq Group is divided into ten formations, most of which have previously been only briefly described, with the exception of their macrofossil content. In ascending stratigraphic order, the formations are: the Kome Formation, the Slibestensfjeldet Formation (new, the Upernivik Næs Formation, the Atane Formation (including four new members – the Skansen, Ravn Kløft, Kingittoq and Qilakitsoq Members – and one new bed, the Itivnera Bed, the Itilli Formation (new, including four new members: the Anariartorfik, Umiivik, Kussinerujuk and Aaffarsuaq Members, the Kangilia Formation (including the revised Annertuneq Conglomerate Member andthe new Oyster–Ammonite Conglomerate Bed, the

  1. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico-stratigraphic hierarchy and cycle stacking facies distribution, and interwell-scale heterogeneity: Grayburg Formation, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, R.J.; Ward, W.B.; Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-06-01

    The Grayburg Formation (middle Guadalupian) is a major producing interval in the Permian Basin and has yielded more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil in West Texas. Grayburg reservoirs have produced, on average, less than 30 percent of their original oil in place and are undergoing secondary and tertiary recovery. Efficient design of such enhanced recovery programs dictates improved geological models to better understand and predict reservoir heterogeneity imposed by depositional and diagenetic controls. The Grayburg records mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on shallow-water platforms that rimmed the Delaware and Midland Basins. Grayburg outcrops in the Guadalupe and Brokeoff Mountains region on the northwest margin of the Delaware Basin present an opportunity to construct a detailed, three-dimensional image of the stratigraphic and facies architecture. This model can be applied towards improved description and characterization of heterogeneity in analogous Grayburg reservoirs. Four orders of stratigraphic hierarchy are recognized in the Grayburg Formation. The Grayburg represents a long-term composite sequence composed of four high-frequency sequences (HFS 1-4). Each HFS contains several composite cycles comprising two or more cycles that define intermediate-scale transgressive-regressive successions. Cycles are the smallest scale upward-shoaling vertical facies successions that can be recognized and correlated across various facies tracts. Cycles thus form the basis for establishing the detailed chronostratigraphic correlations needed to delineate facies heterogeneity.

  2. Hydrogeology and water quality of the West Valley Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    1997-01-01

    The West Valley Creek Basin drains 20.9 square miles in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of southeastern Pennsylvania and is partly underlain by carbonate rocks that are highly productive aquifers. The basin is undergoing rapid urbanization that includes changes in land use and increases in demand for public water supply and wastewater disposal. Ground water is the sole source of supply in the basin.West Valley Creek flows southwest in a 1.5-mile-wide valley that is underlain by folded and faulted carbonate rocks and trends east-northeast, parallel to regional geologic structures. The valley is flanked by hills underlain by quartzite and gneiss to the north and by phyllite and schist to the south. Surface water and ground water flow from the hills toward the center of the valley. Ground water in the valley flows west-southwest parallel to the course of the stream. Seepage investigations identified losing reaches in the headwaters area where streams are underlain by carbonate rocks and gaining reaches downstream. Tributaries contribute about 75 percent of streamflow. The ground-water and surface-water divides do not coincide in the carbonate valley. The ground-water divide is about 0.5 miles west of the surface-water divide at the eastern edge of the carbonate valley. Underflow to the east is about 1.1 inches per year. Quarry dewatering operations at the western edge of the valley may act partly as an artificial basin boundary, preventing underflow to the west. Water budgets for 1990, a year of normal precipitation (45.8 inches), and 1991, a year of sub-normal precipitation (41.5 inches), were calculated. Streamflow was 14.61 inches in 1990 and 12.08 inches in 1991. Evapotranspiration was estimated to range from 50 to 60 percent of precipitation. Base flow was about 62 percent of streamflow in both years. Exportation by sewer systems was about 3 inches from the basin and, at times, equaled base flow during the dry autumn of 1991. Recharge was estimated to be 18

  3. Test plan for techniques to measure and remove coatings from K West Basin fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, A.E.; Pitner, A.L.; Makenas, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Several types of coatings have previously been visually identified on the surface of 105-K East and 105-K West Basins fuel elements. One type of coating (found only in K West Basin) in particular was found to be a thick translucent material that was often seen to be dislodged from the elements as flakes when the elements were handled during visual examinations (Pitner 1997). Subsequently it was determined (for one element only in a hot cell) that this material, in the dry condition, could easily be removed from the element using a scraping tool. The coating was identified as Al(OH) 3 through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and to be approximately 60 microm thick via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, brushing under water in the basin using numerous mechanical strokes failed to satisfactorily remove these coatings in their thickest form as judged by appearance. Such brushing was done with only one type of metal brush, a brush design previously found satisfactory for removing UO 4 .xH 2 O coatings from the elements

  4. Flow velocities estimated from chlorine-36 in the South-West Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, A.L.; Love, A.J.; Sampson, L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Fifield, L.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is the largest groundwater basin in the world and is the lifeline for water resources in a large proportion of the arid interior of the Australian continent. Despite its obvious importance, there is a great deal of uncertainty in the estimates of horizontal groundwater flow velocities and recharge rates. We report the first reliable estimates of these sustainability indicators in the south west segment of the GAB. Groundwater was sampled from 23 wells along two transects parallel to the W-E hydraulic gradient for 36 Cl, 14 C, stable isotopes (δ 13 C, δ 18 O, δ 2 H) and major ion chemistry. The groundwater collected was from the undifferentiated Jurassic and Cretaceous (J and K) aquifer. These new data potentially contribute to the resolution of the interpretation of 36 Cl derived ages in a very large slow moving groundwater system and to the overall conceptual understanding of flow systems of the GAB

  5. A magnetic and gravity investigation of the Liberia Basin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris Cooper, S.; Liu, Tianyou

    2011-02-01

    Gravity and magnetic analysis provide an opportunity to deduce and understand to a large extent the stratigraphy, structure and shape of the substructure. Euler deconvolution is a useful tool for providing estimates of the localities and depth of magnetic and gravity sources. Wavelet analysis is an interesting tool for filtering and improving geophysical data. The application of these two methods to gravity and magnetic data of the Liberia Basin enable the definition of the geometry and depth of the subsurface geologic structures. The study reveals the basin is sub-divided and the depth to basement of the basin structure ranges from about 5 km at its North West end to 10 km at its broadest section eastward. Magnetic data analysis indicates shallow intrusives ranging from a depth of 0.09 km to 0.42 km with an average depth of 0.25 km along the margin. Other intrusives can be found at average depths of 0.6 km and 1.7 km respectively within the confines of the basin. An analysis of the gravity data indicated deep faults intersecting the transform zone.

  6. Impacts of climate change on hydro-meteorological drought over the Volta Basin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntunde, Philip G.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Lischeid, Gunnar

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the characteristics of drought in the Volta River Basin (VRB), investigates the influence of drought on the streamflow, and projects the impacts of future climate change on the drought. A combination of observation data and regional climate simulations of past and future climates (1970-2013, 2046-2065, and 2081-2100) were analyzed for the study. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (SPEI) were used to characterize drought while the Standardized Runoff Index (SRI) were used to quantify runoff. Results of the study show that the historical pattern of drought is generally consistent with previous studies over the Basin and most part of West Africa. RCA ensemble medians (RMED) give realistic simulations of drought characteristics and area extent over the Basin and the sub-catchments in the past climate. Generally, an increase in drought intensity and spatial extent are projected over VRB for SPEI and SPI, but the magnitude of increase is higher with SPEI than with SPI. Drought frequency (events per decade) may be magnified by a factor of 1.2 (2046-2065) to 1.6 (2081-2100) compared to the present day episodes in the basin. The coupling between streamflow and drought episodes was very strong (P planning how to minimize the negative impacts of future climate change that could have consequences on agriculture, water resources and energy supply.

  7. Crustal structure of the Siberian craton and the West Siberian basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2013-01-01

    We present a digital model SibCrust of the crustal structure of the Siberian craton (SC) and the West Siberian basin (WSB), based on all seismic profiles published since 1960 and sampled with a nominal interval of 50. km. Data quality is assessed and quantitatively assigned to each profile based...... and ~. 6.2-6.6. km/s in parts of the WSB and SC. Exceptionally high basement Vp velocities (6.8-7.0. km/s) at the northern border between the SC and the WSB indicate the presence of magmatic intrusions and are proposed to mark the source zone of the Siberian LIP. The cratonic crust generally consists...

  8. Epidemiology of West Nile in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Calistri, Paolo; Giovannini, Armando; Hubalek, Zdenek; Ionescu, Aurelia; Monaco, Federica; Savini, Giovanni; Lelli, Rossella

    2010-01-01

    In the last 30 years several cases of West Nile (WN) virus infection were reported in horses and humans in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin. Most of them were determined by strains of the Lineage 1 included in the European Mediterranean/Kenyan cluster. Strains of this cluster are characterised by a moderate pathogenicity for horses and humans and limited or no pathogenicity for birds. In recent years, however, WN cases determined by strains grouped in the Israeli/American cluster of Line...

  9. Thermal Properties of West Siberian Sediments in Application to Basin and Petroleum Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romushkevich, Raisa; Popov, Evgeny; Popov, Yury; Chekhonin, Evgeny; Myasnikov, Artem; Kazak, Andrey; Belenkaya, Irina; Zagranovskaya, Dzhuliya

    2016-04-01

    Quality of heat flow and rock thermal property data is the crucial question in basin and petroleum system modeling. A number of significant deviations in thermal conductivity values were observed during our integral geothermal study of West Siberian platform reporting that the corrections should be carried out in basin models. The experimental data including thermal anisotropy and heterogeneity measurements were obtained along of more than 15 000 core samples and about 4 500 core plugs. The measurements were performed in 1993-2015 with the optical scanning technique within the Continental Super-Deep Drilling Program (Russia) for scientific super-deep well Tyumenskaya SG-6, parametric super-deep well Yen-Yakhinskaya, and deep well Yarudeyskaya-38 as well as for 13 oil and gas fields in the West Siberia. Variations of the thermal conductivity tensor components in parallel and perpendicular direction to the layer stratification (assessed for 2D anisotropy model of the rock studied), volumetric heat capacity and thermal anisotropy coefficient values and average values of the thermal properties were the subject of statistical analysis for the uppermost deposits aged by: T3-J2 (200-165 Ma); J2-J3 (165-150 Ma); J3 (150-145 Ma); K1 (145-136 Ma); K1 (136-125 Ma); K1-K2 (125-94 Ma); K2-Pg+Ng+Q (94-0 Ma). Uncertainties caused by deviations of thermal conductivity data from its average values were found to be as high as 45 % leading to unexpected errors in the basin heat flow determinations. Also, the essential spatial-temporal variations in the thermal rock properties in the study area is proposed to be taken into account in thermo-hydrodynamic modeling of hydrocarbon recovery with thermal methods. The research work was done with financial support of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science (unique identification number RFMEFI58114X0008).

  10. Integrating petroleum and sulfur data to map the Guadalupian-Ochoan (Middle to Upper Permian) Boundary of the Delaware Basis, Trans-Pecos, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishron, Joseph B.

    2011-12-01

    The Delaware Basin of the Permian Basin is a classic intra-cratonic basin of West Texas and Southeast New Mexico. Hydrocarbon exploration and production have occurred in the region since the early 1920s, and, as a result, the formations related to these oil and gas reserves have been studied in great detail. Some formations in the Delaware Basin, however, have not been studied in such detail, and this thesis examines one, lesser-known unit that could have economic potential. The Lamar Limestone (Lamar Lime) of the Bell Canyon Formation has commonly been dismissed as a production interval; rather, it has been described as a source and seal rock for the Ramsey Sand of the lower Bell Canyon Formation. However, recent studies found that the Lamar Lime was contributing to production, and it has been described by Trentham (2006) as a potentia "mini Barnett" reservoir. The depths of these deposits are in a range that is ideal for oil accumulation. This study made use of data from wells and test holes drilled in the western Delaware Basin, Culberson County, Texas. Many oil and gas wells have been drilled in the western Delaware Basin, but they are concentrated in the north and east portions of Culberson County. In addition, sulfur wells were drilled in the area in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Analyses of the well logs of these wells and of core and outcrop studies were completed to gain a better understanding of the distribution and economic potential of the Lamar. Both datasets were combined to provide information not readily available in the oil and gas dataset. The Lamar Lime is an excellent marker bed because it underlies thick evaporites. The evaporite sequences are Ochoan in age, and, therefore, the contact of the Lamar Lime (Bell Canyon Formation) and the Castile Formation is the approximate boundary for the Guadalupian-Ochoan Series. The Castile Formation, the Salado Formation, and the Rustler Formation (from oldest to youngest) are the evaporite units that

  11. Surface deformation on the west portion of the Chapala lake basin: uncertainties and facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hernandez-Marin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate different aspects of land subsidence and ground failures occurring in the west portion of Chapala lake basin. Currently, surface discontinuities seem to be associated with subsiding bowls. In an effort to understand some of the conditioning factors to surface deformation, two sounding cores from the upper sequence (11 m depth were extracted for analyzing physical and mechanical properties. The upper subsoil showed a predominant silty composition and several lenses of pumice pyroclastic sand. Despite the relative predominance of fine soil, the subsoil shows mechanical properties with low clay content, variable water content, low plasticity and variable compressibility index, amongst some others. Some of these properties seem to be influenced by the sandy pyroclastic lenses, therefore, a potential source of the ground failure could be heterogeneities in the upper soil.

  12. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Pomme de Terre River Basin, west-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, D.L.; Payne, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Data describing the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Pomme de Terre River Basin, located in west-central Minnesota, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outfalls of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  13. Choices of canisters and elements for the first fuel shipment from K West Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makenas, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    Twenty-two canisters (10 prime and 12 backup candidates) in the K West Basin have been identified as containing fuel which, when examined, will satisfy the Data Quality Objectives for the first fuel shipment from this basin. These were chosen as meeting criteria such as containing relatively long fuel elements, locking bar integrity, and the availability of gas/liquid interface level measurements for associated canister gas traps. Two canisters were identified as having reported broken fuel on initial loading. Usage and interpretation of canister cesium concentration measurements have also been established and levels of maximum and minimum acceptable cesium concentration (from a data optimization point of view) for decapping have been determined although other operational cesium limits may also apply. Criteria for picking particular elements, once a canister is opened, are reviewed in this document. A pristine, a slightly damaged, and a badly damaged element are desired. The latter includes elements with end caps removed but does not include elements which have large amounts of swelling or split cladding that might interfere with handling tools. Finally, operational scenarios have been suggested to aid in the selections of canisters and elements in a way that utilizes anticipated canister gas sampling and leads to a correct and quick choice of elements which will supply the desired data

  14. Characteristics of the Triassic Source Rocks of the Aitutu Formation in the (West Timor Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Kurnia Permana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.192The Triassic rocks of the (West Timor Basin have been identified that was mainly deposited in the  marine environment. The fine grained clastics and carbonate  rocks of this Triassic marine  facies are considered to be the most promising source rocks potential in this basin. In this paper we present geochemical and petrographic data from outcrop samples of the Triassic carbonate Aitutu Formation, due to emphasized the organic maturation, kerogen type of the organic matter and the origin of the organic matter.  A representative of selected sample were subjected to the Rock-Eval Pyrolisis, vitrinite reflectance and thermal alteration index, bitumen extraction, were analyzed on the GC-MS. The samples were collected from marine deposit of the Triassic Sequence. The TOC values of the analyzed sample range between rich and rich organic richness (0.51% - 9.16%, wt.%, TOC, which consists mainly of type II and III kerogen and the organic matter consider to be predominantly oil/gas prone and gas prone potential. The thermal maturity assessed from Tmax, TAI, and vitrinite reflectance shows an immature to early peak mature stage of the organic matter. The GC-MS analyses of the biomarkers indicate mainly the organic matter derived from mixed source rocks facies containing alga debris and higher plant terrestrial origin.

  15. Basement-involved faults and deep structures in the West Philippine Basin: constrains from gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Jiang, Suhua; Li, Sanzhong; Zhang, Huixuan; Lei, Jianping; Gao, Song; Zhao, Feiyu

    2017-06-01

    To reveal the basement-involved faults and deep structures of the West Philippine Basin (WPB), the gravitational responses caused by these faults are observed and analyzed based on the latest spherical gravity model: WGM2012 Model. By mapping the free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies, several main faults and some other linear structures are located and observed in the WPB. Then, by conducting a 2D discrete multi-scale wavelet decomposition, the Bouguer anomalies are decomposed into the first- to eighth-order detail and approximation fields (the first- to eighth-order Details and Approximations). The first- to third-order Details reflect detailed and localized geological information of the crust at different depths, and of which the higher-order reflects gravity field of the deeper depth. The first- to fourth-order Approximations represent the regional gravity fields at different depths of the crust, respectively. The fourth-order Approximation represents the regional gravity fluctuation caused by the density inhomogeneity of Moho interface. Therefore, taking the fourth-order Approximation as input, and adopting Parker-Oldenburg interactive inversion, We calculated the depth of Moho interface in the WPB. Results show that the Moho interface depth in the WPB ranges approximately from 8 to 12 km, indicating that there is typical oceanic crust in the basin. In the Urdaneta Plateau and the Benham Rise, the Moho interface depths are about 14 and 16 km, respectively, which provides a piece of evidence to support that the Banham Rise could be a transitional crust caused by a large igneous province. The second-order vertical derivative and the horizontal derivatives in direction 0° and 90° are computed based on the data of the third-order Detail, and most of the basement-involved faults and structures in the WPB, such as the Central Basin Fault Zone, the Gagua Ridge, the Luzon-Okinawa Fault Zone, and the Mindanao Fault Zone are interpreted by the gravity derivatives.

  16. CRITICALITY SAFETY CONTROL OF LEGACY FUEL FOUND AT 105-K WEST FUEL STORAGE BASIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    In August 2004, two sealed canisters containing spent nuclear fuel were opened for processing at the Hanford Site's K West fuel storage basin. The fuel was to be processed through cleaning and sorting stations, repackaged into special baskets, placed into a cask, and removed from the basin for further processing and eventual dry storage. The canisters were expected to contain fuel from the old Hanford C Reactor, a graphite-moderated reactor fueled by very low-enriched uranium metal. The expected fuel type was an aluminum-clad slug about eight inches in length and with a weight of about eight pounds. Instead of the expected fuel, the two canisters contained several pieces of thin tubes, some with wire wraps. The material was placed into unsealed canisters for storage and to await further evaluation. Videotapes and still photographs of the items were examined in consultation with available retired Hanford employees. It was determined that the items had a fair probability of being cut-up pieces of fuel rods from the retired Hanford Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Because the items had been safely handled several times, it was apparent that a criticality safety hazard did not exist when handling the material by itself, but it was necessary to determine if a hazard existed when combining the material with other known types of spent nuclear fuel. Because the PRTR operated more than 40 years ago, investigators had to rely on a combination of researching archived documents, and utilizing common-sense estimates coupled with bounding assumptions, to determine that the fuel items could be handled safely with other spent nuclear fuel in the storage basin. As older DOE facilities across the nation are shut down and cleaned out, the potential for more discoveries of this nature is increasing. As in this case, it is likely that only incomplete records will exist and that it will be increasingly difficult to immediately characterize the nature of the suspect fissionable

  17. Influence of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.) on fish community structure and function in headwater streams of the Delaware River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R.M.; Bennett, R.M.; Snyder, C.D.; Young, J.A.; Smith, D.R.; Lemarie, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forest of the eastern U.S. are in decline due to invasion by the exotic insect hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae). Aquatic biodiversity in hemlock ecosystems has not been documented; thus the true impact of the infestation cannot be assessed. We compared ichthyofaunal assemblages and trophic structure of streams draining hemlock and hardwood forests by sampling first- and second-order streams draining 14 paired hemlock and hardwood stands during base flows in July 1997 at the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Over 1400 fish of 15 species and 7 families were collected, but hemlock and hardwood streams individually harbored only one to four species. Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were two to three times as prevalent in hemlock than hardwood streams. Insectivorous fishes occurred in significantly higher proportion in streams of hardwood (0.90) than hemlock (0.46) stands, while piscivores occurred more often in hemlock (0.85) than hardwood (0.54) stands. Functional (trophic) diversity of fishes in hemlock and second-order streams was numerically greater than that of hardwood and first-order streams. Species composition also differed by stream order and terrain type. Biodiversity is threatened at several levels within hemlock ecosystems at risk to the hemlock woolly adelgid in eastern U.S. forests.

  18. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  19. Water Accounting Plus for sustainable water management in the Volta river basin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembélé, Moctar; Schaefli, Bettina; Mariéthoz, Grégroire; Ceperley, Natalie; Zwart, Sander J.

    2017-04-01

    Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a standard framework that provides estimates of manageable and unmanageable water flows, stocks, consumption among users, and interactions with land use. The water balance terms are estimated based on remotely sensed data from online open access databases. The main difference with other methods is the use of spatiotemporal data, limiting the errors due to the use of static data. So far, no studies have incorporated climate change scenarios in the WA+ framework to assess future water resources, which would be desirable for developing mitigation and adaptation policies. Moreover WA+ has been implemented using remote sensing data while hydrological models data can also be used as inputs for projections on the future water accounts. This study aims to address the above challenges by providing quantified information on the current and projected state of the Volta basin water resources through the WA+ framework. The transboundary Volta basin in West Africa is vulnerable to floods and droughts that damage properties and take lives. Residents are dependent on subsistence agriculture, mainly rainfed, which is sensitive to changes and variation in the climate. Spatially, rainfall shows high spatiotemporal variability with a south-north gradient of increasing aridity. As in many basins in semi-arid environments, most of the rainfall in the Volta basin returns to the atmosphere. The competition for scarce water resources will increase in the near future due to the combined effects of urbanization, economic development, and rapid population growth. Moreover, upstream and downstream countries do not agree on their national priorities regarding the use of water and this brings tensions among them. Burkina Faso increasingly builds small and medium reservoirs for small-scale irrigation, while Ghana seeks to increase electricity production. Information on current and future water resources and uses is thus fundamental for water actors. The adopted

  20. Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located in fuel storage canisters of the 105-K West basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the first sampling of sludge from the K West Basin spent fuel canisters. The specially developed sampling equipment removes representative samples of sludge while maintaining the radioactive sample underwater in the basin pool (equipment is described in WHC-SD-SNF-SDD-004). Included are the basic background logic for sample selection, the overall laboratory analyses required and the laboratory reporting required. These are based on requirements put forth in the data quality objectives (WHC-SD-SNF-DQO-012) established for this sampling and characterization activity

  1. Cenozoic Tectonic Characteristics in the Adare Basin, West Ross Sea: Evidence From Seismic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Gao, J.; Ding, W.

    2017-12-01

    Based on the geophysical data obtained from the Adare Basin and its adjacent areas, West Ross Sea, the authors employed the frequency wave-number filtering technique to recover the newly processed dataset with high signal noise ratio and complete seismic event which highly contributes to reveal more detailed deep-seated geological structures than previously thought. The structural features and magmatism of the study area in Cenozoic were classified and analyzed. Combined with glaciation, the associated sedimentary facies were summarized systematically. The authors' analysis revealed that, at 16 Ma, under the influence of the thermal effect caused by residual magmatism and asymmetric spreading of Adare Basin in the initial period, surrounding areas of two flanks of the Adare trough were characterized by uplift folds and tilted uplift zone, respectively. The small-scale uplift fold zone was characterized by nearly upright faults and folds and was located in the southern part of the eastern flank, whereas the tilted uplift zone dominated in the corresponding district of western flank that reached the continental margin. By utilizing the contact relationship between igneous rocks and surrounding rocks, igneous rocks can be divided into two periods: early-stage and late Cenozoic igneous rocks. The early-stage rocks are generally located dispersedly in the tilted uplift zone and the age is poorly known. It is suggested that they were related to the residual magmatism. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of Late Cenozoic igneous rocks, formed not earlier 5.5 Ma, was extensive and scattered, almost covering the whole study area, which indicates that they might be unrelated to the rifting in space and time, instead they were affected by decompression melting of the mantle because of the large-scale deglaciation since Pliocene.

  2. Testing and sampling of deep brine aquifers in the Palo Duro Basin, West Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyling, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is investigating the Palo Duro Basin of West Texas along with locations in Nevada, Washington, Utah, Mississippi and Louisiana as potential sites for storage of high-level nuclear waste. Ten wells have been drilled to depths between 3000 and 8300 feet. Testing and sampling of deep test zones requires advance planning and analysis of what must be obtained from the well. Various alternatives are available depending on data needs. In this particular instance, both hydrologic and geochemical data were required. The methods chosen were field proven methods used in the oil field industry for many years. Short term testing has included conventional oil-field-type drill stem tests and drill stem equipment with surface pressure readout. Long term testing has consisted of a series of production and recovery tests. Fluid sampling was performed in two stages. The first was at the well head under an imposed pressure of several hundred psi. The second fluid samples were collected downhole at the production zone under pressures close to ambient pressure. The geochemical data and hydrologic data can be used as independent checks on each other in many cases. Test results from the well along with examination of recovered core provided maximum data for each well. 5 references, 8 figures

  3. Intercomparison of Evapotranspiration Over the Savannah Volta Basin in West Africa Using Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Burt

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares evapotranspiration estimates from two complementary satellite sensors – NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and ESA’s ENVISAT Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR over the savannah area of the Volta basin in West Africa. This was achieved through solving for evapotranspiration on the basis of the regional energy balance equation, which was computationally-driven by the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land algorithm (SEBAL. The results showed that both sensors are potentially good sources of evapotranspiration estimates over large heterogeneous landscapes. The MODIS sensor measured daily evapotranspiration reasonably well with a strong spatial correlation (R2=0.71 with Landsat ETM+ but underperformed with deviations up to ~2.0 mm day-1, when compared with local eddy correlation observations and the Penman-Monteith method mainly because of scale mismatch. The AATSR sensor produced much poorer correlations (R2=0.13 with Landsat ETM+ and conventional ET methods also because of differences in atmospheric correction and sensor calibration over land.

  4. Frasnian reef and basinal strata of West Central Alberta: A combined sedimentological and biostratigraphic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissenberger, J.A.W. (Imperial Oil Resources Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1994-03-01

    The depositional history for the Frasnian in the Nordegg area is interpreted and illustrated on cross sections and paleogeographic maps. Carbonate deposition began with the flooding of the West Alberta Arch and the deposition of the upper Swan Hills Formation during the Lower asymmetrica Zone. Transgression in the Middle asymmetrica Zone initiated the basinal Cline Channel and Duvernay Formation shale deposition, while the time equivalent Cooking Lake Formation was deposited on the drowned Swan Hills platform. The overlying lower Leduc Formation shows backstepping and aggradational reef margin stacking patterns. Maximum relief from the carbonate platform to surrounding Duvernay Formation shale during the Upper asymmetrica Zone was 100 m. Aggradation and backstepping was repeated in the Ancyrognathus trianularis Zone, with syndepositional relief reaching 170 m at the Wapiabi Gap reef margin. Platfrom-margin profiles were controlled by physical factors such as dominant wind direction and currents. On the Ram Range the margin backstepped, but then aggraded at Cripple Creek. At Wapiabi Gap, to the north on the Bighorn Range, the margin was dominantly aggradational. Ireton Formation shale deposition was also influenced by currents. In the Lower gigas Zone, the Leduc carbonate platform reached a maximum syndepositional relief at 220 m. A change from dominantly biohermal to biostromal platform margins occurred. A prograding wedge of Ireton Formation shale filled much of the relief in the Cline Channel, while the upper Leduc platform was drowned. Finally, the progradational Nisku Formation was deposited during the Upper gigas Zone. 70 refs., 20 figs.

  5. Duvernay shale lithofacies distribution analysis in the West Canadian Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Houqin; Kong, Xiangwen; Long, Huashan; Huai, Yinchao

    2018-02-01

    In the West Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), Duvernay shale is considered to contribute most of the Canadian shale gas reserve and production. According to global shale gas exploration and development practice, reservoir property and well completion quality are the two key factors determining the shale gas economics. The two key factors are strongly depending on shale lithofacies. On the basis of inorganic mineralogy theory, all available thin section, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) data were used to assist lithofacies analysis. Gamma ray (GR), acoustic (AC), bulk density (RHOB), neutron porosity (NPHI) and photoelectric absorption cross-section index (PE) were selected for log response analysis of various minerals. Reservoir representative equation was created constrained by quantitative core analysis results, and matrix mineral percentage of quartz, carbonate, feldspar and pyrite were calculated to classify shale lithofacies. Considering the horizontal continuity of seismic data, rock physics model was built, and acoustic impedance integrated with core data and log data was used to predict the horizontal distribution of different lithofacies. The results indicate that: (1) nine lithofacies can be categorized in Duvernay shale, (2) the horizontal distribution of different lithofacies is quite diversified, siliceous shale mainly occurs in Simonette area, calcareous shale is prone to develop in the vicinity of reef, while calcareous-siliceous shale dominates in Willesdon Green area.

  6. Epidemiology of west nile in europe and in the mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistri, Paolo; Giovannini, Armando; Hubalek, Zdenek; Ionescu, Aurelia; Monaco, Federica; Savini, Giovanni; Lelli, Rossella

    2010-04-22

    In the last 30 years several cases of West Nile (WN) virus infection were reported in horses and humans in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin. Most of them were determined by strains of the Lineage 1 included in the European Mediterranean/Kenyan cluster. Strains of this cluster are characterised by a moderate pathogenicity for horses and humans and limited or no pathogenicity for birds. In recent years, however, WN cases determined by strains grouped in the Israeli/American cluster of Lineage 1 or in the lineage 2 have been reported in Hungary and Austria. The role of migrating birds in introducing new viruses to Europe has been often demonstrated. The migratory birds, which may be infected in their African wintering places, carry the virus northward to European sites during spring migrations. In the past, the virus introduction determined occasional cases of WN. In the recent years, new epidemiological scenarios are developing. In few occasions it has been evidenced the capability of WNV strains of overwintering by using local birds and mosquitoes. Species of Culex amongst mosquitoes and magpies (Pica pica), carrion crows (Corvus corone) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) amongst resident birds are the most probable species involved in this hypothetical WND endemic cycle.

  7. West Siberian basin hydrogeology - regional framework for contaminant migration from injected wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1994-05-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in massive contamination of the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. Our long-term goal at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is to help determine future environmental and human impacts given the releases that have occurred to date and the current waste management practices. In FY 1993, our objectives were to (1) refine and implement the hydrogeologic conceptual models of the regional hydrogeology of western Siberia developed in FY 1992 and develop the detailed, spatially registered digital geologic and hydrologic databases to test them, (2) calibrate the computer implementation of the conceptual models developed in FY 1992, and (3) develop general geologic and hydrologic information and preliminary hydrogeologic conceptual models relevant to the more detailed models of contaminated site hydrogeology. Calibration studies of the regional hydrogeologic computer model suggest that most precipitation entering the ground-water system moves in the near-surface part of the system and discharges to surface waters relatively near its point of infiltration. This means that wastes discharged to the surface and near-surface may not be isolated as well as previously thought, since the wastes may be carried to the surface by gradually rising ground waters

  8. Saghro Group in the Ougnat Massif (Morocco), an evidence for a continuous Cadomian basin along the northern West African Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michard, André; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane; Ouanaimi, Hassan; Raddi, Youssef; Aït Brahim, Lahsen; Rjimati, Ech-Cherki; Baidder, Lahssen; Saddiqi, Omar

    2017-03-01

    The Saghro Group (SG) is a folded, low-grade volcano-sedimentary series up to 8 km thick that crops out within and to the north of the Pan-African suture zone in the central and eastern Anti-Atlas. Here we describe the SG of the Ougnat inliers that are exposed in the easternmost Anti-Atlas beneath the unconformable, Late Ediacaran Ouarzazate Group (OZG) volcanic rocks. The Ougnat SG mostly consists of volcaniclastic greywackes accumulated in a peritidal-to-shallow basin. The basin infilling was deformed by NNE-trending, mostly upright folds with axial-planar slaty cleavage and low-grade metamorphism. The deformed SG rocks were intruded by the ∼550 Ma Mellab hypovolcanic granodiorite. The latter also crosscuts the lowest OZG rocks that are dated to 574-571 Ma in the western Saghro region. The SG rocks that form the Siroua and Saghro inliers have an oldest age of 620-610 Ma and were folded at ∼610-580 Ma at the onset of the Cadomian orogenic events. We show that the SG rocks are similar to the ;Série verte; (SV) rocks that are exposed in the Ougarta and western Hoggar east of the Pan-African suture. We infer that the SG and SV rocks accumulated in a same, continuous basin that was bounding the West African Craton to the north and the east. This strongly subsiding basin formed close to a volcanic arc and was folded during the last Pan-African synmetamorphic events. Fold orientation and age of folding differ however along the edge of the West African Craton. The orogenic greywackes that form the remnants of the SG-SV basin thus constitute a precious record of the diachronic Cadomian event s.l. along the West African Craton northern margin.

  9. Variety, State and Origin of Drained Thaw Lake Basins in West-Siberian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpotin, S.; Polishchuk, Y.; Bryksina, N.; Sugaipova, A.; Pokrovsky, O.; Shirokova, L.; Kouraev, A.; Zakharova, E.; Kolmakova, M.; Dupre, B.

    2009-04-01

    Drained thaw lake basins in Western Siberia have a local name "khasyreis" [1]. Khasyreis as well as lakes, ponds and frozen mounds are invariable element of sub-arctic frozen peat bogs - palsas and tundra landscapes. In some areas of West-Siberian sub-arctic khasyreis occupy up to 40-50% of total lake area. Sometimes their concentration is so high that we call such places ‘khasyrei's fields". Khasyreis are part of the natural cycle of palsa complex development [1], but their origin is not continuous and uniform in time and, according to our opinion, there were periods of more intensive lake drainage and khasyrei development accordingly. These times were corresponding with epochs of climatic warming and today we have faced with one of them. So, last years this process was sufficiently activated in the south part of West-Siberian sub-arctic [2]. It was discovered that in the zone of continuous permafrost thermokarst lakes have expanded their areas by about 10-12%, but in the zone of discontinuous permafrost the process of their drainage prevails. These features are connected with the thickness of peat layers which gradually decreases to the North, and thus have reduced the opportunity for lake drainage in northern areas. The most typical way of khasyrei origin is their drainage to the bigger lakes which are always situated on the lower levels and works as a collecting funnels providing drainage of smaller lakes. The lower level of the big lake appeared when the lake takes a critical mass of water enough for subsidence of the lake bottom due to the melting of underlaying rocks [2]. Another one way of lake drainage is the lake intercept by any river. Lake drainage to the subsurface (underlaying rocks) as some authors think [3, 4] is not possible in Western Siberia, because the thickness of permafrost is at list 500 m here being safe confining bed. We mark out few stages of khasyrei development: freshly drained, young, mature and old. This row reflects stages of

  10. Delaware's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonya W. Lister; Glenn Gladders; Charles J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Andrew J. Lister; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The fifth full inventory of Delaware's forests reports an 8 percent decrease in the area of forest land to 352,000 acres, which cover 28 percent of the State's land area and has a volume of approximately 2,352 cubic feet per acre. Twenty-one percent of the growing-stock volume is red maple, followed by sweetgum (13 percent), and loblolly pine (12 percent)....

  11. Unreviewed safety question evaluation of 100K East and 100K West in-basin fuel characterization program activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwardt, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for answers to an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) safety evaluation of the 105K East (KE) and 105K West (KW) in-basin activities associated with the fuel characterization program as described in the characterization shipping plan. The significant activities that are common to both 105 KE and 105 KW basins are the movement of canisters from their main basin storage locations (or potentially from the 105 KE Tech View Pit if a dump table is available) to the south loadout pit transfer channel, hydrogen generation testing in the single element fuel container, loading the single element fuel container into the shipping cask, loading of the shipping cask onto a flat-bed trailer, return of the test fuel elements or element pieces from the 327 facility, placement of the fuel elements back into Mark 2 canisters, and placement of the canisters in the main storage basin. Decapping of canisters in the south loadout pit transfer channel and re-encapsulation of canisters are activities specific to the 105 KW basin. The scope of this safety evaluation includes only those characterization fuel shipment activities performed in the 105 KE and 105 KW fuel storage basin structures up to installation of the overpack. The packaging safety evaluation report governs the shipment of the fuel elements. The K Basins Plant Review Committee has determined that the in-basin activities associated with the fuel characterization program fuel shipments are bounded by the current safety envelop and do not constitute an unreviewed safety question. This determination is documented on Attachment 1

  12. Organic petrology, mineralogy and depositional environment of the Kipra lignite seam, Maritza-West basin, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostova, Irena [Department of Geology and Palaeontology, Sofia University ' ' St. Kliment Ohridski' ' , 1000, Sofia (Bulgaria); Zdravkov, Alexander [Department of Economic Geology, University of Mining and Geology ' ' St. Ivan Rilski' ' , 1700, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide additional information about the properties and depositional environment of the Kipra lignite seam, which was deposited during the regressive stage of development of the Maritza-West basin. Petrographical and mineralogical data, along with ash yields and sulphur contents of 24 samples from a seam profile, have been used to study the vertical variation of the depositional settings during peat accumulation and subsequent coalification. The Kipra lignite is characterized by high ash yields and sulphur contents. It formed in a rheotrophic, low-lying mire with alkaline pH value. Vegetation with low preservation potential dominated within the palaeomire. During peat formation, frequent changes of the water level controlled the depositional environment. During the deposition of units 1 and 2, high water energy caused the transportation of high amounts of inorganic material into the mire, resulting in the formation of weakly gelified mineral-rich lignite. The organic matter from units 3 and 4 is characterized by enhanced gelification, which probably reflects the decreasing energy of the system. Good positive correlation between sulphur contents and the GI values was established in units 4, indicating that the gelification of the tissues was probably mainly controlled by the bacterial activity. In contrast, the gelification of the samples from unit 3 of the Kipra seam was probably governed by the redox conditions. The organic matter deposited under relatively wet conditions, in which the thermal and oxidative destruction of the tissues, was limited. A variety of major, minor and accessory minerals are present in Maritza-West lignite. The mineral composition is dominated mainly by pyrite, gypsum and calcite, and to a lesser extent limonite, quartz, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, chlorite and plagioclase. Jarosite, hematite, halloysite, mica, K-feldspar, aragonite, siderite, and dolomite were also determined in very low

  13. West Siberian Basin hydrogeology: Site characterization of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, K.A.; Foley, M.G.; Allen, E.A.; Alexander, L.J.; McKinley, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The former Soviet Union has extensive defense-related nuclear production facilities that have released large amounts of hazardous and radioactive waste materials into the air, surface water, and ground water in areas surrounding the production sites. The key sites of concern are Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26, all located within the West siberian Basin. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom), has been conducted contaminant-migration studies of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 in Western Siberia since 1993. The intent of this program is to maximize use of US and Russian site characterization, contaminant transport modeling, and remediation technology for the benefit of DOE and Minatom site-cleanup activities. Site characterization activities conducted during FY 1996 comprised evaluating the existing database, developing methods for synthesizing missing data, and designing an effective means of data and technology transfer. Comparison of the database, most of the contents of which have been acquired remotely with contaminant transport modeling data requirements allowed the authors to evaluate the utility of data acquired remotely for modeling purposes, and to identify gaps in the characterization of Russian waste-disposal sites. Identifying these gaps led to the second activity, which was to develop methods for synthesizing missing data from an evaluation of existing data. The authors tested these methods by evaluating geologic fracturing at the Mayak site. The third activity was the development of an effective procedure for data and technology transfer. The goal was to provide the site characterization database to Russian modelers in such a way that the data were easily transported, viewed, and manipulated for use in their models. This report summarizes the results of the three site characterization activities performed during FY 1996

  14. Preliminary report on fluid inclusions from halites in the Castile and lower Salado formations of the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, C.L.

    1985-09-01

    A suite of samples composed primarily of halite from the upper Castile and lower Salado Formations of the Permian Basin was selected from Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) core for a reconnaissance study of fluid inclusions. Volume percent of these trapped fluids averaged 0.7% to 1%. Freezing-point depressions varied widely and appeared to be unrelated to fluid-inclusion type, to sedimentary facies, or to stratigraphic depth. However, because very low freezing points were usually associated with anhydrite, a relation may exist between freezing-point data and lithology. Dissolved sulfate values were constant through the Castile, then decreased markedly with lesser depth in the lower Salado. This trend correlates very well with observed mineralogy and is consistent with an interpretation of the occurrence of secondary polyhalite as a result of gypsum or anhydrite alteration with simultaneous consumption of dissolved sulfate from the coexisting fluids. Together with the abundance and distribution of fluid inclusions in primary or ''hopper'' crystal structures, this evidence suggests that inclusions seen in these halites did not migrate any significant geographical distance since their formation. 28 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Shale characterization in mass transport complex as a potential source rock: An example from onshore West Java Basin, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, A. M. S.; Widiarti, R.; Kusumah, E. P.

    2017-12-01

    This study describes a deep-water slump facies shale of the Early Miocene Jatiluhur/Cibulakan Formation to understand its potential as a source rock in an active tectonic region, the onshore West Java. The formation is equivalent with the Gumai Formation, which has been well-known as another prolific source rock besides the Oligocene Talang Akar Formation in North West Java Basin, Indonesia. The equivalent shale formation is expected to have same potential source rock towards the onshore of Central Java. The shale samples were taken onshore, 150 km away from the basin. The shale must be rich of organic matter, have good quality of kerogen, and thermally matured to be categorized as a potential source rock. Investigations from petrography, X-Ray diffractions (XRD), and backscattered electron show heterogeneous mineralogy in the shales. The mineralogy consists of clay minerals, minor quartz, muscovite, calcite, chlorite, clinopyroxene, and other weathered minerals. This composition makes the shale more brittle. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis indicate secondary porosities and microstructures. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) shows 0.8-1.1 wt%, compared to the basinal shale 1.5-8 wt%. The shale properties from this outcropped formation indicate a good potential source rock that can be found in the subsurface area with better quality and maturity.

  16. Geology Structure Identification Using Pre-Stack Depth Migration (PSDM Method of Tomography Result in North West Java Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudra Irawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available North West Java Basin is a tertiary sedimentary basin which is located in the right of the western part of the Java island. North West Java Basin is geodynamic where currently located at the rear position of the path of the volcanic arc of Java that is the result of the India-Australia plate subduction to the south towards the Eurasian plate (Explanation of Sunda in the north. Geology structure observation is difficult to be conducted at Quaternary volcanicfield due to the classical problem at tropical region. In the study interpretation of fault structures can be done on a cross-section of Pre-Stack Depth Migration (PSDM used prayer namely Hardware Key Device, ie Central Processing Unit: RedHat Enterprise Linux AS 5.0, prayer Monitor 24-inch pieces, Server: SGI altix 450/SuSe Linux Enterprise Server 9.0, 32 GB, 32 X 2,6 GHz Procesor, network: Gigabyte 1 Gb/s, and the software used is paradigm, product: Seismic Processing and Imaging. The third fault obtained in this study in accordance with the geological information derived from previous research conducted by geologists. The second general direction is northwest-southeast direction represented by Baribis fault, fault-fault in the Valley Cimandiri and Gunung Walat. This direction is often known as the directions Meratus (Meratus Trend. Meratus directions interpreted as directions that follow the pattern of continuous arc Cretaceous age to Meratus in Kalimantan.

  17. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Christina River subbasin and overview of simulations in other subbasins of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania and Delaware and includes the major subbasins of Brandywine Creek, Red Clay Creek, White Clay Creek, and Christina River. The Christina River subbasin (exclusive of the Brandywine, Red Clay, and White Clay Creek subbasins) drains an area of 76 mi2. Streams in the Christina River Basin are used for recreation, drinking water supply, and support of aquatic life. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the stream. A multi-agency water-quality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point- and nonpoint-source contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in nonpoint-source evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the four main subbasins of the Christina River Basin, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in small subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint- source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base-flow samples were collected during 1998 at two sites in the Christina River subbasin and nine sites elsewhere in the Christina River Basin.The HSPF model for the Christina River subbasin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into nine reaches draining areas that ranged from 3.8 to 21.9 mi2. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the Christina

  18. Delaware's first serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  19. Diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette Oil Reservoir (Givetian-Frasnian), deep basin of west-central Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, J.P.; Mountjoy, E.W. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    1997-05-01

    The geology and diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette oil field of west-central Alberta basin was described. Present-day burial depth is 3900 m; formation temperature is 93 degrees C. Highest porosites (20 per cent) occur in dolostones of the lagoon, ref, and fore-reef depositional environments but limestones still retain porosities up to five per cent. Hydrocarbons are present in saddle dolomite fluid inclusions. Oxygen isotopes for replacement dolomites and late calcite suggest that the carbonate-precipitating fluids were derived from the Precambrian basement or Paleozoic clastics sourced from the basement. Faults may have acted as vertical conduits for fluid migration.

  20. Geophysical Measurements in the Beaver Basin, West-Central Utah; Part 1--Slingram, Magnetic, and Self-Potential Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Flanigan, Vincent J.; Campbell, David L.; U.S. Geological Survey

    1981-01-01

    This report consists of figures showing profile locations (fig. 1, table 1) in the Beaver Basin, west-central Utah, and ground geophysical data collected in September 1980 along these traverses (figs. 2-11). These data consist of slingram electromagnetic (real and imaginary components at 222, 444, 888, 1777, and 3555 Hz), ground magnetic and self-potential measurements collected at 200-foot (61-m) intervals along about 8.8 miles (14.2 km) of survey line. Table 2 lists equipment used. The r...

  1. Delaware Bay, Delaware Sediment Distribution 2003 to 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 38 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2003 to 2004 along the middle to lower Delaware Bay Coast. The bottom sediment map...

  2. Using Spatial Information Technologies as Monitoring Devices in International Watershed Conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw A. Twumasi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies—Geographic Information Systems (GIS and remote sensing—in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region’s entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing

  3. Using spatial information technologies as monitoring devices in international watershed conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merem, Edmund C; Twumasi, Yaw A

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies-Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing-in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region's entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing techniques by generating spatially referenced data to supplement

  4. Conditions and potential evaluation of the uranium mineralization in volcanic basins at the west section of the Yanliao mineral belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengbang; Zhao Shiqin; Luo Yi; Zhou Dean; Xiao Xiangping

    1993-03-01

    The West section of the Yanliao Mineral Belt is an important prospective uranium mineralization area in volcanic basins at North China. It has undergone three evolutionary periods and developed into six large volcanic collapse faulted basins with tri-layer structure. This leads to three times of pre-enrichment and multiple mineralization of uranium. Finally, the accumulation of uranium and superimposed reworked actions of uranium mineralization resulted in the formation of uranium deposits. After analyzing conditions of uranium mineralization, a model for uranium mineralization of mixed hydrothermal solution of multiple sources in penetrating volcanic collapse faulted basins and seven exploring criteria are suggested. On this basis the evaluation of prospect in this area is positive, and the main exploring strategy has been decided. Furthermore, five prospective areas of mineralization and three most favorable mineralization zones are selected. For exploring large size or super-large size uranium deposits in the area, the key is to strengthen the study and boring of deep layers. Thus, the mineralization in the deep layers or basement may be found. The prediction of deep blind deposits in known ore districts has been proved effectively

  5. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  6. Simulation of Water Quality in the Tull Creek and West Neck Creek Watersheds, Currituck Sound Basin, North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    A study of the Currituck Sound was initiated in 2005 to evaluate the water chemistry of the Sound and assess the effectiveness of management strategies. As part of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate current sediment and nutrient loadings for two distinct watersheds in the Currituck Sound basin and to determine the consequences of different water-quality management scenarios. The watersheds studied were (1) Tull Creek watershed, which has extensive row-crop cultivation and artificial drainage, and (2) West Neck Creek watershed, which drains urban areas in and around Virginia Beach, Virginia. The model simulated monthly streamflows with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 for Tull Creek and West Neck Creek, respectively. The daily sediment concentration coefficient of determination was 0.19 for Tull Creek and 0.36 for West Neck Creek. The coefficient of determination for total nitrogen was 0.26 for both watersheds and for dissolved phosphorus was 0.4 for Tull Creek and 0.03 for West Neck Creek. The model was used to estimate current (2006-2007) sediment and nutrient yields for the two watersheds. Total suspended-solids yield was 56 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. Total nitrogen export was 45 percent lower, and total phosphorus was 43 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. A management scenario with filter strips bordering the main channels was simulated for Tull Creek. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model estimated a total suspended-solids yield reduction of 54 percent and total nitrogen and total phosphorus reductions of 21 percent and 29 percent, respectively, for the Tull Creek watershed.

  7. Extended Aquifer Air Sparging/Soil Vapor Extraction Treatability Study for Site SS59 (WP-21) Dover Air Force Base, Dover, Delaware

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    Site 5559 at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware is under investigation for the remediation of ground water which was contaminated by a system of industrial waste basins operated to the north of this area...

  8. Thermometric carottage measurement and thermic flow in Cheb basin (West Czech)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irovska, J.; Kobr, M.; Cermak, V.

    2002-01-01

    The basic method applied for carottage measurement in Cheb basin was the measurement of natural gamma activity and resistance measurement. In selected drillings for search of coal deposits the neutron-neutron profiling, density gamma-gamma carottage and inclinometry were applied. This standard method was refill with measurements of hydrogeology conditions in a drill (resistivimetry, thermometry, photometry, flowmeter). In the Cheb basin 36 drills have stable thermometric measurements of 850 drills with the depth more than 45 m. From these measurements the map of thermal flow density was plotted. On the map 4 anomalies are manifested

  9. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional resources of 1.1 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 trillion cubic feet of gas in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China.

  10. Devonian sand injections and volcanism in the Murzuq Basin (south-west Libya)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Ghienne, Jean-Francois

    system is original by its interaction with volcanism and its situation in an epicontinental intracratonic basin. The sand injections form a seal-bypass system between the Ordovician-Cambrian reservoirs and the Lower Devonian sandstones, breaching through the Silurian shale seal (and source rock...

  11. Linking Tarim Basin sea retreat (west China) and Asian aridification in the late Eocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosboom, R.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Grothe, A.; Brinkhuis, H.; Villa, G.; Mandic, O.; Stoica, M.; Huang, W.; Yang, W.; Guo, Z.; Krijgsman, W.

    2014-01-01

    The Tarim Basin in western China formed the easternmost margin of a shallow epicontinental sea that extended across Eurasia and was well connected to the western Tethys during the Paleogene. Climate modelling studies suggest that the westward retreat of this sea from Central Asia may have been as

  12. Hydro engineering Feasibility Study of Surface Runoff Water Harvesting in Al-Ajeej Basin, North West Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thair M. Al-Taiee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The hydro engineering  characteristics of Al-Ajeej basin which was located within south Sinjar plain north west Iraq was analyzed to predict the possibility of surface runoff harvesting during rainfall season in the upstream sites in this basin using watershed modeling system (WMS. The hydrological feasibility of constructing small dam on Al-Ajeej valley with some preliminary design calculations were presented. The best optimum dam site was selected to be located (3.95 km downstream the confluence of Al-Badee branch with Al-Ajeej valley (35° 46¢ 6² Latitude and Longitude 41° 36¢ 11² having a catchment's area of (3043km2. The proposed dam  height was (12.5 meter with a dam length of (1277m, while the normal storage volume of the reservoir is (38.8 million m3. Construction a dams in such sites characterized by water shortage during all  around the year will give an aid in the sustainable development of such area by increasing  the cultivation lands, the agricultural products and also modify the income of the villagers living  in this area leading to prevent them leaving their lands to other places

  13. Comparison of West African and Congo Basin monkeypox viruses in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Hutson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although monkeypox virus (MPXV studies in wild rodents and non-human primates have generated important knowledge regarding MPXV pathogenesis and inferences about disease transmission, it might be easier to dissect the importance of virulence factors and correlates of protection to MPXV in an inbred mouse model. Herein, we compared the two clades of MPXV via two routes of infection in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mice strains. Our studies show that similar to previous animal studies, the Congo Basin strain of MPXV was more virulent than West African MPXV in both mouse strains as evidenced by clinical signs. Although animals did not develop lesions as seen in human MPX infections, localized signs were apparent with the foot pad route of inoculation, primarily in the form of edema at the site of inoculation; while the Congo Basin intranasal route of infection led to generalized symptoms, primarily weight loss. We have determined that future studies with MPXV and laboratory mice would be very beneficial in understanding the pathogenesis of MPXV, in particular if used in in vivo imaging studies. Although this mouse model may not suffice as a model of human MPX disease, with an appropriate inbred mouse model, we can unravel many unknown aspects of MPX pathogenesis, including virulence factors, disease progression in rodent hosts, and viral shedding from infected animals. In addition, such a model can be utilized to test antivirals and the next generation of orthopoxvirus vaccines for their ability to alter the course of disease.

  14. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of neoproterozoic Platform deposits in Adrar of Mauritania, Taoudeni basin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benan, C. A. A.; Deynoux, M.

    The Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic Taoudeni basin forms the flat-lying and unmetamorphosed sedimentary cover of the West African Craton. In the western part of this basin, the Char Group and the lower part of the Atar Group make up a 400-m-thick Neoproterozoic siliciclastic succession which rests on the Palaeoproterozoic metamorphic and granitic basement. Five erosional bounding surfaces of regional extent have been identified in this succession. These surfaces separate five stratigraphic units with lithofacies associations ranging from fluvial to coastal and fluvial-, tide-, or wave-dominated shallow marine deposits. Owing to their regional extent and their position within the succession, the erosive bounding surfaces correspond to relative sea-level falls, and accordingly the five stratigraphic units they bound represent allocyclic transgressive-regressive depositional sequences (S1-S5). Changes in the nature of the deposits forming the transgressive-regressive cycles reflect landward or seaward shifts of the stacked sequences. These successive relative sea-level changes are related to the reactivation of basement faults and tilting during rifting of the Pan-Afro-Brasiliano supercontinent 1000 m.y. ago. The stromatolite bearing carbonate-shale sequences which form the rest of the Atar Group mark the onset of a quiet period of homogeneous subsidence contemporaneous with the Pan-African I oceanization 800-700 m.y. ago.

  15. HYDRO-METEOROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT IN THE SINGKARAK BASIN, WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasdi Subagyono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Studi tentang karakteristik hidro-meteorologi telah dilakukan di wilayah danau Singkarak pada 2006-2007 dengan melibatkan partisipasi masyarakat. Stasiun iklim otomatis dan pengukur tinggi muka air otomatis dipasang untuk memonitor data hidrologi dan meteorologi di wilayah cekungan Singkarak. Data meteorologi dianalisa untuk mengetahui karakteristik iklim di wilayah sekitar danau. Model hidrologi GR4J dan H2U diaplikasikan untuk simulasi discharge dan untuk mengkarakterisasi proses hidrologi di wilayah danau. Simulasi model aliran divalidasi pada musim hujan. Alternatif pengelolaan lahan diformulasikan berdasarkan karakteristik hidrologi daerah aliran sungai di sekitar cekungan Singkarak. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa daerah tangkapan di sekitar danau Singkarak memiliki respon yang tinggi terhadap jumlah dan intensitas hujan. Hidrograp menunjukkan peningkatan yang tajam dari discharge segera setelah curah hujan mulai dan menurun relative lamban ketika curah hujan berhenti. Untuk pengelolaan lahan secara berkelanjutan di wilayah danau Singkarak, konservasi lahan dan air harus menjadi prioritas utama. Wanatani dapat diimplementasikan sebagai alternatif sistem pertanaman oleh penduduk lokal. Karena potensi kelangkaan air bisa terjadi pada periode kering, panen air dan konservasi air dapat diterapkan sebagai opsi yang dapat dikombinasikan dalam sistem pengelolaan lahan.   Hydro-meteorological processes of the Singkarak basin has been studied involving participatory of local community in 2006-2007. Automatic weather station (AWS and automatic water level recorder (AWLR were installed to record meteorological and hydrological data within the Singkarak Basin. Meteorological data was analyzed to understand the meteorological characteristic surrounding the Basin area. Model of GR4J and H2U were used to simulated discharge and to understand the hydrological processes within the basin. The validation of simulated discharge was done in the wet season

  16. West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    freelance

    considered by many as a successful model of river basin organization. NBA, after years of ... a Regional Water Protocol for West Africa, following the model of the SADC ...... protection of water against pollution of all kinds (urban, industrial,.

  17. Delaware Technical & Community College's response to the critical shortage of Delaware secondary science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Nancy S.

    This executive position paper examines the critical shortage of Delaware high school science teachers and Delaware Technical & Community College's possible role in addressing this shortage. A concise analysis of economic and political implications of the science teacher shortage is presented. The following topics were researched and evaluated: the specific science teacher needs for Delaware school districts; the science teacher education program offerings at Delaware universities and colleges; the Alternative Route to Teacher Certification (ARTC); and the state of Delaware's scholarship response to the need. Recommendations for Delaware Tech's role include the development and implementation of two new Associate of Arts of Teaching programs in physics secondary science education and chemistry secondary science education.

  18. Relation between ground water and surface water in the Hillsborough River basin, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolansky, R.M.; Thompson, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    The relation between groundwater and surface water in the Hillsborough River basin was defined through the use of: seismic-reflection profiling along selected reaches of the Hillsborough River, and evaluation of streamflow, rainfall, groundwater levels, water quality, and geologic data. Major municipal well fields in the basin are Morris Bridge and Cypress Creek where an averages of 15.3 and 30.0 million gal/day (mgd), respectively, were pumped in 1980. Mean annual rainfall for the study area is 53.7 inches. Average rainfall for 1980, determined from eight rainfall stations, was 49.7 inches. Evapotranspiration, corrected for the 5% of the basin that is standing water, was 35.7 in/year. The principal geohydrologic units in the basin are the surficial aquifer, the intermediate aquifer and confining beds, the Upper Floridan aquifer, the middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. Total pumpage of groundwater in 1980 was 98.18 mgd. The surficial aquifer and the intermediate aquifer are not used for major groundwater supply in the basin. Continuous marine seismic-reflection data collected along selected reaches of the Hillsborough River were interpreted to define the riverbed profile, the thickness of surficial deposits, and the top of persistent limestone. Major areas of groundwater discharge near the Hillsborough River and its tributaries are the wetlands adjacent to the river between the Zephyrhills gaging stations and Fletcher Avenue and the wetlands adjacent to Cypress Creek. An estimated 20 mgd seeps upward from the Upper Floridan aquifer within those wetland areas. The runoff/sq mi is greater at the Zephyrhills station than at Morris Bridge. However, results of groundwater flow models and potentiometric-surface maps indicate that groundwater is flowing upward along the Hillsborough River between the Zephyrhills gage and the Morris Bridge gage. This upward leakage is lost to evapotranspiration. An aquifer test conducted in 1978 at the Morris Bridge well

  19. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Delaware single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  20. Archaeology in Delaware. Pupil's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    The archeology of Delaware, for all practical purposes meaning Indian prehistory, is the focus of this set consisting of teacher's and pupil's guides. Intended primarily for use at the fourth grade level, the material can successfully be adapted for use in grades 5 through 8. The teacher's guide is flexible and non-structured, allowing for…

  1. Delaware Bay Upper Shelf Bottom Sediments 2008-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  2. Detection and attribution of climate change at regional scale: case study of Karkheh river basin in the west of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrabi, Narges; Goodarzi, Elahe; Massah Bavani, Alireza; Najafi, Husain

    2017-11-01

    This research aims at providing a statistical framework for detection and attribution of climate variability and change at regional scale when at least 30 years of observation data are available. While extensive research has been done on detecting significant observed trends in hydroclimate variables and attribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in large continents, less attention has been paid for regional scale analysis. The latter is mainly important for adaptation to climate change in different sectors including but not limited to energy, agriculture, and water resources planning and management, and it is still an open discussion in many countries including the West Asian ones. In the absence of regional climate models, an informative framework is suggested providing useful insights for policymakers. It benefits from general flexibility, not being computationally expensive, and applying several trend tests to analyze temporal variations in temperature and precipitation (gradual and step changes). The framework is implemented for a very important river basin in the west of Iran. In general, some increasing and decreasing trends of the interannual precipitation and temperature have been detected. For precipitation annual time series, a reducing step was seen around 1996 compared with the gradual change in most of the stations, which have not experience a dramatical change. The range of natural forcing is found to be ±76 % for precipitation and ±1.4 °C for temperature considering a two-dimensional diagram of precipitation and temperature anomalies from 1000-year control run of global climate model (GCM). Findings out of applying the proposed framework may provide useful insights into how to approach structural and non-structural climate change adaptation strategies from central governments.

  3. Variations of lead isotopes and airborne particulate concentrations from the Kozani basin, West Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampides, G; Manoliadis, O; Triantafyllou, A

    2002-03-01

    The spread and variation in 206Pb/207Pb ratios make Pb isotopes a powerful tool when it comes to detecting trends in airborne particulates originating mainly from power plants. This study was conducted to determine the source of pollution in Kozani area, an affected industrial area. Lead isotopic ratios of air filters under certain meteorological conditions were compared to Pb isotope analyses sampled from lignite mines, but also to Pb isotope analyses of cultivations in soil originating from the reclamation of old abandoned lignite-mines. The particles taken into consideration have an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM10). The measurements were carried out in a central part of the town of Kozani, West Macedonia, for one year observation period. The lead isotope values of air filters and of wheat in the Kozani area are between the values of lignite Pb and of Greek gasoline.

  4. The hydrocarbon potential of the West Bengal basin of Eastern India and Western Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.V.; Lenengerger, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    Within the Bengal Basin is an extensively developed Eocene shelf system with fair to good potential for stratigraphic oil accumulations. The best quality data available to evaluate this play are from the Bogra Shelf area of Bangladesh. Within this general area Stanvac participated in the drilling of 13 wells in the late 1950's, including critical wells on the Bogra Shelf. This well data, combined with modern excellent quality seismic data, has allowed definition of a geological and geophysical constrained hydrocarbon system model. Potential source, reservoir and seal units can be identified or postulated from both well and seismic data within the Eocene depositional systems tracts. The most promising potential source rock unit identified on the Bogra Shelf to date are Upper Jalangi (Early Ecocene) shales containing oil-prone kerogens that average 4.7% TOC. Four wells, structurally up-dip of the defined play area, have good oil shows in thermally immature Jalangi sands indicating possible up dip migration. Reservoir strata have not been penetrated on the Bogra Shelf. Based basin modelling and seismic data, however, a foraminiferal grain stone facies within the Middle Eocene Sylthet Limestone carbonate buildups could provide a suitable reservoir. The tight micritic facies within the Sylhet Limestone and the overlying late Eocene Kopilli Shale form the updip, lateral and top seals for these stratigraphic traps. Exploration risks associated with this play include the following: (1) Limited drainage areas for the identified leads; (2) Carbonate build-ups may be perched on impermeable strata, precluding vertical charging; (3) presence, and up-dip limit of reservoir is speculative. (author)

  5. 78 FR 36658 - Safety Zone; Delaware River Waterfront Corp. Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Camden, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... portion of the Delaware River from operating while a fireworks event is taking place. This temporary...-AA00 Safety Zone; Delaware River Waterfront Corp. Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Camden, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary...

  6. Acoustic and tephra records of explosive eruptions at West Mata submarine volcano, NE Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziak, R. P.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Baker, E. T.; Matsumoto, H.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Mack, C. J.; Embley, R. W.; Merle, S. G.; Walker, S. L.; Lau, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    West Mata is a 1200 m deep submarine volcano where explosive boninite eruptions were directly observed in May 2009. Here we present long-term acoustic and tephra records of West Mata explosion activity from three deployments of hydrophone and particle sensor moorings beginning on 8 January 2009. These records provide insights into the character of explosive magma degassing occurring at the volcano's summit vent until the decline and eventual cessation of the eruption during late 2010 and early 2011. The detailed acoustic records show three types of volcanic signals, 1) discrete explosions, 2) diffuse explosions, and 3) volcanic tremor. Discrete explosions are short duration, high amplitude broad-band signals caused by rapid gas bubble release. Diffuse signals are likely a result of 'trap-door' explosions where a quench cap of cooled lava forms over the magmatic vent but gas pressure builds underneath the cap. This pressure eventually causes the cap to breach and gas is explosively released until pressure reduces and the cap once again forms. Volcanic tremor is typified by narrow-band, long-duration signals with overtones, as well as narrow-band tones that vary frequency over time between 60-100 Hz. The harmonic tremor is thought to be caused by modulation of rapid, short duration gas explosion pulses and not a magma resonance phenomenon. The variable frequency tones may be caused by focused degassing or hydrothermal fluid flow from a narrow volcanic vent or conduit. High frequency (>30 Hz) tremor-like bands of energy are a result of interference caused by multipath wide-band signals, including sea-surface reflected acoustic phases, that arrive at the hydrophone with small time delays. Acoustic data suggest that eruption velocities for a single explosion range from 4-50 m s-1, although synchronous arrival of explosion signals has complicated our efforts to estimate long-term gas flux. Single explosions exhibit ~4-40 m3 s-1 of total volume flux (gas and rock) but

  7. Coalbed methane-produced water quality and its management options in Raniganj Basin, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendhe, Vinod Atmaram; Mishra, Subhashree; Varma, Atul Kumar; Singh, Awanindra Pratap

    2017-06-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) recovery is associated with production of large quantity of groundwater. The coal seams are depressurized by pumping of water for regular and consistent gas production. Usually, CBM operators need to pump >10 m3 of water per day from one well, which depends on the aquifer characteristics, drainage and recharge pattern. In India, 32 CBM blocks have been awarded for exploration and production, out of which six blocks are commercially producing methane gas at 0.5 million metric standard cubic feet per day. Large amount of water is being produced from CBM producing blocks, but no specific information or data are available for geochemical properties of CBM-produced water and its suitable disposal or utilization options for better management. CBM operators are in infancy and searching for the suitable solutions for optimal management of produced water. CBM- and mine-produced water needs to be handled considering its physical and geochemical assessment, because it may have environmental as well as long-term impact on aquifer. Investigations were carried out to evaluate geochemical and hydrogeological conditions of CBM blocks in Raniganj Basin. Totally, 15 water samples from CBM well head and nine water samples from mine disposal head were collected from Raniganj Basin. The chemical signature of produced water reveals high sodium and bicarbonate concentrations with low calcium and magnesium, and very low sulphate in CBM water. It is comprehend that CBM water is mainly of Na-HCO3 type and coal mine water is of Ca-Mg-SO4 and HCO3-Cl-SO4 type. The comparative studies are also carried out for CBM- and mine-produced water considering the geochemical properties, aquifer type, depth of occurrence and lithological formations. Suitable options like impounding, reverse osmosis, irrigation and industrial use after prerequisite treatments are suggested. However, use of this huge volume of CBM- and mine-produced water for irrigation or other beneficial purposes

  8. Mineralogy and organic petrology of oil shales in the Sangkarewang Formation, Ombilin Basin, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatimah [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)]|[Centre for Geological Resources, Department of Mines and Energy, Jalan Soekarno Hatta No. 444, Bandung 40254 (Indonesia); Ward, Colin R. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2009-01-31

    The Ombilin Basin is filled by late Eocene to early Oligocene marginal fan deposits (Brani Formation) and lacustrine shales (Sangkarewang Formation), unconformably overlain by a late Oligocene to early Miocene fluvial sequence (Sawahlunto and Sawahtambang Formations) and capped by an early to mid-Miocene marine sequence (Ombilin Formation). Significant oil shale deposits occur in the Sangkarewang Formation, intercalated with thin laminated greenish-grey calcareous sandstones. X-ray diffraction shows that the sediments consist mainly of quartz, feldspar, carbonates and a range of clay minerals, together in some cases with minor proportions of sulphides, evaporites and zeolites. Feldspar and non-kaolinite clay minerals decrease up the sequence, relative to kaolinite, suggesting a changing sediment source as the basin was filled. Calcite, thought to be mainly of authigenic origin, is also more abundant in the middle and upper parts of the sequence. The organic matter in the oil shales of the sequence is dominated by liptinite macerals, particularly alginite (mainly lamalginite) and sporinite. Cutinite also occurs in some samples, along with resinite and traces of bituminite. The dominance of lamalginite in the liptinite components suggests that the material can be described as a lamosite. Samples from the Sangkarewang Formation have vitrinite reflectance values ranging between 0.37% and 0.55%. These are markedly lower than the vitrinite reflectance for coal from the overlying Sawahlunto Formation (0.68%), possibly due to suppression associated with the abundant liptinite in the oil shales. Fischer assay data on outcrop samples indicate that the oil yield is related to the organic carbon content. Correlations with XRD data show that, with one exception, the oil yield and organic carbon can also be correlated directly to the abundance of carbonate (calcite) and inversely to the abundance of quartz plus feldspar. This suggests that the abundance of algal material in the

  9. Simulation of the Lower Walker River Basin hydrologic system, west-central Nevada, using PRMS and MODFLOW models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allander, Kip K.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Jeton, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Walker Lake is a terminal lake in west-central Nevada with almost all outflow occurring through evaporation. Diversions from Walker River since the early 1900s have contributed to a substantial reduction in flow entering Walker Lake. As a result, the lake is receding, and salt concentrations have increased to a level in which Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi (Lahontan Cutthroat trout) are no longer present, and the lake ecosystem is threatened. Consequently, there is a concerted effort to restore the Walker Lake ecosystem and fishery to a level that is more sustainable. However, Walker Lake is interlinked with the lower Walker River and adjacent groundwater system which makes it difficult to understand the full effect of upstream water-management actions on the overall hydrologic system including the lake level, volume, and dissolved-solids concentrations of Walker Lake. To understand the effects of water-management actions on the lower Walker River Basin hydrologic system, a watershed model and groundwater flow model have been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.

  10. The timber resources of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland H. Ferguson; Carl E. Mayer

    1974-01-01

    Under the authority of the McSweeney-McNary Forest Research Act of May 22, 1928, and subsequent amendments, the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, conducts a series of continuing forest surveys of all states to provide up-to-date information about the forest resources of the Nation. The first forest survey of Delaware was made in 1956 by the Northeastern...

  11. Mapping of a Hydrological Ice Sheet Drainage Basin on the West Greenland Ice Sheet Margin from ERS-1/2 SAR Interferometry, Ice-Radar Measurement, and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Bøggild, C.E.; Stenseng, L.

    2002-01-01

    importance of the potential of the ice overburden pressure compared to the bedrock topography. The meltwater run-off for the basin delineations was modelled with an energy-balance model calibrated with observed ice-sheet ablation and compared to a 25 year time series of measured basin run-off. The standard......The hydrological ice-sheet basin draining into the Tasersiaq lake, West Greenland (66°13'N, 50°30'W), was delineated, First using standard digital elevation models (DEMs) for ice-sheet surface and bedrock, and subsequently using a new high-resolution dataset, with a surface DEM derived from repeat......-track interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and a bedrock topography derived from an airborne 60 MHz ice-penetrating radar. The extent of the delineation was calculated from a water-pressure potential as a function of the ice-sheet surface and bedrock elevations and a hydraulic factor κ describing the relative...

  12. Technology Development And Deployment Of Systems For The Retrieval And Processing Of Remote-Handled Sludge From Hanford K-West Fuel Storage Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, significant progress was made in developing and deploying technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 105-K West Fuel Storage Basin on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The sludge in the 105-K West Basin is an accumulation of degraded spent nuclear fuel and other debris that collected during long-term underwater storage of the spent fuel. In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was used to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from 10 submerged temporary storage containers in the K West Basin. In 2011, a full-scale prototype facility was completed for use in technology development, design qualification testing, and operator training on systems used to retrieve, transport, and store highly radioactive K Basin sludge. In this facility, three separate systems for characterizing, retrieving, pretreating, and processing remote-handled sludge were developed. Two of these systems were successfully deployed in 2011. One of these systems was used to pretreat knockout pot sludge as part of the 105-K West Basin cleanup. Knockout pot sludge contains pieces of degraded uranium fuel ranging in size from 600 μm to 6350 μm mixed with pieces of inert material, such as aluminum wire and graphite, in the same size range. The 2011 pretreatment campaign successfully removed most of the inert material from the sludge stream and significantly reduced the remaining volume of knockout pot product material. Removing the inert material significantly minimized the waste stream and reduced costs by reducing the number of transportation and storage containers. Removing the inert material also improved worker safety by reducing the number of remote-handled shipments. Also in 2011, technology development and final design were completed on the system to remove knockout pot material from the basin and transport the material to an onsite facility for interim storage. This system is scheduled

  13. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area

  14. Predicting the downstream impact of ensembles of small reservoirs with special reference to the Volta Basin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Liebe, J.; Steenhuis, T.; Huber-Lee, A.

    2005-12-01

    After a strong reduction in investments in water infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa, we now see a revival and increased interest to start water-related projects. The global political willingness to work towards the UN millennium goals are an important driver behind this recent development. Large scale irrigation projects, such as were constructed at tremendous costs in the 1970's and early 1980's, are no longer seen as the way forward. Instead, the construction of a large number of small, village-level irrigation schemes is thought to be a more effective way to improve food production. Such small schemes would fit better in existing and functioning governance structures. An important question now becomes what the cumulative (downstream) impact is of a large number of small irrigation projects, especially when they threaten to deplete transboundary water resources. The Volta Basin in West Africa is a transboundary river catchment, divided over six countries. Of these six countries, upstream Burkina Faso and downstream Ghana are the most important and cover 43% and 42% of the basin, respectively. In Burkina Faso (and also North Ghana), small reservoirs and associated irrigation schemes are already an important means to improve the livelihoods of the rural population. In fact, over two thousand such schemes have already been constructed in Burkina Faso and further construction is to be expected in the light of the UN millennium goals. The cumulative impact of these schemes would affect the Akosombo Reservoir, one of the largest manmade lakes in the world and an important motor behind the economic development in (South) Ghana. This presentation will put forward an analytical framework that allows for the impact assessment of (large) ensembles of small reservoirs. It will be shown that despite their relatively low water use efficiencies, the overall impact remains low compared to the impact of large dams. The tools developed can be used in similar settings elsewhere

  15. Ground-water quality in the Appalachian Plateaus, Kanawha River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Charlynn J.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    Water samples collected from 30 privately-owned and small public-supply wells in the Appalachian Plateaus of the Kanawha River Basin were analyzed for a wide range of constituents, including bacteria, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of most constituents from samples analyzed did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. Constituents that exceeded drinking-water standards in at least one sample were total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), iron, manganese, and sulfate. Total coliform bacteria were present in samples from five sites, and E. coli were present at only one site. USEPA secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) were exceeded for three constituents -- sulfate exceeded the SMCL of 250 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in samples from 2 of 30 wells; iron exceeded the SMCL of 300 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) in samples from 12 of the wells, and manganese exceeded the SMCL of 50 ?g/L in samples from 17 of the wells sampled. None of the samples contained concentrations of nutrients that exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for these constituents. The maximum concentration of nitrate detected was only 4.1 mg/L, which is below the MCL of 10 mg/L. Concentrations of nitrate in precipitation and shallow ground water are similar, potentially indicating that precipitation may be a source of nitrate in shallow ground water in the study area. Radon concentrations exceeded the recently proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 pCi/L at 50 percent of the sites sampled. The median concentration of radon was only 290 pCi/L. Radon-222 is a naturally occurring, carcinogenic, radioactive decay product of uranium. Concentrations, however, did not exceed the alternate maximum contaminant level (AMCL) for radon of 4,000 pCi/L in any of the 30 samples. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the proposed MCL of 5?g/L at 4 of the 30 sites. No samples exceeded the

  16. Groundwater Depletion in the West Liaohe River Basin, China and Its Implications Revealed by GRACE and In Situ Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Zhong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The West Liaohe River Basin (WLRB is one of the most sensitive areas to climate change in China and an important grain production base in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. Groundwater depletion in this region is becoming a critical issue. Here, we used the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite data and in situ well observations to estimate groundwater storage (GWS variations and discussed the driving factors of GWS changes in the WLRB. GRACE detects a GWS decline rate of −0.92 ± 0.49 km3/yr in the WLRB during 2005–2011, consistent with the estimate from in situ observations (−0.96 ± 0.19 km3/yr. This long-term GWS depletion is attributed to reduced precipitation and extensive groundwater overexploitation in the 2000s. Long-term groundwater level observations and reconstructed total water storage variations since 1980 show favorable agreement with precipitation anomalies at interannual timescales, both of which are significantly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Generally, the WLRB receives more/less precipitation during the El Niño/La Niña periods. One of the strongest El Niño events on record in 1997–1998 and a subsequent strong La Niña drastically transform the climate of WLRB into a decade-long drought period, and accelerate the groundwater depletion in the WLRB after 1998. This study demonstrates the significance of integrating satellite observations, ground-based measurements, and climatological data for interpreting regional GWS changes from a long-term perspective.

  17. Carbon monoxide degassing from seismic fault zones in the Basin and Range province, west of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yutao; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Zheng, Guodong; Li, Jing; Shi, Hongyu; Guo, Zhengfu; Du, Jianguo

    2017-11-01

    Degassing of carbon monoxide (CO), which plays a significant role in the contribution of deep carbon to the atmosphere, commonly occurs within active fault zones. CO degassing from soil to the atmosphere in the Basin and Range province, west of Beijing (BRPB), China, was investigated by in-situ field measurements in the active fault zones. The measured concentrations of CO in soil gas in the BRPB ranged from 0.29 × 10-6 to 1.1 × 10-6 with a mean value of 0.6 × 10-6, which is approximately twice as large as that in the atmosphere. Net fluxes of CO degassing ranged from -48.6 mg m-2 d-1 to 12.03 mg m-2 d-1. The diffusion of CO from soil to the atmosphere in the BRPB was estimated to be at least 7.6 × 103 ton/a, which is comparable to the corresponding result of about 1.2 × 104 ton/a for CO2. CO concentrations were spatially heterogeneous with clearly higher concentrations along the NE-SW trending in the BRPB. These elevated values of CO concentrations were also coincident with the region with low-velocity and high conductivity in deep mantle, and high Poisson's ratio in the crust, thereby suggesting that CO degassing from the soil might be linked to upwelling of the asthenospheric mantle. Other sources of CO in the soil gas are suggested to be dominated by chemical reactions between deep fluids and carbonate minerals (e.g., dolomite, limestone, and siderite) in country rocks. Biogenic processes may also contribute to the CO in soil gas. The spatial distribution patterns of CO concentrations are coincident with the stress field, suggesting that the concentrations of CO could be a potential indicator for crustal stress field and, hence is potential useful for earthquake monitoring in the BRPB.

  18. Extensional Tectonics and Sedimentary Architecture Using 3-D Seismic Data: An Example from Hydrocarbon-Bearing Mumbai Offshore Basin, West Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, D. K.; Bhowmick, P. K.; Mishra, P.

    2016-12-01

    In offshore sedimentary basins, analysis of 3-D seismic data tied with well log data can be used to deduce robust isopach and structure contour maps of different stratigraphic formations. The isopach maps give depocenters whereas structure contour maps give structural relief at a specific time. Combination of these two types of data helps us decipher horst-graben structures, sedimentary basin architecture and tectono-stratigraphic relations through Tertiary time. Restoration of structural cross sections with back-stripping of successively older stratigraphic layers leads to better understand tectono-sedimentary evolution of a basin. The Mumbai (or Bombay) Offshore Basin is the largest basin off the west coast of India and includes Bombay High giant oil/gas field. Although this field was discovered in 1974 and still producing, the basin architecture vis-à-vis structural evolution are not well documented. We take the approach briefly outlined above to study in detail three large hydrocarbon-bearing structures located within the offshore basin. The Cretaceous Deccan basalt forms the basement and hosts prodigal thickness (> 8 km at some localities) of Tertiary sedimentary formations.A two stage deformation is envisaged. At the first stage horst and graben structures formed due to approximately E-W extensional tectonics. This is most spectacularly seen at the basement top level. The faults associated with this extension strike NNW. At the second stage of deformation a set of ENE-striking cross faults have developed leading to the formation of transpressional structures at places. High rate of early sedimentation obliterated horst-graben architecture to large extent. An interesting aspect emerges is that the all the large-scale structures have rather low structural relief. However, the areal extent of such structures are very large. Consequently, these structures hold commercial quantities of oil/gas.

  19. Stream water quality in coal mined areas of the lower Cheat River Basin, West Virginia and Pennsylvania, during low-flow conditions, July 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald R.; Clark, Mary E.; Brown, Juliane B.

    1999-01-01

    IntroductionThe Cheat River Basin is in the Allegheny Plateau and Allegheny Mountain Sections of the Appalachian Plateau Physiographic Province (Fenneman, 1946) and is almost entirely within the state of West Virginia. The Cheat River drains an area of 1,422 square miles in Randolph, Tucker, Preston, and Monongalia Counties in West Virginia and Fayette County in Pennsylvania. From its headwaters in Randolph County, W.Va., the Cheat River flows 157 miles north to the Pennsylvania state line, where it enters the Monongahela River. The Cheat River drainage comprises approximately 19 percent of the total Monongahela River Basin. The Cheat River and streams within the Cheat River Basin are characterized by steep gradients, rock channels, and high flow velocities that have created a thriving white-water rafting industry for the area. The headwaters of the Cheat River contain some of the most pristine and aesthetic streams in West Virginia. The attraction to the area, particularly the lower part of the Cheat River Basin (the lower 412 square miles of the basin), has been suppressed because of poor water quality. The economy of the Lower Cheat River Basin has been dominated by coal mining over many decades. As a result, many abandoned deep and surface mines discharge untreated acid mine drainage (AMD), which degrades water quality, into the Cheat River and many of its tributary streams. Approximately 60 regulated mine-related discharges (West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, 1996) and 185 abandoned mine sites (U.S. Office of Surface Mining, 1998) discharge treated and untreated AMD into the Cheat River and its tributaries.The West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) Office of Abandoned Mine Lands and Reclamation (AML&R) has recently completed several AMD reclamation projects throughout the Cheat River Basin that have collectively improved the mainstem water quality. The AML&R office is currently involved in acquiring grant funds and

  20. Calibration parameters used to simulate streamflow from application of the Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN Model (HSPF) to mountainous basins containing coal mines in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, John T.; Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN Model (HSPF) parameters for eight basins in the coal-mining region of West Virginia. The magnitude and characteristics of model parameters from this study will assist users of HSPF in simulating streamflow at other basins in the coal-mining region of West Virginia. The parameter for nominal capacity of the upper-zone storage, UZSN, increased from south to north. The increase in UZSN with the increase in basin latitude could be due to decreasing slopes, decreasing rockiness of the soils, and increasing soil depths from south to north. A special action was given to the parameter for fraction of ground-water inflow that flows to inactive ground water, DEEPFR. The basis for this special action was related to the seasonal movement of the water table and transpiration from trees. The models were most sensitive to DEEPFR and the parameter for interception storage capacity, CEPSC. The models were also fairly sensitive to the parameter for an index representing the infiltration capacity of the soil, INFILT; the parameter for indicating the behavior of the ground-water recession flow, KVARY; the parameter for the basic ground-water recession rate, AGWRC; the parameter for nominal capacity of the upper zone storage, UZSN; the parameter for the interflow inflow, INTFW; the parameter for the interflow recession constant, IRC; and the parameter for lower zone evapotranspiration, LZETP.

  1. The Volta Basin Water Allocation System: assessing the impact of small-scale reservoir development on the water resources of the Volta basin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kasei

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Volta Basin, infrastructure watershed development with respect to the impact of climate conditions is hotly debated due to the lack of adequate tools to model the consequences of such development. There is an ongoing debate on the impact of further development of small and medium scale reservoirs on the water level of Lake Volta, which is essential for hydropower generation at the Akosombo power plant. The GLOWA Volta Project (GVP has developed a Volta Basin Water Allocation System (VB-WAS, a decision support tool that allows assessing the impact of infrastructure development in the basin on the availability of current and future water resources, given the current or future climate conditions. The simulated historic and future discharge time series of the joint climate-hydrological modeling approach (MM5/WaSiM-ETH serve as input data for a river basin management model (MIKE BASIN. MIKE BASIN uses a network approach, and allows fast simulations of water allocation and of the consequences of different development scenarios on the available water resources. The impact of the expansion of small and medium scale reservoirs on the stored volume of Lake Volta has been quantified and assessed in comparison with the impact of climate variability on the water resources of the basin.

  2. Comparison of peak discharges among sites with and without valley fills for the July 8-9, 2001 flood in the headwaters of Clear Fork, Coal River basin, mountaintop coal-mining region, southern West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Brogan, Freddie D.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of mountaintop-removal mining practices on the peak discharges of streams were investigated in six small drainage basins within a 7-square-mile area in southern West Virginia. Two of the small basins had reclaimed valley fills, one basin had reclaimed and unreclaimed valley fills, and three basins did not have valley fills. Indirect measurements of peak discharge for the flood of July 8-9, 2001, were made at six sites on streams draining the small basins. The sites without valley fills had peak discharges with 10- to 25-year recurrence intervals, indicating that rainfall intensities and totals varied among the study basins. The flood-recurrence intervals for the three basins with valley fills were determined as though the peak discharges were those from rural streams without the influence of valley fills, and ranged from less than 2 years to more than 100 years.

  3. 76 FR 50188 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Integrated List Water Quality Assessment AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Integrated List Water Quality Assessment is available for review and comment. DATES: Comments must be... should have the phrase ``Water Quality Assessment 2012'' in the subject line and should include the name...

  4. Opening of stripe mine Oslomej - West as a contribution to exploitation of coal in Kichevo basin and extension of exploitation period of TPP 'Oslomej' (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasovski, Vlade; Milevski, Trifun; Jolev, Slavcho; Panovski, Aleksandar

    1997-01-01

    Coal mining in the open mine 'Oslomej' in Macedonia has started 1980 and its regular coal production is 1,2 x 10 6 t per year. The whole coal produced in this mine is used for the Thermal Power Plant 'Oslomej', whose total installed capacity is 120 MW. Taking into consideration the planned exploitation dynamics, the coal reserves will meet the TPP needs for the next 4-5 years. In order to consolidate the coal reserves in the Kitchevo basin, a previous geologic examinations were carried out. In this paper economic, electro energetic and commercial justification of opening the stripe mine Oslomej - West is analysed

  5. Geologic sources and concentrations of selenium in the West-Central Denver Basin, including the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Colorado, 2003-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Beck, Jennifer A.; Webbers, Ank; Dupree, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Toll Gate Creek, in the west-central part of the Denver Basin, is a perennial stream in which concentrations of dissolved selenium have consistently exceeded the Colorado aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter. Recent studies of selenium in Toll Gate Creek identified the Denver lignite zone of the non-marine Cretaceous to Tertiary-aged (Paleocene) Denver Formation underlying the watershed as the geologic source of dissolved selenium to shallow ground-water and surface water. Previous work led to this study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Aurora Utilities Department, which investigated geologic sources of selenium and selenium concentrations in the watershed. This report documents the occurrence of selenium-bearing rocks and groundwater within the Cretaceous- to Tertiary-aged Denver Formation in the west-central part of the Denver Basin, including the Toll Gate Creek watershed. The report presents background information on geochemical processes controlling selenium concentrations in the aquatic environment and possible geologic sources of selenium; the hydrogeologic setting of the watershed; selenium results from groundwater-sampling programs; and chemical analyses of solids samples as evidence that weathering of the Denver Formation is a geologic source of selenium to groundwater and surface water in the west-central part of the Denver Basin, including Toll Gate Creek. Analyses of water samples collected from 61 water-table wells in 2003 and from 19 water-table wells in 2007 indicate dissolved selenium concentrations in groundwater in the west-central Denver Basin frequently exceeded the Colorado aquatic-life standard and in some locations exceeded the primary drinking-water standard of 50 micrograms per liter. The greatest selenium concentrations were associated with oxidized groundwater samples from wells completed in bedrock materials. Selenium analysis of geologic core samples indicates that total selenium

  6. Evaluation of baseline ground-water conditions in the Mosteiros, Ribeira Paul, and Ribeira Fajã Basins, Republic of Cape Verde, West Africa, 2005-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Earle, John D.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Messer, Mickey M.; Jorgensen, Brent E.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Moura, Miguel A.; Querido, Arrigo; Spencer,; Osorio, Tatiana

    2006-01-01

    This report documents current (2005-06) baseline ground-water conditions in three basins within the West African Republic of Cape Verde (Mosteiros on Fogo, Ribeira Paul on Santo Antão, and Ribeira Fajã on São Nicolau) based on existing data and additional data collected during this study. Ground-water conditions (indicators) include ground-water levels, ground-water recharge altitude, ground-water discharge amounts, ground-water age (residence time), and ground-water quality. These indicators are needed to evaluate (1) long-term changes in ground-water resources or water quality caused by planned ground-water development associated with agricultural projects in these basins, and (2) the feasibility of artificial recharge as a mitigation strategy to offset the potentially declining water levels associated with increased ground-water development.Ground-water levels in all three basins vary from less than a few meters to more than 170 meters below land surface. Continuous recorder and electric tape measurements at three monitoring wells (one per basin) showed variations between August 2005 and June 2006 of as much as 1.8 meters. Few historical water-level data were available for the Mosteiros or Ribeira Paul Basins. Historical records from Ribeira Fajã indicate very large ground-water declines during the 1980s and early 1990s, associated with dewatering of the Galleria Fajã tunnel. More-recent data indicate that ground-water levels in Ribeira Fajã have reached a new equilibrium, remaining fairly constant since the late 1990s.Because of the scarcity of observation wells within each basin, water-level data were combined with other techniques to evaluate ground-water conditions. These techniques include the quantification of ground-water discharge (well withdrawals, spring discharge, seepage to springs, and gallery drainage), field water-quality measurements, and the use of environmental tracers to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge, flow paths, and ground

  7. Kilometre-scale sand injectites in the intracratonic Murzuq Basin (South-west Libya): an igneous trigger?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Ghienne, Jean-Francois; Hurst, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Mount Telout, situated at the edge of the Murzuq Basin, is a 325 m high conical hill within a circular collapse structure that records 0.5 km3 of sand intrusion into Silurian shales. Based on a comparison with other similar circular collapse structures around the Murzuq Basin, it is argued that s...

  8. Soil erodibility mapping using the RUSLE model to prioritize erosion control in the Wadi Sahouat basin, North-West of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubal, Abderrezak Kamel; Achite, Mohammed; Ouillon, Sylvain; Dehni, Abdelatif

    2018-03-12

    Soil losses must be quantified over watersheds in order to set up protection measures against erosion. The main objective of this paper is to quantify and to map soil losses in the Wadi Sahouat basin (2140 km 2 ) in the north-west of Algeria, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model assisted by a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing. The Model Builder of the GIS allowed the automation of the different operations for establishing thematic layers of the model parameters: the erosivity factor (R), the erodibility factor (K), the topographic factor (LS), the crop management factor (C), and the conservation support practice factor (P). The average annual soil loss rate in the Wadi Sahouat basin ranges from 0 to 255 t ha -1  year -1 , maximum values being observed over steep slopes of more than 25% and between 600 and 1000 m elevations. 3.4% of the basin is classified as highly susceptible to erosion, 4.9% with a medium risk, and 91.6% at a low risk. Google Earth reveals a clear conformity with the degree of zones to erosion sensitivity. Based on the soil loss map, 32 sub-basins were classified into three categories by priority of intervention: high, moderate, and low. This priority is available to sustain a management plan against sediment filling of the Ouizert dam at the basin outlet. The method enhancing the RUSLE model and confrontation with Google Earth can be easily adapted to other watersheds.

  9. Late Quaternary stratigraphy, sedimentology, and geochemistry of an underfilled lake basin in the Puna (north-west Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlue, Michael M.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Kowler, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Depositional models of ancient lakes in thin-skinned retroarc foreland basins rarely benefit from appropriate Quaternary analogues. To address this, we present new stratigraphic, sedimentological and geochemical analyses of four radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from the Pozuelos Basin (PB; northwest Argentina) that capture the evolution of this low-accommodation Puna basin over the past ca. 43 cal kyr. Strata from the PB are interpreted as accumulations of a highly variable, underfilled lake system represented by lake-plain/littoral, profundal, palustrine, saline lake and playa facies associations. The vertical stacking of facies is asymmetric, with transgressive and thin organic-rich highstand deposits underlying thicker, organic-poor regressive deposits. The major controls on depositional architecture and basin palaeogeography are tectonics and climate. Accommodation space was derived from piggyback basin-forming flexural subsidence and Miocene-Quaternary normal faulting associated with incorporation of the basin into the Andean hinterland. Sediment and water supply was modulated by variability in the South American summer monsoon, and perennial lake deposits correlate in time with several well-known late Pleistocene wet periods on the Altiplano/Puna plateau. Our results shed new light on lake expansion–contraction dynamics in the PB in particular and provide a deeper understanding of Puna basin lakes in general.

  10. 78 FR 14060 - Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware AGENCY: Federal Communications... waiver of the Commission's freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by televisions stations... first local television service, and that Seaford will remain well-served after the reallotment because...

  11. Hydrochemistry and origin of principal major elements in the groundwater of the Béchar–Kénadsa basin in arid zone, South-West of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachache Salih

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Béchar region is located in the southwest of Algeria, characterized by an arid climate with a Saharan tendency. It is subject to an increasing demand for water like all the great agglomerations due to the economic and demographic development. The groundwater of region is deteriorating because of the economic development, and the rapid growth of population. This article is devoted to the study of hydrochemistry and processes of mineralization of groundwater in this region. The results of physicochemicals analyses shows the same chemical facies of the chloride and sulphate-calcium and magnesium type, with high mineralization from North-East to South-West to the outlet of Béchar–Kénadsa basin. The determination of the mineralization origin and the main major elements were approached by multivariate statistical treatment and geochemical. This method has identified the main chemical phenomena involved in the acquisition of mineralization of water in this aquifer. These phenomena are mainly related to the dissolution of evaporite formations, the infiltration of runoff water and direct ion exchange and mixing. However, the high mineralization anomaly is observed at the centre of Béchar–Kénadsa basin progressively by going to the outlet of this basin.

  12. Successful Deployment of System for the Storage and Retrieval of Spent/Used Nuclear Fuel from Hanford K-West Fuel Storage Basin-13051

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, Roger; Smith, Sahid; Blackford, Leonard Ty; Johnson, Mike W.; Raymond, Richard; Sullivan, Neal; Sloughter, Jim

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, a system was deployed to remove, transport, and interim store chemically reactive and highly radioactive sludge material from the Hanford Site's 105-K West Fuel Storage Basin that will be managed as spent/used nuclear fuel. The Knockout Pot (KOP) sludge in the 105-K West Basin was a legacy issue resulting from the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) washing process applied to 2200 metric tons of highly degraded fuel elements following long-term underwater storage. The washing process removed uranium metal and other non-uranium constituents that could pass through a screen with 0.25-inch openings; larger pieces are, by definition, SNF or fuel scrap. When originally retrieved, KOP sludge contained pieces of degraded uranium fuel ranging from 600 microns (μm) to 6350 μm mixed with inert material such as aluminum hydroxide, aluminum wire, and graphite in the same size range. In 2011, a system was developed, tested, successfully deployed and operated to pre-treat KOP sludge as part of 105-K West Basin cleanup. The pretreatment process successfully removed the vast majority of inert material from the KOP sludge stream and reduced the remaining volume of material by approximately 65 percent, down to approximately 50 liters of material requiring management as used fuel. The removal of inert material resulted in significant waste minimization and project cost savings because of the reduced number of transportation/storage containers and improvement in worker safety. The improvement in worker safety is a result of shorter operating times and reduced number of remote handled shipments to the site fuel storage facility. Additionally in 2011, technology development, final design, and cold testing was completed on the system to be used in processing and packaging the remaining KOP material for removal from the basin in much the same manner spent fuel was removed. This system was deployed and successfully operated from June through September 2012, to remove and package the last

  13. Analyse sismo-stratigraphique du bassin d'Abda (Maroc occidental), exemple de structures inverses pendant le rifting atlantiqueSeismo-stratigraphic analysis of the Abda Basin (West Morocco): a case of reverse structures during the Atlantic rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echarfaoui, Hassan; Hafid, Mohamed; Salem, Abdallah Aı̈t; Abderrahmane, Aı̈t Fora

    The review of the seismic reflection and well data from the coastal Abda Basin (western Morocco) shows that its Triassic and Jurassic sequences were deposited in a submeridean sag basin, whose eastern margin is characterised by progressive truncations and pinching out of these sequences against a prominent Palaeozoic high. The uplift of this latter is interpreted as a response to an Upper Triassic-Middle Jurassic local compressional event that controlled Triassic-Jurassic sedimentation within the Abda Basin. The present day 'West Meseta Flexure' is a surface expression of this uplift. To cite this article: H. Echarfaoui et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 371-377.

  14. Data quality objectives for sampling of sludge from the K West and K East Basin floor and from other Basin areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document addresses the characterization strategy for those types of sludge not previously characterized or discussed in previous DQO documents. It seeks to ascertain those characteristics of uncharacterized Sludge which are unique with respect to the properties already determined for canister and K East Basin floor Sludge. Also recent decisions have resulted in the need for treatment of the Sludge prior to its currently identified disposal path to the Hanford waste tanks. This has resulted in a need for process development testing for the treatment system development

  15. Investigation on the 1970s and 1980s droughts in four tributaries of the Niger River Basin (West Africa).

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badou, DF

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available this question, we evaluated spatio-temporal pattern of rainfall and runoff in four tributaries (Sota, Alibori, Mekrou and Kompa-gorou) of the Niger River basin, covering a total area of 40,000km2 for the period 1971 to 2010. First, decadal rainfall variability...

  16. Evaluation of recent hydro-climatic changes in four tributaries of the Niger River Basin (West Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badou, DF

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available West Africa experienced severe drought during the 1970s and 1980s, posing a threat to water resources. A wetter climate more recently suggests recovery from the drought. The Mann-Kendall trend and Theil-Sen’s slope estimator were applied to detect...

  17. Adsorption kinetics of CO2, CH4, and their equimolar mixture on coal from the Black Warrior Basin, West-Central Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Naney, M.T.; Blencoe, J.G.; Cole, D.R.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetic behavior of pure and mixed gases (CO2, CH4, approximately equimolar CO2 + CH4 mixtures, and He) on a coal sample obtained from the Black Warrior Basin at the Littleton Mine (Twin Pine Coal Company), Jefferson County, west-central Alabama. The sample was from the Mary Lee coal zone of the Pottsville Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian). Experiments with three size fractions (45-150????m, 1-2??mm, and 5-10??mm) of crushed coal were performed at 40????C and 35????C over a pressure range of 1.4-6.9??MPa to simulate coalbed methane reservoir conditions in the Black Warrior Basin and provide data relevant for enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations. The following key observations were made: (1) CO2 adsorption on both dry and water-saturated coal is much more rapid than CH4 adsorption; (2) water saturation decreases the rates of CO2 and CH4 adsorption on coal surfaces, but it appears to have minimal effects on the final magnitude of CO2 or CH4 adsorption if the coal is not previously exposed to CO2; (3) retention of adsorbed CO2 on coal surfaces is significant even with extreme pressure cycling; and (4) adsorption is significantly faster for the 45-150????m size fraction compared to the two coarser fractions. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Assessing floods and droughts in the Mékrou River basin (West Africa): a combined household survey and climatic trends analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markantonis, Vasileios; Farinosi, Fabio; Dondeynaz, Celine; Ameztoy, Iban; Pastori, Marco; Marletta, Luca; Ali, Abdou; Carmona Moreno, Cesar

    2018-05-01

    The assessment of natural hazards such as floods and droughts is a complex issue that demands integrated approaches and high-quality data. Especially in African developing countries, where information is limited, the assessment of floods and droughts, though an overarching issue that influences economic and social development, is even more challenging. This paper presents an integrated approach to assessing crucial aspects of floods and droughts in the transboundary Mékrou River basin (a portion of the Niger River basin in West Africa), combining climatic trends analysis and the findings of a household survey. The multivariable trend analysis estimates, at the biophysical level, the climate variability and the occurrence of floods and droughts. These results are coupled with an analysis of household survey data that reveals the behaviour and opinions of local residents regarding the observed climate variability and occurrence of flood and drought events, household mitigation measures, and the impacts of floods and droughts. Based on survey data analysis, the paper provides a per-household cost estimation of floods and droughts that occurred over a 2-year period (2014-2015). Furthermore, two econometric models are set up to identify the factors that influence the costs of floods and droughts to impacted households.

  19. Delaware Bay Database; Delaware Sea Grant College Program, 28 June 1988 (NODC Accession 8900151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delaware Bay database contains records of discrete quality observations, collected on 40 oceanographic cruises between May 1978 and October 1985. Each record...

  20. Evaluating LSM-Based Water Budgets Over a West African Basin Assisted with a River Routing Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getirana, Augusto C. V.; Boone, Aaron; Peugeot, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Land Surface Model Intercomparison Project phase 2 (ALMIP-2), this study evaluates the water balance simulated by the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) over the upper Oum River basin, in Benin, using a mesoscale river routing scheme (RRS). The RRS is based on the nonlinear Muskingum Cunge method coupled with two linear reservoirs that simulate the time delay of both surface runoff and base flow that are produced by land surface models. On the basis of the evidence of a deep water-table recharge in that region,a reservoir representing the deep-water infiltration (DWI) is introduced. The hydrological processes of the basin are simulated for the 2005-08 AMMA field campaign period during which rainfall and stream flow data were intensively collected over the study area. Optimal RRS parameter sets were determined for three optimization experiments that were performed using daily stream flow at five gauges within the basin. Results demonstrate that the RRS simulates stream flow at all gauges with relative errors varying from -22% to 3% and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients varying from 0.62 to 0.90. DWI varies from 24% to 67% of the base flow as a function of the sub-basin. The relatively simple reservoir DWI approach is quite robust, and further improvements would likely necessitate more complex solutions (e.g., considering seasonality and soil type in ISBA); thus, such modifications are recommended for future studies. Although the evaluation shows that the simulated stream flows are generally satisfactory, further field investigations are necessary to confirm some of the model assumptions.

  1. A Laboratory Safety Program at Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmyre, George; Sandler, Stanley I.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a laboratory safety program at the University of Delaware. Includes a history of the program's development, along with standard safety training and inspections now being implemented. Outlines a two-day laboratory safety course given to all graduate students and staff in chemical engineering. (TW)

  2. Acceptance for Beneficial Use for the Canister Cleaning System for the K West basin Project - A.2.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARWICK, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    This documents the documentation that is required to be turned over to Operations with the Canister Cleaning System (CCS). The Acceptance for Beneficial Use will be updated as required prior to turnover. This document is prepared for the purposes of documenting an agreement among the various disciplines and organizations within the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project as to what is required in terms of installed components of the CCS. This documentation will be used to achieve project closeout and turnover of ownership of the CCS to K Basins Operations

  3. A Reconnaissance for Emerging Contaminants in the South Branch Potomac River, Cacapon River, and Williams River Basins, West Virginia, April-October 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Leiker, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    In 2003 a team of scientists from West Virginia Division of Natural Resources and the U. S. Geological Survey found a high incidence of an intersex condition, oocytes in the testes, among smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the South Branch Potomac River and the Cacapon River of West Virginia, indicating the possible presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). Possible sources of EDCs include municipal and domestic wastewater, and agricultural and industrial activities. Several sampling strategies were used to identify emerging contaminants, including potential EDCs, and their possible sources in these river basins and at an out-of-basin reference site. Passive water-sampling devices, which accumulate in-stream organic chemical compounds, were deployed for 40-41 days at 8 sampling sites. Sampler extracts were analyzed for a broad range of polar and non-polar organic compounds including pesticides, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and personal-care products. Analysis of passive-sampler extracts found 4 compounds; hexachloro-benzene; pentachloroanisole; 2,2',4,4',5-penta-bromo-diphenyl ether (BDE 47); and 2,2',4,4',6-penta-bromo-diphenyl ether (BDE 99) to be present at every sampled site, including the reference site, and several sites had detectable quantities of other compounds. No detectable quantity of any antibiotics was found in any passive-sampler extract. Effluent samples were analyzed for 39 antibiotics as tracers of human and agricultural waste. Additionally, poultry-processing plant effluent was sampled for roxarsone, an organoarsenic compound used as a poultry-feed additive, and other arsenic species as tracers of poultry waste. Antibiotics were detected in municipal wastewater, aquaculture, and poultry-processing effluent, with the highest number of antibiotics and the greatest concentrations found in municipal effluent. Arsenate was the only arsenic species detected in the poultry-processing plant effluent, at a concentration of 1.0 ?g

  4. The Impact of Climate Change on Water Resource Availability in a Trans-Boundary Basin in West Africa: The Case of Sassandra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Coulibaly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of climate change in West Africa characterized by a reduction of precipitation, this study was conducted to evaluate the impact of climate change on water resources from now to the end of the 21st century in the transboundary watershed of the Sassandra River shared by Guinea and Côte d’Ivoire. Historical and future climate data of Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 were projected with the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP Regional Climate Model (RegCM4. The hydrological modeling of the river basin was carried out with the conceptual hydrological model, GR2M, a monthly time steps model that allows for the assessment of the discharge of the Sassandra River for each climate scenario according to the time periods 2021–2040 (Horizon 2030, 2041–2060 (Horizon 2050, 2061–2080 (Horizon 2050, and 2061–2080 (Horizon 2090. The results show a reduction in annual discharge when compared to the baseline (1961–1980. For RCP 4.5, the observed values go from −1.2% in 2030 to −2.3% in 2070 and rise to −2.1% in 2090. Concerning RCP 8.5, we saw a variation from −4.2 to −7.9% in Horizons 2030 and 2090, respectively. With the general decrease in rainfall in West Africa, it is appropriate to assess the impact on water resources of the largest rivers (Niger, Gambia, and Senegal that irrigate the Sahelo–Saharian zone.

  5. Potential land use planning and assessment in the west part of the Büyük Menderes basin by ILSEN Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bolca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was planned to investigate the structural properties and soil mapping capability according to rules of the 7. Approximation Soil Taxonomic System of the region western part of the Büyük Menderes Basin by using Landsat satellite images in remote sensing technique. The data gathered from field observation about some soil properties and land requirements of different land use types were correlated and as a result of that the boundaries of land use patterns were carried out. Land use patterns were detected according to suitable land use classes for soil mapping units and potential land use map were done. Land use assessment is likely to be the prediction of land potential for productive land use types. This case is great important in guiding decisions on land uses in terms of potential and conserving natural resources for future generations. The main objective of this study was to determine land resources and to assess potential land use in the west part of the Büyük Menderes Basin of Aegean region. The study area covers about 24.300 km2 and formed on alluvial material deposited by Büyük Menders River. Using Landsat 5 TM satellite images, which cover back and foot slope of mountain and alluvial plains of the western part of Menderes Basin, and taking physiographic units of the region as basis, detailed soil series and phases were determined. Soils of the region were classified as Entisol, Inceptisol as 2 orders, 4 suborders, 4 great groups and 6 sub groups, and 10 series. Twenty-five different land utilization types grouped into 4 major land use groups were evaluated for the studied area’s soils. ILSEN computer model was used to determined potential land use groups and suitable classes for agricultural uses. In addition, ArcGIS software was used to generate their maps and database. Suitability map for agricultural uses results showed that, distributions of the best, relatively good, problematic and restricted agricultural lands

  6. Concentrations of metals in blood and feathers of nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Golden, N.H.; Toschik, P.C.; McGowan, P.C.; Custer, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    In 2000, 2001, and 2002, blood and feather samples were collected from 40-45-day-old nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) from Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay and River. Concentrations of 18 metals, metalloids, and other elements were determined in these samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, and Hg concentrations were measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. When compared to concurrent reference areas (South, West, and Rhode Rivers), mean As and Hg concentrations in blood were greater (p nestlings from the highly industrialized Elizabeth River compared to the rural reference area. When compared to the concurrent reference area, mean Al, Ba, Hg, Mn, and Pb concentrations in feathers were substantially greater (p nestlings from northern Delaware Bay and River had greater concentrations (p nestling feathers from Delaware were frequently greater than in the Chesapeake. The present findings and those of related reproductive studies suggest that concentrations of several heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Hg, Pb) in nestling blood and feathers from Chesapeake and Delaware Bays were below toxicity thresholds and do not seem to be affecting chick survival during the nestling period.

  7. Influenza Weekly Surveillance Reports - Delaware Health and Social Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Wellness Healthy Homes Healthy Workplaces Laboratory Restaurant Inspections Screening and Testing ; Travel Contact Us Corporations Franchise Tax Gross Receipts Tax Withholding Tax Delaware Topics Help

  8. DPH Healthy Living Information: Immunizations - Delaware Health and Social

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Wellness Healthy Homes Healthy Workplaces Laboratory Restaurant Inspections Screening and Testing WIC ; Travel Contact Us Corporations Franchise Tax Gross Receipts Tax Withholding Tax Delaware Topics Help

  9. Stratigraphic framework of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in the central Appalachian Basin from Medina County, Ohio, through southwestern and south-central Pennsylvania to Hampshire County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Harris, Anita G.; Repetski, John E.; revised and digitized by Crangle, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    A 275-mi-long restored stratigraphic cross section from Medina County, Ohio, through southwestern and south-central Pennsylvania to Hampshire County, W. Va., provides new details on Cambrian and Ordovician stratigraphy in the central Appalachian basin and the structure of underlying Precambrian basement rocks. From west to east, the major structural elements of the block-faulted basement in this section are (1) the relatively stable, slightly extended craton, which includes the Wooster arch, (2) the fault-controlled Ohio-West Virginia hinge zone, which separates the craton from the adjoining Rome trough, (3) the Rome trough, which consists of an east-facing asymmetric graben and an overlying sag basin, and (4) a positive fault block, named here the South-central Pennsylvania arch, which borders the eastern margin of the graben part of the Rome trough. Pre-Middle Ordovician structural relief on Precambrian basement rocks across the down-to-the-west normal fault that separates the Rome trough and the adjoining South-central Pennsylvania arch amounted to between 6,000 and 7,000 ft. The restored cross section shows eastward thickening of the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence from about 3,000 ft near the crest of the Wooster arch at the western end of the section to about 5,150 ft at the Ohio-West Virginia hinge zone adjoining the western margin of the Rome trough to about 19,800 ft near the depositional axis of the Rome trough. East of the Rome trough, at the adjoining western edge of the South-central Pennsylvania arch, the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence thins abruptly to about 13,500 ft and then thins gradually eastward across the arch to about 12,700 ft near the Allegheny structural front and to about 10,150 ft at the eastern end of the restored section. In general, the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence along this section consists of four major lithofacies that are predominantly shallow marine to peritidal in origin. In ascending stratigraphic order, the lithofacies

  10. Impacts of Rainfall Variability, Land Use and Land Cover Change on Stream Flow of the Black Volta Basin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komlavi Akpoti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Potential implications of rainfall variability along with Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULC on stream flow have been assessed in the Black Volta basin using the SWAT model. The spatio-temporal variability of rainfall over the Black Volta was assessed using the Mann-Kendall monotonic trend test and the Sen’s slope for the period 1976–2011. The statistics of the trend test showed that 61.4% of the rain gauges presented an increased precipitation trend whereas the rest of the stations showed a decreased trend. However, the test performed at the 95% confidence interval level showed that the detected trends in the rainfall data were not statistically significant. Land use trends between the year 2000 and 2013 show that within thirteen years, land use classes like bare land, urban areas, water bodies, agricultural lands, deciduous forests and evergreen forests have increased respectively by 67.06%, 33.22%, 7.62%, 29.66%, 60.18%, and 38.38%. Only grass land has decreased by 44.54% within this period. Changes in seasonal stream flow due to LULC were assessed by defining dry and wet seasons. The results showed that from year 2000 to year 2013, the dry season discharge has increased by 6% whereas the discharge of wet season has increased by 1%. The changes in stream flows components such us surface run-off (SURF_Q, lateral flow (LAT_Q and ground water contribution to stream flow (GW_Q and also on evapotranspiration (ET changes due to LULC was evaluated. The results showed that between the year 2000 and 2013, SURF_Q and LAT_Q have respectively increased by 27% and 19% while GW_Q has decreased by 6% while ET has increased by 4.59%. The resultant effects are that the water yield to stream flow has increased by 4%.

  11. Methane in the Northern West Siberian Basin. Generation, dynamics of the reservoirs and exchange with the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, B.

    1997-07-01

    Based on compositional data and isotope geochemistry natural gas in northern West Siberia can be divided into three groups. These are: natural gas in Jurassic rocks, natural gas in Neocomian rocks and natural gas from the Aptian to Cenomanian Pokur Formation. Natural gas in Jurassic rocks was generated thermogenically from rocks of the Jurassic Tyumen Formation. Natural gas in Neocomian rocks is also of thermogenic origin, possibly being generated from the organic matter of Lower Cretaceous sediments. The largest accumulation of natural gas occurs in sandstone reservoirs in the Pokur Formation. This gas can be described as a mixture between thermogenic gas from deeper strata and isotopically light almost pure methane. 98.6% of this gas consists of methane with an unusual isotope signature of -51.2 permille. It is not possible to explain the existence of this methane with established concepts of gas generation. A new model was developed to examine the possibility of a thermogenic origin of the isotopically light methane in early mature rocks of the Pokur Formation. Based on pyrolysis experiments and reaction kinetic calculations the model enables the simulation of stable carbon isotope ratios of hydrocarbon components in natural gas. The temperature dependent kinetic isotope fractionation is defined by a difference in the activation energies of 12 C-and 13 C-methane generation. The application of the new method to two coaly sandstones of the Pokur Formation results in a good correspondence between modelled carbon isotope ratios of δ 13 C values of methane in the reservoirs. The mass of methane thermogenically generated within the Pokur Formation under the gas field structures, however, is not sufficient to explain the mass of accumulated methane. (orig./SR) [de

  12. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh formations at Qaleh Jegh and Yazdan Abad sections (West of Kopet-Dagh Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Gholami Fard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available 1-    Introduction Kopet Dagh Basin is located on the northeast of Iran, extending over Iran, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan with a west-northwest to east-southeast trend. The Iranian part of the basin is located between 61°14ˊ and 54°00ˊE and 38°15ˊ and 35°38ˊ N. It constitutes the second most important hydrocarbon province of Iran after Zagros Basin. Cretaceous sediments are well developed and extensively exposed in this basin. In order to study the Biostratigraphy of Sarcheshme and Sanganeh Formations, the calcareous nannofossil assemblages have been investigated in two stratigraphic sections. Shokri (2000, Hadavi and Shokri (2000, Hadavi and Bodaghi (2000 & 2009, Dehghan (2002, Mahanipour et al. (2011a,b & 2012 and Mahanipour and Kani (2015 studied the calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of Sarcheshme or Sanganeh Formation.   2-    Material & Methods The studied sections, the Qaleh Jegh section (located at a distance of 35 km to the northeast of Bojnord, on the Baba Boland mountain; N37°47ˊ57˝ and E57°16ˊ53˝ and Yazdan Abad section (located at north of Yazdan Abad village; N37°55ˊ34˝ and E57°35ˊ10˝. Sarcheshmeh Formation conformably overlies the Tirgan Formation and is in turn overlain by the Sanganeh Formation in both sections and Atamir Formation conformably overlies the Sanganeh Formation. Sarcheshmeh Formation measures 2660 m in Qaleh Jegh section and comprises argillaceous limestone (with limestone intercalations in lower part and shale (with limestone intercalation in upper part. A  fossiliferous limestone separates the Sarcheshmeh and Sanganeh. Sanganeh Formation measures 1400 m and consists of siltstones (with sandstone, shale or limestone intercalation in lower part and shale containing chert nodules (with siltstone intercalation in upper part. At Yazadn Abad section the 655 m thick succession of Sarcheshmeh Formation consists of alternating argillaceous limestone and limestone in lower part and

  13. An integrated geological and geophysical study of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, Colorado and a geophysical study on Tamarix in the Rio Grande River basin, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Salma

    2008-07-01

    This research consists of two parts. One part deals with an integrated analysis of the structural anomaly associated with the Uinta Mountains, Utah. The other part deals with a study on the effect of Tamarix on soil and water quality. The Uinta Mountains are an anomalous east-west trending range of the Central Rocky Mountains and are located in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado. They have long been recognized as a structural anomaly that is surrounded by other Laramide structures that trend N-S or northwest. The study area extends from -112 to -108 degrees longitude and 41.5 to 39 degrees latitude and consists of three major geologic features: The Green River basin, Uinta Mountains, and the Uinta basin. This study investigates the tectonic evolution and the structural development of the Uinta aulacogen. There is a growing interest in exploration for petroleum and other hydrocarbons in the area of this study. Oil companies have been drilling wells in this area since the 1950's. The results of this study will enhance the existing knowledge of this region, and thus will help in the pursuit of hydrocarbons. A highly integrated approach was followed for this investigation. Gravity, magnetic, drill hole, seismic and receiver function data were used in the analysis. Gravity and magnetic data were analyzed using software tools available in the Department of Geological Sciences such as Oasis Montaj and GIS. Filtered gravity maps show that the Uinta Mountains and the surrounding basins and uplifts are deep seated features. These maps also reveal a correlation between the Uinta Mountains and the regional tectonic structures. This correlation helps in understanding how the different tectonic events that this region went through contributed to the different phases of development of the Uinta aulacogen. Four gravity models were generated along four north-south trending profile lines covering the target area from east to west. Interpretations of these models give a

  14. 77 FR 69490 - Delaware; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... determined that the emergency conditions in the State of Delaware resulting from Hurricane Sandy beginning on... areas of the State of Delaware have been designated as adversely affected by this declared emergency... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  15. 76 FR 60850 - Delaware; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... determined that the emergency conditions in the State of Delaware resulting from Hurricane Irene beginning on... have been designated as adversely affected by this declared emergency: The entire State of Delaware for... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in...

  16. The Courts, the Legislature, and Delaware's Resegregation: A Report on School Segregation in Delaware, 1989-­2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Arielle

    2014-01-01

    Delaware's history with school desegregation is complicated and contradictory. The state both advanced and impeded the goals of "Brown v. Board of Education." After implementing desegregation plans that were ineffective by design, Delaware was ultimately placed under the first metropolitan, multi-district desegregation court order in the…

  17. Introduction: Geomorphic studies of the storm and flood of November 3-5, 1985, in the upper Potomac and Cheat River basins: Chapter A in Geomorphic studies of the storm and flood of November 3-5, 1985, in the upper Potomac and Cheat River basins in West Virginia and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    1993-01-01

    The heavy rains of November 3-5, 1985, produced record floods and extensive landsliding in the Potomac and Cheat River basins in West Virginia and Virginia (pl. 1). Although rainfall intensity was moderate, the storm covered a very large area and produced record floods for basins in the size range of 1000-10,000 km2. In addition, thousands of landslides were triggered on slopes underlain by shale bedrock. The total social cost of the storm amounted to 70 lives lost and an estimated $1.3 billion in damage to homes, businesses, roads, and productive land in West Virginia and Virginia (Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 1985a, b). These extreme costs were incurred despite the fact that the affected area is sparsely populated. To understand the origins and geomorphic effects of the 1985 storm, studies were undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Maryland, West Virginia University, Cornell University, University of Virginia, The Johns Hopkins University, and Carleton College. Personnel were also consulted from the National Weather Service, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Soil Conservation Service, and Interstate Commission on the Potomac River basin. This cooperative effort serves to document the effects of the storm as an example of an extreme geomorphic event in the central Appalachian Mountains. The following chapters comprise observations and preliminary analyses for some of the observed phenomena. Subsequent publications by the contributors to this volume will expand the scope of this research.

  18. Thermal maturity patterns in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania: Chapter F.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Hower, James C.; Grady, William C.; Levine, Jeffrey R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal maturation patterns of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin and part of the Black Warrior basin were determined by compiling previously published and unpublished percent-vitrinite-reflectance (%R0) measurements and preparing isograd maps on the basis of the measurements. The isograd values range from 0.6 %R0 in Ohio and the western side of the Eastern Kentucky coal field to 5.5 %R0 in the Southern field in the Pennsylvania Anthracite region, Schuylkill County, Pa. The vitrinite-reflectance values correspond to the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) coal-rank classes of high-volatile C bituminous to meta-anthracite, respectively. In general, the isograds show that thermal maturity patterns of Pennsylvanian coals within the Appalachian basin generally decrease from east to west. In the Black Warrior basin of Alabama, the isograds show a circular pattern with the highest values (greater than 1.6 %R0) centered in Jefferson County, Ala. Most of the observed patterns can be explained by variations in the depth of burial, variations in geothermal gradient, or a combination of both; however, there are at least four areas of higher ranking coal in the Appalachian basin that are difficult to explain by these two processes alone: (1) a set of west- to northwest-trending salients centered in Somerset, Cambria, and Fayette Counties, Pa.; (2) an elliptically shaped, northeast-trending area centered in southern West Virginia and western Virginia; (3) the Pennsylvania Anthracite region in eastern Pennsylvania; and (4) the eastern part of the Black Warrior coal field in Alabama. The areas of high-ranking coal in southwestern Pennsylvania, the Black Warrior coal field, and the Pennsylvania Anthracite region are interpreted here to represent areas of higher paleo-heat flow related to syntectonic movement of hot fluids towards the foreland associated with Alleghanian deformation. In addition to the higher heat flow from these fluids, the Pennsylvania

  19. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossdarf, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  20. Extent and frequency of floods on Delaware River in vicinity of Belvidere, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlekas, George M.

    1966-01-01

    A stream overflowing its banks is a natural phenomenon. This natural phenomenon of flooding has occurred on the Delaware River in the past and will occur in the future. T' o resulting inundation of large areas can cause property damage, business losses and possible loss of life, and may result in emergency costs for protection, rescue, and salvage work. For optimum development of the river valley consistent with the flood risk, an evaluation of flood conditions is necessary. Basic data and the interpretation of the data on the regimen of the streams, particularly the magnitude of floods to be expected, the frequency of their occurrence, and the areas inundated, are essential for planning and development of flood-prone areas.This report presents information relative to the extent, depth, and frequency of floods on the Delaware River and its tributaries in the vicinity of Belvidere, N.J. Flooding on the tributaries detailed in the report pertains only to the effect of backwater from the Delaware River. Data are presented for several past floods with emphasis given to the floods of August 19, 1955 and May 24, 1942. In addition, information is given for a hypothetical flood based on the flood of August 19, 1955 modified by completed (since 1955) and planned flood-control works.By use of relations presented in this report the extent, depth, and frequency of flooding can be estimated for any site along the reach of the Delaware River under study. Flood data and the evaluation of the data are presented so that local and regional agencies, organizations, and individuals may have a technical basis for making decisions on the use of flood-prone areas. The Delaware River Basin Commission and the U.S. Geological Survey regard this program of flood-plain inundation studies as a positive step toward flood-damage prevention. Flood-plain inundation studies, when followed by appropriate land-use regulations, are a valuable and economical supplement to physical works for flood

  1. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  2. Late quaternary uplift and subsidence of the west coast of Tanna, south Vanuatu, southwest Pacific: U-Th ages of raised coral reefs in the Median Sedimentary Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neef, G.; Zhao, J.X.; Collerson, K.D.; Zhang, F.S.

    2003-01-01

    Twelve Late Quaternary TIMS U-Th ages are reported here from 10 coral samples collected in situ from five transgressive coral/algal raised reefs (height: max. 113m, min. 8m) and two raised lagoonal deposits (height: max. 18 m, min. 8 m) along and near the west coast of Tanna, which lies in the Median Sedimentary Basin of South Vanuatu, southwest Pacific. These reefs and raised lagoonal deposits represent several age groups: (i) 215ka (marine oxygen-isotope stage 7) penultimate interglacial (highest elevation and oldest); (ii) one lagoonal deposit of ca 127 ka (marine oxygen-isotope stage 5e); (iii) three last interglacial reefs with ages 102, 89 and 81 ka (representing marine oxygen-isotope stages 5c, 5b and 5a, respectively, of the latter part of the last interglacial); (iv) a lagoonal deposit with a 92 ka age (5b); and (v) a Holocene reef (age >5.7-5.0 ka) (lowest elevation and youngest). A ca 4.9 ka regressive reef (at elevation of 1.5 m above sea-level) is consistent with an island-wide 6.5m uplift (probably largely coseismic), and a probable further island-wide uplift-occurred in the late Holocene. The U-series ages taken together with the heights of transgressive reefs show that uplift since 215 ka was, on average, at -0.52 mm/y, although since 5 ka the uplift rate was, on average, ∼1.6 mm/y (the assumption being that a 1.5 m above sea-level reef has a coseismic origin) Elevation of transgressive reefs 5a, 5b and 5c and their ages indicates an island-wide subsidence during the period ?124-89 ka (i.e. Late Quaternary uplift/subsidence was jerky). Late Quaternary uplift/subsidence on the northwest coast of Tanna is considered to be due to irregular thickness of crust being subducted beneath Tanna. Copyright (2003) Geological Society of Australia

  3. Two Late Pleistocene climate-driven incision/aggradation rhythms in the middle Dnieper River basin, west-central Russian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, Andrei; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Matlakhova, Ekaterina; Moska, Piotr; Novenko, Elena

    2017-06-01

    In valleys of the River Seim and its tributaries in the middle Dnieper basin (west-central Russian Plain), two low terraces (T1, 10-16 m, and T0, 5-7 m above the river) and a floodplain (2-4 m) with characteristic large and small palaeochannels exist. A range of field and laboratory techniques was applied and ∼30 new numerical ages (OSL and 14C dates) were obtained to establish a chronology of incision and aggradation events that resulted in the current valley morphology. Two full incision/aggradation rhythms and one additional aggradation phase from the previous rhythm were recognized in the Late Pleistocene - Holocene climate cycle. The following events were detected. (1) Late MIS 5 - early MIS 4: aggradation of Terrace T1 following the deep incision at the end of MIS 6. (2) Late MIS 4 (40-30 ka): incision into Terrace T1 below the present-day river, formation of the main scarp in the bottom of the valley between Terrace T1 and Terrace T0/Floodplain levels. (3) MIS 2: aggradation of Terrace T0, lateral migrations of a shallow braided channel located few meters above the present-day river since ∼25 ka through the LGM. (4) 18-13 ka: incision into Terrace T0 below the modern river. Multiple-thread channels concentrated in a single flow that at some places formed large meanders. In the period 15-13 ka, high floods that rose above the present-day floods left large levees and overbank loams on Terrace T0. (5) Younger Dryas - Holocene transition: aggradation up to the modern channel level, transformation of large Late Glacial to small Holocene meanders. The established incision/aggradation rhythms are believed to be manifested over the Central Russian Plain outside the influence of ice sheets in the north and base level changes in the south. The two-phase deepening of the valley occurred in the last quarter of the last glacial epoch but can not be attributed directly to the glacial-interglacial transition. Both the detected incision events correspond to relatively

  4. Hydrologic Impacts Associated with the Increased Role of Wildland Fire Across the Rangeland-Xeric Forest Continuum of the Great Basin and Intermountain West, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. J.; Pierson, F. B.; Robichaud, P. R.; Boll, J.; Al-Hamdan, O. Z.

    2011-12-01

    The increased role of wildland fire across the rangeland-xeric forest continuum in the western United States (US) presents landscape-scale consequences relative runoff and erosion. Concomitant climate conditions and altered plant community transitions in recent decades along grassland-shrubland-woodland-xeric forest transitions have promoted frequent and large wildland fires, and the continuance of the trend appears likely if current or warming climate conditions prevail. Much of the Great Basin and Intermountain West in the US now exists in a state in which rangeland and woodland wildfires stimulated by invasive cheatgrass and dense, horizontal and vertical fuel layers have a greater likelihood of progressing upslope into xeric forests. Drier moisture conditions and warmer seasonal air temperatures, along with dense fuel loads, have lengthened fire seasons and facilitated an increase in the frequency, severity and area burned in mid-elevation western US forests. These changes potentially increase the overall hydrologic vulnerability across the rangeland-xeric forest continuum by spatially and temporally increasing soil surface exposure to runoff and erosion processes. Plot-to-hillslope scale studies demonstrate burning may increase event runoff and/or erosion by factors of 2-40 over small-plots scales and more than 100-fold over large-plot to hillslope scales. Anecdotal reports of large-scale flooding and debris-flow events from rangelands and xeric forests following burning document the potential risk to resources (soil loss, water quality, degraded aquatic habitat, etc.), property and infrastructure, and human life. Such risks are particularly concerning for urban centers near the urban-wildland interface. We do not yet know the long-term ramifications of frequent soil loss associated with commonly occurring runoff events on repeatedly burned sites. However, plot to landscape-scale post-fire erosion rate estimates suggest potential losses of biologically

  5. NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  6. Delaware Anatomy: With Linguistic, Social, and Medical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Presents the comprehensive partonomy of anatomy in Unami Lenape or Delaware as provided by a modern Unami specialist. The primary referent is the human body, but some comparative terms referring to animals and plants are also provided. (CHK)

  7. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic variations of natural gases in the southeast Columbus basin offshore southeastern Trinidad, West Indies - clues to origin and maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norville, Giselle A.; Dawe, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Natural gas can have two distinct origins, biogenic and thermogenic sources. This paper investigates the types and maturities of natural gas present in the SE Columbus basin, offshore Trinidad. The chemical composition and the isotope ratios of C and H were determined for approximately 100 samples of natural gas from eight areas within the SE Columbus basin. These compositions and isotopic data are interpreted to identify the origins of gas (biogenic, thermogenic) and maturity. The data showed that the gases in the SE Columbus basin are of both biogenic and thermogenic origin with a trend of mainly thermogenic to mixed to biogenic when moving from SW to NE across the basin. This trend suggests differential burial of the source rock. The presence of mixed gas indicates there was migration of gas in the basin resulting in deeper thermogenic gas mixing with shallow biogenic gas

  8. Delaware Estuary situation reports. Emergency response: How do emergency management officials address disasters in the Delaware Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylves, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    From hurricanes and other natural threats to oil spills and other manmade emergencies, the Delaware Estuary has experienced a variety of disasters over the years. The toll that these events take on the estuary and those who live on its shores depends largely upon the degree of emergency preparedness, speed of response, and effectiveness of recovery operations. In Emergency Response: How Do Emergency Management Officials Address Disasters in the Delaware Estuary, the latest addition to its Delaware Estuary Situation Report series, the University of Delaware Sea Grant College Program defines emergency management; examines the roles that the Coast Guard, Army Corps of Engineers, and Environmental Protection Agency play in an emergency; and reviews how each of these federal agencies operated during an actual disaster--the 1985 Grand Eagle oil spill. The report was written by Dr. Richard T. Sylves, a professor of political science at the University of Delaware. Sylves has been studying emergency management for the past 15 years, with special emphasis on oil spill preparedness and response in the Mid-Atlantic Region. The Delaware Estuary Situation Report is 12 pages long and contains maps and photographs, as well as a detailed account of response and recovery operations undertaken during the Grand Eagle oil spill. A comparison of the 1985 Grand Eagle spill and the 1989 Presidente Rivera spill also is included

  9. Effects of groundwater levels and headwater wetlands on streamflow in the Charlie Creek basin, Peace River watershed, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.M.; Sacks, L.A.; Hughes, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    The Charlie Creek basin was studied from April 2004 to December 2005 to better understand how groundwater levels in the underlying aquifers and storage and overflow of water from headwater wetlands preserve the streamflows exiting this least-developed tributary basin of the Peace River watershed. The hydrogeologic framework, physical characteristics, and streamflow were described and quantified for five subbasins of the 330-square mile Charlie Creek basin, allowing the contribution of its headwaters area and tributary subbasins to be separately quantified. A MIKE SHE model simulation of the integrated surface-water and groundwater flow processes in the basin was used to simulate daily streamflow observed over 21 months in 2004 and 2005 at five streamflow stations, and to quantify the monthly and annual water budgets for the five subbasins including the changing amount of water stored in wetlands. Groundwater heads were mapped in Zone 2 of the intermediate aquifer system and in the Upper Floridan aquifer, and were used to interpret the location of artesian head conditions in the Charlie Creek basin and its relation to streamflow. Artesian conditions in the intermediate aquifer system induce upward groundwater flow into the surficial aquifer and help sustain base flow which supplies about two-thirds of the streamflow from the Charlie Creek basin. Seepage measurements confirmed seepage inflow to Charlie Creek during the study period. The upper half of the basin, comprised largely of the Upper Charlie Creek subbasin, has lower runoff potential than the lower basin, more storage of runoff in wetlands, and periodically generates no streamflow. Artesian head conditions in the intermediate aquifer system were widespread in the upper half of the Charlie Creek basin, preventing downward leakage from expansive areas of wetlands and enabling them to act as headwaters to Charlie Creek once their storage requirements were met. Currently, the dynamic balance between wetland

  10. Programmatic factors associated with the limited impact of Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin to control Onchocerciasis in three drainage basins of South West Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Tetteh Duamor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The CDTI model is known to have enhanced community participation in planning and resource mobilization toward the control of onchocerciasis. These effects were expected to translate into better individual acceptance of the intervention and hence high Treatment Coverage, leading to a sustainable community-led strategy and reduction in the disease burden. A survey revealed that after 10-12 rounds of treatment, prevalence of onchocerciasis was still high in three drainage basins of South West Cameroon and transmission was going on.We designed a three (3-year retrospective (2012, 2013 and 2014, descriptive cross-sectional study to explore the roles of operational challenges in the failure of CDTI to control the disease as expected. We administered 83 semi-structured questionnaires and conducted 12 in-depth interviews with Chiefs of Bureau Health, Chiefs of Centers, CDDs and Community Heads. Descriptive statistics was used to explore indicators of performance which were supported with views from in-depth interviews.We found that community participation was weak; communities were not deciding time and mode of distributions. Only 6 (15.0% of 40 Community Drug Distributors reported they were selected at general community meetings as required. The health service was not able to meet and discuss Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin activities with individual communities partly due to transportation challenges; this was mostly done through letters. Funding was reported to be inadequate and not timely. Funds were not available to conduct Community-Self Monitoring after the 2014 Mass Drug Administration. There was inadequate health staff at the frontline health facility levels, and some Chiefs of Center reported that Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin work was too much for them. The mean operational Community Drug Distributor-population ratio was 1 Community Drug Distributor per 317 populations (range: 194-464, expected is 1:250. Community

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Delaware. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Delaware.

  12. A double-layer structure model of uranium-bearing horizon in inland basins of medium to big size, North-west China, and its significance in metallogenic potential assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhilong.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a double-layer structure model of uranium-bearing horizon, i.e. uranium-bearing horizon = source rock (arkose red beds) + uranium trap (grey beds favourable to uranium precipitation) in inland basins of medium to big size, North-west China. The mechanism of its formation is: during diagenetic-epigenetic processes resulted in arkose red bed formation, feldspar was hydromicatized, feldspar and quartz were replaced by authigenic hematite, goethite and hydrogoethite and became red. In such oxidation process, part of uranium in detritus of silicates such as feldspar, quartz etc. was mobilized and released, but the released uranium can not be precipitated because of the oxidation environment, and it can be diffused during diagenetic dehydration and then precipitated in nearby grey beds with low Eh together with uranium-bearing 'stagnant water' fixed in pores, forming economic uranium concentration. It is evident that uranium deposit could not be formed owing to uranium dispersion in the case of absence of certain pervious grey beds rich in reductants, although arkose red beds could provide sufficient uranium source. Therefore, only the two conditions existed simultaneously, could the uranium-bearing horizons be formed. The significance of the model for uranium prospecting are as follows: 1. Uranium source range is much expanded concerning uranium prospecting in sandstone. Except the source in basement of the basin and its margins, we must also pay attention to the overlying red beds, especially the arkose red beds in inland basin of medium to big size. 2. For the potential assessment of basin and the selection of potential area, the model is an important prospecting criterion. 3. If we apply the main criterion uranium-bearing horizon-arkose red beds well, the buried ore bodies can be found provided that arkose red beds were regarded as a significant criterion of uranium-bearing horizon

  13. 78 FR 39601 - Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: Coast... the Delaware River. Sugar House Casino has contracted with Pyrotecnico Fireworks to arrange for this display. The Captain of the Port, Sector Delaware Bay, has determined that the Sugar House Casino...

  14. 40 CFR 81.55 - Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.55 Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control...

  15. BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN THE UPPER HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF CERNA RIVER IN RELATION TO WATER QUALITY (WEST AND SOUTH-WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORINA TUDORESCU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of an hydrographic basin may be reflected by the composition of benthic macroinvertebrates communities as they can be influenced by the quality degradations of physical and chemical water parameters. The structure of the benthic community in the upper basin of the Cerna river was characterized by the presence of 13 groups. Abundance and frequency values recorded for benthic communities varied according to the physical-chemical conditions specific to each sample collecting station. Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Amphipoda were influenced by changes in water quality, changes that were reflected in the composition and structure of such communities with low levels of abundance, reaching extinction in some areas of the basin.

  16. Geothermal investigations in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Deep sedimentary basins and warm-spring systems in West Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for West Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central West Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in West Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

  17. Geodynamic evolution of the West Africa between 2.2 and 2 Ga: the Archaean style of the Birimian greenstone belts and the sedimentary basins in northeastern Ivory-Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, M.; Pouclet, A.; Delor, C.; Simeon, Y.; Alric, G.

    1996-01-01

    The litho-structural features of Palaeo-proterozoic terrains of northeastern Ivory-Coast, greenstones belts and then sedimentary basin Birimian), are similar to those of Archaean terrains. Their early deformation is only voluminal deformation due to granitoid intrusions, mainly between 2.2 and 2.16 Ga. The shortening deformation (main deformation) is expressed by right folds and transcurrent shear zones ca 2.1 Ga. Neither thrust deformation nor high pressure metamorphic assemblages are known. This pattern of flexible and hot crust, at least between 2.2 and 2.16 Ga, is pole apart to a collisional pattern, proposed for West African Craton by some authors. The Archaean/Palaeo-proterozoic boundary would not represent a drastic change of the geodynamic evolution of the crust. (authors). 60 refs., 5 figs., 6 photos

  18. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the middle Eocene Guara carbonate platform near Arguis, South-West Pyrenean foreland: Implications for basin physiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, D.; Castelltort, S.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Filleaudeau, P.-Y.; Emmanuel, L.; Mouthereau, F.; Renard, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Pyrenees results from the collision between Spain and Europe and developed between the upper Cretaceous (Santonian) and the Miocene. Its foreland basins are characterised by a thick fill of detrital and carbonate sediments. The diversity of Eocene deposits in the southern Pyrenean foreland basin is of particular use in facies sedimentology due to their exceptional outcropping quality and well established stratigraphic framework and has been taken as type examples of many different sedimentary environments. Most studies have concerned facies sedimentology of detrital series in turbiditic environments, meandering and braided rivers, alluvial fans, and deltas. In contrast, the Eocene carbonate series have attracted less attention. The marine Guara limestones are a formation of lower to middle Eocene age deposited on the southern border of the western Pyrenean foreland basin (Jaca basin). They were deposited as a retrogradational carbonate platform dominated by large benthic foraminifers near or at the flexural forebulge of the foreland basin as the Pyrenean orogen developed. This formation represents the last episode of carbonate platform in the Pyrenees and remains poorly studied. In the present work our aim is to provide a detailed facies analysis and physiographic reconstructions of the Guara carbonate platform. This is crucial to unravel the respective influences of tectonics, climate and rheology of the lithosphere on the foreland basin tectonic and stratigraphic development, and it brings new constraints on the paleoenvironments and paleogeography during the Lutetian, i.e. at the beginning of the major phase of activity of the Pyrenean orogenesis. Two outcrops were studied in the Sierras Marginales at the localities of Arguis and Lusera. The Lusera section once restored in its initial position is located to the North of the Arguis section in a basinward direction such that comparing time-equivalent facies between these two sections helps us reconstructing

  19. Deep aquifer systems in the molasse basin of South-West Germany. Thorough hydrogeological study as a basis for a future quantitative an qualitative management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzel, R.; Bertleff, B.

    1996-01-01

    The sandstone basin of the south of Germany is an area where the geothermic exploitation is intensive. The well-working of these equipments require good attainments about the quantities of available water in the aquifer stratum and about the geometric conditions. That is the reason why the rest part of the basin has been largely prospected for almost twenty years. Hydraulic, hydro-chemical and isotopic studies have shown that two circulation zones have to be differentiated. Very different replacement conditions are represented in the latter. The possibilities of geometric exploitations are determined by the ratio of the paleo-Pleistocene aquiferous stratum and of the recently formed one. This study handles above all with the results of the hydro-chemical and isotopic exams and with the issue of the renewal of the aquiferous stratum. The possible consequences for the future use of the stratum will be outlined. (authors). 61 refs., 6 figs

  20. Water quality of groundwater and stream base flow in the Marcellus Shale Gas Field of the Monongahela River Basin, West Virginia, 2011-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Kozar, Mark D.; Messinger, Terence; Mulder, Michon L.; Pelak, Adam J.; White , Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    The Marcellus Shale gas field underlies portions of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia, Maryland, Tennessee, and West Virginia. Development of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technology led to extensive development of gas from the Marcellus Shale beginning about 2007. The need to identify and monitor changes in water-quality conditions related to development of the Marcellus Shale gas field prompted the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water and Waste Management, to document water quality for comparison with water quality in samples collected at a future date. The identification of change in water-quality conditions over time is more difficult if baseline water-quality conditions have not been documented.

  1. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period

  2. National Dam Safety Program. Roxbury Dam (Inventory Number 788) Delaware River Basin, Delaware County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-21

    service spillway was analyzed as a sharp - crested weir with:.a discharge coefficient (c) of 3.1. The auxiliary spillway channel was analyzed as a broad ...upstream portion of this channel is a concrete structure which forms a 27.4 foot long rectangular weir . There is a 5 foot vertical drop beyond the crest ...I on 1.5 Crest Width (ft) 12 g. Service Spillway Type: Concrete channel-rectangular weir . Five foot vertical drop beyond crest . Masonry and laid up

  3. An Analysis of the Charter School Facility Landscape in Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesla, Kevin; Johnson, Jessica M.; Massett, Kendall; Ziebarth, Todd

    2018-01-01

    In the spring of 2016, the National Charter School Resource Center (NCSRC), the Colorado League of Charter Schools (the League), the Delaware Charter Schools Network (DCSN), and the National Alliance for Public Charter Schools (the Alliance) collaborated to collect data and information about charter school facilities and facilities expenditures in…

  4. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Delaware. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  5. 76 FR 64959 - Delaware; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... resulting from Hurricane Irene during the period of August 25-31, 2011, is of sufficient severity and... State of Delaware have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Kent and Sussex... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  6. Changes in freshwater mussel communities linked to legacy pollution in the Lower Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Silldorff, Erik L.; Galbraith, Heather S.

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are among the most-imperiled organisms worldwide, although they provide a variety of important functions in the streams and rivers they inhabit. Among Atlantic-slope rivers, the Delaware River is known for its freshwater mussel diversity and biomass; however, limited data are available on the freshwater mussel fauna in the lower, non-tidal portion of the river. This section of the Delaware River has experienced decades of water-quality degradation from both industrial and municipal sources, primarily as a function of one of its major tributaries, the Lehigh River. We completed semi-quantitative snorkel surveys in 53.5 of the 121 km of the river to document mussel community composition and the continued impacts from pollution (particularly inputs from the Lehigh River) on mussel fauna. We detected changes in mussel catch per unit effort (CPUE) below the confluence of the Lehigh River, with significant declines in the dominant species Elliptio complanata (Eastern Elliptio) as we moved downstream from its confluence—CPUE dropped from 179 to 21 mussels/h. Patterns in mussel distribution around the Lehigh confluence matched chemical signatures of Lehigh water input. Specifically, Eastern Elliptio CPUE declined more quickly moving downstream on the Pennsylvania bank, where Lehigh River water input was more concentrated compared to the New Jersey bank. A definitive causal link remains to be established between the Lehigh River and the dramatic shifts in mussel community composition, warranting continued investigation as it relates to mussel conservation and restoration in the basin.

  7. 33 CFR 162.40 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., between Reedy Point, Delaware River, and Old Town Point Wharf, Elk River. (b) Speed. No vessel in the..., are required to travel at all times at a safe speed throughout the canal and its approaches so as to... Point and Welch Point. (f) Sailboats. Transiting the canal by vessels under sail is not permitted...

  8. User's manual for the upper Delaware River riverine environmental flow decision support system (REFDSS), Version 1.1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Colin; Maloney, Kelly O.; Holmquist-Johnson, Chris; Hanson, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2006, the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted field surveys, organized workshops, and performed analysis of habitat for trout and shad in the Upper Delaware River Basin. This work culminated in the development of decision support system software (the Delaware River DSS–DRDSS, Bovee and others, 2007) that works in conjunction with the Delaware River Basin Commission’s reservoir operations model, OASIS, to facilitate comparison of the habitat and water-delivery effects of alternative operating scenarios for the Basin. This original DRDSS application was developed in Microsoft Excel and is available to all interested parties through the FORT web site (http://www.fort.usgs.gov/Products/Software/DRDSS/). Initial user feedback on the original Excel-based DSS highlighted the need for a more user-friendly and powerful interface to effectively deliver the complex data and analyses encapsulated in the DSS. In order to meet this need, the USGS FORT and Northern Appalachian Research Branch (NARB) developed an entirely new graphical user interface (GUI) application. Support for this research was through the DOI WaterSmart program (http://www.doi.gov/watersmart/html/index.php) of which the USGS component is the National Water Census (http://water.usgs.gov/watercensus/WaterSMART.html). The content and methodology of the new GUI interface emulates those of the original DSS with a few exceptions listed below. Refer to Bovee and others (2007) for the original information. Significant alterations to the original DSS include: • We moved from Excel-based data storage and processing to a more powerful database back end powered by SQLite. The most notable effect of this is that the previous maximum temporal extent of 10 years has been replaced by a dynamic extent that can now cover the entire period of record for which we have data (1928–2000). • We incorporated interactive geographic information system (GIS

  9. The effect of Delaware law on firm value: Evidence from poison pill adoptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L. Campbell II

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available As the leading location for firm incorporations and corporate law, Delaware occupies a unique place in corporate governance and control. In this paper, we provide fresh evidence on whether Delaware’s dominance arises from its takeover laws being in the best interest of shareholders versus managers by investigating the role of the state in which a firm is incorporated on the firm’s adoption of a poison pill. Our results indicate that announcements of adoptions of poison pills by Delaware firms are associated with returns not significantly different from those for non-Delaware firms. Moreover, Delaware firms that adopt poison pills are no more likely to receive a takeover bid, be successfully acquired, or receive better merger terms than non-Delaware firms. Overall, it appears that Delaware law, with regards to takeovers, promotes an environment consistent with a “race to the middle” philosophy, neutral to management and shareholders.

  10. Origins of streamflow in a crystalline basement catchment in a sub-humid Sudanian zone: The Donga basin (Benin, West Africa): Inter-annual variability of water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguis, L.; Kamagaté, B.; Favreau, G.; Descloitres, M.; Seidel, J.-L.; Galle, S.; Peugeot, C.; Gosset, M.; Le Barbé, L.; Malinur, F.; Van Exter, S.; Arjounin, M.; Boubkraoui, S.; Wubda, M.

    2011-05-01

    SummaryDuring the last quarter of the 20th century, West Africa underwent a particularly intense and generalized drought. During this period, the biggest drops in streamflow were observed in the Sudanian zone rather than in the Sahelian zone, but the reasons are still poorly understood. In 2000, a meso-scale hydrological observatory was set up in the sub-humid Sudanian zone of the Upper Ouémé Valley (Benin). Three embedded catchments of 12-586 km 2 located on a crystalline bedrock were intensively instrumented to document the different terms of the water budget and to identify the main streamflow generating processes and base-flow mechanisms at different scales. Geophysical, hydrological and geochemical data were collected throughout the catchments from 2002 to 2006. Crossing these data helped define their hydrological functioning. The region has seasonal streamflow, and the permanent groundwater in the weathered mantle does not drain to rivers, instead, seasonal perched groundwaters are the major contributor to annual streamflow. The perched groundwaters are mainly located in seasonally waterlogged sandy layers in the headwater bottom-lands called bas-fonds in French-speaking West Africa of 1st order streams. During the period 2003-2006, regolith groundwater recharge ranged between 10% and 15% of the annual rainfall depth. Depletion of permanent groundwater during the dry season is probably explained by local evapotranspiration which was seen not to be limited to gallery forests. During the 4-year study period, a reduction of 20% in annual rainfall led to a 50% reduction in streamflow. This reduction was observed in the two components of the flow: direct runoff and drainage of perched groundwater. Thanks to the comprehensive dataset obtained, the results obtained for the Donga experimental catchment are now being extrapolated to the whole upper Ouémé valley, which can be considered as representative of sub-humid Sudanian rivers flowing on a crystalline

  11. The energy-irrigation nexus and its impact on groundwater markets in eastern Indo-Gangetic basin: Evidence from West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherji, Aditi

    2007-01-01

    South Asia in general and India in particular is heavily dependent on groundwater for supporting its largely agrarian population. Informal pump irrigation services markets have played an important role in providing access to irrigation to millions of small and marginal farmers and had positive equity, efficiency and sustainable impacts in water-abundant regions such as West Bengal. Quite predictably, in such pump lift-based economy, fortunes of energy and irrigation sectors are closely entwined. This has often been called the 'energy-irrigation' nexus. There are two major sources of energy for pumping groundwater, viz. electricity and diesel. Most of the current discourse in the field has looked only at the 'electricity-irrigation' nexus to the exclusion of the 'diesel-irrigation nexus'. This paper looks at both these aspects. In doing so, it makes two propositions. First, high flat-rate electricity tariff encourages development of water markets whereby the water buyers-who are mostly small and marginal farmers-benefit through access to irrigation. Second, low rate of rural electrification has forced majority of farmers to depend on diesel for groundwater pumping and the steep increase in diesel prices over the last few years has resulted in economic scarcity of groundwater. This in turn has had serious negative impacts on crop production and farm incomes. Using primary field data from West Bengal, India, this paper makes a case for rapid rural electrification and continuation of high flat-rate tariff, which would in turn support developed groundwater markets and provide access to irrigation to the poor and marginal farmers

  12. 77 FR 60089 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware, New Jersey, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Producers Council, et al. v. EPA, 559 F.3d 512 (DC Cir. 2009). As a result of this challenge, the U.S. Court... 2010 value status \\3\\ Delaware New Castle........ 10-003-1003 * 31.6 23.2 24.3 26 Max quarter. Delaware New Castle........ 10-003-1007 28.1 * 20.6 27.5 25 Max quarter. Delaware New Castle........ 10-003...

  13. Storm Surge and Wave Impact of Low-Probability Hurricanes on the Lower Delaware Bay—Calibration and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Salehi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hurricanes pose major threats to coastal communities and sensitive infrastructure, including nuclear power plants, located in the vicinity of hurricane-prone coastal regions. This study focuses on evaluating the storm surge and wave impact of low-probability hurricanes on the lower Delaware Bay using the Delft3D dynamically coupled wave and flow model. The model comprised Overall and Nested domains. The Overall model domain encompassed portions of the Atlantic Ocean, Delaware Bay, and Chesapeake Bay. The two-level Nested model domains encompassed the Delaware Estuary, its floodplain, and a portion of the continental shelf. Low-probability hurricanes are critical considerations in designing and licensing of new nuclear power plants as well as in establishing mitigating strategies for existing power facilities and other infrastructure types. The philosophy behind low-probability hurricane modeling is to establish reasonable water surface elevation and wave characteristics that have very low to no probability of being exceeded in the region. The area of interest (AOI is located on the west bank of Delaware Bay, almost 16 miles upstream of its mouth. The model was first calibrated for Hurricane Isabel (2003 and then applied to synthetic hurricanes with very low probability of occurrence to establish the storm surge envelope at the AOI. The model calibration results agreed reasonably well with field observations of water surface elevation, wind velocity, wave height, and wave period. A range of meteorological, storm track direction, and storm bearing parameters that produce the highest sustained wind speeds were estimated using the National Weather Service (NWS methodology and applied to the model. Simulations resulted in a maximum stillwater elevation and wave height of 7.5 m NAVD88 and 2.5 m, respectively, at the AOI. Comparison of results with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, North Atlantic Coastal Comprehensive Study (USACE-NACCS storm surge

  14. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide: Delaware Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Department of Health and Social Services - Reports to o r f rom, o r in vestigations, b y t he D elaware D epartment o f Transportation...Satyrium kingi) Rare Skipper ( Problema bulenta) Mulberry Wing (Poanes massasoit chermocki) 5-20 Natural Resources Management Mammals...Schools T2.20.1.DE. Radon Management According to Guidelines for Persons Qualified to Provide Radon Services of the Delaware Health and Social Services

  15. Investigation of Alaska's uranium potential. Part 1. Reconnaissance program, West-Central Alaska and Copper River basin. Part 2. Uranium and thorium in granitic and alkaline rocks in Western Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, G.R.; Jones, B.K.; Forbes, R.B.

    1977-02-01

    A 6-week reconnaissance program was conducted in west-central Alaska and in the Copper River basin--Chitina River valley area to aid in determining the uranium potential of the state. Division personnel also submitted samples from the Healy, Eagle, and Charley River quadrangles. Collected were 916 stream-sediment samples and 427 bedrock samples for uranium, thorium, and potassium oxide determinations, and 565 water samples for uranium analyses. A statistical analysis of the determinations was made using a computer at the University of Alaska. Thresholds, anomalies, and U:Th ratios were calculated for eight separate regions. Anomalous values of the U, Th, and K 2 O, and radiometric measurements are discussed. A combination of all uranium exploration techniques is needed to locate potential uranium deposits in Alaska. Correlations between aerial and ground radiometric surveys and geochemical surveys were often lacking, indicating that each method may or may not be effective, depending on local conditions. One hundred and eight rock samples were selected from traverses across five plutons in western Alaska and analyzed for uranium, thorium, and potassium. The highest uranium concentrations detected were 86 and 92 ppM from a mineralized dike intrusion zone in the Selawik Lake Complex. Analysis of individual plutons yields strong correlations between mineralogy and radioactivity. The mineralogical variable that correlates with uranium or thorium varies from one pluton to the next. Based on these correlations, mineralogical guidelines are offered for the selection of uranium enriched variants in four of the five plutons

  16. Derivation of Delaware Bay tidal parameters from space shuttle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Quanan; Yan, Xiaohai; Klemas, V.

    1993-01-01

    The tide-related parameters of the Delaware Bay are derived from space shuttle time-series photographs. The water areas in the bay are measured from interpretation maps of the photographs with a CALCOMP 9100 digitizer and ERDAS Image Processing System. The corresponding tidal levels are calculated using the exposure time annotated on the photographs. From these data, an approximate function relating the water area to the tidal level at a reference point is determined. Based on the function, the water areas of the Delaware Bay at mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW), below 0 m, and for the tidal zone are inferred. With MHW and MLW areas and the mean tidal range, the authors calculate the tidal influx of the Delaware Bay, which is 2.76 x 1O 9 m 3 . Furthermore, the velocity of flood tide at the bay mouth is determined using the tidal flux and an integral of the velocity distribution function at the cross section between Cape Henlopen and Cape May. The result is 132 cm/s, which compares well with the data on tidal current charts

  17. Exploring Marine Science through the University of Delaware's TIDE camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, D. E.; Newton, F. A.; Veron, F.; Trembanis, A. C.; Miller, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    For the past five years, the University of Delaware has offered a two-week, residential, summer camp to rising sophomores, juniors, and seniors who are interested in marine science. The camp, named TIDE (Taking an Interest in Delaware's Estuary) camp, is designed to introduce students to the breadth of marine science while providing them with a college experience. Campers participate in a variety of academic activities which include classroom, laboratory, and field experiences, as well as numerous social activities. Two unique features of this small, focused camp is the large number of university faculty that are involved, and the ability of students to participate in ongoing research projects. At various times students have participated in fish and dolphin counts, AUV deployment, wind-wave tank experiments, coastal water and beach studies, and ROV activities. In addition, each year campers have participated in a local service project. Through communication with former TIDE participants, it is clear that this two-week, formative experience plays a large role in students choice of major when entering college.2012 Tide Camp - Salt marsh in southern Delaware 2012 Tide Camp - Field trip on a small boat

  18. Agricultural crop mapping and classification by Landsat images to evaluate water use in the Lake Urmia basin, North-west Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Nasim; Norouzi, Hamid; Madani, Kaveh; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    Lake Urmia, once one of the largest hypersaline lakes in the world has lost more than 90% of its surface body mainly due to the intensive expansion of agriculture, using more than 90% of all water in the region. Access to accurate and up-to-date information on the extent and distribution of individual crop types, associated with land use changes and practices, has significant value in intensively agricultural regions. Explicit information of croplands can be useful for sustainable water resources, land and agriculture planning and management. Remote sensing, has been proven to be a more cost-effective alternative to the traditional statistically-based ground surveys for crop coverage areas that are costly and provide insufficient information. Satellite images along with ground surveys can provide the necessary information of spatial coverage and spectral responses of croplands for sustainable agricultural management. This study strives to differentiate different crop types and agricultural practices to achieve a higher detailed crop map of the Lake Urmia basin. The mapping approach consists of a two-stage supervised classification of multi-temporal multi-spectral high resolution images obtained from Landsat imagery archive. Irrigated and non-irrigated croplands and orchards were separated from other major land covers (urban, ranges, bare-lands, and water) in the region by means of maximum Likelihood supervised classification method. The field data collected during 2015 and land use maps generated in 2007 and Google Earth comparisons were used to form a training data set to perform the supervised classification. In the second stage, non-agricultural lands were masked and the supervised classification was applied on the Landsat images stack to identify seven major croplands in the region (wheat and barley, beetroot, corn, sunflower, alfalfa, vineyards, and apple orchards). The obtained results can be of significant value to the Urmia Lake restoration efforts which

  19. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations. 410.1 Section 410.1 Conservation of... CODE AND ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL-PART III WATER QUALITY REGULATIONS § 410.1 Basin regulations—Water Code and Administrative Manual—Part III Water Quality Regulations. (a) The Water Code of the Delaware River...

  20. 76 FR 59087 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule AGENCY: Environmental... manufacture, sale, use, or application of adhesives, sealants, primers, and solvents. This action is being... consists of Delaware's regulation for reducing VOCs from commercially-used adhesive and sealant products by...

  1. 77 FR 65518 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Prevention of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... email. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know... proposed revision to the Delaware SIP. The revision is to 7 DE Admin. Code 1125--Requirements for... DE Admin. Code 1125. Final approval of Delaware's October 12, 2011 SIP revision will put in place the...

  2. 75 FR 12168 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From Industrial... the State of Delaware. The revision adds a new section, Section 2--Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions.../SIP Regulation No. 42-- Specific Emission Control Requirements for controlling nitrogen oxide (NO X...

  3. 77 FR 58953 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... Environmental Control (DNREC). The revisions amend Delaware's regulation for the Control of Volatile Organic... approval of the Delaware SIP revision that amends Regulation No. 1124, Control of Volatile Organic..., specifies standards and exemptions, and specifies control devices, test methods, compliance certification...

  4. 75 FR 33690 - Safety Zone, Lights on the River Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... scenario with potential for loss of life and property. Basis and Purpose The New Hope Chamber of Commerce... to protect life and property operating on the navigable waterways of the Delaware River in New Hope...-AA00 Safety Zone, Lights on the River Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA AGENCY: Coast...

  5. 33 CFR 100.T05-0443 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Delaware River, New Hope, PA. 100.T05-0443 Section 100.T05-0443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA. (a) Location. The safety zone will restrict.... Bridge located in New Hope, PA, and 400 ft east of the shoreline of New Hope, PA. (b) Regulations. (1) No...

  6. Positive Behavior Support in Delaware Schools: Developing Perspectives on Implementation and Outcomes. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Cheryl M.; Cooksy, Leslie J.; Murphy, Aideen; Rubright, Jonathan; Bear, George; Fifield, Steve

    2010-01-01

    In Spring 2010, the Delaware Education Research and Development Center conducted an evaluation of Delaware's PBS project, an initiative focused on developing a school-wide system of strategies to reduce behavior problems and foster a positive school climate. The study focused on facilitators and barriers to PBS implementation, and also included…

  7. Deleware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  8. Meteorology of the storm of November 3-5, 1985, in West Virginia and Virginia: Chapter B in Geomorphic studies of the storm and flood of November 3-5, 1985, in the upper Potomac and Cheat River basins in West Virginia and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Stephen J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Greco, Steven

    1993-01-01

    The storm of November 3-5, 1985, in the central Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia and Virginia resulted from a complex sequence of meteorological events. The stage was set by Hurricane Juan, which made landfall in the Gulf Coast on October 31. Juan brought moisture northward up the Mississippi Valley; latent heat released by condensation aloft probably helped to render stationary a high-pressure anticyclone over southeastern Canada. A second low-pressure cyclone, moving north through the Southeastern United States, was blocked by the stationary anticyclone, intensifying a surface-pressure gradient that forced moist air from the Atlantic westward up the slope of the Appalachian Mountains. In the Cheat and Potomac River basins the resulting rainfall was of moderate intensity but of long duration. In Pendleton County, W. Va., the 1985 storm was the largest on record for durations from 24 to 72 h; the highest rainfall recurrence intervals were registered at durations of 24 to 48 h. Estimates of rainfall recurrence intervals from highly skewed records yield values ranging from 80 to 300 yr.

  9. Quantification and probabilistic modeling of CRT obsolescence for the State of Delaware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, Kelsea A.; Schumacher, Thomas; Agbemabiese, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We modeled the obsolescence of cathode ray tube devices in the State of Delaware. • 411,654 CRT units or ∼16,500 metric tons have been recycled in Delaware since 2002. • The peak of the CRT obsolescence in Delaware passed by 2012. • The Delaware average CRT recycling rate between 2002 and 13 was approximately 27.5%. • CRTs will continue to infiltrate the system likely until 2033. - Abstract: The cessation of production and replacement of cathode ray tube (CRT) displays with flat screen displays have resulted in the proliferation of CRTs in the electronic waste (e-waste) recycle stream. However, due to the nature of the technology and presence of hazardous components such as lead, CRTs are the most challenging of electronic components to recycle. In the State of Delaware it is due to this challenge and the resulting expense combined with the large quantities of CRTs in the recycle stream that electronic recyclers now charge to accept Delaware’s e-waste. Therefore it is imperative that the Delaware Solid Waste Authority (DSWA) understand future quantities of CRTs entering the waste stream. This study presents the results of an assessment of CRT obsolescence in the State of Delaware. A prediction model was created utilizing publicized sales data, a variety of lifespan data as well as historic Delaware CRT collection rates. Both a deterministic and a probabilistic approach using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) were performed to forecast rates of CRT obsolescence to be anticipated in the State of Delaware. Results indicate that the peak of CRT obsolescence in Delaware has already passed, although CRTs are anticipated to enter the waste stream likely until 2033

  10. Delaware's Wellness Program: Motivating Employees Improves Health and Saves Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer J J

    2008-09-01

    Every year, employers around the country evaluate their company benefits package in the hopes of finding a solution to the ever-rising cost of health insurance premiums. For many business executives, the only logical choice is to pass along those costs to the employee. As an employer, our goal in Delaware has always been to come up with innovative solutions to drive down the cost of health insurance premiums while encouraging our employees to take responsibility for their own health and wellness by living a healthy and active lifestyle, and provide them with the necessary tools. The DelaWELL program (N = 68,000) was launched in 2007, after being tested in initial (N = 100) and expanded (N = 1500) pilot programs from 2004 to 2006 in which 3 similar groups were compared before and after the pilot. Employee health risk assessment, education, and incentives provided employees the necessary tools we had assumed would help them make healthier lifestyle choices. In the first pilot, fewer emergency department visits and lower blood pressure levels resulted in direct savings of more than $62,000. In the expanded pilot, in all 3 groups blood pressure was significantly reduced (P employees participating in DelaWELL had a combined weight loss of 5162 lb. Decision makers in the State of Delaware have come up with an innovative solution to controlling costs while offering employees an attractive benefits package. The savings from its employee benefit program have allowed the state to pass along the savings to employees by maintaining employee-paid health insurance contributions at the same level for the past 3 years. DelaWELL has already confirmed our motto, "Although it may seem an unusual business investment to pay for healthcare before the need arises, in Delaware we concluded that this makes perfect sense." This promising approach to improving health and reducing healthcare costs could potentially be applied to other employer groups.

  11. Characteristics of Wind Generated Waves in the Delaware Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. L.; Ralston, D. K.; Geyer, W. R.; Chant, R. J.; Sommerfield, C. K.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal marshes provide important services for human uses such as fishery industry, recreation, ports and marine operations. Bombay Hook Wildlife Refuge, located along the western shore of the Delaware Estuary, has experienced substantial loss of salt marsh in recent decades. To evaluate the importance of different mechanisms which cause observed shoreline retreat, wave gauges were deployed along the dredged navigation channel and shoreline in the Delaware Estuary. A coupled wave and circulation modeling system (SWAN/ROMS) based on the most recent bathymetry (last updated 2013) is validated with waves observed during both calm and energetic conditions in November 2015. Simulation results based on different model parameterizations of whitecapping, bottom friction and the wind input source are compared. The tendency of observed wave steepness is more similar to a revised whitecapping source term [Westhuysen, 2007] than the default in SWAN model. Both model results and field data show that the generation/dissipation of waves in the Delaware estuary is determined by the local wind speed and channel depth. Whitecapping-induced energy dissipation is dominant in the channel, while dissipation due to bottom friction and depth-induced breaking become important on lateral shoals. To characterize the effects of wind fetch on waves in estuaries more generally, simulations with an idealized domain and varying wind conditions are compared and the results are expressed in terms of non-dimensional parameters. The simulations based on a 10m-depth uniform idealized channel show that the dissipation of waves is mainly controlled by whitecapping in all wind conditions. Under strong wind conditions (wind speed >10m/s) the effect of bottom friction becomes important so the simulated wave heights are no longer linearly correlated with wind speed.

  12. Delaware's Wellness Program: Motivating Employees Improves Health and Saves Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer “J. J.”

    2008-01-01

    Background Every year, employers around the country evaluate their company benefits package in the hopes of finding a solution to the ever-rising cost of health insurance premiums. For many business executives, the only logical choice is to pass along those costs to the employee. Objectives As an employer, our goal in Delaware has always been to come up with innovative solutions to drive down the cost of health insurance premiums while encouraging our employees to take responsibility for their own health and wellness by living a healthy and active lifestyle, and provide them with the necessary tools. Methods The DelaWELL program (N = 68,000) was launched in 2007, after being tested in initial (N = 100) and expanded (N = 1500) pilot programs from 2004 to 2006 in which 3 similar groups were compared before and after the pilot. Employee health risk assessment, education, and incentives provided employees the necessary tools we had assumed would help them make healthier lifestyle choices. Results In the first pilot, fewer emergency department visits and lower blood pressure levels resulted in direct savings of more than $62,000. In the expanded pilot, in all 3 groups blood pressure was significantly reduced (P employees participating in DelaWELL had a combined weight loss of 5162 lb. Conclusions Decision makers in the State of Delaware have come up with an innovative solution to controlling costs while offering employees an attractive benefits package. The savings from its employee benefit program have allowed the state to pass along the savings to employees by maintaining employee-paid health insurance contributions at the same level for the past 3 years. DelaWELL has already confirmed our motto, “Although it may seem an unusual business investment to pay for healthcare before the need arises, in Delaware we concluded that this makes perfect sense.” This promising approach to improving health and reducing healthcare costs could potentially be applied to other

  13. The impact of the 2002 Delaware smoking ordinance on heart attack and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraros, John; Bird, Yelena; Chen, Shande; Buckingham, Robert; Meltzer, Richard S; Prapasiri, Surasri; Solis, Luis H

    2010-12-01

    In the United States, smoking is the leading cause of death - having a mortality rate of approximately 435,000 people in 2000-accounting for 8.1% of all US deaths recorded that year. Consequently, we analyzed the Delaware Hospital Discharge Database, and identified state and non-state residents discharged with AMI or asthma for the years 1999 to 2004. Statistical data analysis compared the incidence of AMI or asthma for each group before (1999-2002) and after (2003-2004) the amendment. As a result, we found that pre-ordinance and post-ordinance quarterly rates of AMI for Delaware residents were 451 (se = 21) and 430 (se = 21) respectively, representing a 4.7% reduction. Over the same time period, there was negligible change in the incidence of AMI for non-Delaware residents. After adjusting for population growth, the Risk Ratio (RR) for asthma in Delaware residents post-ordinance was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.999), which represented a significant reduction (P = 0.046). By comparison, non-Delaware residents had an increased RR for asthma post-ordinance of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.86; P asthma in Delaware residents when compared to non-Delaware residents.

  14. The Impact of the 2002 Delaware Smoking Ordinance on Heart Attack and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. Solis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, smoking is the leading cause of death - having a mortality rate of approximately 435,000 people in 2000—accounting for 8.1% of all US deaths recorded that year. Consequently, we analyzed the Delaware Hospital Discharge Database, and identified state and non-state residents discharged with AMI or asthma for the years 1999 to 2004. Statistical data analysis compared the incidence of AMI or asthma for each group before (1999–2002 and after (2003–2004 the amendment. As a result, we found that pre-ordinance and post-ordinance quarterly rates of AMI for Delaware residents were 451 (se = 21 and 430 (se = 21 respectively, representing a 4.7% reduction. Over the same time period, there was negligible change in the incidence of AMI for non-Delaware residents. After adjusting for population growth, the Risk Ratio (RR for asthma in Delaware residents post-ordinance was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.999, which represented a significant reduction (P = 0.046. By comparison, non-Delaware residents had an increased RR for asthma post-ordinance of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.86; P < 0.0001.The results suggest that Delaware’s comprehensive non-smoking ordinance effectively was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of AMI and asthma in Delaware residents when compared to non-Delaware residents.

  15. Integrated Worker Radiation Dose Assessment for the K Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NELSON, J.V.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents an assessment of the radiation dose workers at the K Basins are expected to receive in the process of removing spent nuclear fuel from the storage basins. The K Basins (K East and K West) are located in the Hanford 100K Area

  16. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURALLY IMPACTED TIDAL BLACKBIRD CREEK, DELAWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blackbird Creek, Delaware is a small watershed in northern Delaware that has a significant proportion of land designated for agricultural land use. The Blackbird Creek water monitoring program was initiated in 2012 to assess the condition of the watershed’s habitats using multiple measures of water quality. Habitats were identified based on percent adjacent agricultural land use. Study sites varying from five to fourteen were sampled biweekly during April and November, 2012-2015. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and generalized linear modeling. Results from these first four years of data documented no significant differences in water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity, inorganic nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphate, alkalinity, and turbidity between the two habitats, although both orthophosphate and turbidity were elevated beyond EPA-recommended values. There were statistically significant differences for all of the parameters between agriculture seasons. The lack of notable differences between habitats suggests that, while the watershed is generally impacted by agricultural land use practices, there appears to be no impact on the surface water chemistry. Because there were no differences between habitats, it was concluded that seasonal differences were likely due to basic seasonal variation and were not a function of agricultural land use practices.

  17. Bedrock geologic map of the Spring Valley, West Plains, and parts of the Piedmont and Poplar Bluff 30'x60' quadrangles, Missouri, including the upper Current River and Eleven Point River drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Harrison, Richard W.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Weems, Robert E.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Repetski, John E.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2015-01-01

    This map covers the drainage basins of the upper Current River and the Eleven Point River in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province of southeastern Missouri. The two surface drainage basins are contiguous in their headwaters regions, but are separated in their lower reaches by the lower Black River basin in the southeast corner of the map area. Numerous dye-trace studies demonstrate that in the contiguous headwaters areas, groundwater flows from the Eleven Point River basin into the Current River basin. Much of the groundwater discharge of the Eleven Point River basin emanates from Big Spring, located on the Current River. This geologic map and cross sections were produced to help fulfill a need to understand the geologic framework of the region in which this subsurface flow occurs.

  18. Simulation of a Potential CO2 Storage in the West Paris Basin: Site Characterization and Assessment of the Long-Term Hydrodynamical and Geochemical Impacts Induced by the CO2 Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estublier Audrey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the preliminary results of a study carried out as part of a demonstration project of CO2 storage in the Paris Basin. This project funded by ADEME (French Environment and Energy Management Agency and several industrial partners (TOTAL, ENGIE, EDF, Lafarge, Air Liquide, Vallourec aimed to study the possibility to set up an experimental infrastructure of CO2 transport and storage. Regarding the storage, the objectives were: (1 to characterize the selected site by optimizing the number of wells in a CO2 injection case of 200 Mt over 50 years in the Trias, (2 to simulate over time the CO2 migration and the induced pressure field, and (3 to analyze the geochemical behavior of the rock over the long term (1,000 years. The preliminary site characterization study revealed that only the southern area of Keuper succeeds to satisfy this injection criterion using only four injectors. However, a complementary study based on a refined fluid flow model with additional secondary faults concluded that this zone presents the highest potential of CO2 injection but without reaching the objective of 200 Mt with a reasonable number of wells. The simulation of the base scenario, carried out before the model refinement, showed that the overpressure above 0.1 MPa covers an area of 51,869 km2 in the Chaunoy formation, 1,000 years after the end of the injection, which corresponds to the whole West Paris Basin, whereas the CO2 plume extension remains small (524 km2. This overpressure causes brine flows at the domain boundaries and a local overpressure in the studied oil fields. Regarding the preliminary risk analysis of this project, the geochemical effects induced by the CO2 injection were studied by simulating the fluid-rock interactions with a coupled geochemical and fluid flow model in a domain limited to the storage complex. A one-way coupling of two models based on two domains fitting into each other was developed using dynamic boundary

  19. Delaware State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Delaware State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Delaware. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Delaware. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Delaware

  20. Settlement to Improve Water Quality in Delaware River, Philadelphia-Area Creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Department of Justice have reached agreement with a major water utility in the greater Philadelphia area to significantly reduce sewage discharges to the Delaware River and local creeks.

  1. Weatherization Builds on Delaware's Innovative Past: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Delaware demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes

  2. 76 FR 79537 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule AGENCY: Environmental..., sale, use, or application of adhesives, sealants, primers, and solvents. EPA is approving this SIP... miscellaneous industrial adhesives control techniques guideline (CTG) category in accordance with the...

  3. 78 FR 13496 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Prevention of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... are listed in the www.regulations.gov Web site. Although listed in the electronic docket, some... modifies Delaware's PSD program at 7 DE Admin. Code 1125 to establish appropriate emission thresholds for...

  4. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Delaware Bay Summary Database (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  5. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Delaware based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Delaware census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  6. Trip attraction rates of shopping centers in Northern New Castle County, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the trip attraction rates of the shopping centers in Northern New : Castle County in Delaware. The study aims to provide an alternative to ITE Trip : Generation Manual (1997) for computing the trip attraction of shopping centers ...

  7. NOAA orthorectified Digital Elevation Model (DEM) image tiles, Bombay Hook, Delaware, 2011 (NODC Accession 0112173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Bombay Hook Project covers 177 square kilometers of the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge and surrounding areas in Kent County, Delaware. The Dewberry...

  8. Ground-water resources in the tri-state region adjacent to the Lower Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barksdale, Henry C.; Greenman, David W.; Lang, Solomon Max; Hilton, George Stockbridge; Outlaw, Donald E.

    1958-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to appraise and evaluate the groundwater resources of a tri-state region adjacent to the lower Delaware River that is centered around Philadelphia, Pa., and Camden, N. J., and includes Wilmington, Del., and Trenton, N.J. Specifically, the region includes New Castle County, Del.; Burlington, Camden, Gloucester, Mercer, and Salem Counties in New Jersey; and Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Montgomery, and Philadelphia Counties in Pennsylvania.

  9. Leucine incorporation by aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the Delaware estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Stegman, Monica R; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are well known to be abundant in estuaries, coastal regions and in the open ocean, but little is known about their activity in any aquatic ecosystem. To explore the activity of AAP bacteria in the Delaware estuary and coastal waters, single-cell 3H-leucine incorporation by these bacteria was examined with a new approach that combines infrared epifluorescence microscopy and microautoradiography. The approach was used on samples from the Delaware c...

  10. Landslides triggered by the storm of November 3-5, 1985, Wills Mountain Anticline, West Virginia and Virginia: Chapter C in Geomorphic studies of the storm and flood of November 3-5, 1985, in the upper Potomac and Cheat River basins in West Virginia and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; McGeehin, John P.; Cron, Elizabeth D.; Carr, Carolyn E.; Harper, John M.; Howard, Alan D.

    1993-01-01

    More than 3,000 landslides were triggered by heavy rainfall in the central Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia and Virginia, November 3-5, 1985. These landslides provided the opportunity to study spatial controls on landslides, magnitude and frequency of triggering events, and the effects of landslides on flood-induced geomorphic change. The study area consists of parts of the Wills Mountain anticline, a major NE-trending structure in the central Appalachians, and a portion of the adjacent Appalachian Plateau. Across the anticline and adjacent plateau, bedrock lithologies vary markedly and include pure marine limestone, marine shale, deltaic mudstone/sandstone sequences, and orthoquartzites. Because of the geologic structure, bedrock lithology varies little along strike. The spatial distribution of landslides triggered by the storm was controlled primarily by rainfall, bedrock lithology, surficial lithology, land cover, and slope morphology. The triggering rainfall was of moderate intensity and long duration. Two-day storm totals varied from 170 mm to more than 240 mm in the study area. Most landslides occurred at the northeast end of the study area, where 48-h rainfall totals were in excess of 200 mm. Different rainfall thresholds are apparent for triggering landslides on different bedrock lithologies. The highest density of landslides occurred in shallow colluvium and residuum of the Reedsville Shale (Ordovician), followed by regolith of the Greenbriar and Mauch Chunk Groups (Mississippian). Most of the landslides in these fine-grained regoliths were shallow slides and slumps, many of which transformed to mudflows and delivered sediment directly to streams; a smaller number of debris avalanches were triggered high on quartzite ridges.Instability of colluvium and residuum derived from the Reedsville Shale, compared with regolith from four other fine-grained bedrock lithologies, is attributable to its low strength combined with moderate infiltration rates that

  11. Novel coronavirus and astrovirus in Delaware Bay shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi S Honkavuori

    Full Text Available Wild birds are an important but to some extent under-studied reservoir for emerging pathogens. We used unbiased sequencing methods for virus discovery in shorebird samples from the Delaware Bay, USA; an important feeding ground for thousands of migratory birds.Analysis of shorebird fecal samples indicated the presence of a novel astrovirus and coronavirus. A sanderling sample yielded sequences with distant homology to avian nephritis virus 1, an astrovirus associated with acute nephritis in poultry. A ruddy turnstone sample yielded sequences with homology to deltacoronaviruses.Our findings highlight shorebirds as a virus reservoir and the need to closely monitor wild bird populations for the emergence of novel virus variants.

  12. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Delaware, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, river and stream resource management, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, coastal zone management, geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide publicly available coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.

  13. Nitrogen metabolism of the eutrophic Delaware River ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the nitrogen cycle in the Delaware River was carried out using 13 N tracers to measure rates for important transformations of nitrogen. Daily, depth-averaged 15 N rates for the principal inorganic nitrogen species were consistent with rates derived from longitudinal profiles of concentration in the river. The data indicated that nitrification was a rapid, irreversible sink for NH 4 + , with export of the product NO 3 - from the study area. Utilization of NO 3 - by primary producers was negligible, owing to low irradiance levels and to high NH 4 + concentrations. The oxygen sag near Philadelphia was found to result from oxygen demand in the water column, with only minor benthic influence. Reaeration provided the major oxygen input. Nitrification accounted for about 1% of the net oxygen demand near Philadelphia but as much as 25% farther downstream

  14. Seasonality in the Mesozooplankton Community of Delaware Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickline, A.; Cohen, J.

    2016-02-01

    Zooplankton communities in temperate estuaries undergo seasonal shifts in abundance and species composition, though the physical/biological mechanisms behind these shifts vary among systems. Delaware Bay is a well-mixed estuary on the mid-Atlantic coast with predictable seasonal variation in environmental conditions and circulation. To understand factors influencing mesozooplankton community dynamics in this system, we conducted seasonal sampling at 16 stations over the estuary's salinity range in 2014-2015. Sampling paralleled the last similar investigation into Delaware Bay zooplankton, conducted in the early 1950s. Biomass, measured as dry weight and totaled for all stations, was low in late summer and high in spring and fall. Bio-volume, measured either as displacement volume or calculated from ZooScan processing to exclude detritus, also showed a similar pattern. Across seasons, the mesozooplankton community was dominated by copepods, representing over 60% of the relative abundance at each station. Acartia tonsa was the dominant calanoid species in summer and fall, with abundances up to 7,353 ind. m-3, which is similar to the 1950s. In spring, Centropages hamatus and C. typicus were dominant at densities up to 2,550 ind. m-3 throughout the estuary, which is an increase from the 1950s. Environmental data suggest the seasonal shift in dominance from neritic Centropages to estuarine Acartia could be driven by increased stratification of the estuary during periods of high river discharge in spring, creating a two-layer system with a bottom advection current fed by the coastal ocean, bringing coastal species into the estuary. As river discharge decreases, the advection current is reduced, creating a well-mixed estuary and allowing Acartia to dominante. As river discharge is ultimately determined by precipitation, which is predicted to increase during winter with climate change in this region, the phenology of mesozooplankton species dynamics could shift as well.

  15. Surface Currents and Winds at the Delaware Bay Mouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscarella, P A; Barton, N P; Lipphardt, B L; Veron, D E; Wong, K C; Kirwan, A D

    2011-04-06

    Knowledge of the circulation of estuaries and adjacent shelf waters has relied on hydrographic measurements, moorings, and local wind observations usually removed from the region of interest. Although these observations are certainly sufficient to identify major characteristics, they lack both spatial resolution and temporal coverage. High resolution synoptic observations are required to identify important coastal processes at smaller scales. Long observation periods are needed to properly sample low-frequency processes that may also be important. The introduction of high-frequency (HF) radar measurements and regional wind models for coastal studies is changing this situation. Here we analyze synoptic, high-resolution surface winds and currents in the Delaware Bay mouth over an eight-month period (October 2007 through May 2008). The surface currents were measured by two high-frequency radars while the surface winds were extracted from a data-assimilating regional wind model. To illustrate the utility of these monitoring tools we focus on two 45-day periods which previously were shown to present contrasting pictures of the circulation. One, the low-outflow period is from 1 October through 14 November 2007; the other is the high-outflow period from 3 March through 16 April 2008. The large-scale characteristics noted by previous workers are clearly corroborated. Specifically the M2 tide dominates the surface currents, and the Delaware Bay outflow plume is clearly evident in the low frequency currents. Several new aspects of the surface circulation were also identified. These include a map of the spatial variability of the M2 tide (validating an earlier model study), persistent low-frequency cross-mouth flow, and a rapid response of the surface currents to a changing wind field. However, strong wind episodes did not persist long enough to set up a sustained Ekman response.

  16. Epidemiological investigation of a youth suicide cluster: Delaware 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A; Crosby, Alexander E; Parks, Sharyn E; Ivey, Asha Z; Silverman, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    In the first quarter of 2012, eight youth (aged 13-21 years) were known to have died by suicide in Kent and Sussex counties, Delaware, twice the typical median yearly number. State and local officials invited the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to assist with an epidemiological investigation of fatal and nonfatal youth suicidal behaviors in the first quarter of 2012, to examine risk factors, and to recommend prevention strategies. Data were obtained from the Delaware Office of the Medical Examiner, law enforcement, emergency departments, and inpatient records. Key informants from youth-serving organizations in the community were interviewed to better understand local context and perceptions of youth suicide. Eleven fatal and 116 nonfatal suicide attempts were identified for the first quarter of 2012 in Kent and Sussex counties. The median age was higher for the fatalities (18 years) than the nonfatal attempts (16 years). More males died by suicide, and more females nonfatally attempted suicide. Fatal methods were either hanging or firearm, while nonfatal methods were diverse, led by overdose/poisoning and cutting. All decedents had two or more precipitating circumstances. Seventeen of 116 nonfatal cases reported that a peer/friend recently died by or attempted suicide. Local barriers to youth services and suicide prevention were identified. Several features were similar to previous clusters: Occurrence among vulnerable youth, rural or suburban setting, and precipitating negative life events. Distribution by sex and method were consistent with national trends for both fatalities and nonfatalities. References to the decedents in the context of nonfatal attempts support the concept of 'point clusters' (social contiguity to other suicidal youth as a risk factor for vulnerable youth) as a framework for understanding clustering of youth suicidal behavior. Recommended prevention strategies included: Training to identify at-risk youth and guide them to services

  17. Description of fuel element brush assembly's fabrication for 105-K west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassen, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    This report is a description of the process to redesign and fabricate, as well as, describe the features of the Fuel Element Brush Assembly used in the 105-K West Basin. This narrative description will identify problems that occurred during the redesigning and fabrication of the 105-K West Basin Fuel Element Brush Assembly and specifically address their solutions

  18. Debris Removal Project K West Canister Cleaning System Performance Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARWICK, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 2,300 metric tons Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are currently stored within two water filled pools, the 105 K East (KE) fuel storage basin and the 105 K West (KW) fuel storage basin, at the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The SNF Project is responsible for operation of the K Basins and for the materials within them. A subproject to the SNF Project is the Debris Removal Subproject, which is responsible for removal of empty canisters and lids from the basins. Design criteria for a Canister Cleaning System to be installed in the KW Basin. This documents the requirements for design and installation of the system

  19. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  20. Subsurface radar applications in the Delaware Basin. Final report, June 1, 1980-January 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterberger, R.R.

    1981-10-01

    Purpose was to find a method of probing into potash to determine if dangers lie ahead. Of specific interest to Sandia, was the problem of outlining a breccia pipe which Mississippi Chemical Company (MCC) found protruded into the potash bed in Carlsbad, New Mexico, they were mining. MCC mined around it and continued their work. If, however, the discontinuity in the ore (breccia pipe) had any fractures linking with a high pressure water zone above the mining level, the act of mining into the pipe could have lost the mine to incoming water. Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd. had this happen to them in their only salt mine in England. Chapter II discusses our attempts (unsuccessful) to probe through the potash ore and see the breccia pipe. Chapter III contains data on laboratory measurements of the complex electric permittivity (dielectric constant and loss tangent) of potash samples from MCC

  1. Decadal change of forest biomass carbon stocks and tree demography in the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing Xu; Yude Pan; Alain F. Plante; Arthur Johnson; Jason Cole; Richard Birdsey

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying forest biomass carbon (C) stock change is important for understanding forest dynamics and their feedbacks with climate change. Forests in the northeastern U.S. have been a net carbon sink in recent decades, but C accumulation in some northern hardwood forests has been halted due to the impact of emerging stresses such as invasive pests, land use change and...

  2. Resolving orographic rainfall on the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suprit, K.; Shankar, D.

    We discuss a method to obtain the spatial estimates of rainfall on the Indian west coast for calculating the surface water budget. The region includes the basin of the Mandovi River, a typical west-coast river whose catchment area includes...

  3. Correlation chart of Pennsylvanian rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania showing approximate position of coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units: Chapter D.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin, one of the largest Pennsylvanian bituminous coal-producing regions in the world, currently contains nearly one-half of the top 15 coal-producing States in the United States (Energy Information Agency, 2006). Anthracite of Pennsylvanian age occurs in synclinal basins in eastern Pennsylvania, but production is minimal. A simplified correlation chart was compiled from published and unpublished sources as a means of visualizing currently accepted stratigraphic relations between the rock formations, coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. The thickness of each column is based on chronostratigraphic divisions (Lower, Middle, and Upper Pennsylvanian), not the thickness of strata. Researchers of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin also use biostratigraphic markers and other relative and absolute geologic age associations between the rocks to better understand the spatial relations of the strata. Thus, the stratigraphic correlation data in this chart should be considered provisional and will be updated as coal-bearing rocks within the Appalachian coal regions continue to be evaluated.

  4. In situ characterization of Hanford K Basins fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-01-06

    Irradiated N Reactor uranium metal fuel is stored underwater in the Hanford K East and K West Basins. In K East Basin, fuel is stored in open canisters and defected fuel is free to react with the basin water. In K West Basin, the fuel is stored in sealed canisters filled with water containing a corrosion inhibitor (potassium nitrite). To gain a better understanding of the physical condition of the fuel in these basins, visual surveys using high resolution underwater cameras were conducted. The inspections included detailed lift and look examinations of a number of fuel assemblies from selected canisters in each basin. These examinations formed the bases for selecting specific fuel elements for laboratory testing and analyses as prescribed in the characterization plan for Hanford K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel.

  5. A Collaborative Study of Disproportionate Chemical Risks in Seven Delaware Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, O.; Goldman, G. T.; White, R.; Moore, D.; Roberts, M.; Thomas, J.; Johnson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Studies have found that, compared to national averages, a significantly greater percentage of Blacks (African-Americans), Latinos (Hispanics), and people at or near poverty levels tend to live near industrial facilities that use large quantities of toxic chemicals and present a risk of major chemical disasters with potentially severe consequences for nearby communities. The Union of Concerned Scientists, the Environmental Justice Health Alliance for Chemical Policy Reform, and Delaware Concerned Residents for Environmental Justice collaborated on a study to examine the potential for cumulative impacts from health and safety risks for seven Delaware communities with a percentage of people of color and/or poverty levels greater than the Delaware average located along an industrial corridor in the northern portion of Delaware's New Castle County. These risks include close proximity to major industrial sources, as well as facilities that use large quantities of toxic, flammable or explosive chemicals and pose a high risk of a major chemical release or catastrophic incident. Additionally, proximity to contaminated waste sites was assessed, as well as the risk of cancer and potential for respiratory disease impacts from exposure to toxic air pollution. We found that people in these seven communities face a substantial cumulative health risk from exposure to toxic air pollution, proximity to polluting industrial facilities and hazardous chemical facilities, as well as contaminated waste sites. These health risks are substantially greater when compared to a wealthier and predominantly White Delaware community and for Delaware as a whole. Significant and expedited improvements in regulatory and public policy are needed at the national, state, and municipal levels to address the health and well-being of at-risk communities in Delaware and elsewhere.

  6. Misrepresenting the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Messerschmid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article advances a critique of the UN Economic and Social Commission for West Asia’s (ESCWA’s representation of the Jordan River Basin, as contained in its recently published Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia. We argue that ESCWA’s representation of the Jordan Basin is marked by serious technical errors and a systematic bias in favour of one riparian, Israel, and against the Jordan River’s four Arab riparians. We demonstrate this in relation to ESCWA’s account of the political geography of the Jordan River Basin, which foregrounds Israel and its perspectives and narratives; in relation to hydrology, where Israel’s contribution to the basin is overstated, whilst that of Arab riparians is understated; and in relation to development and abstraction, where Israel’s transformation and use of the basin are underplayed, while Arab impacts are exaggerated. Taken together, this bundle of misrepresentations conveys the impression that it is Israel which is the main contributor to the Jordan River Basin, Arab riparians its chief exploiters. This impression is, we argue, not just false but also surprising, given that the Inventory is in the name of an organisation of Arab states. The evidence discussed here provides a striking illustration of how hegemonic hydro-political narratives are reproduced, including by actors other than basin hegemons themselves.

  7. Establishing Proficiency Levels for the Delaware Student Testing Program in Science and Social Studies, Grades 4 & 6. Report and Recommendations to the Delaware State Board of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    This document contains the results of a standard setting conducted in January 2002 on the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) Science and Social Studies tests at grades 4 and 6. Each standard setting process entailed convening four groups, one for each grade level and content area, and each group met for 2 days. At the standard setting judges…

  8. Designing virtual science labs for the Islamic Academy of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZahrani, Nada Saeed

    Science education is a basic part of the curriculum in modern day classrooms. Instructional approaches to science education can take many forms but hands-on application of theory via science laboratory activities for the learner is common. Not all schools have the resources to provide the laboratory environment necessary for hands-on application of science theory. Some settings rely on technology to provide a virtual laboratory experience instead. The Islamic Academy of Delaware (IAD), a typical community-based organization, was formed to support and meet the essential needs of the Muslim community of Delaware. IAD provides science education as part of the overall curriculum, but cannot provide laboratory activities as part of the science program. Virtual science labs may be a successful model for students at IAD. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of implementing virtual science labs at IAD and to develop an implementation plan for integrating the virtual labs. The literature has shown us that the lab experience is a valuable part of the science curriculum (NBPTS, 2013, Wolf, 2010, National Research Council, 1997 & 2012). The National Research Council (2012) stressed the inclusion of laboratory investigations in the science curriculum. The literature also supports the use of virtual labs as an effective substitute for classroom labs (Babateen, 2011; National Science Teachers Association, 2008). Pyatt and Simms (2011) found evidence that virtual labs were as good, if not better than physical lab experiences in some respects. Although not identical in experience to a live lab, the virtual lab has been shown to provide the student with an effective laboratory experience in situations where the live lab is not possible. The results of the IAD teacher interviews indicate that the teachers are well-prepared for, and supportive of, the implementation of virtual labs to improve the science education curriculum. The investigator believes that with the

  9. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    for geothermal resources have been hindered. To increase the effective regional implementation of geothermal resources as an energy source for power production requires meeting several objectives. These include: 1) Expand (oil and gas as well as geothermal) industry awareness of an untapped source of geothermal energy within deep permeable strata of sedimentary basins; 2) Identify and target specific geographic areas within sedimentary basins where deeper heat sources can be developed; 3) Increase future geothermal field size from 10 km2 to many 100’s km2 or greater; and 4) Increase the productive depth range for economic geothermal energy extraction below the current 4 km limit by converting deep depleted and abandoned gas wells and fields into geothermal energy extraction wells. The first year of the proposed 3-year resource assessment covered an eight county region within the Delaware and Val Verde Basins of West Texas. This project has developed databases in Excel spreadsheet form that list over 8,000 temperature-depth recordings. These recordings come from header information listed on electric well logs recordings from various shallow to deep wells that were drilled for oil and gas exploration and production. The temperature-depth data is uncorrected and thus provides the lower temperature that is be expected to be encountered within the formation associated with the temperature-depth recording. Numerous graphs were developed from the data, all of which suggest that a log-normal solution for the thermal gradient is more descriptive of the data than a linear solution. A discussion of these plots and equations are presented within the narrative. Data was acquired that enable the determination of brine salinity versus brine density with the Permian Basin. A discussion on possible limestone and dolostone thermal conductivity parameters is presented with the purpose of assisting in determining heat flow and reservoir heat content for energy extraction. Subsurface

  10. Creating an Early Warning System: Predictors of Dropout in Delaware. REL Mid-Atlantic Technical Assistance Brief. REL MA 1.2.75-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekawa, Kazuaki; Merola, Stacey; Fernandez, Felix; Porowski, Allan

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Brief presents an historical analysis of key indicators of dropout for Delaware students in grades 9-12. Cut points for key risk indicators of high school dropout for the State of Delaware are provided. Using data provided by the Delaware Department of Education (DDOE), relationships between student dropout and several student…

  11. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  12. Tectonic Implications of Changes in the Paleogene Paleodrainage Network in the West-Central Part of the San Luis Basin, Northern Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico and Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. A.; Turner, K. J.; Cosca, M. A.; Drenth, B.

    2016-12-01

    The San Luis Basin is the largest of extensional basins in the northern Rio Grande rift (>11,400 km2). The modern basin configuration is the result of Neogene deformation that has been the focus of numerous studies. In contrast, Paleogene extensional deformation is relatively little studied owing to a fragmentary or poorly exposed stratigraphic record in most areas. However, volcanic and volcaniclastic deposits exposed along the western margin of the basin provide the spatial and temporal framework for interpretation of paleodrainage patterns that changed in direct response to Oligocene basin subsidence and the migration of centers of Tertiary volcanism. The early Oligocene (34 to 30 Ma) drainage pattern that originated in the volcanic highlands of the San Juan Mountains flowed south into the northern Tusas Mountains. A structural and topographic high composed of Proterozoic rocks in the Tusas Mountains directed flow to the southeast at least as late as 29 Ma, as ash-flow tuffs sourced in the southeast San Juan Mountains are restricted to the north side of the paleohigh. Construction of volcanic highlands in the San Luis Hills between 30 and 28.5 Ma provided an abundant source of volcanic debris that combined with volcanic detritus sourced in the southeast San Juan Mountains and was deposited (Los Pinos Formation) throughout the northern Tusas Mountains progressively onlapping the paleotopographic high. By 29 Ma, subsidence of the Las Mesitas graben, a structural sub-basin, between the San Luis Hills and the southeast San Juan and northern Tusas Mountains is reflected by thick deposits of Los Pinos Formation beneath 26.5 Ma basalts. Regional tectonism responsible for the formation of the graben may have also lowered the topographic and structural high in the Tusas Mountains, which allowed development of a southwest-flowing paleodrainage that likely flowed onto the Colorado Plateau. Tholeiitic basalt flows erupted in the San Luis Hills at 25.8 Ma, that presently cap

  13. 76 FR 4716 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware, Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0075] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off... commercial wind development on the OCS off Delaware and requests submission of indications of competitive... received two nominations of proposed lease areas: One from Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC (Bluewater) and...

  14. 75 FR 21653 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware-Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware--Request for Interest (RFI... proposal. In June 2008, Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC announced that it signed a 25-year power purchase agreement with Delmarva Power to sell up to 200 megawatts (MW) of power to the utility from an offshore wind...

  15. Use of remote sensing data in distributed hydrological models: applications in the Senegal River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Andersen, Jens Asger; Gybkjær, Gorm

    1999-01-01

    Earth observation, remote sensing, hydrology, distributed hydrological modelling, West Africa, Senegal river basin, land cover, soil moisture, NOAA AVHRR, SPOT, Mike-she......Earth observation, remote sensing, hydrology, distributed hydrological modelling, West Africa, Senegal river basin, land cover, soil moisture, NOAA AVHRR, SPOT, Mike-she...

  16. Monitoring coastal water properties and current circulation with ERTS-1. [Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V.; Otley, M.; Wethe, C.; Rogers, R.

    1974-01-01

    Imagery and digital tapes from nine successful ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay during different portions of the tidal cycle have been analyzed with special emphasis on turbidity, current circulation, waste disposal plumes and convergent boundaries between different water masses. ERTS-1 image radiance correlated well with Secchi depth and suspended sediment concentration. Circulation patterns observed by ERTS-1 during different parts of the tidal cycle, agreed well with predicted and measured currents throughout Delaware Bay. Convergent shear boundaries between different water masses were observed from ERTS-1. In several ERTS-1 frames, waste disposal plumes have been detected 36 miles off Delaware's Atlantic coast. The ERTS-1 results are being used to extend and verify hydrodynamic models of the bay, developed for predicting oil slick movement and estimating sediment transport.

  17. Hydrocarbon resource potential of the Bornu basin northeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Geological Sciences ... In the Bornu Basin which belongs to the West African Rift Subsystem (WARS) two potential petroleum systems are suggested. “Lower ... “Upper Cretaceous Petroleum System” – is the phase II rift sediments in the Bornu Basin which comprise mainly shallow marine to paralic shales,

  18. Examination of sludge from the Hanford K Basins fuel canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makenas, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of sludges with a high uranium content have been retrieved from the fuel canisters in the Hanford K West and K East basins. The composition of these samples contrasts markedly with the previously reported content of sludge samples taken from the K East basin floor. Chemical composition, chemical reactivity, and particle size of sludge are summarized in this paper

  19. Palaeomagnetism of neoproterozoic formations in the volta basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Volta basin lies on the southern part of the West African craton, more precisely on the Leo (or Man) craton. The Dahomeyides chain is thrust onto its eastern fringe. The Volta basin is filled with Neoproterozoic to Cambro- Ordovician sediments. From bottom to top they are: the Boumbouaka Supergroup made of ...

  20. Palaeomagnetism of neoproterozoic formations in the volta basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The palaeolatitudes of the older formations about 44.9° S and that of the younger sites about 9.1° S show a migration of the West African craton from medium to low latitude during the Neoproterozoic, in conformity with the Snowball Earth hypothesis. KEYWORDS: West African craton, Volta basin, Virtual Geomagnetic Pole, ...

  1. Studies on retranslocation of accumulated assimilates in 'Delaware' grapevines, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yau-Shiang; Hori, Yutaka

    1979-01-01

    Potted Delaware grapevines were supplied with 14 CO 2 in summer or autumn, and the accumulation and retranslocation of 14 C-assimilates were investigated. At pruning time, 14 C-assimilates were distributed to the roots at higher ratio than to the trunks and canes, and this trend was more marked in the autumn feeding than the summer feeding. The respiratory consumption and retranslocation of 14 C during the growth period of new shoots were evaluated as the percentage of 14 C found in the vines just after pruning. The percentage of the respiratory consumption of 14 C was evidently higher in the autumn feeding. The retranslocation began with the bud burst, and reached maximum at the 6- to 8-leaf stages in the vines fed 14 CO 2 in autumn and at the 10-leaf stage in those fed in summer. The retranslocation in both groups ceased by the flowering stage. Such course of the retranslocation with time was recognized in radioautographs of the new shoots. The maximum percentage of the translocation to the newly developed shoots was 5.1 - 5.2 and 15.3 - 10.7 in the vines fed 14 CO 2 in summer and autumn, respectively. It was peculiar to the new shoots that nearly half of their ethanol-soluble 14 C was found in amino acids unlike the one-sided distribution to soluble carbohydrates in the trunks and roots. It was assumed that amino acids were retranslocated to the new shoots after they had been synthesized in the roots. (Kaihara, S.)

  2. Methylmercury bioaccumulation in an urban estuary: Delaware River USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Kate; Taylor, Vivien; Broadley, Hannah; Hocking, Daniel; Balcom, Prentiss; Mason, Rob; Nislow, Keith; Chen, Celia

    2017-09-01

    Spatial variation in mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation in urban coastal watersheds reflects complex interactions between Hg sources, land use, and environmental gradients. We examined MeHg concentrations in fauna from the Delaware River estuary, and related these measurements to environmental parameters and human impacts on the waterway. The sampling sites followed a north to south gradient of increasing salinity, decreasing urban influence, and increasing marsh cover. Although mean total Hg in surface sediments (top 4cm) peaked in the urban estuarine turbidity maximum and generally decreased downstream, surface sediment MeHg concentrations showed no spatial patterns consistent with the examined environmental gradients, indicating urban influence on Hg loading to the sediment but not subsequent methylation. Surface water particulate MeHg concentration showed a positive correlation with marsh cover whereas dissolved MeHg concentrations were slightly elevated in the estuarine turbidity maximum region. Spatial patterns of MeHg bioaccumulation in resident fauna varied across taxa. Small fish showed increased MeHg concentrations in the more urban/industrial sites upstream, with concentrations generally decreasing farther downstream. Invertebrates either showed no clear spatial patterns in MeHg concentrations (blue crabs, fiddler crabs) or increasing concentrations further downstream (grass shrimp). Best-supported linear mixed models relating tissue concentration to environmental variables reflected these complex patterns, with species specific model results dominated by random site effects with a combination of particulate MeHg and landscape variables influencing bioaccumulation in some species. The data strengthen accumulating evidence that bioaccumulation in estuaries can be decoupled from sediment MeHg concentration, and that drivers of MeHg production and fate may vary within a small region.

  3. K basins interim remedial action health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAY, P.T.

    1999-09-14

    The K Basins Interim Remedial Action Health and Safety Plan addresses the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as they apply to the CERCLA work that will take place at the K East and K West Basins. The provisions of this plan become effective on the date the US Environmental Protection Agency issues the Record of Decision for the K Basins Interim Remedial Action, currently planned in late August 1999.

  4. National Dam Safety Program. Lake Como Dam (DE 00028), Delaware River Basin, Mill Creek, Kent County, Delaware. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    STATEMENT (of the abstract antarod in Block 20, It different frm Report) III. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Copies are obtainable from National Technical...should employ a professional engineer experienced in operation and maintanance of darns to develop written operating procedures and a periodic...100 YEAR FLOOD WOULD CAUSE A DAM TO bE OVERTOPPED THEREFORE THE OWNER SHOULD ENGAGE A QUALIFIED PkOFEbSIONAL CONSULTANT USING MORE PERCISE METHODS

  5. Combined application of numerical simulation models and fission tracks analysis in order to determine the history of temperature, subsidence and lifting of sedimentary basins. A case study from the Ruhr Coal basin inWest Germany; Die kombinierte Anwendung numerischer Simulationsmodelle und Spaltspurenuntersuchungen zur Entschluesselung der Temperatur-, Subsidenz- und Hebungsgeschichte von Sedimentbecken - Ein Fallbeispiel aus dem Ruhrkohlenbecken Westdeutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karg, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel und organische Geochemie; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Bueker, C. [Univ. Bern (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Geologie

    1998-12-31

    The Ruhr Coal basin is one of the globally best known sedimentary basins. According to classical, established the Ruhr Basin is a typical foreland molasse basins. The thermal history (heating and cooling) and the structural and sedimentary development since the formation of the basin, i.e. subsidence and lifting and erosion are of the first importance for the potential formation of hydrocarbons. In order to quantify these processes, two-dimensional numerical simulation models (based on geological and seismological sections) of the Ruhr basin were developed from which one could conclude the heat flow at the time of maximum basin depth after variscis orogenesis, maximum temperatures of individual strata sections and thickness of eroded strata. The PetroMod program package of the company IES/Juelich was used for these analyses. Finite-element-grids enable mathematican mapping and reconstruction of complex geological structures and processes. The models on temperature history are calibrated by comparing measured and calculated carbonification (vitrinite reflection) data. (orig./MSK). [Deutsch] Das Ruhrkohlenbecken stellt weltweit eines der am besten erforschten Sedimentbecken dar. Nach klassischen und etablierten Beckenmodellen kann das Ruhrbecken als typisches Vorlandmolassebecken angesehen werden. Besonders relevant fuer die potentielle Bildung von Kohlenwasserstoffen sind in erster Linie die thermische Geschichte (Aufheizung und Abkuehlung) sowie die strukturelle und sedimentaere Entwicklung seit der Beckenbildung, sprich Versenkungs-, Hebungs- und Erosionsprozesse. Um solche Prozesse zu quantifizieren, wurden im Ruhrbecken zweidimensionale (d.h. auf der Grundlage von geologischen und seismischen Sektionen) numerische Simulationsmodelle entwickelt, die Aufschluss ueber Waermefluesse zur Zeit der maximalen Beckeneintiefung im Anschluss an die variszische Orogenese, erreichte Maximaltemperaturen einzelner Schichtglieder sowie die Maechtigkeit erodierter Schichten im

  6. Delaware School Climate Survey--Student: Its Factor Structure, Concurrent Validity, and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, George G.; Gaskins, Clare; Blank, Jessica; Chen, Fang Fang

    2011-01-01

    The Delaware School Climate Survey-Student (DSCS-S) was developed to provide schools with a brief and psychometrically sound student survey for assessing school climate, particularly the dimensions of social support and structure. Confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a sample of 11,780 students in 85 schools, showed that a bifactor model…

  7. 75 FR 12561 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancelled

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2008-0333] Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancelled AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of...) is cancelled. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gerald Conrad, Liaison to the DFO of the DRBOSAC, (215...

  8. Species Richness and Phenology of Cerambycid Beetles in Urban Forest Fragments of Northern Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Handley; J. Hough-Goldstein; L.M. Hanks; J.G. Millar; V. D' amico

    2015-01-01

    Cerambycid beetles are abundant and diverse in forests, but much about their host relationships and adult behavior remains unknown. Generic blends of synthetic pheromones were used as lures in traps, to assess the species richness, and phenology of cerambycids in forest fragments in northern Delaware. More than 15,000 cerambycid beetles of 69 species were trapped over...

  9. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  10. Dover AFB Catchment Area TRICARE Marketing Plan, 436th Medical Group, Dover AFB, Delaware,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    cosmetic changes (Nadiu, Kleimenhagen, and Pillari 1992). Berkowitz classifies the debate in terms of eras. During the production era, the function was to...facilities in Smyrna and Fenton , Delaware. KGH has aggressive marketing and community education programs which include classes on: cardiopulmonary

  11. The Politics of Race and Educational Disparities in Delaware's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Theodore J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Delaware has long played a pivotal role in the nation's struggle to end school segregation and promote educational equality. This article discusses racial disparities in educational achievement and outcomes by examining the state's political history and the politics of race in public education. This article explores educational disparities from a…

  12. 75 FR 31711 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From Industrial... controlling nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from industrial boilers. This action is being taken under the Clean...--Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Industrial Boilers and Process Heaters at Petroleum Refineries in...

  13. 75 FR 32858 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R03-OAR-2010-0039; FRL-9158-3] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From Industrial Boilers and Process Heaters at Petroleum Refineries Correction In rule document 2010-13377 beginning on...

  14. 36 CFR 7.71 - Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.71 Delaware Water Gap National... route begins at the Smithfield Beach parking area and is in two loops. Loop One is a small trail... number of axles and wheels on a vehicle, regardless of load or weight, as follows: (i) Two-axle car, van...

  15. 76 FR 2853 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Infrastructure State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Environmental Control, 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401, Dover, Delaware 19903. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...) and (2) for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) NAAQS'' (hereafter the 2009 Guidance). EPA... Under Sections 110(a)(1) and (2) for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) NAAQS'' was not issued...

  16. 75 FR 64673 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Limiting Emissions of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... From Consumer Products AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA... revision amends existing Section 2.0--Consumer Products to Delaware's Regulation 1141 (formerly SIP... hours at the Air Protection Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region III, 1650 Arch Street...

  17. TOXICITY TRENDS DURING AN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION EXPERIMENT ON A SANDY SHORELINE IN DELAWARE, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 13-week, refereed, inter-agency toxicity testing program involving five bioassay methods was used to document the effectiveness of shoreline bioremediation to accelerate toxicity reduction of an oiled sandy shoreline at Fowler Beach, Delaware, USA. The study was part of an inte...

  18. Modern sedimentary environments in a large tidal estuary, Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Data from an extensive grid of sidescan-sonar records reveal the distribution of sedimentary environments in the large, tidally dominated Delaware Bay estuary. Bathymetric features of the estuary include large tidal channels under the relatively deep (> 10 m water depth) central part of the bay, linear sand shoals (2-8 m relief) that parallel the sides of the tidal channels, and broad, low-relief plains that form the shallow bay margins. The two sedimentary environments that were identified are characterized by either (1) bedload transport and/or erosion or (2) sediment reworking and/or deposition. Sand waves and sand ribbons, composed of medium to coarse sands, define sites of active bedload transport within the tidal channels and in gaps between the linear shoals. The sand waves have spacings that vary from 1 to 70 m, amplitudes of 2 m or less, and crestlines that are usually straight. The orientations of the sand waves and ribbons indicate that bottom sediment movement may be toward either the northwest or southeast along the trends of the tidal channels, although sand-wave asymmetry indicates that the net bottom transport is directed northwestward toward the head of the bay. Gravelly, coarse-grained sediments, which appear as strongly reflective patterns on the sonographs, are also present along the axes and flanks of the tidal channels. These coarse sediments are lag deposits that have developed primarily where older strata were eroded at the bay floor. Conversely, fine sands that compose the linear shoals and muddy sands that cover the shallow bay margins appear mainly on the sonographs either as smooth featureless beds that have uniform light to moderate shading or as mosaics of light and dark patches produced by variations in grain size. These acoustic and textural characteristics are the result of sediment deposition and reworking. Data from this study (1) support the hypothesis that bed configurations under deep tidal flows are functions of current

  19. A snapshot of tobacco-related messages relayed in pediatric offices in Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinson, Judith; Raughley, Erin; Chang, Christine D; Chidekel, Aaron

    2003-10-01

    Much research exists demonstrating that pediatricians should counsel patients and families about tobacco. However, few data are available about tobacco-related messages relayed in pediatric offices. Since an anti-tobacco office environment can be a strong component of an active tobacco prevention program, we evaluated pediatric offices in Delaware to characterize tobacco-related messages. A convenience sample of 32 of 63 (51%) pediatric offices in Delaware was directly evaluated for the presence of tobacco-related messages. Fifty-five of 63 (87%) pediatric practices in Delaware were contacted by telephone to inquire about the presence of a tobacco coordinator. The 32 practices represented 71 physicians, were located in all three counties throughout the state, and were urban and non-urban in setting. The same investigator evaluated practices in a single site visit. All were located in smoke-free buildings. At one office, people were seen smoking outside; however, the presence of discarded cigarettes was much more common. Thirteen practices (41%) employed smokers, most of whom smoked outside during work hours. Twenty-one of 28 practices (75%) had waiting room magazines containing tobacco advertisements. Fifteen practices (47%) offered anti-tobacco literature while six practices (19%) displayed visual media, none exclusively addressing tobacco. Nine practices (28%) use chart flags to identify smokers. None of 55 pediatric practices in Delaware contacted by telephone identified an office tobacco prevention coordinator. Our data indicate that, in Delaware, the pediatric offices we visited overall convey a limited message about tobacco and could strengthen tobacco prevention strategies. Research measuring the impact of office-based anti-tobacco messages is needed. If these messages are effective in preventing tobacco use, practitioners can supplement active counseling with indirect interventions that require minimal maintenance once established and that place no

  20. Composition and temporal patterns of larval fish communities in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparing larval fish assemblages in different estuaries provides insights about the coastal distribution of larval populations, larval transport, and adult spawning locations (Ribeiro et al. 2015. We simultaneously compared the larval fish assemblages entering two Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB estuaries (Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay, USA through weekly sampling from 2007 to 2009. In total, 43 taxa (32 families and 36 taxa (24 families were collected in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, respectively. Mean taxonomic diversity, mean richness, and evenness were generally lower in Delaware Bay. Communities of both bays were dominated by Anchoa spp., Gobiosoma spp., Micropogonias undulatus, and Brevoortia tyrannus; Paralichthys spp. was more abundant in Delaware Bay and Microgobius thalassinus was more abundant in Chesapeake Bay. Inter-annual variation in the larval fish communities was low at both sites, with a relatively consistent composition across years, but strong seasonal (intra-annual variation in species composition occurred in both bays. Two groups were identified in Chesapeake Bay: a ‘winter’ group dominated by shelf-spawned species (e.g. M. undulatus and a ‘summer’ group comprising obligate estuarine species and coastal species (e.g. Gobiosoma spp. and Cynoscion regalis, respectively. In Delaware Bay, 4 groups were identified: a ‘summer’ group of mainly obligate estuarine fishes (e.g. Menidia sp. being replaced by a ‘fall’ group (e.g. Ctenogobius boleosoma and Gobionellus oceanicus; ‘winter’ and ‘spring’ groups were dominated by shelf-spawned (e.g. M. undulatus and Paralichthys spp. and obligate estuarine species (e.g. Leiostomus xanthurus and Pseudopleuronectes americanus, respectively. This study demonstrates that inexpensive and simultaneous sampling in different estuaries provides important insights into the variability in community structure of fish assemblages at large spatial scales.

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  2. NOAA Office for Coastal Management RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Benthic Habitat Data, Rehoboth Bay, Delaware, 2000 (NODC Accession 0089461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs (DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  3. RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Data Points - Rehoboth Bay, Delaware Algae Mapping with Single Beam Acoustics: June 12 - 16, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs(DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  4. Biological, chemical, and physical data collected in Delaware Bay from 2 Sep 1997 to 8 Oct 1997 (NODC Accession 0118720)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  5. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014793)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania from 1969 to 2000(May 2002 v.3). ESI data...

  6. Comparative status and assessment of Limulus polyphemus with emphasis on the New England and Delaware Bay populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Millard, Michael J.; Carmichael, Ruth H.

    2009-01-01

    Increases in harvest of the American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) during the 1990s, particularly for whelk bait, coupled with decreases in species that depend on their eggs has reduced horseshoe crab abundance, threatened their ecological relationships, and dictated precautionary management of the horseshoe crab resource. Accordingly, population assessments and monitoring programs have been developed throughout much of the horseshoe crab’s range. We review and discuss implications for several recent assessments of Delaware Bay and New England populations and a meta-analysis of region-specific trends. These assessments show that the western Atlantic distribution of the horseshoe crab is comprised of regional or estuarine-specific meta-populations, which exhibit distinct population dynamics and require management as separate units. Modeling of Delaware Bay and Cape Cod populations confirmed that overharvest caused declines, but indicated that some harvest levels are sustainable and consistent with population growth. Coast-wide harvest was reduced by 70% from 1998 to 2006, with the greatest reductions within Delaware Bay states. Harvest regulations in Delaware Bay starting in the late 1990s, such as harvest quotas, seasonal closures, male-only harvest, voluntary use of bait-saving devices, and establishment of the Carl N. Shuster Jr. Horseshoe Crab Reserve, were followed by stabilization and recent evidence of increase in abundance of horseshoe crabs in the region. However, decreased harvest of the Delaware Bay population has redirected harvest to outlying populations, particularly in New York and New England. While the recent Delaware Bay assessments indicate positive population growth, increased harvest elsewhere is believed to be unsustainable. Two important considerations for future assessments include (1) managing Delaware Bay horseshoe crab populations within a multi-species context, for example, to help support migratory shorebirds and (2

  7. The University of Delaware Carlson International Polar Year Events: Collaborative and Educational Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, F. E.; Bryant, T.; Wellington, P.; Dooley, J.; Bird, M.

    2008-12-01

    Delaware is a small state with, by virtue of its coastal location, a large stake in climatic change in the polar regions. The University of Delaware has maintained a strong presence in cold-regions research since the mid-1940s, when William Samuel Carlson, a highly accomplished Arctic explorer, military strategist, and earth scientist, was named 20th President (1946-50) of the University. Carlson played a leading role in two of the University of Michigan's Greenland expeditions in the late 1920s and early 1930s. As Director of the Arctic, Desert, and Tropic Branch of the US Army Air Forces Tactical Center during World War II, Colonel Carlson played a role in developing several air transportation routes through the Arctic that helped to facilitate the Allied victory in Europe. Carlson authored many scientific and popular publications concerned with the Arctic, including the books Greenland Lies North (1940) and Lifelines Through the Arctic (1962). Although the University of Delaware has maintained a vigorous and continuous program of polar research since Carlson's tenure, the faculty, staff, and students involved are diffused throughout the University's colleges and departments, without an institutional focal point. Consequently, although many of these individuals are well known in their respective fields, the institution has not until recently been perceived widely as a center of polar-oriented research. The goals of the Carlson International Polar Year Events are to: (a) develop a sense of community among UD's diffuse polar-oriented researchers and educators; (b) create a distinctive and highly visible role for UD in the milieu of IPY activities; (c) promote interest in and knowledge about the polar regions in the State of Delaware, at all educational levels; (d) forge a close relationship between UD and the American Geographical Society, a national organization involved closely with previous International Polar Years; and (e) create a new basis for development

  8. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  9. From stretching to mantle exhumation in a triangular backarc basin (Vavilov basin, Tyrrhenian Sea, Western Mediterranean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milia, A.; Torrente, M. M.; Tesauro, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we describe the mode of extension of the Vavilov, a fossil backarc basin, triangle-shaped (approximately 240. km-wide and 200. km-long), located between Sardinia margin to the west and Campania margin to the east. We combine the analysis of recent geophysical and geological data, in

  10. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  11. Preliminary targeting of geothermal resources in Delaware. Progress report, July 15, 1978-July 14, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, K.D.

    1979-07-01

    Results of temperature logging the five DOE 1000 foot test wells in Delaware indicate that the potential is good for a relatively low temperature geothermal resource (temperatures less than about 80/sup 0/C). A preliminary Bouguer gravity map was made for portions of Kent and Sussex counties in order to detect gravity anomalies possibly related to granitic plutons. The map indicates a gravity low trending northeast-southwest across Sussex County that could be indicative of other structural features within the basement rocks beneath the Coastal Plain. Other logging activities and study of the cores and drill cuttings in the DOE test holes were useful in better defining the stratigraphic framework and in determining the fresh-salt water interface in southern Delaware.

  12. Successful implementation of controlled aerobic bioremediation technology at hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the state of Delaware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, C.D.; Hiller, A.V.; Carberry, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    WIK Associates, Inc. of New Castle, Delaware, has been working over the last two years to improve and advance a cost effective method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soils. The first section of this paper describes treatment methods and associated benefits such as increased control over environmental parameters. The second part of this paper describes work performed in attempting to predict degradation rates for varying types of hydrocarbon contamination under varying conditions. This research is based on data gathered in performing on-site bioremediation as described. A third section included in this paper describes the unique perspective of a State regulator responsible for overseeing remediation efforts evolving from leaking underground storage tanks. This section describes regulatory issues and procedures in Delaware and how the Department handles the submission and implementation of corrective action work plans, through project closure with thorough documentation of the remediation

  13. Structural safety evaluation of the K Basin railcar and truck applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, B.V.

    1995-08-01

    There are two rail spurs in the storage/transfer areas of both the K East and K West fuel storage basins. These rail spurs both end at the west edge of the basins. To avoid accidental entry of a railcar into a basin, administrative procedures and rail control hardware have been provided. Based upon a combination of historical documentation and existing adminstrative controls, a maximum credible impact accident was established. Using this design basis accident, the existing rail control hardware was evaluated for structural adequacy. The K Basin rail spurs are embedded in concrete, which permits truck/trailer entry into the same area. Safety issues for truck applications are also addressed

  14. Environmental Assessment: Eagle Heights Housing Area Revitalization Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    tidal species. Butterflies were the only insects surveyed, and nine were found on base. Approximately 51 species of birds were recorded on base...Jones River adjacent to the northern border of the housing area, the fro-fruit (Phyla lanceolata) and the hyssop-leaf hedge- nettle (Stachys...other sites in Delaware that this species is found. The hyssop-leaf hedge- nettle thrives in moist sandy soil along the coast and shoreline and occurs

  15. Hindcasting of Storm Surges, Currents, and Waves at Lower Delaware Bay during Hurricane Isabel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricanes are a major threat to coastal communities and infrastructures including nuclear power plants located in low-lying coastal zones. In response, their sensitive elements should be protected by smart design to withstand against drastic impact of such natural phenomena. Accurate and reliable estimate of hurricane attributes is the first step to that effort. Numerical models have extensively grown over the past few years and are effective tools in modeling large scale natural events such as hurricane. The impact of low probability hurricanes on the lower Delaware Bay is investigated using dynamically coupled meteorological, hydrodynamic, and wave components of Delft3D software. Efforts are made to significantly reduce the computational overburden of performing such analysis for the industry, yet keeping the same level of accuracy at the area of study (AOS). The model is comprised of overall and nested domains. The overall model domain includes portion of Atlantic Ocean, Delaware, and Chesapeake bays. The nested model domain includes Delaware Bay, its floodplain, and portion of the continental shelf. This study is portion of a larger modeling effort to study the impact of low probability hurricanes on sensitive infrastructures located at the coastal zones prone to hurricane activity. The AOS is located on the east bank of Delaware Bay almost 16 miles upstream of its mouth. Model generated wind speed, significant wave height, water surface elevation, and current are calibrated for hurricane Isabel (2003). The model calibration results agreed reasonably well with field observations. Furthermore, sensitivity of surge and wave responses to various hurricane parameters was tested. In line with findings from other researchers, accuracy of wind field played a major role in hindcasting the hurricane attributes.

  16. Hf-Nd Isotopes in West Philippine Basin Basalts: Results from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1438 and Implications for the Early History of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Subduction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogodzinski, G. M.; Hocking, B.; Bizimis, M.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Ishizuka, O.; Bogus, K.; Arculus, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Drilling at IODP Site U1438, located immediately west of Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR), the site of IBM subduction initiation, penetrated 1460 m of volcaniclastic sedimentary rock and 150 m of underlying basement. Biostratigraphic controls indicate a probable age for the oldest sedimentary rocks at around 55 Ma (51-64 Ma - Arculus et al., Nat Geosci in-press). This is close to the 48-52 Ma time period of IBM subduction initiation, based on studies in the forearc. There, the first products of volcanism are tholeiitic basalts termed FAB (forearc basalt), which are more depleted than average MORB and show subtle indicators of subduction geochemical enrichment (Reagan et al., 2010 - Geochem Geophy Geosy). Shipboard data indicate that Site U1438 basement basalts share many characteristics with FABs, including primitive major elements (high MgO/FeO*) and strongly depleted incompatible element patterns (Ti, Zr, Ti/V and Zr/Y below those of average MORB). Initial results thus indicate that FAB geochemistry may have been produced not only in the forearc, but also in backarc locations (west of the KPR) at the time of subduction initiation. Hf-Nd isotopes for Site 1438 basement basalts show a significant range of compositions from ɛNd of 7.0 to 9.5 and ɛHf of 14.5 to 19.8 (present-day values). The data define a well-correlated and steep array in Hf-Nd isotope space. Relatively radiogenic Hf compared to Nd indicates an Indian Ocean-type MORB source, but the dominant signature, with ɛHf >16.5, is more radiogenic than most Indian MORB. The pattern through time is from more-to-less radiogenic and more variable Hf-Nd isotopes within the basement section. This pattern culminates in basaltic andesite sills, which intrude the lower parts of the sedimentary section. The sills have the least radiogenic compositions measured so far (ɛNd ~6.6, ɛHf ~13.8), and are similar to those of boninites of the IBM forearc and modern IBM arc and reararc rocks. The pattern within the basement

  17. Leucine incorporation by aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the Delaware estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Monica R; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are well known to be abundant in estuaries, coastal regions and in the open ocean, but little is known about their activity in any aquatic ecosystem. To explore the activity of AAP bacteria in the Delaware estuary and coastal waters, single-cell 3H-leucine incorporation by these bacteria was examined with a new approach that combines infrared epifluorescence microscopy and microautoradiography. The approach was used on samples from the Delaware coast from August through December and on transects through the Delaware estuary in August and November 2011. The percent of active AAP bacteria was up to twofold higher than the percentage of active cells in the rest of the bacterial community in the estuary. Likewise, the silver grain area around active AAP bacteria in microautoradiography preparations was larger than the area around cells in the rest of the bacterial community, indicating higher rates of leucine consumption by AAP bacteria. The cell size of AAP bacteria was 50% bigger than the size of other bacteria, about the same difference on average as measured for activity. The abundance of AAP bacteria was negatively correlated and their activity positively correlated with light availability in the water column, although light did not affect 3H-leucine incorporation in light–dark experiments. Our results suggest that AAP bacteria are bigger and more active than other bacteria, and likely contribute more to organic carbon fluxes than indicated by their abundance. PMID:24824666

  18. Measuring Macrobenthos Biodiversity at Oyster Aquaculture Sites in the Delaware Inland Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, M. J.; Ozbay, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Delaware Inland Bays consists of three shallow coastal bays located in the southern portion of Delaware. Anthropogenic activities have led to the degradation of water quality, because the bays are surrounded by highly developed areas and have low flushing rates. This results in loss of biodiversity and abundance of organisms. Ongoing degradation of the bays has led to a dramatic decline in local oyster populations since the late 1800s. Oysters are keystone species, which provide habitats for organisms and help to improve water quality. This study aims to find if the introduction of oyster aquaculture improves local biodiversity and abundance of macrobenthos. The study was conducted in Rehoboth Bay, Indian River Bay and Little Assawoman Bay. Aquaculture gear was placed at one location in each of the bays and 24 sediment core samples were taken once a month. From these core samples all worms were fixed and stained in a 10% Formalin Rose Bengal solution and preserved in 70% Ethanol for later identification. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of oyster tissue will also be performed to assess the health of the bay. The goals of this research are to better understand the role of oyster aquaculture in restoring the viability and health of the Delaware Inland Bays.

  19. Leucine incorporation by aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the Delaware estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Monica R; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L

    2014-11-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are well known to be abundant in estuaries, coastal regions and in the open ocean, but little is known about their activity in any aquatic ecosystem. To explore the activity of AAP bacteria in the Delaware estuary and coastal waters, single-cell (3)H-leucine incorporation by these bacteria was examined with a new approach that combines infrared epifluorescence microscopy and microautoradiography. The approach was used on samples from the Delaware coast from August through December and on transects through the Delaware estuary in August and November 2011. The percent of active AAP bacteria was up to twofold higher than the percentage of active cells in the rest of the bacterial community in the estuary. Likewise, the silver grain area around active AAP bacteria in microautoradiography preparations was larger than the area around cells in the rest of the bacterial community, indicating higher rates of leucine consumption by AAP bacteria. The cell size of AAP bacteria was 50% bigger than the size of other bacteria, about the same difference on average as measured for activity. The abundance of AAP bacteria was negatively correlated and their activity positively correlated with light availability in the water column, although light did not affect (3)H-leucine incorporation in light-dark experiments. Our results suggest that AAP bacteria are bigger and more active than other bacteria, and likely contribute more to organic carbon fluxes than indicated by their abundance.

  20. Active intra-basin faulting in the Northern Basin of Lake Malawi from seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillington, D. J.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Scholz, C. A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Onyango, E. A.; Peterson, K.; Gaherty, J. B.; Nyblade, A.; Accardo, N. J.; McCartney, T.; Oliva, S. J.; Kamihanda, G.; Ferdinand, R.; Salima, J.; Mruma, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    Many questions remain about the development and evolution of fault systems in weakly extended rifts, including the relative roles of border faults and intra-basin faults, and segmentation at various scales. The northern Lake Malawi (Nyasa) rift in the East African Rift System is an early stage rift exhibiting pronounced tectonic segmentation, which is defined by 100-km-long border faults. The basins also contain a series of intrabasinal faults and associated synrift sediments. The occurrence of the 2009 Karonga Earthquake Sequence on one of these intrabasinal faults indicates that some of them are active. Here we present new multichannel seismic reflection data from the Northern Basin of the Malawi Rift collected in 2015 as a part of the SEGMeNT (Study of Extension and maGmatism in Malawi aNd Tanzania) project. This rift basin is bound on its east side by the west-dipping Livingstone border fault. Over 650 km of seismic reflection profiles were acquired in the Northern Basin using a 500 to 1540 cu in air gun array and a 1200- to 1500-m seismic streamer. Dip lines image a series of north-south oriented west-dipping intra-basin faults and basement reflections up to 5 s twtt near the border fault. Cumulative offsets on intra-basin faults decrease to the west. The largest intra-basin fault has a vertical displacement of >2 s two-way travel time, indicating that it has accommodated significant total extension. Some of these intra-basin faults offset the lake bottom and the youngest sediments by up to 50 s twtt ( 37 m), demonstrating they are still active. The two largest intra-basin faults exhibit the largest offsets of young sediments and also correspond to the area of highest seismicity based on analysis of seismic data from the 89-station SEGMeNT onshore/offshore network (see Peterson et al, this session). Fault patterns in MCS profiles vary along the basin, suggesting a smaller scale of segmentation of faults within the basin; these variations in fault patterns

  1. Chapter 8: Fire and nonnative invasive plants in the Interior West bioregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Rice; Guy R. McPherson; Lisa J. Rew

    2008-01-01

    The Interior West bioregion is bounded on the east by the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains from Canada south to Mexico and on the west by the eastern foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington and Oregon and the eastern foothills of the Sierra Nevada in California. The bioregion includes the Chihuahuan, Sonoran, and Mojave hot deserts and the Great Basin cold...

  2. Examination of contaminant exposure and reproduction of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in Delaware Bay and River in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Bean, Thomas G; McGowan, Peter C; Callahan, Carl R; Erickson, Richard A; Hale, Robert C

    2018-05-22

    A study of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in the coastal Inland Bays of Delaware, and the Delaware Bay and Delaware River in 2015 examined spatial and temporal trends in contaminant exposure, food web transfer and reproduction. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), coplanar PCB toxic equivalents, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants in sample eggs were generally greatest in the Delaware River. Concentrations of legacy contaminants in 2015 Delaware Bay eggs were lower than values observed in the 1970s through early 2000s. Several alternative brominated flame retardants were rarely detected, with only TBPH [bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate)] present in 5 of 27 samples at <5 ng/g wet weight. No relation was found between p,p'-DDE, total PCBs or total PBDEs in eggs with egg hatching, eggs lost from nests, nestling loss, fledging and nest success. Osprey eggshell thickness recovered to pre-DDT era values, and productivity was adequate to sustain a stable population. Prey fish contaminant concentrations were generally less than those in osprey eggs, with detection frequencies and concentrations greatest in white perch (Morone americana) from Delaware River compared to the Bay. Biomagnification factors from fish to eggs for p,p'-DDE and total PCBs were generally similar to findings from several Chesapeake Bay tributaries. Overall, findings suggest that there have been improvements in Delaware Estuary waterbird habitat compared to the second half of the 20th century. This trend is in part associated with mitigation of some anthropogenic contaminant threats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. West Nile virus ecology in a tropical ecosystem in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Betoulle, Maria E; Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A; Alvarez, Danilo; López, María R; Betoulle, Jean-Luc; Sosa, Silvia M; Müller, María L; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Lanciotti, Robert S; Johnson, Barbara W; Powers, Ann M; Cordón-Rosales, Celia

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus ecology has yet to be rigorously investigated in the Caribbean Basin. We identified a transmission focus in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, and established systematic monitoring of avian abundance and infection, seroconversions in domestic poultry, and viral infections in mosquitoes. West Nile virus transmission was detected annually between May and October from 2005 to 2008. High temperature and low rainfall enhanced the probability of chicken seroconversions, which occurred in both urban and rural sites. West Nile virus was isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus and to a lesser extent, from Culex mollis/Culex inflictus, but not from the most abundant Culex mosquito, Culex nigripalpus. A calculation that combined avian abundance, seroprevalence, and vertebrate reservoir competence suggested that great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) is the major amplifying host in this ecosystem. West Nile virus transmission reached moderate levels in sentinel chickens during 2007, but less than that observed during outbreaks of human disease attributed to West Nile virus in the United States.

  4. Water resources of the Chad Basin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklyn R. Kaloko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available River basin development is seen as a very effective means of improving agricultural productivity. In the Chad Basin area of the Sahelian Zone of the West African Sub-Region, the water resources have been harnessed to ensure viable agricultural programmes for Nigeria. However,the resultant successes have met by many problems that range from physical to socio-economic and of which water losses have been the most threatening. The study has called for the use of Hexa.deconal (C1-OH film on the water surface of the Chad as a means of reducing evaporation.

  5. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's West Nile Virus? Print en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  6. K Basins fuel encapsulation and storage hazard categorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.

    1994-12-01

    This document establishes the initial hazard categorization for K-Basin fuel encapsulation and storage in the 100 K Area of the Hanford site. The Hazard Categorization for K-Basins addresses the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K-Basins and their supporting facilities. The Hazard Categorization covers the hazards associated with normal K-Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. The criteria categorizes a facility based on total curies per radionuclide located in the facility. Tables 5-3 and 5-4 display the results in section 5.0. In accordance with DOE-STD-1027 and the analysis provided in section 5.0, the K East Basin fuel encapsulation and storage activity and the K West Basin storage are classified as a open-quotes Category 2close quotes Facility

  7. Strategy for phase 2 whole element furnace testing K West fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    A strategy was developed for the second phase of the whole element furnace testing of damaged fuel removed from the K West Basin. The Phase 2 testing can be divided into three groups covering oxidation of whole element in moist inert atmospheres, drying elements for post Cold Vacuum Drying staging tests, and drying additional K West elements to provide confirmation of the results from the first series of damaged K West fuel drying studies

  8. Pechora River basin integrated system management PRISM; biodiversity assessment for the Pechora River basin; Cluster B: biodiversity, land use & forestry modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the biodiversity for the Pechora River basin Integrated System Management (PRISM). The Pechora River Basin, situated just west of the Ural Mountains, Russia, consists of vast boreal forests and tundra landscapes, partly pristine and undisturbed. The concept of biodiversity is

  9. A Survey of the Freshwater Mussel Fauna of the Little Kanawha River Basin,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussels, * Aquatic biology, Surveys, Rivers, Basins(Geographic), Natural resources, Population, Distribution, Sampling, Environmental impact...Chemical analysis, Pesticides, Metals, Water quality, Waste water , Waste management, Decision making, West Virginia, Fresh water , Workshops

  10. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and refined conceptual model of groundwater flow for Coastal Plain aquifers at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2005-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Myers, Luke; Degnan, James R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.

    2015-01-01

    From 1966 to 2002, activities at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware chemical facility in New Castle County, Delaware resulted in the contamination of groundwater, soils, and wetland sediment. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, and the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control began a multi-year investigation of the hydrogeologic framework and hydrology of the confined aquifer system. The goals of the ongoing study at the site (the Potomac Aquifer Study) are to determine the hydraulic connection between the Columbia and Potomac aquifers, determine the direction of groundwater flow in the Potomac aquifer, and identify factors affecting the fate of contaminated groundwater. This report describes progress made towards these goals based on available data collected through September 2012.

  11. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  12. Formation-evolution model of uranium-productive basin and its recognition criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyi; Li Ziying; Zhou Weixun; Guan Taiyang

    2004-11-01

    Based on geologic-tectonic setting and dynamic evolution of important U-productive basins both at home and abroad, authors distinguish six type of U-productive basins, and nominate each type by typical representative of this type, namely Chu-Sarysu and Syr-Darya type, Central Kyzylkum type, Zaural and West-Siberia type, Zabaikal type, Bohemia type, and South Texas type. The formation-evolution model of each type of U-productive basin has been established and recognition criteria have been proposed. Finially, the difference between each type U-productive basin is discussed and some assumption on prospecting for U-productive basins is proposed. (authors)

  13. Formation-evolution model of uranium-productive basin and its recognition criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuyi, Chen; Ziying, Li [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology, Beijing (China); Weixun, Zhou; Taiyang, Guan [East China Inst. of Technology, Fuzhou (China)

    2004-11-15

    Based on geologic-tectonic setting and dynamic evolution of important U-productive basins both at home and abroad, authors distinguish six type of U-productive basins, and nominate each type by typical representative of this type, namely Chu-Sarysu and Syr-Darya type, Central Kyzylkum type, Zaural and West-Siberia type, Zabaikal type, Bohemia type, and South Texas type. The formation-evolution model of each type of U-productive basin has been established and recognition criteria have been proposed. Finially, the difference between each type U-productive basin is discussed and some assumption on prospecting for U-productive basins is proposed. (authors)

  14. Characterizing surf zone injuries from the five most populated beaches on the Atlantic-fronting Delaware coast: Delaware surf zone injury demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelp, Matthew B; Puleo, Jack A; Cowan, Paul; Arford-Granholm, Michelle

    2017-12-24

    Beaches are a popular destination for recreation activities. Surf zone injuries (SZI) can occur resulting from a variety of in-water activities. Little is known regarding the sustained injury types, or demographics of injured persons and activities leading to injuries. This study examines the distribution of SZI types, activities and populations occurring on Delaware Beaches as recorded by a local level III trauma center (Department of Emergency Medicine at Beebe Healthcare in Lewes, Delaware). There were 2021 injuries over the eight study years (2010-2017). The relative demographics of the injured population are similar despite fluctuating injury totals (mean [SD], 253.1 [104.4]). Non-locals (n=1757) were 6.7 times more likely to be injured as their local (n=264) counterparts (RR, 2.62; 95% CI, 2.08-3.31). Males (n=1258) were 1.7 times more likely to be injured than their female (n=763) counterparts (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.21-1.37). Serious injuries, defined as patients requiring admission to a trauma service, represented 9.1% (n=184) of injuries. Fatal SZI (n=6) were categorized as serious injuries. Wading (50.1%) was found to be the dominant activity associated with injury followed by body surfing (18.4%), and body boarding (13.3%). To the authors' knowledge, this study is one of the first to investigate long-term trends in SZI data, injury activity, and demographics. Better understanding of the characteristics of injuries will allow for improved awareness techniques, targeted at populations with higher injury rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental education for river-basin planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, S K

    1980-08-01

    Harmonious intervention in land use, a result of environmental education and good planning, can increase the social and economic benefits without precluding development. Modern river basin planning began as a US innovation in 1874 over the subject of water regulation in the west. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was devised as a state tool for comprehensive river basin planning and development. The TVA example was not repeated in the other 10 US basins by the Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, although the concept of unified development has survived as a three-part relationship of physical,biological, and human forces in which any malfunctioning of one subsystem affects the others. This is evident in problems of water transfer from agricultural to industrial functions and changes to drainage patterns. The potential damage from ignoring these relationships can be avoided with true interdisciplinary communications. 24 references, 2 tables. (DCK)

  16. West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.

  17. Investigations on boron isotopic geochemistry of salt lakes in Qaidam basin, Qinghai

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Xiao, Y; Shirodkar, P.V.; Liu, W.G.; Wang, Y; Jin, L.

    of brine and are related to boron origin, the corrosion of salt and to certain chemical constituents. The distribution of boron isotopes in Quidam Basin showed a regional feature: salt lake brines in the west and northwest basin have the highest d11B values...

  18. K Basin sandfilter backwash line characterization project, analytical results for Campaign 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Sample 112KWBMF was taken from the K West Sandfilter Backwash Pit on June 1 , 1999, and received by 222-S Laboratory on June 2,1999. Analyses were performed on sample 112KWBMF in accordance with Letter of Instruction for K Basins Sandfilter Backwash Line Samples (LOI) in support of the K Basin Sandfilter Backwash Line Characterization Project

  19. K basin sandfilter backwash line characterization project, analytical results for campaign 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Sample 183KWBMF was taken from the K West Sandfilter Backwash Pit on August 28, 1998 and received by 222-S Laboratory on August 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with ''Letter of Instruction for K Basins Sandfilter Backwash Line Samples'' (LOI) in support of the K Basin Sandfilter Backwash Line Characterization Project

  20. Stratigraphy and tectonics of Permo-Triassic basins in the Netherlands and surrounding areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses different aspects of the geological development during the Permian and Triassic (300 to 200 Ma) of the Netherlands and surrounding areas. The study area encompasses the Southern Permian Basin (SPB), a large intracratonic basin stretched out from the United Kingdom in the west

  1. K Basin Sandfilter Backwash Line Characterization Project and Analytical Results for Campaign 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Sample 203KWBMF was taken from the K West Sandfilter Backwash Pit on November 4, 1999 and received by 2224 Laboratory on November 4, 1999. Analyses were performed on sample 203KWBMF in accordance with ''Letter of Instruction for K Basins sandfilter Backwash Line Samples'' (LOI) in support of the K Basin Sandfilter Backwash Line Characterization Project

  2. Infection of the Gulf Coast Tick, Amblyomma Maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae), with Rickettsia Parkeri: First Report from the State of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    0279276E-D761-4A27-BFF7-7329E05E0F66 Infection of the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae), with Rickettsia parkeri: first report from...Spring, MD 20910-1230, U.S.A. Abstract The molecular detection of Rickettsia parkeri in a Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum, collected in Delaware...near Smyrna, Delaware. All specimens were tested for the presence of Rickettsia with a genus-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain

  3. Pharmaceuticals in water, fish and osprey nestlings in Delaware River and Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas G.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Day, Daniel D.; Burket, S. Rebekah; Brooks, Bryan W.; Haddad, Samuel P.; Bowerman, William W.

    2018-01-01

    Exposure of wildlife to Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) is likely to occur but studies of risk are limited. One exposure pathway that has received attention is trophic transfer of APIs in a water-fish-osprey food chain. Samples of water, fish plasma and osprey plasma were collected from Delaware River and Bay, and analyzed for 21 APIs. Only 2 of 21 analytes exceeded method detection limits in osprey plasma (acetaminophen and diclofenac) with plasma levels typically 2–3 orders of magnitude below human therapeutic concentrations (HTC). We built upon a screening level model used to predict osprey exposure to APIs in Chesapeake Bay and evaluated whether exposure levels could have been predicted in Delaware Bay had we just measured concentrations in water or fish. Use of surface water and BCFs did not predict API concentrations in fish well, likely due to fish movement patterns, and partitioning and bioaccumulation uncertainties associated with these ionizable chemicals. Input of highest measured API concentration in fish plasma combined with pharmacokinetic data accurately predicted that diclofenac and acetaminophen would be the APIs most likely detected in osprey plasma. For the majority of APIs modeled, levels were not predicted to exceed 1 ng/mL or method detection limits in osprey plasma. Based on the target analytes examined, there is little evidence that APIs represent a significant risk to ospreys nesting in Delaware Bay. If an API is present in fish orders of magnitude below HTC, sampling of fish-eating birds is unlikely to be necessary. However, several human pharmaceuticals accumulated in fish plasma within a recommended safety factor for HTC. It is now important to expand the scope of diet-based API exposure modeling to include alternative exposure pathways (e.g., uptake from landfills, dumps and wastewater treatment plants) and geographic locations (developing countries) where API contamination of the environment may represent greater risk.

  4. Implementation of a framework for multi-species, multi-objective adaptive management in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David R.; Nichols, James D.; Lyons, James E.; Sweka, John A.; Kalasz, Kevin; Niles, Lawrence J.; Wong, Richard; Brust, Jeffrey; Davis, Michelle C.; Spear, Braddock

    2015-01-01

    Decision analytic approaches have been widely recommended as well suited to solving disputed and ecologically complex natural resource management problems with multiple objectives and high uncertainty. However, the difference between theory and practice is substantial, as there are very few actual resource management programs that represent formal applications of decision analysis. We applied the process of structured decision making to Atlantic horseshoe crab harvest decisions in the Delaware Bay region to develop a multispecies adaptive management (AM) plan, which is currently being implemented. Horseshoe crab harvest has been a controversial management issue since the late 1990s. A largely unregulated horseshoe crab harvest caused a decline in crab spawning abundance. That decline coincided with a major decline in migratory shorebird populations that consume horseshoe crab eggs on the sandy beaches of Delaware Bay during spring migration. Our approach incorporated multiple stakeholders, including fishery and shorebird conservation advocates, to account for diverse management objectives and varied opinions on ecosystem function. Through consensus building, we devised an objective statement and quantitative objective function to evaluate alternative crab harvest policies. We developed a set of competing ecological models accounting for the leading hypotheses on the interaction between shorebirds and horseshoe crabs. The models were initially weighted based on stakeholder confidence in these hypotheses, but weights will be adjusted based on monitoring and Bayesian model weight updating. These models were used together to predict the effects of management actions on the crab and shorebird populations. Finally, we used a dynamic optimization routine to identify the state dependent optimal harvest policy for horseshoe crabs, given the possible actions, the stated objectives and our competing hypotheses about system function. The AM plan was reviewed, accepted and

  5. Sweden in the Delaware Valley: Everyday Life and Material Culture in New Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Ekengren, Fredrik; Zagal Mach Wolfe, Ulla Isabel

    2013-01-01

    In 1637 the Swedish Crown, encouraged by Dutch merchants, developed a plan to establish a colonial outpost in America to tap into profitable tobacco and beaver pelt trade. The same year the first cargo ships left Sweden and sailed westwards to claim their piece of America along the Delaware River......, their perception and interactions with the neighbouring Native American groups. It discusses the ways material culture was used, exchanged and appropriated by the colonists and the local Lenape and Susquehannock in the processes of meeting, negotiations and daily coexistence....

  6. Delaware River water quality Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, August 1949 to December 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighton, Walter B.

    1965-01-01

    During the 14-year period from August 1949 to July 1963, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Philadelphia, collected samples of river water once each month in the 43-mile reach of the Delaware River from Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pa., and daily at Trenton, 10 miles upstream from Bristol. This part of the Delaware is an estuary into which salt water is brought by tides; fresh water flows into the estuary at Trenton, NJ, and farther downstream from the Schuylkill River and other tributaries of the Delaware. In March, April, and May, when fresh-water flow is high, the average concentration of dissolved solids in the water at Bristol was 76 ppm (parts per million), and at Marcus Hook 112 PPM In August and September, streamflow is lower, and the average concentration of dissolved solids increased to 117 PPM at Bristol and 804 PPM at Marcus Hook. Major salinity invasions of the Delaware River occurred in 1949, 1953, 1954, 1957, and 1963. In each of these years the fresh-water flow into the tidal river at Trenton was low during the period from July to October. The greatest dissolved-solids concentrations in these monthly samples were 160 PPM at Bristol and 4,000 PPM at Marcus Hook. At times the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the river water has become dangerously low, especially in that reach of the river between Wharton Street and League Island. At the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, one-third of the samples of river water were less than 30 percent saturated with oxygen; however, no trend, either for better or for worse, was apparent during the 14-year period. It is useful now to summarize these monthly analyses for the period 1949-63 even though a much more detailed description of water quality in this reach of the estuary will soon become available through the use of recording instrumental conditions. This compendium of water-quality data is useful as an explicit statement of water quality during the 14-year study period and is valuable for directing

  7. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    A solar energy system located at the Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware is described. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat - new addition, domestic water - entire facility, and pool heating - entire facility. On a cost basis for 2920 hours of operation, the heat reclaimed would cost $969.66 annually if provided by gas at 3.79 per million Btu's. At 5.5 centers per kwh, heat recovery costs of $481.80 percent a net savings of $487.86 annually.

  8. Northern part, Ten Mile and Taunton River basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R.; Willey, Richard E.

    1967-01-01

    The northern part of the Ten Mile and Taunton River basins is an area of about 195 square miles within Norfolk, Plymouth, and Bristol Counties in southeastern Massachusetts. The northern boundary of the area (plate 1) is the drainage divide separating these basins from that of the Charles, Neponset, and Weymouth River basins. The western boundary is, for the most part, the divide separating the basins from the Blackstone River basin. The eastern boundary is at the edge of the Brockton-Pembroke area (Petersen, 1962; Petersen and Shaw, 1961). The southern boundary in Seekonk is the northern limit of the East Providence quadrangle, for which a ground-water map was prepared by Allen and Gorman (1959); eastward, the southern boundaries of the city of Attleboro and the towns of Norton, Easton, and West Bridgewater form the southern boundary of the area.

  9. Geology and salt deposits of the Michigan Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.S.; Gonzales, S.

    1976-07-01

    The Silurian-age Salina salt, one of the greatest deposits of bedded rock salt in the world, underlies most of the Michigan basin and parts of the Appalachian basin in Ohio. Pennsylvania, New York, and West Virginia. Interest in this salt deposit has increased in recent years because there may be one or more areas where it could be used safely as a repository for the underground storage of high-level radioactive wastes. The general geology of the Michigan basin is summarized and the major salt deposits are described in the hope that these data will be useful in determining whether there are any areas in the basin that are sufficiently promising to warrant further detailed study. Distribution of the important salt deposits in the basin is limited to the Southern Peninsula of Michigan

  10. Modeling forest carbon cycle using long-term carbon stock field measurement in the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing Xu; Yude Pan; Alain F. Plante; Kevin McCullough; Richard Birdsey

    2017-01-01

    Process-based models are a powerful approach to test our understanding of biogeochemical processes, to extrapolate ground survey data from limited plots to the landscape scale, and to simulate the effects of climate change, nitrogen deposition, elevated atmospheric CO2, increasing natural disturbances, and land-use change on ecological processes...

  11. Report on the Comprehensive Survey of the Water Resources of the Delaware River Basin. Volume 8. Appendix O

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-12-01

    disposed into the sewers provided that the material is soluble. (2) Radioactive levels include the following: strontium 90 or polonium 210 , not to...prime importance is water; man can survive without food more easily than without water., What is true of the individual is true of his civili- zation...abundant fish species at each of the survey stations, ranked according to their abundance 21-27 9 Frequency of occurrence of food organisms in the

  12. Invasive Species Guidebook for Department of Defense Installations in the Delaware River Basin: Identification, Control, and Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    affects (NISC 2001). A key management objective on both national and installation levels must be prevention of invasive species introduction and...species (National Research Council 2002): ◘ Long flowering/ fruiting period, which increases seed production and dispersal. ◘ Ability to reach...mycorrhizal fungi that they rely on. NOTE: Garlic mustard may grow with native species that are similar in appearance, such as toothworts (Dentaria

  13. palaeomagnetism of neoproterozoic formations in the volta basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Mean palaeomagnetic directions are calculated on the high temperature components and yield a mean palaeopole,. Plon=349.3° ... KEYWORDS: West African craton, Volta basin, Virtual Geomagnetic Pole, Palaeolatitude, Snowball Earth. INTRODUCTION .... The samples were taken in the field using a portable petrol ...

  14. Epidemiologic, Racial and Healthographic Mapping of Delaware Pediatric Cancer: 2004–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Holmes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer remains the leading cause of disease-related death among children 0 to 14 years and incidence varies by race, ethnicity, sex, geographic locale, and age at onset. However, data are unavailable in some regions, indicative of a need for such information for cancer awareness, education and prevention program. We utilized retrospective epidemiologic design to assess and characterize pediatric tumors in the Nemours Electronic Medical Records, between 2004 and 2014. Tumor frequency and children population size were used to determine the period prevalence as cumulative incidence (CI proportion, as well as chi-square and Poisson Regression. The CI for overall childhood cancer in Delaware was 234 per 100,000 children, and varied by race, black (273 per 100,000, white (189 per 100,000. Similarly, sex variability was observed in CI, boys (237 per 100,000 and girls (230 per 100,000. The most commonly diagnosed malignancies were acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, Central Nervous System (CNS/brain and renal cancer. The geographic locales with relatively higher cancer CI in the state of DE were zip codes 19804 and 19960, but this does not imply cancer clustering. Differences in overall childhood cancer distribution occurred by race, sex, geography, and age. These findings are indicative of the need for cancer-specific health education, awareness and prevention programs in reducing the observed disparities in Delaware.

  15. The Importance of Inclusion for Cardiovascular Health Promotion Programs in Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Mia A; Stolz, Nicole; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Sparling, Eileen; Freedman, Brian

    2018-03-01

    Individuals with disabilities experience greater rates of cardiovascular disease than individuals without disabilities. This increase can be attributed to decreased levels of physical activity, poor eating habits, and increased levels of diabetes, smoking, and obesity. Individuals with disabilities are often excluded from surveillance, treatment, and prevention efforts. Consequently, there is little known about their participation rates in health promotion and disease prevention programs. The aims of this investigation are (1) to examine time trends in cardiovascular disease and risk factors over a 10-year period by disability status and (2) to assess the inclusiveness of health promotion programs in Delaware. The percentage of individuals with disabilities increased from 18% in 2001 to 28% in 2011. Individuals with disabilities had higher rates of cardiovascular disease (t = 80.45; degrees of freedom [df] = 198; p 30 kg/m2) than individuals without disabilities (t = 33.0; df = 198; p promotion programs. Making adaptations within cardiovascular disease prevention programs in Delaware is imperative to improving the health of individuals with disabilities. Ensuring cardiovascular disease programs are accessible and provide disability-specific trained staff will reduce barriers to participation so that all individuals can benefit.

  16. Direct and indirect atmospheric deposition of PCBs to the Delaware River watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Lisa A; Panangadan, Maya; Eisenreich, Steven J; Cavallo, Gregory J; Fikslin, Thomas J

    2006-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition can be an important source of PCBs to aquatic ecosystems. To develop the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for the tidal Delaware River (water-quality Zones 2-5), estimates of the loading of PCBs to the river from atmospheric deposition were generated from seven air-monitoring sites along the river. This paper presents the atmospheric PCB data from these sites, estimates direct atmospheric deposition fluxes, and assesses the importance of atmospheric deposition relative to other sources of PCBs to the river. Also, the relationship between indirect atmospheric deposition and PCB loads from minor tributaries to the Delaware River is discussed. Data from these sites revealed high atmospheric PCB concentrations in the Philadelphia/Camden urban area and lower regional background concentrations in the more remote areas. Wet, dry particle, and gaseous absorption deposition are estimated to contribute about 0.6, 1.8, and 6.5 kg year-(-1) sigmaPCBs to the River, respectively, exceeding the TMDL of 0.139 kg year(-1) by more than an order of magnitude. Penta-PCB watershed fluxes were obtained by dividing the tributary loads by the watershed area. The lowest of these watershed fluxes are less than approximately 1 ng m(-2) day(-1) for penta-PCB and probably indicates pristine watersheds in which PCB loads are dominated by atmospheric deposition. In these watersheds, the pass-through efficiency of PCBs is estimated to be on the order of 1%.

  17. Carbon Monoxide Photoproduction from Particles and Solutes in the Delaware Estuary under Contrasting Hydrological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guisheng; Richardson, John D; Werner, James P; Xie, Huixiang; Kieber, David J

    2015-12-15

    Full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV), and visible broadband apparent quantum yields (AQYs) for carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) were determined in the Delaware Estuary in two hydrologically contrasting seasons in 2012: an unusually low flow in August and a storm-driven high flow in November. Average AQYs for CDOM and POM in November were 10 and 16 times the corresponding AQYs in August. Maximum AQYs in November occurred in a midestuary particle absorption maximum zone. Although POM AQYs were generally smaller than CDOM AQYs, the ratio of the former to the latter increased substantially from the UV to the visible. In both seasons, UV solar radiation was the primary driver for CO photoproduction from CDOM whereas visible light was the principal contributor to POM-based CO photoproduction. CDOM dominated CO photoproduction in the uppermost water layer while POM prevailed at deeper depths. On a depth-integrated basis, the Delaware Estuary shifted from a CDOM-dominated system in August to a POM-dominated system in November with respect to CO photoproduction. This study reveals that flood events may enhance photochemical cycling of terrigenous organic matter and switch the primary photochemical driver from CDOM to POM.

  18. Behaviour of uranium during mixing in the Delaware and Chesapeake estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, M.M.; Church, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Unequivocal evidence is presented for the removal of uranium in two major estuarine systems of the north-eastern United States: the Delaware and Chesapeake Bays. In both the estuaries, during all seasons but mostly in summer, dissolved uranium shows distinctly non-conservative behaviour at salinities ≤ 5. At salinities above 5, there are no deviations from the ideal dilution line. In these two estuaries as much as 22% of dissolved uranium is removed at low salinities, around salinity 2. This pronounced removal of uranium observed at low salinities has been investigated in terms of other chemical properties measured in the Delaware Estuary. In the zone of uranium removal, dissolved oxygen is significantly depleted and pH goes through a minimum down to 6.8. In the same low salinity regime, total alkalinity shows negative deviation from the linear dilution line and phosphate is removed. Humic acids, dissolved iron and manganese are also rapidly removed during estuarine mixing in this low salinity region. Thus, it appears that removal of uranium is most likely related to those properties of alkalinity and acid-base system of the upper estuary that may destabilize the uranium-carbonate complex. Under these conditions, uranium may associate strongly with phosphates or humic substances and be removed onto particulate phases and deposited within upper estuarine sediments. (author)

  19. Integrating Engineering into Delaware's K-5 Classrooms: A Study of Pedagogical and Curricular Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusenmeyer, Linda Huey

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the personal and curricular resources available to Delaware's elementary teachers during a time of innovative curriculum change, i.e., their knowledge, goals and beliefs regarding elementary engineering curriculum and the pedagogical support to teach two Science and Engineering Practices provided by science teaching materials.…

  20. The Development of a Competency Based Food Preparations Curriculum for High School Special Needs Students in New Castle County, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Richard Lee

    A competency-based culinary arts food preparation curriculum for Delaware high school students with special needs was developed during a project that included the following activities: review of the state's existing culinary arts curriculum for regular education students; incumbent worker survey administered to 24 restaurant…

  1. 33 CFR 165.553 - Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation Stations, Delaware River, Salem County, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Salem and Hope... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.553 Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation...: the waters of the Delaware River in the vicinity of the Salem and Hope Creek Generation Stations...

  2. Sedimentary basin analysis and petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jin-Dam; Kwak, Young-Hoon; Bong, Pil-Yoon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    Since 1992 sedimentary basin analysis to assess petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the Korean onshore and continental shelf have been carried out. The Cretaceous non-marine strata mainly occupy the Gyeongsang Basin in southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula and small basins such as Haenam and Gyeokpo depressions in western coastal areas. The Tertiary strata are mostly distributed in Domi, Cheju, Socotra subbasins, and Okinawa Trough in the South Continental Shelf, and Kunsan and Heuksan basins in the West. The basin evolution and petroleum potential for each basins are characterized as follow. The Cretaceous Gyeongsang sediments were deposited in three subbasins including Milyang, Euisung and Yongyang subbasins. The black shales in Nakdong and Jinju formations are interpreted to contain abundant organic matter during the deposition, thermal maturity reaching up to the zone of dry gas formation. Because porosity and permeability are too low, the sandstones can act as a tight gas reservoir rather than conventional oil and gas reservoir. The latest Cretaceous strata of Haenam and Kyeokpo depressions in western coastal area are correlated into the Yuchon Volcanic Group of the Gyeongsang Basin. Petroleum potential of the Early Cretaceous basin in the West Continental Shelf could be relatively high in terms of sedimentary basin filled with thick lacustrine sediments. The Kunsan basin in the West Continental Shelf originated in the Early Cretaceous time expanded during the Paleocene time followed by regional erosion at the end of Paleocene on which Neogene sediment have been accumulated. The Paleocene-Eocene sublacustrine shales may play an major role as a source and cap rocks. South Continental Shelf Basin is subdivided by Cheju subbasin in the center, Socotra Subbasin to the west, Domi Subbasin to the northeast and Okinawa Trough to the East. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, titled fault blocks, fault, unconformity

  3. Flood of May 23, 2004, in the Turkey and Maquoketa River basins, northeast Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eash, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred on May 23, 2004, in the Turkey River Basin in Clayton County and in the Maquoketa River Basin in Delaware County following intense thunderstorms over northeast Iowa. Rain gages at Postville and Waucoma, Iowa, recorded 72-hour rainfall of 6.32 and 6.55 inches, respectively, on May 23. Unofficial rainfall totals of 8 to 10 inches were reported in the Turkey River Basin. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Turkey River at Garber streamflow-gaging station was 66,700 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) and is the largest flood on record in the Turkey River Basin. The timing of flood crests on the Turkey and Volga Rivers, and local tributaries, coincided to produce a record flood on the lower part of the Turkey River. Three large floods have occurred at the Turkey River at Garber gaging station in a 13-year period. Peak discharges of the floods of June 1991 and May 1999 were 49,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 150 years) and 53,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 220 years), respectively. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Maquoketa River at Manchester gaging station was 26,000 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 100 years) and is the largest known flood in the upper part of the Maquoketa River Basin.

  4. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, which lies within the central and southern Appalachian basin, consists of the following five assessment units (AUs): (1) the Pocahontas Basin AU in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; (2) the Central Appalachian Shelf AU in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia; (3) the East Dunkard (Folded) AU in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia; (4) the West Dunkard (Unfolded) AU in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and (5) the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Only two of these assessment units were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the National Oil and Gas Assessment in 2002. The USGS estimated the Pocahontas Basin AU and the East Dunkard (Folded) AU to contain a mean of about 3.6 and 4.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively.

  5. Constraining Basin Depth and Fault Displacement in the Malombe Basin Using Potential Field Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresh, S. C. M.; Elifritz, E. A.; Méndez, K.; Johnson, S.; Mynatt, W. G.; Mayle, M.; Atekwana, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Chisenga, C.; Gondwe, S.; Mkumbwa, M.; Kalaguluka, D.; Kalindekafe, L.; Salima, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Malombe Basin is part of the Malawi Rift which forms the southern part of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. At its southern end, the Malawi Rift bifurcates into the Bilila-Mtakataka and Chirobwe-Ntcheu fault systems and the Lake Malombe Rift Basin around the Shire Horst, a competent block under the Nankumba Peninsula. The Malombe Basin is approximately 70km from north to south and 35km at its widest point from east to west, bounded by reversing-polarity border faults. We aim to constrain the depth of the basin to better understand displacement of each border fault. Our work utilizes two east-west gravity profiles across the basin coupled with Source Parameter Imaging (SPI) derived from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey. The first gravity profile was done across the northern portion of the basin and the second across the southern portion. Gravity and magnetic data will be used to constrain basement depths and the thickness of the sedimentary cover. Additionally, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data is used to understand the topographic expression of the fault scarps. Estimates for minimum displacement of the border faults on either side of the basin were made by adding the elevation of the scarps to the deepest SPI basement estimates at the basin borders. Our preliminary results using SPI and SRTM data show a minimum displacement of approximately 1.3km for the western border fault; the minimum displacement for the eastern border fault is 740m. However, SPI merely shows the depth to the first significantly magnetic layer in the subsurface, which may or may not be the actual basement layer. Gravimetric readings are based on subsurface density and thus circumvent issues arising from magnetic layers located above the basement; therefore expected results for our work will be to constrain more accurate basin depth by integrating the gravity profiles. Through more accurate basement depth estimates we also gain more accurate displacement

  6. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still...... the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub...

  7. An evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions of West Lake on the Hanford site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.; Price, K.L.; Newcomer, D.R.

    1991-03-01

    West Lake and its immediate surrounding basin represent a unique habitat that is dominated by highly saline water and soil. The basin offers a valuable research site for studies of a rare and complex wetland area in the desert. This report is an evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions at West Lake and describes how ground water influences site properties. The scope of this evaluation consisted of a sampling program in 1989 and a review of data from the perspective of assessing the impact of Hanford Site operations on the physical, chemical, and ecological conditions of West Lake and its surrounding basin. The water level in West Lake fluctuates in relation to changes in the water table. The connection between West Lake and ground water is also supported by the presence of {sup 3}H and {sup 99}Tc in the ground water and in the lake. There are relatively high concentrations of uranium in West Lake; the highest concentrations are found in the northernmost isolated pool. Analyses of water, sediment, vegetation, and soil indicate possible shifts of isotropic ratios that indicate a reduction of {sup 235}U. Uranium-236 was not detected in West Lake water; its presence would indicate neutron-activated {sup 235}U from fuel reprocessing at Hanford. Trace metals are found at elevated concentrations in West Lake. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc were found at levels in excess of US Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria. Levels of radiological and chemical contamination in the West Lake basin are relatively low. Concentrations of fission isotopes exceed those that could be explained by atmospheric fallout, but fall short of action levels for active waste management areas. 31 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. An evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions of West Lake on the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.; Price, K.L.; Newcomer, D.R.

    1991-03-01

    West Lake and its immediate surrounding basin represent a unique habitat that is dominated by highly saline water and soil. The basin offers a valuable research site for studies of a rare and complex wetland area in the desert. This report is an evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions at West Lake and describes how ground water influences site properties. The scope of this evaluation consisted of a sampling program in 1989 and a review of data from the perspective of assessing the impact of Hanford Site operations on the physical, chemical, and ecological conditions of West Lake and its surrounding basin. The water level in West Lake fluctuates in relation to changes in the water table. The connection between West Lake and ground water is also supported by the presence of 3 H and 99 Tc in the ground water and in the lake. There are relatively high concentrations of uranium in West Lake; the highest concentrations are found in the northernmost isolated pool. Analyses of water, sediment, vegetation, and soil indicate possible shifts of isotropic ratios that indicate a reduction of 235 U. Uranium-236 was not detected in West Lake water; its presence would indicate neutron-activated 235 U from fuel reprocessing at Hanford. Trace metals are found at elevated concentrations in West Lake. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc were found at levels in excess of US Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria. Levels of radiological and chemical contamination in the West Lake basin are relatively low. Concentrations of fission isotopes exceed those that could be explained by atmospheric fallout, but fall short of action levels for active waste management areas. 31 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs

  9. Comparative analysis of marine paleogene sections and biota from West Siberia and the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmet'ev, M. A.; Zaporozhets, N. I.; Iakovleva, A. I.; Aleksandrova, G. N.; Beniamovsky, V. N.; Oreshkina, T. V.; Gnibidenko, Z. N.; Dolya, Zh. A.

    2010-12-01

    The analysis of the main biospheric events that took place in West Siberia and the Arctic region during the Early Paleogene revealed the paleogeographic and paleobiogeographic unity of marine sedimentation basins and close biogeographic relations between their separate parts. Most biotic and abiotic events of the first half of the Paleogene in the Arctic region and West Siberia were synchronous, unidirectional, and interrelated. Shelf settings, sedimentation breaks, and microfaunal assemblages characteristic of these basins during the Paleogene are compared. The comparative analysis primarily concerned events of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and beds with Azolla (aquatic fern). The formation of the Eocene Azolla Beds in the Arctic region and West Siberia was asynchronous, although it proceeded in line with a common scenario related to the development of a system of estuarine-type currents in a sea basin partly isolated from the World Ocean.

  10. A model of late quaternary landscape development in the Delaware Valley, New Jersey and Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, J.C.; Evenson, E.B.; Sevon, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    In the Delaware Valley of New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania the late Quaternary history of colluviation, fluvial adjustment, and soil formation is based on the ages of pre-Wisconsinan soils and glacial deposits which are indicated by feld relationships and inferred from mid-latitude climate changes indicated by marine oxygen-isotope records. The area is divided into four terranes characterized by sandstone, gneiss, slate and carbonate rocks. Since the last pre-Wisconsinan glaciation (> 130 ka, inferred to be late Illinoian), each terrane responded differently to chemical and mechanical weathering. During the Sangamon interglacial stage (??? 130-75 ka) in situ weathering is inferred to have occurred at rates greater than transportation of material which resulted in the formation of deep, highly weathered soil and saprolite, and dissolution of carbonate rocks. Cold climatic conditions during the Wisconsinan, on the other hand, induced erosion of the landscape at rates faster than soil development. Upland erosion during the Wisconsinan removed pre-Wisconsinan soil and glacial sediment and bedrock to produce muddy to blocky colluvium, gre??zes lite??es, and alluvial fans on footslopes. Fluvial gravel and overlying colluvium in the Delaware Valley, both buried by late Wisconsinan outwash, are inferred to represent episodes of early and middle Wisconsinan (??? 75-25 ka) upland erosion and river aggradiation followed by river degradation and colluvium deposition. Early-middle Wisconsinan colluvium is more voluminous than later colluvium despite colder, possibly permafrost conditions during the late Wisconsinan ??? 25-10 ka). Extensive colluviation during the early and middle Wisconsinan resulted from a longer (50 kyr), generally cold interval of erosion with a greater availability of easily eroded pre-Wisconsinan surficial materials on uplands than during the late Wisconsinan. After recession of late Wisconsinan ice from its terminal position, soil formation and

  11. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers RWJ Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Niles, Lawrence [Conserve Wildlife, 109 Market Lane, Greenwich, NJ (United States); Dey, Amanda [NJ Department of Environmental Protection, Endangered and Nongame Species Program, Trenton, NJ (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Rd, Bernardsville, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-15

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  12. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Niles, Lawrence; Dey, Amanda; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Tsipoura, Nellie

    2014-01-01

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  13. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  14. Spatial analysis from remotely sensed observations of Congo basin of East African high Land to drain water using gravity for sustainable management of low laying Chad basin of Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    B. Modu; B. Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The Chad basin which covers an area of about 2.4 million kilometer square is one of the largest drainage basins in Africa in the centre of Lake Chad .This basin was formed as a result of rifting and drifting episode, as such it has no outlet to the oceans or seas. It contains large area of desert from the north to the west. The basin covers in part seven countries such as Chad, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Cameroun, Niger, Sudan and Algeria. It is named Chad basin because 43.9%...

  15. Raw material studies of West Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bogosavljević Petrović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the Čačak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

  16. A summary of the test procedures and operational details of a Delaware River and an ocean dumping pollution monitoring experiment conducted 28 August 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Ohlhorst, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Two remote sensor evaluation experiments are discussed. One experiment was conducted at the DuPont acid-dump site off the Delaware coast. The second was conducted at an organic waste outfall in the Delaware River. The operational objective of obtaining simultaneous sea truth sampling with remote sensors overpasses was met. Descriptions of the test sites, sensors, sensor platforms, flight lines, sea truth data collected, and operational chronology are presented.

  17. Use of the Ocean for Man’s Wastes. Proceedings of Symposium Held at Lewes, Delaware on 23-24 June 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Gaither, Dean of the College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, in making available the facilities of the Virden Center at Lewes, Delaware...gravel for*~1 the sea floor interferes with the existence of nursery and breeding grounds for fish. The options then are to restrict the recovery of...the succession of temporary deposition followed by travel with ocean currents leads to a random hop -scotch movement of particles along the seafloor

  18. Magnetotelluric data collected to characterize aquifers in the San Luis Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailes, Chad E.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin as part of the Geologic Framework of Rio Grande Basins project. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, magnetotelluric surveys, and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers in the San Luis Basin. This report describes one north-south and two east-west regional magnetotelluric sounding profiles, acquired in June of 2010 and July and August of 2011, across the San Luis Basin in northern New Mexico. No interpretation of the data is included.

  19. Skylab/EREP application to ecological, geological, and oceanographic investigations of Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V.; Bartlett, D. S.; Philpot, W. D.; Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    Skylab/EREP S190A and S190B film products were optically enhanced and visually interpreted to extract data suitable for; (1) mapping coastal land use; (2) inventorying wetlands vegetation; (3) monitoring tidal conditions; (4) observing suspended sediment patterns; (5) charting surface currents; (6) locating coastal fronts and water mass boundaries; (7) monitoring industrial and municipal waste dumps in the ocean; (8) determining the size and flow direction of river, bay and man-made discharge plumes; and (9) observing ship traffic. Film products were visually analyzed to identify and map ten land-use and vegetation categories at a scale of 1:125,000. Digital tapes from the multispectral scanner were used to prepare thematic maps of land use. Classification accuracies obtained by comparison of derived thematic maps of land-use with USGS-CARETS land-use maps in southern Delaware ranged from 44 percent to 100 percent.

  20. Tectonic evolution of the Tualatin basin, northwest Oregon, as revealed by inversion of gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Darcy K.; Langenheim, Victoria E.; Wells, Ray; Blakely, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The Tualatin basin, west of Portland (Oregon, USA), coincides with a 110 mGal gravity low along the Puget-Willamette lowland. New gravity measurements (n = 3000) reveal a three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface geometry suggesting early development as a fault-bounded pull-apart basin. A strong northwest-trending gravity gradient coincides with the Gales Creek fault, which forms the southwestern boundary of the Tualatin basin. Faults along the northeastern margin in the Portland Hills and the northeast-trending Sherwood fault along the southeastern basin margin are also associated with gravity gradients, but of smaller magnitude. The gravity low reflects the large density contrast between basin fill and the mafic crust of the Siletz terrane composing basement. Inversions of gravity data indicate that the Tualatin basin is ∼6 km deep, therefore 6 times deeper than the 1 km maximum depth of the Miocene Columba River Basalt Group (CRBG) in the basin, implying that the basin contains several kilometers of low-density pre-CRBG sediments and so formed primarily before the 15 Ma emplacement of the CRBG. The shape of the basin and the location of parallel, linear basin-bounding faults along the southwest and northeast margins suggest that the Tualatin basin originated as a pull-apart rhombochasm. Pre-CRBG extension in the Tualatin basin is consistent with an episode of late Eocene extension documented elsewhere in the Coast Ranges. The present fold and thrust geometry of the Tualatin basin, the result of Neogene compression, is superimposed on the ancestral pull-apart basin. The present 3-D basin geometry may imply stronger ground shaking along basin edges, particularly along the concealed northeast edge of the Tualatin basin beneath the greater Portland area.

  1. Palinspastic reconstruction and geological evolution of Permian residual marine basins bordering China and Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen-Yao Wu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One main feature of the tectono-paleogeographic evolution of the southern branch of the Paleo-Asian Ocean was that there developed residual marine basins in former backarc/forearc regions after the disappearance of oceanic crust. The paper illustrates the viewpoint taking the evolution of Dalandzadgad and Solonker oceanic basins as examples. The Dalandzadgad ocean subducted southwards during the Silurian-Devonian, created an intra-oceanic arc and a backarc basin in southern Mongolia. In addition, a continent marginal arc formed along the national boundary between China and Mongolia, the south of which was a backarc basin. The oceanic basin closed and arc–arc (continent collision occurred during the early Early Permian, followed by two residual marine basins developing in the former backarc regions, named the South Gobi Basin in southern Mongolia and the Guaizihu Basin in western Inner Mongolia. The Solonker ocean subducted southwards and finally disappeared during the early Middle Permian. Afterwards, two residual marine basins occurred in northern China, the Zhesi Basin being situated in the former backarc region and the Wujiatun Basin in the former forearc region. The late Middle Permian was the most optimum period for the developing residual marine basins, when they covered a vast area. The basin evolution differentiated during the early Late Permian, with a general trend of uplift in the east and of subsidence in the west. The Upper Permian in the South Gobi Basin was characterized by coal-bearing strata hosting economically valuable coal fields. A transgression invaded westwards and the Chandmani-Bayanleg Basin was created in southwest Mongolia during the middle-late stage of the Late Permian. Correspondingly, the coal formation entered a flourishing time, with thick coal beds and sedimentary interbeds. All of these basins, namely, both the marine and nonmarine residual basins, reversed and closed by the end of Permian.

  2. Sentinel Events Preceding Youth Firearm Violence An Investigation of Administrative Data in Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Maenner, Matthew J.; Socias, Christina M.; Mercy, James A.; Silverman, Paul; Medinilla, Sandra P.; Martin, Steven S.; Xu, Likang; Hillis, Susan D.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Accurately identifying youth at highest risk of firearm violence involvement could permit delivery of focused, comprehensive prevention services. This study explored whether readily available city and state administrative data covering life events before youth firearm violence could elucidate patterns preceding such violence. Methods Four hundred twenty-one individuals arrested for homicide, attempted homicide, aggravated assault, or robbery with a firearm committed in Wilmington, Delaware, from January 1, 2009 to May 21, 2014, were matched 1:3 to 1,259 Wilmington resident controls on birth year and sex. In 2015, descriptive statistics and a conditional logistic regression model using Delaware healthcare, child welfare, juvenile services, labor, and education administrative data examined associations between preceding life events and subsequent firearm violence. Results In a multivariable adjusted model, experiencing a prior gunshot wound injury (AOR=11.4, 95% CI=2.7, 48.1) and being subject to community probation (AOR=13.2, 95% CI=5.7, 30.3) were associated with the highest risk of subsequent firearm violence perpetration, though multiple other sentinel events were informative. The mean number of sentinel events experienced by youth committing firearm violence was 13.0 versus 1.9 among controls (pviolence. Conclusions Youth who commit firearm violence have preceding patterns of life events that markedly differ from youth not involved in firearm violence. This information is readily available from administrative data, demonstrating the potential of data sharing across city and state institutions to focus prevention strategies on those at greatest risk. PMID:27742157

  3. An epidemiologic and entomologic investigation of a cluster of Rocky Mountain spotted fever cases in Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, L; Callejas, L; McKechnie, D; Wolfe, D; Gaw, E; Hathcock, L; Childs, J

    1998-06-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) continues to be the most common fatal tick-borne illness in the United States. In August of 1996, four children attending a summer camp in Delaware were diagnosed with RMSF. This report summarizes the results of the epidemiologic and entomologic investigation conducted by the Delaware Division of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention regarding this cluster of RMSF cases. Epidemiologic and clinical aspects of RMSF, as well as previously reported clusters of the disease, are also reviewed. A questionnaire regarding symptoms and activities was administered via telephone to 163 (73 percent) of the 223 attendees. A suspected case was defined as an illness in a person attending the camp between August 11 and 17 that occurred during the two-week period following the session, characterized by either 1) fever with one or more symptoms (i.e., headache, rash, myalgia, or fatigue) or 2) no fever with two or more symptoms. Cases of RMSF were confirmed by serologic evaluation. Seven of 13 patients with suspected RMSF submitted sera for testing. Four patients had confirmed RMSF; three were males, and the median age was 12.5 years compared with 12 years for all attendees. All confirmed patients reported fever, headache, fatigue, and rash. An increased risk of becoming ill was associated with overnight camping at site A (Odds Ratio (OR) undefined, p = 0.02), visiting or overnight camping at site B (OR undefined, p = 0.003 and 0.002), and leaving the trails when hiking (OR undefined, p = 0.02). These data suggest that development of RMSF was associated with visiting or camping at specific sites and behavior likely to increase contact with ticks. Camp supervisors were advised to educate campers regarding tick bite prevention measures, reduce underbrush around campsites, and encourage campers to remain on the trails. Health care providers should remain aware of the increased risk for RMSF during the spring, summer, and

  4. Proximate causes of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus Polyphemus) of the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.R.; Mandt, M.T.; Macdonald, P.D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The unresolved status of the proximate cause for sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs has practical consequence, because harvest recommendations rely on assumptions about sex-specific growth and maturity. We propose and evaluate competing hypotheses for the proximate cause of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) by comparing size and estimated age frequencies from spring-captured juveniles (n = 9,075) and adults (n = 36,274) to predictions from the competing hypotheses. We found that the number of identifiable juvenile size distributions was greater for females than males and the probability of remaining a juvenile was higher for females than males among older juveniles. These findings are consistent with males maturing earlier than females. Molt increments and mean sizes were similar for male and female juveniles, which is not consistent with differential growth. Among adults, one size distribution accounted for ???90% of females regardless of carapace wear. Also, size ratio of adult females to males was 1.26, and size ratio of the largest adult to largest juvenile female was 1.28. These observations are not consistent with females continuing to molt as adults. Differential-maturity is the most parsimonious explanation for sexual size dimorphism in Delaware Bay horseshoe crabs. In addition, because of a low frequency of juvenile females >195 mm relative to adult females and male-biased sex ratios starting at 105 mm, we hypothesize that females, more than males, migrate as older juveniles and mature in the ocean. Management implications include that (1) minimum size limits, as previously suggested, would not allocate harvest to older adults as intended because size does not indicate age among adult horseshoe crabs in the Delaware Bay population, and (2) the Shuster Horseshoe Crab Reserve, which has reduced harvest on the continental shelf, could be protecting older juveniles and newly mature females from harvest prior to their first

  5. Hydrogeologic setting and ground water flow beneath a section of Indian River Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, David E.; Manheim, Frank T.; Bratton, John F.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The small bays along the Atlantic coast of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) are a valuable natural resource, and an asset for commerce and recreation. These coastal bays also are vulnerable to eutrophication from the input of excess nutrients derived from agriculture and other human activities in the watersheds. Ground water discharge may be an appreciable source of fresh water and a transport pathway for nutrients entering the bays. This paper presents results from an investigation of the physical properties of the surficial aquifer and the processes associated with ground water flow beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware. A key aspect of the project was the deployment of a new technology, streaming horizontal resistivity, to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and saline ground water beneath the bay. The resistivity profiles showed complex patterns of ground water flow, modes of mixing, and submarine ground water discharge. Cores, gamma and electromagnetic-induction logs, and in situ ground water samples collected during a coring operation in Indian River Bay verified the interpretation of the resistivity profiles. The shore-parallel resistivity lines show subsurface zones of fresh ground water alternating with zones dominated by the flow of salt water from the estuary down into the aquifer. Advective flow produces plumes of fresh ground water 400 to 600 m wide and 20 m thick that may extend more than 1 km beneath the estuary. Zones of dispersive mixing between fresh and saline ground water develop on the upper, lower, and lateral boundaries of the the plume. the plumes generally underlie small incised valleys that can be traced landward to stream draining the upland. The incised valleys are filled with 1 to 2 m of silt and peat that act as a semiconfining layer to restrict the downward flow of salt water from the estuary. Active circulation of both the fresh and saline ground water masses beneath the bay is inferred from the geophysical

  6. Hydrogeological and geochemical studies in the Perch Lake basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, P.J.

    1979-08-01

    The Perch Lake basin is a small drainage system along the Ottawa River about 200 km west of Ottawa on the Canadian Shield. Since 1975, groups of scientists from several Canadian universities and government departments have been studying the hydrological, geological and geochemical properties of the basin. The object of these studies is to develop and test simulation models used to describe the time-dependent mass flow rates of water and dissolved and suspended substances through the basin. To review progress, a symposium/workshop was held at Chalk Rier in 1978 April. This report contains 24 extended summaries of the material presented verbally at the workshop. Subject matters include atmospheric sources and sinks, mass flows through the surface and subsurface regimes in the drainage basins and interactions occurring in the lake. (author)

  7. Hydrologic effects of potential changes in climate, water use, and land cover in the Upper Scioto River Basin, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.; Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to provide information on the hydrologic effects of potential 21st-century changes in climate, water use, and land cover in the Upper Scioto River Basin, Ohio (from Circleville, Ohio, to the headwaters). A precipitation-runoff model, calibrated on the basis of historical climate and streamflow data, was used to simulate the effects of climate change on streamflows and reservoir water levels at several locations in the basin. Two levels of simulations were done. The first level of simulation (level 1) accounted only for anticipated 21st-century changes in climate and operations of three City of Columbus upground reservoirs located in northwest Delaware County, Ohio. The second level of simulation (level 2) accounted for development-driven changes in land cover and water use in addition to changes in climate and reservoir operations.

  8. Evaporite-hosted native sulfur in Trans-Pecos Texas: Relation to late-phase basin and range deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentz, T.F.; Henry, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Major deposits of biogenic native sulfur are associated with narrow, northeast-trending grabens and normal faults that disrupt the gently tilted, east-dipping Upper Permian evaporite succession of the western Delaware Basin in Trans-Pecos Texas. Orebodies are restricted to geologic traps in the fractured and dissolution-modified downfaulted blocks of the grabens. Other parallel, regionally distributed grabens and normal faults are commonly the sites of noncommercial sulfur deposits and genetically related secondary-replacement (diagenetic) limestone bodies. The sulfur-bearing structures probably formed during the later of two episodes of Basin and Range extension that have not previously been differentiated in Texas but are well defined elsewhere in the western United States. In Texas several lines of evidence collectively support the existence of late-phase, northwest-directed extension that was initiated in the middle Miocene

  9. Alboran Basin, southern Spain - Part I: Geomorphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A. [Secretaria General de Pesca Maritima, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Ballesteros, M.; Rivera, J.; Acosta, J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Montoya, I. [Universidad Juan Carlos I, Campus de Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Uchupi, E. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Bathymetric, 3D relief and shaded relief maps created from multibeam echo-sounding data image the morphology of the Alboran Basin, a structural low along the east-west-trending Eurasian-African plates boundary. Topographic features in the basin are the consequence of volcanism associated with Miocene rifting, rift and post-rift sedimentation, and recent faulting resulting from the convergence of the African-Eurasian plates. Pleistiocene glacially induced regressions/transgressions when the sea level dropped to about 150 m below its present level gas seeps and bottom currents. Recent faulting and the Pleistocene transgressions/regressions led to mass-wasting, formation of turbidity currents and canyon erosion on the basin's slopes. Recent fault traces at the base of the northern basin slope have also served as passageways for thermogenic methane, the oxidation of which by bacteria led to the formation of carbonate mounds along the fault intercepts on the sea floor. Expulsion of thermogenic or biogenic gas has led to the formation of pockmarks; erosion by bottom currents has resulted in the formation of moats around seamounts and erosion of the seafloor of the Alboran Ridge and kept the southern edge of the 36 10'N high sediment free. (author)

  10. Estimation of potential runoff-contributing areas in the Kansas-Lower Republican River Basin, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    1999-01-01

    Digital soils and topographic data were used to estimate and compare potential runoff-contributing areas for 19 selected subbasins representing soil, slope, and runoff variability within the Kansas-Lower Republican (KLR) River Basin. Potential runoff-contributing areas were estimated separately and collectively for the processes of infiltration-excess and saturation-excess overland flow using a set of environmental conditions that represented high, moderate, and low potential runoff. For infiltration-excess overland flow, various rainfall intensities and soil permeabilities were used. For saturation-excess overland flow, antecedent soil-moisture conditions and a topographic wetness index were used. Results indicated that the subbasins with relatively high potential runoff are located in the central part of the KLR River Basin. These subbasins are Black Vermillion River, Clarks Creek, Delaware River upstream from Muscotah, Grasshopper Creek, Mill Creek (Wabaunsee County), Soldier Creek, Vermillion Creek (Pottawatomie County), and Wildcat Creek. The subbasins with relatively low potential runoff are located in the western one-third of the KLR River Basin, with one exception, and are Buffalo Creek, Little Blue River upstream from Barnes, Mill Creek (Washington County), Republican River between Concordia and Clay Center, Republican River upstream from Concordia, Wakarusa River downstream from Clinton Lake (exception), and White Rock Creek. The ability to distinguish the subbasins as having relatively high or low potential runoff was possible mostly due to the variability of soil permeability across the KLR River Basin.

  11. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  12. Effects of Microbial and Heavy Metal Contaminants on Environmental/Ecological Health and Revitalization of Coastal Ecosystems in Delaware Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnihal Ozbay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals, excess nutrients, and microbial contaminants in aquatic systems of coastal Delaware has become a public concern as human population increases and land development continues. Delaware's coastal lagoons have been subjected to problems commonly shared by other coastal Mid-Atlantic states: turbidity, sedimentation, eutrophication, periodic hypoxic/anoxic conditions, toxic substances, and high bacterial levels. The cumulative impact of pollutants from run-off and point sources has degraded water quality, reduced the diversity and abundance of various fish species, invertebrates, and submerged aquatic vegetation. The effects are especially pronounced within the manmade dead end canal systems. In this article, we present selected case studies conducted in the Delaware Inland Bays. Due to the ecological services provided by bivalves, our studies in Delaware Inland Bays are geared toward oysters with special focus on the microbial loads followed by the water quality assessments of the bay. The relationships between oysters (Crassostrea virginica, microbial loads and nutrient levels in the water were investigated. The heavy metal levels monitored further away from the waste water treatment plant in the inland bays are marginally higher than the recommended EPA limits. Also, our studies confirmed that aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae levels are salinity dependent. Total bacteria in oysters increased when nitrate and total suspended solids increased in the waters. Studies such as these are important because every year millions of Americans consume raw oysters. Data collected over the last 10 years from our studies may be used to build a predictive index of conditions that are favorable for the proliferation of human pathogenic bacteria. Results from this study will benefit the local community by helping them understand the importance of oyster aquaculture and safe consumption of oysters while making them appreciate their

  13. F00283: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Key West Turning Basin, Key West,, Florida, 1986-06-14

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  14. Foundation Report on Stonewall Jackson Dam, West Fork River Basin, Weston, West Virginia. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-21

    Sprague arid Heriwcood -, kid t ig , onto thie hiop Iaid core drtill to required depth. 1he core -,amflpIes wet e obta inied by using a double t The, 4 by 5...Tape GHS 4 seismograph was provided by Mr. Dale R. Fuck on June 2, 1982, at your Roanoke office. The followin; people were present for that...34 .. such dwsnge may b. -~do by tourva ar lowe. p,...dd mo" mi.um.i or "a nah". -fom.. to the sdeli s..e o s kid *anU fW wad is r.ceired prie IS ie. qpq..q

  15. Geochronology of sedimentary and metasedimentary Precambrian rocks of the West African craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauer, N.; Jeannette, D.; Trompette, R.

    1982-01-01

    This contribution summarizes current knowledge of the geochronology of the Upper Proterozoic sedimentary rocks covering the West African craton. This was done by using direct dating methods. Correlations between the northern edge of the Tindouf basin and the northern and southern part of the Taoudeni basin, as well as the Volta basin, are proposed. Tectonic, volcanic and thermal activities in connection with the Pan-African orogeny are recorded only around the craton. They induced either sedimentation lacks in Morocco or sedimentation excesses in Hoggar. Unsolved problems such as the precise stratigraphic position of the uppermost Proterozoic tillitic episode and the correlation within the Moroccan Anti-Atlas are also raised. (Auth.)

  16. System design description for sampling fuel in K basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    This System Design Description provides: (1) statements of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Projects (SNFP) needs requiring sampling of fuel in the K East and K West Basins, (2) the sampling equipment functions and requirements, (3) a general work plan and the design logic being followed to develop the equipment, and (4) a summary description of the design for the sampling equipment. The report summarizes the integrated application of both the subject equipment and the canister sludge sampler in near-term characterization campaigns at K Basins

  17. How accurately are climatological characteristics and surface water and energy balances represented for the Colombian Caribbean Catchment Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Isabel; Baquero-Bernal, Astrid; Hagemann, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    In Colombia, the access to climate related observational data is restricted and their quantity is limited. But information about the current climate is fundamental for studies on present and future climate changes and their impacts. In this respect, this information is especially important over the Colombian Caribbean Catchment Basin (CCCB) that comprises over 80 % of the population of Colombia and produces about 85 % of its GDP. Consequently, an ensemble of several datasets has been evaluated and compared with respect to their capability to represent the climate over the CCCB. The comparison includes observations, reconstructed data (CPC, Delaware), reanalyses (ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR), and simulated data produced with the regional climate model REMO. The capabilities to represent the average annual state, the seasonal cycle, and the interannual variability are investigated. The analyses focus on surface air temperature and precipitation as well as on surface water and energy balances. On one hand the CCCB characteristics poses some difficulties to the datasets as the CCCB includes a mountainous region with three mountain ranges, where the dynamical core of models and model parameterizations can fail. On the other hand, it has the most dense network of stations, with the longest records, in the country. The results can be summarised as follows: all of the datasets demonstrate a cold bias in the average temperature of CCCB. However, the variability of the average temperature of CCCB is most poorly represented by the NCEP/NCAR dataset. The average precipitation in CCCB is overestimated by all datasets. For the ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR, and REMO datasets, the amplitude of the annual cycle is extremely high. The variability of the average precipitation in CCCB is better represented by the reconstructed data of CPC and Delaware, as well as by NCEP/NCAR. Regarding the capability to represent the spatial behaviour of CCCB, temperature is better represented by Delaware and REMO, while

  18. STRATIGRAPHIC EVOLUTION, PALEOENVIRONMENTS AND HYDROCARBON POTENTIALS OF THE BENUE/DAHOMEY BASINS, NIGERIAN AND POTIGUAR/CEARA BASINS, NE BRAZIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akande, S.O; Adekeye, O.A.; Oj, O.J; Erdtmann, B.D.; Koutsokous, E.I.

    2004-01-01

    The stratigraphy, facies relationship and paleoenvironment of selected West African and the Brazillian rift basins permit the recognition of at least two major petroleum systems apart from the prolific Niger Delta petroleum system. The Lower Cretaceous fluivio-lacustrine petroleum system and Upper Cretaceous to Lower Tertiary, marine dominated petroleum system. Our combined studies of the stratigraphic, structural framework, paleoenvironment and time-space relationships of the petroleum systems in the Benue/Dahomey and the Potiguar/Ceara basins indicated that rifting and subsequent drifting during the opening of the South Atlantic controlled subsidence, sediment deposition and facies associations in individual basins. Whereas in the Potiguar/Ceara basins, the best developed source rocks are within the Neomacin-Aptian fluvio- lacustrine sequence of the Pendencia and Alagamar Formations which generated reserved hydrocarbon in the Acu Formation, empirical evidence for this petroleum system in the contiguous Benue/Dahomey basins are only based on the geochemical characteristics of the lower parts of the Bima Formation and the Abeokuta Group. In contrast, the Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary marine petroleum system, which is constrained by poor development of reservoirs in the Potiguar/Ceara basin is productive in the Benue/Dahomey basins where source rocks, reservoir and sealing facies occur at this interval. Considering the recent hydrocarbon discoveries of the East Niger basin, the Doba (southern Chad), the Muglad basin (southern Sudan) sourced from the fluvio-lacustrine rift sequences, we suggest that this petroleum system needs more detailed exploration and has some potentials in the Benue/Dahomey frontier basins

  19. Integrating Engineering into Delaware's K-5 Classrooms: A Study of Pedagogical and Curricular Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusenmeyer, Linda Huey

    This study examines the personal and curricular resources available to Delaware's elementary teachers during a time of innovative curriculum change, i.e., their knowledge, goals and beliefs regarding elementary engineering curriculum and the pedagogical support to teach two Science and Engineering Practices provided by science teaching materials. Delaware was at the forefront of K-12 STEM movement, first to adopt statewide elementary curriculum materials to complement existing science units, and one of the first to adopt the new science standards--Next Generation Science Standards. What supports were available to teachers as they adapted and adopted this new curriculum? To investigate this question, I examined (1) teachers' beliefs about engineering and the engineering curriculum, and (2) the pedagogical supports available to teachers in selected science and engineering curriculum. Teachers' knowledge, goals, and beliefs regarding Delaware's adoption of new elementary engineering curriculum were surveyed using an adapted version of the Design, Engineering, and Technology Survey (Hong, Purser, & Gardella, 2011; Yaser, Baker, Carpius, Krauss, & Roberts, 2006). Also, three open ended questions sought to reveal deeper understanding of teacher knowledge and understanding of engineering; their concerns about personal and systemic resources related to the new curriculum, its logistics, and feasibility; and their beliefs about the potential positive impact presented by the engineering education initiative. Teacher concerns were analyzed using the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (Hall & Hord, 2010). Lay understandings of engineering were analyzed by contrasting naive representations of engineering with three key characteristics of engineering adapted from an earlier study (Capobianco Diefes-Dux, Mena, & Weller, 2011). Survey findings for teachers who had attended training and those who have not yet attended professional development in the new curriculum were compared with few

  20. Lithospheric thermal-rheological structure of the Ordos Basin and its geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, J.; Huang, F.; He, L.; Wu, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The study on the destruction of the North China Craton has always been one of the hottest issues in earth sciences.Both mechanism and spatial variation are debated fiercely, still unclear.However, geothermal research on the subject is relatively few. Ordos Basin, located in the west of the North China Craton, is a typical intraplate. Based on two-dimensional thermal modeling along a profile across Ordos Basin from east to west, obtained the lithospheric thermal structure and rheology. Mantle heat flow in different regions of Ordos Basin is from 21.2 to 24.5 mW/m2. In the east mantle heat flow is higher while heat flow in western region is relatively low. But mantle heat flow is smooth and low overall, showing a stable thermal background. Ratio of crustal and mantle heat flow is between 1.51 and 1.84, indicating that thermal contribution from shallow crust is lower than that from the mantle. Rheological characteristics along the profile are almost showed as "jelly sandwich" model and stable continental lithosphere structure,which is represent by a weak crust portion but a strong lithospheric mantle portion in vertical strength profile. Based on above , both thermal structure and lithospheric rheology of Ordos Basin illustrate that tectonic dynamics environment in the west of North China Craton is relatively stable. By the study on lithospheric thermal structure, we focus on the disparity in thickness between the thermal lithosphere and seismic lithosphere.The difference in western Ordos Basin is about 140km, which decreases gradually from Fenwei graben in the eastern Ordos Basin to the Bohai Bay Basin.That is to say the difference decreases gradually from the west to the east of North China Craton.The simulation results imply that viscosity of the asthenosphere under North China Craton also decreases gradually from west to east, confirming that dehydration of the Pacific subduction is likely to have great effect on the North China Craton.

  1. Plan for characterization of K Basin spent nuclear fuel and sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.; Marschman, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This plan outlines a characterization program that supports the accelerated Path Forward scope and schedules for the Spent Nuclear Fuel stored in the Hanford K Basins. This plan is driven by the schedule to begin fuel transfer by December 1997. The program is structured for 4 years and is limited to in-situ and laboratory examinations of the spent nuclear fuel and sludge in the K East and K West Basins. The program provides bounding behavior of the fuel, and verification and acceptability for three different sludge disposal pathways. Fuel examinations are based on two shipping campaigns for the K West Basin and one from the K East Basin. Laboratory examinations include physical condition, hydride and oxide content, conditioning testing, and dry storage behavior

  2. Variation in forearc basin development along the Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, W.

    The present forearc basin configuration along the Sunda Arc initially appears to have been controlled by extension and differential subsidence of basement blocks in response to the late Eocene collision of India with Asia. The late Oligocene increase in convergence between the South-east Asian and Indian Plates associated with a new pulse of subduction, resulted in basement uplift and the formation of a regional unconformity that can be recognized along the entire Sunda Arc. From the early to late Miocene, the Sumba and Savu forearc sectors along the eastern Sunda Arc may have been characterized by forearc extension. Submarine fan deposition on the arcward side of the evolving accretionary prism represents the first phase in forearc basin deposition. These fans were subsequently covered by basin and slope sediments derived from the evolving magmatic arc. Structural response to increased late Miocene compression varied along strike of the Sunda Arc. North of Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa, the incipient collision between Australia and the western Banda Arc caused back-arc thrusting and basin inversion. Towards the south of Java, an increase in both the size of the accretionary prism and convergence rates resulted in uplift and large scale folding of the outer forearc basin strata. Along the west coast of Sumatra, increased compression resulted in uplift along the inner side of the forearc along older transcurrent faults. Uplift of West Sumatra was followed by the deposition of a westward prograding sequence of terrigenous sediments that resulted in the development of a broad shelf. Initial forearc basin subsidence relates to the age of the subducting oceanic lithosphere, on top of which the basin is situated. Along the western Sunda Arc, both fexural loading of the evolving accretionary prism, and across arc strike-slip faulting represent additional factors that result in forearc subsidence.

  3. Basalt stratigraphy - Pasco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Myers, C.W.; Brown, D.J.; Ledgerwood, R.K.

    1979-10-01

    The geologic history of the Pasco Basin is sketched. Study of the stratigraphy of the area involved a number of techniques including major-element chemistry, paleomagnetic investigations, borehole logging, and other geophysical survey methods. Grande Ronde basalt accumulation in the Pasco Basin is described. An illustrative log response is shown. 1 figure

  4. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...

  5. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  6. Hydrogeologic characterization and assessment of bioremediation of chlorinated benzenes and benzene in wetland areas, Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles W.; Baker, Anna C.; Teunis, Jessica A.; Emily Majcher,; Brayton, Michael J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site (SCD) in New Castle County, Delaware, are affected by contamination with chlorobenzenes and benzene from past waste storage and disposal, spills, leaks, and contaminated groundwater discharge. In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey began an investigation in June 2009 to characterize the hydrogeology and geochemistry in the wetlands and assess the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation as remedial strategies. Groundwater flow in the wetland study area is predominantly vertically upward in the wetland sediments and the underlying aquifer, and groundwater discharge accounts for a minimum of 47 percent of the total discharge for the subwatershed of tidal Red Lion Creek. Thus, groundwater transport of contaminants to surface water could be significant. The major contaminants detected in groundwater in the wetland study area included benzene, monochlorobenzene, and tri- and di-chlorobenzenes. Shallow wetland groundwater in the northwest part of the wetland study area was characterized by high concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (maximum about 75,000 micrograms per liter [μg/L]), low pH, and high chloride. In the northeast part of the wetland study area, wetland groundwater had low to moderate concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (generally not greater than 10,000 μg/L), moderate pH, and high sulfate concentrations. Concentrations in the groundwater in excess of 1 percent of the solubility of the individual chlorinated benzenes indicate that a contaminant source is present in the wetland sediments as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Consistently higher contaminant concentrations in the shallow wetland groundwater than deeper in the wetland sediments or the aquifer also indicate a continued source in the wetland sediments, which could include dissolution of DNAPLs and

  7. Lessons Learned From a Healthful Vending Pilot Program in Delaware State Agency Buildings, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Laura; Trotter, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Changes in food availability in worksites can result in changes in eating behavior and weight status. Nemours Health and Prevention Services, in conjunction with partners in Delaware, conducted a 6-month pilot program to assess the feasibility and impact of requiring that 75% of the items in vending machines in 3 state agency buildings have healthful items. Methods We collected process evaluation data from October 2011 through April 2012 by taking weekly photographs of all machines to record the number of healthful items available. Outcomes were measured through sales reports designed to enumerate changes in number and type of items sold and overall profit from each building. Results We found challenges in fully implementing the 75% goal. In one of the 3 buildings, all machines were compliant within 7 weeks; in another, full compliance did not occur until week 19. Despite these challenges, the number of items sold in each machine was comparable to numbers from the previous year. Total profits from each building varied across the 3 sites and during the pilot. One building had a 51% increase in profits in January 2012 compared with profits averaged for January 2011 and January 2010. In contrast, monthly profit at another building fluctuated from an increase of 6% to a loss of 30%. Conclusion Overall, our results suggest that collaborative efforts can result in a feasible intervention with little negative influence on profits. PMID:25144678

  8. Freshwater mussel salvage and relocation at the Pond Eddy Bridge, Delaware River, New York and Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cole, Jeffrey C.

    2018-03-01

    In a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, freshwater mussels were salvaged and relocated from the anticipated zone of impact for the Pond Eddy Bridge construction project in New York and Pennsylvania. Five 25-meter (m) by 25-m cells along the Pennsylvania bank of the Delaware River were sampled in three generally straight-line passes by four surveyors wearing snorkel gear for a total of 180 survey minutes per cell. All mussels encountered were collected and identified to species. A subset of individuals was marked with shellfish tags, weighed, and measured prior to relocation upstream from the zone of impact. A total of 3,434 mussels, including 3,393 Elliptio complanata (eastern elliptio mussels), 39 Anodonta implicata (alewife floaters), 1 Strophitus undulatus (creeper), and 1 Pyganodon cataracta (eastern floater), were salvaged and relocated. All non-eastern elliptio species were georeferenced using a high-resolution global positioning system unit; a subset of tagged eastern elliptio was placed in transects between georeferenced points. These mussels will be monitored to assess the effects of translocation on mortality and body condition at 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years.

  9. Application of ecological, geological and oceanographic ERTS-1 imagery to Delaware's coastal resources planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Communities containing five different coastal vegetation species, developed marshlands, and fresh water impoundments have been identified in ERTS-1 images. Suspended sediment and circulation patterns in imagery from five ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay have been enhanced and correlated with predicted current patterns. Conclusions reached are: (1) ERTS-1 is suitable platform for observing suspended sediment patterns and water masses synoptically over large areas. (2) Suspended sediment acts as a natural tracer allowing photointerpreters to deduce gross current circulation patterns from ERTS-1 imagery. (3) Under atmospheric conditions encountered along the East Coast of the United States MSS band 5 seems to give the best representation of sediment load in upper one meter of water column. (4) In the ERTS-1 imagery the sediment patterns are delineated by three to four neighboring shades of grey. (5) Negative transparencies of the ERTS-1 images give better contrast whenever the suspended sediment tones fall within the first few steps of the grey scale. (6) Color density slicing helps delineate the suspended sediment patterns more clearly and differentiate turbidity levels.

  10. Dynamic Undergraduate Climate Change Affinity Program: University of Delaware Climate Program for Undergraduates (CPUG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, J.

    2017-12-01

    Multidisciplinary undergraduate climate change education is critical for students entering any sector of the workforce. The University of Delaware has developed a new interdisciplinary affinity program—UD Climate Program for Undergraduates (CPUG)—open to undergraduate students of all majors to provide a comprehensive educational experience designed to educate skilled climate change problem-solvers for a wide range of professional careers. The program is designed to fulfill all General Education requirements, and includes a residential community commitment and experiential learning in community outreach and problem solving. Seminars will introduce current popular press and research materials and provide practice in confirming source credibility, communications training, and psychological support, as well as team building. As undergraduates, members of the UD CPUG team will define, describe, and develop a solution or solutions for a pressing local climate challenge that has the potential for global impact. The choice of a challenge and approach to addressing it will be guided by the student's advisor. Students are expected to develop a practical, multidisciplinary solution to address the challenge as defined, using their educational and experiential training. Solutions will be presented to the UD community during the spring semester of their senior year, as a collaborative team solution, with enhancement through individual portfolios from each team member. The logic model, structure, curricular and co-curricular supports for the CPUG will be provided. Mechanisms of support available through University administration will also be discussed.

  11. Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning: Implications for Helping Children With Mathematics Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C; Resnick, Ilyse; Rodrigues, Jessica; Hansen, Nicole; Dyson, Nancy

    The goal of the present article is to synthesize findings to date from the Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning. The study followed a large cohort of children ( N = 536) between Grades 3 and 6. The findings showed that many students, especially those with diagnosed learning disabilities, made minimal growth in fraction knowledge and that some showed only a basic grasp of the meaning of a fraction even after several years of instruction. Children with low growth in fraction knowledge during the intermediate grades were much more likely to fail to meet state standards on a broad mathematics measure at the end of Grade 6. Although a range of general and mathematics-specific competencies predicted fraction outcomes, the ability to estimate numerical magnitudes on a number line was a uniquely important marker of fraction success. Many children with mathematics difficulties have deep-seated problems related to whole number magnitude representations that are complicated by the introduction of fractions into the curriculum. Implications for helping students with mathematics difficulties are discussed.

  12. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Delaware. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  13. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Ten. Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Delaware governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  14. The Ogaden Basin, Ethiopia: an underexplored sedimentary basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitz, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    A brief article examines the Ogaden Basin in Ethiopia in terms of basin origin, basin fill and the hydrocarbon exploration history and results. The natural gas find in pre-Jurassic sandstones, which appears to contain substantial reserves, justifies continuing investigations in this largely underexplored basin. (UK).

  15. Ebola in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infec...

  16. West Virginia's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of West Virginia's forests reports 12.0 million acres of forest land or 78 percent of the State's land area. The area of forest land has changed little since 2000. Of this land, 7.2 million acres (60 percent) are held by family forest owners. The current growing-stock inventory is 25 billion cubic feet--12 percent more than in...

  17. West Virginia Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; James E. Smith; Jim Westfall; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The annual inventory of West Virginia's forests, completed in 2013, covers nearly 12.2 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,300 cubic feet per acre. This report is based data collected from 2,808 plots located across the State. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies 74 percent of total forest...

  18. The West Heslerton Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Powlesland

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of the Early Anglo-Saxon or Anglian Settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, between 1986 and 1995, represents one of the largest excavations conducted in Britain in the last two decades. The project, funded by English Heritage, combined the fundamental needs of rescue and research archaeology. The excavation has produced a wealth of new evidence which is forcing us to re-evaluate much that has been said about the formative period of the English nation.

  19. Anatomy of a rift system: Triassic-Jurassic basins of eastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlische, R.W. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)); Olsen, P.E. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Basins containing the early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup formed during the incipient rifting of Pangaea. The basins are characterized by the following: (1) The border fault systems (BFS) represent reactivated older faults. (2) A regionally persistent northwest-southeast to west-northeast-east-southeast extension direction reactivated northeast- to north-striking structures as predominantly normal dip-slip faults. (3) The half-grabens are lozenge-shaped basins in which subsidence-fault slip was greatest at or near the center of the BFS and decreased to zero toward either end. (4) Transverse folds in the hanging walls immediately adjacent to the BFS formed as a result of higher-frequency variations in subsidence. (5) Subsidence also decreased in a direction perpendicular to the BFS. (6) Intrabasinal faults are overwhelmingly synthetic and predominantly post-depositional. (7) Younger strata progressively onlap prerift rocks of the hanging wall block; this indicates that the basins grew both in width and length as they filled. (8) In all basins initial sedimentation was fluvial, reflecting an oversupply of sediment with respect to basin capacity. (9) Sediments were derived largely from the hanging wall block, which sloped toward the basin, and from streams that entered the basin axially; a direct footwall source was minor, owing to footwall uplift. (10) In strike-slip-dominated basins, subsidence was considerably less than in dip-slip basins, and mosaics of strike- and dip-slip faults are common.

  20. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  1. Revised East-West Antarctic plate motions since the Middle Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, R.; Cande, S. C.; Stock, J.; Damaske, D.

    2010-12-01

    The middle Cenozoic (43-26 Ma) rifting between East and West Antarctica is defined by an episode of ultraslow seafloor spreading in the Adare Basin, located off northwestern Ross Sea. The absence of fracture zones and the lack of sufficient well-located magnetic anomaly picks have resulted in a poorly constrained kinematic model (Cande et al., 2000). Here we utilize the results from a dense aeromagnetic survey (Damaske et al., 2007) collected as part of GANOVEX IX 2005/06 campaign to re-evaluate the kinematics of the West Antarctic rift system since the Middle Eocene. We identify marine magnetic anomalies (anomalies 12o, 13o, 16y, and 18o) along a total of 25,000 km of the GPS navigated magnetic profiles. The continuation of these anomalies into the Northern Basin has allowed us to use the entire N-S length of this dataset in our calculations. A distinct curvature in the orientation of the spreading axis provides a strong constraint on our calculated kinematic models. The results from two- (East-West Antarctica) and three- (Australia-East Antarctica-West Antarctica) plate solutions agree well and create a cluster of rotation axes located south of the rift system, near the South Pole. These solutions reveal that spreading rate and direction, and therefore motion between East and West Antarctica, were steady between the Middle Eocene and Early Oligocene. Our kinematic solutions confirm the results of Davey and De Santis (2005) that the Victoria Land Basin has accommodated ~95 km of extension since the Middle Eocene. This magnetic pattern also provides valuable constraints on the post-spreading deformation of the Adare Basin (Granot et al., 2010). The Adare Basin has accommodated very little extension since the Late Oligocene (<7 km), but motion has probably increased southward. The details of this younger phase of motion are still crudely constrained.

  2. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  3. Place of the Franceville basin in the geology of Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, P.; Besombes, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The structure of Africa became established at the end of the Precambrian era (500-600 million years ago). It is the result of a series of relatively brief paroxysmal events, which constitute good chronological markers, and of long periods of relative stability. A complete succession of events - erosion, transport, sedimentation and folding - constitutes an orogeny or cycle; the final, paroxysmal phase is called an ''orogenesis''. As regards Africa, authors distinguish between four major orogeneses: Precambrian A (500-600 to 900-1200 million years ago), Precambrian B (900-1200 to 1800-2000 million years ago), Precambrian C (1800-2000 to 2500 million years ago), Precambrian D (before 2500 million years ago). Africa is conventionally considered to be made up of four consolidated and granitized cratons: the West African (or guineo-eburnean), Congolese, Kalahari and nilotic cratons. With these cratons are associated internal, ''intracratonic'' basins with relatively shallow detritic sedimentation and intercratonic zones with their own deep sedimentation; the latter, located at the periphery of the cratons, on the fold axes, are called ''mobile belts''. Gabon lies in the north-west part of the Congolese craton. The Franceville basin is one of the intracratonic basins of the Congolese craton. The age of its sediments has been estimated at 1740+-20 million years. The Franceville basin can thus be assigned to the Precambrian B orogenesis

  4. The Delaware Bay Estuary as a Classroom: A Research Experience for Future Elementary Grade-Level Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J.; Fifield, S.; Allen, D.; Shipman, H.; Ford, D.; Dagher, Z.; Brickhouse, N.

    2004-05-01

    With supplemental funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), students from the University of Delaware's Science Semester course took part in a two-day research cruise in the Delaware Bay Estuary. The Science Semester, an NSF-funded project, is an integrated 15-credit sequence that encompasses the entire course work for the spring semester for approximately 60 sophomore-level elementary education majors. The semester includes the earth, life, and physical science content courses and the education science methods course integrated into one curriculum. In this curriculum, problem-based learning and other inquiry-based approaches are applied to foster integrated understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in their classrooms. The research cruise was conducted as part of one of the four major investigations during the course. The investigation focused on Delaware's state marine animal, Limulus polyphemus. It is one of the four remaining species of horseshoe crabs; the largest spawning population of Limulus is found in Delaware Bay. Within the problem- and inquiry-based learning approaches of the Science Semester course, the students became aware that very little data exists on the benthic habitat of Limulus polyphemus. In order to learn more about this habitat, a cohort of seven students from the course was recruited as part of the scientific party to take part in the research cruise to collect data on the floor of Delaware Bay. The data included: multibeam bathymetry/backscatter data, grab samples of bay bottom sediments, and CTD profiles. Prior to the cruise, all students in the course took part in laboratory exercises to learn about topographic maps and navigation charts using the Delaware Bay area as the region of study. While "at-sea", the cruise participants sent the ship's latitude and longitude positions as a function of time. The positions were used by the on-land students to

  5. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  6. BASINS Framework and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  7. Element patterns in feathers of nestling Black-Crowned Night-Herons, Nycticorax nycticorax L., from four colonies in Delaware, Maryland, and Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Golden, Nancy H.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2008-01-01

    The pattern of elements in nestling black-crowned night-heron feathers from a rural Minnesota colony differed from colonies in industrialized regions of Maryland and Delaware. Except for chromium, however, the differences did not reflect the elements associated with waters and sediments of the Maryland and Delaware colonies. Therefore, elements in water and sediment do not necessarily bioaccumulate in night-heron feathers in relation to potential exposure. Although trace element patterns in feathers indicated differences among geographical locations, they did not separate all locations well and their usefulness as an indicator of natal colony location may be limited.

  8. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  9. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  10. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  11. Geodynamic implications for zonal and meridional isotopic patterns across the northern Lau and North Fiji Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Allison A.; Jackson, Matthew G.; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Kurz, Mark D.; Gill, Jim; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Jenner, Frances; Brens, Raul; Arculus, Richard

    2017-03-01

    We present new Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-He isotopic data for 65 volcanic samples from the northern Lau and North Fiji Basins. This includes 47 lavas obtained from 40 dredge sites spanning an east-west transect across the Lau and North Fiji basins, 10 ocean island basalt (OIB)-type lavas collected from seven Fijian islands, and eight OIB lavas sampled on Rotuma. For the first time, we are able to map clear north-south and east-west geochemical gradients in 87Sr/86Sr across the northern Lau and North Fiji Basins: lavas with the most geochemically enriched radiogenic isotopic signatures are located in the northeast Lau Basin, while signatures of geochemical enrichment are diminished to the south and west away from the Samoan hot spot. Based on these geochemical patterns and plate reconstructions of the region, these observations are best explained by the addition of Samoa, Rurutu, and Rarotonga hot spot material over the past 4 Ma. We suggest that underplated Samoan material has been advected into the Lau Basin over the past ˜4 Ma. As the slab migrated west (and toward the Samoan plume) via rollback over time, younger and hotter (and therefore less viscous) underplated Samoan plume material was entrained. Thus, entrainment efficiency of underplated plume material was enhanced, and Samoan plume signatures in the Lau Basin became stronger as the trench approached the Samoan hot spot. The addition of subducted volcanoes from the Cook-Austral Volcanic Lineament first from the Rarotonga hot spot, then followed by the Rurutu hot spot, contributes to the extreme geochemical signatures observed in the northeast Lau Basin.

  12. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Mesozoic Rift Basins Offshore the US East Coast: Teaching Old Seismic Data New Tricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, W.; Goldberg, D.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Slagle, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by rising atmospheric CO2 levels and recent developments in sequestration and seismic processing technologies, studies addressing the feasibility of offshore carbon sequestration are ongoing. The subsurface off the US east coast offers a few potential storage reservoirs including sedimentary layers as well as buried Mesozoic rift basins. Marine seismic reflection data first identified these features in the 1970s and are now being revisited as potential sequestration reservoirs. The rift basins are of particular interest as storage reservoirs for CO2 in light of recent work showing the efficacy of mineralizing injected carbon in basaltic formations. The use of these data presents unique challenges, particularly due to their vintage. However, new data processing capabilities and seismic prestack waveform inversion techniques elevate the potential of the legacy data. Using state of the art processing techniques we identify previously un-imaged rift basins off the US east coast between Delaware and Massachusetts and update mapping related to the areal and volumetric extent of basaltic fill. Applying prestack waveform inversion to the reprocessed seismic data, we show that each rift basin has different basaltic properties and thereby distinct utilities as carbon storage reservoirs.

  13. Upper Cenozoic deposits of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, James Patrick; Denny, Charles Storrow

    1979-01-01

    The surface and shallow subsurface sediments of the lower Delmarva Peninsula include beds ranging in age from Miocene to Holocene. The oldest beds appear to be typical shelf deposits of the Chesapeake Group (Calvert-Choptank age). These marine units are overlain by deltaic deposits, which range from fluviatile facies in the north (Pensauken Formation) to marginal marine and marine beds in the south ('Yorktown(?) and Cohansey(?)' Formations as used by Rasmussen and Slaughter in 1955). This large deltaic mass underlies most of the Delmarva Peninsula. Fossil age determinations supplemented by some radiometric dates indicate the delta to be largely late Miocene in age. The nonmarine facies of the delta, the Pensauken Formation, previously was considered to be Pleistocene in age. The late Miocene delta and possibly the Yorktown Formation (lower to middle Pliocene) are overlain by a feldspathic sand, the Beaverdam, which is at least in part marginal marine. Microflora recovered from this formation include species no longer indigenous to the Delmarva region ('exotics'). On the basis of existing information, microfloral assemblages containing 'exotics' are pre-Pleistocene in age. The Beaverdam therefore is pre-Pleistocene in age, probably late Pliocene. A highly dissected and weathered unit, the Walston Silt, caps the uplands of the central Delmarva Peninsula, where it overlies the Beaverdam. The Walston has a microflora containing 'exotics' and therefore is considered to be the youngest Tertiary unit (uppermost Pliocene) in this area. Sediments forming a barrier-back-barrier sequence fringe most of the southern Maryland-Delaware part of the Delmarva Peninsula and are found at altitudes of as much as 15 m (50 ft) above sea level. This sequence, the Omar Formation, is Sangamon in age and has been dated radiometrically as 60,000 to about 100,000 years old. The microflora in these beds contains no 'exotics,' and the assemblage suggests a warm-temperate environment. The Omar

  14. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: a case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58–1.311, NSE = 0.99–0.97, d = 0.98–0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = −0.10 to −1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed

  15. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: A case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-11-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58-1.311, NSE = 0.99-0.97, d = 0.98-0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = -0.10 to -1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed well; the

  16. Atmospheric nitrogen inputs to the Delaware Inland Bays: the role of ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scudlark, Joseph R.; Jennings, Jennifer A.; Roadman, Megan J.; Savidge, Karen B.; Ullman, William J.

    2005-01-01

    A previous assessment of nitrogen loading to the Delaware Inland Bays indicates that atmospheric deposition provides 15-25% of the total, annual N input to these estuaries. A large and increasing fraction of the atmospheric wet flux is NH 4 + , which for most aquatic organisms represents the most readily assimilated form of this nutrient. Particularly noteworthy is a 60% increase in the precipitation NH 4 + concentration at Lewes, DE over the past 20 years, which parallels the increase in poultry production on the Delmarva Peninsula over this period (currently standing at nearly 585 million birds annually). To further examine the relationship between local NH 3 emissions and deposition, biweekly-integrated gaseous NH 3 concentrations were determined using Ogawa passive samplers deployed at 13 sampling sites throughout the Inland Bays watershed over a one-year period. Annual mean concentrations at the 13 sites ranged from 3 m -3 to >6 μg NH 3 m -3 , with a mean of 1.6 ± 1.0 μg NH 3 m -3 . At most sites, highest NH 3 concentrations were evident during spring and summer, when fertilizer application and poultry house ventilation rates are greatest, and seasonally elevated temperatures induce increased rates of microbial activity and volatilization from soils and animal wastes. The observed north-to-south concentration gradient across the watershed is consistent with the spatial distribution of poultry houses, as revealed by a GIS analysis of aerial photographs. Based on the average measured NH 3 concentration and published NH 3 deposition rates to water surfaces (5-8 mm s -1 ), the direct atmospheric deposition of gaseous NH 3 to the Inland Bays is 3.0-4.8 kg ha -1 yr -1 . This input, not accounted for in previous assessments of atmospheric loading to the Inland Bays, would effectively double the estimated direct dry deposition rate, and is on par with the NO 3 - and NH 4 + wet fluxes. A second component of this study examined spatial differences in NO 3 - and NH 4

  17. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-28

    resume of his 5 years on the job. Jagmetti makes use of a revealing image in assessing his job. "Given the choice of attending a lecture on the global ...the Netherlands and in West Germany with Hawk and now also Patriot surface-to-air guided missiles. The Nike will be phased out within the...becomes obsolete, it should be modernized to fly for another 20-25 years. This kind of thing is very common in the navy, but it is a brand new idea

  18. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise......-slavery movements had raised awareness, this political emergence was even easier. Indeed the fight against ‘slave mentalities’ was everywhere a major challenge and a crucial step to mobilize groups of slave status under a united force. As this article argues changes in political structures and changes in political...

  19. Using transplanted bivalves to assess oil exposure and effects in Delaware Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, M.; Salazar, S.; Mearns, A.; Venosa, A.; Eberhart, B.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation, the US EPA oiled intertidal plots in Delaware Bay and monitored oil degradation rates. This controlled release of oil was also used to test the utility of transplanted bivalves in assessing oil spills and to evaluate the extent and potential effects of the release. Measuring the accumulation of oil in bivalve tissues was used to estimate exposure and the extent of contamination. Growth was used to estimate potential bioeffects. Approximately 1,800 mussels and 1,200 oysters were transplanted to 11 intertidal sites. Five treatment sites were within 1 meter of the lower end of the oiled plots. A total of six sites were used as controls, three on either side of the oiled plots at 5, 10, and 100 m. Samples were taken on Day 0, 2, 15, and 28 to estimate the rate of bioaccumulation. All of the mussels died within the first week of exposure; oysters exhibited over 95% survival but growth was minimal. The authors found a statistically significant difference in tissue weights when comparing treatment sites with control sites. The total concentration of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tissues of oysters nearest the oiled plots increased by a factor of four after an exposure period of two days. PAH concentrations in control oysters nearest the mouth of the bay increased slightly but the differences were not statistically significant. The control oysters nearest the head of the bay received an intermediate dose which was depurated by the end of the 28-day experiment. PAHs in the oysters nearest the oiled plots approached but did not return to background levels by the end of the test

  20. A comparative analysis among computational intelligence techniques for dissolved oxygen prediction in Delaware River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Olyaie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the water quality models previously developed and used in dissolved oxygen (DO prediction are complex. Moreover, reliable data available to develop/calibrate new DO models is scarce. Therefore, there is a need to study and develop models that can handle easily measurable parameters of a particular site, even with short length. In recent decades, computational intelligence techniques, as effective approaches for predicting complicated and significant indicator of the state of aquatic ecosystems such as DO, have created a great change in predictions. In this study, three different AI methods comprising: (1 two types of artificial neural networks (ANN namely multi linear perceptron (MLP and radial based function (RBF; (2 an advancement of genetic programming namely linear genetic programming (LGP; and (3 a support vector machine (SVM technique were used for DO prediction in Delaware River located at Trenton, USA. For evaluating the performance of the proposed models, root mean square error (RMSE, Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NS, mean absolute relative error (MARE and, correlation coefficient statistics (R were used to choose the best predictive model. The comparison of estimation accuracies of various intelligence models illustrated that the SVM was able to develop the most accurate model in DO estimation in comparison to other models. Also, it was found that the LGP model performs better than the both ANNs models. For example, the determination coefficient was 0.99 for the best SVM model, while it was 0.96, 0.91 and 0.81 for the best LGP, MLP and RBF models, respectively. In general, the results indicated that an SVM model could be employed satisfactorily in DO estimation.

  1. Monitoring mass changes in the Volta River basin using GRACE satellite gravity and TRMM precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner G. Ferreira

    Full Text Available GRACE satellite gravity data was used to estimate mass changes within the Volta River basin in West African for the period of January, 2005 to December, 2010. We also used the precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM to determine relative contributions source to the seasonal hydrological balance within the Volta River basin. We found out that the seasonal mass change tends to be detected by GRACE for periods from 1 month in the south to 4 months in the north of the basin after the rainfall events. The results suggested a significant gain in water storage in the basin at reference epoch 2007.5 and a dominant annual cycle for the period under consideration for both in the mass changes and rainfall time series. However, there was a low correlation between mass changes and rainfall implying that there must be other processes which cause mass changes without rainfall in the upstream of the Volta River basin.

  2. Tectonoestratigraphic and Thermal Models of the Tiburon and Wagner Basins, northern Gulf of California Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J.; Ramirez Zerpa, N. A.; Negrete-Aranda, R.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Gulf of California Rift System consist sofa series faults that accommodate both normal and strike-slip motion. The faults formed a series of half-greens filled with more than 7 km of siliciclastic suc­cessions. Here, we present tectonostratigraphic and heat flow models for the Tiburón basin, in the southern part of the system, and the Wag­ner basin in the north. The models are constrained by two-dimensional seis­mic lines and by two deep boreholes drilled by PEMEX­-PEP. Analysis of the seismic lines and models' results show that: (i) subsidence of the basins is controlled by high-angle normal faults and by flow of the lower crust, (ii) basins share a common history, and (iii) there are significant differences in the way brittle strain was partitioned in the basins, a feature frequently observed in rift basins. On one hand, the bounding faults of the Tiburón basin have a nested geometry and became active following a west-to-east sequence of activation. The Tiburon half-graben was formed by two pulses of fault activity. One took place during the protogulf extensional phase in the Miocene and the other during the opening of Gulf of California in the Pleistocene. On the other hand, the Wagner basin is the result of two fault generations. During the late-to middle Miocene, the west-dipping Cerro Prieto and San Felipe faults formed a domino array. Then, during the Pleistocene the Consag and Wagner faults dissected the hanging-wall of the Cerro Prieto fault forming the modern Wagner basin. Thermal modeling of the deep borehole temperatures suggests that the heat flow in these basins in the order of 110 mW/m2 which is in agreement with superficial heat flow measurements in the northern Gulf of California Rift System.

  3. Potential for a significant deep basin geothermal system in Tintic Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, C.; Kirby, S.

    2014-12-01

    The combination of regionally high heat flow, deep basins, and permeable reservoir rocks in the eastern Great Basin may yield substantial new geothermal resources. We explore a deep sedimentary basin geothermal prospect beneath Tintic Valley in central Utah using new 2D and 3D models coupled with existing estimates of heat flow, geothermometry, and shallow hydrologic data. Tintic Valley is a sediment-filled basin bounded to the east and west by bedrock mountain ranges where heat-flow values vary from 85 to over 240 mW/m2. Based on modeling of new and existing gravity data, a prominent 30 mGal low indicates basin fill thickness may exceed 2 km. The insulating effect of relatively low thermal conductivity basin fill in Tintic Valley, combined with typical Great Basin heat flow, predict temperatures greater than 150 °C at 3 km depth. The potential reservoir beneath the basin fill is comprised of Paleozoic carbonate and clastic rocks. The hydrology of the Tintic Valley is characterized by a shallow, cool groundwater system that recharges along the upper reaches of the basin and discharges along the valley axis and to a series of wells. The east mountain block is warm and dry, with groundwater levels just above the basin floor and temperatures >50 °C at depth. The west mountain block contains a shallow, cool meteoric groundwater system. Fluid temperatures over 50 °C are sufficient for direct-use applications, such as greenhouses and aquaculture, while temperatures exceeding 140°C are suitable for binary geothermal power plants. The geologic setting and regionally high heat flow in Tintic Valley suggest a geothermal resource capable of supporting direct-use geothermal applications and binary power production could be present.

  4. The economics of petroleum exploration and development west of Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.; Stephen, L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the economics of oil and gas exploration and development in the West of Scotland region. A considerable exploration effort has resulted in some discoveries but the overall success rate has been quite low. The region is comprised of several distinct geological basins. To date the Judd Basin has experienced the best discovery rate. Expected returns as measured by expected monetary values are generally low, confirming the high-risk nature of the region. The most economical field development concept depends to a large extent on a combination of field size and water depth which vary markedly from basin to basin. In typical cost conditions at an $18 price returns to investors in medium and large-sized fields at the development phase are positive, but at $14 only when costs are relatively low are positive returns in prospect. Stand-alone gas developments are very unlikely to be viable in current market conditions. The fuller exploitation of the whole region requires higher oil and gas prices and /or significant innovation and technological progress. (Author)

  5. Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Modelling in the Pra River Basin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kusimi

    sediment delivery ratio; soil erosion modelling; sediment yield modelling. .... The basin falls within the wet semi-equitorial climatic belt which is ... influence of the moist south-west monsoons during the rainy season, with high .... availability of good satellite images covering the study area; because of thick cloud cover most.

  6. Perspectives in using a remotely sensed dryness index in distributed hydrological models at river basin scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Asger; Sandholt, Inge; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2002-01-01

    In a previous study a spatially distributed hydrological model, based on the MIKE SHE code, was constructed and validated for the 375 000 km2 Senegal River basin in West Africa. The model was constructed using spatial data on topography, soil types and vegetation characteristics together with time...

  7. Tectonic-sedimentary evolution of foreland basins: U-Pb dating of the discharge that would have originated the piggy-back basin of Rodeo-Iglesias, San Juan-Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Romulo Duarte Moreira dos; Hauser, Natalia; Matteini, Massimo; Pimentel, Marcio Martins

    2015-01-01

    Between the 28 ° and 31 ° LS parallels of the Argentinean west, in the province of San Juan, foreland basins originated by the subhorizontal subduction of oceanic crust as a result of the Andean orogeny in the late Oligocene emerges. The Bermejo basin and Rodeo-Iglesias piggy-back basin would be associated with the progressive development of landslides, backscatter and minor faults, and basin fragmentation. Two samples of volcanic rocks, R-1 (rhyolitic dome) and R-3 (fall deposit) of the Rodeo-Iglesias basin, had ages of 8.2 ± 0.11 Ma and 8.7 ± 0.24 Ma. At the same time, the age of the (R-1) made it possible to infer quantitatively the age of the first cavalcade that occurred approximately 8.2 ± 0.11 Ma. From the data obtained in the Rodeo-Iglesias basin both volcanism and the first cavalcade could have been synchronous

  8. Use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to Obtain High-Resolution Elevation Data for Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Roger A.; Nardi, Mark R.; Reyes, Betzaida

    2008-01-01

    Sussex County, Delaware, occupies a 938-square-mile area of low relief near sea level in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The county is bounded on the east by the Delaware Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, including a barrier-island system, and inland bays that provide habitat for valuable living resources. Eastern Sussex County is an area of rapid population growth with a long-established beach-resort community, where land elevation is a key factor in determining areas that are appropriate for development. Of concern to State and local planners are evacuation routes inland to escape flooding from severe coastal storms, as most major transportation routes traverse areas of low elevation that are subject to inundation. The western half of the county is typically rural in character, and land use is largely agricultural with some scattered forest land cover. Western Sussex County has several low-relief river flood-prone areas, where accurate high-resolution elevation data are needed for Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) studies. This fact sheet describes the methods and techniques used to collect and process LiDAR elevation data, the generation of the digital elevation model (DEM) and the 2-foot contours, and the quality-assurance procedures and results. It indicates where to view metadata on the data sets and where to acquire bare-earth mass points, DEM data, and contour data.

  9. Evolution of tertiary intermontane fluvial system of Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, R.M.; Ethridge, F.G.

    1985-01-01

    Exploration and development of economic coal and uranium deposits of the Tertiary Fort Union and Wasatch Formations provided data related to the evolution of depositional systems in the Powder River Basin. In ascending order, the Paleocene Fort Union Formation consists of the Tullock, Lebo, and Tongue River Members. The overlying Eocene Wasatch Formation consists of the conglomeratic Kingsbury and Moncrief Members and laterally equivalent finer grained deposits. Evolution of fluvial deposition in the basin was determined from sandstone percent maps. A high proportion of sandstones in the Tullock Member and combined Tongue River Member and Wasatch Formation formed in interconnected east-west and north-south belts. The east-west belts represent alluvial fans, as well as braided and meandering tributary streams. The north-south belts reflect meandering and anastomosing trunk streams fed by basin margin tributaries. The sandstones of the Lebo Shale show east-west trends and represent deposits of fluvio-deltaic systems that filled a western, closed-lacustrine basin. The lake in this basin may have formed during localized subsidence along the Buffalo deep fault. These contrasting styles of fluvial deposition were largely controlled by extrabasinal and intrabasinal tectonics associated with Laramide orogeny

  10. 226Ra and 228Ra in the mixing zones of the Pee Dee River-Winyah Bay, Yangtze River and Delaware Bay Estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsinger, R.J.; Moore, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    226 Ra and 228 Ra have non-conservative excess concentrations in the mixing zones of the Pee Dee River-Winyah Bay estuary, the Yangtze River estuary, and the Delaware Bay estuary. Laboratory experiments, using Pee Dee River sediment, indicate desorption of 226 Ra to increase with increasing salinities up to 20 per mille. In Winyah Bay desorption from river-borne sediments could contribute almost all of the increases for both isotopes. Desorption adds only a portion of the excess 228 Ra measured in the Yangtze River and adjacent Shelf waters and Delaware Bay. In the Yangtze River the mixing zone extends over a considerable portion of the Continental Shelf where 228 Ra is added to the water column by diffusion from bottom sediments, while 226 Ra concentrations decrease from dilution. Diffusion of 228 Ra from bottom sediments in Delaware Bay primarily occurs in the upper part of the bay ( 228 Ra of 0.33 dpm cm -2 year was determined for Delaware Bay. (author)

  11. Improving Multimedia Foundations: Design of a Micro-Syllabus for Integrating Multimedia Modules into College Courses at the University of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    At the University of Delaware there has been growth in the use of multimedia technologies to facilitate the process of learning. However, many students entering higher educational institutions today, despite growing up with access to these tools, do not use them in interesting and meaningful ways. When given the opportunity to create multimedia…

  12. Ebola in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  13. Ebola in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lul Raka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ebola viral disease (EVD is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  14. Collision physics going west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The centroid of proton-antiproton physics is moving west across the Atlantic concluded Luigi Di Leila of CERN in his summary talk at the Topical Workshop on Proton-Antiproton Collider Physics, held at Fermilab in June. Previous meetings in this series had been dominated by results from CERN's big proton-antiproton collider, dating back to 1981. However last year saw the first physics run at Fermilab's collider, and although the number of collisions in the big CDF detector was only about one thirtieth of the score so far at CERN, the increased collision energy at Fermilab of 1.8 TeV (1800 GeV, compared to the routine 630 GeV at CERN) is already paying dividends

  15. West Germany's nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangelmayer, D.

    1978-01-01

    The US 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act legislated the embargo of enriched uranium supplies from that country to any other country which would not agree to tighter restrictions on a wide variety of their nuclear activities, including the reprocessing of spent uranium to provide separated plutonium. This has resulted in a three month supply cut-off to the EEC countries. However the EEC is now willing to renegotiate supply contracts with the US to accord with the tighter safeguards set down in the Act. Effectively both sides now have an 18 month breathing space for them to seek a compromise on the non-proliferation question. The effect of these strategies on West Germany's energy policy, which seeks to become increasingly energy self-sufficient through the use of nuclear fuel reprocessing and the fast reactor, is discussed. (U.K.)

  16. Age and provenance of Triassic to Cenozoic sediments of West and Central Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitfeld, H. Tim; Galin, Thomson; Hall, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Sarawak is located on the northern edge of Sundaland in NW Borneo. West and Central Sarawak include parts of the Kuching and Sibu Zones. These contain remnants of several sedimentary basins with ages from Triassic to Cenozoic. New light mineral, heavy mineral and U-Pb detrital zircon ages show differences in provenance reflecting the tectonic evolution of the region. The oldest clastic sediments are Triassic (Sadong Formation and its deep marine equivalent Kuching Formation). They were sourced by a Triassic (Carnian to Norian) volcanic arc and reworked Paleoproterozoic detritus derived from Cathaysialand. The Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous Pedawan Formation is interpreted as forearc basin fill with distinctive zircon populations indicating subduction beneath present-day West Sarawak which initiated in the Late Jurassic. Subsequent subduction until the early Late Cretaceous formed the Schwaner Mountains magmatic arc. After collision of SW Borneo and other microcontinental fragments with Sundaland in the early Late Cretaceous, deep marine sedimentation (Pedawan Formation) ceased, and there was uplift forming the regional Pedawan-Kayan unconformity. Two episodes of extension followed and were responsible for basin development on land in West Sarawak from the latest Cretaceous onwards, probably in a pull-apart setting. The first episode is associated with sediments of the Kayan Group, deposited in the Latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene, and the second episode with Upper Eocene sediments of the Ketungau Basin. Zircon ages indicate volcanic activity throughout the Early Cenozoic in NW Borneo, and inherited zircon ages indicate reworking of Triassic and Cretaceous rocks. A large deep marine basin, the Rajang Basin, was north of the Lupar Line Fault in Central Sarawak (Sibu Zone) from the Late Cretaceous to the Late Eocene. Zircons from sediments of the Rajang Basin indicate they have similar ages and provenance to contemporaneous terrestrial sediments of the Kayan

  17. Bedload transport over run-of-river dams, Delaware, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Adam J.; Pizzuto, Jim

    2015-11-01

    We document the detailed morphology and bed sediment size distribution of a stream channel upstream and downstream of a 200-year-old run-of-river dam on the Red Clay Creek, a fifth order stream in the Piedmont of northern Delaware, and combine these data with HEC-RAS modeling and bedload transport computations. We hypothesize that coarse bed material can be carried through run-of-river impoundments before they completely fill with sediment, and we explore mechanisms to facilitate this transport. Only 25% of the accommodation space in our study site is filled with sediment, and maximum water depths are approximately equal to the dam height. All grain-size fractions present upstream of the impoundment are also present throughout the impoundment. A characteristic coarse-grained sloping ramp leads from the floor of the impoundment to the crest of the dam. A 2.3-m-deep plunge pool has been excavated below the dam, followed immediately downstream by a mid-channel bar composed of coarse bed material similar in size distribution to the bed material of the impoundment. The mid-channel bar stores 1472 m3 of sediment, exceeding the volume excavated from the plunge pool by a factor of 2.8. These field observations are typical of five other sites nearby and suggest that all bed material grain-size fractions supplied from upstream can be transported through the impoundment, up the sloping ramp, and over the top of the dam. Sediment transport computations suggest that all grain sizes are in transport upstream and within the impoundment at all discharges with return periods from 1 to 50 years. Our computations suggest that transport of coarse bed material through the impoundment is facilitated by its smooth, sandy bed. Model results suggest that the impoundment is currently aggrading at 0.26 m/year, but bed elevations may be recovering after recent scour from a series of large floods during water year 2011-2012. We propose that impoundments upstream of these run-of-river dams

  18. Minority Pre-service Teachers' and Faculty Training on Climate Change Education in Delaware State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, G.; Fox-Lykens, R.; Veron, D. E.; Rogers, M.; Merrill, J.; Harcourt, P.; Mead, H.

    2015-12-01

    Delaware State University is working toward infusing undergraduate education with climate change science and enhancing the climate change learning content of pre-service teacher preparation programs as part of the MADE-CLEAR project (www.madeclear.org). Faculty development workshops have been conducted to prepare and educate a cadre of faculty from different disciplines in global climate science literacy. Following the workshops, the faculty participants have integrated climate literacy tenets into their existing curriculum. Follow up meetings have helped the faculty members to use specific content in their curriculum such as greenhouse gases, atmospheric CO2, sea level rise, etc. Additional training provided to the faculty participants in pedagogical methods of climate change instruction to identify common misconceptions and barriers to student understanding. Some pre-service teachers were engaged in summer internships and learned how to become messenger of climate change science by the state parks staff during the summer. Workshops were offered to other pre-service teachers to teach them specific climate change topics with enhanced hands-on laboratory activities. The participants were provided examples of lesson plans and guided to develop their own lesson plans and present them. Various pedagogical methods have been explored for teaching climate change content to the participants. The pre-service teachers found the climate content very challenging and confusing. Training activities were modified to focus on targeted topics and modeling of pedagogical techniques for the faculty and pre-service teachers. Program evaluation confirms that the workshop participant show improved understanding of the workshop materials by the participants if they were introduced few climate topics. Learning how to use hands-on learning tools and preparing lesson plans are two of the challenges successfully implemented by the pre-service teachers. Our next activity includes pre

  19. Chukchi Borderland | Crustal Complex of the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, I.; Coakley, B.; Houseknecht, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    In the Arctic Ocean, Chukchi Borderland separates the North Chukchi shelf and Toll deep basins to the west and Canada deep basin to the east. Existing plate reconstructions have attempted to restore this north-striking, fragments of the continental crust to all margins of the Amerasia Basin based on sparse geologic and geophysical measurements. Regional multi-channel seismic reflection and potential field geophysics, and geologic data indicate it is a high standing continental block, requiring special accommodation to create a restorable model of the formation of the Amerasia Basin. The Borderland is composed of the Chukchi Plateau, Northwind Basin, and Northwind Ridge divided by mostly north striking normal faults. These offset the basement and bound a sequence of syn-tectonic sediments. Equivalent strata are, locally, uplifted, deformed and eroded. Seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) are observed in the juncture between the North Chukchi, Toll basins, and southern Chukchi Plateau underlying a regional angular unconformity. This reveals that this rifted margin was associated with volcanism. An inferred condensed section, which is believed to be Hauterivian-Aptian in age, synchronous with the composite pebble shale and gamma-ray zone of the Alaska North Slope forms the basal sediments in the North Chukchi Basin. Approximately 15 km of post-rift strata onlap the condensed section, SDRs and, in part, the wedge sequence on the Chukchi Plateau from west to east, thinning to the north. These post-Aptian sediments imply that the rifted margin subsided no later than the earliest Cretaceous, providing a plausible time constraint for the inferred pre-Cretaceous rifting in this region. The recognition of SDRs and Hauterivian—Aptian condensed section, and continuity of the Early—Late Cretaceous post-rift strata along the margins of the Borderland, strike variations of the normal faults, absence of observable deformation along the Northwind Escarpment substantially constrain

  20. Sedimentary architecture of a Plio-Pleistocene proto-back-arc basin: Wanganui Basin, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust, Jean-Noël; Lamarche, Geoffroy; Nodder, Scott; Kamp, Peter J. J.

    2005-11-01

    The sedimentary architecture of active margin basins, including back-arc basins, is known only from a few end-members that barely illustrate the natural diversity of such basins. Documenting more of these basins types is the key to refining our understanding of the tectonic evolution of continental margins. This paper documents the sedimentary architecture of an incipient back-arc basin 200 km behind the active Hikurangi subduction margin, North Island, New Zealand. The Wanganui Basin (WB) is a rapidly subsiding, Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary basin located at the southern termination of the extensional back-arc basin of the active Central Volcanic Region (TVZ). The WB is asymmetric with a steep, thrust-faulted, outer (arc-ward) margin and a gentle inner (craton-ward) margin. It contains a 4-km-thick succession of Plio-Pleistocene sediments, mostly lying offshore, composed of shelf platform sediments. It lacks the late molasse-like deposits derived from erosion of a subaerial volcanic arc and basement observed in classical back-arc basins. Detailed seismic stratigraphic interpretations from an extensive offshore seismic reflection data grid show that the sediment fill comprises two basin-scale mega-sequences: (1) a Pliocene (3.8 to 1.35 Ma), sub-parallel, regressive "pre-growth" sequence that overtops the uplifted craton-ward margin above the reverse Taranaki Fault, and (2) a Pleistocene (1.35 Ma to present), divergent, transgressive, "syn-growth" sequence that onlaps: (i) the craton-ward high to the west, and (ii) uplifted basement blocks associated with the high-angle reverse faults of the arc-ward margin to the east. Along strike, the sediments offlap first progressively southward (mega-sequence 1) and then southeastward (mega-sequence 2), with sediment transport funnelled between the craton- and arc-ward highs, towards the Hikurangi Trough through the Cook Strait. The change in offlap direction corresponds to the onset of arc-ward thrust faulting and the rise of

  1. Geochemistry of Precambrian sedimentary rocks used to solve stratigraphical problems: An example from the Neoproterozoic Volta basin, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsbeek, F.; Frei, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Volta basin of Ghana (not, vert, similar115,000 km2; depth up to 5–7 km) consists of flat-lying sedimentary rocks, mainly sandstones that unconformably overlie the crystalline basement of the West-African craton. The stratigraphical column has been subdivided into three main...... and Obosum Groups is used to solve one of the outstanding controversies regarding the stratigraphy of the Volta basin....

  2. Paleobasin analysis and tectonic framework development of southern Zagros basin, interpreted from Landsat 4 thematic mapper image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranpanah, A.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed lineament maps produced with the digitally enhanced Landsat 4 thematic mapper in conjunction with field data provide new information on structural relations to the southern Zagros basin. Three major parallel lineaments are from north to south, Qatar-Kazern, Razak, and Oman. These lineaments trend approximately N17/sup 0/E and subdivide the Zagros basin into northern, central, and southern segments. The study area is enclosed by the Razak and Oman lineaments. Piercement salt domes (Precambrian salt) are abundant within the southern Zagros basin, absent east of the Oman lineament, and scarce in the area west of the Razak lineament. This salt dome distribution and the N17/sup 0/E trend suggest that these lineaments are surface manifestations of boundaries of basement crustal blocks that have been reactivated periodically since the Precambrian. The northern extension of this Precambrian basin is marked by salt domes (Precambrian salt) along the Oman lineament, located in the Kerman region 400 km north of Minab. Along the eastern boundary, at the juncture of the southern Zagros basin and western Makran Ranges, the trend of fold axes changes from east-west to north-south. The western basin boundary is characterized by a gradual change in the trend of the fold axis from east-west to northwest-southeast. This study provides useful information for subsurface interpretations, which will benefit hydrocarbon exploration. The Razak and Oman lineaments enclose a highly productive area, and separate the southern Zagros basin from less productive areas to the west and from a nonproductive region to the east where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that lineaments may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of the southern Zagros basin.

  3. Metallogenic geologic conditions and prospecting direction of sandstone type uranium mineralizations in Yili basin of Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daisheng; Wang Ruiying; Li Shengxiang; Zhang Kefang

    1994-09-01

    Yili basin is a Mesozoic down-warped basin superimposed on the late Paleozoic volcanic taphrogenic basin. Uranium mineralizations are hosted in the Middle-Lower Jurassic coal-bearing series. The depositions environment in the basin is turbulent in the east and relatively stable in the west. It is characterized by coarse-grained sequence with thin thickness in the eastern part and fine-grained with thick thickness in the western part. On the analytical basis of sedimentary facies indices, it is the first time to present a sedimentary model of 'alluvial fan-braided stream-(narrow) lakeshore delta-lacustrine facies and marsh facies' for the coal-bearing series. The authors have summarized the basic geologic features of U-mineralizations in the interlayer oxidation zone, analyzed the difference and cause of U-mineralizations between the south and north, as well as the east and west. The genetic mechanism of U-mineralizations in the basin is discussed. Finally, seven items of geologic prerequisites for the formation of in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits have been suggested and the potential of sandstone type U-mineralizations in the basin has been evaluated. Four promising target areas are selected

  4. Alien smuggling: East to West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J H

    1987-01-01

    This year untold millions of illegal aliens will enter Western Europe, Canada, and the US; in 1986, the US alone made 1.7 million apprehensions. Because of the numbers involved and the hard currency exchanged, alien smuggling has become big business--a lucrative track in desparate human beings. West Germany's open door asylum policy has been a boon to the smugglers, and West Berlin is currently a favored port of entry. The government provides social benefits--apartments, food, a stipend, and clothing--for asylum seekers. Smuggling operations appear to fit 3 categories: 1) state-sponsored alien smugglers, with a sub-category of terrorists; 2) ethnic smugglers with a history of terrorist spinoffs; and 3) independent smugglers, who are profit oriented, and willing to handle ethnic aliens and terrorists. In West Germany, immigration investigations begin at the border. West German officials often know that as they cause the Eastern border to be tightened, the flow will gravitate south toward Austria. Redirecting the trasit of Third Worlders from East Berlin away from West Germany, Sweden, and Denmark will be a stop-gap measure at best. Part of West Germany's immigration problem can be traced to the Basic Law that provides asylum for those who claim persecution (political, racial, ethnic, or religious). Yet, any attempt to change asylum would result in an admission of defeat in the quest for a unified Germany. Should Austria move to tighten its immigration laws, agreements similar to those between East and West Germany will likely follow.

  5. Comparison of five gridded precipitation products at climatological scales over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsanola, A. A.; Ogunjobi, K. O.; Ajayi, V. O.; Adefisan, E. A.; Omotosho, J. A.; Sanogo, S.

    2017-12-01

    The paper aimed at assessing the capabilities and limitations of five different precipitation products to describe rainfall over West Africa. Five gridded precipitation datasets of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Multi-Platform Analysis (TMPA 3B43v7); University of Delaware (UDEL version 3.01); Climatic Research Unit (CRU version 3.1); Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC version 7) and African Rainfall Climatology (ARC version 2) were compared and validated with reference ground observation data from 81 stations spanning a 19-year period, from January 1990 to December 2008. Spatial investigation of the precipitation datasets was performed, and their capability to replicate the inter-annual and intra-seasonal variability was also assessed. The ability of the products to capture the El Nino and La Nina events were also assessed. Results show that all the five datasets depicted similar spatial distribution of mean rainfall climatology, although differences exist in the total rainfall amount for each precipitation dataset. Further analysis shows that the three distinct phases of the mean annual cycle of the West Africa Monsoon precipitation were well captured by the datasets. However, CRU, GPCC and UDEL failed to capture the little dry season in the month of August while UDEL and GPCC underestimated rainfall amount in the Sahel region. Results of the inter-annual precipitation anomalies shows that ARC2 fail to capture about 46% of the observed variability while the other four datasets exhibits a greater performance ( r > 0.9). All the precipitation dataset except ARC2 were consistent with the ground observation in capturing the dry and wet conditions associated with El Nino and La Nina events, respectively. ARC2 tends to overestimate the El Nino event and failed to capture the La Nina event in all the years considered. In general GPCC, CRU and TRMM were found to be the most outstanding datasets and can, therefore, be used for precipitation

  6. Numerical representation of rainfall field in the Yarmouk River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shentsis, Isabella; Inbar, Nimrod; Magri, Fabien; Rosenthal, Eliyahu

    2017-04-01

    , geomorphologic and climatic division of the basin. Difference between regional curves is comparable with amplitude of rainfall variance within the regions. In general, rainfall increases with altitude and decreases from west to east (south-east). It should be emphasized that (i) Lake Kinneret Basin (2,490 sq. km) was earlier divided into seven "orographic regions" and (ii) the Lake Kinneret Basin and the Yarmouk River Basin are presented by the system of regional curves X = f (Z) as one whole rainfall field in the Upper Jordan River Basin, where the mean annual rain (X) increases with altitude (Z) and decreases from west to east and from north to south. In the Yarmouk Basin there is much less rainfall (344 mm) than in the Lake Kinneret Basin (749 mm), wherein mean annual rain (2,352 MCM versus 1,865 MCM) is shared between Syria, Jordan and Israel as 80%, 15% and 5%, respectively. The provided rainfall data allow more precise estimations of surface water balances and of recharge to the regional aquifers in the Upper Jordan River Basin. The derived rates serve as fundamental input data for numerical modeling of groundwater flow. This method can be applied to other areas at different temporal and spatial scales. The general applicability makes it a very useful tool in several hydrological problems connected with assessment, management and policy-making of water resources, as well as their changes due to climate and anthropogenic factors. Reference: I. Shentsis (1990). Mathematical models for long-term prediction of mountainous river runoff: methods, information and results, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 35:5, 487-500, DOI: 10.1080/02626669009492453

  7. Test plan for surface and subsurface examinations of K-east and K-west fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    The test plan for subsurface examinations on damaged K East and K West Basin fuel elements is presented. The purpose of these examinations is to inspect damaged areas on the fuel elements for the presence of voids, sludge, or broken fuel, and to obtain samples from the damaged areas for subsequent characterization tests

  8. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  9. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    's family ownerships. These poor livestockeepers could maintain their livestock regimen on the basis of low cash-income earnings and crops self-consumption in extremely poor family living conditions. In this state woodlands, social an environmental goals -as they were noted above- could generate high trade off between family basic needs and soil degradation because woodlands and crops operations. As result, grazing rent is pending on the low opportunity cost for family labour. In this context, Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands maintain the highest livestock rate population, which woodland economy could be called for poor people subsistence and environmentally unsustainable because soil erosion, forest degradation and over/under grazing. These study present three study cases where Mediterranean basin grazing resources economies are analyzed in the contexts of Tunisian developing economy (Iteimia woodlands, North West of Tunisia) and Spanish developed economy (Jerez de la Frontera and Monfragüe woodlands, South and West of Spain). The results show the crucial role that livestock (goat, sheep and cattle) play in maintaining the working Mediterranean woodlands landscape. People, woodlands and livestock grazing dependences are changing so fast in Mediterranean basin that they appear too complex for being accurately forecasting by rangeland economists. In this context, perhaps a question might be a more suitable concluding remark: ¿will does woodlands extensive livestock become a quasi-wild management for urban landowners pleasure aims in rich Mediterranean basin countries?

  10. Geophysical investigation of the Raton Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, R. S.

    1982-05-01

    This thesis correlates gravity, magnetic, and seismic data for the Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico. The gravity data suggest that the study area, and the region around it, is in isostatic equilibrium. The free air anomaly in the southern portion of the study area suggests lack of local compensation due to Quaternary volocanic rock. The volcanic rock thickness, calculated from the free air gravity data, is 180 m. The gravity data indicated a crustal thickness of about 45 km, and the crust thinned from west to east. A basement relief map was constructed from the Bouquer gravity data. Computer techniques were developed to calculate the depth to the basement surface and to plot a contour map of that surface. The Raton Basin magnetic map defined the same surface found on the basement relief map since the overlying sedimentary rocks have no magnetism; therefore, any magnetism present is caused by the basement rock. A seismic survey near capulin Mountain detected a high level of microseismicity that may be caused by adjustment along faults or dormant volcanic activity.

  11. Delaware GK-12: Improvement of Science Education in Vocational Technical High Schools Through Collaborative Learning and Coteaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J.; Skalak, K.; Watson, G.; Scantlebury, K.; Allen, D.; Quillen, A.

    2006-12-01

    With funding from the National Science Foundation, the University of Delaware (UD) in partnership with the New Castle County Vocational Technical School District (NCCoVoTech) in Delaware has initiated a GK-12 Program. In each of year this program, nine full time UD graduate students in the sciences, who have completed all or most of their coursework, will be selected to serve as fellows. Participation in the GK-12 program benefits the graduate fellows in many ways. In addition to gaining general insight into current issues of science education, the fellows enhance their experience as scientific researchers by directly improving their ability to effectively communicate complex quantitative and technical knowledge to an audience with multiple and diverse learning needs. In the first year of this project, fellows have been paired with high school science teachers from NCCoVoTech. These pairs, along with the principal investigators (PIs) of this program have formed a learning community that is taking this opportunity to examine and to reflect on current issues in science education while specifically addressing critical needs in teaching science in vocational technical high schools. By participating in summer workshops and follow-up meetings facilitated by the PIs, the fellows have been introduced to a number of innovative teaching strategies including problem-based learning (PBL). Fellow/teacher pairs have begun to develop and teach PBL activities that are in agreement with State of Delaware science standards and that support student learning through inquiry. Fellows also have the opportunity to engage in coteaching with their teacher partner. In this "teaching at the elbow of another", fellows will gain a better understanding of and appreciation for the complexities and nuances of teaching science in vocational technical high schools. While not taught as a stand-alone course in NCCoVoTech high schools, earth science topics are integrated into the science curriculum at

  12. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1976-03-04 to 1976-03-24 (NODC Accession 7700621)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the National Marine...

  13. Current direction and CTD data from moored current meter and CTD casts in the Delaware Bay from 1984-01-01 to 1984-12-01 (NODC Accession 8600001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and CTD data were collected using moored current meter and CTD casts in the Delaware Bay from January 1, 1984 to December 1, 1985. Data were...

  14. Taxonomic code, physical, and other data collected from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms in New York Bight from net casts and other instruments; 1973-02-20 to 1975-12-16 (NODC Accession 7601402)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic Code, physical, and other data were collected using net casts and other instruments in the New York Bight from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms....

  15. Bacteriology data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean during the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS-Mid Atlantic Ocean) project, 1976-11-05 to 1977-08-16 (NODC Accession 7800207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 5, 1976 to August 16, 1977....

  16. Zooplankton data from zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 03 November 1976 - 18 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7800340)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 3, 1976 to November 18,...

  17. Benthic organisms data collected using sediment sampler and net casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms in the New York Blight from 1957-06-19 to 1978-07-20 (NODC Accession 8000013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms data were collected using sediment sampler and net casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE II and other platforms in the New York Blight from 19 June 1957 to...

  18. West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... To furnish a means whereby appropriate international medical and health organisations may transmit information to medical scientists in medical institutions of West Africa and elsewhere.

  19. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: In surveying physicians, less than half had resources to perform an ... In fact, a study in Zambia, which discussed ... als in West Africa via pre and post didactic examinations .... teaching tools for the participants who came from a va-.

  20. Repository site data and information in bedded salt: Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, P.; Nimick, F.B.; Muller, A.B.; Davis, P.A.; Guzowski, R.V.; Duda, L.E.; Hunter, R.L.

    1983-11-01

    This report is a compilation of data from the literature on the Palo Duro Basin. The Palo Duro Basin is a structural basin, about 150 miles long and 80 miles wide, that is a part of the much larger Permian Basin. The US Department of Energy is investigating the Palo Duro Basin as a potentially suitable area for the site of a repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Sediments overlying the Precambrian basement range from about 5000 to about 11,000 ft in thickness and from Cambrian to Holocene in age. The strata in the Palo Duro Basin that are of primary interest to the Department of Energy are the bedded salts of the Permian San Andres Formation. The total thickness of the bedded salts is about 2000 ft. The geology of the Palo Duro Basin is well understood. A great deal of information exists on the properties of salt, although much of the available information was not collected in the Palo Duro Basin. Mineral resources are not currently being exploited from the center of the Palo Duro Basin at depth, although the possibility of exploration for and development of such resources can not be ruled out. The continued existence of salts of Permian age indicates a lack of any large amount of circulating ground water. The hydrology of the pre-Tertiary rocks, however, is currently too poorly understood to carry out detailed, site-specific hydrologic modeling with a high degree of confidence. In general, ground water flows from west to east in the Basin. There is little or no hydraulic connection between aquifers above and below the salt sequences. Potable water is pumped from the Ogallala aquifer. Most of the other aquifers yield only nonpotable water. More extensive hydrological data are needed for detailed future modeling in support of risk assessment for a possible repository for high-level waste in the Palo Duro Basin. 464 references