Numerical simulations of the mantle lithosphere delamination
Morency, C.; Doin, M.-P.
2004-03-01
Sudden uplift, extension, and increased igneous activity are often explained by rapid mechanical thinning of the lithospheric mantle. Two main thinning mechanisms have been proposed, convective removal of a thickened lithospheric root and delamination of the mantle lithosphere along the Moho. In the latter case, the whole mantle lithosphere peels away from the crust by the propagation of a localized shear zone and sinks into the mantle. To study this mechanism, we perform two-dimensional (2-D) numerical simulations of convection using a viscoplastic rheology with an effective viscosity depending strongly on temperature, depth, composition (crust/mantle), and stress. The simulations develop in four steps. (1) We first obtain "classical" sublithospheric convection for a long time period (˜300 Myr), yielding a slightly heterogeneous lithospheric temperature structure. (2) At some time, in some simulations, a strong thinning of the mantle occurs progressively in a small area (˜100 km wide). This process puts the asthenosphere in direct contact with the lower crust. (3) Large pieces of mantle lithosphere then quickly sink into the mantle by the horizontal propagation of a detachment level away from the "asthenospheric conduit" or by progressive erosion on the flanks of the delaminated area. (4) Delamination pauses or stops when the lithospheric mantle part detaches or when small-scale convection on the flanks of the delaminated area is counterbalanced by heat diffusion. We determine the parameters (crustal thicknesses, activation energies, and friction coefficients) leading to delamination initiation (step 2). We find that delamination initiates where the Moho temperature is the highest, as soon as the crust and mantle viscosities are sufficiently low. Delamination should occur on Earth when the Moho temperature exceeds ˜800°C. This condition can be reached by thermal relaxation in a thickened crust in orogenic setting or by corner flow lithospheric erosion in the
Utilization of Large Cohesive Interface Elements for Delamination Simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, Brian Lau Verndal; Lund, Erik
2012-01-01
This paper describes the difficulties of utilizing large interface elements in delamination simulation. Solutions to increase the size of applicable interface elements are described and cover numerical integration of the element and modifications of the cohesive law....
Otsuka, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Hayato; Mutoh, Yoshiharu
2016-10-01
This study aimed to clarify the effect of a simulated body fluid (SBF) on the cyclic delamination behavior of a plasma-sprayed hydroxapatite (HAp) coating. A HAp coating is deposited on the surfaces of surgical metallic materials in order to enhance the bond between human bone and such surfaces. However, the HAp coating is susceptible to delamination by cyclic loading from the patient's gait. Although hip joints are subjected to both positive and negative moments, only the effects of tensile bending stresses on vertical crack propagation behavior have been investigated. Thus, the cyclic delamination behavior of a HAp coating was observed at the stress ratio R=-1 in order to determine the effects of tensile/compressive loading on the delamination behavior. The delamination growth rate increased with SBF immersion, which decreased the delamination life. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the selective phase dissolution in the HAp coating was promoted at interfaces. Finite element analysis revealed that the energy release rate Gmax showed a positive value even in cases with compressive loading, which is a driving force for the delamination of a HAp coating. A prediction model for the delamination growth life was developed that combines a fracture mechanics parameter with the assumed stress-dependent dissolution rate. The predicted delamination life matched the experimental data well in cases of lower stress amplitudes with SBF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aerogel to simulate delamination and porosity defects in carbon-fiber reinforced polymer composites
Juarez, Peter; Leckey, Cara A. C.
2018-04-01
Representative defect standards are essential for the validation and calibration of new and existing inspection techniques. However, commonly used methods of simulating delaminations in carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites do not accurately represent the behavior of the real-world defects for several widely-used NDE techniques. For instance, it is common practice to create a delamination standard by inserting Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in between ply layers. However, PTFE can transmit more ultrasonic energy than actual delaminations, leading to an unrealistic representation of the defect inspection. PTFE can also deform/wrinkle during the curing process and has a thermal effusivity two orders of magnitude higher than air (almost equal to that of a CFRP). It is therefore not effective in simulating a delamination for thermography. Currently there is also no standard practice for producing or representing a known porosity in composites. This paper presents a novel method of creating delamination and porosity standards using aerogel. Insertion of thin sheets of solid aerogel between ply layers during layup is shown to produce air-gap-like delaminations creating realistic ultrasonic and thermographic inspection responses. Furthermore, it is shown that depositing controlled amounts of aerogel powder can represent porosity. Micrograph data verifies the structural integrity of the aerogel through the composite curing process. This paper presents data from multiple NDE methods, including X-ray computed tomography, immersion ultrasound, and flash thermography to the effectiveness of aerogel as a delamination and porosity simulant.
AE analysis of delamination crack propagation in carbon fiber-reinforced polymer materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, Sang Jae; Arakawa, Kazuo [Kyushu University, kasuga (Japan); Chen, Dingding [National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Han, Seung Wook; Choi, Nak Sam [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-01-15
Delamination fracture behavior was investigated using acoustic emission (AE) analysis on carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) samples manufactured using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). CFRP plate was fabricated using unidirectional carbon fiber fabric with a lay-up of six plies [+30/-30]6 , and a Teflon film was inserted as a starter crack. Test pieces were sectioned from the inlet and vent of the mold, and packed between two rectangular epoxy plates to load using a universal testing machine. The AE signals were monitored during tensile loading using two sensors. The average tensile load of the inlet specimens was slightly larger than that of the vent specimens; however, the data exhibited significant scattering due to non-uniform resin distribution, and there was no statistically significant different between the strength of the samples sectioned from the inlet or outlet of the mold. Each of the specimens exhibited similar AE characteristics, regardless of whether they were from the inlet or vent of the mold. Four kinds of damage mechanism were observed: micro-cracking, fiber-resin matrix debonding, fiber pull-out, and fiber failure; and three stages of the crack propagation process were identified.
A thick level set interface model for simulating fatigue-drive delamination in composites
Latifi, M.; Van der Meer, F.P.; Sluys, L.J.
2015-01-01
This paper presents a new damage model for simulating fatigue-driven delamination in composite laminates. This model is developed based on the Thick Level Set approach (TLS) and provides a favorable link between damage mechanics and fracture mechanics through the non-local evaluation of the energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mazzeo, Brian A.; Patil, Anjali N.; Klis, Jeffrey M. [Brigham Young University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Provo, Utah, 84602 (United States); Hurd, Randy C.; Truscott, Tadd T. [Brigham Young University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Provo, Utah, 84602 (United States); Guthrie, W. Spencer [Brigham Young University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Provo, Utah, 84602 (United States)
2014-02-18
Delaminations in bridge decks typically result from corrosion of the top mat of reinforcing steel, which leads to a localized separation of the concrete cover from the underlying concrete. Because delaminations cannot be detected using visual inspection, rapid, large-area interrogation methods are desired to characterize bridge decks without disruption to traffic, without the subjectivity inherent in existing methods, and with increased inspector safety. To this end, disposable impactors such as water droplets or ice chips can be dropped using automatic dispensers onto concrete surfaces to excite mechanical vibrations while acoustic responses can be recorded using air-coupled microphones. In this work, numerical simulations are used to characterize the flexural response of a model concrete bridge deck subject to both steel and ice impactors, and the results are compared with similar experiments performed in the laboratory on a partially delaminated concrete bridge deck slab. The simulations offer greater understanding of the kinetics of impacts and the responses of materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ijaz, H.; Asad, M.
2015-01-01
The use of composite laminates is increasing in these days due to higher strength and low density values in comparison of metals. Delamination is a major source of failure in composite laminates. Damage mechanics based theories are employed to simulate the delamination phenomena between composite laminates. These damage models are inherently local and can cause the concentration of stresses around the crack tip. In the present study integral type non-local damage formulation is proposed to avoid the localization problem associated to damage formulation. A comprehensive study is carried out for the models and classical local damage model are performed and results are compared with available experimental data for un IMS/924 Carbon/fiber epoxy composite laminate. (author)
Molecular dynamics simulation of propagating cracks
Mullins, M.
1982-01-01
Steady state crack propagation is investigated numerically using a model consisting of 236 free atoms in two (010) planes of bcc alpha iron. The continuum region is modeled using the finite element method with 175 nodes and 288 elements. The model shows clear (010) plane fracture to the edge of the discrete region at moderate loads. Analysis of the results obtained indicates that models of this type can provide realistic simulation of steady state crack propagation.
Scattering of guided waves at delaminations in composite plates.
Murat, Bibi I S; Khalili, Pouyan; Fromme, Paul
2016-06-01
Carbon fiber laminate composites are increasingly employed for aerospace structures as they offer advantages, such as a good strength to weight ratio. However, impact during the operation and servicing of the aircraft can lead to barely visible and difficult to detect damage. Depending on the severity of the impact, fiber and matrix breakage or delaminations can occur, reducing the load carrying capacity of the structure. Efficient nondestructive testing and structural health monitoring of composite panels can be achieved using guided ultrasonic waves propagating along the structure. The scattering of the A0 Lamb wave mode at delaminations was investigated using a full three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) analysis. The influence of the delamination geometry (size and depth) was systematically evaluated. In addition to the depth dependency, a significant influence of the delamination width due to sideways reflection of the guided waves within the delamination area was found. Mixed-mode defects were simulated using a combined model of delamination with localized material degradation. The guided wave scattering at cross-ply composite plates with impact damage was measured experimentally using a non-contact laser interferometer. Good agreement between experiments and FE predictions using the mixed-mode model for an approximation of the impact damage was found.
Integrated global digital image correlation for interface delamination characterization
Hoefnagels, Johan P.M.
2013-07-23
Interfacial delamination is a key reliability challenge in composites and micro-electronic systems due to (high-density) integration of dissimilar materials. Predictive finite element models are used to minimize delamination failures during design, but require accurate interface models to capture (irreversible) crack initiation and propagation behavior observed in experiments. Therefore, an Integrated Global Digital Image Correlation (I-GDIC) strategy is developed for accurate determination of mechanical interface behavior from in-situ delamination experiments. Recently, a novel miniature delamination setup was presented that enables in-situ microscopic characterization of interface delamination while sensitively measuring global load-displacement curves for all mode mixities. Nevertheless, extraction of detailed mechanical interface behavior from measured images is challenging, because deformations are tiny and measurement noise large. Therefore, an advanced I-GDIC methodology is developed which correlates the image patterns by only deforming the images using kinematically-admissible \\'eigenmodes\\' that correspond to the few parameters controlling the interface tractions in an analytic description of the crack tip deformation field, thereby greatly enhancing accuracy and robustness. This method is validated on virtual delamination experiments, simulated using a recently developed self-adaptive cohesive zone (CZ) finite element framework. © The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2014.
Progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates: A new approach
Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Minnetyan, L.
1992-01-01
A new approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters has been developed and is described for the computational simulation of progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the laminate behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach accounts for all types of composite behavior, laminate configuration, load conditions, and delamination processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation, and to laminate fracture. Results of laminate fracture in composite beams, panels, plates, and shells are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this new approach.
Simulation of action potential propagation in plants.
Sukhov, Vladimir; Nerush, Vladimir; Orlova, Lyubov; Vodeneev, Vladimir
2011-12-21
Action potential is considered to be one of the primary responses of a plant to action of various environmental factors. Understanding plant action potential propagation mechanisms requires experimental investigation and simulation; however, a detailed mathematical model of plant electrical signal transmission is absent. Here, the mathematical model of action potential propagation in plants has been worked out. The model is a two-dimensional system of excitable cells; each of them is electrically coupled with four neighboring ones. Ion diffusion between excitable cell apoplast areas is also taken into account. The action potential generation in a single cell has been described on the basis of our previous model. The model simulates active and passive signal transmission well enough. It has been used to analyze theoretically the influence of cell to cell electrical conductivity and H(+)-ATPase activity on the signal transmission in plants. An increase in cell to cell electrical conductivity has been shown to stimulate an increase in the length constant, the action potential propagation velocity and the temperature threshold, while the membrane potential threshold being weakly changed. The growth of H(+)-ATPase activity has been found to induce the increase of temperature and membrane potential thresholds and the reduction of the length constant and the action potential propagation velocity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Delamination of Compressed Thin Layers at Corners
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Kim D.; Jensen, Henrik Myhre; Clausen, Johan
2008-01-01
An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic layer under compression, attached to a substrate at a corner is carried out. The analysis is performed by combining results from interface fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. In contrast with earlier results for delamination on a flat s...... layers, Fracture mechanics, Crack closure, Steady state crack propagation.......An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic layer under compression, attached to a substrate at a corner is carried out. The analysis is performed by combining results from interface fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. In contrast with earlier results for delamination on a flat...... results for the fracture mechanical properties have been obtained, and these are applied in a study of the effect of contacting crack faces. Special attention has been given to analyse conditions under which steady state propagation of buckling driven delamination takes place. Keywords: Delamination, Thin...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parida, S. K.; Pradhan, A. K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar (India)
2014-02-15
The rate of propagation of embedded delamination in the strap adherend of lap shear joint (LSJ) made of carbon/epoxy composites has been evaluated employing three-dimensional non-linear finite elements. The delamination has been presumed to pre-exist in the thin resin layer between the first and second plies of the strap adherend. The inter-laminar peel and shear stress distributions have been studied in details and are seen to be predominantly three-dimensional in nature. The components of strain energy release rate (SERR) corresponding to the opening, sliding and cross sliding modes of delamination are significantly different at the two fronts of the embedded delamination. The sequential release of multi-point constraint (MPC) finite elements in the vicinity of the delamination fronts enables to simulate the growth of the delamination at either ends. This simulation procedure can be utilized effectively for evaluation of the status of the structural integrity of the bonded joints.
Application of scanning laser Doppler vibrometry for delamination detection in composite structures
Kudela, Pawel; Wandowski, Tomasz; Malinowski, Pawel; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw
2017-12-01
In this paper application of scanning laser Doppler vibrometry for delamination detection in composite structures was presented. Delamination detection was based on a guided wave propagation method. In this papers results from numerical and experimental research were presented. In the case of numerical research, the Spectral Element Method (SEM) was utilized, in which a mesh was composed of 3D spectral elements. SEM model included also a piezoelectric transducer. In the experimental research guided waves were excited using the piezoelectric transducer whereas the sensing process was conducted using scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV). Analysis of guided wave propagation and its interaction with delamination was based on a full wavefield approach. Attention was focused on interactions of guided waves with delamination manifested by A0 mode reflection, A0 mode entrapment, and S0/A0 mode conversion. Delamination was simulated by a teflon insert located between plies of composite material. Results of interaction with symmetrically and nonsymmetrical placed delamination (in respect to the composite sample thickness) were presented. Moreover, the authors investigated different size of delaminations. Damage detection was based on a new signal processing algorithm proposed by the authors. In this approach the weighted RMS was utilized selectively. It means that the summation in RMS formula was performed only for a specially selected time instances. Results for simple composite panels, panel with honeycomb core, and real stiffened composite panel from the aircraft were presented.
Mondal, Puskar; Korenaga, Jun
2018-03-01
The dispersion relation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, a gravitational instability associated with unstable density stratification, is of profound importance in various geophysical contexts. When more than two layers are involved, a semi-analytical technique based on the biharmonic formulation of Stokes flow has been extensively used to obtain such dispersion relation. However, this technique may become cumbersome when applied to lithospheric dynamics, where a number of layers are necessary to represent the continuous variation of viscosity over many orders of magnitude. Here, we present an alternative and more efficient method based on the propagator matrix formulation of Stokes flow. With this approach, the original instability problem is reduced to a compact eigenvalue equation whose size is solely determined by the number of primary density contrasts. We apply this new technique to the stability of the early crust, and combined with the Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis, we derive an empirical formula to compute the growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for this particular geophysical setting. Our analysis indicates that the likelihood of crustal delamination hinges critically on the effective viscosity of eclogite.
Simulation of ultrasound propagation in bone
Kaufman, Jonathan J.; Luo, Gangming; Siffert, Robert S.
2004-10-01
Ultrasound has been proposed as a means to noninvasively assess bone and, particularly, bone strength and fracture risk, as for example in osteoporosis. Because strength is a function of both mineral density and architecture, ultrasound has the potential to provide more accurate measurement of bone integrity than, for example, with x-ray absorptiometric methods. Although some of this potential has already been realized-a number of clinical devices are presently available-there is still much that is unknown regarding the interaction of ultrasound with bone. Because of the inherent complexity of the propagation medium, few analytic solutions exist with practical application. For this reason, ultrasound simulation techniques have been developed and applied to a number of different problems of interest in ultrasonic bone assessment. Both 2D and 3D simulation results will be presented, including the effects of architecture and density on the received waveform, propagation effects of both cortical and trabecular bone, and the relative contributions of scattering and absorption to attenuation in trabecular bone. The results of these simulation studies should lead to improved understanding and ultimately to more effective clinical devices for ultrasound bone assessment. [This work was supported by The Carroll and Milton Petrie Foundation and by SBIR Grant No. 1R43RR16750 from the National Center for Research Resources of the NIH.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghasemnejad, H.; Soroush, V.R.; Mason, P.J.; Weager, B.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► To study the impact resistance of delaminated composite structures. ► To improve the impact resistance of delaminated composite structures using natural Flax yarn. ► To investigate the effect of z-pinning on the damage process of composite materials. ► To develop FE techniques to model the impact process of composite structures using LSDYNA. -- Abstract: The ply delamination which is known as a principle mode of failure of layered composites due to separation along the interfaces of the layers is one of the main concerns in designing of composite material structures. In this regard, the effect of hybrid laminate lay-up in multi-delaminated composite beam was investigated. The Charpy impact test was chosen to study the energy absorbing capability of delaminated composite beam. Hybrid composite beams were fabricated from combination of glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy composites. To improve the impact behaviour of multi-delaminated composite beams the laminated hybrid composite beams were pinned using Flax yarns before curing process. It was shown that the multi-delaminated composite beams which are pinned in z-direction are able to arrest the crack propagation and consequently absorb more energy in comparison with simple ones in hybrid composite beams. The Charpy impact test of delaminated composite beams was also simulated by finite element software LS-DYNA and the results were verified with the relevant experimental results.
A Simulation Method for High-Cycle Fatigue-Driven Delamination using a Cohesive Zone Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, Brian Lau Verndal; Turon, A.; Lindgaard, Esben
2016-01-01
on parameter fitting of any kind. The method has been implemented as a zero-thickness eight-node interface element for Abaqus and as a spring element for a simple finite element model in MATLAB. The method has been validated in simulations of mode I, mode II, and mixed-mode crack loading for both self...
Local Guided Wavefield Analysis for Characterization of Delaminations in Composites
Rogge, Matthew D.; Campbell Leckey, Cara A.
2012-01-01
Delaminations in composite laminates resulting from impact events may be accompanied by minimal indication of damage at the surface. As such, inspection techniques are required to ensure defects are within allowable limits. Conventional ultrasonic scanning techniques have been shown to effectively characterize the size and depth of delaminations but require physical contact with the structure. Alternatively, a noncontact scanning laser vibrometer may be used to measure guided wave propagation in the laminate structure. A local Fourier domain analysis method is presented for processing guided wavefield data to estimate spatially-dependent wavenumber values, which can be used to determine delamination depth. The technique is applied to simulated wavefields and results are analyzed to determine limitations of the technique with regards to determining defect size and depth. Finally, experimental wavefield data obtained in quasi-isotropic carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates with impact damage is analyzed and wavenumber is measured to an accuracy of 8.5% in the region of shallow delaminations. Keywords: Ultrasonic wavefield imaging, Windowed Fourier transforms, Guided waves, Structural health monitoring, Nondestructive evaluation
Numerical simulation methods for wave propagation through optical waveguides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, A.
1993-01-01
The simulation of the field propagation through waveguides requires numerical solutions of the Helmholtz equation. For this purpose a method based on the principle of orthogonal collocation was recently developed. The method is also applicable to nonlinear pulse propagation through optical fibers. Some of the salient features of this method and its application to both linear and nonlinear wave propagation through optical waveguides are discussed in this report. 51 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs
Simulation of activation and propagation delay during tripolar neural stimulation
Goodall, E.V.; Goodall, Eleanor V.; Kosterman, L. Martin; Struijk, Johannes J.; Struijk, J.J.; Holsheimer, J.
1993-01-01
Computer simulations were perfonned to investigate the influence of stimulus amplitude on cathodal activation delay, propagation delay and blocking during stimulation with a bipolar cuff electrode. Activation and propagation delays were combined in a total delay term which was minimized between the
Guided Wave Propagation Study on Laminated Composites by Frequency-Wavenumber Technique
Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu; Leckey, Cara A. C.
2014-01-01
Toward the goal of delamination detection and quantification in laminated composites, this paper examines guided wave propagation and wave interaction with delamination damage in laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites using frequency-wavenumber (f-kappa) analysis. Three-dimensional elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) is used to acquire simulated time-space wavefields for a CFRP composite. The time-space wavefields show trapped waves in the delamination region. To unveil the wave propagation physics, the time-space wavefields are further analyzed by using two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transforms (FT). In the analysis results, new f-k components are observed when the incident guided waves interact with the delamination damage. These new f-kappa components in the simulations are experimentally verified through data obtained from scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) tests. By filtering the new f-kappa components, delamination damage is detected and quantified.
Simulation of HPIB propagation in biased charge collector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Hongyu; Qiu Aici
2004-01-01
A 2.5D PIC simulation using KARAT code for inner charge propagation within biased charge collector for measuring HPIB is presented. The simulation results indicate that the charges were neutralized but the current non-neutralized in the biased charge collector. The influence of ions collected vs biased voltage of the collector was also simulated. -800 V biased voltage can meet the measurement of 500 keV HPIB, and this is consistent with the experimental results
Simulation of excitation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Seung Yong; Kim, No Hyu
2016-01-01
This paper presents an analytic and numerical simulation of the generation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound with nano-scale wavelength, enabling the production of bulk waves in thin films. An analytic model of laser-matter interaction and elasto-dynamic wave propagation is introduced to calculate the elastic strain pulse in microstructures. The model includes the laser-pulse absorption on the material surface, heat transfer from a photon to the elastic energy of a phonon, and acoustic wave propagation to formulate the governing equations of ultra-short ultrasound. The excitation and propagation of acoustic pulses produced by ultra-short laser pulses are numerically simulated for an aluminum substrate using the finite-difference method and compared with the analytical solution. Furthermore, Fourier analysis was performed to investigate the frequency spectrum of the simulated elastic wave pulse. It is concluded that a pico-second bulk wave with a very high frequency of up to hundreds of gigahertz is successfully generated in metals using a 100-fs laser pulse and that it can be propagated in the direction of thickness for thickness less than 100 nm
Simulation of excitation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Seung Yong; Kim, No Hyu [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-15
This paper presents an analytic and numerical simulation of the generation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound with nano-scale wavelength, enabling the production of bulk waves in thin films. An analytic model of laser-matter interaction and elasto-dynamic wave propagation is introduced to calculate the elastic strain pulse in microstructures. The model includes the laser-pulse absorption on the material surface, heat transfer from a photon to the elastic energy of a phonon, and acoustic wave propagation to formulate the governing equations of ultra-short ultrasound. The excitation and propagation of acoustic pulses produced by ultra-short laser pulses are numerically simulated for an aluminum substrate using the finite-difference method and compared with the analytical solution. Furthermore, Fourier analysis was performed to investigate the frequency spectrum of the simulated elastic wave pulse. It is concluded that a pico-second bulk wave with a very high frequency of up to hundreds of gigahertz is successfully generated in metals using a 100-fs laser pulse and that it can be propagated in the direction of thickness for thickness less than 100 nm.
Simulation of excitation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Seung Yong; Kim, No Kyu [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)
2014-12-15
This paper presents an analytic and numerical simulation of the generation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound with nano-scale wavelength, enabling the production of bulk waves in thin films. An analytic model of laser-matter interaction and elasto-dynamic wave propagation is introduced to calculate the elastic strain pulse in microstructures. The model includes the laser-pulse absorption on the material surface, heat transfer from a photon to the elastic energy of a phonon, and acoustic wave propagation to formulate the governing equations of ultra-short ultrasound. The excitation and propagation of acoustic pulses produced by ultra-short laser pulses are numerically simulated for an aluminum substrate using the finite-difference method and compared with the analytical solution. Furthermore, Fourier analysis was performed to investigate the frequency spectrum of the simulated elastic wave pulse. It is concluded that a pico-second bulk wave with a very high frequency of up to hundreds of gigahertz is successfully generated in metals using a 100-fs laser pulse and that it can be propagated in the direction of thickness for thickness less than 100 nm.
Delamination of Composite Cylinders
Davies, Peter; Carlsson, Leif A.
The delamination resistance of filament wound glass/epoxy cylinders has been characterized for a range of winding angles and fracture mode ratios using beam fracture specimens. The results reveal that the delamination fracture resistance increases with increasing winding angle and mode II (shear) fraction (GΠ/G). It was also found that interlaced fiber bundles in the filament wound cylinder wall acted as effective crack arresters in mode I loading. To examine the sensitivity of delamina-tion damage on the strength of the cylinders, external pressure tests were performed on filament-wound glass/epoxy composite cylinders with artificial defects and impact damage. The results revealed that the cylinder strength was insensitive to the presence of single delaminations but impact damage caused reductions in failure pressure. The insensitivity of the failure pressure to a single delamination is attributed to the absence of buckling of the delaminated sublaminates before the cylinder wall collapsed. The impacted cylinders contained multiple delaminations, which caused local reduction in the compressive load capability and reduction in failure pressure. The response of glass/epoxy cylinders was compared to impacted carbon reinforced cylinders. Carbon/epoxy is more sensitive to damage but retains higher implosion resistance while carbon/PEEK shows the opposite trend.
Stress Wave Propagation in Larch Plantation Trees-Numerical Simulation
Fenglu Liu; Fang Jiang; Xiping Wang; Houjiang Zhang; Wenhua Yu
2015-01-01
In this paper, we attempted to simulate stress wave propagation in virtual tree trunks and construct two dimensional (2D) wave-front maps in the longitudinal-radial section of the trunk. A tree trunk was modeled as an orthotropic cylinder in which wood properties along the fiber and in each of the two perpendicular directions were different. We used the COMSOL...
Guided Wave Delamination Detection and Quantification With Wavefield Data Analysis
Tian, Zhenhua; Campbell Leckey, Cara A.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Yu, Lingyu
2014-01-01
Unexpected damage can occur in aerospace composites due to impact events or material stress during off-nominal loading events. In particular, laminated composites are susceptible to delamination damage due to weak transverse tensile and inter-laminar shear strengths. Developments of reliable and quantitative techniques to detect delamination damage in laminated composites are imperative for safe and functional optimally-designed next-generation composite structures. In this paper, we investigate guided wave interactions with delamination damage and develop quantification algorithms by using wavefield data analysis. The trapped guided waves in the delamination region are observed from the wavefield data and further quantitatively interpreted by using different wavenumber analysis methods. The frequency-wavenumber representation of the wavefield shows that new wavenumbers are present and correlate to trapped waves in the damage region. These new wavenumbers are used to detect and quantify the delamination damage through the wavenumber analysis, which can show how the wavenumber changes as a function of wave propagation distance. The location and spatial duration of the new wavenumbers can be identified, providing a useful means not only for detecting the presence of delamination damage but also allowing for estimation of the delamination size. Our method has been applied to detect and quantify real delamination damage with complex geometry (grown using a quasi-static indentation technique). The detection and quantification results show the location, size, and shape of the delamination damage.
Propagation error simulations concerning the CLIC active prealignment
Touzé, T; Missiaen, D
2009-01-01
The CLIC1 components will have to be prealigned within a thirty times more demanding tolerance than the existing CERNmachines. It is a technical challenge and a key issue for the CLIC feasibility. Simulations have been undertaken concerning the propagation error due to the measurement uncertainties of the prealignment systems. The uncertainties of measurement, taken as hypothesis for the simulations, are based on the data obtained on several dedicated facilities. This paper introduces the simulations and the latest results obtained, as well as the facilities.
Leckey, Cara A C; Wheeler, Kevin R; Hafiychuk, Vasyl N; Hafiychuk, Halyna; Timuçin, Doğan A
2018-03-01
Ultrasonic wave methods constitute the leading physical mechanism for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) of solid composite materials, such as carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates. Computational models of ultrasonic wave excitation, propagation, and scattering in CFRP composites can be extremely valuable in designing practicable NDE and SHM hardware, software, and methodologies that accomplish the desired accuracy, reliability, efficiency, and coverage. The development and application of ultrasonic simulation approaches for composite materials is an active area of research in the field of NDE. This paper presents comparisons of guided wave simulations for CFRP composites implemented using four different simulation codes: the commercial finite element modeling (FEM) packages ABAQUS, ANSYS, and COMSOL, and a custom code executing the Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique (EFIT). Benchmark comparisons are made between the simulation tools and both experimental laser Doppler vibrometry data and theoretical dispersion curves. A pristine and a delamination type case (Teflon insert in the experimental specimen) is studied. A summary is given of the accuracy of simulation results and the respective computational performance of the four different simulation tools. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Simulation of the acoustic wave propagation using a meshless method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bajko J.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents numerical simulations of the acoustic wave propagation phenomenon modelled via Linearized Euler equations. A meshless method based on collocation of the strong form of the equation system is adopted. Moreover, the Weighted least squares method is used for local approximation of derivatives as well as stabilization technique in a form of spatial ltering. The accuracy and robustness of the method is examined on several benchmark problems.
Non-destructive delamination detection in solid oxide fuel cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gazzarri, J.I.; Kesler, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)
2007-05-15
A finite element model has been developed to simulate the steady state and impedance behaviour of a single operating solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The model results suggest that electrode delamination can be detected minimally-invasively by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The presence of cathode delamination causes changes in the cell impedance spectrum that are characteristic of this type of degradation mechanism. These changes include the simultaneous increase in both the series and polarization resistances, in proportion to the delaminated area. Parametric studies show the dependence of these changes on the extent of delamination, on the operating point, and on the kinetic characteristics of the fuel cell under study. (author)
Structural health monitoring strategy for detection of interlaminar delamination in composite plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quaegebeur, N; Micheau, P; Masson, P; Maslouhi, A
2010-01-01
In this paper, a structural health monitoring strategy for detecting interlaminar delamination in a carbon fiber reinforced polymer structure using Lamb waves is proposed. The delamination is simulated by inserting a Teflon tape between two transverse plies and the Lamb wave generation and measurement is enabled by using piezoceramic elements. The Lamb wave theoretical propagation and through thickness strain distribution are studied, in order to determine the optimal configuration of the final system in terms of mode and frequency selection, and piezoceramic sizing and spacing, for detection of cross-sectional delamination. Pitch and catch measurements are performed by comparing wave propagations for different frequencies and along damaged and undamaged paths of the structure, and the analysis of results is performed using the reassigned short time Fourier transform. It appears that in the low frequency range (below 300 kHz), the A0 mode is sensitive to the damage, while in the high frequency range, S1 and A1 modes are both very sensitive to the damage while the propagation of the S0 mode is not affected very much
Direct FVM Simulation for Sound Propagation in an Ideal Wedge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongyu Ji
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The sound propagation in a wedge-shaped waveguide with perfectly reflecting boundaries is one of the few range-dependent problems with an analytical solution. This provides a benchmark for the theoretical and computational studies on the simulation of ocean acoustic applications. We present a direct finite volume method (FVM simulation for the ideal wedge problem, and both time and frequency domain results are analyzed. We also study the broadband problem with large-scale parallel simulations. The results presented in this paper validate the accuracy of the numerical techniques and show that the direct FVM simulation could be applied to large-scale complex acoustic applications with a high performance computing platform.
Delamination-Debond Behaviour of Composite T- Joints in Wind Turbine Blades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulasik, H; Coker, D
2014-01-01
Wind turbine industry utilizes composite materials in turbine blade structural designs because of their high strength/stiffness to weight ratio. T-joint is one of the design configurations of composite wind turbine blades. T-joints consist of a skin panel and a stiffener co-bonded or co-cured together with a filler material between them. T-joints are prone to delaminations between skin/stiffener plies and debonds between skin-stiffener-filler interfaces. In this study, delamination/debond behavior of a co-bonded composite T-joint is investigated under 0° pull load condition by 2D finite element method. Using Abaqus® commercial FE software, zero-thickness cohesive elements are used to simulate delamination/debond in ply interfaces and bonding lines. Pulling load at 0° is applied and load-displacement behavior and failure scenario are observed. The failure sequence consists of debonding of filler/stringer interface during one load drop followed by a second drop in which the 2nd filler/stringer debonds, filler/skin debonding and skin delamination leading to total loss of load carrying capacity. This type of failure initiation has been observed widely in the literature. When the debond strength is increased 30%, failure pattern is found to change in addition to increasing the load capacity by 200% before total loss of loading carrying capacity occurs. Failure initiation and propagation behavior, initial and max failure loads and stress fields are affected by the property change. In all cases mixed-mode crack tip loading is observed in the failure initiation and propagation stages. In this paper, the detailed delamination/debonding history in T-joints is predicted with cohesive elements for the first time
Quench propagation and training in simulated superconducting magnet windings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sampson, W.B.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.
1981-01-01
Training behavior similar to that which occurs in full scale superconducting accelerator magnets has been observed in small test windings. The test coils are formed from approximately 20 meters of conductor wound non-inductively, in Bifilar fashion. The resulting racetrack shaped coil is molded at elevated temperature to simulate the construction techniques used for the ISABELLE dipoles. The quench current of such windings has been measured as a function of applied field and the effect of parameters such as mechanical loading and porosity have been investigated. The velocity of propagation of the normal front has been measured both along and transverse to the direction of current flow for several test windings. The minimum energy required to produce a self propagating normal zone has also been determined in an attempt to quantify the relative stability of the coils
Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Ramadas, C.; Balachandra Shetty, P.; Satyanarayana, K. G.
2017-04-01
Considering the superior strength properties of polymer based composites over metallic materials, they are being used in primary structures of aircrafts. However, these polymeric materials are much more complex in behaviour due to their structural anisotropy along with existence of different materials unlike in metallic alloys. These pose challenge in flaw detection, residual strength determination and life of a structure with their high susceptibility to impact damage in the form of delaminations/disbonds or cracks. This reduces load-bearing capability and potentially leads to structural failure. With this background, this study presents a method to identify location of delamination interface along thickness of a laminate. Both numerical and experimental studies have been carried out with a view to identify the defect, on propagation, mode conversion and scattering characteristics of fundamental anti-symmetric Lamb mode (Ao) when it passed through a semi-infinite delamination. Further, the reflection and transmission scattering coefficients based on power and amplitude ratios of the scattered waves have been computed. The methodology was applied on numerically simulated delaminations to illustrate the efficacy of the method. Results showed that it could successfully identify delamination interface.
Microcrack propagation under multiaxial loading - experiment and simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poetter, K.; Suhartono, A.; Yousefi, F.; Zenner, H.; Duewel, V.; Schram, A.
2000-01-01
The accuracy of lifetime prediction for technical components subjected to cyclic loading is still not satisfying. One essential reason for the deviation between the results of the lifetime calculation and experimental results is that it is not yet possible to generate a model capable to describe the microstructural damage process which occurs in the tested material and to integrate this model in the calculation. All of the present research results recognize that the growth of microcracks is significantly influenced by the microstructure of the material. In order to take into account the influence of the microstructure on the damage process a simulation model is suggested in this paper which considers the local stress state in addition to the random nature of the material structure in the form of grain boundaries and slip systems. The results generated by means of the simulation model are compared and verified with those experiences obtained from multiaxial fatigue testing of the investigated aluminum material. For this purpose the surfaces of the tested specimens are carefully observed to discover and analyze microcracks which are classified according to their number, length, and orientation. Moreover the mechanisms of crack initiation and propagation are major points of interest for the comparison of theoretical and experimental results. The developed computer software is suitable to simulate the microcrack initiation, the propagation and coalescence of microcracks as well as the transition of stage I cracks to stage II cracks for uniaxial and multiaxial loading. Results obtained from the simulation model could be verified with the experiment. The future aim to be emphasized is the utilization of the parameter investigations carried out with the computer simulation model in order to improve the lifetime prediction. (orig.)
SIMULATION OF NEGATIVE PRESSURE WAVE PROPAGATION IN WATER PIPE NETWORK
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tang Van Lam
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Subject: factors such as pipe wall roughness, mechanical properties of pipe materials, physical properties of water affect the pressure surge in the water supply pipes. These factors make it difficult to analyze the transient problem of pressure evolution using simple programming language, especially in the studies that consider only the magnitude of the positive pressure surge with the negative pressure phase being neglected. Research objectives: determine the magnitude of the negative pressure in the pipes on the experimental model. The propagation distance of the negative pressure wave will be simulated by the valve closure scenarios with the help of the HAMMER software and it is compared with an experimental model to verify the quality the results. Materials and methods: academic version of the Bentley HAMMER software is used to simulate the pressure surge wave propagation due to closure of the valve in water supply pipe network. The method of characteristics is used to solve the governing equations of transient process of pressure change in the pipeline. This method is implemented in the HAMMER software to calculate the pressure surge value in the pipes. Results: the method has been applied for water pipe networks of experimental model, the results show the affected area of negative pressure wave from valve closure and thereby we assess the largest negative pressure that may appear in water supply pipes. Conclusions: the experiment simulates the water pipe network with a consumption node for various valve closure scenarios to determine possibility of appearance of maximum negative pressure value in the pipes. Determination of these values in real-life network is relatively costly and time-consuming but nevertheless necessary for identification of the risk of pipe failure, and therefore, this paper proposes using the simulation model by the HAMMER software. Initial calibration of the model combined with the software simulation results and
Crack propagation and arrest simulation of X90 gas pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Fengping; Huo, Chunyong; Luo, Jinheng; Li, He; Li, Yang
2017-01-01
To determine whether X90 steel pipe has enough crack arrest toughness or not, a damage model was suggested as crack arrest criterion with material parameters of plastic uniform percentage elongation and damage strain energy per volume. Fracture characteristic length which characterizes fracture zone size was suggested to be the largest mesh size on expected cracking path. Plastic uniform percentage elongation, damage strain energy per volume and fracture characteristic length of X90 were obtained by five kinds of tensile tests. Based on this criterion, a length of 24 m, Φ1219 × 16.3 mm pipe segment model with 12 MPa internal gas pressure was built and computed with fluid-structure coupling method in ABAQUS. Ideal gas state equation was used to describe lean gas behavior. Euler grid was used to mesh gas zone inside the pipe while Lagrangian shell element was used to mesh pipe. Crack propagation speed and gas decompression speed were got after computation. The result shows that, when plastic uniform percentage elongation is equal to 0.054 and damage strain energy per volume is equal to 0.64 J/mm"3, crack propagation speed is less than gas decompression speed, which means the simulated X90 gas pipe with 12 MPa internal pressure can arrest cracking itself. - Highlights: • A damage model was suggested as crack arrest criterion. • Plastic uniform elongation and damage strain energy density are material parameters. • Fracture characteristic length is suggested to be largest mesh size in cracking path. • Crack propagating simulation with coupling of pipe and gas was realized in ABAQUS. • A Chinese X90 steel pipe with 12 MPa internal pressure can arrest cracking itself.
Numerical simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in elastically anisotropic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacob, Victoria Cristina Cheade; Jospin, Reinaldo Jacques; Bittencourt, Marcelo de Siqueira Queiroz
2013-01-01
The ultrasonic non-destructive testing of components may encounter considerable difficulties to interpret some inspections results mainly in anisotropic crystalline structures. A numerical method for the simulation of elastic wave propagation in homogeneous elastically anisotropic media, based on the general finite element approach, is used to help this interpretation. The successful modeling of elastic field associated with NDE is based on the generation of a realistic pulsed ultrasonic wave, which is launched from a piezoelectric transducer into the material under inspection. The values of elastic constants are great interest information that provide the application of equations analytical models, until small and medium complexity problems through programs of numerical analysis as finite elements and/or boundary elements. The aim of this work is the comparison between the results of numerical solution of an ultrasonic wave, which is obtained from transient excitation pulse that can be specified by either force or displacement variation across the aperture of the transducer, and the results obtained from a experiment that was realized in an aluminum block in the IEN Ultrasonic Laboratory. The wave propagation can be simulated using all the characteristics of the material used in the experiment valuation associated to boundary conditions and from these results, the comparison can be made. (author)
Simulation of crack propagation in rock in plasma blasting technology
Ikkurthi, V. R.; Tahiliani, K.; Chaturvedi, S.
Plasma Blasting Technology (PBT) involves the production of a pulsed electrical discharge by inserting a blasting probe in a water-filled cavity drilled in a rock, which produces shocks or pressure waves in the water. These pulses then propagate into the rock, leading to fracture. In this paper, we present the results of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the SHALE code to study crack propagation in rock. Three separate issues have been examined. Firstly, assuming that a constant pressure P is maintained in the cavity for a time τ , we have determined the P- τ curve that just cracks a given rock into at least two large-sized parts. This study shows that there exists an optimal pressure level for cracking a given rock-type and geometry. Secondly, we have varied the volume of water in which the initial energy E is deposited, which corresponds to different initial peak pressures Ppeak. We have determined the E- Ppeak curve that just breaks the rock into four large-sized parts. It is found that there must be an optimal Ppeak that lowers the energy consumption, but with acceptable probe damage. Thirdly, we have attempted to identify the dominant mechanism of rock fracture. We also highlight some numerical errors that must be kept in mind in such simulations.
Parallel Reservoir Simulations with Sparse Grid Techniques and Applications to Wormhole Propagation
Wu, Yuanqing
2015-01-01
the traditional simulation technique relying on the Darcy framework, we propose a new framework called Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer framework to simulate wormhole propagation. Furthermore, to process the large quantity of cells in the simulation grid and shorten
Goodarzi, Mohammad Saeed; Hosseini-Toudeshky, Hossein
2017-11-01
In this paper a formulation of a viscoelastic-damage interface model with friction in mode-II is presented. The cohesive constitutive law contains elastic and damage regimes. It has been assumed that the shear stress in the elastic regime follows the viscoelastic properties of the matrix material. The three element Voigt model has been used for the formulation of relaxation modulus of the material. Damage evolution proceeds according to the bilinear cohesive constitutive law combined with friction stress consideration. Combination of damage and friction is based on the presumption that the damaged area, related to an integration point, can be dismembered into the un-cracked area with the cohesive damage and cracked area with friction. Samples of a one element model have been presented to see the effect of parameters on the cohesive constitutive law. A comparison between the predicted results with available results of end-notched flexure specimens in the literature is also presented to verify the model. Transverse crack tension specimens are also simulated for different applied displacement velocities.
Wave propagation simulation of radio occultations based on ECMWF refractivity profiles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per
2015-01-01
This paper describes a complete radio occultation simulation environment, including realistic refractivity profiles, wave propagation modeling, instrument modeling, and bending angle retrieval. The wave propagator is used to simulate radio occultation measurements. The radio waves are propagated...... of radio occultations. The output from the wave propagator simulator is used as input to a Full Spectrum Inversion retrieval module which calculates geophysical parameters. These parameters can be compared to the ECMWF atmospheric profiles. The comparison can be used to reveal system errors and get...... a better understanding of the physics. The wave propagation simulations will in this paper also be compared to real measurements. These radio occultations have been exposed to the same atmospheric conditions as the radio occultations simulated by the wave propagator. This comparison reveals that precise...
Fully resolved simulations of expansion waves propagating into particle beds
Marjanovic, Goran; Hackl, Jason; Annamalai, Subramanian; Jackson, Thomas; Balachandar, S.
2017-11-01
There is a tremendous amount of research that has been done on compression waves and shock waves moving over particles but very little concerning expansion waves. Using 3-D direct numerical simulations, this study will explore expansion waves propagating into fully resolved particle beds of varying volume fractions and geometric arrangements. The objectives of these simulations are as follows: 1) To fully resolve all (1-way coupled) forces on the particles in a time varying flow and 2) to verify state-of-the-art drag models for such complex flows. We will explore a range of volume fractions, from very low ones that are similar to single particle flows, to higher ones where nozzling effects are observed between neighboring particles. Further, we will explore two geometric arrangements: body centered cubic and face centered cubic. We will quantify the effects that volume fraction and geometric arrangement plays on the drag forces and flow fields experienced by the particles. These results will then be compared to theoretical predictions from a model based on the generalized Faxen's theorem. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.
Full wave simulations of lower hybrid wave propagation in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, J. C.; Bonoli, P. T.; Phillips, C. K.; Valeo, E.; Harvey, R. W.
2009-01-01
Lower hybrid (LH) waves have the attractive property of damping strongly via electron Landau resonance on relatively fast tail electrons at (2.5-3)xv te , where v te ≡ (2T e /m e ) 1/2 is the electron thermal speed. Consequently these waves are well-suited to driving current in the plasma periphery where the electron temperature is lower, making LH current drive (LHCD) a promising technique for off-axis (r/a≥0.60) current profile control in reactor grade plasmas. Established techniques for computing wave propagation and absorption use WKB expansions with non-Maxwellian self-consistent distributions.In typical plasma conditions with electron densities of several 10 19 m -3 and toroidal magnetic fields strengths of 4 Telsa, the perpendicular wavelength is of the order of 1 mm and the parallel wavelength is of the order of 1 cm. Even in a relatively small device such as Alcator C-Mod with a minor radius of 22 cm, the number of wavelengths that must be resolved requires large amounts of computational resources for the full wave treatment. These requirements are met with a massively parallel version of the TORIC full wave code that has been adapted specifically for the simulation of LH waves [J. C. Wright, et al., Commun. Comput. Phys., 4, 545 (2008), J. C. Wright, et al., Phys. Plasmas 16 July (2009)]. This model accurately represents the effects of focusing and diffraction that occur in LH propagation. It is also coupled with a Fokker-Planck solver, CQL3D, to provide self-consistent distribution functions for the plasma dielectric as well as a synthetic hard X-ray (HXR) diagnostic for direct comparisons with experimental measurements of LH waves.The wave solutions from the TORIC-LH zero FLR model will be compared to the results from ray tracing from the GENRAY/CQL3D code via the synthetic HXR diagnostic and power deposition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidson, Ronald C.; Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Majeski, Richard; Qin, Hong
2002-01-01
The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is under construction at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to simulate intense beam propagation through a periodic quadrupole magnetic field. In the Paul trap configuration, a long nonneutral plasma column is confined axially by dc voltages on end cylinders at z=+L and z=-L, and transverse confinement is provided by segmented cylindrical electrodes with applied oscillatory voltages ±V 0 (t) over 90 deg. segments. Because the transverse focusing force is similar in waveform to that produced by a discrete set of periodic quadrupole magnets in a frame moving with the beam, the Paul trap configuration offers the possibility of simulating intense beam propagation in a compact laboratory facility. The experimental layout is described, together with the planned experiments to study beam mismatch, envelope instabilities, halo particle production, and collective wave excitations
Davidson, Ronald C.; Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Majeski, Richard; Qin, Hong
2002-01-01
The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is under construction at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to simulate intense beam propagation through a periodic quadrupole magnetic field. In the Paul trap configuration, a long nonneutral plasma column is confined axially by dc voltages on end cylinders at z=+L and z=-L, and transverse confinement is provided by segmented cylindrical electrodes with applied oscillatory voltages ±V0(t) over 90° segments. Because the transverse focusing force is similar in waveform to that produced by a discrete set of periodic quadrupole magnets in a frame moving with the beam, the Paul trap configuration offers the possibility of simulating intense beam propagation in a compact laboratory facility. The experimental layout is described, together with the planned experiments to study beam mismatch, envelope instabilities, halo particle production, and collective wave excitations.
Simulating the Long-Distance Propagation of Intense Beams in the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment
Gilson, Erik P; Davidson, Ronald C; Efthimion, Philip; Majeski, Richard; Startsev, Edward
2005-01-01
The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) makes use of a compact Paul trap configuration with quadrupolar oscillating wall voltages to simulate the propagation of intense charged particle beams over distances of many kilometers through magnetic alternating-gradient transport systems. The simulation is possible because of the similarity between the transverse dynamics of particles in the two systems. One-component pure cesium ion plasmas have been trapped that correspond to normalized intensity parameters s < 0.8, where s is the ratio of the square of the plasma frequency to twice the square of the average transverse focusing frequency. The PTSX device confines the plasma for hundreds of milliseconds, which is equivalent to beam propagation over tens of kilometers. Results are presented for experiments in which the amplitude of the oscillating confining voltage waveform has been modified as a function of time. A comparison is made between abrupt changes in amplitude and adiabatic changes in amplitude. T...
HF-START: A Regional Radio Propagation Simulator
Hozumi, K.; Maruyama, T.; Saito, S.; Nakata, H.; Rougerie, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Jin, H.; Tsugawa, T.; Ishii, M.
2017-12-01
HF-START (HF Simulator Targeting for All-users' Regional Telecommunications) is a user-friendly simulator developed to meet the needs of space weather users. Prediction of communications failure due to space weather disturbances is of high priority. Space weather users from various backgrounds with high economic impact, i.e. airlines, telecommunication companies, GPS-related companies, insurance companies, international amateur radio union, etc., recently increase. Space weather information provided by Space Weather Information Center of NICT is, however, too professional to be understood and effectively used by the users. To overcome this issue, I try to translate the research level data to the user level data based on users' needs and provide an immediate usable data. HF-START is positioned to be a space weather product out of laboratory based truly on users' needs. It is originally for radio waves in HF band (3-30 MHz) but higher frequencies up to L band are planned to be covered. Regional ionospheric data in Japan and southeast Asia are employed as a reflector of skywave mode propagation. GAIA (Ground-to-topside model of Atmosphere and Ionosphere for Aeronomy) model will be used as ionospheric input for global simulation. To evaluate HF-START, an evaluation campaign for Japan region will be launched in coming months. If the campaign successes, it will be expanded to southeast Asia region as well. The final goal of HF-START is to provide the near-realtime necessary radio parameters as well as the warning message of radio communications failure to the radio and space weather users.
Using cellular automata to simulate forest fire propagation in Portugal
Freire, Joana; daCamara, Carlos
2017-04-01
Wildfires in the Mediterranean region have severe damaging effects mainly due to large fire events [1, 2]. When restricting to Portugal, wildfires have burned over 1:4 million ha in the last decade. Considering the increasing tendency in the extent and severity of wildfires [1, 2], the availability of modeling tools of fire episodes is of crucial importance. Two main types of mathematical models are generally available, namely deterministic and stochastic models. Deterministic models attempt a description of fires, fuel and atmosphere as multiphase continua prescribing mass, momentum and energy conservation, which typically leads to systems of coupled PDEs to be solved numerically on a grid. Simpler descriptions, such as FARSITE, neglect the interaction with atmosphere and propagate the fire front using wave techniques. One of the most important stochastic models are Cellular Automata (CA), in which space is discretized into cells, and physical quantities take on a finite set of values at each cell. The cells evolve in discrete time according to a set of transition rules, and the states of the neighboring cells. In the present work, we implement and then improve a simple and fast CA model designed to operationally simulate wildfires in Portugal. The reference CA model chosen [3] has the advantage of having been applied successfully in other Mediterranean ecosystems, namely to historical fires in Greece. The model is defined on a square grid with propagation to 8 nearest and next-nearest neighbors, where each cell is characterized by 4 possible discrete states, corresponding to burning, not-yet burned, fuel-free and completely burned cells, with 4 possible rules of evolution which take into account fuel properties, meteorological conditions, and topography. As a CA model, it offers the possibility to run a very high number of simulations in order to verify and apply the model, and is easily modified by implementing additional variables and different rules for the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamberti, Alfredo; Semperlotti, Fabio
2013-01-01
Closing delaminations in composite laminated structures exhibit a nonlinear dynamic response when excited by high frequency elastic waves. The contact acoustic nonlinear effects taking place at the damage interface act as a mechanism of energy redistribution from the driving frequency to the nonlinear harmonic frequencies. In this paper, we extend the concept of nonlinear structural intensity (NSI) to the analysis of closing delaminations in composite laminated plates. NSI is calculated using a method based on a combination of finite element and finite difference techniques, which is suitable for processing both numerical and experimental data. NSI is proven to be an effective metric to identify the presence and location of closing delaminations. The highly directional nature of orthotropic composites results in vibrational energy propagating in a different direction from that of the initial elastic wave. This aspect reduces the ability to effectively interrogate the damage and, therefore, the sensitivity to the damage. The time reversal mirror technique is explored as a possible approach to overcome the effect of the material directionality and increase the ability to interrogate the damage. Numerical simulations show that this technique is able to overcome the material directionality and to drastically enhance the ability to interrogate the damage. (paper)
Propagation of radar rainfall uncertainty in urban flood simulations
Liguori, Sara; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel
2013-04-01
hydrodynamic sewer network model implemented in the Infoworks software was used to model the rainfall-runoff process in the urban area. The software calculates the flow through the sewer conduits of the urban model using rainfall as the primary input. The sewer network is covered by 25 radar pixels with a spatial resolution of 1 km2. The majority of the sewer system is combined, carrying both urban rainfall runoff as well as domestic and trade waste water [11]. The urban model was configured to receive the probabilistic radar rainfall fields. The results showed that the radar rainfall ensembles provide additional information about the uncertainty in the radar rainfall measurements that can be propagated in urban flood modelling. The peaks of the measured flow hydrographs are often bounded within the uncertainty area produced by using the radar rainfall ensembles. This is in fact one of the benefits of using radar rainfall ensembles in urban flood modelling. More work needs to be done in improving the urban models, but this is out of the scope of this research. The rainfall uncertainty cannot explain the whole uncertainty shown in the flow simulations, and additional sources of uncertainty will come from the structure of the urban models as well as the large number of parameters required by these models. Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge the BADC, the UK Met Office and the UK Environment Agency for providing the various data sets. We also thank Yorkshire Water Services Ltd for providing the urban model. The authors acknowledge the support from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) via grant EP/I012222/1. References [1] Browning KA, 1978. Meteorological applications of radar. Reports on Progress in Physics 41 761 Doi: 10.1088/0034-4885/41/5/003 [2] Rico-Ramirez MA, Cluckie ID, Shepherd G, Pallot A, 2007. A high-resolution radar experiment on the island of Jersey. Meteorological Applications 14: 117-129. [3] Villarini G, Krajewski WF
FDTD simulation of EM wave propagation in 3-D media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, T.; Tripp, A.C. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics
1996-01-01
A finite-difference, time-domain solution to Maxwell`s equations has been developed for simulating electromagnetic wave propagation in 3-D media. The algorithm allows arbitrary electrical conductivity and permittivity variations within a model. The staggered grid technique of Yee is used to sample the fields. A new optimized second-order difference scheme is designed to approximate the spatial derivatives. Like the conventional fourth-order difference scheme, the optimized second-order scheme needs four discrete values to calculate a single derivative. However, the optimized scheme is accurate over a wider wavenumber range. Compared to the fourth-order scheme, the optimized scheme imposes stricter limitations on the time step sizes but allows coarser grids. The net effect is that the optimized scheme is more efficient in terms of computation time and memory requirement than the fourth-order scheme. The temporal derivatives are approximated by second-order central differences throughout. The Liao transmitting boundary conditions are used to truncate an open problem. A reflection coefficient analysis shows that this transmitting boundary condition works very well. However, it is subject to instability. A method that can be easily implemented is proposed to stabilize the boundary condition. The finite-difference solution is compared to closed-form solutions for conducting and nonconducting whole spaces and to an integral-equation solution for a 3-D body in a homogeneous half-space. In all cases, the finite-difference solutions are in good agreement with the other solutions. Finally, the use of the algorithm is demonstrated with a 3-D model. Numerical results show that both the magnetic field response and electric field response can be useful for shallow-depth and small-scale investigations.
Fiber Optic Thermal Detection of Composite Delaminations
Wu, Meng-Chou; Winfree, William P.
2011-01-01
A recently developed technique is presented for thermographic detection of delaminations in composites by performing temperature measurements with fiber optic Bragg gratings. A single optical fiber with multiple Bragg gratings employed as surface temperature sensors was bonded to the surface of a composite with subsurface defects. The investigated structure was a 10-ply composite specimen with prefabricated delaminations of various sizes and depths. Both during and following the application of a thermal heat flux to the surface, the individual Bragg grating sensors measured the temporal and spatial temperature variations. The data obtained from grating sensors were analyzed with thermal modeling techniques of conventional thermography to reveal particular characteristics of the interested areas. Results were compared and found to be consistent with the calculations using numerical simulation techniques. Also discussed are methods including various heating sources and patterns, and their limitations for performing in-situ structural health monitoring.
Simulation of reactive nanolaminates using reduced models: II. Normal propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salloum, Maher; Knio, Omar M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States)
2010-03-15
Transient normal flame propagation in reactive Ni/Al multilayers is analyzed computationally. Two approaches are implemented, based on generalization of earlier methodology developed for axial propagation, and on extension of the model reduction formalism introduced in Part I. In both cases, the formulation accommodates non-uniform layering as well as the presence of inert layers. The equations of motion for the reactive system are integrated using a specially-tailored integration scheme, that combines extended-stability, Runge-Kutta-Chebychev (RKC) integration of diffusion terms with exact treatment of the chemical source term. The detailed and reduced models are first applied to the analysis of self-propagating fronts in uniformly-layered materials. Results indicate that both the front velocities and the ignition threshold are comparable for normal and axial propagation. Attention is then focused on analyzing the effect of a gap composed of inert material on reaction propagation. In particular, the impacts of gap width and thermal conductivity are briefly addressed. Finally, an example is considered illustrating reaction propagation in reactive composites combining regions corresponding to two bilayer widths. This setup is used to analyze the effect of the layering frequency on the velocity of the corresponding reaction fronts. In all cases considered, good agreement is observed between the predictions of the detailed model and the reduced model, which provides further support for adoption of the latter. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, C.D.; Babad, H.
1996-05-01
This test plan, prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Westinghouse Hanford Company, provides guidance for performing tube propagation experiments on simulated Hanford tank wastes and on actual tank waste samples. Simulant compositions are defined and an experimental logic tree is provided for Fauske and Associates (FAI) to perform the experiments. From this guidance, methods and equipment for small-scale tube propagation experiments to be performed at the Hanford Site on actual tank samples will be developed. Propagation behavior of wastes will directly support the safety analysis (SARR) for the organic tanks. Tube propagation may be the definitive tool for determining the relative reactivity of the wastes contained in the Hanford tanks. FAI have performed tube propagation studies previously on simple two- and three-component surrogate mixtures. The simulant defined in this test plan more closely represents actual tank composition. Data will be used to support preparation of criteria for determining the relative safety of the organic bearing wastes
Physics-based statistical model and simulation method of RF propagation in urban environments
Pao, Hsueh-Yuan; Dvorak, Steven L.
2010-09-14
A physics-based statistical model and simulation/modeling method and system of electromagnetic wave propagation (wireless communication) in urban environments. In particular, the model is a computationally efficient close-formed parametric model of RF propagation in an urban environment which is extracted from a physics-based statistical wireless channel simulation method and system. The simulation divides the complex urban environment into a network of interconnected urban canyon waveguides which can be analyzed individually; calculates spectral coefficients of modal fields in the waveguides excited by the propagation using a database of statistical impedance boundary conditions which incorporates the complexity of building walls in the propagation model; determines statistical parameters of the calculated modal fields; and determines a parametric propagation model based on the statistical parameters of the calculated modal fields from which predictions of communications capability may be made.
Quantitative Evaluation of Delamination in Composites Using Lamb Waves
Michalcová, L.; Hron, R.
2018-03-01
Ultrasonic guided wave monitoring has become very popular in the area of structural health monitoring (SHM) of aerospace structures. Any possible type of damage must be reliably assessed. The paper deals with delamination length determination in DCB specimens using Lamb waves. An analytical equation based on the velocity dependence on variable thickness is utilized. The group velocity of the fundamental antisymmetric A0 mode rapidly changes in a particular range of the frequency-thickness product. Using the same actuation frequency the propagation velocity is different for delaminated structure. Lamb wave based delamination lengths were compared to the visually determined lengths. The method of the wave velocity determination proved to be essential. More accurate results were achieved by tracking the maximum amplitude of A0 mode than the first signal arrival. These findings are considered as the basis for the damage evaluation of complex structures.
Investigation of propagation algorithms for ray-tracing simulation of polarized neutrons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Tranum-Rømer, A.; Willendrup, Peter Kjær
2014-01-01
Ray-tracing of polarized neutrons faces a challenge when the neutron propagates through an inhomogeneous magnetic field. This affects simulations of novel instruments using encoding of energy or angle into the neutron spin. We here present a new implementation of propagation of polarized neutrons...
Propagation Diagnostic Simulations Using High-Resolution Equatorial Plasma Bubble Simulations
Rino, C. L.; Carrano, C. S.; Yokoyama, T.
2017-12-01
In a recent paper, under review, equatorial-plasma-bubble (EPB) simulations were used to conduct a comparative analysis of the EPB spectra characteristics with high-resolution in-situ measurements from the C/NOFS satellite. EPB realizations sampled in planes perpendicular to magnetic field lines provided well-defined EPB structure at altitudes penetrating both high and low-density regions. The average C/NOFS structure in highly disturbed regions showed nearly identical two-component inverse-power-law spectral characteristics as the measured EPB structure. This paper describes the results of PWE simulations using the same two-dimensional cross-field EPB realizations. New Irregularity Parameter Estimation (IPE) diagnostics, which are based on two-dimensional equivalent-phase-screen theory [A theory of scintillation for two-component power law irregularity spectra: Overview and numerical results, by Charles Carrano and Charles Rino, DOI: 10.1002/2015RS005903], have been successfully applied to extract two-component inverse-power-law parameters from measured intensity spectra. The EPB simulations [Low and Midlatitude Ionospheric Plasma DensityIrregularities and Their Effects on Geomagnetic Field, by Tatsuhiro Yokoyama and Claudia Stolle, DOI 10.1007/s11214-016-0295-7] have sufficient resolution to populate the structure scales (tens of km to hundreds of meters) that cause strong scintillation at GPS frequencies. The simulations provide an ideal geometry whereby the ramifications of varying structure along the propagation path can be investigated. It is well known path-integrated one-dimensional spectra increase the one-dimensional index by one. The relation requires decorrelation along the propagation path. Correlated structure would be interpreted as stochastic total-electron-content (TEC). The simulations are performed with unmodified structure. Because the EPB structure is confined to the central region of the sample planes, edge effects are minimized. Consequently
SimProp: a simulation code for ultra high energy cosmic ray propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aloisio, R.; Grillo, A.F.; Boncioli, D.; Petrera, S.; Salamida, F.
2012-01-01
A new Monte Carlo simulation code for the propagation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays is presented. The results of this simulation scheme are tested by comparison with results of another Monte Carlo computation as well as with the results obtained by directly solving the kinetic equation for the propagation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. A short comparison with the latest flux published by the Pierre Auger collaboration is also presented
Simulation of long-distance beam propagation in the Paul trap simulator experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilson, Erik P.; Chung, Moses; Davidson, Ronald C.; Efthimion, Philip C.; Majeski, Richard; Startsev, Edward A.
2005-01-01
The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) simulates the propagation of intense charged particle beams over distances of many kilometers through magnetic alternating-gradient (AG) transport systems by making use of the similarity between the transverse dynamics of particles in the two systems. One-component pure ion plasmas have been trapped that correspond to normalized intensity parameter s-coret=ω p 2 (0)/2ω q 2 = p (r) is the plasma frequency and ω q is the average transverse focusing frequency in the smooth-focusing approximation. The PTSX device confines one-component cesium ion plasmas for hundreds of milliseconds, which is equivalent to beam propagation over 10km. Results are presented for experiments in which the amplitude of the confining voltage waveform has been modified as a function of time. Recent modifications to the device are described, and both the change from a cesium ion source to a barium ion source, and the development of a laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic system are discussed
Numerical simulation of transoceanic propagation and run-up of tsunami
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Yong-Sik; Yoon Sung-Bum [Hanyang University, Seoul(Korea)
2001-04-30
The propagation and associated run-up process of tsunami are numerically investigated in this study. A transoceanic propagation model is first used to simulate the distant propagation of tsunamis. An inundation model is then employed to simulate the subsequent run-up process near coastline. A case study is done for the 1960 Chilean tsunami. A detailed maximum inundation map at Hilo Bay is obtained and compared with field observation and other numerical model, predictions. A very reasonable agreement is observed. (author). refs., tabs., figs.
Fluid simulation for two laser beams co-propagating in underdense plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahdy, A.I.
2004-09-01
2D simulations code was constructed in order simulate the interactions of two co-propagating laser beams with underdense plasma. Simulations results at different laser intensities and separation-distances between the beams centroids were presented. In the results the effects of the laser intensities on the self-focusing and merging of the propagating beams were shown. In addition, the influence of increasing the separation-distance on the beams stability and trajectories were studied. A comparison with previous simulations at similar conditions was carried out in order to evaluate the numerical technique used to solve the basic equations. (author)
Numerical simulation of stress wave propagation from underground nuclear explosions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cherry, J T; Petersen, F L [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)
1970-05-01
This paper presents a numerical model of stress wave propagation (SOC) which uses material properties data from a preshot testing program to predict the stress-induced effects on the rock mass involved in a Plowshare application. SOC calculates stress and particle velocity history, cavity radius, extent of brittle failure, and the rock's efficiency for transmitting stress. The calculations are based on an equation of state for the rock, which is developed from preshot field and laboratory measurements of the rock properties. The field measurements, made by hole logging, determine in situ values of the rock's density, water content, and propagation velocity for elastic waves. These logs also are useful in judging the layering of the rock and in choosing which core samples to test in the laboratory. The laboratory analysis of rock cores includes determination of hydrostatic compressibility to 40 kb, triaxial strength data, tensile strength, Hugoniot elastic limit, and, for the rock near the point of detonation, high-pressure Hugoniot data. Equation-of-state data are presented for rock from three sites subjected to high explosive or underground nuclear shots, including the Hardhat and Gasbuggy sites. SOC calculations of the effects of these two shots on the surrounding rock are compared with the observed effects. In both cases SOC predicts the size of the cavity quite closely. Results of the Gasbuggy calculations indicate that useful predictions of cavity size and chimney height can be made when an adequate preshot testing program is run to determine the rock's equation of state. Seismic coupling is very sensitive to the low-pressure part of the equation of state, and its successful prediction depends on agreement between the logging data and the static compressibility data. In general, it appears that enough progress has been made in calculating stress wave propagation to begin looking at derived numbers, such as number of cracks per zone, for some insight into the
Numerical simulation of stress wave propagation from underground nuclear explosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cherry, J.T.; Petersen, F.L.
1970-01-01
This paper presents a numerical model of stress wave propagation (SOC) which uses material properties data from a preshot testing program to predict the stress-induced effects on the rock mass involved in a Plowshare application. SOC calculates stress and particle velocity history, cavity radius, extent of brittle failure, and the rock's efficiency for transmitting stress. The calculations are based on an equation of state for the rock, which is developed from preshot field and laboratory measurements of the rock properties. The field measurements, made by hole logging, determine in situ values of the rock's density, water content, and propagation velocity for elastic waves. These logs also are useful in judging the layering of the rock and in choosing which core samples to test in the laboratory. The laboratory analysis of rock cores includes determination of hydrostatic compressibility to 40 kb, triaxial strength data, tensile strength, Hugoniot elastic limit, and, for the rock near the point of detonation, high-pressure Hugoniot data. Equation-of-state data are presented for rock from three sites subjected to high explosive or underground nuclear shots, including the Hardhat and Gasbuggy sites. SOC calculations of the effects of these two shots on the surrounding rock are compared with the observed effects. In both cases SOC predicts the size of the cavity quite closely. Results of the Gasbuggy calculations indicate that useful predictions of cavity size and chimney height can be made when an adequate preshot testing program is run to determine the rock's equation of state. Seismic coupling is very sensitive to the low-pressure part of the equation of state, and its successful prediction depends on agreement between the logging data and the static compressibility data. In general, it appears that enough progress has been made in calculating stress wave propagation to begin looking at derived numbers, such as number of cracks per zone, for some insight into the
Simulation of partially coherent light propagation using parallel computing devices
Magalhães, Tiago C.; Rebordão, José M.
2017-08-01
Light acquires or loses coherence and coherence is one of the few optical observables. Spectra can be derived from coherence functions and understanding any interferometric experiment is also relying upon coherence functions. Beyond the two limiting cases (full coherence or incoherence) the coherence of light is always partial and it changes with propagation. We have implemented a code to compute the propagation of partially coherent light from the source plane to the observation plane using parallel computing devices (PCDs). In this paper, we restrict the propagation in free space only. To this end, we used the Open Computing Language (OpenCL) and the open-source toolkit PyOpenCL, which gives access to OpenCL parallel computation through Python. To test our code, we chose two coherence source models: an incoherent source and a Gaussian Schell-model source. In the former case, we divided into two different source shapes: circular and rectangular. The results were compared to the theoretical values. Our implemented code allows one to choose between the PyOpenCL implementation and a standard one, i.e using the CPU only. To test the computation time for each implementation (PyOpenCL and standard), we used several computer systems with different CPUs and GPUs. We used powers of two for the dimensions of the cross-spectral density matrix (e.g. 324, 644) and a significant speed increase is observed in the PyOpenCL implementation when compared to the standard one. This can be an important tool for studying new source models.
Thermally induced delamination of multilayers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Bent F.; Sarraute, S.; Jørgensen, O.
1998-01-01
Steady-state delamination of multilayered structures, caused by stresses arising during processing due to thermal expansion mismatch, is analyzed by a fracture mechanics model based on laminate theory. It is found that inserting just a few interlayers with intermediate thermal expansion coefficie...... coefficients may be an effective way of reducing the delamination energy release rate. Uneven layer thickness and increasing elastic mismatch are shown to raise the energy release rate. Experimental work confirms important trends of the model.......Steady-state delamination of multilayered structures, caused by stresses arising during processing due to thermal expansion mismatch, is analyzed by a fracture mechanics model based on laminate theory. It is found that inserting just a few interlayers with intermediate thermal expansion...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paćko, P; Bielak, T; Staszewski, W J; Uhl, T; Spencer, A B; Worden, K
2012-01-01
This paper demonstrates new parallel computation technology and an implementation for Lamb wave propagation modelling in complex structures. A graphical processing unit (GPU) and computer unified device architecture (CUDA), available in low-cost graphical cards in standard PCs, are used for Lamb wave propagation numerical simulations. The local interaction simulation approach (LISA) wave propagation algorithm has been implemented as an example. Other algorithms suitable for parallel discretization can also be used in practice. The method is illustrated using examples related to damage detection. The results demonstrate good accuracy and effective computational performance of very large models. The wave propagation modelling presented in the paper can be used in many practical applications of science and engineering. (paper)
Plasma simulation with the Differential Algebraic Cubic Interpolated Propagation scheme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Utsumi, Takayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
1998-03-01
A computer code based on the Differential Algebraic Cubic Interpolated Propagation scheme has been developed for the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for a one-dimensional plasma with immobile ions. The scheme advects the distribution function and its first derivatives in the phase space for one time step by using a numerical integration method for ordinary differential equations, and reconstructs the profile in phase space by using a cubic polynomial within a grid cell. The method gives stable and accurate results, and is efficient. It is successfully applied to a number of equations; the Vlasov equation, the Boltzmann equation with the Fokker-Planck or the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision term and the relativistic Vlasov equation. The method can be generalized in a straightforward way to treat cases such as problems with nonperiodic boundary conditions and higher dimensional problems. (author)
Delamination tolerance studies in laminated composite panels
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Determination of levels of tolerance in delaminated composite panels is an important issue in composite structures technology. The primary intention is to analyse delaminated composite panels and estimate Strain. Energy Release Rate (SERR) parameters at the delamination front to feed into acceptability criteria.
FDTD Simulation on Terahertz Waves Propagation Through a Dusty Plasma
Wang, Maoyan; Zhang, Meng; Li, Guiping; Jiang, Baojun; Zhang, Xiaochuan; Xu, Jun
2016-08-01
The frequency dependent permittivity for dusty plasmas is provided by introducing the charging response factor and charge relaxation rate of airborne particles. The field equations that describe the characteristics of Terahertz (THz) waves propagation in a dusty plasma sheath are derived and discretized on the basis of the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) in the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Compared with numerical solutions in reference, the accuracy for the ADE FDTD method is validated. The reflection property of the metal Aluminum interlayer of the sheath at THz frequencies is discussed. The effects of the thickness, effective collision frequency, airborne particle density, and charge relaxation rate of airborne particles on the electromagnetic properties of Terahertz waves through a dusty plasma slab are investigated. Finally, some potential applications for Terahertz waves in information and communication are analyzed. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41104097, 11504252, 61201007, 41304119), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Nos. ZYGX2015J039, ZYGX2015J041), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20120185120012)
Modeling Quasi-Static and Fatigue-Driven Delamination Migration
De Carvalho, N. V.; Ratcliffe, J. G.; Chen, B. Y.; Pinho, S. T.; Baiz, P. M.; Tay, T. E.
2014-01-01
An approach was proposed and assessed for the high-fidelity modeling of progressive damage and failure in composite materials. It combines the Floating Node Method (FNM) and the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) to represent multiple interacting failure mechanisms in a mesh-independent fashion. Delamination, matrix cracking, and migration were captured failure and migration criteria based on fracture mechanics. Quasi-static and fatigue loading were modeled within the same overall framework. The methodology proposed was illustrated by simulating the delamination migration test, showing good agreement with the available experimental data.
An enriched cohesive zone model for delamination in brittle interfaces
Samimi, M.; Dommelen, van J.A.W.; Geers, M.G.D.
2009-01-01
Application of standard cohesive zone models in a finite element framework to simulate delamination in brittle interfaces may trigger non-smooth load-displacement responses that lead to the failure of iterative solution procedures. This non-smoothness is an artifact of the discretization; and hence
Discrete Element Simulation of Elastoplastic Shock Wave Propagation in Spherical Particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Shoaib
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Elastoplastic shock wave propagation in a one-dimensional assembly of spherical metal particles is presented by extending well-established quasistatic compaction models. The compaction process is modeled by a discrete element method while using elastic and plastic loading, elastic unloading, and adhesion at contacts with typical dynamic loading parameters. Of particular interest is to study the development of the elastoplastic shock wave, its propagation, and reflection during entire loading process. Simulation results yield information on contact behavior, velocity, and deformation of particles during dynamic loading. Effects of shock wave propagation on loading parameters are also discussed. The elastoplastic shock propagation in granular material has many practical applications including the high-velocity compaction of particulate material.
Simulation error propagation for a dynamic rod worth measurement technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kastanya, D.F.; Turinsky, P.J.
1996-01-01
KRSKO nuclear station, subsequently adapted by Westinghouse, introduced the dynamic rod worth measurement (DRWM) technique for measuring pressurized water reactor rod worths. This technique has the potential for reduced test time and primary loop waste water versus alternatives. The measurement is performed starting from a slightly supercritical state with all rods out (ARO), driving a bank in at the maximum stepping rate, and recording the ex-core detectors responses and bank position as a function of time. The static bank worth is obtained by (1) using the ex-core detectors' responses to obtain the core average flux (2) using the core average flux in the inverse point-kinetics equations to obtain the dynamic bank worth (3) converting the dynamic bank worth to the static bank worth. In this data interpretation process, various calculated quantities obtained from a core simulator are utilized. This paper presents an analysis of the sensitivity to the impact of core simulator errors on the deduced static bank worth
Salomons, E.M.; Lohman, W.J.A.; Zhou, H.
2016-01-01
Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases:
Simulating activation propagation in social networks using the graph theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
František Dařena
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The social-network formation and analysis is nowadays one of objects that are in a focus of intensive research. The objective of the paper is to suggest the perspective of representing social networks as graphs, with the application of the graph theory to problems connected with studying the network-like structures and to study spreading activation algorithm for reasons of analyzing these structures. The paper presents the process of modeling multidimensional networks by means of directed graphs with several characteristics. The paper also demonstrates using Spreading Activation algorithm as a good method for analyzing multidimensional network with the main focus on recommender systems. The experiments showed that the choice of parameters of the algorithm is crucial, that some kind of constraint should be included and that the algorithm is able to provide a stable environment for simulations with networks.
Nonlocal Peridynamic Modeling and Simulation on Crack Propagation in Concrete Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan Huang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An extended peridynamic approach for crack propagation analysis in concrete structures was proposed. In the peridynamic constitutive model, concrete material was described as a series of interacting particles, and the short-range repulsive force and anisotropic behavior of concrete were taken into account in the expression of the interactive bonding force, which was given in terms of classical elastic constants and peridynamic horizon. The damage of material was defined locally at the level of pairwise bond, and the critical stretch of material bond was described as a function of fracture strength in the classical concrete failure theory. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed model and algorithms were validated by simulating the propagation of mode I and I-II mixed mode cracks in concrete slabs. Furthermore, crack propagation in a double-edge notched concrete beam subjected to four-point load was simulated, in which the experimental observations are captured naturally as a consequence of the solution.
Parametric study of guided ultrasonic wave propagation in carbon-fiber composite plates
Ibrahim, N. A.; Kamarudin, M. A.; Jurimi, M. H. F. M.; Murat, B. I. S.
2018-03-01
The aim of this work is to study the guided ultrasonic wave (GUW) behaviour in composite plates using 3D Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Two types of composite models are chosen: plates with and without damage. The damage is modelled as a circular-shaped delamination inside the plate, representing one kind of low-velocity impact damage. Parameters such as excitation frequency, monitoring directivity, plate thickness, delamination size and shape were used to investigate the influence of these parameters on the GUW propagation and scattering behaviour. The models were constructed and coded in Matlab platform, while the simulations were performed in ABAQUS Explicit. From the results, the received signals have shown a strong dependency on the parameters. Significant scattering from the models with delamination were also observed, which indicates the possibility of using GUW for rapid non-destructive monitoring of composite panels and structures.
Fully kinetic particle simulations of high pressure streamer propagation
Rose, David; Welch, Dale; Thoma, Carsten; Clark, Robert
2012-10-01
Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is a dynamic process involving a hierarchy of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. We have performed 2D and 3D fully EM implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation under DC and RF fields. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm [D. R. Welch, et al., J. Comp. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)] that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge. These models are being applied to the analysis of high-pressure gas switches [D. V. Rose, et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 093501 (2011)] and gas-filled RF accelerator cavities [D. V. Rose, et al. Proc. IPAC12, to appear].
Implicit finite-difference simulations of seismic wave propagation
Chu, Chunlei; Stoffa, Paul L.
2012-01-01
We propose a new finite-difference modeling method, implicit both in space and in time, for the scalar wave equation. We use a three-level implicit splitting time integration method for the temporal derivative and implicit finite-difference operators of arbitrary order for the spatial derivatives. Both the implicit splitting time integration method and the implicit spatial finite-difference operators require solving systems of linear equations. We show that it is possible to merge these two sets of linear systems, one from implicit temporal discretizations and the other from implicit spatial discretizations, to reduce the amount of computations to develop a highly efficient and accurate seismic modeling algorithm. We give the complete derivations of the implicit splitting time integration method and the implicit spatial finite-difference operators, and present the resulting discretized formulas for the scalar wave equation. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis on grid dispersions of this new implicit modeling method. We show that implicit spatial finite-difference operators greatly improve the accuracy of the implicit splitting time integration simulation results with only a slight increase in computational time, compared with explicit spatial finite-difference operators. We further verify this conclusion by both 2D and 3D numerical examples. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Implicit finite-difference simulations of seismic wave propagation
Chu, Chunlei
2012-03-01
We propose a new finite-difference modeling method, implicit both in space and in time, for the scalar wave equation. We use a three-level implicit splitting time integration method for the temporal derivative and implicit finite-difference operators of arbitrary order for the spatial derivatives. Both the implicit splitting time integration method and the implicit spatial finite-difference operators require solving systems of linear equations. We show that it is possible to merge these two sets of linear systems, one from implicit temporal discretizations and the other from implicit spatial discretizations, to reduce the amount of computations to develop a highly efficient and accurate seismic modeling algorithm. We give the complete derivations of the implicit splitting time integration method and the implicit spatial finite-difference operators, and present the resulting discretized formulas for the scalar wave equation. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis on grid dispersions of this new implicit modeling method. We show that implicit spatial finite-difference operators greatly improve the accuracy of the implicit splitting time integration simulation results with only a slight increase in computational time, compared with explicit spatial finite-difference operators. We further verify this conclusion by both 2D and 3D numerical examples. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
A Monte Carlo approach for simulating the propagation of partially coherent x-ray beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prodi, A.; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Willendrup, Peter Kjær
2011-01-01
Advances at SR sources in the generation of nanofocused beams with a high degree of transverse coherence call for effective techniques to simulate the propagation of partially coherent X-ray beams through complex optical systems in order to characterize how coherence properties such as the mutual...
Sound propagation in dry granular materials : discrete element simulations, theory, and experiments
Mouraille, O.J.P.
2009-01-01
In this study sound wave propagation through different types of dry confined granular systems is studied. With three-dimensional discrete element simulations, theory and experiments, the influence of several micro-scale properties: friction, dissipation, particle rotation, and contact disorder, on
2D full wave simulation on electromagnetic wave propagation in toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hojo, Hitoshi; Uruta, Go; Nakayama, Kazunori; Mase, Atsushi
2002-01-01
Global full-wave simulation on electromagnetic wave propagation in toroidal plasma with an external magnetic field imaging a tokamak configuration is performed in two dimensions. The temporal behavior of an electromagnetic wave launched into plasma from a wave-guiding region is obtained. (author)
Parallel Reservoir Simulations with Sparse Grid Techniques and Applications to Wormhole Propagation
Wu, Yuanqing
2015-09-08
In this work, two topics of reservoir simulations are discussed. The first topic is the two-phase compositional flow simulation in hydrocarbon reservoir. The major obstacle that impedes the applicability of the simulation code is the long run time of the simulation procedure, and thus speeding up the simulation code is necessary. Two means are demonstrated to address the problem: parallelism in physical space and the application of sparse grids in parameter space. The parallel code can gain satisfactory scalability, and the sparse grids can remove the bottleneck of flash calculations. Instead of carrying out the flash calculation in each time step of the simulation, a sparse grid approximation of all possible results of the flash calculation is generated before the simulation. Then the constructed surrogate model is evaluated to approximate the flash calculation results during the simulation. The second topic is the wormhole propagation simulation in carbonate reservoir. In this work, different from the traditional simulation technique relying on the Darcy framework, we propose a new framework called Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer framework to simulate wormhole propagation. Furthermore, to process the large quantity of cells in the simulation grid and shorten the long simulation time of the traditional serial code, standard domain-based parallelism is employed, using the Hypre multigrid library. In addition to that, a new technique called “experimenting field approach” to set coefficients in the model equations is introduced. In the 2D dissolution experiments, different configurations of wormholes and a series of properties simulated by both frameworks are compared. We conclude that the numerical results of the DBF framework are more like wormholes and more stable than the Darcy framework, which is a demonstration of the advantages of the DBF framework. The scalability of the parallel code is also evaluated, and good scalability can be achieved. Finally, a mixed
Gwak, Heui-Chul; Kim, Chang-Wan; Kim, Jung-Han; Choo, Hye-Jeung; Sagong, Seung-Yeob; Shin, John
2015-05-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extension of delamination and the cuff integrity after arthroscopic repair of delaminated rotator cuff tears. Sixty-five patients with delaminated rotator cuff tears were retrospectively reviewed. The delaminated tears were divided into full-thickness delaminated tears and partial-thickness delaminated tears. To evaluate the medial extension, we calculated the coronal size of the delaminated portion. To evaluate the posterior extension, we checked the tendon involved. Cuff integrity was evaluated by computed tomography arthrography. The mean medial extension in the full-thickness and partial-thickness delaminated tears was 18.1 ± 6.0 mm and 22.7 ± 6.3 mm, respectively (P = .0084). The posterior extension into the supraspinatus and the infraspinatus was 36.9% and 32.3%, respectively, in the full-thickness delaminated tears, and it was 27.7% and 3.1%, respectively, in the partial-thickness delaminated tears (P = .0043). With regard to cuff integrity, 35 cases of anatomic healing, 10 cases of partial healing defects, and 17 cases of retear were detected. Among the patients with retear and partial healing of the defect, all the partially healed defects showed delamination. Three retear patients showed delamination, and 14 retear patients did not show delamination; the difference was statistically significant (P = .0001). The full-thickness delaminated tears showed less medial extension and more posterior extension than the partial-thickness delaminated tears. Delamination did not develop in retear patients, but delamination was common in the patients with partially healed defects. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yucel, Abdulkadir C.; Sheng, Weitian; Zhou, Chenming; Liu, Yang Z.; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric
2018-01-01
A fast and memory efficient 3D full wave simulator for analyzing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in electrically large and realistic mine tunnels/galleries loaded with conductors is proposed. The simulator relies on Muller and combined field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Hashemiyan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort.
Packo, P.; Staszewski, W. J.; Uhl, T.
2016-01-01
Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort. PMID:26884808
Numerical simulation of electromagnetic wave propagation using time domain meshless method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuno, Soichiro; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Itoh, Taku; Nakata, Susumu; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Kamitani, Atsushi
2012-01-01
The electromagnetic wave propagation in various shaped wave guide is simulated by using meshless time domain method (MTDM). Generally, Finite Differential Time Domain (FDTD) method is applied for electromagnetic wave propagation simulation. However, the numerical domain should be divided into rectangle meshes if FDTD method is applied for the simulation. On the other hand, the node disposition of MTDM can easily describe the structure of arbitrary shaped wave guide. This is the large advantage of the meshless time domain method. The results of computations show that the damping rate is stably calculated in case with R < 0.03, where R denotes a support radius of the weight function for the shape function. And the results indicate that the support radius R of the weight functions should be selected small, and monomials must be used for calculating the shape functions. (author)
Simulation of propagation along an isolated skeletal muscle fiber in an isotropic volume conductor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henneberg, Kaj-åge; F.A., Roberge
1997-01-01
This paper describes a model of the frog skeletal muscle fiber that includes the effects of the transverse tubular system (T system) on propagation. Uniform propagation on an isolated fiber suspended in Ringer's solution or in air is simulated by placing the cylindrical fiber model in a concentric...... three-dimensional isotropic volume conductor. The current through the T system outlets at the sarcolemmal surface is comparable in magnitude to the sarcolemmal current density, but is of opposite polarity. When it is added to the sarcolemmal current, the resulting triphasic waveform has a 100% increase...... of the extracellular potential. Compared to an isolated fiber in a large volume of Ringer's solution, uniform propagation within a 2-mu m-thick volume conductor annulus is slowed down from 1.92 to 0.72 m/s, and the extracellular potential is increased from 1 to 108 mV peak to peak, in agreement with published...
Molecular dynamics simulation of effect of hydrogen atoms on crack propagation behavior of α-Fe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, H.Y., E-mail: gsfshy@sohu.com; Zhang, L.; Xiao, M.X.
2016-12-16
The effect of the hydrogen concentration and hydrogen distribution on the mechanical properties of α-Fe with a pre-existing unilateral crack under tensile loading is investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The results reveal that the models present good ductility when the front region of crack tip has high local hydrogen concentration. The peak stress of α-Fe decreases with increasing hydrogen concentration. The studies also indicate that for the samples with hydrogen atoms, the crack propagation behavior is independent of the model size and boundaries. In addition, the crack propagation behavior is significantly influenced by the distribution of hydrogen atoms. - Highlights: • The distribution of hydrogen plays a critical role in the crack propagation. • The peak stress decrease with the hydrogen concentration increasing. • The crack deformation behavior is disclosed and analyzed.
Delaminated sodium nonatitanate and a method for producing delaminated sodium nonatitanate
Nyman, May D.
2016-02-02
A hydrothermal synthesis method of making a delaminated titanate is disclosed. The delaminated titanate has a unique structure or morphology. The delaminated titanate is first formed by forming at a low temperature a layered sodium nonatitanate (SNT), which may be referred to as layered sodium titanate. The layered SNT has a unique morphology. The layered SNT is then synthesized into a delaminated titanate having a unique morphology.
Fault Gauge Numerical Simulation : Dynamic Rupture Propagation and Local Energy Partitioning
Mollon, G.
2017-12-01
In this communication, we present dynamic simulations of the local (centimetric) behaviour of a fault filled with a granular gauge submitted to dynamic rupture. The numerical tool (Fig. 1) combines classical Discrete Element Modelling (albeit with the ability to deal with arbitrary grain shapes) for the simualtion of the gauge, and continuous modelling for the simulation of the acoustic waves emission and propagation. In a first part, the model is applied to the simulation of steady-state shearing of the fault under remote displacement boudary conditions, in order to observe the shear accomodation at the interface (R1 cracks, localization, wear, etc.). It also makes it possible to fit to desired values the Rate and State Friction properties of the granular gauge by adapting the contact laws between grains. Such simulations provide quantitative insight in the steady-state energy partitionning between fracture, friction and acoustic emissions as a function of the shear rate. In a second part, the model is submitted to dynamic rupture. For that purpose, the fault is elastically preloaded just below rupture, and a displacement pulse is applied at one end of the sample (and on only one side of the fault). This allows to observe the propagation of the instability along the fault and the interplay between this propagation and the local granular phenomena. Energy partitionning is then observed both in space and time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming Chen
Full Text Available Gaussian distribution is used to describe the power law along the propagation path and phase screen of the non-Kolmogorov turbulence is proposed based on the equivalent refractive-index structure constants. Various simulations of Gaussian beam propagation in Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov turbulence are used for telling the difference between isotropic and anisotropic turbulence. The results imply that the non-Kolmogorov turbulence makes a great influence on the simulations via power law in spectrum and the number of phase screens. Furthermore, the influence is mainly reflected in light intensity and beam drift. Statistics suggest that when Gaussian beam propagate through single phase screen of non-Kolmogorov, maximum and uniformity of light intensity increase first and then decrease with power law, and beam drift firstly increases and then to stabilize. When Gaussian beam propagate through multiple phase screens, relative errors of beam drift decrease with the number of phase screens. And scintillation indices in non-Kolmogorov turbulence is larger than that in Kolmogorov turbulence when the number is small. When the number is big, the scintillation indices in non-Kolmogorov turbulence is smaller than that in Kolmogorov turbulence. The results shown in this paper demonstrate the effect of the non-Kolmogorov turbulence on laser atmospheric transmissions. Thus, this paper suggests a possible direction of the improvement of the laser transmission accuracy over a long distance through the atmosphere.
Simulation of non-hydrostatic gravity wave propagation in the upper atmosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Deng
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The high-frequency and small horizontal scale gravity waves may be reflected and ducted in non-hydrostatic simulations, but usually propagate vertically in hydrostatic models. To examine gravity wave propagation, a preliminary study has been conducted with a global ionosphere–thermosphere model (GITM, which is a non-hydrostatic general circulation model for the upper atmosphere. GITM has been run regionally with a horizontal resolution of 0.2° long × 0.2° lat to resolve the gravity wave with wavelength of 250 km. A cosine wave oscillation with amplitude of 30 m s−1 has been applied to the zonal wind at the low boundary, and both high-frequency and low-frequency waves have been tested. In the high-frequency case, the gravity wave stays below 200 km, which indicates that the wave is reflected or ducted in propagation. The results are consistent with the theoretical analysis from the dispersion relationship when the wavelength is larger than the cutoff wavelength for the non-hydrostatic situation. However, the low-frequency wave propagates to the high altitudes during the whole simulation period, and the amplitude increases with height. This study shows that the non-hydrostatic model successfully reproduces the high-frequency gravity wave dissipation.
Al-Jabr, Ahmad Ali; Alsunaidi, Mohammad A.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.
2013-01-01
In this paper, an finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for simulating propagation of EM waves in anisotropic material is presented. The algorithm is based on the auxiliary differential equation and the general polarization formulation. In anisotropic materials, electric fields are coupled and elements in the permittivity tensor are, in general, multiterm dispersive. The presented algorithm resolves the field coupling using a formulation based on electric polarizations. It also offers a simple procedure for the treatment of multiterm dispersion in the FDTD scheme. The algorithm is tested by simulating wave propagation in 1-D magnetized plasma showing excellent agreement with analytical solutions. Extension of the algorithm to multidimensional structures is straightforward. The presented algorithm is efficient and simple compared to other algorithms found in the literature. © 2012 IEEE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Y.; Crawford, F.W.
1975-01-01
An economical low-noise plasma simulation model originated by Denavit is applied to a series of problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. The model is described and tested, first in the absence of an applied signal, and then with a small amplitude perturbation. These tests serve to establish the low-noise features of the model, and to verify the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as 10 -6 of the plasma thermal energy: Better quantitative results are obtained, for comparable computing time, than can be obtained by conventional particle simulation models, or direct solution of the Vlasov equation. The method is then used to study propagation of an essentially monochromatic plane wave. Results on amplitude oscillation and nonlinear frequency shift are compared with available theories
Al-Jabr, Ahmad Ali
2013-03-01
In this paper, an finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for simulating propagation of EM waves in anisotropic material is presented. The algorithm is based on the auxiliary differential equation and the general polarization formulation. In anisotropic materials, electric fields are coupled and elements in the permittivity tensor are, in general, multiterm dispersive. The presented algorithm resolves the field coupling using a formulation based on electric polarizations. It also offers a simple procedure for the treatment of multiterm dispersion in the FDTD scheme. The algorithm is tested by simulating wave propagation in 1-D magnetized plasma showing excellent agreement with analytical solutions. Extension of the algorithm to multidimensional structures is straightforward. The presented algorithm is efficient and simple compared to other algorithms found in the literature. © 2012 IEEE.
The numerical simulation of Lamb wave propagation in laser welding of stainless steel
Zhang, Bo; Liu, Fang; Liu, Chang; Li, Jingming; Zhang, Baojun; Zhou, Qingxiang; Han, Xiaohui; Zhao, Yang
2017-12-01
In order to explore the Lamb wave propagation in laser welding of stainless steel, the numerical simulation is used to show the feature of Lamb wave. In this paper, according to Lamb dispersion equation, excites the Lamb wave on the edge of thin stainless steel plate, and presents the reflection coefficient for quantizing the Lamb wave energy, the results show that the reflection coefficient is increased with the welding width increasing,
Wang, Fei; Toselli, Italo; Korotkova, Olga
2016-02-10
An optical system consisting of a laser source and two independent consecutive phase-only spatial light modulators (SLMs) is shown to accurately simulate a generated random beam (first SLM) after interaction with a stationary random medium (second SLM). To illustrate the range of possibilities, a recently introduced class of random optical frames is examined on propagation in free space and several weak turbulent channels with Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov statistics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menouillard, T.
2007-09-01
Computerized simulation is nowadays an integrating part of design and validation processes of mechanical structures. Simulation tools are more and more performing allowing a very acute description of the phenomena. Moreover, these tools are not limited to linear mechanics but are developed to describe more difficult behaviours as for instance structures damage which interests the safety domain. A dynamic or static load can thus lead to a damage, a crack and then a rupture of the structure. The fast dynamics allows to simulate 'fast' phenomena such as explosions, shocks and impacts on structure. The application domain is various. It concerns for instance the study of the lifetime and the accidents scenario of the nuclear reactor vessel. It is then very interesting, for fast dynamics codes, to be able to anticipate in a robust and stable way such phenomena: the assessment of damage in the structure and the simulation of crack propagation form an essential stake. The extended finite element method has the advantage to break away from mesh generation and from fields projection during the crack propagation. Effectively, crack is described kinematically by an appropriate strategy of enrichment of supplementary freedom degrees. Difficulties connecting the spatial discretization of this method with the temporal discretization of an explicit calculation scheme has then been revealed; these difficulties are the diagonal writing of the mass matrix and the associated stability time step. Here are presented two methods of mass matrix diagonalization based on the kinetic energy conservation, and studies of critical time steps for various enriched finite elements. The interest revealed here is that the time step is not more penalizing than those of the standard finite elements problem. Comparisons with numerical simulations on another code allow to validate the theoretical works. A crack propagation test in mixed mode has been exploited in order to verify the simulation
Propagation of uncertainty by Monte Carlo simulations in case of basic geodetic computations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wyszkowska Patrycja
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The determination of the accuracy of functions of measured or adjusted values may be a problem in geodetic computations. The general law of covariance propagation or in case of the uncorrelated observations the propagation of variance (or the Gaussian formula are commonly used for that purpose. That approach is theoretically justified for the linear functions. In case of the non-linear functions, the first-order Taylor series expansion is usually used but that solution is affected by the expansion error. The aim of the study is to determine the applicability of the general variance propagation law in case of the non-linear functions used in basic geodetic computations. The paper presents errors which are a result of negligence of the higher-order expressions and it determines the range of such simplification. The basis of that analysis is the comparison of the results obtained by the law of propagation of variance and the probabilistic approach, namely Monte Carlo simulations. Both methods are used to determine the accuracy of the following geodetic computations: the Cartesian coordinates of unknown point in the three-point resection problem, azimuths and distances of the Cartesian coordinates, height differences in the trigonometric and the geometric levelling. These simulations and the analysis of the results confirm the possibility of applying the general law of variance propagation in basic geodetic computations even if the functions are non-linear. The only condition is the accuracy of observations, which cannot be too low. Generally, this is not a problem with using present geodetic instruments.
Propagation of uncertainty by Monte Carlo simulations in case of basic geodetic computations
Wyszkowska, Patrycja
2017-12-01
The determination of the accuracy of functions of measured or adjusted values may be a problem in geodetic computations. The general law of covariance propagation or in case of the uncorrelated observations the propagation of variance (or the Gaussian formula) are commonly used for that purpose. That approach is theoretically justified for the linear functions. In case of the non-linear functions, the first-order Taylor series expansion is usually used but that solution is affected by the expansion error. The aim of the study is to determine the applicability of the general variance propagation law in case of the non-linear functions used in basic geodetic computations. The paper presents errors which are a result of negligence of the higher-order expressions and it determines the range of such simplification. The basis of that analysis is the comparison of the results obtained by the law of propagation of variance and the probabilistic approach, namely Monte Carlo simulations. Both methods are used to determine the accuracy of the following geodetic computations: the Cartesian coordinates of unknown point in the three-point resection problem, azimuths and distances of the Cartesian coordinates, height differences in the trigonometric and the geometric levelling. These simulations and the analysis of the results confirm the possibility of applying the general law of variance propagation in basic geodetic computations even if the functions are non-linear. The only condition is the accuracy of observations, which cannot be too low. Generally, this is not a problem with using present geodetic instruments.
Delamination of Compressed Thin Layers at Corners
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Kim D.; Jensen, Henrik Myhre; Clausen, Johan
2008-01-01
An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic layer under compression, attached to a substrate at a corner is carried out. The analysis is performed by combining results from interface fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. In contrast with earlier results for delamination on a flat...
Fatigue Crack and Delamination Growth in Fibre Metal Laminates under Variable Amplitude Loading
Khan, S.
2013-01-01
This thesis presents the investigation into the fatigue propagation and delamination growth of Fibre Metal Laminates under variable amplitude loading. As explained in the first chapter, the motivation of the research is twofold: first, to obtain a clear understanding and detailed characterization of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kustroń Kamila
2015-09-01
Full Text Available During its operation, the laminate shell of the watercraft hull can be exposed to local stability losses caused by the appearance and development of delaminations. The sources of these delaminations are discontinuities, created both in the production process and as a result of bumps of foreign bodies into the hull in operation. In the environment of fatigue loads acting on the hull, the delaminations propagate and lead to the loss of load capacity of the hull structure. There is a need to improve diagnostic systems used in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM of laminate hull elements to detect and monitor the development of the delaminations. Effective diagnostic systems used for delamination assessment base on expert systems. Along with other tools, the expert diagnostic advisory systems make use of the non-destructive examination method which consists in generating elastic waves in the hull shell structure and observing their changes by comparing the recorded signal with damage patterns collected in the expert system database. This system requires introducing certain patterns to its knowledge base, based on the results of experimental examinations performed on specimens with implemented artificial delaminations. The article presents the results of the examination oriented on assessing the delaminations artificially generated in the structure of glass- and carbon-epoxy laminates by introducing local non-adhesive layers with the aid of thin polyethylene film, teflon insert, or thin layer of polyvinyl alcohol. The efficiency of each method was assessed using laser vibrometry. The effect of the depth of delamination position in the laminate on the efficiency of the applied method is documented as well.
Numerical Simulation of Hydraulic Fracture Propagation Guided by Single Radial Boreholes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiankui Guo
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Conventional hydraulic fracturing is not effective in target oil development zones with available wellbores located in the azimuth of the non-maximum horizontal in-situ stress. To some extent, we think that the radial hydraulic jet drilling has the function of guiding hydraulic fracture propagation direction and promoting deep penetration, but this notion currently lacks an effective theoretical support for fracture propagation. In order to verify the technology, a 3D extended finite element numerical model of hydraulic fracturing promoted by the single radial borehole was established, and the influences of nine factors on propagation of hydraulic fracture guided by the single radial borehole were comprehensively analyzed. Moreover, the term ‘Guidance factor (Gf’ was introduced for the first time to effectively quantify the radial borehole guidance. The guidance of nine factors was evaluated through gray correlation analysis. The experimental results were consistent with the numerical simulation results to a certain extent. The study provides theoretical evidence for the artificial control technology of directional propagation of hydraulic fracture promoted by the single radial borehole, and it predicts the guidance effect of a single radial borehole on hydraulic fracture to a certain extent, which is helpful for planning well-completion and fracturing operation parameters in radial borehole-promoted hydraulic fracturing technology.
Physical simulation study on the hydraulic fracture propagation of coalbed methane well
Wu, Caifang; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Longgang; Jiang, Wei
2018-03-01
As the most widely used technique to modify reservoirs in the exploitation of unconventional natural gas, hydraulic fracturing could effectively raise the production of CBM wells. To study the propagation rules of hydraulic fractures, analyze the fracture morphology, and obtain the controlling factors, a physical simulation experiment was conducted with a tri-axial hydraulic fracturing test system. In this experiment, the fracturing sample - including the roof, the floor, and the surrounding rock - was prepared from coal and similar materials, and the whole fracturing process was monitored by an acoustic emission instrument. The results demonstrated that the number of hydraulic fractures in coal is considerably higher than that observed in other parts, and the fracture morphology was complex. Vertical fractures were interwoven with horizontal fractures, forming a connected network. With the injection of fracturing fluid, a new hydraulic fracture was produced and it extended along the preexisting fractures. The fracture propagation was a discontinuous, dynamic process. Furthermore, in-situ stress plays a key role in fracture propagation, causing the fractures to extend in a direction perpendicular to the minimum principal stress. To a certain extent, the different mechanical properties of the coal and the other components inhibited the vertical propagation of hydraulic fractures. Nonetheless, the vertical stress and the interfacial property are the major factors to influence the formation of the "T" shaped and "工" shaped fractures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakhtiary Davijani, A.A.; Hajikhani, M.; Ahmadi, M.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → Constant load does not confirm constant damage in composite materials. → Different damages have different AE events. → Sentry function is a useful tool to monitor the initiation of damage in delamination. → The less sentry function number is the more damage the material has endured. -- Abstract: Delamination is the most common failure mode in composite materials, since it will result in the reduction of stiffness and can grow throughout other layers. Delamination is consisted of two main stages including initiation and propagation. Understanding the behavior of the material in these zones is very important, hence it has been thoroughly studied by different methods such as numerical methods, Acoustic Emission (AE), and modeling. Between these two regions initiation is a more vital stage in the delamination of the material. Once initiation occurs, which normally requires greater amount of force, cracks can easily propagate through the structure with little force and cause the failure of the structure. A better knowledge of initiation can lead to better design and production of stronger materials. Additionally, more knowledge about crack initiation and its internal microevents would help improve other parameters and result in higher strength against crack initiation. AE is a suitable method for in situ monitoring of damage in composite materials. In this study, AE was applied to test different glass/epoxy specimens which were loaded under mode I delamination. A function that combines AE and mechanical information is employed to investigate the initiation of delamination. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to verify the results of this function. It is shown that this method is an appropriate technique to monitor the behavior of the initiation of delamination.
Peter, Daniel; Videau, Brice; Pouget, Kevin; Komatitsch, Dimitri
2015-04-01
Improving the resolution of tomographic images is crucial to answer important questions on the nature of Earth's subsurface structure and internal processes. Seismic tomography is the most prominent approach where seismic signals from ground-motion records are used to infer physical properties of internal structures such as compressional- and shear-wave speeds, anisotropy and attenuation. Recent advances in regional- and global-scale seismic inversions move towards full-waveform inversions which require accurate simulations of seismic wave propagation in complex 3D media, providing access to the full 3D seismic wavefields. However, these numerical simulations are computationally very expensive and need high-performance computing (HPC) facilities for further improving the current state of knowledge. During recent years, many-core architectures such as graphics processing units (GPUs) have been added to available large HPC systems. Such GPU-accelerated computing together with advances in multi-core central processing units (CPUs) can greatly accelerate scientific applications. There are mainly two possible choices of language support for GPU cards, the CUDA programming environment and OpenCL language standard. CUDA software development targets NVIDIA graphic cards while OpenCL was adopted mainly by AMD graphic cards. In order to employ such hardware accelerators for seismic wave propagation simulations, we incorporated a code generation tool BOAST into an existing spectral-element code package SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. This allows us to use meta-programming of computational kernels and generate optimized source code for both CUDA and OpenCL languages, running simulations on either CUDA or OpenCL hardware accelerators. We show here applications of forward and adjoint seismic wave propagation on CUDA/OpenCL GPUs, validating results and comparing performances for different simulations and hardware usages.
Mechanistic Study of Delamination Fracture in Al-Li Alloy C458 (2099)
Tayon, W. A.; Crooks, R. E.; Domack, M. S.; Wagner, J. A.; Beaudoin, A. J.; McDonald, R. J.
2009-01-01
Delamination fracture has limited the use of lightweight Al-Li alloys. In the present study, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) methods were used to characterize crack paths in Al-Li alloy C458 (2099). Secondary delamination cracks in fracture toughness samples showed a pronounced tendency for fracture between grain variants of the same deformation texture component. These results were analyzed by EBSD mapping methods and simulated with finite element analyses. Simulation procedures include a description of material anisotropy, local grain orientations, and fracture utilizing crystal plasticity and cohesive zone elements. Taylor factors computed for each grain orientation subjected to normal and shear stresses indicated that grain pairs with the largest Taylor factor differences were adjacent to boundaries that failed by delamination. Examination of matching delamination fracture surface pairs revealed pronounced slip bands in only one of the grains bordering the delamination. These results, along with EBSD studies, plasticity simulations, and Auger electron spectroscopy observations support a hypothesis that delamination fracture occurs due to poor slip accommodation along boundaries between grains with greatly differing plastic response.
3D dynamic simulation of crack propagation in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
Wijerathne, M. L. L.; Hori, Muneo; Sakaguchi, Hide; Oguni, Kenji
2010-06-01
Some experimental observations of Shock Wave Lithotripsy(SWL), which include 3D dynamic crack propagation, are simulated with the aim of reproducing fragmentation of kidney stones with SWL. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the fragmentation of kidney stones by focusing an ultrasonic pressure pulse onto the stones. 3D models with fine discretization are used to accurately capture the high amplitude shear shock waves. For solving the resulting large scale dynamic crack propagation problem, PDS-FEM is used; it provides numerically efficient failure treatments. With a distributed memory parallel code of PDS-FEM, experimentally observed 3D photoelastic images of transient stress waves and crack patterns in cylindrical samples are successfully reproduced. The numerical crack patterns are in good agreement with the experimental ones, quantitatively. The results shows that the high amplitude shear waves induced in solid, by the lithotriptor generated shock wave, play a dominant role in stone fragmentation.
Simulation of quasi-static hydraulic fracture propagation in porous media with XFEM
Juan-Lien Ramirez, Alina; Neuweiler, Insa; Löhnert, Stefan
2015-04-01
Hydraulic fracturing is the injection of a fracking fluid at high pressures into the underground. Its goal is to create and expand fracture networks to increase the rock permeability. It is a technique used, for example, for oil and gas recovery and for geothermal energy extraction, since higher rock permeability improves production. Many physical processes take place when it comes to fracking; rock deformation, fluid flow within the fractures, as well as into and through the porous rock. All these processes are strongly coupled, what makes its numerical simulation rather challenging. We present a 2D numerical model that simulates the hydraulic propagation of an embedded fracture quasi-statically in a poroelastic, fully saturated material. Fluid flow within the porous rock is described by Darcy's law and the flow within the fracture is approximated by a parallel plate model. Additionally, the effect of leak-off is taken into consideration. The solid component of the porous medium is assumed to be linear elastic and the propagation criteria are given by the energy release rate and the stress intensity factors [1]. The used numerical method for the spatial discretization is the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) [2]. It is based on the standard Finite Element Method, but introduces additional degrees of freedom and enrichment functions to describe discontinuities locally in a system. Through them the geometry of the discontinuity (e.g. a fracture) becomes independent of the mesh allowing it to move freely through the domain without a mesh-adapting step. With this numerical model we are able to simulate hydraulic fracture propagation with different initial fracture geometries and material parameters. Results from these simulations will also be presented. References [1] D. Gross and T. Seelig. Fracture Mechanics with an Introduction to Micromechanics. Springer, 2nd edition, (2011) [2] T. Belytschko and T. Black. Elastic crack growth in finite elements with minimal
Wu, Chensheng; Nelson, William; Davis, Christopher C.
2014-10-01
Plenoptic functions are functions that preserve all the necessary light field information of optical events. Theoretical work has demonstrated that geometric based plenoptic functions can serve equally well in the traditional wave propagation equation known as the "scalar stochastic Helmholtz equation". However, in addressing problems of 3D turbulence simulation, the dominant methods using phase screen models have limitations both in explaining the choice of parameters (on the transverse plane) in real-world measurements, and finding proper correlations between neighboring phase screens (the Markov assumption breaks down). Though possible corrections to phase screen models are still promising, the equivalent geometric approach based on plenoptic functions begins to show some advantages. In fact, in these geometric approaches, a continuous wave problem is reduced to discrete trajectories of rays. This allows for convenience in parallel computing and guarantees conservation of energy. Besides the pairwise independence of simulated rays, the assigned refractive index grids can be directly tested by temperature measurements with tiny thermoprobes combined with other parameters such as humidity level and wind speed. Furthermore, without loss of generality one can break the causal chain in phase screen models by defining regional refractive centers to allow rays that are less affected to propagate through directly. As a result, our work shows that the 3D geometric approach serves as an efficient and accurate method in assessing relevant turbulence problems with inputs of several environmental measurements and reasonable guesses (such as Cn 2 levels). This approach will facilitate analysis and possible corrections in lateral wave propagation problems, such as image de-blurring, prediction of laser propagation over long ranges, and improvement of free space optic communication systems. In this paper, the plenoptic function model and relevant parallel algorithm computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doumic, M
2005-05-15
To simulate the propagation of a monochromatic laser beam in a medium, we use the paraxial approximation of the Klein-Gordon (in the time-varying problem) and of the Maxwell (in the non time-depending case) equations. In a first part, we make an asymptotic analysis of the Klein-Gordon equation. We obtain approximated problems, either of Schroedinger or of transport-Schroedinger type. We prove the existence and uniqueness of a solution for these problems, and estimate the difference between it and the exact solution of the Klein-Gordon equation. In a second part, we study the boundary problem for the advection Schroedinger equation, and show what the boundary condition must be so that the problem on our domain should be the restriction of the problem in the whole space: such a condition is called a transparent or an absorbing boundary condition. In a third part, we use the preceding results to build a numerical resolution method, for which we prove stability and show some simulations. (author)
Guo, Changning; Doub, William H; Kauffman, John F
2010-08-01
Monte Carlo simulations were applied to investigate the propagation of uncertainty in both input variables and response measurements on model prediction for nasal spray product performance design of experiment (DOE) models in the first part of this study, with an initial assumption that the models perfectly represent the relationship between input variables and the measured responses. In this article, we discard the initial assumption, and extended the Monte Carlo simulation study to examine the influence of both input variable variation and product performance measurement variation on the uncertainty in DOE model coefficients. The Monte Carlo simulations presented in this article illustrate the importance of careful error propagation during product performance modeling. Our results show that the error estimates based on Monte Carlo simulation result in smaller model coefficient standard deviations than those from regression methods. This suggests that the estimated standard deviations from regression may overestimate the uncertainties in the model coefficients. Monte Carlo simulations provide a simple software solution to understand the propagation of uncertainty in complex DOE models so that design space can be specified with statistically meaningful confidence levels. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sonnad, Kiran G., E-mail: kgs52@cornell.edu [CLASSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Hammond, Kenneth C. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schwartz, Robert M. [CLASSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Veitzer, Seth A. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States)
2014-08-01
The use of transverse electric (TE) waves has proved to be a powerful, noninvasive method for estimating the densities of electron clouds formed in particle accelerators. Results from the plasma simulation program VSim have served as a useful guide for experimental studies related to this method, which have been performed at various accelerator facilities. This paper provides results of the simulation and modeling work done in conjunction with experimental efforts carried out at the Cornell electron storage ring “Test Accelerator” (CESRTA). This paper begins with a discussion of the phase shift induced by electron clouds in the transmission of RF waves, followed by the effect of reflections along the beam pipe, simulation of the resonant standing wave frequency shifts and finally the effects of external magnetic fields, namely dipoles and wigglers. A derivation of the dispersion relationship of wave propagation for arbitrary geometries in field free regions with a cold, uniform cloud density is also provided.
Ginter, S
2000-07-01
Ultrasound (US) thermotherapy is used to treat tumours, located deep in human tissue, by heat. It features by the application of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), high local temperatures of about 90 degrees C and short treating time of a few seconds. Dosage of the therapy remains a problem. To get it under control, one has to know the heat source, i.e. the amount of absorbed US power, which shows nonlinear influences. Therefore, accurate simulations are essential. In this paper, an improved simulation model is introduced which enables accurate investigations of US thermotherapy. It combines nonlinear US propagation effects, which lead to generation of higher harmonics, with a broadband frequency-power law absorption typical for soft tissue. Only the combination of both provides a reliable calculation of the generated heat. Simulations show the influence of nonlinearities and broadband damping for different source signals on the absorbed US power density distribution.
Canestrari, Niccolo; Chubar, Oleg; Reininger, Ruben
2014-09-01
X-ray beamlines in modern synchrotron radiation sources make extensive use of grazing-incidence reflective optics, in particular Kirkpatrick-Baez elliptical mirror systems. These systems can focus the incoming X-rays down to nanometer-scale spot sizes while maintaining relatively large acceptance apertures and high flux in the focused radiation spots. In low-emittance storage rings and in free-electron lasers such systems are used with partially or even nearly fully coherent X-ray beams and often target diffraction-limited resolution. Therefore, their accurate simulation and modeling has to be performed within the framework of wave optics. Here the implementation and benchmarking of a wave-optics method for the simulation of grazing-incidence mirrors based on the local stationary-phase approximation or, in other words, the local propagation of the radiation electric field along geometrical rays, is described. The proposed method is CPU-efficient and fully compatible with the numerical methods of Fourier optics. It has been implemented in the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) computer code and extensively tested against the geometrical ray-tracing code SHADOW. The test simulations have been performed for cases without and with diffraction at mirror apertures, including cases where the grazing-incidence mirrors can be hardly approximated by ideal lenses. Good agreement between the SRW and SHADOW simulation results is observed in the cases without diffraction. The differences between the simulation results obtained by the two codes in diffraction-dominated cases for illumination with fully or partially coherent radiation are analyzed and interpreted. The application of the new method for the simulation of wavefront propagation through a high-resolution X-ray microspectroscopy beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA) is demonstrated.
Simulating Seismic Wave Propagation in Viscoelastic Media with an Irregular Free Surface
Liu, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingyi; Zhao, Zhencong; Lan, Haiqiang; Liu, Fuping
2018-05-01
In seismic numerical simulations of wave propagation, it is very important for us to consider surface topography and attenuation, which both have large effects (e.g., wave diffractions, conversion, amplitude/phase change) on seismic imaging and inversion. An irregular free surface provides significant information for interpreting the characteristics of seismic wave propagation in areas with rugged or rapidly varying topography, and viscoelastic media are a better representation of the earth's properties than acoustic/elastic media. In this study, we develop an approach for seismic wavefield simulation in 2D viscoelastic isotropic media with an irregular free surface. Based on the boundary-conforming grid method, the 2D time-domain second-order viscoelastic isotropic equations and irregular free surface boundary conditions are transferred from a Cartesian coordinate system to a curvilinear coordinate system. Finite difference operators with second-order accuracy are applied to discretize the viscoelastic wave equations and the irregular free surface in the curvilinear coordinate system. In addition, we select the convolutional perfectly matched layer boundary condition in order to effectively suppress artificial reflections from the edges of the model. The snapshot and seismogram results from numerical tests show that our algorithm successfully simulates seismic wavefields (e.g., P-wave, Rayleigh wave and converted waves) in viscoelastic isotropic media with an irregular free surface.
Fast acceleration of 2D wave propagation simulations using modern computational accelerators.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Wang
Full Text Available Recent developments in modern computational accelerators like Graphics Processing Units (GPUs and coprocessors provide great opportunities for making scientific applications run faster than ever before. However, efficient parallelization of scientific code using new programming tools like CUDA requires a high level of expertise that is not available to many scientists. This, plus the fact that parallelized code is usually not portable to different architectures, creates major challenges for exploiting the full capabilities of modern computational accelerators. In this work, we sought to overcome these challenges by studying how to achieve both automated parallelization using OpenACC and enhanced portability using OpenCL. We applied our parallelization schemes using GPUs as well as Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC coprocessor to reduce the run time of wave propagation simulations. We used a well-established 2D cardiac action potential model as a specific case-study. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to study auto-parallelization of 2D cardiac wave propagation simulations using OpenACC. Our results identify several approaches that provide substantial speedups. The OpenACC-generated GPU code achieved more than 150x speedup above the sequential implementation and required the addition of only a few OpenACC pragmas to the code. An OpenCL implementation provided speedups on GPUs of at least 200x faster than the sequential implementation and 30x faster than a parallelized OpenMP implementation. An implementation of OpenMP on Intel MIC coprocessor provided speedups of 120x with only a few code changes to the sequential implementation. We highlight that OpenACC provides an automatic, efficient, and portable approach to achieve parallelization of 2D cardiac wave simulations on GPUs. Our approach of using OpenACC, OpenCL, and OpenMP to parallelize this particular model on modern computational accelerators should be applicable to other
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Liu
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The propagation of wormhole is vital important for matrix acidizing and acid fracturing in carbonate reservoirs. While the formation of acid dissolved wormhole is derived from heterogeneous physical and chemical transportations and reactions. Alveolate dissolved pores, krast caves, and natural fissures are the major reservoir spaces for the Sinian dolomite formation in the Anyue gas field of the Sichuan Basin. There were four categories of formation, which are matrix dominated, inter-breccia dissolved pore dominated, dissolved pore and cave dominated, and fissure and cave dominated, based on the development intensity and connectedness of caves and fissures. The caves and fissures make the wormhole formation and propagation particularly complicated. Firstly, the 3-D topological structure of dissolved pores, vugs, fissures and throats inside cores is quantitatively scanned by CT imaging technology for its feature of vivid and damage-free. Secondly, 3-D patterns of wormhole are obtained with CT scanning after core flooding by acid. Additionally, the pore-throat network model is reconstructed with digital cores technology. Then, the size and ratio of pore and throat before and after core flooding by acid is analyzed and the absolute permeability of pore scale flow is numerically simulated to understand the fundamental influence of pores and vugs distribution and connectedness on wormhole propagation. Lastly, the wormhole pattern gained by CT scanning and simulating with two-scale model is compared. Meanwhile, the corrected two-scale model is utilized to simulate the wormhole propagation for matrix acidizing and acid fracturing of Sinian fractured-vuggy dolomite in Anyue gas field, Sichuan Basin. The optimized injection rate and volume were in agreement with the characteristic matrix acidizing operating curve, which indicates that the two-scale model was suitable for matrix acidizing optimization design of such formations. In addition, the simulated
Simulation of wave propagation inside a human eye: acoustic eye model (AEM)
Požar, T.; Halilovič, M.; Horvat, D.; Petkovšek, R.
2018-02-01
The design and development of the acoustic eye model (AEM) is reported. The model consists of a computer-based simulation that describes the propagation of mechanical disturbance inside a simplified model of a human eye. The capabilities of the model are illustrated with examples, using different laser-induced initial loading conditions in different geometrical configurations typically occurring in ophthalmic medical procedures. The potential of the AEM is to predict the mechanical response of the treated eye tissue in advance, thus complementing other preliminary procedures preceding medical treatments.
Simulation of laser propagation in a plasma with a frequency wave equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desroziers, S.; Nataf, F.; Sentis, R.
2008-01-01
The aim of this work is to perform numerical simulations of the propagation of a laser in a plasma. At each time step, one has to solve a Helmholtz equation in a domain which consists in some hundreds of millions of cells. To solve this huge linear system, we use an iterative Krylov method preconditioned by a separable matrix. The corresponding linear system is solved with a block cyclic reduction method. Some enlightenments on the parallel implementation are also given. Lastly, numerical results are presented including some features concerning the scalability of the numerical method on a parallel architecture. (authors)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baltser, Jana; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Vickery, Anette
2011-01-01
Compound refractive lenses (CRL) are widely used to manipulate synchrotron radiation beams. Accurate modelling of X-ray beam propagation through individual lenses and through "transfocators" composed of a large number of CRLs is of high importance, since it allows for comprehensive optimization...
Practitioner's guide to laser pulse propagation models and simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Couairon, A. [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Brambilla, E.; Corti, T. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Insubria, via Vallegio 11, 22100 Como (Italy); Majus, D. [Department of Quantum Electronics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Avenue 9, Bldg. 3, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ramirez-Congora, O. de [Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Matematicas, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana-Cali, Avenida Canas Gordas no 118-250 Cali (Colombia); Kolesik, M. [College of Optical Sciences, Tucson 85721 AZ (United States); Department of Physics, Constantine the Philosopher Uninversity, Nitra (Slovakia)
2011-11-15
The purpose of this article is to provide practical introduction into numerical modeling of ultrashort optical pulses in extreme nonlinear regimes. The theoretic background section covers derivation of modern pulse propagation models starting from Maxwell's equations, and includes both envelope-based models and carrier-resolving propagation equations. We then continue with a detailed description of implementation in software of Nonlinear Envelope Equations as an example of a mixed approach which combines finite-difference and spectral techniques. Fully spectral numerical solution methods for the Unidirectional Pulse Propagation Equation are discussed next. The modeling part of this guide concludes with a brief introduction into efficient implementations of nonlinear medium responses. Finally, we include several worked-out simulation examples. These are mini-projects designed to highlight numerical and modeling issues, and to teach numerical-experiment practices. They are also meant to illustrate, first and foremost for a non-specialist, how tools discussed in this guide can be applied in practical numerical modeling. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moll, J; Schulte, R T; Fritzen, C-P; Rezk-Salama, C; Klinkert, T; Kolb, A
2011-01-01
Structural health monitoring systems allow a continuous surveillance of the structural integrity of operational systems. As a result, it is possible to reduce time and costs for maintenance without decreasing the level of safety. In this paper, an integrated simulation and visualization environment is presented that enables a detailed study of Lamb wave propagation in isotropic and anisotropic materials. Thus, valuable information about the nature of Lamb wave propagation and its interaction with structural defects become available. The well-known spectral finite element method is implemented to enable a time-efficient calculation of the wave propagation problem. The results are displayed in an interactive visualization framework accounting for the human perception that is much more sensitive to motion than to changes in color. In addition, measurements have been conducted experimentally to record the full out-of-plane wave-field using a Laser-Doppler vibrometry setup. An aluminum structure with two synthetic cuts has been investigated, where the elongated defects have a different orientation with respect to the piezoelectric actuator. The resulting wave-field is also displayed interactively showing that the scattered wave-field at the defect is highly directional.
Raman Monte Carlo simulation for light propagation for tissue with embedded objects
Periyasamy, Vijitha; Jaafar, Humaira Bte; Pramanik, Manojit
2018-02-01
Monte Carlo (MC) stimulation is one of the prominent simulation technique and is rapidly becoming the model of choice to study light-tissue interaction. Monte Carlo simulation for light transport in multi-layered tissue (MCML) is adapted and modelled with different geometry by integrating embedded objects of various shapes (i.e., sphere, cylinder, cuboid and ellipsoid) into the multi-layered structure. These geometries would be useful in providing a realistic tissue structure such as modelling for lymph nodes, tumors, blood vessels, head and other simulation medium. MC simulations were performed on various geometric medium. Simulation of MCML with embedded object (MCML-EO) was improvised for propagation of the photon in the defined medium with Raman scattering. The location of Raman photon generation is recorded. Simulations were experimented on a modelled breast tissue with tumor (spherical and ellipsoidal) and blood vessels (cylindrical). Results were presented in both A-line and B-line scans for embedded objects to determine spatial location where Raman photons were generated. Studies were done for different Raman probabilities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Wang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulation of light propagation in turbid medium has been studied for years. A number of software packages have been developed to handle with such issue. However, it is hard to compare these simulation packages, especially for tissues with complex heterogeneous structures. Here, we first designed a group of mesh datasets generated by Iso2Mesh software, and used them to cross-validate the accuracy and to evaluate the performance of four Monte Carlo-based simulation packages, including Monte Carlo model of steady-state light transport in multi-layered tissues (MCML, tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulator (TIMOS, Molecular Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE, and Mesh-based Monte Carlo (MMC. The performance of each package was evaluated based on the designed mesh datasets. The merits and demerits of each package were also discussed. Comparative results showed that the TIMOS package provided the best performance, which proved to be a reliable, efficient, and stable MC simulation package for users.
Simulating propagation of coherent light in random media using the Fredholm type integral equation
Kraszewski, Maciej; Pluciński, Jerzy
2017-06-01
Studying propagation of light in random scattering materials is important for both basic and applied research. Such studies often require usage of numerical method for simulating behavior of light beams in random media. However, if such simulations require consideration of coherence properties of light, they may become a complex numerical problems. There are well established methods for simulating multiple scattering of light (e.g. Radiative Transfer Theory and Monte Carlo methods) but they do not treat coherence properties of light directly. Some variations of these methods allows to predict behavior of coherent light but only for an averaged realization of the scattering medium. This limits their application in studying many physical phenomena connected to a specific distribution of scattering particles (e.g. laser speckle). In general, numerical simulation of coherent light propagation in a specific realization of random medium is a time- and memory-consuming problem. The goal of the presented research was to develop new efficient method for solving this problem. The method, presented in our earlier works, is based on solving the Fredholm type integral equation, which describes multiple light scattering process. This equation can be discretized and solved numerically using various algorithms e.g. by direct solving the corresponding linear equations system, as well as by using iterative or Monte Carlo solvers. Here we present recent development of this method including its comparison with well-known analytical results and a finite-difference type simulations. We also present extension of the method for problems of multiple scattering of a polarized light on large spherical particles that joins presented mathematical formalism with Mie theory.
Numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation from land-excited large volume air-gun source
Cao, W.; Zhang, W.
2017-12-01
The land-excited large volume air-gun source can be used to study regional underground structures and to detect temporal velocity changes. The air-gun source is characterized by rich low frequency energy (from bubble oscillation, 2-8Hz) and high repeatability. It can be excited in rivers, reservoirs or man-made pool. Numerical simulation of the seismic wave propagation from the air-gun source helps to understand the energy partitioning and characteristics of the waveform records at stations. However, the effective energy recorded at a distance station is from the process of bubble oscillation, which can not be approximated by a single point source. We propose a method to simulate the seismic wave propagation from the land-excited large volume air-gun source by finite difference method. The process can be divided into three parts: bubble oscillation and source coupling, solid-fluid coupling and the propagation in the solid medium. For the first part, the wavelet of the bubble oscillation can be simulated by bubble model. We use wave injection method combining the bubble wavelet with elastic wave equation to achieve the source coupling. Then, the solid-fluid boundary condition is implemented along the water bottom. And the last part is the seismic wave propagation in the solid medium, which can be readily implemented by the finite difference method. Our method can get accuracy waveform of land-excited large volume air-gun source. Based on the above forward modeling technology, we analysis the effect of the excited P wave and the energy of converted S wave due to different water shapes. We study two land-excited large volume air-gun fields, one is Binchuan in Yunnan, and the other is Hutubi in Xinjiang. The station in Binchuan, Yunnan is located in a large irregular reservoir, the waveform records have a clear S wave. Nevertheless, the station in Hutubi, Xinjiang is located in a small man-made pool, the waveform records have very weak S wave. Better understanding of
Nagatani, Yoshiki; Mizuno, Katsunori; Saeki, Takashi; Matsukawa, Mami; Sakaguchi, Takefumi; Hosoi, Hiroshi
2008-11-01
In cancellous bone, longitudinal waves often separate into fast and slow waves depending on the alignment of bone trabeculae in the propagation path. This interesting phenomenon becomes an effective tool for the diagnosis of osteoporosis because wave propagation behavior depends on the bone structure. Since the fast wave mainly propagates in trabeculae, this wave is considered to reflect the structure of trabeculae. For a new diagnosis method using the information of this fast wave, therefore, it is necessary to understand the generation mechanism and propagation behavior precisely. In this study, the generation process of fast wave was examined by numerical simulations using elastic finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and experimental measurements. As simulation models, three-dimensional X-ray computer tomography (CT) data of actual bone samples were used. Simulation and experimental results showed that the attenuation of fast wave was always higher in the early state of propagation, and they gradually decreased as the wave propagated in bone. This phenomenon is supposed to come from the complicated propagating paths of fast waves in cancellous bone.
Modeling and simulation of ocean wave propagation using lattice Boltzmann method
Nuraiman, Dian
2017-10-01
In this paper, we present on modeling and simulation of ocean wave propagation from the deep sea to the shoreline. This requires high computational cost for simulation with large domain. We propose to couple a 1D shallow water equations (SWE) model with a 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) model in order to reduce the computational cost. The coupled model is solved using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with the lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) scheme. Additionally, a special method is implemented to treat the complex behavior of free surface close to the shoreline. The result shows the coupled model can reduce computational cost significantly compared to the full NSE model.
A combined ADER-DG and PML approach for simulating wave propagation in unbounded domains
Amler, Thomas
2012-09-19
In this work, we present a numerical approach for simulating wave propagation in unbounded domains which combines discontinuous Galerkin methods with arbitrary high order time integration (ADER-DG) and a stabilized modification of perfectly matched layers (PML). Here, the ADER-DG method is applied to Bérenger’s formulation of PML. The instabilities caused by the original PML formulation are treated by a fractional step method that allows to monitor whether waves are damped in PML region. In grid cells where waves are amplified by the PML, the contribution of damping terms is neglected and auxiliary variables are reset. Results of 2D simulations in acoustic media with constant and discontinuous material parameters are presented to illustrate the performance of the method.
Kemp, Z. D. C.
2018-04-01
Determining the phase of a wave from intensity measurements has many applications in fields such as electron microscopy, visible light optics, and medical imaging. Propagation based phase retrieval, where the phase is obtained from defocused images, has shown significant promise. There are, however, limitations in the accuracy of the retrieved phase arising from such methods. Sources of error include shot noise, image misalignment, and diffraction artifacts. We explore the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to improve the accuracy of propagation based phase retrieval algorithms applied to simulated intensity measurements. We employ a phase retrieval algorithm based on the transport-of-intensity equation to obtain the phase from simulated micrographs of procedurally generated specimens. We then train an ANN with pairs of retrieved and exact phases, and use the trained ANN to process a test set of retrieved phase maps. The total error in the phase is significantly reduced using this method. We also discuss a variety of potential extensions to this work.
3D Orthorhombic Elastic Wave Propagation Pre-Test Simulation of SPE DAG-1 Test
Jensen, R. P.; Preston, L. A.
2017-12-01
A more realistic representation of many geologic media can be characterized as a dense system of vertically-aligned microfractures superimposed on a finely-layered horizontal geology found in shallow crustal rocks. This seismic anisotropy representation lends itself to being modeled as an orthorhombic elastic medium comprising three mutually orthogonal symmetry planes containing nine independent moduli. These moduli can be determined by observing (or prescribing) nine independent P-wave and S-wave phase speeds along different propagation directions. We have developed an explicit time-domain finite-difference (FD) algorithm for simulating 3D elastic wave propagation in a heterogeneous orthorhombic medium. The components of the particle velocity vector and the stress tensor are governed by a set of nine, coupled, first-order, linear, partial differential equations (PDEs) called the velocity-stress system. All time and space derivatives are discretized with centered and staggered FD operators possessing second- and fourth-order numerical accuracy, respectively. Additionally, we have implemented novel perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary conditions, specifically designed for orthorhombic media, to effectively suppress grid boundary reflections. In support of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Phase II, a series of underground chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site, the code has been used to perform pre-test estimates of the Dry Alluvium Geology - Experiment 1 (DAG-1). Based on literature searches, realistic geologic structure and values for orthorhombic P-wave and S-wave speeds have been estimated. Results and predictions from the simulations are presented.
Davidson, R C; Majeski, R; Qin, H; Shvets, G
2001-01-01
This paper describes the design concept for a compact Paul trap experimental configuration that fully simulates the collective processes and nonlinear transverse dynamics of an intense charged particle beam that propagates over large distances through a periodic quadrupole magnetic field. To summarize, a long nonneutral plasma column (L>=r sub p) is confined axially by applied DC voltages V[circ]=const. on end cylinders at z=+-L, and transverse confinement is provided by segmented cylindrical electrodes (at radius r sub w) with applied oscillatory voltages +-V sub 0 (t) over 90 deg. segments. Because the transverse focusing force is similar in waveform to that produced by a discrete set of periodic quadrupole magnets in a frame moving with the beam, the Paul trap configuration offers the possibility of simulating intense beam propagation in a compact experimental facility. The nominal operating parameters in the experimental design are: barium ions (A=137); plasma column length 2L=2 m; wall radius r sub w =10...
Numerical simulation of blast wave propagation in vicinity of standalone prism on flat plate
Valger, Svetlana; Fedorova, Natalya; Fedorov, Alexander
2018-03-01
In the paper, numerical simulation of shock wave propagation in the vicinity of a standalone prism and a prism with a cavity in front of it was carried out. The modeling was based on the solution of 3D Euler equations and Fluent software was used as a main computational tool. The algorithm for local dynamic mesh adaptation to high gradients of pressure was applied. The initial stage of the explosion of condensed explosive was described with the help of "Compressed balloon method". The research allowed describing the characteristic stages of the blast in a semi-closed space, the structure of secondary shock waves and their interaction with obstacles. The numerical approach in Fluent based on combining inviscid gas dynamics methods and "Compressed balloon method" was compared with the method which had been used by the authors earlier with the help of AUTODYN and which is based on the use of the hydrodynamic model of a material to describe state of detonation products. For the problem of shock wave propagation in the vicinity of standalone prism the comparison of the simulation results obtained using both the methods with the experimental data was performed on the dependence of static pressure and effective momentum on time for the characteristic points located on prism walls.
Test-particle simulations of SEP propagation in IMF with large-scale fluctuations
Kelly, J.; Dalla, S.; Laitinen, T.
2012-11-01
The results of full-orbit test-particle simulations of SEPs propagating through an IMF which exhibits large-scale fluctuations are presented. A variety of propagation conditions are simulated - scatter-free, and scattering with mean free path, λ, of 0.3 and 2.0 AU - and the cross-field transport of SEPs is investigated. When calculating cross-field displacements the Parker spiral geometry is accounted for and the role of magnetic field expansion is taken into account. It is found that transport across the magnetic field is enhanced in the λ =0.3 AU and λ =2 AU cases, compared to the scatter-free case, with the λ =2 AU case in particular containing outlying particles that had strayed a large distance across the IMF. Outliers are catergorized by means of Chauvenet's criterion and it is found that typically between 1 and 2% of the population falls within this category. The ratio of latitudinal to longitudinal diffusion coefficient perpendicular to the magnetic field is typically 0.2, suggesting that transport in latitude is less efficient.
Delaminated Transfer of CVD Graphene
Clavijo, Alexis; Mao, Jinhai; Tilak, Nikhil; Altvater, Michael; Andrei, Eva
Single layer graphene is commonly synthesized by dissociation of a carbonaceous gas at high temperatures in the presence of a metallic catalyst in a process known as Chemical Vapor Deposition or CVD. Although it is possible to achieve high quality graphene by CVD, the standard transfer technique of etching away the metallic catalyst is wasteful and jeopardizes the quality of the graphene film by contamination from etchants. Thus, development of a clean transfer technique and preservation of the parent substrate remain prominent hurdles to overcome. In this study, we employ a copper pretreatment technique and optimized parameters for growth of high quality single layer graphene at atmospheric pressure. We address the transfer challenge by utilizing the adhesive properties between a polymer film and graphene to achieve etchant-free transfer of graphene films from a copper substrate. Based on this concept we developed a technique for dry delamination and transferring of graphene to hexagonal boron nitride substrates, which produced high quality graphene films while at the same time preserving the integrity of the copper catalyst for reuse. DOE-FG02-99ER45742, Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program.
Fatigue crack propagation and delamination growth in Glare
Alderliesten, R.C.
2005-01-01
Fibre Metal Laminate Glare consists of thin aluminium layers bonded together with pre-impregnated glass fibre layers and shows an excellent fatigue crack growth behaviour compared to monolithic aluminium. The fibres are insensitive to the occurring fatigue loads and remain intact while the fatigue
Parallel 3D Simulation of Seismic Wave Propagation in the Structure of Nobi Plain, Central Japan
Kotani, A.; Furumura, T.; Hirahara, K.
2003-12-01
We performed large-scale parallel simulations of the seismic wave propagation to understand the complex wave behavior in the 3D basin structure of the Nobi Plain, which is one of the high population cities in central Japan. In this area, many large earthquakes occurred in the past, such as the 1891 Nobi earthquake (M8.0), the 1944 Tonankai earthquake (M7.9) and the 1945 Mikawa earthquake (M6.8). In order to mitigate the potential disasters for future earthquakes, 3D subsurface structure of Nobi Plain has recently been investigated by local governments. We referred to this model together with bouguer anomaly data to construct a detail 3D basin structure model for Nobi plain, and conducted computer simulations of ground motions. We first evaluated the ground motions for two small earthquakes (M4~5); one occurred just beneath the basin edge at west, and the other occurred at south. The ground motions from these earthquakes were well recorded by the strong motion networks; K-net, Kik-net, and seismic intensity instruments operated by local governments. We compare the observed seismograms with simulations to validate the 3D model. For the 3D simulation we sliced the 3D model into a number of layers to assign to many processors for concurrent computing. The equation of motions are solved using a high order (32nd) staggered-grid FDM in horizontal directions, and a conventional (4th-order) FDM in vertical direction with the MPI inter-processor communications between neighbor region. The simulation model is 128km by 128km by 43km, which is discritized at variable grid size of 62.5-125m in horizontal directions and of 31.25-62.5m in vertical direction. We assigned a minimum shear wave velocity is Vs=0.4km/s, at the top of the sedimentary basin. The seismic sources for the small events are approximated by double-couple point source and we simulate the seismic wave propagation at maximum frequency of 2Hz. We used the Earth Simulator (JAMSTEC, Yokohama Inst) to conduct such
Salomons, Erik M; Lohman, Walter J A; Zhou, Han
2016-01-01
Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases: free-field propagation, propagation over porous and non-porous ground, propagation over a noise barrier, and propagation in an atmosphere with wind. LBM results are compared with solutions of the equations of acoustics. It is found that the LBM works well for sound waves, but dissipation of sound waves with the LBM is generally much larger than real dissipation of sound waves in air. To circumvent this problem it is proposed here to use the LBM for assessing the excess sound level, i.e. the difference between the sound level and the free-field sound level. The effect of dissipation on the excess sound level is much smaller than the effect on the sound level, so the LBM can be used to estimate the excess sound level for a non-dissipative atmosphere, which is a useful quantity in atmospheric acoustics. To reduce dissipation in an LBM simulation two approaches are considered: i) reduction of the kinematic viscosity and ii) reduction of the lattice spacing.
Analysis of Fan Waves in a Laboratory Model Simulating the Propagation of Shear Ruptures in Rocks
Tarasov, B. G.; Sadovskii, V. M.; Sadovskaya, O. V.
2017-12-01
The fan-shaped mechanism of rotational motion transmission in a system of elastically bonded slabs on flat surface, simulating the propagation of shear ruptures in super brittle rocks, is analyzed. Such ruptures appear in the Earth's crust at seismogenic depths. They propagate due to the nucleation of oblique tensile microcracks, leading to the formation of a fan domino-structure in the rupture head. A laboratory physical model was created which demonstrates the process of fan-structure wave propagation. Equations of the dynamics of rotational motion of slabs as a mechanical system with a finite number of degrees of freedom are obtained. Based on the Merson method of solving the Cauchy problem for systems of ordinary differential equations, the computational algorithm taking into account contact interaction of slabs is developed. Within the framework of a simplified mathematical model of dynamic behavior of a fan-shaped system in the approximation of a continuous medium, the approximate estimates of the length of a fan depending on the velocity of its motion are obtained. It is shown that in the absence of friction a fan can move with any velocity that does not exceed the critical value, which depends on the size, the moment of inertia of slabs, the initial angle and the elasticity coefficient of bonds. In the presence of friction a fan stops. On the basis of discrete and continuous models, the main qualitative features of the behavior of a fan-structure moving under the action of applied tangential forces, whose values in a laboratory physical model are regulated by a change in the inclination angle of the rupture plane, are analyzed. Comparison of computations and laboratory measurements and observations shows good correspondence between the results.
Hirano, S.
2017-12-01
For some great earthquakes, dynamic rupture propagates unilaterally along a horizontal direction of very-long reverse faults (e.g., the Mw9.1 Sumatra earthquake in 2004, the Mw8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, and the Mw8.8 Maule earthquake in 2010, etc.). It seems that barriers or creeping sections may not lay along the opposite region of the co-seismically ruptured direction. In fact, in the case of Sumatra, the Mw8.6 earthquake occurred in the opposite region only three months after the mainshock. Mechanism of unilateral mode-II rupture along a material interface has been investigated theoretically and numerically. For mode-II rupture propagating along a material interface, an analytical solution implies that co-seismic stress perturbation depends on the rupture direction (Weertman, 1980 JGR; Hirano & Yamashita, 2016 BSSA), and numerical modeling of plastic yielding contributes to simulating the unilateral rupture (DeDonteny et al., 2011 JGR). However, mode-III rupture may dominate for the very-long reverse faults, and it can be shown that stress perturbation due to mode-III rupture does not depend on the rupture direction. Hence, an effect of the material interface is insufficient to understand the mechanism of unilateral rupture along the very-long reverse faults. In this study, I consider a two-dimensional bimaterial system with interfacial dynamic mode-III rupture under an obliquely pre-stressed configuration (i.e., the maximum shear direction of the background stress is inclined from the interfacial fault). First, I derived an analytical solution of regularized elastic stress field around a steady-state interfacial slip pulse using the method of Rice et al. (2005 BSSA). Then I found that the total stress, which is the sum of the background stress and co-seismic stress perturbation, depends on the rupture direction even in the mode-III case. Second, I executed a finite difference numerical simulation with a plastic yielding model of Andrews (1978 JGR; 2005
Delamination R-curve as a material property of unidirectional glass/epoxy composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shokrieh, M.M.; Heidari-Rarani, M.; Ayatollahi, M.R.
2012-01-01
Highlights: → The R-curve behavior of a unidirectional laminate as a material property is investigated. → Effect of initial crack length and thickness on R-curve is experimentally shown. → A mathematical relation is proposed to model the R-curve behavior of any unidirectional laminated composite. -- Abstract: It is still questionable to think of delamination resistance of a double cantilever beam (DCB) as a material property independent of the specimen size and geometry. In this research, the effects of initial crack length and DCB specimen thickness on the mode I delamination resistance curve (R-curve) behavior of different unidirectional glass/epoxy DCB specimens are experimentally investigated. It is observed that the magnitudes of initiation and propagation delamination toughness (G Ic-init and G Ic-prop ) as well as the fiber bridging length are constant in a specific range of the initial crack length to the DCB specimen thickness ratios of 8.5 0 /h < 19. Finally, a mathematical relationship is proposed for prediction of mode I delamination behavior (from the initiation to propagation) of E-glass/epoxy DCB specimens.
Bao, Yi; Valipour, Mahdi; Meng, Weina; Khayat, Kamal H.; Chen, Genda
2017-08-01
This study develops a delamination detection system for smart ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) overlays using a fully distributed fiber optic sensor. Three 450 mm (length) × 200 mm (width) × 25 mm (thickness) UHPC overlays were cast over an existing 200 mm thick concrete substrate. The initiation and propagation of delamination due to early-age shrinkage of the UHPC overlay were detected as sudden increases and their extension in spatial distribution of shrinkage-induced strains measured from the sensor based on pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis. The distributed sensor is demonstrated effective in detecting delamination openings from microns to hundreds of microns. A three-dimensional finite element model with experimental material properties is proposed to understand the complete delamination process measured from the distributed sensor. The model is validated using the distributed sensor data. The finite element model with cohesive elements for the overlay-substrate interface can predict the complete delamination process.
Numerical Simulations of Upstream Propagating Solitary Waves and Wave Breaking In A Stratified Fjord
Stastna, M.; Peltier, W. R.
In this talk we will discuss ongoing numerical modeling of the flow of a stratified fluid over large scale topography motivated by observations in Knight Inlet, a fjord in British Columbia, Canada. After briefly surveying the work done on the topic in the past we will discuss our latest set of simulations in which we have observed the gener- ation and breaking of three different types of nonlinear internal waves in the lee of the sill topography. The first type of wave observed is a large lee wave in the weakly strat- ified main portion of the water column, The second is an upward propagating internal wave forced by topography that breaks in the strong, near-surface pycnocline. The third is a train of upstream propagating solitary waves that, in certain circumstances, form as breaking waves consisting of a nearly solitary wave envelope and a highly unsteady core near the surface. Time premitting, we will comment on the implications of these results for our long term goal of quantifying tidally driven mixing in Knight Inlet.
An FDTD algorithm for simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media
Al-Jabr, A. A.
2014-05-02
Simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media such as semiconductors and solid-state lasers using the finite difference time-domain FDTD technique is a tedious process, as many variables need to be evaluated in the same instant of time. The algorithm has to take care of the laser dynamic gain, rate equations, anisotropy and dispersion. In this paper, to the best of our knowledge, we present the first algorithm that solves this problem. The algorithm is based on separating calculations into independent layers and hence solving each problem in a layer of calculations. The anisotropic gain medium is presented and tested using a one-dimensional set-up. The algorithm is then used for the analysis of a two-dimensional problem.
Mao, Xianhe; Qin, Zhigui; Yuan, Xiaoning; Wang, Chunming; Cai, Xinan; Zhao, Weixia; Zhao, Kang; Yang, Ping; Fan, Xiaoling
2013-11-01
A simulated radioactive soil waste containing cerium as an imitator element has been immobilized by a thermite self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process. The compositions, structures, and element leaching rates of products with different cerium contents have been characterized. To investigate the influence of iron on the chemical stability of the immobilized products, leaching tests of samples with different iron contents with different leaching solutions were carried out. The results showed that the imitator element cerium mainly forms the crystalline phases CeAl11O18 and Ce2SiO5. The leaching rate of cerium over a period of 28 days was 10-5-10-6 g/(m2 day). Iron in the reactants, the reaction products, and the environment has no significant effect on the chemical stability of the immobilized SHS products.
Numerical simulations of wave propagation in long bars with application to Kolsky bar testing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-11-01
Material testing using the Kolsky bar, or split Hopkinson bar, technique has proven instrumental to conduct measurements of material behavior at strain rates in the order of 10^{3} s^{-1}. Test design and data reduction, however, remain empirical endeavors based on the experimentalist's experience. Issues such as wave propagation across discontinuities, the effect of the deformation of the bar surfaces in contact with the specimen, the effect of geometric features in tensile specimens (dog-bone shape), wave dispersion in the bars and other particulars are generally treated using simplified models. The work presented here was conducted in Q3 and Q4 of FY14. The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of numerical simulations of Kolsky bar tests, which was done successfully.
Simulation of crack propagation in fiber-reinforced concrete by fracture mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jun; Li, Victor C.
2004-01-01
Mode I crack propagation in fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) is simulated by a fracture mechanics approach. A superposition method is applied to calculate the crack tip stress intensity factor. The model relies on the fracture toughness of hardened cement paste (K IC ) and the crack bridging law, so-called stress-crack width (σ-δ) relationship of the material, as the fundamental material parameters for model input. As two examples, experimental data from steel FRC beams under three-point bending load are analyzed with the present fracture mechanics model. A good agreement has been found between model predictions and experimental results in terms of flexural stress-crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) diagrams. These analyses and comparisons confirm that the structural performance of concrete and FRC elements, such as beams in bending, can be predicted by the simple fracture mechanics model as long as the related material properties, K IC and (σ-δ) relationship, are known
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao, Xianhe; Qin, Zhigui; Yuan, Xiaoning; Wang, Chunming; Cai, Xinan; Zhao, Weixia; Zhao, Kang; Yang, Ping; Fan, Xiaoling
2013-01-01
A simulated radioactive soil waste containing cerium as an imitator element has been immobilized by a thermite self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process. The compositions, structures, and element leaching rates of products with different cerium contents have been characterized. To investigate the influence of iron on the chemical stability of the immobilized products, leaching tests of samples with different iron contents with different leaching solutions were carried out. The results showed that the imitator element cerium mainly forms the crystalline phases CeAl 11 O 18 and Ce 2 SiO 5 . The leaching rate of cerium over a period of 28 days was 10 −5 –10 −6 g/(m 2 day). Iron in the reactants, the reaction products, and the environment has no significant effect on the chemical stability of the immobilized SHS products
An FDTD algorithm for simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media
Al-Jabr, A. A.; San Roman Alerigi, Damian; Ooi, Boon S.; Alsunaidi, M. A.
2014-01-01
Simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media such as semiconductors and solid-state lasers using the finite difference time-domain FDTD technique is a tedious process, as many variables need to be evaluated in the same instant of time. The algorithm has to take care of the laser dynamic gain, rate equations, anisotropy and dispersion. In this paper, to the best of our knowledge, we present the first algorithm that solves this problem. The algorithm is based on separating calculations into independent layers and hence solving each problem in a layer of calculations. The anisotropic gain medium is presented and tested using a one-dimensional set-up. The algorithm is then used for the analysis of a two-dimensional problem.
Ultrasonic Beam Propagation in Highly Anisotropic Materials Simulated by Multi-Gaussian Beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, Hyun Jo; Schmerr, Lester W.
2007-01-01
The necessity of nondestructively inspecting fiber-reinforced composites, austenitic steels, and other inherently anisotropic materials has stimulated considerable interest in developing beam models for anisotropic media. The properties of slowness surface play key role in the beam models based on the paraxial approximation. In this paper, we apply a modular multi-Gaussian beam (MMGB) model to study the effects of material anisotropy on ultrasonic beam profile. It is shown that the anisotropic effects of beam skew and excess beam divergence enter into the MMGB model through parameters defining the slope and curvature of the slowness surface. The overall beam profile is found when the quasi longitudinal (qL) beam propagates in the symmetry plane of a transversely isotropic gr/ep composite. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effects of these parameters on ultrasonic beam diffraction and beam skew. The MMGB calculations are also checked by comparing the anisotropy factor and beam skew angle with other analytical solutions
How to measure propagation velocity in cardiac tissue: a simulation study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andre C. Linnenbank
2014-07-01
Full Text Available To estimate conduction velocities from activation times in myocardial tissue, the average vector method computes all the local activation directions and velocities from local activation times and estimates the fastest and slowest propagation speed from these local values. The single vector method uses areas of apparent uniform elliptical spread of activation and chooses a single vector for the estimated longitudinal velocity and one for the transversal. A simulation study was performed to estimate the influence of grid size, anisotropy, and vector angle bin size. The results indicate that the average vector method can best be used if the grid- or bin-size is large, although systematic errors occur. The single vector method performs better, but requires human intervention for the definition of fiber direction. The average vector method can be automated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
López, Rodrigo A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4070386 (Chile); Muñoz, Víctor [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F. [Geospace Physics Laboratory, Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Valdivia, Juan A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología (CEDENNA), Santiago 9170124 (Chile)
2015-09-15
We use a particle-in-cell simulation to study the propagation of localized structures in a magnetized electron-positron plasma with relativistic finite temperature. We use as initial condition for the simulation an envelope soliton solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, derived from the relativistic two fluid equations in the strongly magnetized limit. This envelope soliton turns out not to be a stable solution for the simulation and splits in two localized structures propagating in opposite directions. However, these two localized structures exhibit a soliton-like behavior, as they keep their profile after they collide with each other due to the periodic boundary conditions. We also observe the formation of localized structures in the evolution of a spatially uniform circularly polarized Alfvén wave. In both cases, the localized structures propagate with an amplitude independent velocity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
López, Rodrigo A.; Muñoz, Víctor; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Valdivia, Juan A.
2015-01-01
We use a particle-in-cell simulation to study the propagation of localized structures in a magnetized electron-positron plasma with relativistic finite temperature. We use as initial condition for the simulation an envelope soliton solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, derived from the relativistic two fluid equations in the strongly magnetized limit. This envelope soliton turns out not to be a stable solution for the simulation and splits in two localized structures propagating in opposite directions. However, these two localized structures exhibit a soliton-like behavior, as they keep their profile after they collide with each other due to the periodic boundary conditions. We also observe the formation of localized structures in the evolution of a spatially uniform circularly polarized Alfvén wave. In both cases, the localized structures propagate with an amplitude independent velocity
Stochastic self-propagating star formation in three-dimensional disk galaxy simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Statler, T.; Comins, N.; Smith, B.F.
1983-01-01
Stochastic self-propagating star formation (SSPSF) is a process of forming new stars through the compression of the interstellar medium by supernova shock waves. Coupling this activity with galactic differential rotation produces spiral structure in two-dimensional disk galaxy simulations. In this paper the first results of a three-dimensional SSPSF simulation of disk galaxies are reported. Our model generates less impressive spirals than do the two-dimensional simulations. Although some spirals do appear in equilibrium, more frequently we observe spirals as non-equilibrium states of the models: as the spiral arms evolve, they widen until the spiral structure is no longer discernible. The two free parameters that we vary in this study are the probability of star formation due to a recent, nearby explosion, and the relaxation time for the interstellar medium to return to a condition of maximum star formation after it has been cleared out by an explosion and subsequent star formation. We find that equilibrium spiral structure is formed over a much smaller range of these parameters in our three-dimensional SSPSF models than in similar two-dimensional models. We discuss possible reasons for these results as well as improvements on the model which are being explored
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chun-Te Chen
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This study used the results from 45 microtremor array measurements to construct a shallow shear wave velocity structure in the western plain of Taiwan. We constructed a complete 3D velocity model based on shallow and tomography models for our numerical simulation. There are three major subsurfaces, engineering bedrock (VS = 600 m s-1, Pliocene formation and Miocene formation, constituted in the shallow model. The constant velocity is given in each subsurface. We employed a 3D-FD (finite-differences method to simulate seismic wave propagation in the western plain. The aim of this study was to perform a quantitative comparison of site amplifications and durations obtained from empirical data and numerical modelling in order to obtain the shallow substructure soil response. Modelling clearly revealed that the shallow substructure plays an important role in strong ground motion prediction using 3D simulation. The results show significant improvements in effective shaking duration and the peak ground velocity (PGV distribution in terms of the accuracy achieved by our developed model. We recommend a high-resolution shallow substructure as an essential component in future seismic hazard analyses.
Identification of Delamination in Concrete Slabs by SIBIE Procedure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamada, M.; Yagi, Y.; Ohtsu, M.
2017-01-01
The Impact-Echo method is known as a non-destructive testing for concrete structures. The technique is based on the use of low-frequency elastic waves that propagate in concrete to determine the thickness and to detect internal flaws in concrete. The presence and locations of defects in concrete are estimated from identifying peak frequencies in the frequency spectra, which are responsible for the resonance due to time-of-flight from the defects. In practical applications, however, obtained spectra include so many peak frequencies that it is fairly difficult to identify the defects correctly. In order to improve the Impact-Echo method, Stack Imaging of spectral amplitudes Based on Impact-Echo (SIBIE) procedure is developed as an imaging technique applied to the Impact-Echo data, where defects in concrete are identified visually at the cross-section. In this study, the SIBIE procedure is applied to identify the delamination in a concrete slab. It is demonstrated that the delamination can be identified with reasonable accuracy. (paper)
Transmission experiment by the simulated LMFBR model and propagation analysis of acoustic signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Kenji; Yasuda, Tsutomu; Araki, Hitoshi.
1981-01-01
Acoustic transducers to detect a boiling of sodium may be installed in the upper structure and at the upper position of reactor vessel wall under constricted conditions. A set of the experiments of transmission of acoustic vibration to various points of the vessel was performed utilizing the half scale-hydraulic flow test facility simulating reactor vessel over the frequency range 20 kHz -- 100 kHz. Acoustic signals from an installed sound source in the core were measured at each point by both hydrophones in the vessel and vibration pickups on the vessel wall. In these experiments transmission of signals to each point of detectors were clearly observed to background noise level. These data have been summarized in terms of the transmission loss and furthermore are compared with background noise level of flow to estimate the feasibility of detection of sodium boiling sound. The ratio of signal to noise was obtained to be about 13 dB by hydrophone in the upper structure, 8 dB by accelerometer and 16 dB by AE-sensor at the upper position on the vessel in experiments used the simulation model. Sound waves emanated due to sodium boiling also propagate along the wall of the vessel may be predicted theoretically. The result of analysis suggests a capability of detection at the upper position of the reactor vessel wall. Leaky Lamb waves of the first symmetric (L 1 ) and of the antisymmetric (F 1 ) mode and shear horizontal wave (SH) have been derived in light of the attenuation due to coupling to liquid sodium as the traveling modes over the frequency range 10 kHz -- 100 kHz up to 50 mm in thickness of the vessel wall. Leaky Lamb wave (L 1 ) and (SH) mode have been proposed theoretically on the some assumption to be most available to detect the boiling sound of sodium propagating along the vessel wall. (author)
GPU-based simulation of optical propagation through turbulence for active and passive imaging
Monnier, Goulven; Duval, François-Régis; Amram, Solène
2014-10-01
IMOTEP is a GPU-based (Graphical Processing Units) software relying on a fast parallel implementation of Fresnel diffraction through successive phase screens. Its applications include active imaging, laser telemetry and passive imaging through turbulence with anisoplanatic spatial and temporal fluctuations. Thanks to parallel implementation on GPU, speedups ranging from 40X to 70X are achieved. The present paper gives a brief overview of IMOTEP models, algorithms, implementation and user interface. It then focuses on major improvements recently brought to the anisoplanatic imaging simulation method. Previously, we took advantage of the computational power offered by the GPU to develop a simulation method based on large series of deterministic realisations of the PSF distorted by turbulence. The phase screen propagation algorithm, by reproducing higher moments of the incident wavefront distortion, provides realistic PSFs. However, we first used a coarse gaussian model to fit the numerical PSFs and characterise there spatial statistics through only 3 parameters (two-dimensional displacements of centroid and width). Meanwhile, this approach was unable to reproduce the effects related to the details of the PSF structure, especially the "speckles" leading to prominent high-frequency content in short-exposure images. To overcome this limitation, we recently implemented a new empirical model of the PSF, based on Principal Components Analysis (PCA), ought to catch most of the PSF complexity. The GPU implementation allows estimating and handling efficiently the numerous (up to several hundreds) principal components typically required under the strong turbulence regime. A first demanding computational step involves PCA, phase screen propagation and covariance estimates. In a second step, realistic instantaneous images, fully accounting for anisoplanatic effects, are quickly generated. Preliminary results are presented.
Yılmaz, Bülent; Çiftçi, Emre
2013-06-01
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is based on disintegration of the kidney stone by delivering high-energy shock waves that are created outside the body and transmitted through the skin and body tissues. Nowadays high-energy shock waves are also used in orthopedic operations and investigated to be used in the treatment of myocardial infarction and cancer. Because of these new application areas novel lithotriptor designs are needed for different kinds of treatment strategies. In this study our aim was to develop a versatile computer simulation environment which would give the device designers working on various medical applications that use shock wave principle a substantial amount of flexibility while testing the effects of new parameters such as reflector size, material properties of the medium, water temperature, and different clinical scenarios. For this purpose, we created a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)-based computational model in which most of the physical system parameters were defined as an input and/or as a variable in the simulations. We constructed a realistic computational model of a commercial electrohydraulic lithotriptor and optimized our simulation program using the results that were obtained by the manufacturer in an experimental setup. We, then, compared the simulation results with the results from an experimental setup in which oxygen level in water was varied. Finally, we studied the effects of changing the input parameters like ellipsoid size and material, temperature change in the wave propagation media, and shock wave source point misalignment. The simulation results were consistent with the experimental results and expected effects of variation in physical parameters of the system. The results of this study encourage further investigation and provide adequate evidence that the numerical modeling of a shock wave therapy system is feasible and can provide a practical means to test novel ideas in new device design procedures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sen, Seema, E-mail: seema.sen@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical University of Ilmenau, Department of Materials for Electronics, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Niederrhein University of Applied Science, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Reinarzstraße 49, 47805 Krefeld (Germany); Lake, Markus; Kroppen, Norman; Farber, Peter; Wilden, Johannes [Niederrhein University of Applied Science, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Reinarzstraße 49, 47805 Krefeld (Germany); Schaaf, Peter [Technical University of Ilmenau, Department of Materials for Electronics, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany)
2017-02-28
Highlights: • Development of nanoscale Ti/Al multilayer films with 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 molar ratios. • Characterization of exothermic reaction propagation by experiments and simulation. • The reaction velocity depends on the ignition potentials and molar ratios of the films. • Only 1Ti/3Al films exhibit the unsteady reaction propagation with ripple formation. • CFD simulation shows the time dependent atom mixing and temperature flow during exothermic reaction. - Abstract: This study describes the self-propagating exothermic reaction in Ti/Al reactive multilayer foils by using experiments and computational fluid dynamics simulation. The Ti/Al foils with different molar ratios of 1Ti/1Al, 1Ti/2Al and 1Ti/3Al were fabricated by magnetron sputtering method. Microstructural characteristics of the unreacted and reacted foils were analyzed by using electronic and atomic force microscopes. After an electrical ignition, the influence of ignition potentials on reaction propagation has been experimentally investigated. The reaction front propagates with a velocity of minimum 0.68 ± 0.4 m/s and maximum 2.57 ± 0.6 m/s depending on the input ignition potentials and the chemical compositions. Here, the 1Ti/3Al reactive foil exhibits both steady state and unsteady wavelike reaction propagation. Moreover, the numerical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation shows the time dependent temperature flow and atomic mixing in a nanoscale reaction zone. The CFD simulation also indicates the potentiality for simulating exothermic reaction in the nanoscale Ti/Al foil.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kijanka, P; Radecki, R; Packo, P; Staszewski, W J; Uhl, T
2013-01-01
Temperature has a significant effect on Lamb wave propagation. It is important to compensate for this effect when the method is considered for structural damage detection. The paper explores a newly proposed, very efficient numerical simulation tool for Lamb wave propagation modelling in aluminum plates exposed to temperature changes. A local interaction approach implemented with a parallel computing architecture and graphics cards is used for these numerical simulations. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach could be used efficiently to produce a large database required for the development of various temperature compensation procedures in structural health monitoring applications. (paper)
Shahmirzadi, Danial; Li, Ronny X; Konofagou, Elisa E
2012-11-01
Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is an ultrasound-based method for noninvasive characterization of arterial stiffness based on pulse wave propagation. Reliable numerical models of pulse wave propagation in normal and pathological aortas could serve as powerful tools for local pulse wave analysis and a guideline for PWI measurements in vivo. The objectives of this paper are to (1) apply a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation of a straight-geometry aorta to confirm the Moens-Korteweg relationship between the pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the wall modulus, and (2) validate the simulation findings against phantom and in vitro results. PWI depicted and tracked the pulse wave propagation along the abdominal wall of canine aorta in vitro in sequential Radio-Frequency (RF) ultrasound frames and estimates the PWV in the imaged wall. The same system was also used to image multiple polyacrylamide phantoms, mimicking the canine measurements as well as modeling softer and stiffer walls. Finally, the model parameters from the canine and phantom studies were used to perform 3D two-way coupled FSI simulations of pulse wave propagation and estimate the PWV. The simulation results were found to correlate well with the corresponding Moens-Korteweg equation. A high linear correlation was also established between PWV² and E measurements using the combined simulation and experimental findings (R² = 0.98) confirming the relationship established by the aforementioned equation.
A fiber bridging model for fatigue delamination in composite materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregory, Jeremy R.; Spearing, S. Mark
2004-01-01
A fiber bridging model has been created to examine the effects of bridging on Mode I delamination fatigue fracture in a carbon fiber polymer-matrix composite. The model uses a cohesive zone law that is derived from quasi-static R-curves to determine the bridging energy applied in the bridged region. Timoshenko beam theory and an iterative self-consistent scheme are used to calculate the bridging tractions and displacements. After applying the bridging model to crack propagation data the scatter in the data was significantly reduced and clear trends were observed as a function of temperature that were not apparent previously. This indicated that the model appropriately accounted for the bridging in the experiments. Scanning electron microscopy crack opening displacement measurements were performed to validate the model's predictions. The measurements showed that the predictions were close to the actual bridging levels in the specimen
Uncertainty Propagation Analysis for the Monte Carlo Time-Dependent Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaukata, Nadeem; Shim, Hyung Jin
2015-01-01
In this paper, a conventional method to control the neutron population for super-critical systems is implemented. Instead of considering the cycles, the simulation is divided in time intervals. At the end of each time interval, neutron population control is applied on the banked neutrons. Randomly selected neutrons are discarded, until the size of neutron population matches the initial neutron histories at the beginning of time simulation. A time-dependent simulation mode has also been implemented in the development version of SERPENT 2 Monte Carlo code. In this mode, sequential population control mechanism has been proposed for modeling of prompt super-critical systems. A Monte Carlo method has been properly used in TART code for dynamic criticality calculations. For super-critical systems, the neutron population is allowed to grow over a period of time. The neutron population is uniformly combed to return it to the neutron population started with at the beginning of time boundary. In this study, conventional time-dependent Monte Carlo (TDMC) algorithm is implemented. There is an exponential growth of neutron population in estimation of neutron density tally for super-critical systems and the number of neutrons being tracked exceed the memory of the computer. In order to control this exponential growth at the end of each time boundary, a conventional time cut-off controlling population strategy is included in TDMC. A scale factor is introduced to tally the desired neutron density at the end of each time boundary. The main purpose of this paper is the quantification of uncertainty propagation in neutron densities at the end of each time boundary for super-critical systems. This uncertainty is caused by the uncertainty resulting from the introduction of scale factor. The effectiveness of TDMC is examined for one-group infinite homogeneous problem (the rod model) and two-group infinite homogeneous problem. The desired neutron density is tallied by the introduction of
Uncertainty Propagation Analysis for the Monte Carlo Time-Dependent Simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaukata, Nadeem; Shim, Hyung Jin [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
In this paper, a conventional method to control the neutron population for super-critical systems is implemented. Instead of considering the cycles, the simulation is divided in time intervals. At the end of each time interval, neutron population control is applied on the banked neutrons. Randomly selected neutrons are discarded, until the size of neutron population matches the initial neutron histories at the beginning of time simulation. A time-dependent simulation mode has also been implemented in the development version of SERPENT 2 Monte Carlo code. In this mode, sequential population control mechanism has been proposed for modeling of prompt super-critical systems. A Monte Carlo method has been properly used in TART code for dynamic criticality calculations. For super-critical systems, the neutron population is allowed to grow over a period of time. The neutron population is uniformly combed to return it to the neutron population started with at the beginning of time boundary. In this study, conventional time-dependent Monte Carlo (TDMC) algorithm is implemented. There is an exponential growth of neutron population in estimation of neutron density tally for super-critical systems and the number of neutrons being tracked exceed the memory of the computer. In order to control this exponential growth at the end of each time boundary, a conventional time cut-off controlling population strategy is included in TDMC. A scale factor is introduced to tally the desired neutron density at the end of each time boundary. The main purpose of this paper is the quantification of uncertainty propagation in neutron densities at the end of each time boundary for super-critical systems. This uncertainty is caused by the uncertainty resulting from the introduction of scale factor. The effectiveness of TDMC is examined for one-group infinite homogeneous problem (the rod model) and two-group infinite homogeneous problem. The desired neutron density is tallied by the introduction of
The simulation of acoustic propagation within SG water leak detection system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Takehiko; Shioyama, Tsutomu
1996-01-01
It is important to detect the leak sound signal in a steam generator tube. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop the detection system capable of detecting the leak sound signal buried in external noises. This leak sound signal is measured the acceleration on the wall of the steam generator. The authors used a simulation technique to investigate how the sound generated in a steam generator propagates out of the generator. The results obtained using the simulation technique clarify that the observed signal had many resonation frequency courses due to scattering from complex structures. Therefore, the information of the original signal is lost. However, if the acceleration value many points on the outer wall is detected, and cross-correlation are obtained from each coupled measurement point, it is possible to separate the direct wave from a source point from the scattering waves in a measurement signal. Using the cross-correlation value, the source point of the leak sound signal in a steam generator tube is determined by the synthetic aperture focusing technique
Experimental simulations of beam propagation over large distances in a compact linear Paul trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilson, Erik P.; Chung, Moses; Davidson, Ronald C.; Dorf, Mikhail; Efthimion, Philip C.; Majeski, Richard
2006-01-01
The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is a compact laboratory experiment that places the physicist in the frame of reference of a long, charged-particle bunch coasting through a kilometers-long magnetic alternating-gradient (AG) transport system. The transverse dynamics of particles in both systems are described by similar equations, including nonlinear space-charge effects. The time-dependent voltages applied to the PTSX quadrupole electrodes are equivalent to the axially oscillating magnetic fields applied in the AG system. Experiments concerning the quiescent propagation of intense beams over large distances can then be performed in a compact and flexible facility. An understanding and characterization of the conditions required for quiescent beam transport, minimum halo particle generation, and precise beam compression and manipulation techniques, are essential, as accelerators and transport systems demand that ever-increasing amounts of space charge be transported. Application areas include ion-beam-driven high energy density physics, high energy and nuclear physics accelerator systems, etc. One-component cesium plasmas have been trapped in PTSX that correspond to normalized beam intensities, s=ω p 2 (0)/2ω q 2 , up to 80% of the space-charge limit where self-electric forces balance the applied focusing force. Here, ω p (0)=[n b (0)e b 2 /m b ε 0 ] 1/2 is the on-axis plasma frequency, and ω q is the smooth-focusing frequency associated with the applied focusing field. Plasmas in PTSX with values of s that are 20% of the limit have been trapped for times corresponding to equivalent beam propagation over 10 km. Results are presented for experiments in which the amplitude of the quadrupole focusing lattice is modified as a function of time. It is found that instantaneous changes in lattice amplitude can be detrimental to transverse confinement of the charge bunch
Experimental simulations of beam propagation over large distances in a compact linear Paul trapa)
Gilson, Erik P.; Chung, Moses; Davidson, Ronald C.; Dorf, Mikhail; Efthimion, Philip C.; Majeski, Richard
2006-05-01
The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is a compact laboratory experiment that places the physicist in the frame of reference of a long, charged-particle bunch coasting through a kilometers-long magnetic alternating-gradient (AG) transport system. The transverse dynamics of particles in both systems are described by similar equations, including nonlinear space-charge effects. The time-dependent voltages applied to the PTSX quadrupole electrodes are equivalent to the axially oscillating magnetic fields applied in the AG system. Experiments concerning the quiescent propagation of intense beams over large distances can then be performed in a compact and flexible facility. An understanding and characterization of the conditions required for quiescent beam transport, minimum halo particle generation, and precise beam compression and manipulation techniques, are essential, as accelerators and transport systems demand that ever-increasing amounts of space charge be transported. Application areas include ion-beam-driven high energy density physics, high energy and nuclear physics accelerator systems, etc. One-component cesium plasmas have been trapped in PTSX that correspond to normalized beam intensities, ŝ=ωp2(0)/2ωq2, up to 80% of the space-charge limit where self-electric forces balance the applied focusing force. Here, ωp(0)=[nb(0)eb2/mbɛ0]1/2 is the on-axis plasma frequency, and ωq is the smooth-focusing frequency associated with the applied focusing field. Plasmas in PTSX with values of ŝ that are 20% of the limit have been trapped for times corresponding to equivalent beam propagation over 10km. Results are presented for experiments in which the amplitude of the quadrupole focusing lattice is modified as a function of time. It is found that instantaneous changes in lattice amplitude can be detrimental to transverse confinement of the charge bunch.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai Congbo; Chen Zhong; Cai Shuhui; Zhong Jianhui
2005-01-01
In this paper, behaviors of single-quantum coherences and inter-molecular multiple-quantum coherences under restricted diffusion in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments were investigated. The propagator formalism based on the loss of spin phase memory during random motion was applied to describe the diffusion-induced signal attenuation. The exact expression of the signal attenuation under the short gradient pulse approximation for restricted diffusion between two parallel plates was obtained using this propagator method. For long gradient pulses, a modified formalism was proposed. The simulated signal attenuation under the effects of gradient pulses of different width based on the Monte Carlo method agrees with the theoretical predictions. The propagator formalism and computer simulation can provide convenient, intuitive and precise methods for the study of the diffusion behaviors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valeo, E.J.; Phillips, C.K.; Bonoli, P.T.; Wright, J.C.; Brambilla, M.
2007-01-01
The generation of energetic tails in the electron distribution function is intrinsic to lower-hybrid (LH) heating and current drive in weakly collisional magnetically confined plasma. The effects of these deformations on the RF deposition profile have previously been examined within the ray approximation. Recently, the calculation of full-wave propagation of LH waves in a thermal plasma has been accomplished using an adaptation of the TORIC code. Here, initial results are presented from TORIC simulations of LH propagation in a toroidal plasma with non-thermal electrons. The required efficient computation of the hot plasma dielectric tensor is accomplished using a technique previously demonstrated in full-wave simulations of ICRF propagation in plasma with non-thermal ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelman, David; Schwartz, Steven D.
2010-01-01
The recently developed quantum-classical method has been applied to the study of dissipative dynamics in multidimensional systems. The method is designed to treat many-body systems consisting of a low dimensional quantum part coupled to a classical bath. Assuming the approximate zeroth order evolution rule, the corrections to the quantum propagator are defined in terms of the total Hamiltonian and the zeroth order propagator. Then the corrections are taken to the classical limit by introducing the frozen Gaussian approximation for the bath degrees of freedom. The evolution of the primary part is governed by the corrected propagator yielding the exact quantum dynamics. The method has been tested on two model systems coupled to a harmonic bath: (i) an anharmonic (Morse) oscillator and (ii) a double-well potential. The simulations have been performed at zero temperature. The results have been compared to the exact quantum simulations using the surrogate Hamiltonian approach.
Yucel, Abdulkadir C.
2018-02-05
A fast and memory efficient 3D full wave simulator for analyzing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in electrically large and realistic mine tunnels/galleries loaded with conductors is proposed. The simulator relies on Muller and combined field surface integral equations (SIEs) to account for scattering from mine walls and conductors, respectively. During the iterative solution of the system of SIEs, the simulator uses a fast multipole method - fast Fourier transform (FMM-FFT) scheme to reduce CPU and memory requirements. The memory requirement is further reduced by compressing large data structures via singular value and Tucker decompositions. The efficiency, accuracy, and real-world applicability of the simulator are demonstrated through characterization of EM wave propagation in electrically large mine tunnels/galleries loaded with conducting cables and mine carts.
Bizzarri, A.; Dunham, Eric M.; Spudich, P.
2010-01-01
We study how heterogeneous rupture propagation affects the coherence of shear and Rayleigh Mach wavefronts radiated by supershear earthquakes. We address this question using numerical simulations of ruptures on a planar, vertical strike-slip fault embedded in a three-dimensional, homogeneous, linear elastic half-space. Ruptures propagate spontaneously in accordance with a linear slip-weakening friction law through both homogeneous and heterogeneous initial shear stress fields. In the 3-D homogeneous case, rupture fronts are curved owing to interactions with the free surface and the finite fault width; however, this curvature does not greatly diminish the coherence of Mach fronts relative to cases in which the rupture front is constrained to be straight, as studied by Dunham and Bhat (2008a). Introducing heterogeneity in the initial shear stress distribution causes ruptures to propagate at speeds that locally fluctuate above and below the shear wave speed. Calculations of the Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) of ground velocity time histories corroborate the kinematic results of Bizzarri and Spudich (2008a): (1) The ground motion of a supershear rupture is richer in high frequency with respect to a subshear one. (2) When a Mach pulse is present, its high frequency content overwhelms that arising from stress heterogeneity. Present numerical experiments indicate that a Mach pulse causes approximately an ω−1.7 high frequency falloff in the FAS of ground displacement. Moreover, within the context of the employed representation of heterogeneities and over the range of parameter space that is accessible with current computational resources, our simulations suggest that while heterogeneities reduce peak ground velocity and diminish the coherence of the Mach fronts, ground motion at stations experiencing Mach pulses should be richer in high frequencies compared to stations without Mach pulses. In contrast to the foregoing theoretical results, we find no average elevation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kowalewski, Markus, E-mail: mkowalew@uci.edu; Mukamel, Shaul, E-mail: smukamel@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)
2015-07-28
Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) signals that monitor the excited state conical intersections dynamics of acrolein are simulated. An effective time dependent Hamiltonian for two C—H vibrational marker bands is constructed on the fly using a local mode expansion combined with a semi-classical surface hopping simulation protocol. The signals are obtained by a direct forward and backward propagation of the vibrational wave function on a numerical grid. Earlier work is extended to fully incorporate the anharmonicities and intermode couplings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kowalewski, Markus; Mukamel, Shaul
2015-01-01
Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) signals that monitor the excited state conical intersections dynamics of acrolein are simulated. An effective time dependent Hamiltonian for two C—H vibrational marker bands is constructed on the fly using a local mode expansion combined with a semi-classical surface hopping simulation protocol. The signals are obtained by a direct forward and backward propagation of the vibrational wave function on a numerical grid. Earlier work is extended to fully incorporate the anharmonicities and intermode couplings
Grazzini, A.; Lacidogna, G.; Valente, S.; Accornero, F.
2018-06-01
Masonry walls of historical buildings are subject to rising damp effects due to capillary or rain infiltrations, which in the time produce decay and delamination of historical plasters. In the restoration of masonry buildings, the plaster detachment frequently occurs because of mechanical incompatibility in repair mortar. An innovative laboratory procedure is described for test mechanical adhesion of new repair mortars. Compression static tests were carried out on composite specimens stone block-repair mortar, which specific geometry can test the de-bonding process of mortar in adherence with a stone masonry structure. The acoustic emission (AE) technique was employed for estimating the amount of energy released from fracture propagation in adherence surface between mortar and stone. A numerical simulation was elaborated based on the cohesive crack model. The evolution of detachment process of mortar in a coupled stone brick-mortar system was analysed by triangulation of AE signals, which can improve the numerical model and predict the type of failure in the adhesion surface of repair plaster. Through the cohesive crack model, it was possible to interpret theoretically the de-bonding phenomena occurring at the interface between stone block and mortar. Therefore, the mechanical behaviour of the interface is characterized.
Edge Delamination of Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides.
Ly, Thuc Hue; Yun, Seok Joon; Thi, Quoc Huy; Zhao, Jiong
2017-07-25
Delamination of thin films from the supportive substrates is a critical issue within the thin film industry. The emergent two-dimensional, atomic layered materials, including transition metal dichalcogenides, are highly flexible; thus buckles and wrinkles can be easily generated and play vital roles in the corresponding physical properties. Here we introduce one kind of patterned buckling behavior caused by the delamination from a substrate initiated at the edges of the chemical vapor deposition synthesized monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, led by thermal expansion mismatch. The atomic force microscopy and optical characterizations clearly showed the puckered structures associated with the strain, whereas the transmission electron microscopy revealed the special sawtooth-shaped edges, which break the geometrical symmetry for the buckling behavior of hexagonal samples. The condition of the edge delamination is in accordance with the fracture behavior of thin film interfaces. This edge delamination and buckling process is universal for most ultrathin two-dimensional materials, which requires more attention in various future applications.
Delamination detection using methods of computational intelligence
Ihesiulor, Obinna K.; Shankar, Krishna; Zhang, Zhifang; Ray, Tapabrata
2012-11-01
Abstract Reliable delamination prediction scheme is indispensable in order to prevent potential risks of catastrophic failures in composite structures. The existence of delaminations changes the vibration characteristics of composite laminates and hence such indicators can be used to quantify the health characteristics of laminates. An approach for online health monitoring of in-service composite laminates is presented in this paper that relies on methods based on computational intelligence. Typical changes in the observed vibration characteristics (i.e. change in natural frequencies) are considered as inputs to identify the existence, location and magnitude of delaminations. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated using numerical models of composite laminates. Since this identification problem essentially involves the solution of an optimization problem, the use of finite element (FE) methods as the underlying tool for analysis turns out to be computationally expensive. A surrogate assisted optimization approach is hence introduced to contain the computational time within affordable limits. An artificial neural network (ANN) model with Bayesian regularization is used as the underlying approximation scheme while an improved rate of convergence is achieved using a memetic algorithm. However, building of ANN surrogate models usually requires large training datasets. K-means clustering is effectively employed to reduce the size of datasets. ANN is also used via inverse modeling to determine the position, size and location of delaminations using changes in measured natural frequencies. The results clearly highlight the efficiency and the robustness of the approach.
Estimation of crosstalk in LED fNIRS by photon propagation Monte Carlo simulation
Iwano, Takayuki; Umeyama, Shinji
2015-12-01
fNIRS (functional near-Infrared spectroscopy) can measure brain activity non-invasively and has advantages such as low cost and portability. While the conventional fNIRS has used laser light, LED light fNIRS is recently becoming common in use. Using LED for fNIRS, equipment can be more inexpensive and more portable. LED light, however, has a wider illumination spectrum than laser light, which may change crosstalk between the calculated concentration change of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobins. The crosstalk is caused by difference in light path length in the head tissues depending on wavelengths used. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations of photon propagation in the tissue layers of head (scalp, skull, CSF, gray matter, and white matter) to estimate the light path length in each layers. Based on the estimated path lengths, the crosstalk in fNIRS using LED light was calculated. Our results showed that LED light more increases the crosstalk than laser light does when certain combinations of wavelengths were adopted. Even in such cases, the crosstalk increased by using LED light can be effectively suppressed by replacing the value of extinction coefficients used in the hemoglobin calculation to their weighted average over illumination spectrum.
Mixed finite element-based fully conservative methods for simulating wormhole propagation
Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu; Wu, Yuanqing
2015-01-01
Wormhole propagation during reactive dissolution of carbonates plays a very important role in the product enhancement of oil and gas reservoir. Because of high velocity and nonuniform porosity, the Darcy–Forchheimer model is applicable for this problem instead of conventional Darcy framework. We develop a mixed finite element scheme for numerical simulation of this problem, in which mixed finite element methods are used not only for the Darcy–Forchheimer flow equations but also for the solute transport equation by introducing an auxiliary flux variable to guarantee full mass conservation. In theoretical analysis aspects, based on the cut-off operator of solute concentration, we construct an analytical function to control and handle the change of porosity with time; we treat the auxiliary flux variable as a function of velocity and establish its properties; we employ the coupled analysis approach to deal with the fully coupling relation of multivariables. From this, the stability analysis and a priori error estimates for velocity, pressure, concentration and porosity are established in different norms. Numerical results are also given to verify theoretical analysis and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Mixed finite element-based fully conservative methods for simulating wormhole propagation
Kou, Jisheng
2015-10-11
Wormhole propagation during reactive dissolution of carbonates plays a very important role in the product enhancement of oil and gas reservoir. Because of high velocity and nonuniform porosity, the Darcy–Forchheimer model is applicable for this problem instead of conventional Darcy framework. We develop a mixed finite element scheme for numerical simulation of this problem, in which mixed finite element methods are used not only for the Darcy–Forchheimer flow equations but also for the solute transport equation by introducing an auxiliary flux variable to guarantee full mass conservation. In theoretical analysis aspects, based on the cut-off operator of solute concentration, we construct an analytical function to control and handle the change of porosity with time; we treat the auxiliary flux variable as a function of velocity and establish its properties; we employ the coupled analysis approach to deal with the fully coupling relation of multivariables. From this, the stability analysis and a priori error estimates for velocity, pressure, concentration and porosity are established in different norms. Numerical results are also given to verify theoretical analysis and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Modelling the propagation of terahertz radiation through a tissue simulating phantom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walker, Gillian C; Berry, Elizabeth; Smye, Stephen W; Zinov'ev, Nick N; Fitzgerald, Anthony J; Miles, Robert E; Chamberlain, Martyn; Smith, Michael A
2004-01-01
Terahertz (THz) frequency radiation, 0.1 THz to 20 THz, is being investigated for biomedical imaging applications following the introduction of pulsed THz sources that produce picosecond pulses and function at room temperature. Owing to the broadband nature of the radiation, spectral and temporal information is available from radiation that has interacted with a sample; this information is exploited in the development of biomedical imaging tools and sensors. In this work, models to aid interpretation of broadband THz spectra were developed and evaluated. THz radiation lies on the boundary between regions best considered using a deterministic electromagnetic approach and those better analysed using a stochastic approach incorporating quantum mechanical effects, so two computational models to simulate the propagation of THz radiation in an absorbing medium were compared. The first was a thin film analysis and the second a stochastic Monte Carlo model. The Cole-Cole model was used to predict the variation with frequency of the physical properties of the sample and scattering was neglected. The two models were compared with measurements from a highly absorbing water-based phantom. The Monte Carlo model gave a prediction closer to experiment over 0.1 to 3 THz. Knowledge of the frequency-dependent physical properties, including the scattering characteristics, of the absorbing media is necessary. The thin film model is computationally simple to implement but is restricted by the geometry of the sample it can describe. The Monte Carlo framework, despite being initially more complex, provides greater flexibility to investigate more complicated sample geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gentit, F.-X.
2002-01-01
Litrani is a general purpose Monte-Carlo program simulating light propagation in any type of setup describable by the shapes provided by ROOT. Each shape may be made of a different material. Dielectric constant, absorption length and diffusion length of materials may depend upon wavelength. Dielectric constant and absorption length may be anisotropic. Each face of a volume is either partially or totally in contact with a face of another volume, or covered with some wrapping having defined characteristics of absorption, reflection and diffusion. When in contact with another face of another volume, the possibility exists to have a thin slice of width d and index n between the two faces. The program has various sources of light: spontaneous photons, photons coming from an optical fibre, photons generated by the crossing of particles or photons generated by an electromagnetic shower. The time and wavelength spectra of emitted photons may reproduce any scintillation spectrum. As detectors, phototubes, APD, or any general type of surface or volume detectors may be specified. The aim is to follow each photon until it is absorbed or detected. Quantities to be delivered by the program are the proportion of photons detected, and the time distribution for the arrival of these, or the various ways photons may be lost
Steady-state propagation of interface corner crack
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Veluri, Badrinath; Jensen, Henrik Myhre
2013-01-01
Steady-state propagation of interface cracks close to three-dimensional corners has been analyzed. Attention was focused on modeling the shape of the interface crack front and calculating the critical stress for steady-state propagation of the crack. The crack propagation was investigated...... on the finite element method with iterative adjustment of the crack front to estimate the critical delamination stresses as a function of the fracture criterion and corner angles. The implication of the results on the delamination is discussed in terms of crack front profiles and the critical stresses...... for propagation and the angle of intersection of the crack front with the free edge....
Simulation of ultra-high energy photon propagation with PRESHOWER 2.0
Homola, P.; Engel, R.; Pysz, A.; Wilczyński, H.
2013-05-01
In this paper we describe a new release of the PRESHOWER program, a tool for Monte Carlo simulation of propagation of ultra-high energy photons in the magnetic field of the Earth. The PRESHOWER program is designed to calculate magnetic pair production and bremsstrahlung and should be used together with other programs to simulate extensive air showers induced by photons. The main new features of the PRESHOWER code include a much faster algorithm applied in the procedures of simulating the processes of gamma conversion and bremsstrahlung, update of the geomagnetic field model, and a minor correction. The new simulation procedure increases the flexibility of the code so that it can also be applied to other magnetic field configurations such as, for example, encountered in the vicinity of the sun or neutron stars. Program summaryProgram title: PRESHOWER 2.0 Catalog identifier: ADWG_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWG_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3968 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 37198 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C, FORTRAN 77. Computer: Intel-Pentium based PC. Operating system: Linux or Unix. RAM:probability of the process expected to occur. The new algorithm reduces significantly the number of tracking steps and speeds up the execution of the program. The geomagnetic field model has been updated to IGRF-11, allowing for interpolations up to the year 2015. Numerical Recipes procedures to calculate modified Bessel functions have been replaced with an open source CERN routine DBSKA. One minor bug has been fixed. Restrictions: Gamma conversion into particles other than an electron pair is not considered. Spatial structure of the cascade is neglected. Additional comments
Simulations of intense heavy ion beams propagating through a gaseous fusion target chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Oliver, B.V.; Genoni, T.C.; Clark, R.E.; Olson, C.L.; Yu, S.S.
2002-01-01
In heavy-ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF), an ion beam is transported several meters through the reactor chamber to the target. This standoff distance mitigates damage to the accelerator from the target explosion. For the high perveance beams and millimeter-scale targets under consideration, the transport method is largely determined by the degree of ion charge and current neutralization in the chamber. This neutralization becomes increasingly difficult as the beam interacts with the ambient chamber environment and strips to higher charge states. Nearly complete neutralization permits neutralized-ballistic transport (main-line HIF transport method), where the ion beam enters the chamber at roughly 3-cm radius and focuses onto the target. In the backup pinched-transport schemes, the beam is first focused outside the chamber before propagating at small radius to the target. With nearly complete charge neutralization, the large beam divergence is contained by a strong magnetic field resulting from roughly 50-kA net current. In assisted-pinched transport, a preformed discharge channel provides the net current and the discharge plasma provides nearly complete charge and current neutralization of the beam. In self-pinched transport, the residual net current results solely from the beam-driven breakdown of the ambient gas. Using hybrid particle-in-cell simulation codes, the behavior of HIF driver-scale beams in these three transport modes is examined. Simulations of neutralized ballistic transport, at a few-mTorr flibe pressure, show excellent neutralization given a preformed or photoionized (from the heated target) plasma. Two- and three-dimensional simulations of assisted-pinch transport in roughly 1-Torr Xe show the importance of attaining >1-μs magnetic diffusion time to limit self-field effects and achieve good transport efficiency. For Xe gas pressures ranging from 10-150 mTorr, calculations predict a robust self-magnetic force sufficient for self
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parchevsky, K. V.; Kosovichev, A. G.
2009-01-01
Investigation of propagation, conversion, and scattering of MHD waves in the Sun is very important for understanding the mechanisms of observed oscillations and waves in sunspots and active regions. We have developed a three-dimensional linear MHD numerical model to investigate the influence of the magnetic field on excitation and properties of the MHD waves. The results show that surface gravity waves (f-modes) are affected by the background magnetic field more than acoustic-type waves (p-modes). Comparison of our simulations with the time-distance helioseismology results from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/MDI shows that the amplitude of travel time variations with azimuth around sunspots caused by the inclined magnetic field does not exceed 25% of the observed amplitude even for strong fields of 1400-1900 G. This can be an indication that other effects (e.g., background flows and nonuniform distribution of the magnetic field) can contribute to the observed azimuthal travel time variations. The azimuthal travel time variations caused by the wave interaction with the magnetic field are similar for simulated and observed travel times for strong fields of 1400-1900 G if Doppler velocities are taken at the height of 300 km above the photosphere where the plasma parameter β << 1. For the photospheric level the travel times are systematically smaller by approximately 0.12 minutes than for the height of 300 km above the photosphere for all studied ranges of the magnetic field strength and inclination angles. Numerical MHD wave modeling and new data from the HMI instrument of the Solar Dynamics Observatory will substantially advance our knowledge of the wave interaction with strong magnetic fields on the Sun and improve the local helioseismology diagnostics.
Efficient simulation of multimodal nonlinear propagation in step-index fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lægsgaard, Jesper
2017-01-01
A numerical approach to nonlinear propagation in waveguides based on real-space Gaussian quadrature integration of the nonlinear polarization during propagation is investigated and compared with the more conventional approach based on expressing the nonlinear polarization by a sum of mode overlap...
Rudraraju, Siva Shankar; Garikipati, Krishna; Waas, Anthony M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.
2013-01-01
The phenomenon of crack propagation is among the predominant modes of failure in many natural and engineering structures, often leading to severe loss of structural integrity and catastrophic failure. Thus, the ability to understand and a priori simulate the evolution of this failure mode has been one of the cornerstones of applied mechanics and structural engineering and is broadly referred to as "fracture mechanics." The work reported herein focuses on extending this understanding, in the context of through-thickness crack propagation in cohesive materials, through the development of a continuum-level multiscale numerical framework, which represents cracks as displacement discontinuities across a surface of zero measure. This report presents the relevant theory, mathematical framework, numerical modeling, and experimental investigations of through-thickness crack propagation in fiber-reinforced composites using the Variational Multiscale Cohesive Method (VMCM) developed by the authors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Dadashzadeh
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Ultra-short pulse is a promising technology for achieving ultra-high data rate transmission which is required to follow the increased demand of data transport over an optical communication system. Therefore, the propagation of such type of pulses and the effects that it may suffer during its transmission through an optical waveguide has received a great deal of attention in the recent years. We provide an overview of recent theoretical developments in a numerical modeling of Maxwell's equations to analyze the propagation of short laser pulses in photonic structures. The process of short light pulse propagation through 2D periodic and quasi-periodic photonic structures is simulated based on Finite-Difference Time-Domain calculations of Maxwell’s equations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Bovith, Thomas
2008-01-01
for prediction of this type of weather radar clutter is presented. The method uses a wave propagator to identify areas of potential non-standard propagation. The wave propagator uses a three dimensional refractivity field derived from the geophysical parameters: temperature, humidity, and pressure obtained from......Weather radars are essential sensors for observation of precipitation in the troposphere and play a major part in weather forecasting and hydrological modelling. Clutter caused by non-standard wave propagation is a common problem in weather radar applications, and in this paper a method...... a high-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model. The wave propagator is based on the parabolic equation approximation to the electromagnetic wave equation. The parabolic equation is solved using the well-known Fourier split-step method. Finally, the radar clutter prediction technique is used...
Liu, Heng-Liang; Lin, Chun-Li; Sun, Ming-Tsung; Chang, Yen-Hsiang
2010-06-01
This study investigates micro-crack propagation at the enamel/adhesive interface using finite element (FE) submodeling and element death techniques. A three-dimensional (3D) FE macro-model of the enamel/adhesive/ceramic subjected to shear bond testing was generated and analyzed. A 3D micro-model with interfacial bonding structure was constructed at the upper enamel/adhesive interface where the stress concentration was found from the macro-model results. The morphology of this interfacial bonding structure (i.e., resin tag) was assigned based on resin tag geometry and enamel rod arrangement from a scanning electron microscopy micrograph. The boundary conditions for the micro-model were determined from the macro-model results. A custom iterative code combined with the element death technique was used to calculate the micro-crack propagation. Parallel experiments were performed to validate this FE simulation. The stress concentration within the adhesive occurred mainly at the upper corner near the enamel/adhesive interface and the resin tag base. A simulated fracture path was found at the resin tag base along the enamel/adhesive interface. A morphological observation of the fracture patterns obtained from in vitro testing corresponded with the simulation results. This study shows that the FE submodeling and element death techniques could be used to simulate the 3D micro-stress pattern and the crack propagation noted at the enamel/adhesive interface.
Propagation velocity profile in a cross-section of a cardiac muscle bundle from PSpice simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sperelakis Nicholas
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of depth on propagation velocity within a bundle of cardiac muscle fibers is likely to be an important factor in the genesis of some heart arrhythmias. Model and methods The velocity profile of simulated action potentials propagated down a bundle of parallel cardiac muscle fibers was examined in a cross-section of the bundle using a PSpice model. The model (20 × 10 consisted of 20 chains in parallel, each chain being 10 cells in length. All 20 chains were stimulated simultaneously at the left end of the bundle using rectangular current pulses (0.25 nA, 0.25 ms duration applied intracellularly. The simulated bundle was symmetrical at the top and bottom (including two grounds, and voltage markers were placed intracellularly only in cells 1, 5 and 10 of each chain to limit the total number of traces to 60. All electrical parameters were standard values; the variables were (1 the number of longitudinal gap-junction (G-j channels (0, 1, 10, 100, (2 the longitudinal resistance between the parallel chains (Rol2 (reflecting the closeness of the packing of the chains, and (3 the bundle termination resistance at the two ends of the bundle (RBT. The standard values for Rol2 and RBT were 200 KΩ. Results The velocity profile was bell-shaped when there was 0 or only 1 gj-channel. With standard Rol2 and RBT values, the velocity at the surface of the bundle (θ1 and θ20 was more than double (2.15 × that at the core of the bundle (θ10, θ11. This surface:core ratio of velocities was dependent on the values of Rol2 and RBT. When Rol2 was lowered 10-fold, θ1 increased slightly and θ2decreased slightly. When there were 100 gj-channels, the velocity profile was flat, i.e. the velocity at the core was about the same as that at the surface. Both velocities were more than 10-fold higher than in the absence of gj-channels. Varying Rol2 and RBT had almost no effect. When there were 10 gj-channels, the cross-sectional velocity profile
Characterization of exfoliated/delamination kaolinite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Dewen; Li, Bin; Li, Yanfeng; Yu, Cui; Zhang, Bo; Fei, Huafeng
2011-01-01
A novel and facile approach for the preparation of exfoliated/delamination kaolinite was reported in this study. Kaolinite was mechanochemically activated by grinding with dimethylsulfoxide in a globe mill for different periods of time, and then the activated samples were treated for several hours at 120 o C to obtain the precursors of kaolinite. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The experimental data indicated that the clay layers were well exfoliated/delamination under mechanochemical effect in a significantly short intercalation time. The expansion of the basal spacing (d 001 ) of raw kaolinite by 0.40 nm pointed out that the hydrogen bonds between adjacent kaolinite layers were partially broken as a result of the intercalation with dimethylsulfoxide.
A finite element beam propagation method for simulation of liquid crystal devices.
Vanbrabant, Pieter J M; Beeckman, Jeroen; Neyts, Kristiaan; James, Richard; Fernandez, F Anibal
2009-06-22
An efficient full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method is presented that uses higher order vector elements to calculate the wide angle propagation of an optical field through inhomogeneous, anisotropic optical materials such as liquid crystals. The full dielectric permittivity tensor is considered in solving Maxwell's equations. The wide applicability of the method is illustrated with different examples: the propagation of a laser beam in a uniaxial medium, the tunability of a directional coupler based on liquid crystals and the near-field diffraction of a plane wave in a structure containing micrometer scale variations in the transverse refractive index, similar to the pixels of a spatial light modulator.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menouillard, T
2007-09-15
Computerized simulation is nowadays an integrating part of design and validation processes of mechanical structures. Simulation tools are more and more performing allowing a very acute description of the phenomena. Moreover, these tools are not limited to linear mechanics but are developed to describe more difficult behaviours as for instance structures damage which interests the safety domain. A dynamic or static load can thus lead to a damage, a crack and then a rupture of the structure. The fast dynamics allows to simulate 'fast' phenomena such as explosions, shocks and impacts on structure. The application domain is various. It concerns for instance the study of the lifetime and the accidents scenario of the nuclear reactor vessel. It is then very interesting, for fast dynamics codes, to be able to anticipate in a robust and stable way such phenomena: the assessment of damage in the structure and the simulation of crack propagation form an essential stake. The extended finite element method has the advantage to break away from mesh generation and from fields projection during the crack propagation. Effectively, crack is described kinematically by an appropriate strategy of enrichment of supplementary freedom degrees. Difficulties connecting the spatial discretization of this method with the temporal discretization of an explicit calculation scheme has then been revealed; these difficulties are the diagonal writing of the mass matrix and the associated stability time step. Here are presented two methods of mass matrix diagonalization based on the kinetic energy conservation, and studies of critical time steps for various enriched finite elements. The interest revealed here is that the time step is not more penalizing than those of the standard finite elements problem. Comparisons with numerical simulations on another code allow to validate the theoretical works. A crack propagation test in mixed mode has been exploited in order to verify the simulation
Damage Propagation Modeling for Aircraft Engine Run-to-Failure Simulation
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes how damage propagation can be modeled within the modules of aircraft gas turbine engines. To that end, response surfaces of all sensors are...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Mazzanti
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Coastal and subaqueous landslides can be very dangerous phenomena since they are characterised by the additional risk of induced tsunamis, unlike their completely-subaerial counterparts. Numerical modelling of landslides propagation is a key step in forecasting the consequences of landslides. In this paper, a novel approach named Equivalent Fluid/Equivalent Medium (EFEM has been developed. It adapts common numerical models and software that were originally designed for subaerial landslides in order to simulate the propagation of combined subaerial-subaqueous and completely-subaqueous landslides. Drag and buoyancy forces, the loss of energy at the landslide-water impact and peculiar mechanisms like hydroplaning can be suitably simulated by this approach; furthermore, the change in properties of the landslide's mass, which is encountered at the transition from the subaerial to the submerged environment, can be taken into account. The approach has been tested by modelling two documented coastal landslides (a debris flow and a rock slide at Lake Albano using the DAN-W code. The results, which were achieved from the back-analyses, demonstrate the efficacy of the approach to simulate the propagation of different types of coastal landslides.
Guadagnino, Emanuel; Zuccato, Daniele
2012-01-01
can cause glass particles to appear in vials, a problem that has forced a number of drug product recalls in recent years. To combat this, pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical manufacturers need to understand the reasons for glass delamination. The most recent cases of product recall due to the presence of particles in the filling liquid have involved borosilicate glass containers carrying drugs made of active components with known ability to corrode glass and to dissolve the silica matrix. Sometimes these ingredients are dissolved in an alkaline medium that dramatically increases the glass corrosion and potentially causes the issue. As this action is strongly affected by time and temperature, flaking may become visible only after a long incubation during storage and requires systematic monitoring to be detected at its early stage. If the nature of the filling liquid is the driving force of the phenomenon, other factors are of primary importance. The surface morphology created during vial forming is a key issue, being a function of the forming temperature that is higher in the cutting step and the forming of the bottom. Delamination occurs generally on the vial's bottom and shoulder, where extensive flaming can favor a strong evaporation of alkali and borate species and the formation of heavily enriched silica layers. When these layers are in contact with a solution, they are subject to a differential re-hydration that may result in cracking and detachment of scales. The purpose of this investigation is to identify testing conditions and parameters that can be used as indicators of an incipient delamination process. Extractions with 0.9% KCl solution for 1 h at 121 °C can be used to simulate a long-term contact with aggressive pharmaceutical preparations, while SiO(2) concentration in the extract solution can be taken as an index of glass dissolution. The conclusions developed by this study can provide pharmaceutical manufacturers with information needed to help
Abdi, Mohamad; Hajihasani, Mojtaba; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Tavakkoli, Jahan
2012-12-01
Ultrasound waves have been widely used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. Accurate and effective simulation of ultrasound beam propagation and its interaction with tissue has been proved to be important. The nonlinear nature of the ultrasound beam propagation, especially in the therapeutic regime, plays an important role in the mechanisms of interaction with tissue. There are three main approaches in current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to model and simulate nonlinear ultrasound beams: macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic approaches. In this work, a mesoscopic CFD method based on the Lattice-Boltzmann model (LBM) was investigated. In the developed method, the Boltzmann equation is evolved to simulate the flow of a Newtonian fluid with the collision model instead of solving the Navier-Stokes, continuity and state equations which are used in conventional CFD methods. The LBM has some prominent advantages over conventional CFD methods, including: (1) its parallel computational nature; (2) taking microscopic boundaries into account; and (3) capability of simulating in porous and inhomogeneous media. In our proposed method, the propagating medium is discretized with a square grid in 2 dimensions with 9 velocity vectors for each node. Using the developed model, the nonlinear distortion and shock front development of a finiteamplitude diffractive ultrasonic beam in a dissipative fluid medium was computed and validated against the published data. The results confirm that the LBM is an accurate and effective approach to model and simulate nonlinearity in finite-amplitude ultrasound beams with Mach numbers of up to 0.01 which, among others, falls within the range of therapeutic ultrasound regime such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beams. A comparison between the HIFU nonlinear beam simulations using the proposed model and pseudospectral methods in a 2D geometry is presented.
Rudianto, Indra; Sudarmaji
2018-04-01
We present an implementation of the spectral-element method for simulation of two-dimensional elastic wave propagation in fully heterogeneous media. We have incorporated most of realistic geological features in the model, including surface topography, curved layer interfaces, and 2-D wave-speed heterogeneity. To accommodate such complexity, we use an unstructured quadrilateral meshing technique. Simulation was performed on a GPU cluster, which consists of 24 core processors Intel Xeon CPU and 4 NVIDIA Quadro graphics cards using CUDA and MPI implementation. We speed up the computation by a factor of about 5 compared to MPI only, and by a factor of about 40 compared to Serial implementation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Carlone, P.; Citarella, R.
2015-01-01
This paper deals with a numerical and experimental investigation on the influence of residual stresses on fatigue crack growth in AA2024-T3 friction stir welded butt joints. An integrated FEM-DBEM procedure for the simulation of crack propagation is proposed and discussed. A numerical FEM model...... of the welding process of precipitation hardenable AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy is employed to infer the process induced residual stress field. The reliability of the FEM simulations with respect to the induced residual stresses is assessed comparing numerical outcomes with experimental data obtained by means...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Sang-Jin; Kim, Hoe-Woong; Joo, Young-Sang; Kim, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Jong-Bum [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
This paper introduces the 2-D FEM simulation of the propagation and radiation of the leaky Lamb wave in and from a plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor conducted for the radiation beam profile analysis. The FEM simulations are performed with three different excitation frequencies and the radiation beam profiles obtained from FEM simulations are compared with those obtained from corresponding experiments. This paper deals with the 2-D FEM simulation of the propagation and radiation of the leaky Lamb wave in and from a plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor conducted to analyze the radiation beam profiles. The radiation beam profile results obtained from the FEM simulation show good agreement with the ones obtained from the experiment. This result will be utilized to improve the performance of the developed waveguide sensor. The quality of the visualized image is mainly affected by beam profile characteristics of the leaky wave radiated from the waveguide sensor. However, the relationships between the radiation beam profile and many parameters of the waveguide sensor are not fully revealed yet. Therefore, further parametric studies are necessary to improve the performance of the sensor and the finite element method (FEM) is one of the most effective tools for the parametric study.
THE EFFECT OF SUPPORT PLATE ON DRILLING-INDUCED DELAMINATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Navid Zarif Karimi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Delamination is considered as a major problem in drilling of composite materials, which degrades the mechanical properties of these materials. The thrust force exerted by the drill is considered as the major cause of delamination; and one practical approach to reduce delamination is to use a back-up plate under the specimen. In this paper, the effect of exit support plate on delamination in twist drilling of glass fiber reinforced composites is studied. Firstly, two analytical models based on linear fracture mechanics and elastic bending theory of plates are described to find critical thrust forces at the beginning of crack growth for drilling with and without back-up plate. Secondly, two series of experiments are carried out on glass fiber reinforced composites to determine quantitatively the effect of drilling parameters on the amount of delamination. Experimental findings verify a large reduction in the amount of delaminated area when a back-up plate is placed under the specimen.
Numerical Simulation of the Propagation of Hydraulic and Natural Fracture Using Dijkstra’s Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanfang Wu
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Utilization of hydraulic-fracturing technology is dramatically increasing in exploitation of natural gas extraction. However the prediction of the configuration of propagated hydraulic fracture is extremely challenging. This paper presents a numerical method of obtaining the configuration of the propagated hydraulic fracture into discrete natural fracture network system. The method is developed on the basis of weighted fracture which is derived in combination of Dijkstra’s algorithm energy theory and vector method. Numerical results along with experimental data demonstrated that proposed method is capable of predicting the propagated hydraulic fracture configuration reasonably with high computation efficiency. Sensitivity analysis reveals a number of interesting observation results: the shortest path weight value decreases with increasing of fracture density and length, and increases with increasing of the angle between fractures to the maximum principal stress direction. Our method is helpful for evaluating the complexity of the discrete fracture network, to obtain the extension direction of the fracture.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gai, W.; Kanareykin, A.D.; Kustov, A.L.; Simpson, J.
1995-01-01
The propagation of an intense electron beam through a long dielectric tube is a critical issue for the success of the dielectric wakefield acceleration scheme. Due to the head-tail instability, a high current charged particle beam cannot propagate long distance without external focusing. In this paper we examine the beam handling and control problem in the dielectric wakefield accelerator. We show that for the designed 15.6 GHz and 20 GHz dielectric structures a 150 MeV, 40 endash 100 nC beam can be controlled and propagate up to 5 meters without significant particle losses by using external applied focusing and defocusing channel (FODO) around the dielectric tube. Particle dynamics of the accelerated beam is also studied. Our results show that for typical dielectric acceleration structures, the head-tail instabilities can be conveniently controlled in the same way as the driver beam. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Simulation of a plane wavefront propagating in cardiac tissue using a cellular automata model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbosa, Carlos R Hall
2003-01-01
We present a detailed description of a cellular automata model for the propagation of action potential in a planar cardiac tissue, which is very fast and easy to use. The model incorporates anisotropy in the electrical conductivity and a spatial variation of the refractory time. The transmembrane potential distribution is directly derived from the cell states, and the intracellular and extracellular potential distributions are calculated for the particular case of a plane wavefront. Once the potential distributions are known, the associated current densities are calculated by Ohm's law, and the magnetic field is determined at a plane parallel to the cardiac tissue by applying the law of Biot and Savart. The results obtained for propagation speed and for magnetic field amplitude with the cellular automata model are compared with values predicted by the bidomain formulation, for various angles between wavefront propagation and fibre direction, characterizing excellent agreement between the models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siham Hairoud
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In order to better assess the behaviours of the propagation channel in a confined environment such as a railway tunnel for subway application, we present an optimization method for a deterministic channel simulator based on 3D ray tracing associated to the geometrical optics laws and the uniform theory of diffraction. This tool requires a detailed description of the environment. Thus, the complexity of this model is directly bound to the complexity of the environment and specifically to the number of facets that compose it. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to identify facets that have no significant impact on the wave propagation. This allows us to simplify the description of the geometry of the modelled environment by removing them and by this way, to reduce the complexity of our model and therefore its computation time. A comparative study between full and simplified environment is led and shows the impact of this proposed method on the characteristic parameters of the propagation channel. Thus computation time obtained from the simplified environment is 6 times lower than the one of the full model without significant degradation of simulation accuracy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ding Jun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper reports a numerical simulation procedure to model crack propagation in TGO layer and TGO growth near a surface groove in metal substrate upon multiple thermal-mechanical cycles. The material property change method is employed to model TGO formation cycle by cycle, and the creep properties for constituent materials are also incorporated. Two columns of repeated nodes are placed along the interface of the potential crack, and these nodes are bonded together as one node at a geometrical location. In terms of critical crack opening displacement criterion, onset of crack propagation in TGO layer has been determined by finite element analyses in comparison with that without predefined crack. Then, according to the results from the previous analyses, the input values for the critical failure parameters for the subsequent analyses can be decided. The robust capabilities of restart analysis in ABAQUS help to implement the overall simulation for TGO crack propagation. The comparison of the TGO final deformation profile between numerical and experimental observation shows a good agreement indicating the correctness and effectiveness of the present procedure, which can guide the prediction of the failure in TGO for the future design and optimization for TBC system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fiser Ondrej
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Long-term monthly and annual statistics of the attenuation of electromagnetic waves that have been obtained from 6 years of measurements on a free space optical path, 853 meters long, with a wavelength of 850 nm and on a precisely parallel radio path with a frequency of 58 GHz are presented. All the attenuation events observed are systematically classified according to the hydrometeor type causing the particular event. Monthly and yearly propagation statistics on the free space optical path and radio path are obtained. The influence of individual hydrometeors on attenuation is analysed. The obtained propagation statistics are compared to the calculated statistics using ITU-R models. The calculated attenuation statistics both at 850 nm and 58 GHz underestimate the measured statistics for higher attenuation levels. The availability performance of a simulated hybrid FSO/RF system is analysed based on the measured data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jianwei; Lu Guocai; Shang Xinchun
2011-01-01
The process of I-mode crack propagations in α-Fe for uniaxial tension experiments are simulated by molecular dynamics (MD) methods. The formation process of dislocation and fracture mechanisms in the crack growing under various temperatures were studied. The results show that the crack propagation is a process of successive emission of dislocation. The dislocation-free zone and the stacking faults were initially formed at crack tip. When the stress K I increased into 0. 566 MPam 1/2 , one layer of atoms near crack tip would be separated into two layers which produced a dislocation. The first dislocation was emitted when stress K I reached 0.669 MPam 1/2 . With the temperature increasing, the critical stress intensity factor decreased gradually and the dislocation emission correspondingly became faster as well. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Böcklin, Christoph; Baumann, Dirk; Fröhlich, Jürg
2014-01-01
A novel way to attain three dimensional fluence rate maps from Monte-Carlo simulations of photon propagation is presented in this work. The propagation of light in a turbid medium is described by the radiative transfer equation and formulated in terms of radiance. For many applications, particularly in biomedical optics, the fluence rate is a more useful quantity and directly derived from the radiance by integrating over all directions. Contrary to the usual way which calculates the fluence rate from absorbed photon power, the fluence rate in this work is directly calculated from the photon packet trajectory. The voxel based algorithm works in arbitrary geometries and material distributions. It is shown that the new algorithm is more efficient and also works in materials with a low or even zero absorption coefficient. The capabilities of the new algorithm are demonstrated on a curved layered structure, where a non-scattering, non-absorbing layer is sandwiched between two highly scattering layers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Garcia Cristobal
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Vibrations are responsible for a considerable number of accidents in aircrafts, bridges and other civil engineering structures. Therefore, there is a need to reduce the vibrations on structures made of composite materials. Delamination is a particularly dangerous failure mode for composite materials because delaminated composites can lose up to 60% of their strength and stiffness and still remain unchanged. One of the methods to suppress vibrations and preventing delamination is to incorporate nanofibers into the composite laminates. The aim of the present work is to investigate how nylon nanofibers affect the dynamic behaviour and delamination resistance of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP composites. Experiments and numerical simulations using finite element modelling (FEM analysis are used to estimate the natural frequencies, the damping ratio and inter-laminar strength in GFRP composites with and without nylon nanofibers. It is found that the natural frequencies of the nylon nano-modified composites do not change significantly as compared to the traditional composites. However, nano-modified composites demonstrated a considerable increase in damping ratio and inter-laminar shear strength due to the incorporation of nylon nanofibers. This work contributes to the knowledge about the mechanical and dynamic properties of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP composites with nylon nanofibers.
Simulation of light propagation in the thin-film waveguide lens
Malykh, M. D.; Divakov, D. V.; Sevastianov, L. A.; Sevastianov, A. L.
2018-04-01
In this paper we investigate the solution of the problem of modeling the propagation of electromagnetic radiation in three-dimensional integrated optical structures, such as waveguide lenses. When propagating through three-dimensional waveguide structures the waveguide modes can be hybridized, so the mathematical model of their propagation must take into account the connection of TE- and TM-mode components. Therefore, an adequate consideration of hybridization of the waveguide modes is possible only in vector formulation of the problem. An example of three-dimensional structure that hybridizes waveguide modes is the Luneburg waveguide lens, which also has focusing properties. If the waveguide lens has a radius of the order of several tens of wavelengths, its variable thickness at distances of the order of several wavelengths is almost constant. Assuming in this case that the electromagnetic field also varies slowly in the direction perpendicular to the direction of propagation, one can introduce a small parameter characterizing this slow varying and decompose the solution in powers of the small parameter. In this approach, in the zeroth approximation, scalar diffraction problems are obtained, the solution of which is less resource-consuming than the solution of vector problems. The calculated first-order corrections of smallness describe the connection of TE- and TM-modes, so the solutions obtained are weakly-hybridized modes. The formulation of problems and methods for their numerical solution in this paper are based on the authors' research on waveguide diffraction on a lens in a scalar formulation.
Yoon, Kyungho; Lee, Wonhye; Croce, Phillip; Cammalleri, Amanda; Yoo, Seung-Schik
2018-05-01
Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) is emerging as a non-invasive brain stimulation modality. Complicated interactions between acoustic pressure waves and osseous tissue introduce many challenges in the accurate targeting of an acoustic focus through the cranium. Image-guidance accompanied by a numerical simulation is desired to predict the intracranial acoustic propagation through the skull; however, such simulations typically demand heavy computation, which warrants an expedited processing method to provide on-site feedback for the user in guiding the acoustic focus to a particular brain region. In this paper, we present a multi-resolution simulation method based on the finite-difference time-domain formulation to model the transcranial propagation of acoustic waves from a single-element transducer (250 kHz). The multi-resolution approach improved computational efficiency by providing the flexibility in adjusting the spatial resolution. The simulation was also accelerated by utilizing parallelized computation through the graphic processing unit. To evaluate the accuracy of the method, we measured the actual acoustic fields through ex vivo sheep skulls with different sonication incident angles. The measured acoustic fields were compared to the simulation results in terms of focal location, dimensions, and pressure levels. The computational efficiency of the presented method was also assessed by comparing simulation speeds at various combinations of resolution grid settings. The multi-resolution grids consisting of 0.5 and 1.0 mm resolutions gave acceptable accuracy (under 3 mm in terms of focal position and dimension, less than 5% difference in peak pressure ratio) with a speed compatible with semi real-time user feedback (within 30 s). The proposed multi-resolution approach may serve as a novel tool for simulation-based guidance for tFUS applications.
Watkins, Wendell R.; Clement, Dieter
The present conference discusses the design of IR imaging radiometers, IR clutter measurements of marine backgrounds, a global evaluation of thermal IR countermeasures, the estimation of scene-correlation lengths, the dimension and lacunarity measurement of IR images using Hilbert scanning, modeling the time-dependent obscuration in simulated imaging of dust and smoke clouds, and the thermal and radiometric modeling of terrain backgrounds. Also discussed are the simulation of partially obscured scenes using the 'radiosity' method, dynamic sea-image generation, atmospheric propagation effects on pattern recognition by neural networks, a thermal model for real-time textured IR background simulation, and interferometric measurements of a high velocity mixing/shear layer. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)
Watkins, Wendell R.; Zegel, Ferdinand H.; Triplett, Milton J.
1990-09-01
Various papers on the characterization, propagation, and simulation of IR scenes are presented. Individual topics addressed include: total radiant exitance measurements, absolute measurement of diffuse and specular reflectance using an FTIR spectrometer with an integrating sphere, fundamental limits in temperature estimation, incorporating the BRDF into an IR scene-generation system, characterizing IR dynamic response for foliage backgrounds, modeling sea surface effects in FLIR performance codes, automated imaging IR seeker performance evaluation system, generation of signature data bases with fast codes, background measurements using the NPS-IRST system. Also discussed are: naval ocean IR background analysis, camouflage simulation and effectiveness assessment for the individual soldier, discussion of IR scene generators, multiwavelength Scophony IR scene projector, LBIR target generator and calibrator for preflight seeker tests, dual-mode hardware-in-the-loop simulation facility, development of the IR blackbody source of gravity-type heat pipe and study of its characteristic.
Baiardi, A.; Paoloni, L.; Barone, V.; Zakrzewski, V.G.; Ortiz, J.V.
2017-01-01
The analysis of photoelectron spectra is usually facilitated by quantum mechanical simulations. Due to the recent improvement of experimental techniques, the resolution of experimental spectra is rapidly increasing, and the inclusion of vibrational effects is usually mandatory to obtain a reliable reproduction of the spectra. With the aim of defining a robust computational protocol, a general time-independent formulation to compute different kinds of vibrationally-resolved electronic spectra has been generalized to support also photoelectron spectroscopy. The electronic structure data underlying the simulation are computed using different electron propagator approaches. In addition to the more standard approaches, a new and robust implementation of the second-order self-energy approximation of the electron propagator based on a transition operator reference (TOEP2) is presented. To validate our implementation, a series of molecules has been used as test cases. The result of the simulations shows that, for ultraviolet photoionization spectra, the more accurate non-diagonal approaches are needed to obtain a reliable reproduction of vertical ionization energies, but diagonal approaches are sufficient for energy gradients and pole strengths. For X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the TOEP2 approach, besides being more efficient, is also the most accurate in the reproduction of both vertical ionization energies and vibrationally-resolved bandshapes. PMID:28521087
Delamination Assessment Tool for Spacecraft Composite Structures
Portela, Pedro; Preller, Fabian; Wittke, Henrik; Sinnema, Gerben; Camanho, Pedro; Turon, Albert
2012-07-01
Fortunately only few cases are known where failure of spacecraft structures due to undetected damage has resulted in a loss of spacecraft and launcher mission. However, several problems related to damage tolerance and in particular delamination of composite materials have been encountered during structure development of various ESA projects and qualification testing. To avoid such costly failures during development, launch or service of spacecraft, launcher and reusable launch vehicles structures a comprehensive damage tolerance verification approach is needed. In 2009, the European Space Agency (ESA) initiated an activity called “Delamination Assessment Tool” which is led by the Portuguese company HPS Lda and includes academic and industrial partners. The goal of this study is the development of a comprehensive damage tolerance verification approach for launcher and reusable launch vehicles (RLV) structures, addressing analytical and numerical methodologies, material-, subcomponent- and component testing, as well as non-destructive inspection. The study includes a comprehensive review of current industrial damage tolerance practice resulting from ECSS and NASA standards, the development of new Best Practice Guidelines for analysis, test and inspection methods and the validation of these with a real industrial case study. The paper describes the main findings of this activity so far and presents a first iteration of a Damage Tolerance Verification Approach, which includes the introduction of novel analytical and numerical tools at an industrial level. This new approach is being put to the test using real industrial case studies provided by the industrial partners, MT Aerospace, RUAG Space and INVENT GmbH
Failure Predictions of Out-of-Autoclave Sandwich Joints with Delaminations Under Flexure Loads
Nordendale, Nikolas A.; Goyal, Vinay K.; Lundgren, Eric C.; Patel, Dhruv N.; Farrokh, Babak; Jones, Justin; Fischetti, Grace; Segal, Kenneth N.
2015-01-01
An analysis and a test program was conducted to investigate the damage tolerance of composite sandwich joints. The joints contained a single circular delamination between the face-sheet and the doubler. The coupons were fabricated through out-of-autoclave (OOA) processes, a technology NASA is investigating for joining large composite sections. The four-point bend flexure test was used to induce compression loading into the side of the joint where the delamination was placed. The compression side was chosen since it tends to be one of the most critical loads in launch vehicles. Autoclave cure was used to manufacture the composite sandwich sections, while the doubler was co-bonded onto the sandwich face-sheet using an OOA process after sandwich panels were cured. A building block approach was adopted to characterize the mechanical properties of the joint material, including the fracture toughness between the doubler and face-sheet. Twelve four-point-bend samples were tested, six in the sandwich core ribbon orientation and six in sandwich core cross-ribbon direction. Analysis predicted failure initiation and propagation at the pre-delaminated location, consistent with experimental observations. A building block approach using fracture analyses methods predicted failure loads in close agreement with tests. This investigation demonstrated a small strength reduction due to a flaw of significant size compared to the width of the sample. Therefore, concerns of bonding an OOA material to an in-autoclave material was mitigated for the geometries, materials, and load configurations considered.
High-Fidelity Simulations of Electromagnetic Propagation and RF Communication Systems
2017-05-01
Systems T53 Final Report En gi ne er R es ea rc h an d D ev el op m en t Ce nt er Samuel S. Streeter, Daniel J. Breton, Michele L. Maxson, and...Autonomous Navigation Environment ERDC TR-17-2 vii VPUP Vertical Plane Urban Propagation VTRPE Variable Terrain Radio Parabolic Equation WI...two-dimensional (2-D) vertical plane diffraction models (e.g., Longley-Rice, Terrain Integrated Rough Earth Model [TIREM], Variable Terrain Radio
Study on the propagation properties of laser in aerosol based on Monte Carlo simulation
Leng, Kun; Wu, Wenyuan; Zhang, Xi; Gong, Yanchun; Yang, Yuntao
2018-02-01
When laser propagate in the atmosphere, due to aerosol scattering and absorption, laser energy will continue to decline, affecting the effectiveness of the laser effect. Based on the Monte Carlo method, the relationship between the photon spatial energy distributions of the laser wavelengths of 10.6μm in marine, sand-type, water-soluble and soot aerosols ,and the propagation distance, visibility and the divergence angle were studied. The results show that for 10.6μm laser, the maximum number of attenuation of photons arriving at the receiving plane is sand-type aerosol, the minimal attenuation is water soluble aerosol; as the propagation distance increases, the number of photons arriving at the receiving plane decreases; as the visibility increases, the number of photons arriving at the receiving plane increases rapidly and then stabilizes; in the above cases, the photon energy distribution does not deviated from the Gaussian distribution; as the divergence angle increases, the number of photons arriving at the receiving plane is almost unchanged, but the photon energy distribution gradually deviates from the Gaussian distribution.
Combined simulation of fatigue crack nucleation and propagation based on a damage indicator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Springer
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Fatigue considerations often distinguish between fatigue crack nucleation and fatigue crack propagation. The current work presents a modeling approach utilizing one Fatigue Damage Indicator to treat both in a unified way. The approach is implemented within the framework of the Finite Element Method. Multiaxial critical plane models with an extended damage accumulation are employed as Fatigue Indicators. Locations of fatigue crack emergence are predicted by these indicators and material degradation is utilized to model local material failure. The cyclic loading is continued on the now degraded structure and the next location prone to material failure is identified and degradation modeled. This way, fatigue crack propagation is represented by an evolving spatial zone of material failure. This propagating damage zone leads to a changing structural response of the pristine structure. By recourse to the Fatigue Damage Indicator a correlation between the number of applied load cycles and the changing structural behavior is established. Finally, the proposed approach is exemplified by cyclic bending experiments in the Low Cycle Fatigue regime
A Monte-Carlo Simulation of Light Propagation in Sea Water
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Brennan, Mike
1997-01-01
.... Assumptions made in the implementation of the program are discussed. Results of some initial simulations are presented, together with data obtained during a recent LADS sortie for comparison with the simulations...
Influence of substrate topography on cathodic delamination of anticorrosive coatings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim
2009-01-01
and thereby the substrate topography, whereas the coating thickness had little influence. The presence of a significant potential gradient between the anode and the cathode and the dependency of the delamination rate on the tortuosity of the steel surface suggests that cathodic delamination is controlled...
The Effect of Substrate Topography on Coating Cathodic Delamination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Erik Weinell, Claus; Sørensen, Per A.; Kiil, Søren
2011-01-01
This article describes the effect of steel substrate topography on coating cathodic delamination. The study showed that the surface preparation can be used to control and minimize the rate of cathodic delamination. The coating should have maximum wetting properties so that substrates with high...
Failure analysis of multiple delaminated composite plates due to ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
plates are assumed to contain both single and multiple delaminations. For the case of impact, ... delamination on the first ply failure of the laminate is scarce. ..... 1 in the bottom layer, it was of the opposite sign for the top layer. The plots for ...
Failure analysis of multiple delaminated composite plates due
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The present work aims at the first ply failure analysis of laminated composite plates with arbitrarily located multiple delaminations subjected to transverse static load as well as impact. The theoretical formulation is based on a simple multiple delamination model. Conventional first order shear deformation is assumed using ...
Delamination Detection of Reinforced Concrete Decks Using Modal Identification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shutao Xing
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This study addressed delamination detection of concrete slabs by analyzing global dynamic responses of structures. Both numerical and experimental studies are presented. In the numerical examples, delaminations with different sizes and locations were introduced into a concrete slab; the effects of presence, sizes, and locations of delaminations on the modal frequencies and mode shapes of the concrete slab under various support conditions were studied. In the experimental study, four concrete deck specimens with different delamination sizes were constructed, and experimental tests were conducted. Traditional peak-picking, frequency domain decomposition, and stochastic subspace identification methods were applied to the modal identification from dynamic response measurements. The modal parameters identified by these three methods correlated well. The changes in modal frequencies, damping ratios, and mode shapes that were extracted from the dynamic measurements were investigated and correlated to the actual delaminations and can indicate presence and severity of delamination. Finite element (FE models of reinforced concrete decks with different delamination sizes and locations were established. The modal parameters computed from the FE models were compared to those obtained from the laboratory specimens, and the FE models were validated. The delamination detection approach was proved to be effective for concrete decks on beams.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François, E-mail: francois.coulouvrat@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7190, Institut Jean Le Rond d’Alembert, F-75005, Paris (France)
2015-10-28
Many situations involve the propagation of acoustical shock waves through flows. Natural sources such as lightning, volcano explosions, or meteoroid atmospheric entries, emit loud, low frequency, and impulsive sound that is influenced by atmospheric wind and turbulence. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft and explosion noises are examples of intense anthropogenic sources in the atmosphere. The Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades rotating at supersonic speed also propagates in a fast flow within the engine nacelle. Simulating these situations is challenging, given the 3D nature of the problem, the long range propagation distances relative to the central wavelength, the strongly nonlinear behavior of shocks associated to a wide-band spectrum, and finally the key role of the flow motion. With this in view, the so-called FLHOWARD (acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction) method is presented with three-dimensional applications. A scalar nonlinear wave equation is established in the framework of atmospheric applications, assuming weak heterogeneities and a slow wind. It takes into account diffraction, absorption and relaxation properties of the atmosphere, quadratic nonlinearities including weak shock waves, heterogeneities of the medium in sound speed and density, and presence of a flow (assuming a mean stratified wind and 3D turbulent ? flow fluctuations of smaller amplitude). This equation is solved in the framework of the one-way method. A split-step technique allows the splitting of the non-linear wave equation into simpler equations, each corresponding to a physical effect. Each sub-equation is solved using an analytical method if possible, and finite-differences otherwise. Nonlinear effects are solved in the time domain, and others in the frequency domain. Homogeneous diffraction is handled by means of the angular spectrum method. Ground is assumed perfectly flat and rigid. Due to the 3D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François
2015-01-01
Many situations involve the propagation of acoustical shock waves through flows. Natural sources such as lightning, volcano explosions, or meteoroid atmospheric entries, emit loud, low frequency, and impulsive sound that is influenced by atmospheric wind and turbulence. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft and explosion noises are examples of intense anthropogenic sources in the atmosphere. The Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades rotating at supersonic speed also propagates in a fast flow within the engine nacelle. Simulating these situations is challenging, given the 3D nature of the problem, the long range propagation distances relative to the central wavelength, the strongly nonlinear behavior of shocks associated to a wide-band spectrum, and finally the key role of the flow motion. With this in view, the so-called FLHOWARD (acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction) method is presented with three-dimensional applications. A scalar nonlinear wave equation is established in the framework of atmospheric applications, assuming weak heterogeneities and a slow wind. It takes into account diffraction, absorption and relaxation properties of the atmosphere, quadratic nonlinearities including weak shock waves, heterogeneities of the medium in sound speed and density, and presence of a flow (assuming a mean stratified wind and 3D turbulent ? flow fluctuations of smaller amplitude). This equation is solved in the framework of the one-way method. A split-step technique allows the splitting of the non-linear wave equation into simpler equations, each corresponding to a physical effect. Each sub-equation is solved using an analytical method if possible, and finite-differences otherwise. Nonlinear effects are solved in the time domain, and others in the frequency domain. Homogeneous diffraction is handled by means of the angular spectrum method. Ground is assumed perfectly flat and rigid. Due to the 3D
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julián A García-Grajales
Full Text Available With the growing body of research on traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, computational neuroscience has recently focused its modeling efforts on neuronal functional deficits following mechanical loading. However, in most of these efforts, cell damage is generally only characterized by purely mechanistic criteria, functions of quantities such as stress, strain or their corresponding rates. The modeling of functional deficits in neurites as a consequence of macroscopic mechanical insults has been rarely explored. In particular, a quantitative mechanically based model of electrophysiological impairment in neuronal cells, Neurite, has only very recently been proposed. In this paper, we present the implementation details of this model: a finite difference parallel program for simulating electrical signal propagation along neurites under mechanical loading. Following the application of a macroscopic strain at a given strain rate produced by a mechanical insult, Neurite is able to simulate the resulting neuronal electrical signal propagation, and thus the corresponding functional deficits. The simulation of the coupled mechanical and electrophysiological behaviors requires computational expensive calculations that increase in complexity as the network of the simulated cells grows. The solvers implemented in Neurite--explicit and implicit--were therefore parallelized using graphics processing units in order to reduce the burden of the simulation costs of large scale scenarios. Cable Theory and Hodgkin-Huxley models were implemented to account for the electrophysiological passive and active regions of a neurite, respectively, whereas a coupled mechanical model accounting for the neurite mechanical behavior within its surrounding medium was adopted as a link between electrophysiology and mechanics. This paper provides the details of the parallel implementation of Neurite, along with three different application examples: a long myelinated axon
Tripathi, B. B.; Espíndola, D.; Pinton, G. F.
2017-11-01
The recent discovery of shear shock wave generation and propagation in the porcine brain suggests that this new shock phenomenology may be responsible for a broad range of traumatic injuries. Blast-induced head movement can indirectly lead to shear wave generation in the brain, which could be a primary mechanism for injury. Shear shock waves amplify the local acceleration deep in the brain by up to a factor of 8.5, which may tear and damage neurons. Currently, there are numerical methods that can model compressional shock waves, such as comparatively well-studied blast waves, but there are no numerical full-wave solvers that can simulate nonlinear shear shock waves in soft solids. Unlike simplified representations, e.g., retarded time, full-wave representations describe fundamental physical behavior such as reflection and heterogeneities. Here we present a piecewise parabolic method-based solver for one-dimensional linearly polarized nonlinear shear wave in a homogeneous medium and with empirical frequency-dependent attenuation. This method has the advantage of being higher order and more directly extendable to multiple dimensions and heterogeneous media. The proposed numerical scheme is validated analytically and experimentally and compared to other shock capturing methods. A Riemann step-shock problem is used to characterize the numerical dissipation. This dissipation is then tuned to be negligible with respect to the physical attenuation by choosing an appropriate grid spacing. The numerical results are compared to ultrasound-based experiments that measure planar polarized shear shock wave propagation in a tissue-mimicking gelatin phantom. Good agreement is found between numerical results and experiment across a 40 mm propagation distance. We anticipate that the proposed method will be a starting point for the development of a two- and three-dimensional full-wave code for the propagation of nonlinear shear waves in heterogeneous media.
Experimental evaluation of coating delamination in vinyl coated metal forming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Son, Young Ki; Lee, Chan Joo; Kim, Byung Min; Lee, Jung Min; Byoen, Sang Doek; Lee, Soen Bong
2012-01-01
In this paper, a new evaluation and prediction method for coating delamination during sheet metal forming is presented. On the basis of the forming limit diagram (FLD), the current study evaluates the delamination of PET coating by using a cross cut specimen, dome test, and rectangular cup drawing test. Dome test specimens were subjected to biaxial, plane strain, and uniaxial deformation modes. Rectangular cup drawing test specimens were subjected to the deep drawing deformation mode, and compression deformation mode. A vinyl coated metal (VCM) sheet consists of three layers of polymer on the sheet metals: a protective film, a PET layer and a PVC layer. The areas with coating delamination were identified, and the results of the evaluation were plotted according to major and minor strain values, depicting coating delamination. The constructed delamination limit diagram (DLD) can be used to determine the forming limit of VCM during the complex press forming process. ARGUS (GOM) was employed to identify the strain value and deformation mode of the delaminated surface after the press forming. After identifying the areas of delamination, the DLD of the PET coating can be constructed in a format similar to that of the FLD. The forming limit of the VCM sheet can be evaluated using the superimposition of the delamination limit strain of the coating onto the FLD of VCM sheet. The experimental results showed that the proposed test method will support the sheet metal forming process design for VCM sheets. The assessment method presented in this study can be used to determine the delamination limit strain under plastic deformation of other polymer coated metals. The experimental results suggested that the proposed testing method is effective in evaluating delamination for specific applications
Experimental evaluation of coating delamination in vinyl coated metal forming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Son, Young Ki; Lee, Chan Joo; Kim, Byung Min [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Min [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Byoen, Sang Doek [HA Digital Engineering Gr., Seongsan Gu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soen Bong [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)
2012-10-15
In this paper, a new evaluation and prediction method for coating delamination during sheet metal forming is presented. On the basis of the forming limit diagram (FLD), the current study evaluates the delamination of PET coating by using a cross cut specimen, dome test, and rectangular cup drawing test. Dome test specimens were subjected to biaxial, plane strain, and uniaxial deformation modes. Rectangular cup drawing test specimens were subjected to the deep drawing deformation mode, and compression deformation mode. A vinyl coated metal (VCM) sheet consists of three layers of polymer on the sheet metals: a protective film, a PET layer and a PVC layer. The areas with coating delamination were identified, and the results of the evaluation were plotted according to major and minor strain values, depicting coating delamination. The constructed delamination limit diagram (DLD) can be used to determine the forming limit of VCM during the complex press forming process. ARGUS (GOM) was employed to identify the strain value and deformation mode of the delaminated surface after the press forming. After identifying the areas of delamination, the DLD of the PET coating can be constructed in a format similar to that of the FLD. The forming limit of the VCM sheet can be evaluated using the superimposition of the delamination limit strain of the coating onto the FLD of VCM sheet. The experimental results showed that the proposed test method will support the sheet metal forming process design for VCM sheets. The assessment method presented in this study can be used to determine the delamination limit strain under plastic deformation of other polymer coated metals. The experimental results suggested that the proposed testing method is effective in evaluating delamination for specific applications.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bhushan, Karihaloo; Stang, Henrik
2008-01-01
This paper is concerned with development of a simple procedure to assess the threat posed by interlaminar matrix delaminations to the integrity of composite laminates when they are situated in a compressive stress field. Depending upon the size of the delamination, its location below the surface...
STUDY OF THE PROPAGATION OF SHORT PULSE LASER WITH CAVITY USING NUMERICAL SIMULATION SOFTWARE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Terniche
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this representation is to show the potentialities (Computational Time, access to the dynamic and feasibility of systematic studies of the numerical study of the nonlinear dynamics in laser cavity, assisted by software. We will give as an example, one type of cavity completely fibered composed of several elements and then studying the physical parameters of a pulse propagating into this cavity, determining its characteristics at the output. The results are interesting but we also projects to verify them experimentally by making assemblies similar to this type of cavities.
Fukuhara, Keisuke; Morita, Nagayoshi
New FDTD algorithm is proposed for analyzing ultrasonic pulse propagation in the human body, the problem being connected with ESWL (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy). In this method, we do not use plane wave approximation but employ directly the original equations taking account of Lagrangian to derive new FDTD algorithms. This method is applied to an experimental setup and its numerical model that resemble actual treatment situation to compare sound pressure distributions obtained numerically with those obtained experimentally. It is shown that the present method gives clearly better results than the earlier method, in the viewpoint of numerical reappearance of strongly nonlinear waveform.
Manga, Etoungh D; Blasco, Hugues; Da-Costa, Philippe; Drobek, Martin; Ayral, André; Le Clezio, Emmanuel; Despaux, Gilles; Coasne, Benoit; Julbe, Anne
2014-09-02
The present study reports on the development of a characterization method of porous membrane materials which consists of considering their acoustic properties upon gas adsorption. Using acoustic microscopy experiments and atomistic molecular simulations for helium adsorbed in a silicalite-1 zeolite membrane layer, we showed that acoustic wave propagation could be used, in principle, for controlling the membranes operando. Molecular simulations, which were found to fit experimental data, showed that the compressional modulus of the composite system consisting of silicalite-1 with adsorbed He increases linearly with the He adsorbed amount while its shear modulus remains constant in a large range of applied pressures. These results suggest that the longitudinal and Rayleigh wave velocities (VL and VR) depend on the He adsorbed amount whereas the transverse wave velocity VT remains constant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tushar Kanti Bera
2011-03-01
Full Text Available A Projection Error Propagation-based Regularization (PEPR method is proposed and the reconstructed image quality is improved in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. A projection error is produced due to the misfit of the calculated and measured data in the reconstruction process. The variation of the projection error is integrated with response matrix in each iterations and the reconstruction is carried out in EIDORS. The PEPR method is studied with the simulated boundary data for different inhomogeneity geometries. Simulated results demonstrate that the PEPR technique improves image reconstruction precision in EIDORS and hence it can be successfully implemented to increase the reconstruction accuracy in EIT.>doi:10.5617/jeb.158 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 2-12, 2011
Delamination wear mechanism in gray cast irons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salehi, M.
2000-01-01
An investigation of the friction and sliding wear of gray cast iron against chromium plated cast irons was carried out on a newly constructed reciprocating friction and wear tester. The tests were the first to be done on the test rig under dry conditions and at the speed of 170 cm/min, and variable loads of 20-260 N for a duration of 15 min. to 3 hours. The gray cast iron surfaces worn by a process of plastic deformation at the subsurface, crack nucleation, and crack growth leading to formation of plate like debris and therefore the delamination theory applies. No evidence of adhesion was observed. This could be due to formation of oxides on the wear surface which prevent adhesion. channel type chromium plating ''picked'' up cast iron from the counter-body surfaces by mechanically trapping cast iron debris on and within the cracks. The removal of the plated chromium left a pitted surface on the cast iron
Turbulence simulations of blob formation and radial propagation in toroidally magnetized plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.
2006-01-01
the presence of long- range correlations in the particle density fluctuations. Finally, conditional statistics of the particle flux demonstrates the intermittency of the turbulent plasma transport and the quasi-periodic apparency of blob structures due to bursting in the global turbulence level....... of particles and heat, which is coupled to a scrape-off layer with linear damping terms for all dependent variables corresponding to transport along open magnetic field lines. The formation of blob structures is related to profile variations caused by bursting in the global turbulence level, which is due...... to a dynamical regulation by self- sustained differential rotation of the plasma layer. Radial propagation of the blob structures follows from a vertical charge polarization due to magnetic guiding centre drifts in the toroidally magnetized plasma. Statistical analysis of the particle density, radial electric...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henneberg, Kaj-åge; F.A., Roberge
1997-01-01
source current (I-ma) enters the passive tissue as a radial load current (I-ep) while the rest flows longitudinally in the cleft between the active and adjacent passive fibers. The conduction velocity of 1.32 m/s was about 30% lower than on an isolated fiber in a Ringer bath, in close agreement...... rate of rise of the action potential upstroke (V-max) from 512 to 503 V/s. Increasing the phase angle of the passive fiber membrane impedence (Z(m)) increases the phase delay between I-ma and I-ep, thereby increasing phi(epp) which in turn slows down propagation and increases V-max....
A combined ADER-DG and PML approach for simulating wave propagation in unbounded domains
Amler, Thomas; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Alkhalifah, Tariq A.
2012-01-01
cells where waves are amplified by the PML, the contribution of damping terms is neglected and auxiliary variables are reset. Results of 2D simulations in acoustic media with constant and discontinuous material parameters are presented to illustrate
Clement, Dieter; Watkins, Wendell R.
Consideration is given to a characterization of the environmental influence on targets, backgrounds, camouflage, and clutter; modeling of physically based dynamics of scene radiation and its propagation; and the relatively sophisticated real-time simulations/simulators for system observer display and testing of some of these dynamic and varied scene changes. Particular attention is given to the hardware-in-the-loop infrared projector technology, a strategic scene generation model, a comparison of night sky spectral radiance measurements with MODTRAN and LOWTRAN 7 predictions, spatiotemporal models for the simulation of infrared backgrounds, computer-based evaluation of camouflage, dual-band infrared polarization measurements of sun glint from the sea surface, an electron gun IR scenario simulator, relaxation processes of vibrationally excited species in the mesosphere and thermosphere, a fiber-optic-based device for the investigation of aerooptic effects, and luminous intensity measurements of sources using a new detector-based illuminance scale. (For individual items see A93-28623 to A93-28625)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørk, Rasmus; Esposito, Vincenzo; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal
2014-01-01
The densification, delamination and crack growth behavior in a Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) and (La0.85Sr0.15)0.9MnO3 (LSM) multi-layer ceramic sample was studied using in situ X-ray tomographic microscopy (microtomography) to investigate the critical dynamics of crack propagation and delamination...... in a multilayered sample. Naturally occurring defects, caused by the sample preparation process, are shown not to be critical in sample degradation. Instead defects are nucleated during the debinding step. Crack growth is significantly faster along the material layers than perpendicular to them, and crack growth...
Parallel simulation of wormhole propagation with the Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer framework
Wu, Yuanqing
2015-07-09
The acid treatment of carbonate reservoirs is a widely practiced oil and gas well stimulation technique. The injected acid dissolves the material near the wellbore and creates flow channels that establish a good connectivity between the reservoir and the well. Such flow channels are called wormholes. Different from the traditional simulation technology relying on Darcy framework, the new Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer (DBF) framework is introduced to simulate the wormhole forming procedure. The DBF framework considers both large and small porosity conditions and should output better simulation results than the Darcy framework. To process the huge quantity of cells in the simulation grid and shorten the long simulation time of the traditional serial code, a parallel code with FORTRAN 90 and MPI was developed. The experimenting field approach to set coefficients in the model equations was also introduced. Moreover, a procedure to fill in the coefficient matrix in the linear system in the solver was described. After this, 2D dissolution experiments were carried out. In the experiments, different configurations of wormholes and a series of properties simulated by both frameworks were compared. We conclude that the numerical results of the DBF framework are more like wormholes and more stable than the Darcy framework, which is a demonstration of the advantages of the DBF framework. Finally, the scalability of the parallel code was evaluated, and we conclude that superlinear scalability can be achieved. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blackwell, David D.; Walker, David N.; Amatucci, William E.
2010-01-01
In previous papers, early whistler propagation measurements were presented [W. E. Amatucci et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 33, 637 (2005)] as well as antenna impedance measurements [D. D. Blackwell et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 092106 (2007)] performed in the Naval Research Laboratory Space Physics Simulation Chamber (SPSC). Since that time there have been major upgrades in the experimental capabilities of the laboratory in the form of improvement of both the plasma source and antennas. This has allowed access to plasma parameter space that was previously unattainable, and has resulted in measurements that provide a significantly clearer picture of whistler propagation in the laboratory environment. This paper presents some of the first whistler experimental results from the upgraded SPSC. Whereas previously measurements were limited to measuring the cyclotron resonance cutoff and elliptical polarization indicative of the whistler mode, now it is possible to experimentally plot the dispersion relation itself. The waves are driven and detected using balanced dipole and loop antennas connected to a network analyzer, which measures the amplitude and phase of the wave in two dimensions (r and z). In addition the frequency of the signals is also swept over a range of several hundreds of megahertz, providing a comprehensive picture of the near and far field antenna radiation patterns over a variety of plasma conditions. The magnetic field is varied from a few gauss to 200 G, with the density variable over at least 3 decades from 10 7 to 10 10 cm -3 . The waves are shown to lie on the dispersion surface for whistler waves, with observation of resonance cones in agreement with theoretical predictions. The waves are also observed to propagate without loss of amplitude at higher power, a result in agreement with previous experiments and the notion of ducted whistlers.
Floating Carpets and the Delamination of Elastic Sheets
Wagner, Till J. W.
2011-07-22
We investigate the deformation of a thin elastic sheet floating on a liquid surface and subject to a uniaxial compression. We show that at a critical compression the sheet delaminates from the liquid over a finite region forming a delamination "blister." This blistering regime adds to the wrinkling and localized folding regimes that have been studied previously. The transition from wrinkled to blistered states occurs when delamination becomes energetically favorable compared with wrinkling. We determine the initial blister size and the evolution of blister size with continuing compression before verifying our theoretical results with experiments at a macroscopic scale. © 2011 American Physical Society.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, Hirotada; Kajitani, Hiroyuki; Itatani, Ryohei.
1977-07-01
A particle simulation model which treats the wave excitation and propagation in the nonuniform density by the external source is developed and applied for study of the lower hybrid heating in a fusion device. As the linear theory predicts, the cold lower hybrid wave is observed to increase its perpendicular wave number as it propagates to the higher density region and to damp away near the turning point. When the wave amplitude is large or the wave energy is about a half of the initial kinetic energy at a surface of plasma, the following features are observed for the increase of the ion and electron kinetic energies. Ion perpendicular energy distributions are observed to be approximated by the two Maxwell distributions or to have the components of the high energy tail, whose parallel velocities satisfy the resonance condition: νparallel = (ω-IOTAΩ sub(iota))/kappa parallel, where ω and kappa parallel the frequency and the parallel wave number of the external source, IOTA is an integer, and Ω sub(iota) is the ion cyclotron frequency. An strong increase of the parallel kinetic energy of the electron is observed near the plasma surface. These are mainly due to the trapped electrons and the collisional heating. (auth.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Y. Rogov
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical model of linear and nonlinear processes occurring at the propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in the vitreous of the human eye. Methods of computing modeling are applied for the nonlinear spectral equation solution describing the dynamics of a two-dimensional TE-polarized radiation in a homogeneous isotropic medium with cubic fast-response nonlinearity without the usage of slowly varying envelope approximation. Environments close to the optical media parameters of the eye were used for the simulation. The model of femtosecond radiation propagation takes into account the process dynamics for dispersion broadening of pulses in time and the occurence of the self-focusing near the retina when passing through the vitreous body of the eye. Dependence between the pulse duration on the retina has been revealed and the duration of the input pulse and the values of power density at which there is self-focusing have been found. It is shown that the main mechanism of radiation damage with the use of titanium-sapphire laser is photoionization. The results coincide with those obtained by the other scientists, and are usable for creation Russian laser safety standards for femtosecond laser systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Girardin, G.; Proust, A.; Combrade, P.; Vuillemin, B.; Oltra, R.
2006-01-01
The most frequent case of crevice corrosion concerns passivable alloys, and particularly stainless steels in oxidizing chloride media. In order to be sure that its propagation is not possible, the corrosion potential has to be inferior to a critical value called 're-passivation potential'. An easy and flexible computerized simulation of the propagation of an active crevice in chloride medium has been developed to give a parametric study of the local medium and of the re-passivation conditions. This modeling allows to establish the stability domains of the solid and gaseous phases inside the crevice and to assess the influence of the potential of the free surfaces, of the amount of chloride in the exterior medium and the geometry on the local chemistry. It appears that the deepest crevices are not necessarily the strongest. The introduction, in crevice tip, of an easy re-passivation criteria shows the existence of a re-passivation potential depending of the crevice geometry. (O.M.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Jacqueline H.; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Sankaran, Ramanan [Reacting Flow Research Department, Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 969 MS 9051, Livermore, CA 94551-0969 (United States); Mason, Scott D. [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Im, Hong G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125 (United States)
2006-04-15
The influence of thermal stratification on autoignition at constant volume and high pressure is studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS) with detailed hydrogen/air chemistry with a view to providing better understanding and modeling of combustion processes in homogeneous charge compression-ignition engines. Numerical diagnostics are developed to analyze the mode of combustion and the dependence of overall ignition progress on initial mixture conditions. The roles of dissipation of heat and mass are divided conceptually into transport within ignition fronts and passive scalar dissipation, which modifies the statistics of the preignition temperature field. Transport within ignition fronts is analyzed by monitoring the propagation speed of ignition fronts using the displacement speed of a scalar that tracks the location of maximum heat release rate. The prevalence of deflagrative versus spontaneous ignition front propagation is found to depend on the local temperature gradient, and may be identified by the ratio of the instantaneous front speed to the laminar deflagration speed. The significance of passive scalar mixing is examined using a mixing timescale based on enthalpy fluctuations. Finally, the predictions of the multizone modeling strategy are compared with the DNS, and the results are explained using the diagnostics developed. (author)
Wang, Xiang-Hua; Yin, Wen-Yan; Chen, Zhi Zhang David
2013-09-09
The one-step leapfrog alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (ADI-FDTD) method is reformulated for simulating general electrically dispersive media. It models material dispersive properties with equivalent polarization currents. These currents are then solved with the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) and then incorporated into the one-step leapfrog ADI-FDTD method. The final equations are presented in the form similar to that of the conventional FDTD method but with second-order perturbation. The adapted method is then applied to characterize (a) electromagnetic wave propagation in a rectangular waveguide loaded with a magnetized plasma slab, (b) transmission coefficient of a plane wave normally incident on a monolayer graphene sheet biased by a magnetostatic field, and (c) surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagation along a monolayer graphene sheet biased by an electrostatic field. The numerical results verify the stability, accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed one-step leapfrog ADI-FDTD algorithm in comparison with analytical results and the results obtained with the other methods.
Di Sarli, Valeria; Di Benedetto, Almerinda; Russo, Gennaro
2010-08-15
In this work, an assessment of different sub-grid scale (sgs) combustion models proposed for large eddy simulation (LES) of steady turbulent premixed combustion (Colin et al., Phys. Fluids 12 (2000) 1843-1863; Flohr and Pitsch, Proc. CTR Summer Program, 2000, pp. 61-82; Kim and Menon, Combust. Sci. Technol. 160 (2000) 119-150; Charlette et al., Combust. Flame 131 (2002) 159-180; Pitsch and Duchamp de Lageneste, Proc. Combust. Inst. 29 (2002) 2001-2008) was performed to identify the model that best predicts unsteady flame propagation in gas explosions. Numerical results were compared to the experimental data by Patel et al. (Proc. Combust. Inst. 29 (2002) 1849-1854) for premixed deflagrating flame in a vented chamber in the presence of three sequential obstacles. It is found that all sgs combustion models are able to reproduce qualitatively the experiment in terms of step of flame acceleration and deceleration around each obstacle, and shape of the propagating flame. Without adjusting any constants and parameters, the sgs model by Charlette et al. also provides satisfactory quantitative predictions for flame speed and pressure peak. Conversely, the sgs combustion models other than Charlette et al. give correct predictions only after an ad hoc tuning of constants and parameters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Misbah Razzaq
Full Text Available Internet worms are analogous to biological viruses since they can infect a host and have the ability to propagate through a chosen medium. To prevent the spread of a worm or to grasp how to regulate a prevailing worm, compartmental models are commonly used as a means to examine and understand the patterns and mechanisms of a worm spread. However, one of the greatest challenge is to produce methods to verify and validate the behavioural properties of a compartmental model. This is why in this study we suggest a framework based on Petri Nets and Model Checking through which we can meticulously examine and validate these models. We investigate Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR model and propose a new model Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Delayed-Quarantined (Susceptible/Recovered (SEIDQR(S/I along with hybrid quarantine strategy, which is then constructed and analysed using Stochastic Petri Nets and Continuous Time Markov Chain. The analysis shows that the hybrid quarantine strategy is extremely effective in reducing the risk of propagating the worm. Through Model Checking, we gained insight into the functionality of compartmental models. Model Checking results validate simulation ones well, which fully support the proposed framework.
A PIC-MCC code for simulation of streamer propagation in air
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Neubert, Torsten
2008-01-01
A particle code has been developed to study the distribution and acceleration of electrons in electric discharges in air. The code can follow the evolution of a discharge from the initial stage of a single free electron in a background electric field to the formation of an electron avalanche...... and its transition into a streamer. The code is in 2D axi-symmetric coordinates, allowing quasi 3D simulations during the initial stages of streamer formation. This is important for realistic simulations of problems where space charge fields are essential such as in streamer formation. The charged...... particles are followed in a Cartesian mesh and the electric field is updated with Poisson's equation from the charged particle densities. Collisional processes between electrons and air molecules are simulated with a Monte Carlo technique, according to cross section probabilities. The code also includes...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanfilippo, L.
1987-01-01
A physical model and a computer program have been developed to simulate all the measurement operations involved with the Isotopic Dilution Analysis technique currently applied in the Volume - Concentration method for the Reprocessing Input Accountancy, together with their errors or uncertainties. The simulator is apt to easily solve a number of problems related to the measurement sctivities of the plant operator and the inspector. The program, written in Fortran 77, is based on a particular Montecarlo technique named ''Random Sampling''; a full description of the code is reported
Reverse Monte Carlo simulations of light pulse propagation in nonhomogeneous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Xiaodong; Hsu Peifeng
2005-01-01
This paper presents a follow-up study of our previous work on the reverse Monte Carlo solution of transient radiation transport in the homogeneous media. In this study, the method is extended to consider nonhomogeneous media, which exist in many practical problems. The transport process of ultra-short light pulse propagation inside the non-emitting, absorbing, and anisotropically scattering multi-layer media is studied. Although only one-dimensional geometry is treated here, the method is applicable and easy to extend to multi-dimensional geometries. In multi-layer media, the time-resolved reflectance exhibits a direct correlation between the signal magnitude and the travel time to the layer interface if the ballistic photons encounter a strongly scattering layer. Furthermore, it is found that even with a symmetric radiative property distribution in a three-layer medium, the reflectance and transmittance signals do not converge at long time when the mid-layer is optically thick. The long time slope of the temporal signal does not provide the specificity required for an inverse analysis parameter as stipulated by earlier studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vinai, Paolo; Macian-Juan, Rafael; Chawla, Rakesh
2011-01-01
The paper describes the propagation of void fraction uncertainty, as quantified by employing a novel methodology developed at Paul Scherrer Institut, in the RETRAN-3D simulation of the Peach Bottom turbine trip test. Since the transient considered is characterized by a strong coupling between thermal-hydraulics and neutronics, the accuracy in the void fraction model has a very important influence on the prediction of the power history and, in particular, of the maximum power reached. It has been shown that the objective measures used for the void fraction uncertainty, based on the direct comparison between experimental and predicted values extracted from a database of appropriate separate-effect tests, provides power uncertainty bands that are narrower and more realistic than those based, for example, on expert opinion. The applicability of such an approach to best estimate, nuclear power plant transient analysis has thus been demonstrated.
Cheng, Jiubing; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Wu, Zedong; Zou, Peng; Wang, Chenlong
2016-01-01
In elastic imaging, the extrapolated vector fields are decoupled into pure wave modes, such that the imaging condition produces interpretable images. Conventionally, mode decoupling in anisotropic media is costly because the operators involved are dependent on the velocity, and thus they are not stationary. We have developed an efficient pseudospectral approach to directly extrapolate the decoupled elastic waves using low-rank approximate mixed-domain integral operators on the basis of the elastic displacement wave equation. We have applied k-space adjustment to the pseudospectral solution to allow for a relatively large extrapolation time step. The low-rank approximation was, thus, applied to the spectral operators that simultaneously extrapolate and decompose the elastic wavefields. Synthetic examples on transversely isotropic and orthorhombic models showed that our approach has the potential to efficiently and accurately simulate the propagations of the decoupled quasi-P and quasi-S modes as well as the total wavefields for elastic wave modeling, imaging, and inversion.
Cheng, Jiubing
2016-03-15
In elastic imaging, the extrapolated vector fields are decoupled into pure wave modes, such that the imaging condition produces interpretable images. Conventionally, mode decoupling in anisotropic media is costly because the operators involved are dependent on the velocity, and thus they are not stationary. We have developed an efficient pseudospectral approach to directly extrapolate the decoupled elastic waves using low-rank approximate mixed-domain integral operators on the basis of the elastic displacement wave equation. We have applied k-space adjustment to the pseudospectral solution to allow for a relatively large extrapolation time step. The low-rank approximation was, thus, applied to the spectral operators that simultaneously extrapolate and decompose the elastic wavefields. Synthetic examples on transversely isotropic and orthorhombic models showed that our approach has the potential to efficiently and accurately simulate the propagations of the decoupled quasi-P and quasi-S modes as well as the total wavefields for elastic wave modeling, imaging, and inversion.
A FEM based methodology to simulate multiple crack propagation in friction stir welds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lepore, Marcello; Carlone, Pierpaolo; Berto, Filippo
2017-01-01
. The residual stress field was inferred by a thermo-mechanical FEM simulation of the process, considering temperature dependent elastic-plastic material properties, material softening and isotropic hardening. Afterwards, cracks introduced in the selected location of FEM computational domain allow stress...
Simulation of crack propagation in steel plate with strain softening model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chan, O.B.; Elwi, A.E.; Grondin, G.Y.
2006-05-15
A new material model for simulating the fracture behaviour of structural steel was presented. Recent research on crack initiation and continuum damage mechanics was presented. A modified continuum damage model was also evaluated. Strain softening elements were then used to simulate material cracks in a steel structure. The analysis then compared load versus displacement and load versus clip-gauge displacement curves from various different experimental and numerical studies. A finite element analysis technique was used to simulate the fracture behaviour of 3-points bending specimens. Results of the analysis showed that the model predicted 90 per cent of the load and stress intensity factor at fracture initiation. A BE 365 electric shovel boom was used in the study to simulate fracture behaviour. Coupon test specimens were used to validate analysis predictions. It was concluded that the model was able to reduce the stiffness of the boom when the softening element reached yield strength limits during fracture initiation. 29 refs., 12 tabs., 58 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Manchester, W. B.; Holst, B. van der; Sokolov, I.; Tóth, G.; Gombosi, T. I. [Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Vourlidas, A. [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Koning, C. A. de, E-mail: jinmeng@lmsal.com, E-mail: chipm@umich.edu, E-mail: angelos.vourlidas@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: curt.a.dekoning@noaa.gov [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)
2017-01-10
We perform and analyze the results of a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2011 March 7. The simulation is made using the newly developed Alfvén Wave Solar Model (AWSoM), which describes the background solar wind starting from the upper chromosphere and extends to 24 R {sub ⊙}. Coupling AWSoM to an inner heliosphere model with the Space Weather Modeling Framework extends the total domain beyond the orbit of Earth. Physical processes included in the model are multi-species thermodynamics, electron heat conduction (both collisional and collisionless formulations), optically thin radiative cooling, and Alfvén-wave turbulence that accelerates and heats the solar wind. The Alfvén-wave description is physically self-consistent, including non-Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin reflection and physics-based apportioning of turbulent dissipative heating to both electrons and protons. Within this model, we initiate the CME by using the Gibson-Low analytical flux rope model and follow its evolution for days, in which time it propagates beyond STEREO A . A detailed comparison study is performed using remote as well as in situ observations. Although the flux rope structure is not compared directly due to lack of relevant ejecta observation at 1 au in this event, our results show that the new model can reproduce many of the observed features near the Sun (e.g., CME-driven extreme ultraviolet [EUV] waves, deflection of the flux rope from the coronal hole, “double-front” in the white light images) and in the heliosphere (e.g., shock propagation direction, shock properties at STEREO A ).
The ‘Sticky Elastica’: delamination blisters beyond small deformations
Wagner, Till J. W.; Vella, Dominic
2013-01-01
We consider the form of an elastic loop adhered to a rigid substrate: the 'Sticky Elastica'. In contrast to previous studies of the shape of delamination 'blisters', the theory developed accounts for deflections with large slope (i.e. geometrically
Finite elements modeling of delaminations in composite laminates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaiotti, m.; Rizzo, C.M.; Branner, Kim
2011-01-01
of the buckling strength of composite laminates containing delaminations. Namely, non-linear buckling and post-buckling analyses are carried out to predict the critical buckling load of elementary composite laminates affected by rectangular delaminations of different sizes and locations, which are modelled......The application of composite materials in many structures poses to engineers the problem to create reliable and relatively simple methods, able to estimate the strength of multilayer composite structures. Multilayer composites, like other laminated materials, suffer from layer separation, i.......e., delaminations, which may affect the stiffness and stability of structural components. Especially deep delaminations in the mid surface of laminates are expected to reduce the effective flexural stiffness and lead to collapse, often due to buckling behaviour. This paper deals with the numerical modelling...
Modeling Delamination of Interfacial Corner Cracks in Multilayered Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Veluri, Badrinath (Badri); Jensen, Henrik Myhre
2013-01-01
Multilayered electronic components, typically of heterogeneous materials, delaminate under thermal and mechanical loading. A phenomenological model focused on modeling the shape of such interface cracks close to corners in layered interconnect structures for calculating the critical stress...
Numerical Simulation of Wave Propagation and Phase Transition of Tin under Shock-Wave Loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hai-Feng, Song; Hai-Feng, Liu; Guang-Cai, Zhang; Yan-Hong, Zhao
2009-01-01
We undertake a numerical simulation of shock experiments on tin reported in the literature, by using a multiphase equation of state (MEOS) and a multiphase Steinberg Guinan (MSG) constitutive model for tin in the β, γ and liquid phases. In the MSG model, the Bauschinger effect is considered to better describe the unloading behavior. The phase diagram and Hugoniot of tin are calculated by MEOS, and they agree well with the experimental data. Combined with the MEOS and MSG models, hydrodynamic computer simulations are successful in reproducing the measured velocity profile of the shock wave experiment. Moreover, by analyzing the mass fraction contour as well as stress and temperature profiles of each phase for tin, we further discuss the complex behavior of tin under shock-wave loading. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
He, Xiulan
parameters and model structures, which are the primary focuses of this PhD research. Parameter uncertainty was analyzed using an optimization tool (PEST: Parameter ESTimation) in combination with a random sampling method (LHS: Latin Hypercube Sampling). Model structure, namely geological architecture...... be compensated by model parameters, e.g. when hydraulic heads are considered. However, geological structure is the primary source of uncertainty with respect to simulations of groundwater age and capture zone. Operational MPS based software has been on stage for just around ten years; yet, issues regarding...... geological structures of these three sites provided appropriate conditions for testing the methods. Our study documented that MPS is an efficient approach for simulating geological heterogeneity, especially for non-stationary system. The high resolution of geophysical data such as SkyTEM is valuable both...
Simulation of nonlinear propagation of biomedical ultrasound using PZFlex and the KZK Texas code
Qiao, Shan; Jackson, Edward; Coussios, Constantin-C.; Cleveland, Robin
2015-10-01
In biomedical ultrasound nonlinear acoustics can be important in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications and robust simulations tools are needed in the design process but also for day-to-day use such as treatment planning. For most biomedical application the ultrasound sources generate focused sound beams of finite amplitude. The KZK equation is a common model as it accounts for nonlinearity, absorption and paraxial diffraction and there are a number of solvers available, primarily developed by research groups. We compare the predictions of the KZK Texas code (a finite-difference time-domain algorithm) to an FEM-based commercial software, PZFlex. PZFlex solves the continuity equation and momentum conservation equation with a correction for nonlinearity in the equation of state incorporated using an incrementally linear, 2nd order accurate, explicit algorithm in time domain. Nonlinear ultrasound beams from two transducers driven at 1 MHz and 3.3 MHz respectively were simulated by both the KZK Texas code and PZFlex, and the pressure field was also measured by a fibre-optic hydrophone to validate the models. Further simulations were carried out a wide range of frequencies. The comparisons showed good agreement for the fundamental frequency for PZFlex, the KZK Texas code and the experiments. For the harmonic components, the KZK Texas code was in good agreement with measurements but PZFlex underestimated the amplitude: 32% for the 2nd harmonic and 66% for the 3rd harmonic. The underestimation of harmonics by PZFlex was more significant when the fundamental frequency increased. Furthermore non-physical oscillations in the axial profile of harmonics occurred in the PZFlex results when the amplitudes were relatively low. These results suggest that careful benchmarking of nonlinear simulations is important.
Simulation of nonlinear propagation of biomedical ultrasound using PZFlex and the KZK Texas code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qiao, Shan, E-mail: shan.qiao@eng.ox.ac.uk; Jackson, Edward; Coussios, Constantin-C; Cleveland, Robin [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)
2015-10-28
In biomedical ultrasound nonlinear acoustics can be important in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications and robust simulations tools are needed in the design process but also for day-to-day use such as treatment planning. For most biomedical application the ultrasound sources generate focused sound beams of finite amplitude. The KZK equation is a common model as it accounts for nonlinearity, absorption and paraxial diffraction and there are a number of solvers available, primarily developed by research groups. We compare the predictions of the KZK Texas code (a finite-difference time-domain algorithm) to an FEM-based commercial software, PZFlex. PZFlex solves the continuity equation and momentum conservation equation with a correction for nonlinearity in the equation of state incorporated using an incrementally linear, 2nd order accurate, explicit algorithm in time domain. Nonlinear ultrasound beams from two transducers driven at 1 MHz and 3.3 MHz respectively were simulated by both the KZK Texas code and PZFlex, and the pressure field was also measured by a fibre-optic hydrophone to validate the models. Further simulations were carried out a wide range of frequencies. The comparisons showed good agreement for the fundamental frequency for PZFlex, the KZK Texas code and the experiments. For the harmonic components, the KZK Texas code was in good agreement with measurements but PZFlex underestimated the amplitude: 32% for the 2nd harmonic and 66% for the 3rd harmonic. The underestimation of harmonics by PZFlex was more significant when the fundamental frequency increased. Furthermore non-physical oscillations in the axial profile of harmonics occurred in the PZFlex results when the amplitudes were relatively low. These results suggest that careful benchmarking of nonlinear simulations is important.
Simulation of nonlinear propagation of biomedical ultrasound using PZFlex and the KZK Texas code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiao, Shan; Jackson, Edward; Coussios, Constantin-C; Cleveland, Robin
2015-01-01
In biomedical ultrasound nonlinear acoustics can be important in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications and robust simulations tools are needed in the design process but also for day-to-day use such as treatment planning. For most biomedical application the ultrasound sources generate focused sound beams of finite amplitude. The KZK equation is a common model as it accounts for nonlinearity, absorption and paraxial diffraction and there are a number of solvers available, primarily developed by research groups. We compare the predictions of the KZK Texas code (a finite-difference time-domain algorithm) to an FEM-based commercial software, PZFlex. PZFlex solves the continuity equation and momentum conservation equation with a correction for nonlinearity in the equation of state incorporated using an incrementally linear, 2nd order accurate, explicit algorithm in time domain. Nonlinear ultrasound beams from two transducers driven at 1 MHz and 3.3 MHz respectively were simulated by both the KZK Texas code and PZFlex, and the pressure field was also measured by a fibre-optic hydrophone to validate the models. Further simulations were carried out a wide range of frequencies. The comparisons showed good agreement for the fundamental frequency for PZFlex, the KZK Texas code and the experiments. For the harmonic components, the KZK Texas code was in good agreement with measurements but PZFlex underestimated the amplitude: 32% for the 2nd harmonic and 66% for the 3rd harmonic. The underestimation of harmonics by PZFlex was more significant when the fundamental frequency increased. Furthermore non-physical oscillations in the axial profile of harmonics occurred in the PZFlex results when the amplitudes were relatively low. These results suggest that careful benchmarking of nonlinear simulations is important
Miloichikova, I. A.; Bespalov, V. I.; Krasnykh, A. A.; Stuchebrov, S. G.; Cherepennikov, Yu. M.; Dusaev, R. R.
2018-04-01
Simulation by the Monte Carlo method is widely used to calculate the character of ionizing radiation interaction with substance. A wide variety of programs based on the given method allows users to choose the most suitable package for solving computational problems. In turn, it is important to know exactly restrictions of numerical systems to avoid gross errors. Results of estimation of the feasibility of application of the program PCLab (Computer Laboratory, version 9.9) for numerical simulation of the electron energy distribution absorbed in beryllium, aluminum, gold, and water for industrial, research, and clinical beams are presented. The data obtained using programs ITS and Geant4 being the most popular software packages for solving the given problems and the program PCLab are presented in the graphic form. A comparison and an analysis of the results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of application of the program PCLab for simulation of the absorbed energy distribution and dose of electrons in various materials for energies in the range 1-20 MeV.
A Novel DEM Approach to Simulate Block Propagation on Forested Slopes
Toe, David; Bourrier, Franck; Dorren, Luuk; Berger, Frédéric
2018-03-01
In order to model rockfall on forested slopes, we developed a trajectory rockfall model based on the discrete element method (DEM). This model is able to take the complex mechanical processes at work during an impact into account (large deformations, complex contact conditions) and can explicitly simulate block/soil, block/tree contacts as well as contacts between neighbouring trees. In this paper, we describe the DEM model developed and we use it to assess the protective effect of different types of forest. In addition, we compared it with a more classical rockfall simulation model. The results highlight that forests can significantly reduce rockfall hazard and that the spatial structure of coppice forests has to be taken into account in rockfall simulations in order to avoid overestimating the protective role of these forest structures against rockfall hazard. In addition, the protective role of the forests is mainly influenced by the basal area. Finally, the advantages and limitations of the DEM model were compared with classical rockfall modelling approaches.
Automatic delamination defect detection in radiographic sequence of rocket boosters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rebuffel, V.; Pires, S.; Caplier, A.; Lamarque, P.
2003-01-01
instantaneous confidence image (the required parameter is automatically tuned by local statistic tests). The confidence images are then cumulated over time to get indicators values of the probability of a pixel to belong to a defect. A hysteresis function allows to enhance the defects by adding a neighbourhood validation. Finally the defects are extracted, and characterized in terms of shape and other parameters in the sequence of radiographs. These parameters are finally transformed in the geometry of the object. Thus the method combines spatial and temporal aspects in both detection and characterization. Several experimental tests are presented, on true radiographs of boosters, where delamination small to 1 mm have been detected, and on other cylindrical objects, such as nuclear waste containers. Because defects are fortunately uncommon in these objects, simulations are also used to establish the limits of the algorithm. Both examples would be shown using video animation at the conference. (authors)
Simulation of ultra-high energy photon propagation in the geomagnetic field
Homola, P.; Góra, D.; Heck, D.; Klages, H.; PeĶala, J.; Risse, M.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.
2005-12-01
The identification of primary photons or specifying stringent limits on the photon flux is of major importance for understanding the origin of ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmic rays. UHE photons can initiate particle cascades in the geomagnetic field, which leads to significant changes in the subsequent atmospheric shower development. We present a Monte Carlo program allowing detailed studies of conversion and cascading of UHE photons in the geomagnetic field. The program named PRESHOWER can be used both as an independent tool or together with a shower simulation code. With the stand-alone version of the code it is possible to investigate various properties of the particle cascade induced by UHE photons interacting in the Earth's magnetic field before entering the Earth's atmosphere. Combining this program with an extensive air shower simulation code such as CORSIKA offers the possibility of investigating signatures of photon-initiated showers. In particular, features can be studied that help to discern such showers from the ones induced by hadrons. As an illustration, calculations for the conditions of the southern part of the Pierre Auger Observatory are presented. Catalogue identifier:ADWG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWG Program obtainable: CPC Program Library, Quen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer on which the program has been thoroughly tested:Intel-Pentium based PC Operating system:Linux, DEC-Unix Programming language used:C, FORTRAN 77 Memory required to execute with typical data:Recipes, http://www.nr.com]. Nature of the physical problem:Simulation of a cascade of particles initiated by UHE photon passing through the geomagnetic field above the Earth's atmosphere. Method of solution: The primary photon is tracked until its conversion into ee pair or until it reaches the upper atmosphere. If conversion occurred each individual particle in the resultant preshower is checked for either bremsstrahlung radiation (electrons) or
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaytsev, Kirill I; Katyba, Gleb M; Mukhina, Elena E; Kudrin, Konstantin G; Karasik, Valeriy E; Yurchenko, Stanislav O; Kurlov, Vladimir N; Shikunova, Irina A; Reshetov, Igor V
2016-01-01
Terahertz (THz) waveguiding in sapphire shaped single crystal has been studied using the numerical simulations. The numerical finite-difference analysis has been implemented to characterize the dispersion and loss in the photonic crystalline waveguide containing hollow cylindrical channels, which form the hexagonal lattice. Observed results demonstrate the ability to guide the THz-waves in multi-mode regime in wide frequency range with the minimal power extinction coefficient of 0.02 dB/cm at 1.45 THz. This shows the prospectives of the shaped crystals for highly-efficient THz waveguiding. (paper)
Calibration and Forward Uncertainty Propagation for Large-eddy Simulations of Engineering Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Templeton, Jeremy Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blaylock, Myra L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Domino, Stefan P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hewson, John C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kumar, Pritvi Raj [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ling, Julia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Najm, Habib N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ruiz, Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Safta, Cosmin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sargsyan, Khachik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stewart, Alessia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wagner, Gregory [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-09-01
The objective of this work is to investigate the efficacy of using calibration strategies from Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) to determine model coefficients for LES. As the target methods are for engineering LES, uncertainty from numerical aspects of the model must also be quantified. 15 The ultimate goal of this research thread is to generate a cost versus accuracy curve for LES such that the cost could be minimized given an accuracy prescribed by an engineering need. Realization of this goal would enable LES to serve as a predictive simulation tool within the engineering design process.
CFD-DEM Simulation of Propagation of Sound Waves in Fluid Particles Fluidised Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H Khawaja
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this work, speed of sound in 2 phase mixture has been explored using CFD-DEM (Computational Fluid Dynamcis - Discrete Element Modelling. In this method volume averaged Navier Stokes, continuity and energy equations are solved for fluid. Particles are simulated as individual entities; their behaviour is captured by Newton's laws of motion and classical contact mechanics. Particle-fluid interaction is captured using drag laws given in literature. The speed of sound in a medium depends on physical properties. It has been found experimentally that speed of sound drops significantly in 2 phase mixture of fluidised particles because of its increased density relative to gas while maintaining its compressibility. Due to the high rate of heat transfer within 2 phase medium as given in Roy et al. (1990, it has been assumed that the fluidised gas-particle medium is isothermal. The similar phenomenon has been tried to be captured using CFD-DEM numerical simulation. The disturbance is introduced and fundamental frequency in the medium is noted to measure the speed of sound for e.g. organ pipe. It has been found that speed of sound is in agreement with the relationship given in Roy et al. (1990. Their assumption that the system is isothermal also appears to be valid.
Electromagnetic Simulations of Ground-Penetrating Radar Propagation near Lunar Pits and Lava Tubes
Zimmerman, M. I.; Carter, L. M.; Farrell, W. M.; Bleacher, J. E.; Petro, N. E.
2013-01-01
Placing an Orion capsule at the Earth-Moon L2 point (EML2) would potentially enable telerobotic operation of a rover on the lunar surface. The Human Exploration Virtual Institute (HEVI) is proposing that rover operations be carried out near one of the recently discovered lunar pits, which may provide radiation shielding for long duration human stays as well as a cross-disciplinary, science-rich target for nearer-term telerobotic exploration. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) instrumentation included onboard a rover has the potential to reveal many details of underground geologic structures near a pit, as well as characteristics of the pit itself. In the present work we employ the full-wave electromagnetic code MEEP to simulate such GPR reflections from a lunar pit and other subsurface features including lava tubes. These simulations will feed forward to mission concepts requiring knowledge of where to hide from harmful radiation and other environmental hazards such as plama charging and extreme diurnal temperatures.
J. Rodnizki, D. Berkovits, K. Lavie, I. Mardor, A. Shor and Y. Yanay (Soreq NRC, Yavne), K. Dunkel, C. Piel (ACCEL, Bergisch Gladbach), A. Facco (INFN/LNL, Legnaro, Padova), V. Zviagintsev (TRIUMF, Vancouver)
AbstractBeam dynamics simulations of SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting RF linear accelerator have been performed in order to establish the accelerator design. The multi-particle simulation includes 3D realistic electromagnetic field distributions, space charge forces and fabrication, misalignment and operation errors. A 4 mA proton or deuteron beam is accelerated up to 40 MeV with a moderated rms emittance growth and a high real-estate gradient of 2 MeV/m. An envelope of 40,000 macro-particles is kept under a radius of 1.1 cm, well below the beam pipe bore radius. The accelerator design of SARAF is proposed as an injector for the EURISOL driver accelerator. The Accel 176 MHZ β0=0.09 and β0=0.15 HWR lattice was extended to 90 MeV based on the LNL 352 MHZ β0=0.31 HWR. The matching between both lattices ensures smooth transition and the possibility to extend the accelerator to the required EURISOL ion energy.
A neural mass model of interconnected regions simulates rhythm propagation observed via TMS-EEG.
Cona, F; Zavaglia, M; Massimini, M; Rosanova, M; Ursino, M
2011-08-01
Knowledge of cortical rhythms represents an important aspect of modern neuroscience, to understand how the brain realizes its functions. Recent data suggest that different regions in the brain may exhibit distinct electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythms when perturbed by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and that these rhythms can change due to the connectivity among regions. In this context, in silico simulations may help the validation of these hypotheses that would be difficult to be verified in vivo. Neural mass models can be very useful to simulate specific aspects of electrical brain activity and, above all, to analyze and identify the overall frequency content of EEG in a cortical region of interest (ROI). In this work we implemented a model of connectivity among cortical regions to fit the impulse responses in three ROIs recorded during a series of TMS/EEG experiments performed in five subjects and using three different impulse intensities. In particular we investigated Brodmann Area (BA) 19 (occipital lobe), BA 7 (parietal lobe) and BA 6 (frontal lobe). Results show that the model can reproduce the natural rhythms of the three regions quite well, acting on a few internal parameters. Moreover, the model can explain most rhythm changes induced by stimulation of another region, and inter-subject variability, by estimating just a few long-range connectivity parameters among ROIs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Large and Dense Swarms: Simulation of a Shortest Path Alarm Propagation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudia Snels
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the transmission of alarm messages in large and dense underwater swarms of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs and describes the verification process of the derived algorithm results by means of two simulation tools realized by the authors. A collision-free communication protocol has been developed, tailored to a case where a single AUV needs to send a message to a specific subset of swarm members regarding a perceived danger. The protocol includes a handshaking procedure that creates a silence region before the transmission of the message obtained through specific acoustic tones out of the normal transmission frequencies or through optical signals. This region will include all members of the swarm involved in the alarm message and their neighbours, preventing collisions between them. The AUV sending messages to a target area computes a delay function on appropriate arcs and runs a Dijkstra-like algorithm obtaining a multicast tree. After an explanation of the whole building of this collision-free multicast tree, a simulation has been carried out assuming different scenarios relevant to swarm density, signal power of the modem and the geometrical configuration of the nodes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoeckl, H.
1991-06-01
Numerical simulations of fracture-mechanical experiments with the aim of determining the stress intensity factor and its relation to the fracture velocity from the measured data of the crack length are problematic with the conventional DCB specimen loaded through wedge and bolt namely because of the not clearly definable limiting conditions. Experiments were therefore carried out with modified DCB specimens made of ARALDIT B, with the loading wedge pressed directly into the crack mouth. In the case of suitable specimen dimensions, K I already in the initial phase of crack propagation before arrival of the first reflected waves covers a great part of the relevant range. Numerical simulations agree well with the shadow-optical measurements in this phase. A specimen variant with T-shaped extension at the counterbearing is suitable especially for crack arrest investigations, since high fracture velocities and brief crack jump lengths can be combined in tests with this specimen. The constant member in the series development of the stress distribution at the crack tip according to Williams determines the directional stability of the crack. The theories established by Cotterell, Schindler, Streit and Finnie are discussed by means of the kinking cracks observed during some experiments. (orig.) [de
Non-local model analysis of heat pulse propagation and simulation of experiments in W7-AS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwasaki, Takuya; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Kimitaka; Stroth, U.
1999-01-01
A new model equation which includes the non-local effect in the hear flux is introduced to study the transient transport phenomena. A non-local heat flux, which is expressed in terms of the integral equation, is superimposed on the conventional form of the heat flux. This model is applied to describe the experimental results from the power switching [U. Stroth et al.: Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 38 (1996) 1087] and the power modulation experiments [L. Giannone et al.: Nucl. Fusion 32 (1992) 1985] in the W7-AS stellarator. A small fraction of non-local component in the heat flux is found to be very effective in modifying the response against an external modulation. The transient feature of the transport property, which are observed in the response of heat pulse propagation, are qualitatively reproduced by the transport simulations based on this model. A possibility is discussed to estimate the correlation length of the non-local effect experimentally by use of the results of transport simulations. (author)
Pan, Boan; Fang, Xiang; Liu, Weichao; Li, Nanxi; Zhao, Ke; Li, Ting
2018-02-01
Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) has been used to measure brain activation, which are clinically important. Monte Carlo simulation has been applied to the near infrared light propagation model in biological tissue, and has the function of predicting diffusion and brain activation. However, previous studies have rarely considered hair and hair follicles as a contributing factor. Here, we attempt to use MCVM (Monte Carlo simulation based on 3D voxelized media) to examine light transmission, absorption, fluence, spatial sensitivity distribution (SSD) and brain activation judgement in the presence or absence of the hair follicles. The data in this study is a series of high-resolution cryosectional color photograph of a standing Chinse male adult. We found that the number of photons transmitted under the scalp decreases dramatically and the photons exported to detector is also decreasing, as the density of hair follicles increases. If there is no hair follicle, the above data increase and has the maximum value. Meanwhile, the light distribution and brain activation have a stable change along with the change of hair follicles density. The findings indicated hair follicles make influence of NIRS in light distribution and brain activation judgement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, S.; Chen, Z. Y.; Wang, X. H., E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Li, D.; Yang, A. J.; Liu, D. X.; Rong, M. Z. [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, H. L. [Frank Reidy Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23508 (United States); Kong, M. G. [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Frank Reidy Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23508 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)
2015-11-28
Cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas have potential to be used for endoscope sterilization. In this study, a long quartz tube was used as the simulated endoscope channel, and an array of electrodes was warped one by one along the tube. Plasmas were generated in the inner channel of the tube, and their propagation characteristics in He+O{sub 2} feedstock gases were studied as a function of the oxygen concentration. It is found that each of the plasmas originates at the edge of an instantaneous cathode, and then it propagates bidirectionally. Interestingly, a plasma head with bright spots is formed in the hollow instantaneous cathode and moves towards its center part, and a plasma tail expands through the electrode gap and then forms a swallow tail in the instantaneous anode. The plasmas are in good axisymmetry when [O{sub 2}] ≤ 0.3%, but not for [O{sub 2}] ≥ 1%, and even behave in a stochastic manner when [O{sub 2}] = 3%. The antibacterial agents are charged species and reactive oxygen species, so their wall fluxes represent the “plasma dosage” for the sterilization. Such fluxes mainly act on the inner wall in the hollow electrode rather than that in the electrode gap, and they get to the maximum efficiency when the oxygen concentration is around 0.3%. It is estimated that one can reduce the electrode gap and enlarge the electrode width to achieve more homogenous and efficient antibacterial effect, which have benefits for sterilization applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George J.
2013-10-01
We developed a hydraulic fracturing simulator by coupling a flow simulator to a geomechanics code, namely T+M simulator. Modeling of the vertical fracture development involves continuous updating of the boundary conditions and of the data connectivity, based on the finite element method for geomechanics. The T+M simulator can model the initial fracture development during the hydraulic fracturing operations, after which the domain description changes from single continuum to double or multiple continua in order to rigorously model both flow and geomechanics for fracture-rock matrix systems. The T+H simulator provides two-way coupling between fluid-heat flow and geomechanics, accounting for thermoporomechanics, treats nonlinear permeability and geomechanical moduli explicitly, and dynamically tracks changes in the fracture(s) and in the pore volume. We also fully accounts for leak-off in all directions during hydraulic fracturing. We first validate the T+M simulator, matching numerical solutions with the analytical solutions for poromechanical effects, static fractures, and fracture propagations. Then, from numerical simulation of various cases of the planar fracture propagation, shear failure can limit the vertical fracture propagation of tensile failure, because of leak-off into the reservoirs. Slow injection causes more leak-off, compared with fast injection, when the same amount of fluid is injected. Changes in initial total stress and contributions of shear effective stress to tensile failure can also affect formation of the fractured areas, and the geomechanical responses are still well-posed.
Kolyaie, S.; Yaghooti, M.; Majidi, G.
2011-12-01
This paper is a part of an ongoing research to examine the capability of geostatistical analysis for mobile networks coverage prediction, simulation and tuning. Mobile network coverage predictions are used to find network coverage gaps and areas with poor serviceability. They are essential data for engineering and management in order to make better decision regarding rollout, planning and optimisation of mobile networks.The objective of this research is to evaluate different interpolation techniques in coverage prediction. In method presented here, raw data collected from drive testing a sample of roads in study area is analysed and various continuous surfaces are created using different interpolation methods. Two general interpolation methods are used in this paper with different variables; first, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) with various powers and number of neighbours and second, ordinary kriging with Gaussian, spherical, circular and exponential semivariogram models with different number of neighbours. For the result comparison, we have used check points coming from the same drive test data. Prediction values for check points are extracted from each surface and the differences with actual value are computed. The output of this research helps finding an optimised and accurate model for coverage prediction.
Basu, S.
2017-01-01
Accurate simulation and forecasting of over-the-horizon propagation events are essential for various civilian and defense applications. We demonstrate the prowess of a newly proposed coupled mesoscale modeling and ray tracing framework in reproducing such an event. Wherever possible, routinely
MR imaging of delamination tears of the rotator cuff tendons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walz, Daniel M.; Chen, Steven; Miller, Theodore T.; Hofman, Josh
2007-01-01
The objective was to describe the imaging appearances and location of delamination tears of the rotator cuff tendons on non-contrast conventional MR imaging. This study was reviewed and approved by our Institutional Review Board. The reports of 548 consecutive MR examinations of the shoulder were reviewed, looking for mention or description of delamination tears of the rotator cuff. The images of the identified cases were then reviewed by two radiologists to confirm the findings. Correlation with surgical and arthroscopic information was then performed. Delamination tears were defined as horizontal retraction of either the bursal or articular surface of the tendon, manifest as thickening of the torn retracted edge, and/or interstitial splitting of the tendon, manifest as fluid-like high signal intensity on fat-suppressed T2-weighted oblique coronal images. Fourteen cases of delamination tears were identified in 13 patients. Ten of the cases involved the supraspinatus tendon, all with articular surface involvement. Nine of these supraspinatus cases were isolated tears and one occurred as part of a full thickness tear. All 10 of these supraspinatus cases showed medial retraction of the articular surface of the tendon, with thickening of the retracted edge, and 5 of the 10 had a demonstrable horizontal cleft in the interstitium. Four cases involved the subscapularis tendon, with articular surface disruption in three and pure interstitial delamination in one. Medial subluxation of the tendon of the long head of the biceps was present in all four cases. No delamination tears occurred on the bursal surface. Only three of the 14 shoulders underwent surgical repair with one confirmation of supraspinatus delamination, one confirmation of a subscapularis tear that had become a full thickness tear 10 months after initial imaging and another interstitial subscapularis delamination that was not identified arthroscopically. Delamination tears occur most often in the
MR imaging of delamination tears of the rotator cuff tendons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walz, Daniel M.; Chen, Steven [North Shore University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Manhasset, NY (United States); Miller, Theodore T. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Radiology and Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Hofman, Josh [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States)
2007-05-15
The objective was to describe the imaging appearances and location of delamination tears of the rotator cuff tendons on non-contrast conventional MR imaging. This study was reviewed and approved by our Institutional Review Board. The reports of 548 consecutive MR examinations of the shoulder were reviewed, looking for mention or description of delamination tears of the rotator cuff. The images of the identified cases were then reviewed by two radiologists to confirm the findings. Correlation with surgical and arthroscopic information was then performed. Delamination tears were defined as horizontal retraction of either the bursal or articular surface of the tendon, manifest as thickening of the torn retracted edge, and/or interstitial splitting of the tendon, manifest as fluid-like high signal intensity on fat-suppressed T2-weighted oblique coronal images. Fourteen cases of delamination tears were identified in 13 patients. Ten of the cases involved the supraspinatus tendon, all with articular surface involvement. Nine of these supraspinatus cases were isolated tears and one occurred as part of a full thickness tear. All 10 of these supraspinatus cases showed medial retraction of the articular surface of the tendon, with thickening of the retracted edge, and 5 of the 10 had a demonstrable horizontal cleft in the interstitium. Four cases involved the subscapularis tendon, with articular surface disruption in three and pure interstitial delamination in one. Medial subluxation of the tendon of the long head of the biceps was present in all four cases. No delamination tears occurred on the bursal surface. Only three of the 14 shoulders underwent surgical repair with one confirmation of supraspinatus delamination, one confirmation of a subscapularis tear that had become a full thickness tear 10 months after initial imaging and another interstitial subscapularis delamination that was not identified arthroscopically. Delamination tears occur most often in the
Microscopic mechanisms of graphene electrolytic delamination from metal substrates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisichella, G.; Di Franco, S.; Roccaforte, F.; Giannazzo, F.; Ravesi, S.
2014-01-01
In this paper, hydrogen bubbling delamination of graphene (Gr) from copper using a strong electrolyte (KOH) water solution was performed, focusing on the effect of the KOH concentration (C KOH ) on the Gr delamination rate. A factor of ∼10 decrease in the time required for the complete Gr delamination from Cu cathodes with the same geometry was found increasing C KOH from ∼0.05 M to ∼0.60 M. After transfer of the separated Gr membranes to SiO 2 substrates by a highly reproducible thermo-compression printing method, an accurate atomic force microscopy investigation of the changes in Gr morphology as a function of C KOH was performed. Supported by these analyses, a microscopic model of the delamination process has been proposed, where a key role is played by graphene wrinkles acting as nucleation sites for H 2 bubbles at the cathode perimeter. With this approach, the H 2 supersaturation generated at the electrode for different electrolyte concentrations was estimated and the inverse dependence of t d on C KOH was quantitatively explained. Although developed in the case of Cu, this analysis is generally valid and can be applied to describe the electrolytic delamination of graphene from several metal substrates.
Reis, T.; Dellar, P.J.
2011-01-01
Lattice Boltzmann models that recover a macroscopic description of multiphase flow of immiscible liquids typically represent the boundaries between phases using a scalar function, the phase field, that varies smoothly over several grid points. Attempts to tune the model parameters to minimise the widths of these interfaces typically lead to the interfaces becoming fixed to the underlying grid instead of advecting with the fluid velocity. This phenomenon, known as lattice pinning, is strikingly similar to that associated with the numerical simulation of conservation laws coupled to stiff algebraic source terms. We present a lattice Boltzmann formulation of the model problem proposed by LeVeque and Yee (1990) [3] to study the latter phenomenon in the context of computational combustion, and offer a volume-conserving extension in multiple space dimensions. Inspired by the random projection method of Bao and Jin (2000) [1] we further generalise this formulation by introducing a uniformly distributed quasi-random variable into the term responsible for the sharpening of phase boundaries. This method is mass conserving, gives correct average propagation speeds over many timesteps, and is shown to significantly delay the onset of pinning as the interface width is reduced. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Reis, T.
2011-07-01
Lattice Boltzmann models that recover a macroscopic description of multiphase flow of immiscible liquids typically represent the boundaries between phases using a scalar function, the phase field, that varies smoothly over several grid points. Attempts to tune the model parameters to minimise the widths of these interfaces typically lead to the interfaces becoming fixed to the underlying grid instead of advecting with the fluid velocity. This phenomenon, known as lattice pinning, is strikingly similar to that associated with the numerical simulation of conservation laws coupled to stiff algebraic source terms. We present a lattice Boltzmann formulation of the model problem proposed by LeVeque and Yee (1990) [3] to study the latter phenomenon in the context of computational combustion, and offer a volume-conserving extension in multiple space dimensions. Inspired by the random projection method of Bao and Jin (2000) [1] we further generalise this formulation by introducing a uniformly distributed quasi-random variable into the term responsible for the sharpening of phase boundaries. This method is mass conserving, gives correct average propagation speeds over many timesteps, and is shown to significantly delay the onset of pinning as the interface width is reduced. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Hazza, Muataz Hazza F. Al; Adesta, Erry Y. T.; Riza, Muhammad
2013-12-01
High speed milling has many advantages such as higher removal rate and high productivity. However, higher cutting speed increase the flank wear rate and thus reducing the cutting tool life. Therefore estimating and predicting the flank wear length in early stages reduces the risk of unaccepted tooling cost. This research presents a neural network model for predicting and simulating the flank wear in the CNC end milling process. A set of sparse experimental data for finish end milling on AISI H13 at hardness of 48 HRC have been conducted to measure the flank wear length. Then the measured data have been used to train the developed neural network model. Artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to predict the flank wear length. The neural network contains twenty hidden layer with feed forward back propagation hierarchical. The neural network has been designed with MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. The results show a high correlation between the predicted and the observed flank wear which indicates the validity of the models.
Mukherjee, Arnab; Ankit, Kumar; Selzer, Michael; Nestler, Britta
2018-04-01
We employ the phase-field method to assess electromigration (EM) damage in wide polycrystalline interconnects due to grain-boundary grooving. An interplay of surface and grain-boundary diffusion is shown to drastically influence the mode of progressive EM damage. Rapid atomic transport along the surface leads to shape-preserving surface drift reminiscent of Blech drift-velocity experiments. On the other hand, a comparatively faster grain-boundary transport localizes the damage, resulting in the proliferation of intergranular slits with a shape-preserving tip. At steady state, the two regimes exhibit exponents of 1 and 3 /2 , respectively, in Black's law. While surface drift obeys an inverse scaling with grain size, slits exhibit a direct relationship at small sizes, with the dependence becoming weaker at larger ones. Furthermore, we explain the influence of curvature- or EM-mediated healing fluxes running along the surface on groove replenishment. Insights derived from phase-field simulations of EM in bicrystals are extended to investigate the multiphysics of mixed-mode damage of a polycrystalline interconnect line that is characterized by a drift of small grain surfaces, slit propagation, and coarsening. The triple and quadruple junctions are identified as prominent sites of failure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al Hazza, Muataz Hazza F; Adesta, Erry Y T; Riza, Muhammad
2013-01-01
High speed milling has many advantages such as higher removal rate and high productivity. However, higher cutting speed increase the flank wear rate and thus reducing the cutting tool life. Therefore estimating and predicting the flank wear length in early stages reduces the risk of unaccepted tooling cost. This research presents a neural network model for predicting and simulating the flank wear in the CNC end milling process. A set of sparse experimental data for finish end milling on AISI H13 at hardness of 48 HRC have been conducted to measure the flank wear length. Then the measured data have been used to train the developed neural network model. Artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to predict the flank wear length. The neural network contains twenty hidden layer with feed forward back propagation hierarchical. The neural network has been designed with MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. The results show a high correlation between the predicted and the observed flank wear which indicates the validity of the models
Hygrothermal influence on delamination behavior of graphite/epoxy laminates
Garg, A.; Ishai, O.
1985-01-01
The hygrothermal effect on the fracture behavior of graphite-epoxy laminates was investigated to develop a methodology for damage tolerance predictions in advanced composite materials. Several T300/934 laminates were tested using a number of specimen configurations to evaluate the effects of temperature and humidity on delamination fracture toughness under mode 1 and mode 2 loading. It is indicated that moisture has a slightly beneficial influence on fracture toughness or critical strain energy release rate during mode 1 delamination, but has a slightly deleterious effect on mode 2 delamination, and mode 1 transverse cracking. The failed specimens are examined by SEM and topographical differences due to fracture modes are identified. It is concluded that the effect of moisture on fracture topography can not be distinguished.
Repair of prestressed concrete cylinder with localized delamination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Shen; Munshi, Javeed A.
2015-01-01
For prestressed concrete cylindrical structures such as nuclear containments, tanks and silos, the curvature effect of the tendons introduces radial tensile stresses in the concrete shell which are generally neglected in the design of such structures. For example, many prestressed concrete nuclear containments in US, especially those which were not designed following radial reinforcement requirement of ACI-359, are reinforced only in the circumferential (hoop) and meridional (vertical) directions but not in the radial direction. This leaves these structures vulnerable to potential laminar cracking and delamination, especially during post-tensioning and/or detensioning process. Should delamination occur, the structure needs to be repaired by either replacing cracked concrete or by “pinning” the delaminated concrete layers together by post-installed anchors. The latter option of post-installed anchors is less invasive from construction stand point and generally suitable for repairing small or localized delamination only. A comprehensive study is undertaken to explore various aspects and design consideration of post-installed anchors for prestressed concrete cylinders. The radial tension demand is first established by combining a mechanical based model with a detailed finite element analysis. With such design demand for post-installed anchors established, the next step aims at developing the tightness requirement of existing delamination cracks for effective use of post-installed anchors. A comprehensive literature search and evaluation is carried out for shear transfer capacity across cracks of various widths. The findings are used to develop specific recommendations for acceptable crack widths to ensure adequate in-plane shear transfer capacity for various design load conditions. A design process for post-installed anchors is proposed for repairing a delaminated prestressed concrete cylindrical structure at the end of the paper, supplemented by an illustrative
Repair of prestressed concrete cylinder with localized delamination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Shen, E-mail: swang@bechtel.com; Munshi, Javeed A., E-mail: jamunshi@bechtel.com
2015-12-15
For prestressed concrete cylindrical structures such as nuclear containments, tanks and silos, the curvature effect of the tendons introduces radial tensile stresses in the concrete shell which are generally neglected in the design of such structures. For example, many prestressed concrete nuclear containments in US, especially those which were not designed following radial reinforcement requirement of ACI-359, are reinforced only in the circumferential (hoop) and meridional (vertical) directions but not in the radial direction. This leaves these structures vulnerable to potential laminar cracking and delamination, especially during post-tensioning and/or detensioning process. Should delamination occur, the structure needs to be repaired by either replacing cracked concrete or by “pinning” the delaminated concrete layers together by post-installed anchors. The latter option of post-installed anchors is less invasive from construction stand point and generally suitable for repairing small or localized delamination only. A comprehensive study is undertaken to explore various aspects and design consideration of post-installed anchors for prestressed concrete cylinders. The radial tension demand is first established by combining a mechanical based model with a detailed finite element analysis. With such design demand for post-installed anchors established, the next step aims at developing the tightness requirement of existing delamination cracks for effective use of post-installed anchors. A comprehensive literature search and evaluation is carried out for shear transfer capacity across cracks of various widths. The findings are used to develop specific recommendations for acceptable crack widths to ensure adequate in-plane shear transfer capacity for various design load conditions. A design process for post-installed anchors is proposed for repairing a delaminated prestressed concrete cylindrical structure at the end of the paper, supplemented by an illustrative
Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.
2003-01-01
Advanced ceramic thermal harrier coatings will play an increasingly important role In future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. However, the coating durability issue remains a major concern with the ever-increasing temperature requirements. In this paper, thermal cyclic response and delamination failure modes of a ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 and mullite/BSAS thermaVenvironmenta1 barrier coating system on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were investigated using a laser high-heat-flux technique. The coating degradation and delamination processes were monitored in real time by measuring coating apparent conductivity changes during the cyclic tests under realistic engine temperature and stress gradients, utilizing the fact that delamination cracking causes an apparent decrease in the measured thermal conductivity. The ceramic coating crack initiation and propagation driving forces under the cyclic thermal loads, in conjunction with the mechanical testing results, will be discussed.
Cartilage Delamination Flap Mimicking a Torn Medial Meniscus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gan Zhi-Wei Jonathan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We report a case of a chondral delamination lesion due to medial parapatellar plica friction syndrome involving the medial femoral condyle. This mimicked a torn medial meniscus in clinical and radiological presentation. Arthroscopy revealed a chondral delamination flap, which was debrided. Diagnosis of chondral lesions in the knee can be challenging. Clinical examination and MRI have good accuracy for diagnosis and should be used in tandem. Early diagnosis and treatment of chondral lesions are important to prevent progression to early osteoarthritis.
Calibration of a finite element composite delamination model by experiments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaiotti, M.; Rizzo, C.M.; Branner, Kim
2013-01-01
This paper deals with the mechanical behavior under in plane compressive loading of thick and mostly unidirectional glass fiber composite plates made with an initial embedded delamination. The delamination is rectangular in shape, causing the separation of the central part of the plate into two...... distinct sub-laminates. The work focuses on experimental validation of a finite element model built using the 9-noded MITC9 shell elements, which prevent locking effects and aiming to capture the highly non linear buckling features involved in the problem. The geometry has been numerically defined...
Quantitative Evaluation of Delamination Inside of Composite Materials by ESPI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Koung Suk; Yang, Kwang Young; Kang, Ki Soo; Ji, Chang June
2004-01-01
Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) for quantitative evaluation of delaminations inside of a composite material plate is described. Delaminations caused by the impact on composite materials are difficult to detect visual inspection and ultrasonic testing due to non-homeogenous structure. This paper proposes the quantitative evaluation technique of the defects made in the composite plates by impact load. Artificial defects are introduced inside of the composite plate for the development of a reliable ESPI inspection technique. Real defects produced by impact tester are inspected and compared with the results of visual inspection which shows a good agreement within 5% error
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Yu; Xu, Songsong; Li, Junpeng; Zhang, Jian [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, P R China (China); Sun, Liangwei; Chen, Liang; Sun, Guangai; Peng, Shuming [Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics and Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP), Mianyang 621999 (China); Zhang, Zhongwu, E-mail: zwzhang@hrbeu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, P R China (China)
2017-04-13
This study investigated the effects of aging and thermomechanical treatments on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of a nanoprecipitates strengthened ferritic steel. The toughness of steel at various temperatures was measured carefully and correlated with microstructural features. Tensile tests show that aging can improve the mechanical strength without scarifying the ductility. With high yield strength of ~1000 MPa, excellent low temperature Charpy impact energy more than 300 J at −80 °C can be obtained. The ductile brittle transition temperature (DBTT) is lower than −80 °C. The high strength can be contributed by the nanocluster precipitation as determined by small angle neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The excellent low temperature toughness is attributed to the delamination structure of the steel, which blunts the cracks and restrains the crack propagation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrie, Emilie; Buffiere, Jean-Yves; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Gravouil, Anthony; Edwards, Lyndon
2006-01-01
The propagation of a semi-elliptical crack in the bulk of an ultrafine-grained Al-Li alloy has been investigated using synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography. In this material, the studied crack, despite its small dimension, can be considered as 'microstructurally long' and described in the frame of the linear elastic fracture mechanics. The extended finite element method is used to calculate the stress intensity factors along the crack front taking into account the three-dimensional geometry extracted from the tomographic images. For the same nominal value of the stress intensity factor range, crack propagation is faster in the bulk than at the surface. The observed anisotropy is attributed to the variation of the closure stress along the crack front between surface and bulk. The experimentally observed fatigue crack propagation is compared to numerical simulations. Good agreement is found when a linear variation of closure stress along the crack front is taken into account in the '3D crack propagation law' used for the simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hermansson, B.R.
1989-01-01
The main part of this thesis consists of 15 published papers, in which the numerical Beam Propagating Method (BPM) is investigated, verified and used in a number of applications. In the introduction a derivation of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is presented to connect the beginning of the soliton papers with Maxwell's equations including a nonlinear polarization. This thesis focuses on the wide use of the BPM for numerical simulations of propagating light and particle beams through different types of structures such as waveguides, fibers, tapers, Y-junctions, laser arrays and crystalline solids. We verify the BPM in the above listed problems against other numerical methods for example the Finite-element Method, perturbation methods and Runge-Kutta integration. Further, the BPM is shown to be a simple and effective way to numerically set up the Green's function in matrix form for periodic structures. The Green's function matrix can then be diagonalized with matrix methods yielding the eigensolutions of the structure. The BPM inherent transverse periodicity can be untied, if desired, by for example including an absorptive refractive index at the computational window edges. The interaction of two first-order soliton pulses is strongly dependent on the phase relationship between the individual solitons. When optical phase shift keying is used in coherent one-carrier wavelength communication, the fiber attenuation will suppress or delay the nonlinear instability. (orig.)
Piecewise delamination of Moroccan lithosphere from beneath the Atlas Mountains
Bezada, M. J.; Humphreys, E. D.; Davila, J. M.; Carbonell, R.; Harnafi, M.; Palomeras, I.; Levander, A.
2014-04-01
The elevation of the intracontinental Atlas Mountains of Morocco and surrounding regions requires a mantle component of buoyancy, and there is consensus that this buoyancy results from an abnormally thin lithosphere. Lithospheric delamination under the Atlas Mountains and thermal erosion caused by upwelling mantle have each been suggested as thinning mechanisms. We use seismic tomography to image the upper mantle of Morocco. Our imaging resolves the location and shape of lithospheric cavities and of delaminated lithosphere ˜400 km beneath the Middle Atlas. We propose discontinuous delamination of an intrinsically unstable Atlas lithosphere, enabled by the presence of anomalously hot mantle, as a mechanism for producing the imaged structures. The Atlas lithosphere was made unstable by a combination of tectonic shortening and eclogite loading during Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic magmatism. The presence of hot mantle sourced from regional upwellings in northern Africa or the Canary Islands enhanced the instability of this lithosphere. Flow around the retreating Alboran slab focused upwelling mantle under the Middle Atlas, which we infer to be the site of the most recent delamination. The Atlas Mountains of Morocco stand as an example of large-scale lithospheric loss in a mildly contractional orogen.
Delamination and debonding failure of laminated composite T-joints
Cui, H.
2014-01-01
Composites are increasingly being used in aerospace, automotive and other industries. The T-joint (also named stringer stiffened skin) is a typical connection, broadly used in thin-walled structures, such as the wing and fuselage of aircraft. This thesis presents the analysis of the delamination and
Quasistatic Delamination of Sandwich-Like Kirchhoff-Love Plates
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Freddi, L.; Roubíček, Tomáš; Zanini, Ch.
2013-01-01
Roč. 113, č. 2 (2013), s. 219-250 ISSN 0374-3535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : adhesive contact * delamination * mixed modes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.043, year: 2013
Minimizing and predicting delamination of southern plywood in exterior exposure
Peter Koch
1967-01-01
Southern pine plywood is substantially all being manufactured with phenolic glue for exterior use. Because panels must not delaminate in service, a reliable predictor of glueline durability is required. Drawing on the experience of the Douglas-fir plywood industry, southern manufacutrers have adopted as a predictor the percentage of wood failure(% WF) observed in...
Numerical investigation of the effect of delaminations on fracture characteristics of glare
Bhat, Sunil; Narayanan, S.
2013-10-01
A finite element examination of the effect of delaminations on fracture characteristics of fibre metal laminate (Glare), by comparing energy release rates of normal cracks in laminates with and without delaminations, is presented in the paper. Glare comprising thin cracked 2024-T3 aerospace aluminum alloy layers alternately bonded with E-glass fibre based composite prepregs is considered for the analysis. Delaminations are modeled with interface cohesive elements. Energy release rates of normal cracks in laminates with delaminations are found to be higher than those in the laminates without delaminations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gastineau, B.
2000-06-01
Sacral Theater has been developed for the toroid magnet Atlas of the CERN LHC project. This three dimensional calculations code calculates the propagation of the transition of a superconducting coil in 25 m long hippodrome. Procedures to study low currents have been included. This work is a part of the magnet safety system because the coils protection is made by warmers activating the quench propagation in case of default detection. This allows the complete dissipation of storage energy that can reach 1080 MJ on Atlas. (N.C.)
Nagaso, Masaru; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Moysan, Joseph; Lhuillier, Christian
2018-01-01
ASTRID project, French sodium cooled nuclear reactor of 4th generation, is under development at the moment by Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). In this project, development of monitoring techniques for a nuclear reactor during operation are identified as a measure issue for enlarging the plant safety. Use of ultrasonic measurement techniques (e.g. thermometry, visualization of internal objects) are regarded as powerful inspection tools of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR) including ASTRID due to opacity of liquid sodium. In side of a sodium cooling circuit, heterogeneity of medium occurs because of complex flow state especially in its operation and then the effects of this heterogeneity on an acoustic propagation is not negligible. Thus, it is necessary to carry out verification experiments for developments of component technologies, while such kind of experiments using liquid sodium may be relatively large-scale experiments. This is why numerical simulation methods are essential for preceding real experiments or filling up the limited number of experimental results. Though various numerical methods have been applied for a wave propagation in liquid sodium, we still do not have a method for verifying on three-dimensional heterogeneity. Moreover, in side of a reactor core being a complex acousto-elastic coupled region, it has also been difficult to simulate such problems with conventional methods. The objective of this study is to solve these 2 points by applying three-dimensional spectral element method. In this paper, our initial results on three-dimensional simulation study on heterogeneous medium (the first point) are shown. For heterogeneity of liquid sodium to be considered, four-dimensional temperature field (three spatial and one temporal dimension) calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with Large-Eddy Simulation was applied instead of using conventional method (i.e. Gaussian Random field). This three-dimensional numerical
Vachon, Pierre-Luc
Composite laminates have strong in-plane mechanical properties, but they are generally weaker through their thickness. This specificity makes the laminates prone to delamination, particularly under low-velocity impact loads. Consequently numerous research efforts have been dedicated to developing interlaminar reinforcing methods, such as transverse stitching. The present project proposes the use of the stitching technique combined with a special stitching thread made of superelastic TiNi alloy. This technology is intended to improve the delamination toughness in composite laminates loaded in bending. In the first part of this study a numerical model was developed for analyzing composite structures. The 3-D finite element model was built with the ANSYS commercial software using 20-node solid and 8-node shell elements. The progressive damage modeling technique was used, allowing the prediction of delamination propagation in a laminate submitted to various loading modes. The model was validated for a plate under quasi-static traction load, and it was then used to simulate three-point bending tests. Secondly, carbon/epoxy composite panels were fabricated, with each panel containing unstitched and stitched specimens. Two different materials were used for the stitching thread: superelastic TiNi wires and Kevlar threads as a reference. Some stitched specimens were cut in slices in order to make some observations of the internal stitch using an optical microscope. Standardized low-velocity impact tests and compression after impact tests were carried out on stitched and unstitched specimens (ASTM D7136 and D7137). The Kevlar reinforcements have shown great performance in reducing the delaminated zone after impact, as well as in improving the residual compression strength. The TiNi reinforcements provided encouraging results during the impact tests, though being less effective than the Kevlar threads. During the compression after impact tests, only a slight difference could
Synthesis of mullite nanometers microwave from bentonite delaminated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomes, J.; Azevedo, N.A.; Vieira, D.A.; Neves, G.A.; Santana, L.N.L.; Menezes, R.R.
2011-01-01
The smectite clays present as lamellar structure is formed by two layers of silica tetrahedrons and one layer of aluminum octahedra, which can be individually delaminated, reaching a thickness of about 1mm. Mullite is the only thermodynamically stable crystalline phase of SiO 2 and Al2O 3 system and can be synthesized from minerals that exhibit these oxides in its composition. The microwave synthesis offers advantages over conventional methods, the heating is rapid and uniform, avoiding an undesirable grain growth. This study aims to obtain nanometric mullite from bentonites delamined subjected to microwave heating. The samples were initially treated, then rehydrated, frozen and deagglomeration in a ball mill for 4 and 8 hours. Subsequently subjected to centrifugation, drying and microwave heating. The results showed that nano-mullite was obtained for samples subjected to longer heating and dispersions. (author)
Yang, Guowei; You, Shengzui; Bi, Meihua; Fan, Bing; Lu, Yang; Zhou, Xuefang; Li, Jing; Geng, Hujun; Wang, Tianshu
2017-09-10
Free-space optical (FSO) communication utilizing a modulating retro-reflector (MRR) is an innovative way to convey information between the traditional optical transceiver and the semi-passive MRR unit that reflects optical signals. The reflected signals experience turbulence-induced fading in the double-pass channel, which is very different from that in the traditional single-pass FSO channel. In this paper, we consider the corner cube reflector (CCR) as the retro-reflective device in the MRR. A general geometrical model of the CCR is established based on the ray tracing method to describe the ray trajectory inside the CCR. This ray tracing model could treat the general case that the optical beam is obliquely incident on the hypotenuse surface of the CCR with the dihedral angle error and surface nonflatness. Then, we integrate this general CCR model into the wave-optics (WO) simulation to construct the double-pass beam propagation simulation. This double-pass simulation contains the forward propagation from the transceiver to the MRR through the atmosphere, the retro-reflection of the CCR, and the backward propagation from the MRR to the transceiver, which can be realized by a single-pass WO simulation, the ray tracing CCR model, and another single-pass WO simulation, respectively. To verify the proposed CCR model and double-pass WO simulation, the effective reflection area, the incremental phase, and the reflected beam spot on the transceiver plane of the CCR are analyzed, and the numerical results are in agreement with the previously published results. Finally, we use the double-pass WO simulation to investigate the double-pass channel in the MRR FSO systems. The histograms of the turbulence-induced fading in the forward and backward channels are obtained from the simulation data and are fitted by gamma-gamma (ΓΓ) distributions. As the two opposite channels are highly correlated, we model the double-pass channel fading by the product of two correlated
Quasistatic delamination models for Kirchhoff-Love plates
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Freddi, L.; Paroni, R.; Roubíček, Tomáš; Zanini, Ch.
2011-01-01
Roč. 91, č. 11 (2011), s. 845-865 ISSN 0044-2267 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/10/0357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : brittle delamination * adhesive contact * rate-independent processes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.863, year: 2011 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/zamm.201000171/abstract
DETECTION OF DELAMINATION IN A COMPOSITE PLATE BY SEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
A numerical method of integration of Green's functi ons of strip element method (SEM) is proposed. The response of ultrasonic sourc e generated by a transducer on the surface of a multi-ply composite plate conta ining a delamination is analyzed by the use of SEM. The numerical results show that the scanning features of the ultrasonic waves may be used to identify the d elamination inside the composite plate .
Delamination of hexagonal boron nitride in a stirred media mill
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damm, C.; Körner, J.; Peukert, W.
2013-01-01
A scalable process for delamination of hexagonal boron nitride in an aqueous solution of the non-ionic surfactant TWEEN85 using a stirred media mill is presented. The size of the ZrO 2 beads used as grinding media governs the dimensions of the ground boron nitride particles as atomic force microscopic investigations (AFM) reveal: the mean flakes thickness decreases from 3.5 to 1.5 nm and the ratio between mean flake area and mean flake thickness increases from 2,200 to 5,800 nm if the grinding media size is reduced from 0.8 to 0.1 mm. This result shows that a high number of stress events in combination with low stress energy (small grinding media) facilitate delamination of the layered material whereas at high stress energies in combination with a low number of stress events (large grinding media) breakage of the layers dominates over delamination. The results of particle height analyses by AFM show that few-layer structures have been formed by stirred media milling. This result is in agreement with the layer thickness dependence of the delamination energy for hexagonal boron nitride. The concentration of nanoparticles remaining dispersed after centrifugation of the ground suspension increases with grinding time and with decreasing grinding media size. After 5 h of grinding using 0.1 mm ZrO 2 grinding media the yield of nanoparticle formation is about 5 wt%. The nanoparticles exhibit the typical Raman peak for hexagonal boron nitride at 1,366 cm −1 showing that the in-plane order in the milled platelets is remained.
Sun, Wei; Guan, Zhidong; Li, Zengshan
2017-12-01
In this paper, the Inter-Fiber Fracture (IFF) criterion of Puck failure theory based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) was implemented in ABAQUS code to predict the intra-laminar crack initiation of unidirectional (UD) composite laminate. The transverse crack path in the matrix can be simulated accurately by the presented method. After the crack initiation, the propagation of the crack is simulated by Cohesive Zoom Model (CZM), in which the displacement discontinuities and stress concentration caused by matrix crack is introduced into the finite element (FE) model. Combined with the usage of the enriched element interface, which can be used to simulate the inter-laminar delamination crack, the Low Velocity Impact (LVI) induced damage of UD composite laminate beam with a typical stacking of composite laminates [05/903]S is studied. A complete crack initiation and propagation process was simulated and the numerical results obtained by the XFEM are consistent with the experimental results.
Impulse response measurements as dependent on crack depth. Delamination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ulriksen, Peter
2011-02-01
The purpose of the project is to investigate the impulse-response method's ability to detect delamination at different depths. This method is of particular interest, since some of it's realizations strongly resembles established methods like 'bomknackning' . Since the personnel that will be responsible for future measurements with new technology, should feel confidence in new methods, it is an advantage if the new methods connect to older, accepted methods. The project consists of three parts and a fourth is planned. The first part of the investigation is made with a vibrator connected to an impedance head which in turn is connected to the surface of the concrete test specimen with internal delaminations at different depths. The vibrator is controlled by a dynamic signal analyze, which also measures the force- and acceleration signals from the impedance head and convert them to impedance. Since the impedance head must be glued to the surface of the concrete this method is only of laboratory interest. This method gives a complete description of the behavior of the concrete for the frequencies investigated. Thus in following investigations the frequencies of interest are known. From the experiment it follows that delamination down to a depth of 80-100 mm can be detected through a clear and solitary resonance peak. This resonance frequency is a function of concrete slab thickness and extension, so if the extension can be measured it may be possible to calculate depth. The second part of the investigation is about using an instrumented hammer to hit the different delamination specimens. The hammer is equipped with a force transducer giving an opportunity to measure the force exerted by the strike against the concrete surface. When a hammer is struck against a concrete surface a spectrum of vibrations is created, dependent on the weight of the hammer and the elasticity of the concrete. A light hammer generates higher frequencies than a heavy one. Three different hammer
Controlled delamination of metal films by hydrogen loading
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nikitin, Eugen
2008-11-18
n this work we quantitatively determine the adhesion energy between metal films and their substrates. Therefore a new controlled buckling technique is established, applying the strong compressive in-plane stress that results in thin films clamped on rigid substrates during hydrogen loading. When the elastic energy stored in the H-loaded thin film exceeds the adhesion energy between film and substrate, delamination occurs. At the onset of delamination, a critical hydrogen concentration, a critical stress value and a critical bending of the substrate are present, which are quantitative measures for the adhesion energy and permit its calculation. As the critical values are determined at the onset of delamination, plastic deformation is negligible, which denies the quantitative determination of adhesion energies in conventional test setups. In multilayer-systems, adhesion energies between substrates and films that hardly absorb hydrogen can be measured by the controlled buckling technique, when the films of interest are coated with hydrogen absorbing films (active layer). The measurements are performed easily and can be repeated under the same test conditions, while variables such as the thickness of the coating materials or the boundary surface structure can be varied and optimized. In this work the adhesion energies of different materials on polycarbonate and niobium on sapphire are investigated. (orig.)
Delamination detection in reinforced concrete using thermal inertia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Del Grande, N K; Durbin, P F.
1998-01-01
We investigated the feasibility of thermal inertia mapping for bridge deck inspections. Using pulsed thermal imaging, we heat-stimulated surrogate delaminations in reinforced concrete and asphalt-concrete slabs. Using a dual-band infrared camera system, we measured thermal inertia responses of Styrofoam implants under 5 cm of asphalt, 5 cm of concrete, and 10 cm of asphalt and concrete. We compared thermal maps from solar-heated concrete and asphalt-concrete slabs with thermal inertia maps from flash-heated concrete and asphalt-concrete slabs. Thermal inertia mapping is a tool for visualizing and quantifying subsurface defects. Physically, thermal inertia is a measure of the resistance of the bridge deck to temperature change. Experimentally, it is determined from the inverse slope of the surface temperature versus the inverse square root of time. Mathematically, thermal inertia is the square root of the product of thermal conductivity, density, and heat capacity. Thermal inertia mapping distinguishes delaminated decks which have below-average thermal inertias from normal or shaded decks. Key Words: Pulsed Thermal Imaging, Thermal Inertia, Detection Of Concrete Bridgedeck Delaminations
Critical current survival in the YBCO superconducting layer of a delaminated coated conductor
Feng, Feng; Fu, Qishu; Qu, Timing; Mu, Hui; Gu, Chen; Yue, Yubin; Wang, Linli; Yang, Zhirong; Han, Zhenghe; Feng, Pingfa
2018-04-01
A high-temperature superconducting coated conductor can be practically applied in electric equipment due to its favorable mechanical properties and critical current (I c) performance. However, the coated conductor can easily delaminate because of its poor stress tolerance along the thickness direction. It would be interesting to investigate whether the I c of the delaminated YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) layer can be preserved. In this study, coated conductor samples manufactured through the metal organic deposition route were delaminated by liquid nitrogen immersion. Delaminated samples, including the YBCO layer and silver stabilizer, were obtained. Delamination occurred inside the YBCO layer and near the YBCO-CeO2 interface, as suggested by the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction. A scanning Hall probe system was employed to measure the I c distribution of the original sample and the delaminated sample. It was found that approximately 50% of the I c can be preserved after delamination, which was verified by I c measurements using the four-probe method. Dense and crack-free morphologies of the delaminated surfaces were observed by SEM, which accounts for the I c survival of the delaminated YBCO layer. The potential application of the delaminated sample in superconducting joints was discussed based on the oxygen diffusion estimation.
The influence of a delaminated layer on the impedance spectrum of an operating solid oxide fuel cell
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gazzarri, J.I. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Kesler, O. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation
2005-07-01
The development of a 2-dimensional finite element model of Solid Oxide Fuel Oxide (SOFC) AC impedance behavior was discussed. The model was developed to simulate the frequency response of a single cell with and without mechanical damage. Impedance spectroscopy was used in the development of a diagnostic technique to identify a delamination failure within a working SOFC. Changes in the impedance spectrum of a working cell were observed on the appearance of a delamination between 2 adjacent layers. The intent was to identify distinctive patterns in the cracked cell spectra that provide enough information about the degradation process so that it can be recognized and distinguished from other electrochemical processes and degradation modes. It was anticipated that the method will provide a useful tool for both maintenance and research purposes, providing insight into the causes of inadequate functioning. Results indicate that the presence of mechanically induced damage within the components of an SOFC can be detected by comparing the frequency response of the undamaged cell with that of a cell in which in-plane cracking or delamination has occurred. The presence of such defects manifests itself as a new semicircle in the Nyquist impedance diagram of the full cell, with a relaxation frequency of approximately 35 kHz. It was concluded that the ability to distinguish the crack-induced semicircle from the semicircles induced by electrochemical reactions depended on the difference between the characteristic relaxation times and their relative sizes. 17 refs., 1 tab.,10 figs.
ALBERTO CARLOS DE QUEIROZ PINTO; VICTOR GALÁN SAÚCO; SISIR KUMAR MITRA; FRANCISCO RICARDO FERREIRA
2018-01-01
ABSTRACT This Chapter has the objectives to search, through the review of the available literature, important informations on the evolution of mango propagation regarding theoretical and practical aspects from cellular base of sexual propagation, nursery structures and organizations, substrate compositions and uses, importance of rootstock and scion selections, also it will be described the preparation and transport of the grafts (stem and bud) as well as the main asexual propagation methods...
Maeda, Takuto; Takemura, Shunsuke; Furumura, Takashi
2017-07-01
We have developed an open-source software package, Open-source Seismic Wave Propagation Code (OpenSWPC), for parallel numerical simulations of seismic wave propagation in 3D and 2D (P-SV and SH) viscoelastic media based on the finite difference method in local-to-regional scales. This code is equipped with a frequency-independent attenuation model based on the generalized Zener body and an efficient perfectly matched layer for absorbing boundary condition. A hybrid-style programming using OpenMP and the Message Passing Interface (MPI) is adopted for efficient parallel computation. OpenSWPC has wide applicability for seismological studies and great portability to allowing excellent performance from PC clusters to supercomputers. Without modifying the code, users can conduct seismic wave propagation simulations using their own velocity structure models and the necessary source representations by specifying them in an input parameter file. The code has various modes for different types of velocity structure model input and different source representations such as single force, moment tensor and plane-wave incidence, which can easily be selected via the input parameters. Widely used binary data formats, the Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) and the Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) are adopted for the input of the heterogeneous structure model and the outputs of the simulation results, so users can easily handle the input/output datasets. All codes are written in Fortran 2003 and are available with detailed documents in a public repository.[Figure not available: see fulltext.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kvičera, V.; Grábner, M.; Fišer, Ondřej
2011-01-01
Roč. 2011, - (2011), 435262/1-435262/9 ISSN 1687-1499 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0851 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) OC09076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Free space optics * Atmospheric attenuation * Propagation models Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.873, year: 2011 http://downloads.hindawi.com/ journal s/wcn/2011/435262.pdf
P. Mazzanti; F. Bozzano
2009-01-01
Coastal and subaqueous landslides can be very dangerous phenomena since they are characterised by the additional risk of induced tsunamis, unlike their completely-subaerial counterparts. Numerical modelling of landslides propagation is a key step in forecasting the consequences of landslides. In this paper, a novel approach named Equivalent Fluid/Equivalent Medium (EFEM) has been developed. It adapts common numerical models and software that were originally designed for subaerial landslides i...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrand, Adrien; Darmon, Michel; Chatillon, Sylvain; Deschamps, Marc
2014-01-01
The Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) technique is a classical ultrasonic method used in ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation, which allows a precise positioning and a quantitative size evaluation of cracks in the inspected material. Among the typical phenomena arising in the current TOFD inspection, the so-called 'head wave' is the first contribution reaching the receiver. The head wave propagation on a planar interface is well known and identified as a critical refraction taking place on the material surface. On irregular surfaces, it has been shown that the head wave results from the melting of surface and bulk waves mechanisms and that surface irregularities are responsible for numerous diffractions of the incident head wave. To simulate such behaviour, a model has been developed using a ray tracing technique based on time of flight minimization (generalized Fermat's principle). It enables the calculation of the ray path and the corresponding time of flight of all waves propagating in the material, including the head wave. To obtain a complete propagation model for these waves (both trajectory and amplitude), the integration of Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) models is currently performed by coupling them with the ray-based approach discussed above.
Ferrand, Adrien; Darmon, Michel; Chatillon, Sylvain; Deschamps, Marc
2014-04-01
The Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) technique is a classical ultrasonic method used in ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation, which allows a precise positioning and a quantitative size evaluation of cracks in the inspected material. Among the typical phenomena arising in the current TOFD inspection, the so-called "head wave" is the first contribution reaching the receiver. The head wave propagation on a planar interface is well known and identified as a critical refraction taking place on the material surface. On irregular surfaces, it has been shown that the head wave results from the melting of surface and bulk waves mechanisms and that surface irregularities are responsible for numerous diffractions of the incident head wave. To simulate such behaviour, a model has been developed using a ray tracing technique based on time of flight minimization (generalized Fermat's principle). It enables the calculation of the ray path and the corresponding time of flight of all waves propagating in the material, including the head wave. To obtain a complete propagation model for these waves (both trajectory and amplitude), the integration of Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) models is currently performed by coupling them with the ray-based approach discussed above.
Mode I type delamination fracture toughness of YBCO coated conductor with additional Cu layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyazato, T.; Hojo, M.; Sugano, M.; Adachi, T.; Inoue, Y.; Shikimachi, K.; Hirano, N.; Nagaya, S.
2011-01-01
A fracture toughness test method was developed for a YBCO coated conductor with an additional Cu layer. Mode I type tests were carried out using double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens. Delamination propagated into the YBCO layer, and sometimes reached the Ag/YBCO interface. The fracture toughness for YBCO was about 10 J/m 2 . That for Ag/YBCO interface was about 100 J/m 2 . Although interlaminar fracture at a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO)/CeO 2 interface was reported for YBCO coated conductors, this has not yet been investigated by a fracture mechanical approach. In the present study, we developed a mode I type fracture toughness test method for a YBCO coated conductor with an additional Cu layer using double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens. Fracture mechanism was investigated by microscopic observation by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), together with composition analysis by an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS). A pre-crack introduced at the YBCO/CeO 2 interface deviated from the interface, and propagated into the YBCO layer, and sometimes reached the Ag/YBCO interface. The fracture toughness, G R , for YBCO and the Ag/YBCO interface was evaluated to be 7-10 J/m 2 and 80-120 J/m 2 , respectively. The complex stress intensity factor ratio, K 2 /K 1 , at YBCO/CeO 2 interface was evaluated to be -0.19, and this ratio controlled the formation of microcracks in the YBCO layer. The main crack propagated into the YBCO layer accompanied with the formation of microcracks.
Chin, Siu A.
2014-03-01
The sign-problem in PIMC simulations of non-relativistic fermions increases in serverity with the number of fermions and the number of beads (or time-slices) of the simulation. A large of number of beads is usually needed, because the conventional primitive propagator is only second-order and the usual thermodynamic energy-estimator converges very slowly from below with the total imaginary time. The Hamiltonian energy-estimator, while more complicated to evaluate, is a variational upper-bound and converges much faster with the total imaginary time, thereby requiring fewer beads. This work shows that when the Hamiltonian estimator is used in conjunction with fourth-order propagators with optimizable parameters, the ground state energies of 2D parabolic quantum-dots with approximately 10 completely polarized electrons can be obtain with ONLY 3-5 beads, before the onset of severe sign problems. This work was made possible by NPRP GRANT #5-674-1-114 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the author.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khun, N.W.; Frankel, G.S.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Cathodic delamination of epoxy coated steel samples was studied using SKP. ► Delamination of the coating decreased with increased substrate surface roughness. ► Delamination of the coating was faster on the substrate with parallel surface scratches. ► Delamination of the coating exposed to weathering conditions increased with prolonged exposure. - Abstract: The Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) technique was used to investigate the effects of surface roughness, texture and polymer degradation on cathodic delamination of epoxy coated steel. The cathodic delamination rate of the epoxy coatings dramatically decreased with increased surface roughness of the underlying steel substrate. The surface texture of the steel substrates also had a significant effect in that samples with parallel abrasion lines exhibiting faster cathodic delamination in the direction of the lines compared to the direction perpendicular to the lines. The cathodic delamination kinetics of epoxy coatings previously exposed to weathering conditions increased with prolonged exposure due to pronounced polymer degradation. SEM observation confirmed that the cyclic exposure to UV radiation and water condensation caused severe deterioration in the polymer structures with surface cracking and erosion. The SKP results clearly showed that the cathodic delamination of the epoxy coatings was significantly influenced by the surface features of the underlying steel substrates and the degradation of the coatings.
Buckling Analysis of Single and Multi Delamination In Composite Beam Using Finite Element Method
Simanjorang, Hans Charles; Syamsudin, Hendri; Giri Suada, Muhammad
2018-04-01
Delamination is one type of imperfection in structure which found usually in the composite structure. Delamination may exist due to some factors namely in-service condition where the foreign objects hit the composite structure and creates inner defect and poor manufacturing that causes the initial imperfections. Composite structure is susceptible to the compressive loading. Compressive loading leads the instability phenomenon in the composite structure called buckling. The existence of delamination inside of the structure will cause reduction in buckling strength. This paper will explain the effect of delamination location to the buckling strength. The analysis will use the one-dimensional modelling approach using two- dimensional finite element method.
Characterization of Mode I and Mode II delamination growth and thresholds in AS4/PEEK composites
Martin, Roderick H.; Murri, Gretchen Bostaph
1990-01-01
Composite materials often fail by delamination. The onset and growth of delamination in AS4/PEEK, a tough thermoplastic matrix composite, was characterized for mode 1 and mode 2 loadings, using the Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and the End Notched Flexure (ENF) test specimens. Delamination growth per fatigue cycle, da/dN, was related to strain energy release rate, G, by means of a power law. However, the exponents of these power laws were too large for them to be adequately used as a life prediction tool. A small error in the estimated applied loads could lead to large errors in the delamination growth rates. Hence strain energy release rate thresholds, G sub th, below which no delamination would occur were also measured. Mode 1 and 2 threshold G values for no delamination growth were found by monitoring the number of cycles to delamination onset in the DCB and ENF specimens. The maximum applied G for which no delamination growth had occurred until at least 1,000,000 cycles was considered the threshold strain energy release rate. Comments are given on how testing effects, facial interference or delamination front damage, may invalidate the experimental determination of the constants in the expression.
Characterization of Mode 1 and Mode 2 delamination growth and thresholds in graphite/peek composites
Martin, Roderick H.; Murri, Gretchen B.
1988-01-01
Composite materials often fail by delamination. The onset and growth of delamination in AS4/PEEK, a tough thermoplastic matrix composite, was characterized for mode 1 and mode 2 loadings, using the Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and the End Notched Flexure (ENF) test specimens. Delamination growth per fatigue cycle, da/dN, was related to strain energy release rate, G, by means of a power law. However, the exponents of these power laws were too large for them to be adequately used as a life prediction tool. A small error in the estimated applied loads could lead to large errors in the delamination growth rates. Hence strain energy release rate thresholds, G sub th, below which no delamination would occur were also measured. Mode 1 and 2 threshold G values for no delamination growth were found by monitoring the number of cycles to delamination onset in the DCB and ENF specimens. The maximum applied G for which no delamination growth had occurred until at least 1,000,000 cycles was considered the threshold strain energy release rate. Comments are given on how testing effects, facial interference or delamination front damage, may invalidate the experimental determination of the constants in the expression.
Delamination in surface plies of graphite/epoxy caused by the edge trimming process
Colligan, K.; Ramulu, M.
Delamination in surface plies of graphite/epoxy laminates caused by edge trimming using polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and carbide cutters is investigated. The effect of several machining variables on formation of delaminations in the surface plies of a graphite fiber reinforced composite material is presented. Machining tests were performed to assess the impact of cutter geometry, feedrate, rotation direction, and graphite fiber orientation. Three typical delamination modes were observed and documented. Feedrate was found to have a significant effect on surface ply delamination in graphite/epoxy composite materials.
Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Naili, Salah
2012-08-01
This paper deals with the modeling of guided waves propagation in in vivo cortical long bone, which is known to be anisotropic medium with functionally graded porosity. The bone is modeled as an anisotropic poroelastic material by using Biot's theory formulated in high frequency domain. A hybrid spectral/finite element formulation has been developed to find the time-domain solution of ultrasonic waves propagating in a poroelastic plate immersed in two fluid halfspaces. The numerical technique is based on a combined Laplace-Fourier transform, which allows to obtain a reduced dimension problem in the frequency-wavenumber domain. In the spectral domain, as radiation conditions representing infinite fluid halfspaces may be exactly introduced, only the heterogeneous solid layer needs to be analyzed by using finite element method. Several numerical tests are presented showing very good performance of the proposed procedure. A preliminary study on the first arrived signal velocities computed by using equivalent elastic and poroelastic models will be presented. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Characterization of Blistering and Delamination in Depleted Uranium Hohlraums
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biobaum, K. J. M.
2013-03-01
Blistering and delamination are the primary failure mechanisms during the processing of depleted uranium (DU) hohlraums. These hohlraums consist of a sputter-deposited DU layer sandwiched between two sputter-deposited layers of gold; a final thick gold layer is electrodeposited on the exterior. The hohlraum is deposited on a copper-coated aluminum mandrel; the Al and Cu are removed with chemical etching after the gold and DU layers are deposited. After the mandrel is removed, blistering and delamination are observed on the interiors of some hohlraums, particularly at the radius region. It is hypothesized that blisters are caused by pinholes in the copper and gold layers; etchant leaking through these holes reaches the DU layer and causes it to oxidize, resulting in a blister. Depending on the residual stress in the deposited layers, blistering can initiate larger-scale delamination at layer interfaces. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that inhomogeneities in the machined aluminum mandrel are replicated in the sputter-deposited copper layer. Furthermore, the Cu layer exhibits columnar growth with pinholes that likely allow etchant to come in contact with the gold layer. Any inhomogeneities or pinholes in this initial gold layer then become nucleation sites for blistering. Using a focused ion beam system to etch through the gold layer and extract a cross-sectional sample for transmission electron microscopy, amorphous, intermixed layers at the gold/DU interfaces are observed. Nanometer-sized bubbles in the sputtered and electrodeposited gold layers are also present. Characterization of the morphology and composition of the deposited layers is the first step in determining modifications to processing parameters, with the goal of attaining a significant improvement in hohlraum yield.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ALBERTO CARLOS DE QUEIROZ PINTO
2018-03-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This Chapter has the objectives to search, through the review of the available literature, important informations on the evolution of mango propagation regarding theoretical and practical aspects from cellular base of sexual propagation, nursery structures and organizations, substrate compositions and uses, importance of rootstock and scion selections, also it will be described the preparation and transport of the grafts (stem and bud as well as the main asexual propagation methods their uses and practices. Finally, pattern and quality of graft mangos and their commercialization aspects will be discussed in this Chapter.
Modeling delamination of FRP laminates under low velocity impact
Jiang, Z.; Wen, H. M.; Ren, S. L.
2017-09-01
Fiber reinforced plastic laminates (FRP) have been increasingly used in various engineering such as aeronautics, astronautics, transportation, naval architecture and their impact response and failure are a major concern in academic community. A new numerical model is suggested for fiber reinforced plastic composites. The model considers that FRP laminates has been constituted by unidirectional laminated plates with adhesive layers. A modified adhesive layer damage model that considering strain rate effects is incorporated into the ABAQUS / EXPLICIT finite element program by the user-defined material subroutine VUMAT. It transpires that the present model predicted delamination is in good agreement with the experimental results for low velocity impact.
Ductile film delamination from compliant substrates using hard overlayers.
Cordill, M J; Marx, V M; Kirchlechner, C
2014-11-28
Flexible electronic devices call for copper and gold metal films to adhere well to polymer substrates. Measuring the interfacial adhesion of these material systems is often challenging, requiring the formulation of different techniques and models. Presented here is a strategy to induce well defined areas of delamination to measure the adhesion of copper films on polyimide substrates. The technique utilizes a stressed overlayer and tensile straining to cause buckle formation. The described method allows one to examine the effects of thin adhesion layers used to improve the adhesion of flexible systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okano, Yasushi; Yamano, Hidemasa
2016-01-01
A new method has been developed to assess potential challenges by forest fire smoke on a cooling function of a decay heat removal system (DHRS) of a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Combinational numerical simulations of a forest fire propagation and a smoke transport were performed to evaluate a cumulative amount of smoke captured on air filters of the DHRS. The forest fire propagation simulations were performed using FARSITE code to evaluate a temporal increase of a forest fire spread area, a frontal fireline location, reaction intensity, and fireline intensity. Peripheral boundary of the forest fire spread area is shaped like an ellipse on the terrain, and the active forest fire area from which smoke is produced as a forest fire product is increased with forest fire spread. The smoke transport simulations were performed using ALOFT-FT code where a spatial distribution of smoke density, especially of particle matter (PM), is evaluated. The snapshot (i.e. at a certain time step) outputs by FARSITE on the reaction intensity and the fireline intensity were utilized as the input data for ALOFT-FT, while it was conservatively assumed that the smoke generated from the active forest fire area along the periphery boundary rises up from the frontal fireline location nearest to a nuclear power plant (NPP) and that prevailing wind transports all smoke to an NPP in the leeward side. The evaluated time-dependent changes of spatial PM density were utilized to calculate a cumulative amount of PM captured on the air filters of the DHRS. Sensitivity analysis was performed on prevailing wind speed to which both the fireline intensity and the smoke transport behavior are sensitive. The total amount of PM on the air filters was conservatively estimated around several hundred grams per m 2 which is well below the utilization limit. (author)
Al-Jabr, Ahmad Ali; Alsunaidi, Mohammad A.; Ooi, Boon S.
2013-01-01
This paper presents methods of simulating gain media in the finite difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm utilizing a generalized polarization formulation. The gain can be static or dynamic. For static gain, Lorentzian and non-Lorentzian models are presented and tested. For the dynamic gain, rate equations for two-level and four-level models are incorporated in the FDTD scheme. The simulation results conform with the expected behavior of wave amplification and dynamic population inversion.
Cracking and delamination of vapor-deposited tantalum films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisher, R.M.; Duan, J.Z.; Liu, J.B.
1990-01-01
This paper reports on tantalum films which begin to crack and spall during vapor deposition on glass at a thickness of 180 nm. Islands and ribbons, 10 - 30 μm in size, delaminate by crack growth along the Ta/glass interface for several μm after which the crack penetrates into the glass to a depth of 0.5 - 1 μm and complete spalling occurs. X-ray diffraction showed that about 50% of the original bct, β-tantalum, phase had transformed to the bcc α-Ta phase. When Ta was deposited on glass that was first covered with 52 nm of copper, spalling was observed to begin at a thickness of 105 nm. In this case, the film first cracks and then peels along the Cu/glass interface and curls into scrolls indicating the presence of a small stress gradient. X-ray diffraction of the as-deposited film, and electron diffraction of ion-milled flakes, showed that the Ta films deposited on Cu-coated glass almost completely transform to bcc α-Ta. The critical thickness for delamination along the Cu/glass interface is about 1/2 that for cracking in the glass substrate when an intermediate layer of Cu is not present. All of the above findings are in good agreement with previous observations on Cr films
Cohesive delamination and frictional contact on joining surface via XFEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco Parrinello
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, the complex mechanical behaviour of the surfaces joining two differentbodies is analysed by a cohesive-frictional interface constitutive model. The kinematical behaviouris characterized by the presence of discontinuous displacement fields, that take place at the internalconnecting surfaces, both in the fully cohesive phase and in the delamination one. Generally, in order tocatch discontinuous displacement fields, internal connecting surfaces (adhesive layers are modelled bymeans of interface elements, which connect, node by node, the meshes of the joined bodies, requiringthe mesh to be conforming to the geometry of the single bodies and to the relevant connecting surface.In the present paper, the Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM is employed to model, both fromthe geometrical and from the kinematical point of view, the whole domain, including the connectedbodies and the joining surface. The joining surface is not discretized by specific finite elements, butit is defined as an internal discontinuity surface, whose spatial position inside the mesh is analyticallydefined. The proposed approach is developed for two-dimensional composite domains, formed by twoor more material portions joined together by means of a zero thickness adhesive layer. The numericalresults obtained with the proposed approach are compared with the results of the classical interfacefinite element approach. Some examples of delamination and frictional contact are proposed withlinear, circular and curvilinear adhesive layer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canneviere, K.
2003-12-15
This work is devoted to the study of the propagation and the structure of two-phases turbulent flames. To this end, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are used. First, numerical systems for two-phases flow simulations is presented along with a specific chemical model. Then, a study of laminar spray flames is carried out. An analytical study related to the dynamics of evaporation of droplets is first proposed where the influence on the equivalence ratio of the ratio between the heating delay of the droplet and the evaporation delay is detailed. The simulation of a propagating flame through a cloud of droplets is carried out and a pulsating behavior is highlighted. A study of these flames according to the topology of liquid fuel enabled us to characterize a double flame structure composed of a premixed flame and a diffusion flame. Our last study is devoted to spray turbulent flames. Two-phase combustion of turbulent jets has been simulated. By varying the spray injection parameters (density, equivalence ratio), a database has been generated. This database allowed us to describe local and global flame regimes appearing in the combustion of sprays. They have been categorized in four main structures: open and closed external regime, group combustion and mixed combustion. Eventually, a combustion diagram has been developed. It involves the spray vaporization time, the mean inter-space between droplets or group of droplets and eventually the injected equivalence ratio. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heutling, F.; Franz, H.E. [Daimler-Benz AG, Muenchen (Germany); Friedrich, K. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Composite Materials Ltd.
1998-05-01
Carbon-fibre-reinforced plastics (CFRP) are known to be considerably less sensitive to fatigue loading than aluminium (Al) alloys, for instance. However, even in the presence of small delaminations, the damage tolerance of structural components may be considerably reduced. The scope of the present contribution is to investigate fatigue phenomena in CFRP materials (with thermosetting matrix) by means of microfractography. The microfractographic features of the fracture surfaces mirror the processes of deformation and fracture at the delamination front. The fatigue fracture behaviour of a CFRP laminate subjected to cyclic mixed-mode loading is determined by matrix-controlled failure mechanisms. Under pure mode-II loading conditions, rollers in addition to fatigue striations appear in the fibre imprints whose formation mechanism was explained by means of high-resolution field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The ratio between the local tensile and shear stress components influences the propagation direction of secondary cracks originating at the fibres. The local fracture propagations in these secondary cracks can be recognised through the fatigue striations appearing on the surface of the matrix. A comparison with static mixed-mode loading reveals that in both cases the crack propagation follows the path of the local maximum main stress. Applying mathematical relationships derived from the theory of elasticity permitted developing a mixed-mode loading model which makes it possible to predict the crack processes and hence to explain the formation of typical fracture-morphological features. (orig.) 26 refs.
Canestrari, N.; Bisogni, V.; Walter, A.; Zhu, Y.; Dvorak, J.; Vescovo, E.; Chubar, O.
2014-09-01
A "source-to-sample" wavefront propagation analysis of the Electron Spectro-Microscopy (ESM) UV / soft X-ray beamline, which is under construction at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) in the Brookhaven National Laboratory, has been conducted. All elements of the beamline - insertion device, mirrors, variable-line-spacing gratings and slits - are included in the simulations. Radiation intensity distributions at the sample position are displayed for representative photon energies in the UV range (20 - 100 eV) where diffraction effects are strong. The finite acceptance of the refocusing mirrors is the dominating factor limiting the spatial resolution at the sample (by ~3 μm at 20 eV). Absolute estimates of the radiation flux and energy resolution at the sample are also obtained from the electromagnetic calculations. The analysis of the propagated UV range undulator radiation at different deflection parameter values demonstrates that within the beamline angular acceptance a slightly "red-shifted" radiation provides higher flux at the sample and better energy resolution compared to the on-axis resonant radiation of the fundamental harmonic.
An in-situ experimental-numerical approach for interface delamination characterization
Murthy Kolluri, N.V.V.R.
2011-01-01
Interfacial delamination is a key reliability challenge in composites and microelectronic systems due to (high density) integration of dissimilar materials. Delamination occurs due to significant stresses generated at the interfaces, for instance, caused by thermal cycling due to the mismatch in
Energy based study of quasi-static delamination as a low cycle fatigue process
Amaral, L.; Yao, L.; Alderliesten, R.C.; Benedictus, R.
2015-01-01
This work proposes to treat quasi-static mode I delamination growth of CFRP as a low-cycle fatigue process. To this end, mode I quasi-static and fatigue delamination tests were performed. An average physical Strain Energy Release Rate (SERR), derived from an energy balance, is used to characterize
The effect of delaminations on local buckling in wind turbine blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haselbach, Philipp Ulrich; Bitsche, Robert; Branner, Kim
2015-01-01
In this article the effect of delaminations on the load carrying capacity of a large wind turbine blade is studied numerically. For this purpose an 8.65 m long blade section with different initial delaminations in the main spar was subjected to a flapwise dominated bending moment. The model...
Amaral, L.; Alderliesten, R.C.; Benedictus, R.
2017-01-01
Due to the lack of fundamental knowledge of the physics behind delamination growth, certification authorities currently require that composite structures in aircraft are designed such that any delamination will not grow. This usually leads to an overdesign of the structure, hampering weight
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorospe, Alking [Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, 1375 Kyungdong-Ro, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Engineering, Aurora State College of Technology, Baler Aurora 3200 (Philippines); Nisay, Arman [Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, 1375 Kyungdong-Ro, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyung-Seop, E-mail: hsshin@andong.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, 1375 Kyungdong-Ro, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-09-15
Highlights: • I{sub c} degradation behavior under transverse tension loading in different CC tape structure. • Weibull distribution analysis applied on delamination mechanism of CC tape. • Delamination mechanism on CC tapes depending on copper lamination type. • SEM and WDS mapping analysis of delamination sites under transverse loading. - Abstract: Laminated HTS coated conductor (CC) tapes having a unique multi-layer structure made them vulnerable when exposed to transverse loading. Electromechanical transport properties of these CC tapes can be affected by excessive transverse stresses. Due to the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch and incompatibility among constituent materials used in coil applications, delamination among layers occurs and causes critical current, I{sub c} degradation in the CC tapes. In this study, the delamination behaviors in copper (Cu) solder-laminated CC tapes by soldering and surround Cu-stabilized ones by electroplating under transverse tension loading were investigated. Similarly to the surround Cu-stabilized CC tapes in our previous reports, the Cu solder-laminated CC tapes also showed an abrupt and gradual I{sub c} degradation behavior. However, the Cu solder-laminated CC tapes showed different delamination morphologies as compared to the surround Cu-stabilized CC tapes; the superconducting side and the substrate side of the Cu solder laminated CC tapes were totally separated by delamination. On the other hand, the brass laminate did not show any significant effect on the delamination strength when it is added upon the surround Cu-stabilized CC tapes.
Cathodic delamination: Quantification of ionic transport rates along coating-steel interfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Erik Weinell, Claus
2010-01-01
So-called cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for organic coatings immersed in electrolyte solutions (e.g. seawater). Cathodic delamination occurs as a result of the electrochemical reactions. which takes place on a corroding steel surface. This means that reactants must co...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santillan, Arturo Orozco
2013-01-01
, and the complete equations of conservation of mass and conservation of momentum were used together with the state equation for and adiabatic process in and ideal gas. Thermal effects were neglected to simplify the problem. The obtained numerical results illustrate the applicability of the method. The simulations...
Churchfield, Matthew J; Li, Ye; Moriarty, Patrick J
2013-02-28
This paper presents our initial work in performing large-eddy simulations of tidal turbine array flows. First, a horizontally periodic precursor simulation is performed to create turbulent flow data. Then those data are used as inflow into a tidal turbine array two rows deep and infinitely wide. The turbines are modelled using rotating actuator lines, and the finite-volume method is used to solve the governing equations. In studying the wakes created by the turbines, we observed that the vertical shear of the inflow combined with wake rotation causes lateral wake asymmetry. Also, various turbine configurations are simulated, and the total power production relative to isolated turbines is examined. We found that staggering consecutive rows of turbines in the simulated configurations allows the greatest efficiency using the least downstream row spacing. Counter-rotating consecutive downstream turbines in a non-staggered array shows a small benefit. This work has identified areas for improvement. For example, using a larger precursor domain would better capture elongated turbulent structures, and including salinity and temperature equations would account for density stratification and its effect on turbulence. Additionally, the wall shear stress modelling could be improved, and more array configurations could be examined.
Study of multilayer packaging delamination mechanisms using different surface analysis techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garrido-Lopez, Alvaro [Department of Chemistry, University of La Rioja, C/Madre de Dios 51, E-26006 Logrono, La Rioja (Spain); Tena, Maria Teresa, E-mail: maria-teresa.tena@unirioja.es [Department of Chemistry, University of La Rioja, C/Madre de Dios 51, E-26006 Logrono, La Rioja (Spain)
2010-04-01
Multilayer packaging, consisting of different layers joined by using an adhesive or an extrusion process, is widely used to promote different products, such as food, cosmetics, etc. The main disadvantage in using this form of packaging is the delamination process. In this work, different surface techniques (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) are used to analyse the delaminated surfaces in order to study the mechanisms that cause delamination of multilayer packaging. According to our results, the reaction of migrated molecules with adhesive-aluminium bonds is the main cause of the chemical delamination process. In contrast, the delamination of extruded materials would seem to be caused by the breaking of Van der Waals bonds.
Alastruey, Jordi; Khir, Ashraf W; Matthys, Koen S; Segers, Patrick; Sherwin, Spencer J; Verdonck, Pascal R; Parker, Kim H; Peiró, Joaquim
2011-08-11
The accuracy of the nonlinear one-dimensional (1-D) equations of pressure and flow wave propagation in Voigt-type visco-elastic arteries was tested against measurements in a well-defined experimental 1:1 replica of the 37 largest conduit arteries in the human systemic circulation. The parameters required by the numerical algorithm were directly measured in the in vitro setup and no data fitting was involved. The inclusion of wall visco-elasticity in the numerical model reduced the underdamped high-frequency oscillations obtained using a purely elastic tube law, especially in peripheral vessels, which was previously reported in this paper [Matthys et al., 2007. Pulse wave propagation in a model human arterial network: Assessment of 1-D numerical simulations against in vitro measurements. J. Biomech. 40, 3476-3486]. In comparison to the purely elastic model, visco-elasticity significantly reduced the average relative root-mean-square errors between numerical and experimental waveforms over the 70 locations measured in the in vitro model: from 3.0% to 2.5% (p<0.012) for pressure and from 15.7% to 10.8% (p<0.002) for the flow rate. In the frequency domain, average relative errors between numerical and experimental amplitudes from the 5th to the 20th harmonic decreased from 0.7% to 0.5% (p<0.107) for pressure and from 7.0% to 3.3% (p<10(-6)) for the flow rate. These results provide additional support for the use of 1-D reduced modelling to accurately simulate clinically relevant problems at a reasonable computational cost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Numerical Investigation of Delamination in Drilling of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites
Tang, Wenliang; Chen, Yan; Yang, Haojun; Wang, Hua; Yao, Qiwei
2018-03-01
Drilling of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) is a challenging task in modern manufacturing sector and machining induced delamination is one of the major problems affecting assembly precision. In this work, a new three-dimensional (3D) finite element model is developed to study the chip formation and entrance delamination in drilling of CFRP composites on the microscopic level. Fiber phase, matrix phase and equivalent homogeneous phase in the multi-phase model have different constitutive behaviors, respectively. A comparative drilling test, in which the cement carbide drill and unidirectional CFRP laminate are employed, is conducted to validate the proposedmodel in terms of the delamination and the similar changing trend is obtained. Microscopic mechanism of entrance delamination together with the chip formation process at four special fiber cutting angles (0°, 45°, 90° and 135°) is investigated. Moreover, the peeling force is also predicted. The results show that the delamination occurrence and the chip formation are both strongly dependent on the fiber cutting angle. The length of entrance delamination rises with increasing fiber cutting angles. Negligible delamination at 0° is attributed to the compression by the minor flank face. For 45° and 90°, the delamination resulted from the mode III fracture. At 135°, serious delamination which is driven by the mode I and III fractures is more inclined to occur and the peeling force reaches its maximum. Such numerical models can help understand the mechanism of hole entrance delamination further and provide guidance for the damage-free drilling of CFRP.
The ‘Sticky Elastica’: delamination blisters beyond small deformations
Wagner, Till J. W.
2013-01-01
We consider the form of an elastic loop adhered to a rigid substrate: the \\'Sticky Elastica\\'. In contrast to previous studies of the shape of delamination \\'blisters\\', the theory developed accounts for deflections with large slope (i.e. geometrically nonlinear). Starting from the classical Euler Elastica we provide numerical results for the dimensions of such blisters for a variety of end-end confinements and develop asymptotic expressions that reproduce these results well, even up to the point of self-contact. Interestingly, we find that the width of such blisters does not grow monotonically with increased confinement. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by simple desktop experiments and suggest a new method for the measurement of the elastocapillary length for deformations that cannot be considered small. We discuss the implications of our results for applications such as flexible electronics. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Lee, Monghyeon; Chun, Yongwan; Griffith, Daniel A
2018-04-01
Lead poisoning produces serious health problems, which are worse when a victim is younger. The US government and society have tried to prevent lead poisoning, especially since the 1970s; however, lead exposure remains prevalent. Lead poisoning analyses frequently use georeferenced blood lead level data. Like other types of data, these spatial data may contain uncertainties, such as location and attribute measurement errors, which can propagate to analysis results. For this paper, simulation experiments are employed to investigate how selected uncertainties impact regression analyses of blood lead level data in Syracuse, New York. In these simulations, location error and attribute measurement error, as well as a combination of these two errors, are embedded into the original data, and then these data are aggregated into census block group and census tract polygons. These aggregated data are analyzed with regression techniques, and comparisons are reported between the regression coefficients and their standard errors for the error added simulation results and the original results. To account for spatial autocorrelation, the eigenvector spatial filtering method and spatial autoregressive specifications are utilized with linear and generalized linear models. Our findings confirm that location error has more of an impact on the differences than does attribute measurement error, and show that the combined error leads to the greatest deviations. Location error simulation results show that smaller administrative units experience more of a location error impact, and, interestingly, coefficients and standard errors deviate more from their true values for a variable with a low level of spatial autocorrelation. These results imply that uncertainty, especially location error, has a considerable impact on the reliability of spatial analysis results for public health data, and that the level of spatial autocorrelation in a variable also has an impact on modeling results.
Qiao, Shan; Jackson, Edward; Coussios, Constantin C; Cleveland, Robin O
2016-09-01
Nonlinear acoustics plays an important role in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications of biomedical ultrasound and a number of research and commercial software packages are available. In this manuscript, predictions of two solvers available in a commercial software package, pzflex, one using the finite-element-method (FEM) and the other a pseudo-spectral method, spectralflex, are compared with measurements and the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) Texas code (a finite-difference time-domain algorithm). The pzflex methods solve the continuity equation, momentum equation and equation of state where they account for nonlinearity to second order whereas the KZK code solves a nonlinear wave equation with a paraxial approximation for diffraction. Measurements of the field from a single element 3.3 MHz focused transducer were compared with the simulations and there was good agreement for the fundamental frequency and the harmonics; however the FEM pzflex solver incurred a high computational cost to achieve equivalent accuracy. In addition, pzflex results exhibited non-physical oscillations in the spatial distribution of harmonics when the amplitudes were relatively low. It was found that spectralflex was able to accurately capture the nonlinear fields at reasonable computational cost. These results emphasize the need to benchmark nonlinear simulations before using codes as predictive tools.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berne, A.
2001-01-01
Quantitative determinations of many radioactive analytes in environmental samples are based on a process in which several independent measurements of different properties are taken. The final results that are calculated using the data have to be evaluated for accuracy and precision. The estimate of the standard deviation, s, also called the combined standard uncertainty (CSU) associated with the result of this combined measurement can be used to evaluate the precision of the result. The CSU can be calculated by applying the law of propagation of uncertainty, which is based on the Taylor series expansion of the equation used to calculate the analytical result. The estimate of s can also be obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation. The data used in this simulation includes the values resulting from the individual measurements, the estimate of the variance of each value, including the type of distribution, and the equation used to calculate the analytical result. A comparison is made between these two methods of estimating the uncertainty of the calculated result. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rongere, F X; Gibault, J
1994-05-01
Electricite de France, wishing to limit the accidental unavailability of its nuclear plants and to ensure their safety rigorously takes particular care to reduce the risk of fire. In this context, the Heat Transfer and Aerodynamics Branch of the Research and Development Division has been in charge of the design of numerical tools to simulate the fire propagation in buildings since 1985. Its program is articulated towards three axes which include : the development of the MAGIC software program, the characterization of the combustibles present in power plants, the development of methods for the use of the computer codes in the design of plants. This paper gives on overview of the activity in progress in this research fields. It illustrates also the applications performed and anticipated at Electricite de France of the numerical simulation in fire safety design. We discuss at the end of it the limitations and the development factors of these tool use. One of the later is the association of MAGIC software and the FIVE method. (authors). 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Ho Girl; Kim, Hak Joon; Song, Sung Jin; Seok, Chang Sung [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
Thermal barrier coating (TBC) is an essential element consisting of a super-alloy base and ceramic coating designed to achieve long operational time under a high temperature and pressure environment. However, the top coat of TBC can be delaminated at certain temperatures with long operation time. As the delamination of TBC is directly related to the blade damage, the coupling status of the TBC should be assured for reliable operation. Conventional studies of nondestructive evaluation have been made for detecting generation of thermally grown oxide (TGO) or qualitatively evaluating delamination in TBC. In this study, the ultrasonic C-scan method was developed to obtain the damage map inside TBC by estimating the delamination in a quantitative way. All specimens were isothermally degraded at 1,100°C with different time, having different partial delamination area. To detect partial delamination in TBC, the C-scan was performed by a single transducer using pulse-echo method with normal incidence. Partial delamination coefficients of 1 mm to 6 mm were derived by the proportion of the surface reflection signal and flaw signal which were theoretical signals using Rogers-Van Buren and Kim's equations. Using the partial delamination coefficients, the partial delamination maps were obtained. Regardless of the partial delamination coefficient, partial delamination area was increased when degradation time was increased in TBC. In addition, a decrease in partial delamination area in each TBC specimen was observed when the partial delamination coefficient was increased. From the portion of the partial delamination maps, the criterion for delamination was derived.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Ho Girl; Kim, Hak Joon; Song, Sung Jin; Seok, Chang Sung
2016-01-01
Thermal barrier coating (TBC) is an essential element consisting of a super-alloy base and ceramic coating designed to achieve long operational time under a high temperature and pressure environment. However, the top coat of TBC can be delaminated at certain temperatures with long operation time. As the delamination of TBC is directly related to the blade damage, the coupling status of the TBC should be assured for reliable operation. Conventional studies of nondestructive evaluation have been made for detecting generation of thermally grown oxide (TGO) or qualitatively evaluating delamination in TBC. In this study, the ultrasonic C-scan method was developed to obtain the damage map inside TBC by estimating the delamination in a quantitative way. All specimens were isothermally degraded at 1,100°C with different time, having different partial delamination area. To detect partial delamination in TBC, the C-scan was performed by a single transducer using pulse-echo method with normal incidence. Partial delamination coefficients of 1 mm to 6 mm were derived by the proportion of the surface reflection signal and flaw signal which were theoretical signals using Rogers-Van Buren and Kim's equations. Using the partial delamination coefficients, the partial delamination maps were obtained. Regardless of the partial delamination coefficient, partial delamination area was increased when degradation time was increased in TBC. In addition, a decrease in partial delamination area in each TBC specimen was observed when the partial delamination coefficient was increased. From the portion of the partial delamination maps, the criterion for delamination was derived
Song, Sung-Jin; Kim, Chang-Hwan
2002-05-01
Phased array transducers are quite often mounted on solid wedges with specific angles in many practical ultrasonic inspections of thin plates phased array techniques with testing set-up, it is essential to have thorough understanding on the characteristics of radiation beam pattern produced in the interrogated medium. To address such a need, this paper proposes a systematic way to calculate full 3-D radiation beam patterns produced in the interrogated solid medium by phased array transducers mounted on a solid wedge. In order to investigate the characteristics of radiation beam patterns in steel, simulation is carried out for 7.5 MHz array transducers mounted on an acrylic wedge with the angle of 15.45 degrees with various of steering angles and/or focal planes.
Pflugbeil, Thomas; Pöschke, Franziska; Noffke, Anna; Winde, Vera; Wolf, Thomas
2017-04-01
Lake Constance is one of most important drinking water resources in southern Germany. Furthermore, the lake and its catchment is a meaningful natural habitat as well as economical and cultural area. In this context, sustainable development and conservation of the lake ecosystem and drinking water quality is of high importance. However, anthropogenic pressures (e.g. waste water, land use, industry in catchment area) on the lake itself and its external inflows are high. The project "SeeZeichen" (ReWaM-project cluster by BMBF, funding number 02WRM1365) is investigating different immission pathways (groundwater, river, superficial inputs) and their impact on the water quality of Lake Constance. The investigation includes the direct inflow areas as well as the lake-wide context. The present simulation study investigates the mixing dynamics of Lake Constance and its impacts on river inflows and vice versa. It considers different seasonal (mixing and stratification periods), hydrological (flood events, average and low discharge) and transport conditions (sediment loads). The simulations are focused on two rivers: The River Alpenrhein delivers about 60 % of water and material input into Lake Constance. The River Schussen was chosen since it is highly anthropogenic influenced. For this purpose, a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Lake Constance is set up with Delft3D-Flow model system. The model is calibrated and validated with long term data sets of water levels, discharges and temperatures. The model results will be analysed for residence times of river water within the lake and particle distributions to evaluate potential impacts of river plume water constituents on the general water quality of the lake.
Poppe, Christian; Dörr, Dominik; Henning, Frank; Kärger, Luise
2018-05-01
Wet compression moulding (WCM) provides large-scale production potential for continuously fiber reinforced components as a promising alternative to resin transfer moulding (RTM). Lower cycle times are possible due to parallelization of the process steps draping, infiltration and curing during moulding (viscous draping). Experimental and theoretical investigations indicate a strong mutual dependency between the physical mechanisms, which occur during draping and mould filling (fluid-structure-interaction). Thus, key process parameters, like fiber orientation, fiber volume fraction, cavity pressure and the amount and viscosity of the resin are physically coupled. To enable time and cost efficient product and process development throughout all design stages, accurate process simulation tools are desirable. Separated draping and mould filling simulation models, as appropriate for the sequential RTM-process, cannot be applied for the WCM process due to the above outlined physical couplings. Within this study, a two-dimensional Darcy-Propagation-Element (DPE-2D) based on a finite element formulation with additional control volumes (FE/CV) is presented, verified and applied to forming simulation of a generic geometry, as a first step towards a fluid-structure-interaction model taking into account simultaneous resin infiltration and draping. The model is implemented in the commercial FE-Solver Abaqus by means of several user subroutines considering simultaneous draping and 2D-infiltration mechanisms. Darcy's equation is solved with respect to a local fiber orientation. Furthermore, the material model can access the local fluid domain properties to update the mechanical forming material parameter, which enables further investigations on the coupled physical mechanisms.
Sun, Jie; Fan, Xing; Guo, Weiling; Liu, Lihui; Liu, Xin; Deng, Jun; Xu, Chen
2015-12-16
A capacitor-based circuit model is proposed to explain the electrochemical delamination of two-dimensional materials from their native substrates where produced gas bubbles squeeze into the interface. The delamination is actually the electric breakdown of the capacitor formed between the solution and substrate. To facilitate the procedure, the backside of the ubstrate has to be shielded so that the capacitor breakdown voltage can be reached. The screening effect can be induced either by nonreactive ions around the electrode or, more effectively, by an undetachable insulator. This mechanism serves as a guideline for the surface science and applications involving the bubbling delamination.
Optimization of Cutting Parameters on Delamination of Drilling Glass-Polyester Composites
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Majid Habeeb Faidh-Allah
2018-02-01
Full Text Available This paper attempted to study the effect of cutting parameters (spindle speed and feed rate on delamination phenomena during the drilling glass-polyester composites. Drilling process was done by CNC machine with 10 mm diameter of high-speed steel (HSS drill bit. Taguchi technique with L16 orthogonal layout was used to analyze the effective parameters on delamination factor. The optimal experiment was no. 13 with spindle speed 1273 rpm and feed 0.05 mm/rev with minimum delamination factor 1.28.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie Sun
2015-12-01
Full Text Available A capacitor-based circuit model is proposed to explain the electrochemical delamination of two-dimensional materials from their native substrates where produced gas bubbles squeeze into the interface. The delamination is actually the electric breakdown of the capacitor formed between the solution and substrate. To facilitate the procedure, the backside of the ubstrate has to be shielded so that the capacitor breakdown voltage can be reached. The screening effect can be induced either by nonreactive ions around the electrode or, more effectively, by an undetachable insulator. This mechanism serves as a guideline for the surface science and applications involving the bubbling delamination.
Passone,Luca
2011-08-01
Ground motion estimation and subsurface exploration are main research areas in computational seismology, they are fundamental for implementing earthquake engineering requirements and for modern subsurface reservoir assessment. In this study we propose a workflow for discretizing, simulating and visualizing near source ground motion due to earthquake rupture. For data generation we use an elastic wave equation solver called SeisSol based on the Discontinuous Galerkin formulation with Arbitrary high-order DERivatives (ADER-DG). SeisSol is capable of highly accurate treatment of any earthquake source characterization, occurring on geometrically complex fault systems embedded in geologically complicated earth structures. We then visualize the results with two tools: VisIt (“a free interactive parallel visualization and graphical analysis tool for viewing scientific data”) and Avizo (“The 3D Analysis Software for Scientific and Industrial data”). We investigate each approach, include our experiences from model generation to visualization in highly immersive environments and conclude with a set of general recommendations for earthquake visualization.
Ye, W; Bel-Brunon, A; Catheline, S; Combescure, A; Rochette, M
2018-01-01
In this study, visco-hyperelastic Landau's model, which is widely used in acoustical physic field, is introduced into a finite element formulation. It is designed to model the nonlinear behaviour of finite amplitude shear waves in soft solids, typically, in biological tissues. This law is used in finite element models based on elastography, experiments reported in Jacob et al, the simulations results show a good agreement with the experimental study: It is observed in both that a plane shear wave generates only odd harmonics and a nonplane wave generates both odd and even harmonics in the spectral domain. In the second part, a parametric study is performed to analyse the influence of different factors on the generation of odd harmonics of plane wave. A quantitative relation is fitted between the odd harmonic amplitudes and the non-linear elastic parameter of Landau's model, which provides a practical guideline to identify the non-linearity of homogeneous tissues using elastography experiment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Integrated global digital image correlation for interface delamination characterization
Hoefnagels, Johan P.M.; Blaysat, Benoî t; Lubineau, Gilles; Geers, Marc G D
2013-01-01
, but require accurate interface models to capture (irreversible) crack initiation and propagation behavior observed in experiments. Therefore, an Integrated Global Digital Image Correlation (I-GDIC) strategy is developed for accurate determination of mechanical
Reduction of cathodic delamination rates of anticorrosive coatings using free radical scavengers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Weinell, C. E.; Dam-Johansen, Kim
2010-01-01
Cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for anticorrosive coatings subjected to a physical damage and immersed in seawater. The cause of cathodic delamination has been reported to be the result of a chemical attack at the coating-steel interface by free radicals and peroxides...... formed as intermediates in the cathodic reaction during the corrosion process. In this study, antioxidants (i.e., free radical scavengers and peroxide decomposers) have been incorporated into various generic types of coatings to investigate the effect of antioxidants on the rate of cathodic delamination...... of epoxy coatings on cold rolled steel. The addition of free radical scavengers to epoxy coatings improved the resistance toward cathodic delamination by up to 50% during seawater immersion, while peroxide decomposers had a limited effect. Testing using substrates prepared from stainless steel...
DELAMINATION PREDICTION IN DRILLING OF CFRP COMPOSITES USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. PALANIKUMAR
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP materials play a major role in the applications of aeronautic, aerospace, sporting and transportation industries. Machining is indispensible and hence drilling of CFRP materials is considered in this present study with respect to spindle speed in rpm, drill size in mm and feed in mm/min. Delamination is one of the major defects to be dealt with. The experiments are carried out using computer numerical control machine and the results are applied to an artificial neural network (ANN for the prediction of delamination factor at the exit plane of the CFRP material. It is found that ANN model predicts the delamination for any given set of machining parameters with a maximum error of 0.81% and a minimum error of 0.03%. Thus an ANN model is highly suitable for the prediction of delamination in CFRP materials.
Mode I fatigue delamination growth in composite laminates with fibre bridging
Yao, L.
2015-01-01
Advanced composite materials have been commonly used in aerospace engineering, because of their good mechanical properties and attractive potential for creating lightweight structures. Susceptibility to delamination is one of the most important issues in the applications of these materials. This
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheider, I.
2001-07-01
This thesis introduces a concept for fracture mechanical assessment of structures with heterogenuous material properties like weldments. It is based on the cohesive zone model for numerical crack propagation analysis. With that model the failure of examined structures due to fracture can be determined. One part of the thesis contains the extension of the capabilities of the cohesive zone model regarding modelling threedimensional problems, shear fracture and unloading. In a second part new methods are developed for determination of elastic-plastic and fracture mechanical material properties, resp., which are based on optical determination of the specimen deformation. The whole concept has been used successfully for the numerical simulation of small laser welded specimens. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Konzept vorgestellt, mit dem es moeglich ist, Bauteile mit heterogenen Materialeigenschaften, wie z.B. Schweissverbindungen, bruchmechanisch zu bewerten. Es basiert auf einem Modell zur numerischen Rissfortschrittsimulation, dem Kohaesivzonenmodell, um das Versagen des zu untersuchenden Bauteils infolge von Bruch zu bestimmen. Ein Teil der Arbeit umfasst die Weiterentwicklung des Kohaesivzonenmodells zur Vorhersage des Bauteilversagens in Bezug auf die Behandlung dreidimensionaler Probleme, Scherbuch und Entlastung. In einem zweiten Teil werden Methoden zur Bestimmung sowohl der elastischplastischen als auch der bruchmechanischen Materialparameter entwickelt, die zum grossen Teil auf optischen Auswertungsmethoden der Deformationen beruhen. Das geschlossene Konzept wird erfolgreich auf lasergeschweisste Kleinproben angewendet. (orig.)
Glushko, O; Meisels, R; Kuchar, F
2010-03-29
The plane-wave expansion method (PWEM), the multiple-scattering method (MSM) and the 3D finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) are applied for simulations of propagation of electromagnetic waves through 3D colloidal photonic crystals. The system investigated is not a "usual" artificial opal with close-packed fcc lattice but a dilute bcc structure which occurs due to long-range repulsive interaction between electrically charged colloidal particles during the growth process. The basic optical properties of non-close-packed colloidal PhCs are explored by examining the band structure and reflection spectra for a bcc lattice of silica spheres in an aqueous medium. Finite size effects and correspondence between the Bragg model, band structure and reflection spectra are discussed. The effects of size, positional and missing-spheres disorder are investigated. In addition, by analyzing the results of experimental work we show that the fabricated structures have reduced plane-to-plane distance probably due to the effect of gravity during growth.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sidler, Rolf, E-mail: rsidler@gmail.com [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Carcione, José M. [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Borgo Grotta Gigante 42c, 34010 Sgonico, Trieste (Italy); Holliger, Klaus [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2013-02-15
We present a novel numerical approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates. An important application of this method and its extensions will be the modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. In view of this, we consider a numerical mesh, which can be arbitrarily heterogeneous, consisting of two or more concentric rings representing the fluid in the center and the surrounding porous medium. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and a Fourier expansion in the azimuthal direction and a Runge–Kutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method is used to match the fluid–solid boundary conditions based on the method of characteristics. This multi-domain approach allows for significant reductions of the number of grid points in the azimuthal direction for the inner grid domain and thus for corresponding increases of the time step and enhancements of computational efficiency. The viability and accuracy of the proposed method has been rigorously tested and verified through comparisons with analytical solutions as well as with the results obtained with a corresponding, previously published, and independently benchmarked solution for 2D Cartesian coordinates. Finally, the proposed numerical solution also satisfies the reciprocity theorem, which indicates that the inherent singularity associated with the origin of the polar coordinate system is adequately handled.
Plósz, Benedek Gy; De Clercq, Jeriffa; Nopens, Ingmar; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Vanrolleghem, Peter A
2011-01-01
In WWTP models, the accurate assessment of solids inventory in bioreactors equipped with solid-liquid separators, mostly described using one-dimensional (1-D) secondary settling tank (SST) models, is the most fundamental requirement of any calibration procedure. Scientific knowledge on characterising particulate organics in wastewater and on bacteria growth is well-established, whereas 1-D SST models and their impact on biomass concentration predictions are still poorly understood. A rigorous assessment of two 1-DSST models is thus presented: one based on hyperbolic (the widely used Takács-model) and one based on parabolic (the more recently presented Plósz-model) partial differential equations. The former model, using numerical approximation to yield realistic behaviour, is currently the most widely used by wastewater treatment process modellers. The latter is a convection-dispersion model that is solved in a numerically sound way. First, the explicit dispersion in the convection-dispersion model and the numerical dispersion for both SST models are calculated. Second, simulation results of effluent suspended solids concentration (XTSS,Eff), sludge recirculation stream (XTSS,RAS) and sludge blanket height (SBH) are used to demonstrate the distinct behaviour of the models. A thorough scenario analysis is carried out using SST feed flow rate, solids concentration, and overflow rate as degrees of freedom, spanning a broad loading spectrum. A comparison between the measurements and the simulation results demonstrates a considerably improved 1-D model realism using the convection-dispersion model in terms of SBH, XTSS,RAS and XTSS,Eff. Third, to assess the propagation of uncertainty derived from settler model structure to the biokinetic model, the impact of the SST model as sub-model in a plant-wide model on the general model performance is evaluated. A long-term simulation of a bulking event is conducted that spans temperature evolution throughout a summer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leutbecher, M. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere
1998-07-01
Flow over mountains in the stably stratified atmosphere excites gravity waves. The three-dimensional propagation of these waves into the stratosphere is studied using linear theority as well as idealized and realistic numerical simulations. Stagnation, momentum fluxes and temperature anomalies are analyzed for idealized types of flow. Isolated mountains with elliptical contours are considered. The unperturbed atmosphere has constant wind speed and constant static stability or two layers (troposphere/stratosphere) of constant stability each. Real flow over orography is investigated where gravity waves in the stratosphere have been observed. Characteristics of the gravity wave event over the southern tip of Greenland on 6 January 1992 were recorded on a flight of the ER-2 at an altitude of 20 km. In the second case polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) were observed by an airborne Lidar over Northern Scandinavia on 9 January 1997. The PSC were induced by temperature anomalies in orographic gravity waves. (orig.)
Numerical evaluation of delamination in CFRP laminates by stereo X-ray pictures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunoo, Kazuo; Uda, Nobuhide; Ono, Kousei; Onohara, Kaoru; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Hisahiro.
1989-01-01
This paper presents a method for quantifying damage in composite laminates by stereo X-ray pictures. A three dimensional image of delamination, which is one of the characteristic types of damage in composite laminates can be reconstructed with this method. A digital image processing technique is used to analyze X-ray pictures. Experimental results of reconstructing delaminations in carbon/epoxy cross-ply laminates show that this method is accurate enough for practical usage. (author)
Cdc42/N-WASP signaling links actin dynamics to pancreatic β cell delamination and differentiation
Kesavan, Gokul; Lieven, Oliver; Mamidi, Anant; Öhlin, Zarah Löf; Johansson, Jenny Kristina; Li, Wan-Chun; Lommel, Silvia; Greiner, Thomas Uwe; Semb, Henrik
2014-01-01
Delamination plays a pivotal role during normal development and cancer. Previous work has demonstrated that delamination and epithelial cell movement within the plane of an epithelium are associated with a change in cellular phenotype. However, how this positional change is linked to differentiation remains unknown. Using the developing mouse pancreas as a model system, we show that β cell delamination and differentiation are two independent events, which are controlled by Cdc42/N-WASP signaling. Specifically, we show that expression of constitutively active Cdc42 in β cells inhibits β cell delamination and differentiation. These processes are normally associated with junctional actin and cell-cell junction disassembly and the expression of fate-determining transcription factors, such as Isl1 and MafA. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of N-WASP in β cells expressing constitutively active Cdc42 partially restores both delamination and β cell differentiation. These findings elucidate how junctional actin dynamics via Cdc42/N-WASP signaling cell-autonomously control not only epithelial delamination but also cell differentiation during mammalian organogenesis. PMID:24449844
Göğüş, Oğuz H.; Ueda, Kosuke
2018-06-01
Geodynamical models investigate the rheological and physical properties of the lithosphere that peels back (delaminates) from the upper-middle crust. Meanwhile, model predictions are used to relate to a set of observations in the geological context to the test the validity of delamination. Here, we review numerical and analogue models of delamination from these perspectives and provide a number of first-order topics which future modeling studies may address. Models suggest that the presence of the weak lower crust that resides between the strong mantle lithosphere (at least 100 times more viscous/stronger) and the strong upper crust is necessary to develop delamination. Lower crustal weakening may be induced by melt infiltration, shear heating or it naturally occurs through the jelly sandwich type strength profile of the continental lithosphere. The negative buoyancy of the lithosphere required to facilitate the delamination is induced by the pre-existing ocean subduction and/or the lower crustal eclogitization. Surface expression of the peeling back lithosphere has a distinct transient and migratory imprint on the crust, resulting in rapid surface uplift/subsidence, magmatism, heating and shortening/extension. New generation of geodynamical experiments can explain how different types of melting (e.g hydrated, dry melting) occurs with delamination. Reformation of the lithosphere after removal, three dimensional aspects, and the termination of the process are key investigation areas for future research. The robust model predictions, as with other geodynamic modeling studies should be reconciled with observations.
The coupled effects of thickness and delamination on cracking resistance of X70 pipeline steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, W.; Dong, H.; Lu, M.; Zhao, X.
2002-01-01
The effects of thickness and delamination on the fracture toughness and stable crack growth behaviour of high-toughness pipeline steels were investigated experimentally by use of compact tension specimens with thicknesses of 3-15 mm cut from a 17 mm-thick wall pipe. Material resistance curves were generated based on the stress intensity factor (SIF) K and the J-integral. The critical SIF K c and the J-resistance curves are found to be independent of thickness as the delaminations near the crack tip within the material reduce the out-of-plane constraint in thicker specimens. Both fracture mechanism and mechanics analyses shown that the fracture behaviour of the steel is controlled by the strong-coupled effects of thickness and delaminations. With increasing thickness, the out-of-plane stress constraint increases and causes the inclusion separation, growth and coalescence to form delaminations of different sizes before the main crack initiates. The delaminations in turn, reduce the out-of-plane constraint and thus, the thickness effect upon fracture. The advantages and disadvantages of delaminations in a safety assessment of pipelines are also discussed based on three-dimensional fracture theory
Numerical models of delamination behavior in 2G HTS tapes under transverse tension and peel
Duan, Yujie; Ta, Wurui; Gao, Yuanwen
2018-02-01
In extreme operating environments, delamination in 2G HTS tapes occurs within and/or near the superconductor layer from high transverse tensile stresses caused by fabrication, Lorentz forces and thermal mismatch, etc. Generally, transverse opening and peeling off are the main delamination modes, and are always studied in anvil and peel tests, respectively. Numerical models of these modes for 2G HTS tape are presented wherein the mixed-mode traction-separation law at the interface of the silver and superconductor layers is considered. Plastic deformations of copper, silver, and Hastelloy® in the HTS tape are taken into account. The results obtained from the transverse opening model show that the maximum average tensile stress is smaller than the delamination tensile strength because delamination is asynchronous in the tape. When a crack appears in the tape, only a small stress ( ≤ 1 MPa) is required to expand the crack to other stress free areas through peeling. Using the peeling model, the dependency of the peel strength on peeling angle is investigated under constant fracture toughness. Peel strength decreases with the peeling angle until the minimum value is reached at 150°, and thereafter increases slightly. Other results indicate that peel strength depends strongly on delamination strength, fracture toughness, and thickness of copper layer. The fracture toughness of the delamination interface, which is difficult to obtain by experiment, can be extracted using the present model.
Combined effect of matrix cracking and stress-free edge on delamination
Salpekar, S. A.; Obrien, T. K.
1990-01-01
The effect of the stress-free edge on the growth of local delaminations initiating from a matrix crack in (0 sub 2/90 sub 4) sub s and (+ or - 45.90 sub 4) sub s glass epoxy laminates is investigated using 3-D finite element analysis. The presence of high interlaminar normal stresses at the intersection (corner) of the matrix crack with the stress-free edge, suggests that a mode I delamination may initiate at the corners. The strain energy release rates (G) were calculated by modeling a uniform through-width delamination and two inclined delaminations at 10.6 deg and 45 deg to the matrix crack. All components of G have high values near the free edges. The mode I component of G is high at small delamination length and becomes zero for a delamination length of one-ply thickness. The total G values near the free edge agreed well with previously derived closed form solution. The quasi-3D solutions agreed well with the 3-D interior solutions.
Delamination behaviour of GdBCO coated conductor tapes under transverse tension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorospe, A.; Nisay, A.; Dizon, J.R.; Shin, H.S.
2013-01-01
Highlights: •Installation of a test frame which gives precisely aligned transverse load. •Investigation of I c degradation behaviour depending on the type of sample delamination. •Inhomogeneity of the CC tapes caused large variation on delamination strength. •SEM and EDS analysis of delamination sites under transverse loading. -- Abstract: The electromechanical property behaviour of 2G coated conductor (CC) tapes fabricated by multi-layer deposition process both in the in-plane and transverse direction should be understood. The CC tapes are used in the fabrication of epoxy resin-impregnated coils. In such case, the Lorentz force due to the high magnetic field applied as well as the thermal stress due to the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) among constituent layers during cooling to cryogenic temperature will induce transversely applied load to the surface of CC tapes in coils. Hence, the CC tape should have a good mechanical property in the transverse direction in order to maintain its superior performance under magnetic field. In this study, a test frame which gives precisely aligned transverse load was devised. Using the fixture, the delamination behaviours including the delamination strength of the GdBCO CC tapes under transverse tensile loading were investigated. Large variation on the delamination strength of the CC tapes was recorded and might have resulted from the slit edge effect and the inhomogeneity of the CC tapes. The I c degradation behaviour under transverse load was related to the location where delamination occurred in the sample
Edge delamination of composite laminates subject to combined tension and torsional loading
Hooper, Steven J.
1990-01-01
Delamination is a common failure mode of laminated composite materials. Edge delamination is important since it results in reduced stiffness and strength of the laminate. The tension/torsion load condition is of particular significance to the structural integrity of composite helicopter rotor systems. Material coupons can easily be tested under this type of loading in servo-hydraulic tension/torsion test stands using techniques very similar to those used for the Edge Delamination Tensile Test (EDT) delamination specimen. Edge delamination of specimens loaded in tension was successfully analyzed by several investigators using both classical laminate theory and quasi-three dimensional (Q3D) finite element techniques. The former analysis technique can be used to predict the total strain energy release rate, while the latter technique enables the calculation of the mixed-mode strain energy release rates. The Q3D analysis is very efficient since it produces a three-dimensional solution to a two-dimensional domain. A computer program was developed which generates PATRAN commands to generate the finite element model. PATRAN is a pre- and post-processor which is commonly used with a variety of finite element programs such as MCS/NASTRAN. The program creates a sufficiently dense mesh at the delamination crack tips to support a mixed-mode fracture mechanics analysis. The program creates a coarse mesh in those regions where the gradients in the stress field are low (away from the delamination regions). A transition mesh is defined between these regions. This program is capable of generating a mesh for an arbitrarily oriented matrix crack. This program significantly reduces the modeling time required to generate these finite element meshes, thus providing a realistic tool with which to investigate the tension torsion problem.
Karapetsas, Nikolaos; Skoulikaris, Charalampos; Katsogiannos, Fotis; Zalidis, George; Alexandridis, Thomas
2013-04-01
The use of satellite remote sensing products, such as Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), under specific computational interfaces of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has fostered and facilitated the acquisition of data on specific hydrologic features, such as slope, flow direction and flow accumulation, which are crucial inputs to hydrology or hydraulic models at the river basin scale. However, even though DEMs of different resolution varying from a few km up to 20m are freely available for the European continent, these remotely sensed elevation data are rather coarse in cases where large flat areas are dominant inside a watershed, resulting in an unsatisfactory representation of the terrain characteristics. This scientific work aims at implementing a combing interpolation technique for the amelioration of the analysis of a DEM in order to be used as the input ground model to a hydraulic model for the assessment of potential flood events propagation in plains. More specifically, the second version of the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM2), which has an overall accuracy of around 20 meters, was interpolated with a vast number of aerial control points available from the Hellenic Mapping and Cadastral Organization (HMCO). The uncertainty that was inherent in both the available datasets (ASTER & HMCO) and the appearance of uncorrelated errors and artifacts was minimized by incorporating geostatistical filtering. The resolution of the produced DEM was approximately 10 meters and its validation was conducted with the use of an external dataset of 220 geodetic survey points. The derived DEM was then used as an input to the hydraulic model InfoWorks RS, whose operation is based on the relief characteristics contained in the ground model, for defining, in an automated way, the cross section parameters and simulating the flood spatial distribution. The plain of Serres, which is located in the downstream part of the Struma/Strymon transboundary river basin shared
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Anders L.; Lund, Erik; Pinho, Silvestre T.
2009-01-01
In this paper a hierarchical FE approach is utilized to simulate delamination in a composite plate loaded in uni-axial compression. Progressive delamination is modelled by use of cohesive interface elements that are automatically embedded. The non-linear problem is solved quasi-statically in whic...
Delrue, S.; Tabatabaeipour, M.; Hettler, J.; Van Den Abeele, K.
With the growing demand from industry to optimize and further develop existing Non-Destructive Testing & Evaluation (NDT&E) techniques or new methods to detect and characterize incipient damage with high sensitivity and increased quality, ample efforts have been devoted to better understand the typical behavior of kissing bonds, such as delaminations and cracks. Recently, it has been shown experimentally that the nonlinear ultrasonic response of kissing bonds could be enhanced by using Local Defect Resonance (LDR) spectroscopy. LDR spectroscopy is an efficient NDT technique that takes advantage of the characteristic fre- quencies of the defect (defect resonances) in order to provide maximum acoustic wave-defect interaction. In fact, for nonlinear methodologies, the ultrasonic excitation of the sample should occur at either multiples or integer ratios of the characteristic defect resonance frequencies, in order to obtain the highest signal-to-noise response in the nonlinear LDR spectroscopy. In this paper, the potential of using LDR spectroscopy for the detection, localization and characterization of kissing bonds is illustrated using a 3D simulation code for elastic wave propagation in materials containing closed but dynamically active cracks or delaminations. Using the model, we are able to define an appropriate method, based on the Scaling Subtraction Method (SSM), to determine the local defect resonance frequencies of a delamination in a composite plate and to illustrate an increase in defect nonlinearity due to LDR. The simulation results will help us to obtain a better understanding of the concept of LDR and to assist in the further design and testing of LDR spectroscopy for the detection, localization and characterization of kissing bonds.
Free vibration analysis of delaminated composite shells using different shell theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nanda, Namita; Sahu, S.K.
2012-01-01
Free vibration response of laminated composite shells with delamination is presented using the finite element method based on first order shear deformation theory. The shell theory used is the extension of dynamic, shear deformable theory according to the Sanders' first approximation for doubly curved shells, which can be reduced to Love's and Donnell's theories by means of tracers. An eight-noded C 0 continuity, isoparametric quadrilateral element with five degrees of freedom per node is used in the formulation. For modeling the delamination, multipoint constraint algorithm is incorporated in the finite element code. The natural frequencies of the delaminated cylindrical (CYL), spherical (SPH) and hyperbolic paraboloid (HYP) shells are determined by using the above mentioned shell theories, namely Sanders', Love's, and Donnell's. The validity of the present approach is established by comparing the authors' results with those available in the literature. Additional studies on free vibration response of CYL, SPH and HYP shells are conducted to assess the effects of delamination size and number of layers considering all three shell theories. It is shown that shell theories according to Sanders and Love always predict practically identical frequencies. Donnell's theory gives reliable results only for shallow shells. Moreover, the natural frequency is found to be very sensitive to delamination size and number of layers in the shell.
Chazot, Gilles; Abbassene, Fatiha; Maury, René C.; Déverchère, Jacques; Bellon, Hervé; Ouabadi, Aziouz; Bosch, Delphine
2017-01-01
Miocene (17-11 Ma) magmatic activity in the Kabylies emplaced K-rich (and minor medium-K) calc-alkaline plutonic and volcanic rocks in five zones, delineating a ∼450 km long EW trending strip located along the northern coast of Algeria, between Annaba and Algiers. Their most likely source is the Kabylian subcontinental lithospheric mantle previously metasomatized during the Paleogene subduction of the Tethys oceanic lithosphere. Our preferred tectono-magmatic model involves a Tethyan slab detachment combined with African mantle delamination and crustal stacking, leading to the superimposition of the African continental crust over the Kabylian metasomatized lithospheric mantle. At ca. 17 Ma, the asthenospheric upwelling arising from lithospheric delamination and Tethyan slab tear triggered the thermal erosion of the latter mantle, inducing its partial melting. The corresponding mafic medium-K calc-alkaline magmas interacted with the African basement units during their ascent, generating intermediate to felsic K-rich calc-alkaline melts that display a characteristic trace element and isotopic crustal signature. Later on, slab tears propagated eastward and westward, promoting slab rollback perpendicular to plate convergence and inducing the emplacement of magmatic rocks of decreasing ages from central-eastern Algeria towards Tunisia and Morocco.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. S. Konev
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Numerical method for calculation of forward and backward waves of intense few-cycle laser pulses propagating in an optical waveguide with dispersion and cubic nonlinearity of electronic and electronic-vibration nature is described. Simulations made with the implemented algorithm show that accounting for Raman nonlinearity does not lead to qualitative changes in behavior of the backward wave. Speaking about quantitative changes, the increase of efficiency of energy transfer from the forward wave to the backward wave is observed. Presented method can be also used to simulate interaction of counterpropagating pulses.
Miah, Khalid; Bellefleur, Gilles
2014-05-01
The global demand for base metals, uranium and precious metals has been pushing mineral explorations at greater depth. Seismic techniques and surveys have become essential in finding and extracting mineral rich ore bodies, especially for deep VMS mining camps. Geophysical parameters collected from borehole logs and laboratory measurements of core samples provide preliminary information about the nature and type of subsurface lithologic units. Alteration halos formed during the hydrothermal alteration process contain ore bodies, which are of primary interests among geologists and mining industries. It is known that the alteration halos are easier to detect than the ore bodies itself. Many 3D geological models are merely projection of 2D surface geology based on outcrop inspections and geochemical analysis of a small number of core samples collected from the area. Since a large scale 3D multicomponent seismic survey can be prohibitively expensive, performance analysis of such geological models can be helpful in reducing exploration costs. In this abstract, we discussed challenges and constraints encountered in geophysical modelling of ore bodies and surrounding geologic structures from the available coarse 3D geological models of the Lalor Lake mining camp, located in northern Manitoba, Canada. Ore bodies in the Lalor lake VMS camp are rich in gold, zinc, lead and copper, and have an approximate weight of 27 Mt. For better understanding of physical parameters of these known ore bodies and potentially unknown ones at greater depth, we constructed a fine resolution 3D seismic model with dimensions: 2000 m (width), 2000 m (height), and 1500 m (vertical depth). Seismic properties (P-wave, S-wave velocities, and density) were assigned based on a previous rock properties study of the same mining camp. 3D finite-difference elastic wave propagation simulation was performed in the model using appropriate parameters. The generated synthetic 3D seismic data was then compared to
Analysis of a 'barb test' for measuring the mixed-mode delamination toughness of coatings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yufu; Kagawa, Y.; Evans, A.G.
2008-01-01
The durability of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) employed in most turbine engines is limited by delamination, both within the coating and at the coating-substrate interface. A test used for evaluating the mixed-mode toughness pertinent to such delaminations has been fully-analyzed by determining the steady-state energy release rate, the mode mixity and the critical length for buckling. An analytic solution based on beam theory establishes basic estimates and scaling relationships. Selected finite-element calculations have been used to affirm the fidelity of the results. The energy release rate attains steady-state, but the phase angle changes throughout because of a small (but significant) bending moment induced at the supports. The coating buckles at a critical delamination length, whereupon the energy release rate increases rapidly and violates steady state. The solutions are used to re-interpret measurements reported in the literature for an electron beam physically deposited TBC
Dey, Sudip; Karmakar, Amit
2014-02-01
This paper presents the time dependent response of multiple delaminated angle-ply composite pretwisted conical shells subjected to low velocity normal impact. The finite element formulation is based on Mindlin's theory incorporating rotary inertia and effects of transverse shear deformation. An eight-noded isoparametric plate bending element is employed to satisfy the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front. A multipoint constraint algorithm is incorporated which leads to asymmetric stiffness matrices. The modified Hertzian contact law which accounts for permanent indentation is utilized to compute the contact force, and the time dependent equations are solved by Newmark's time integration algorithm. Parametric studies are conducted with respect to triggering parameters like laminate configuration, location of delamination, angle of twist, velocity of impactor, and impactor's displacement for centrally impacted shells.
Delamination Detection in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composites Using Electrical Resistance Measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovalovs, A; Rucevskis, S; Kulakov, V; Aniskevich, A
2016-01-01
In the present study 2-D numerical analysis of strip-type laminated composite specimens with and without damage is considered and numerical investigation is carried out by using a finite element method. The surface and oblique resistances are numerically calculated according to the two-probe and four-probe methods. The electrical conductivity of the composite laminate in the longitudinal direction is constant, while the electrical conductivity in the through-thickness direction is used as a variable in the parametric study. The resistance change due to delamination for each case is estimated by comparing the obtained resistance with the corresponding resistance of the specimen without delamination. Applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method are investigated by using various lengths of a delaminated crack in the specimen. (paper)
Suhaily, M.; Hassan, C. H. Che; Jaharah, A. G.; Azmi, H.; Afifah, M. A.; Khairusshima, M. K. Nor
2018-04-01
In this research study, it presents the influences of drilling parameters on the delamination factor during the drilling of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminates when using the carbide drill bits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of drilling parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and drill sizes on the delamination produced when drilling woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite using the non-coated carbide drill bits. The damage generated on the woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite laminates were observed both at the entrance and exit surface during the drilling operation. The experiments were conducted according to the Box Behnken experimental designs. The results indicated that the drill diameter has a significant influence on the delamination when drilling the woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composites.
Laser micromachining of indium tin oxide films on polymer substrates by laser-induced delamination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willis, David A; Dreier, Adam L
2009-01-01
A Q-switched neodymium : yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd : YAG) laser was used to ablate indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films from polyethylene terephthalate substrates. Film damage and partial removal with no evidence of a melt zone was observed above 1.7 J cm -2 . Above the film removal threshold (3.3 J cm -2 ) the entire film thickness was removed without substrate damage, suggesting that ablation was a result of delamination of the film in the solid phase. Measurements of ablated fragment velocities near the ablation threshold were consistent with calculations of velocities caused by stress-induced delamination of the ITO film, except for a high velocity component at higher fluences. Nanosecond time-resolved shadowgraph photography revealed that the high velocity component was a shock wave induced by the rapid compression of ambient air when the film delaminated.
Lorenz, Pierre; Ehrhardt, Martin; Zimmer, Klaus
The defect-free laser-assisted structuring of thin films on flexible substrates is a challenge for laser methods. However, solving this problem exhibits an outstanding potential for a pioneering development of flexible electronics. Thereby, the laser-assisted delamination method has a great application potential. At the delamination process: the localized removal of the layer is induced by a shock wave which is produced by a laser ablation process on the rear side of the substrate. In this study, the thin-film patterning process is investigated for different polymer substrates dependent on the material and laser parameters using a KrF excimer laser. The resultant structures were studied by optical microscopy and white light interferometry (WLI). The delamination process was tested at different samples (indium tin oxide (ITO) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET), epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU8) on polyimide (PI) and indium tin oxide/copper indium gallium selenide/molybdenum (ITO/CIGS/Mo) on PI.
Cathodic delamination: Quantification of ionic transport rates along coating-steel interfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, P.A.; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Weinell, C.E.
2010-01-01
So-called cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for organic coatings immersed in electrolyte solutions (e.g. seawater). Cathodic delamination occurs as a result of the electrochemical reactions, which takes place on a corroding steel surface. This means that reactants must...... continuously be transported from the bulk solution to the cathodic areas. The transport of sodium ions from a defect in the coating to the cathodic areas is generally considered the rate-determining step for cathodic delamination because the transport of oxygen and water through the coating is sufficient...... for the corrosion processes. In this work, a novel practical method, which allows direct estimation of the apparent diffusion coefficient of sodium ions in the ultrathin aqueous layer at the coating-steel interface, is described. The apparent diffusion coefficients estimated are of similar magnitude as previously...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramazan-Ali Jafari-Talookolaei
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A finite element (FE model is developed to study the free vibration of a rotating laminated composite beam with a single delamination. The rotary inertia and shear deformation effects, as well as the bending–extension, bending–twist and extension–twist coupling terms are taken into account in the FE model. Comparison between the numerical results of the present model and the results published in the literature verifies the validity of the present model. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters, such as delamination size and location, fiber orientation, hub radius, material anisotropy and rotating speed, on the vibration of the beam are studied in detail. These results provide useful information in the study of the free vibration of rotating delaminated composite beams.
Delamination of Pearlitic Steel Wires: The Defining Role of Prior-Drawing Microstructure
Durgaprasad, A.; Giri, S.; Lenka, S.; Sarkar, Sudip Kumar; Biswas, Aniruddha; Kundu, S.; Mishra, S.; Chandra, S.; Doherty, R. D.; Samajdar, I.
2018-03-01
This article reports the occasional (alignment of the pearlite: 22 ± 5 pct vs 34 ± 4 pct in the nondelaminated wires. Although all wires had similar through-thickness texture and stress gradients, delaminated wires had stronger gradients in composition and higher hardness across the ferrite-cementite interface. Carbide dissolution and formation of supersaturated ferrite were clearly correlated with delamination, which could be effectively mitigated by controlled laboratory annealing at 673 K. Direct observations on samples subjected to simple shear revealed significant differences in shear localizations. These were controlled by pearlite morphology and interlamellar spacing. Prior-drawing microstructure of coarse misaligned pearlite thus emerged as a critical factor in the wire drawing-induced delamination of the pearlitic wires.
Radio wave propagation and parabolic equation modeling
Apaydin, Gokhan
2018-01-01
A thorough understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation is fundamental to the development of sophisticated communication and detection technologies. The powerful numerical methods described in this book represent a major step forward in our ability to accurately model electromagnetic wave propagation in order to establish and maintain reliable communication links, to detect targets in radar systems, and to maintain robust mobile phone and broadcasting networks. The first new book on guided wave propagation modeling and simulation to appear in nearly two decades, Radio Wave Propagation and Parabolic Equation Modeling addresses the fundamentals of electromagnetic wave propagation generally, with a specific focus on radio wave propagation through various media. The authors explore an array of new applications, and detail various v rtual electromagnetic tools for solving several frequent electromagnetic propagation problems. All of the methods described are presented within the context of real-world scenari...
Waichman, Karol; Barmashenko, Boris D.; Rosenwaks, Salman
2017-10-01
Analysis of beam propagation, kinetic and fluid dynamic processes in Cs diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs), using wave optics model and gasdynamic code, is reported. The analysis is based on a three-dimensional, time-dependent computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) model. The Navier-Stokes equations for momentum, heat and mass transfer are solved by a commercial Ansys FLUENT solver based on the finite volume discretization technique. The CFD code which solves the gas conservation equations includes effects of natural convection and temperature diffusion of the species in the DPAL mixture. The DPAL kinetic processes in the Cs/He/C2H6 gas mixture dealt with in this paper involve the three lowest energy levels of Cs, (1) 62S1/2, (2) 62P1/2 and (3) 62P3/2. The kinetic processes include absorption due to the 1->3 D2 transition followed by relaxation the 3 to 2 fine structure levels and stimulated emission due to the 2->1 D1 transition. Collisional quenching of levels 2 and 3 and spontaneous emission from these levels are also considered. The gas flow conservation equations are coupled to fast-Fourier-transform algorithm for transverse mode propagation to obtain a solution of the scalar paraxial propagation equation for the laser beam. The wave propagation equation is solved by the split-step beam propagation method where the gain and refractive index in the DPAL medium affect the wave amplitude and phase. Using the CFD and beam propagation models, the gas flow pattern and spatial distributions of the pump and laser intensities in the resonator were calculated for end-pumped Cs DPAL. The laser power, DPAL medium temperature and the laser beam quality were calculated as a function of pump power. The results of the theoretical model for laser power were compared to experimental results of Cs DPAL.
Atomistics of crack propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sieradzki, K.; Dienes, G.J.; Paskin, A.; Massoumzadeh, B.
1988-01-01
The molecular dynamic technique is used to investigate static and dynamic aspects of crack extension. The material chosen for this study was the 2D triangular solid with atoms interacting via the Johnson potential. The 2D Johnson solid was chosen for this study since a sharp crack in this material remains stable against dislocation emission up to the critical Griffith load. This behavior allows for a meaningful comparison between the simulation results and continuum energy theorems for crack extension by appropriately defining an effective modulus which accounts for sample size effects and the non-linear elastic behavior of the Johnson solid. Simulation results are presented for the stress fields of moving cracks and these dynamic results are discussed in terms of the dynamic crack propagation theories, of Mott, Eshelby, and Freund
Zang, Qing; Bai, Xiangxing; Ma, Ping; Huang, Jie; Ma, Jing; Yu, Siyuan; Shi, Hongyan; Sun, Xiudong; Liu, Yang; Lu, Yueguang
2017-02-15
The optical communication method has potential for solving the blackout problem, which is a big challenge faced in the development of aerospace. Two laser transmission systems were set up to explore the influence of the plasma and the ablation particles on the propagation of the laser. The experimental results indicate that the laser can transmit through the plasma with little attenuation. When there are ablation particles of ZrB2-SiC-C added in the plasma, the intensity of the laser has fluctuations. The work introduced in this Letter can be regarded as basic research of the propagation characters of the laser through plasma sheaths.
Hughes, D.; Kazemi, M.; Marler, K.; Zoughi, R.; Myers, J.; Nanni, A.
2002-05-01
Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are increasingly being used for the rehabilitation of concrete structures. Detection and characterization of delaminations between an FRP composite and a concrete surface are of paramount importance. Consequently, the development of a one sided, non-contact, real time and rapid nondestructive testing (NDT) technique for this purpose is of great interest. Near-field microwave NDT techniques, using open-ended rectangular waveguide probes, have shown great potential for detecting delaminations in layered composite structures such as these. The results of some theoretical and experimental investigations on a specially prepared cement paste specimen are presented here.
DeCarvalho, Nelson V.; Chen, B. Y.; Pinho, Silvestre T.; Baiz, P. M.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Tay, T. E.
2013-01-01
A novel approach is proposed for high-fidelity modeling of progressive damage and failure in composite materials that combines the Floating Node Method (FNM) and the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) to represent multiple interacting failure mechanisms in a mesh-independent fashion. In this study, the approach is applied to the modeling of delamination migration in cross-ply tape laminates. Delamination, matrix cracking, and migration are all modeled using fracture mechanics based failure and migration criteria. The methodology proposed shows very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments.
Zelenyak, Andreea-Manuela; Schorer, Nora; Sause, Markus G R
2018-02-01
This paper presents a method for embedding realistic defect geometries of a fiber reinforced material in a finite element modeling environment in order to simulate active ultrasonic inspection. When ultrasonic inspection is used experimentally to investigate the presence of defects in composite materials, the microscopic defect geometry may cause signal characteristics that are difficult to interpret. Hence, modeling of this interaction is key to improve our understanding and way of interpreting the acquired ultrasonic signals. To model the true interaction of the ultrasonic wave field with such defect structures as pores, cracks or delamination, a realistic three dimensional geometry reconstruction is required. We present a 3D-image based reconstruction process which converts computed tomography data in adequate surface representations ready to be embedded for processing with finite element methods. Subsequent modeling using these geometries uses a multi-scale and multi-physics simulation approach which results in quantitative A-Scan ultrasonic signals which can be directly compared with experimental signals. Therefore, besides the properties of the composite material, a full transducer implementation, piezoelectric conversion and simultaneous modeling of the attached circuit is applied. Comparison between simulated and experimental signals provides very good agreement in electrical voltage amplitude and the signal arrival time and thus validates the proposed modeling approach. Simulating ultrasound wave propagation in a medium with a realistic shape of the geometry clearly shows a difference in how the disturbance of the waves takes place and finally allows more realistic modeling of A-scans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihai ISPAS
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Pre-laminated particleboard is a wood based composite extensively used in the furniture industry. Drilling is the most common machining process which prepares the panels for joining using twist/helical drills in the absolute majority of cases. The point angle of the drill bit and the feed speed during drilling play a major role in gaining a good surface quality and minimizing the delamination tendency of the pre-laminated particleboard. The objective of this study was to measure and analyze the influence of the two above-mentioned factors on the processing quality, evaluated by de size of delaminations, both, at the entrance side and the exit side of the drill bit. To assess the defect, two parameters were used: the delamination factor and the effective area of delamination. The results showed that, in general, the combination of small point angle with low feed rate minimizes the delamination of pre-laminated particleboard panels at drilling.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Picard, R.R.
1989-01-01
Topics covered in this chapter include a discussion of exact results as related to nuclear materials management and accounting in nuclear facilities; propagation of error for a single measured value; propagation of error for several measured values; error propagation for materials balances; and an application of error propagation to an example of uranium hexafluoride conversion process
Buckle initiation and delamination of patterned ITO layers on a polymer substrate
Abdallah, Amir; Bouten, P.C.P.; Toonder, den J.M.J.; With, de G.
2011-01-01
Buckle initiation and delamination of patterned ITO layers on a polymer substrate were studied. Various buckle modes have been observed depending on the type of etch defects and the crack patterns. The buckle density was found to be dependent on the number of etch defects, imperfections, applied
Piecewise Delamination Drives Uplift in the Atlas Mountains Region of Morocco
Bezada, M. J.; Humphreys, E.; Martin Davila, J.; mimoun, H.; Josep, G.; Palomeras, I.
2013-12-01
The elevation of the intra-continental Atlas Mountains of Morocco and surrounding regions requires a mantle component of buoyancy, and there is consensus that this buoyancy results from an abnormally thin lithosphere. Lithospheric delamination under the Atlas Mountains and thermal erosion caused by upwelling mantle have each been suggested as thinning mechanisms. We use seismic tomography to image the upper mantle of Morocco by inverting teleseimic p-wave delay times, complemented with local delays, recorded on a dense array of stations in the Iberian peninsula and Morocco. A surface wave model provides constraint on the shallower layers. We determine the geometry of lithospheric cavities and mantle upwelling beneath the Middle Atlas and central High Atlas, and image delaminated lithosphere at ~400 km beneath the Middle Atlas. We propose discontinuous delamination of an intrinsically unstable Atlas lithosphere, enabled by the presence of anomalously hot mantle, as a mechanism for producing the imaged structures. The Atlas lithosphere was made unstable by a combination of tectonic shortening and eclogite loading during Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic magmatism. The presence of hot mantle, sourced from regional upwellings in northern Africa or the Canary Islands, enabled the mobilization of this lithosphere. Flow around the retreating Alboran slab focused upwelling mantle under the Middle Atlas, where we image the most recent delamination. The Atlas Mountains of Morocco stand as an example of mantle-generated uplift and large-scale lithospheric loss in a mildly contractional orogen.
The concept of fatigue fracture toughness in fatigue delamination growth behavior
Yao, L.; Alderliesten, R.C.; Benedictus, R.
2015-01-01
This paper provides a study on mode I fatigue delamination growth in composite laminates using energy principles. Experimental data has been obtained from fatigue tests conducted on Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimens at various stress ratios. A concept of fatigue fracture toughness is proposed
Vibration of a Laminated Beam with a Delamination Including Contact Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Ostachowicz
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Certain results are presented in this paper on damped vibration of a laminated cantilever beam with a single closing delamination. In order to investigate this task the finite element method has been applied in the current study. For modelling the beam higher order shear deformation beam finite elements have been used. The vibration of the beam is investigated in the time domain using a dynamic contact algorithm developed by the authors. The algorithm is based on the Newmark method and also incorporates a Newton-Raphson based procedure for resolving the equation of motion. The time series obtained from solving the equation of motion have been subsequently analysed in the frequency domain by using FFT (Fast Fourier Transform. The vibration responses of the beam due to various harmonic and impulse excitations, at different delamination locations, and for different delamination lengths, as well as changes in the dissipation of damping energy due to the delamination, have all been considered in the paper.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minakuchi, Shu; Sun, Denghao; Takeda, Nobuo
2014-01-01
This study combines our hierarchical fiber-optic-based delamination detection system with a microvascular self-healing material to develop the first autonomous sensing-healing system applicable to large-scale composite structures. In this combined system, embedded vascular modules are connected through check valves to a surface-mounted supply tube of a pressurized healing agent while fiber-optic-based sensors monitor the internal pressure of these vascular modules. When delamination occurs, the healing agent flows into the vascular modules breached by the delamination and infiltrates the damage for healing. At the same time, the pressure sensors identify the damaged modules by detecting internal pressure changes. This paper begins by describing the basic concept of the combined system and by discussing the advantages that arise from its hierarchical nature. The feasibility of the system is then confirmed through delamination infiltration tests. Finally, the hierarchical system is validated in a plate specimen by focusing on the detection and infiltration of the damage. Its self-diagnostic function is also demonstrated. (paper)
Effect of Location of Delamination on Free Vibration of Cross-Ply Conical Shells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudip Dey
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Location of delamination is a triggering parameter for structural instability of laminated composites. In this paper, a finite element method is employed to determine the effects of location of delamination on free vibration characteristics of graphite-epoxy cross-ply composite pre-twisted shallow conical shells. The generalized dynamic equilibrium equation is derived from Lagrange's equation of motion neglecting Coriolis effect for moderate rotational speeds. The formulation is exercised by using an eight noded isoparametric plate bending element based on Mindlin's theory. Multi-point constraint algorithm is utilized to ensure the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front. The standard eigen value problem is solved by applying the QR iteration algorithm. Finite element codes are developed to obtain the numerical results concerning the effects of location of delamination, twist angle and rotational speed on the natural frequencies of cross-ply composite shallow conical shells. The mode shapes are also depicted for a typical laminate configuration. Numerical results obtained from parametric studies of both symmetric and anti-symmetric cross-ply laminates are the first known non-dimensional natural frequencies for the type of analyses carried out here.
Experimental Characterization and Cohesive Laws for Delamination of Off-Axis GFRP Laminates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgaard, Esben; Bak, Brian Lau Verndal
2015-01-01
This work experimentally characterizes mixed mode delamination in glass fibre reinforced polymer laminates taking into account the influence of the off-axis angle between the lamina orientation and the crack growth direction on the fracture properties. Thus, providing a cohesive law that enables...... analysis of 3D models in which mixed mode crack growth within laminates having anisotropic fracture properties takes place....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Weinell, C. E.
2010-01-01
Abstract: Cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for organic coatings immersed in seawater and refers to the weakening or loss of adhesion between the coating and the substrate. The diminished adhesion is the result of electrochemical reactions occurring at the coating...
Delrue, Steven; Aleshin, Vladislav; Truyaert, Kevin; Bou Matar, Olivier; Van Den Abeele, Koen
2018-01-01
Our study aims at the creation of a numerical toolbox that describes wave propagation in samples containing internal contacts (e.g. cracks, delaminations, debondings, imperfect intergranular joints) of known geometry with postulated contact interaction laws including friction. The code consists of two entities: the contact model and the solid mechanics module. Part I of the paper concerns an in-depth description of a constitutive model for realistic contacts or cracks that takes into account the roughness of the contact faces and the associated effects of friction and hysteresis. In the crack model, three different contact states can be recognized: contact loss, total sliding and partial slip. Normal (clapping) interactions between the crack faces are implemented using a quadratic stress-displacement relation, whereas tangential (friction) interactions were introduced using the Coulomb friction law for the total sliding case, and the Method of Memory Diagrams (MMD) in case of partial slip. In the present part of the paper, we integrate the developed crack model into finite element software in order to simulate elastic wave propagation in a solid material containing internal contacts or cracks. We therefore implemented the comprehensive crack model in MATLAB® and introduced it in the Structural Mechanics Module of COMSOL Multiphysics®. The potential of the approach for ultrasound based inspection of solids with cracks showing acoustic nonlinearity is demonstrated by means of an example of shear wave propagation in an aluminum sample containing a single crack with rough surfaces and friction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Inward propagating chemical waves in Taylor vortices.
Thompson, Barnaby W; Novak, Jan; Wilson, Mark C T; Britton, Melanie M; Taylor, Annette F
2010-04-01
Advection-reaction-diffusion (ARD) waves in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in steady Taylor-Couette vortices have been visualized using magnetic-resonance imaging and simulated using an adapted Oregonator model. We show how propagating wave behavior depends on the ratio of advective, chemical and diffusive time scales. In simulations, inward propagating spiral flamelets are observed at high Damköhler number (Da). At low Da, the reaction distributes itself over several vortices and then propagates inwards as contracting ring pulses--also observed experimentally.
Numerical simulations for impact damage detection in composites using vibrothermography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pieczonka, L J; Uhl, T; Szwedo, M; Staszewski, W J; Aymerich, F
2010-01-01
Composite materials are widely used in many engineering applications due to their high strength-to-weight ratios. However, it is well known that composites are susceptible to impact damage. Detection of impact damage is an important issue in maintenance of composite structures. Various non-destructive image-based techniques have been developed for damage detection in composite materials. These include vibrothermography that detects surface temperature changes due to heating associated with frictional energy dissipation by damage. In the present paper numerical simulations are used to investigate heat generation in a composite plate with impact damage in order to support damage detection analysis with vibrothermography. Explicit finite elements are used to model ultrasonic wave propagation in the damaged plate. Simulated delamination and cracks induce frictional heating in the plate. Coupled thermo-mechanical simulations are performed in high frequencies using commercial LS-Dyna finite element code. Very good qualitative agreement between measurements and simulations has been obtained. The area of increased temperature corresponds very well with the damaged area in both experiments and simulations. Numerical model has to be further refined in order to quantitatively match the experiments. The main issues of concern are frictional and thermal properties of composites. The final goal of these research efforts is to predict damage detection sensitivity of vibrothermography in real engineering applications based on numerical models.
Zhao, Jifei; Lu, Xiangyang; Zhou, Kui; Yang, Ziqin; Yang, Deyu; Luo, Xing; Tan, Weiwei; Yang, Yujia
2016-06-01
As an important electron source, Micro-Pulse electron Gun (MPG) which is qualified for producing high average current, short pulse, low emittance electron bunches steadily holds promise to use as an electron source of Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation (CSPR), Free Electron Laser (FEL). The stable output of S-band MPG has been achieved in many labs. To establish reliable foundation for the future application of it, the propagation of picosecond electron bunch produced by MPG should be studied in detail. In this article, the MPG which was working on the rising stage of total effective Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) curve was introduced. The self-bunching mechanism was discussed in depth both in the multipacting amplifying state and the steady working state. The bunch length broadening induced by the longitudinal space-charge (SC) effects was investigated by different theoretical models in different regions. The 2D PIC codes MAGIC and beam dynamic codes TraceWin simulations were also performed in the propagation. The result shows an excellent agreement between the simulation and the theoretical analysis for bunch length evolution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Jifei; Lu, Xiangyang, E-mail: xylu@pku.edu.cn; Yang, Ziqin; Yang, Deyu; Tan, Weiwei; Yang, Yujia [Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Zhou, Kui; Luo, Xing [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)
2016-06-15
As an important electron source, Micro-Pulse electron Gun (MPG) which is qualified for producing high average current, short pulse, low emittance electron bunches steadily holds promise to use as an electron source of Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation (CSPR), Free Electron Laser (FEL). The stable output of S-band MPG has been achieved in many labs. To establish reliable foundation for the future application of it, the propagation of picosecond electron bunch produced by MPG should be studied in detail. In this article, the MPG which was working on the rising stage of total effective Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) curve was introduced. The self-bunching mechanism was discussed in depth both in the multipacting amplifying state and the steady working state. The bunch length broadening induced by the longitudinal space-charge (SC) effects was investigated by different theoretical models in different regions. The 2D PIC codes MAGIC and beam dynamic codes TraceWin simulations were also performed in the propagation. The result shows an excellent agreement between the simulation and the theoretical analysis for bunch length evolution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jifei Zhao
2016-06-01
Full Text Available As an important electron source, Micro-Pulse electron Gun (MPG which is qualified for producing high average current, short pulse, low emittance electron bunches steadily holds promise to use as an electron source of Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation (CSPR, Free Electron Laser (FEL. The stable output of S-band MPG has been achieved in many labs. To establish reliable foundation for the future application of it, the propagation of picosecond electron bunch produced by MPG should be studied in detail. In this article, the MPG which was working on the rising stage of total effective Secondary Electron Yield (SEY curve was introduced. The self-bunching mechanism was discussed in depth both in the multipacting amplifying state and the steady working state. The bunch length broadening induced by the longitudinal space-charge (SC effects was investigated by different theoretical models in different regions. The 2D PIC codes MAGIC and beam dynamic codes TraceWin simulations were also performed in the propagation. The result shows an excellent agreement between the simulation and the theoretical analysis for bunch length evolution.
Mousavi, S Jamaleddin; Farzaneh, Solmaz; Avril, Stéphane
2018-04-01
Dissections of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAAs) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. They occur when a tear in the intima-media of the aorta permits the penetration of the blood and the subsequent delamination and separation of the wall in 2 layers, forming a false channel. To predict computationally the risk of tear formation, stress analyses should be performed layer-specifically and they should consider internal or residual stresses that exist in the tissue. In the present paper, we propose a novel layer-specific damage model based on the constrained mixture theory, which intrinsically takes into account these internal stresses and can predict appropriately the tear formation. The model is implemented in finite-element commercial software Abaqus coupled with user material subroutine. Its capability is tested by applying it to the simulation of different exemplary situations, going from in vitro bulge inflation experiments on aortic samples to in vivo overpressurizing of patient-specific ATAAs. The simulations reveal that damage correctly starts from the intimal layer (luminal side) and propagates across the media as a tear but never hits the adventitia. This scenario is typically the first stage of development of an acute dissection, which is predicted for pressures of about 2.5 times the diastolic pressure by the model after calibrating the parameters against experimental data performed on collected ATAA samples. Further validations on a larger cohort of patients should hopefully confirm the potential of the model in predicting patient-specific damage evolution and possible risk of dissection during aneurysm growth for clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Muráth, Szabolcs; Somosi, Zoltán; Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Tombácz, Etelka; Sipos, Pál; Pálinkó, István
2017-07-01
The delamination-restacking properties of MgAl-layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) were studied in various solvents. The LDH samples were successfully delaminated in polar amides (formamide, N-methylformamide, N-methylacetamide). Usually, delamination was finalized by ultrasonic treatment. As rehydrating solutions, numerous Na-salts with single-, double- and triple-charged anions were used. Reconstruction was accomplished with anions of one or two negative charges, but triple-charged ones generally disrupted the rebuilding process, likely, because their salts with the metals of the LDH are very stable, and the thin layers can more readily transform to salts than the ordered materials. Samples and delamination-restacking processes were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX).
Zhang, Liqi; Zhang, Hongfei; Zhang, Shasha; Xiong, Ziliang; Luo, Biji; Yang, He; Pan, Fabin; Zhou, Xiaochun; Xu, Wangchun; Guo, Liang
2017-09-01
Post-collisional granitoids are widespread in the North Qilian and southern margin of the Alxa block and their petrogenesis can provide important insights into the lithospheric processes in a post-collisional setting. This paper carries out an integrated study of U-Pb zircon dating, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions for five early Paleozoic intrusive plutons from the North Qilian to southern margin of the Alxa block. The geochronological and geochemical results show that their magmatism can be divided into three periods with distinct geochemical features. The early-period intrusive rocks ( 440 Ma) include the Lianhuashan (LHS) and Mengjiadawan (MJDW) granodiorites. Both of them display high Sr/Y ratios (52-91), coupled with low Y and HREE contents, implying that they were derived from partial melting of thickened lower crust, with garnet in the residue. The middle-period intrusive rocks ( 430 Ma), including the MJDW quartz diorites and Yangqiandashan (YQDS) granodiorites, are high-K calc-alkaline with low Sr/Y values. The geochemical and isotopic data suggest that they are generated from partial melting of lower crust without garnet in the residue. The late-period intrusive rocks (414-422 Ma), represented by the Shengrongsi (SRS) and Xinkaigou (XKG) plutons, are A-type or alkali-feldspar granites. They are possibly derived from partial melting of felsic crustal material under lower pressure condition. Our data show decreasing magma crystallization ages from MJDW pluton in the north and LHS pluton in the south to the SRS and XKG plutons in the central part of the study area. We suggest that such spatial and temporal variations of magmatic suites were caused by lithospheric delamination after the collision between the Central Qilian and the Alxa block. A more plausible explanation is that the delamination propagated from the margin part of the thickened lithosphere to inward beneath the North Qilian and southern margin of the Alxa block.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sohn, H; Yang, J Y; Dutta, D; DeSimio, M; Olson, S; Swenson, E
2011-01-01
The paper presents signal and image processing algorithms to automatically detect delamination and disbond in composite plates from wavefield images obtained using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). Lamb waves are excited by a lead zirconate titanate transducer (PZT) mounted on the surface of a composite plate, and the out-of-plane velocity field is measured using an LDV. From the scanned time signals, wavefield images are constructed and processed to study the interaction of Lamb waves with hidden delaminations and disbonds. In particular, the frequency–wavenumber (f–k) domain filter and the Laplacian image filter are used to enhance the visibility of defects in the scanned images. Thereafter, a statistical cluster detection algorithm is used to identify the defect location and distinguish damaged specimens from undamaged ones
Delamination Resistance Of Laminate Made With VBO MTM46/HTS Prepreg
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Czarnocki Piotr
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A laminate made with the Vacuum Bag Only (VBO prepregs can be cured out of autoclave. Because of low curing pressure such a process can result in deterioration of laminate mechanical properties. They can be significantly lower than those displayed by the autoclave cured ones. The resistance against delamination can be among the most affected. Since this property is a week point of all the laminates it was of particular interest. Delamination resistance of unidirectional laminate made from VBO MTM46/HTS(12K prepreg was in the scope of the presented research and the critical values of the Strain Energy Release Rates and the Paris-type equations corresponding to Mode I, Mode II and Mixed-Mode I/II static and cyclic loadings, respectively, were determined.
Predictions of Poisson's ratio in cross-ply laminates containing matrix cracks and delaminations
Harris, Charles E.; Allen, David H.; Nottorf, Eric W.
1989-01-01
A damage-dependent constitutive model for laminated composites has been developed for the combined damage modes of matrix cracks and delaminations. The model is based on the concept of continuum damage mechanics and uses second-order tensor valued internal state variables to represent each mode of damage. The internal state variables are defined as the local volume average of the relative crack face displacements. Since the local volume for delaminations is specified at the laminate level, the constitutive model takes the form of laminate analysis equations modified by the internal state variables. Model implementation is demonstrated for the laminate engineering modulus E(x) and Poisson's ratio nu(xy) of quasi-isotropic and cross-ply laminates. The model predictions are in close agreement to experimental results obtained for graphite/epoxy laminates.
Ag-Coated Heterostructures of ZnO-TiO2/Delaminated Montmorillonite as Solar Photocatalysts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carolina Belver
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Heterostructures based on ZnO-TiO2/delaminated montmorillonite coated with Ag have been prepared by sol–gel and photoreduction procedures, varying the Ag and ZnO contents. They have been thoroughly characterized by XRD, WDXRF, UV–Vis, and XPS spectroscopies, and N2 adsorption, SEM, and TEM. In all cases, the montmorillonite was effectively delaminated with the formation of TiO2 anatase particles anchored on the clay layer’s surface, yielding porous materials with high surface areas. The structural and textural properties of the heterostructures synthesized were unaffected by the ZnO incorporated. The photoreduction led to solids with Ag nanoparticles decorating the surface. These materials were tested as photocatalysts for the degradation of several emerging contaminants with different nitrogen-bearing chemical structures under solar light. The catalysts yielded high rates of disappearance of the starting pollutants and showed quite stable performance upon successive applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dey, Sudip; Karmakar, Amit
2013-01-01
This paper presents a finite element method to compare the effects of delamination on free vibration of graphite-epoxy bending stiff and torsion stiff composite pretwisted shallow conical shells. The generalized dynamic equilibrium equation is derived from Lagrange's equation of motion neglecting the Coriolis effect for moderate rotational speeds. An eight noded isoparametric plate bending element is employed incorporating rotary inertia and effects of transverse shear deformation based on Mindlin's theory. The multipoint constraint; algorithm is utilized to ensure the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front. The standard eigen value problem is solved by applying the QR iteration algorithm. Mode shapes for typical configurations are also depicted. Numerical results obtained are the first known non-dimensional frequencies which could serve as reference solutions for the future investigators.
Study on Fatigue Performance of Composite Bolted Joints with Bolt-Hole Delamination
Liu, M. J.; Yu, S.; Zhao, Q. Y.
2018-03-01
Fatigue performance of composite structure with imperfections is a challenging subject at present. Based on cohesive zone method and multi-continuum theory, delamination evolution response and fatigue life prediction of a 3D composite single-lap joint with a bolt-hole have been investigated through computer codes Abaqus and Fe-safe. Results from the comparison of a perfect composite bolted joint with another defect one indicates that a relatively small delamination damage around the bolt hole brings about significant degradation of local material performance. More notably, fatigue life of stress concentration region of composite bolted joints is highly sensitive to external loads, as an increase of 67% cyclic load amplitude leads to an decrease of 99.5% local fatigue life in this study. However, the numerical strategy for solving composite fatigue problems is meaningful to engineering works.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshall, D.B.; Evans, A.G.
1984-01-01
A fracture analysis of indentation-induced delamination of thin films is presented. The analysis is based on a model system in which the section of film above the delaminating crack is treated as a rigidly clamped disc, and the crack extension force is derived from changes in strain energy of the system as the crack extends. Residual deposition stresses influence the cracking response by inducing buckling of the film above the crack and by providing an additional crack driving force once buckling occurs. A relation for the equilibrium crack length is derived in terms of the indenter load and geometry, the film thickness and mechanical properties, the residual stress level and the fracture toughness of the interface. The analysis provides a basis for using controlled indentation cracking as a quantitative measure of interface toughness and for evaluating contact-induced damage in thin films
Potential-Induced Degradation-Delamination Mode in Crystalline Silicon Modules: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hacke, Peter L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wohlgemuth, John [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Jichao [SunPower Corporation; Shen, Yu-Chen [SunPower Corporation
2018-03-21
A test sequence producing potential-induced degradation-delamination (PID-d) in crystalline silicon modules has been tested and found comparable under visual inspection to cell/encapsulant delamination seen in some fielded modules. Four commercial modules were put through this sequence, 85 degrees C, 85%, 1000 h damp heat, followed by an intensive PID stress sequence of 72 degrees C, 95% RH, and -1000 V, with the module face grounded using a metal foil. The 60 cell c-Si modules exhibiting the highest current transfer (4.4 center dot 10-4 A) exhibited PID-d at the first inspection after 156 h of PID stress. Effects promoting PID-d are reduced adhesion caused by damp heat, sodium migration further reducing adhesion to the cells, and gaseous products of electrochemical reactions driven by the applied system voltage. A new work item proposal for an IEC test standard to evaluate for PID-d is anticipated.
Numerical model of glulam beam delamination in dependence on cohesive strength
Kawecki, Bartosz; Podgórski, Jerzy
2018-01-01
This paper presents an attempt of using a finite element method for predicting delamination of a glue laminated timber beam through a cohesive layer. There were used cohesive finite elements, quadratic stress damage initiation criterion and mixed mode energy release rate failure model. Finite element damage was equal to its complete stiffness degradation. Timber material was considered to be an orthotropic with plastic behaviour after reaching bending limit.
Contribution to interplay between a delamination test and a sensory analysis of mid-range lipsticks.
Richard, C; Tillé-Salmon, B; Mofid, Y
2016-02-01
Lipstick is currently one of the most sold products of cosmetics industry, and the competition between the various manufacturers is significant. Customers mainly seek products with high spreadability, especially long-lasting or long wear on the lips. Evaluation tests of cosmetics are usually performed by sensory analysis. This can then represent a considerable cost. The object of this study was to develop a fast and simple test of delamination (objective method with calibrated instruments) and to interplay the obtained results with those of a discriminative sensory analysis (subjective method) in order to show the relevance of the instrumental test. Three mid-range lipsticks were randomly chosen and were tested. They were made of compositions as described by the International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI). Instrumental characterization was performed by texture profile analysis and by a special delamination test. The sensory analysis was voluntarily conducted with an untrained panel as blind test to confirm or reverse the possible interplay. The two approaches or methods gave the same type of classification. The high-fat lipstick had the worst behaviour with the delamination test and the worst notation of the intensity of descriptors with the sensory analysis. There is a high correlation between the sensory analysis and the instrumental measurements in this study. The delamination test carried out should permit to quickly determine the lasting (screening test) and in consequence optimize the basic formula of lipsticks. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shin, Hyung Seop; Bautista, Zhierwinjay [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Seung Hyun; Lee, Jae Hun; Mean, Byoung Jean [SuNAM Co Ltd., Anseong (Korea, Republic of)
2017-06-15
In superconducting coil applications particularly in wet wound coils, coated conductor (CC) tapes are subjected to different type of stresses that could affect its electromechanical transport property. These include hoop stress acting along the length of the CC tape and the Lorentz force acting perpendicular to the CC tape’s surface. Since the latter is commonly associated with the delamination problem of multi-layered REBCO CC tapes, more understanding and attention on the delamination phenomena induced in the case of coil applications are needed. Difference on the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of each constituent layer of the CC tape, the bobbin, and the impregnating materials is the main causes of delamination in CC tapes when subjected to thermal and mechanical cycling. In the design of degradation-free superconducting coils, therefore, characterization of the delamination behaviors including mechanism and strength in the multi-layered REBCO CC tapes becomes a critical issue. Various trials to increase the delamination strength by improving interface characteristics at interlayers have been performed. In this study, in order to investigate the influences of laser cleaning and Ag annealing treated at the substrate side surface, transverse tensile tests were conducted under different sample configurations using 4.5mm x 8 mm upper anvil. The mechanical delamination strength of differently processed CC samples was examined at room temperature (RT). As a result, the Sample 1 with the additional laser cleaning and Ag annealing processes and the Sample 2 with additional Ag annealing process only showed higher mechanical delamination strength as compared to the Sample 3 without such additional treatments. Sample 3 showed quite different behavior when the loading direction is to the substrate side where the delamination strength much lower as compared to other cases.
Cakoni, Fioralba; de Teresa, Irene; Monk, Peter
2018-06-01
We consider the problem of detecting whether two materials that should be in contact have separated or delaminated using electromagnetic radiation. The interface damage is modeled as a thin opening between two materials of different electromagnetic properties. To derive a reconstruction algorithm that focuses on testing for the delamination at the interface between the two materials, we use the approximate asymptotic model for the forward problem derived in de Teresa (2017 PhD Thesis University of Delaware). In this model, the differential equations in the small opening are replaced by approximate transmission conditions for the electromagnetic fields across the interface. We also assume that the undamaged or background state is known and it is desired to find where the delamination has opened. We adapt the linear sampling method to this configuration in order to locate the damaged part of the interface from a knowledge of the scattered field and the undamaged configuration, but without needing to know the electromagnetic properties of the opening. Numerical examples are presented to validate our algorithm.
High acidity unilamellar zeolite MCM-56 and its pillared and delaminated derivatives.
Gil, Barbara; Makowski, Wacław; Marszalek, Bartosz; Roth, Wieslaw J; Kubu, Martin; Čejka, Jiři; Olejniczak, Zbigniew
2014-07-21
The unilamellar form of zeolite MWW, MCM-56, which is obtained by direct hydrothermal synthesis has been studied with regard to acidity and porosity in its original and post-synthesis modified pillared and delaminated forms. The acidity measured by FTIR was found to be only slightly lower than the highly active 3-D MWW forms, MCM-22 and MCM-49. Pivalonitrile adsorption, which is a measure of spatial openness, showed 50% accessibility vs. MCM-22/49. It highlights the potential of MCM-56 as a layered material with increased access to acid sites because it does not entail laborious post-synthesis modification. Swelling, pillaring and delamination of MCM-56 are facile but result in a reduction in the number of Brønsted acid sites (BAS) while increasing accessibility to pivalonitrile. The delamination procedure involving sonication and acidification of the highly basic mother liquor produces the most visible increase in surface area and access to all BAS. The accompanying doubling of the solid yield and the decrease in absolute number of BAS suggest significant precipitation of dissolved silica generated during swelling and sonication in high pH medium. The viability of separating surfactant covered layers upon sonication with the consequence of exposing hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails to aqueous environment is addressed.
Transient Dynamic Response of Delaminated Composite Rotating Shallow Shells Subjected to Impact
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amit Karmakar
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper a transient dynamic finite element analysis is presented to study the response of delaminated composite pretwisted rotating shallow shells subjected to low velocity normal impact. Lagrange's equation of motion is used to derive the dynamic equilibrium equation and moderate rotational speeds are considered wherein the Coriolis effect is negligible. An eight noded isoparametric plate bending element is employed in the finite element formulation incorporating rotary inertia and effects of transverse shear deformation based on Mindlin's theory. To satisfy the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front a multipoint constraint algorithm is incorporated which leads to unsymmetric stiffness matrices. The modified Hertzian contact law which accounts for permanent indentation is utilized to compute the contact force, and the time dependent equations are solved by Newmark's time integration algorithm. Parametric studies are performed in respect of location of delamination, angle of twist and rotational speed for centrally impacted graphite-epoxy composite cylindrical shells.
Qiu, Wei; Liu, Jianjun; Wang, Yuda; Yang, Yujing; Gao, Yuan; Lv, Pin; Jiang, Qiuli
2018-04-01
In this paper, a general theory of coherent population oscillation effect in an Er3+ -doped fiber under the dual-frequency pumping laser with counter-propagation and co-propagation at room temperature is presented. Using the numerical simulation, in case of dual frequency light waves (1480 nm and 980 nm) with co-propagation and counter-propagation, we analyze the effect of the pump optical power ratio (M) on the group speed of light. The group velocity of light can be varied with the change of M. We research the time delay and fractional delay in an Er3+-doped fiber under the dual-frequency pumping laser with counter-propagation and co-propagation. Compared to the methods of the single pumping, the larger time delay can be got by using the technique of dual-frequency laser pumped fiber with co-propagation and counter-propagation.
Physics of Earthquake Rupture Propagation
Xu, Shiqing; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Sagy, Amir; Doan, Mai-Linh
2018-05-01
A comprehensive understanding of earthquake rupture propagation requires the study of not only the sudden release of elastic strain energy during co-seismic slip, but also of other processes that operate at a variety of spatiotemporal scales. For example, the accumulation of the elastic strain energy usually takes decades to hundreds of years, and rupture propagation and termination modify the bulk properties of the surrounding medium that can influence the behavior of future earthquakes. To share recent findings in the multiscale investigation of earthquake rupture propagation, we held a session entitled "Physics of Earthquake Rupture Propagation" during the 2016 American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting in San Francisco. The session included 46 poster and 32 oral presentations, reporting observations of natural earthquakes, numerical and experimental simulations of earthquake ruptures, and studies of earthquake fault friction. These presentations and discussions during and after the session suggested a need to document more formally the research findings, particularly new observations and views different from conventional ones, complexities in fault zone properties and loading conditions, the diversity of fault slip modes and their interactions, the evaluation of observational and model uncertainties, and comparison between empirical and physics-based models. Therefore, we organize this Special Issue (SI) of Tectonophysics under the same title as our AGU session, hoping to inspire future investigations. Eighteen articles (marked with "this issue") are included in this SI and grouped into the following six categories.
Ogata, Yuma; Ohnishi, Takashi; Moriya, Takahiro; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga; Haneishi, Hideaki
2014-01-01
The X'tal cube is a next-generation DOI detector for PET that we are developing to offer higher resolution and higher sensitivity than is available with present detectors. It is constructed from a cubic monolithic scintillation crystal and silicon photomultipliers which are coupled on various positions of the six surfaces of the cube. A laser-processing technique is applied to produce 3D optical boundaries composed of micro-cracks inside the monolithic scintillator crystal. The current configuration is based on an empirical trial of a laser-processed boundary. There is room to improve the spatial resolution by optimizing the setting of the laser-processed boundary. In fact, the laser-processing technique has high freedom in setting the parameters of the boundary such as size, pitch, and angle. Computer simulation can effectively optimize such parameters. In this study, to design optical characteristics properly for the laser-processed crystal, we developed a Monte Carlo simulator which can model arbitrary arrangements of laser-processed optical boundaries (LPBs). The optical characteristics of the LPBs were measured by use of a setup with a laser and a photo-diode, and then modeled in the simulator. The accuracy of the simulator was confirmed by comparison of position histograms obtained from the simulation and from experiments with a prototype detector composed of a cubic LYSO monolithic crystal with 6 × 6 × 6 segments and multi-pixel photon counters. Furthermore, the simulator was accelerated by parallel computing with general-purpose computing on a graphics processing unit. The calculation speed was about 400 times faster than that with a CPU.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haddar, N.
2003-04-01
The elbow pipes of thermal plants cooling systems are submitted to thermal variations of short range and of variable frequency. These variations bound to temperature changes of the fluids present a risk of cracks and leakages. In order to solve this problem, EDF has started the 'CRECO RNE 808' plan: 'thermal fatigue of 304L austenitic stainless steels' to study experimentally on a volume part, the initiation and the beginning of the propagation of cracks in thermal fatigue on austenitic stainless steels. The aim of this study is more particularly to compare the behaviour and the damage of the material in mechanic-thermal fatigue (cycling in temperature and cycling in deformation) and in isothermal fatigue (the utmost conditions have been determined by EDF for the metal: Tmax = 165 degrees C and Tmin = 90 degrees C; the frequency of the thermal variations can reach a Hertz). A lot of experimental results are given. A model of lifetime is introduced and validated. (O.M.)
Crack Propagation by Finite Element Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luiz Carlos H. Ricardo
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Crack propagation simulation began with the development of the finite element method; the analyses were conducted to obtain a basic understanding of the crack growth. Today structural and materials engineers develop structures and materials properties using this technique. The aim of this paper is to verify the effect of different crack propagation rates in determination of crack opening and closing stress of an ASTM specimen under a standard suspension spectrum loading from FDandE SAE Keyhole Specimen Test Load Histories by finite element analysis. To understand the crack propagation processes under variable amplitude loading, retardation effects are observed
Crack Propagation by Finite Element Method
H. Ricardo, Luiz Carlos
2017-01-01
Crack propagation simulation began with the development of the finite element method; the analyses were conducted to obtain a basic understanding of the crack growth. Today structural and materials engineers develop structures and materials properties using this technique. The aim of this paper is to verify the effect of different crack propagation rates in determination of crack opening and closing stress of an ASTM specimen under a standard suspension spectrum loading from FD&E SAE Keyh...
Radial propagation of turbulence in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Laurent, L.; Samain, A.
1993-12-01
It is shown in this paper that a turbulence propagation can be due to toroidal or non linear mode coupling. An analytical analysis indicates that the toroidal coupling acts through a convection while the non linear effects induce a diffusion. Numerical simulations suggest that the toroidal propagation is usually the fastest process, except perhaps in some highly turbulent regimes. The consequence is the possibility of non local effects on the fluctuation level and the associated transport. (authors). 7 figs., 19 refs
He, Jianghua; Zhang, Yuetao; Falivene, Laura; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Chen, Eugene You Xian
2014-01-01
key parts: structural characterization of active propagating intermediates, propagation kinetics, and chain-termination pathways. Zwitterionic intermediates that simulate the active propagating species in such polymerization have been generated
Ngada, Narcisse
2015-06-15
The complexity and cost of building and running high-power electrical systems make the use of simulations unavoidable. The simulations available today provide great understanding about how systems really operate. This paper helps the reader to gain an insight into simulation in the field of power converters for particle accelerators. Starting with the definition and basic principles of simulation, two simulation types, as well as their leading tools, are presented: analog and numerical simulations. Some practical applications of each simulation type are also considered. The final conclusion then summarizes the main important items to keep in mind before opting for a simulation tool or before performing a simulation.
Propagating Characteristics of Pulsed Laser in Rain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Guo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available To understand the performance of laser ranging system under the rain weather condition, we need to know the propagating characteristics of laser pulse in rain. In this paper, the absorption and attenuation coefficients were calculated based on the scattering theories in discrete stochastic media, and the propagating characteristics of laser pulse in rain were simulated and analyzed using Monte-Carlo method. Some simulation results were verified by experiments, and the simulation results are well matched with the experimental data, with the maximal deviation not less than 7.5%. The results indicated that the propagating laser beam would be attenuated and distorted due to the scattering and absorption of raindrops, and the energy attenuation and pulse shape distortion strongly depended on the laser pulse widths.
Modelling the gluon propagator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leinweber, D.B.; Parrinello, C.; Skullerud, J.I.; Williams, A.G
1999-03-01
Scaling of the Landau gauge gluon propagator calculated at {beta} = 6.0 and at {beta} = 6.2 is demonstrated. A variety of functional forms for the gluon propagator calculated on a large (32{sup 3} x 64) lattice at {beta} = 6.0 are investigated.
Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.
2009-01-01
A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Plósz, Benedek; De Clercq, Jeriffa; Nopens, Ingmar
2011-01-01
In WWTP models, the accurate assessment of solids inventory in bioreactors equipped with solidliquid separators, mostly described using one-dimensional (1-D) secondary settling tank (SST) models, is the most fundamental requirement of any calibration procedure. Scientific knowledge...... of the solids settling behaviour is investigated. It is found that the settler behaviour, simulated by the hyperbolic model, can introduce significant errors into the approximation of the solids retention time and thus solids inventory of the system. We demonstrate that these impacts can potentially cause...
Zacour, Brian M; Pandey, Preetanshu; Subramanian, Ganeshkumar; Gao, Julia Z; Nikfar, Faranak
2014-06-01
The objective of this study was to determine the impact that the micro-environment, as measured by PyroButton data loggers, experienced by tablets during the pan coating unit operation had on the layer adhesion of bilayer tablets in open storage conditions. A full factorial design of experiments (DOE) with three center points was conducted to study the impact of final tablet hardness, film coating spray rate and film coating exhaust temperature on the delamination tendencies of bilayer tablets. PyroButton data loggers were placed (fixed) at various locations in a pan coater and were also allowed to freely move with the tablet bed to measure the micro-environmental temperature and humidity conditions of the tablet bed. The variance in the measured micro-environment via PyroButton data loggers accounted for 75% of the variance in the delamination tendencies of bilayer tablets on storage (R(2 )= 0.75). A survival analysis suggested that tablet hardness and coating spray rate significantly impacted the delamination tendencies of the bilayer tablets under open storage conditions. The coating exhaust temperature did not show good correlation with the tablets' propensity to crack indicating that it was not representative of the coating micro-environment. Models created using data obtained from the PyroButton data loggers outperformed models created using primary DOE factors in the prediction of bilayer tablet strength, especially upon equipment or scale transfers. The coating micro-environment experienced by tablets during the pan coating unit operation significantly impacts the strength of the bilayer interface of tablets on storage.
Fillerup, M. A.; Knapp, J. H.; Knapp, C. C.
2006-12-01
Two lithosphere-scale, explosive-source seismic reflection profiles (DRACULA I and DACIA PLAN), inclusive of the hinterland and foreland of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians, provide new evidence for the geodynamic origin of the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone (VSZ) of Romania. These data, collected to evaluate existing subduction-related and delamination geodynamic models proposed to explain the intermediate depth seismicity associated with the Vrancea zone, show evidence of continental crust extending continuously above the VSZ from the Carpathian foreland well into the Transylvanian hinterland. Crustal thicknesses inferred from these data based on reflectivity show a 40-45 km crust below the Transylvanian basin abruptly shallowing to 32 km for ~120 km beneath the fold and thrust belt of the main Carpathian orogen and thickening again to 38-42 km crust in the foreland. This thinned crust outlines an apparent lower crustal sub-orogenic cavity that is overlain by a relatively subhorizontal reflective fabric absent of dipping reflectivity. The northwest dipping Vrancea seismogenic body, a 30x70x200 km volume of intermediate depth earthquakes, is located on the eastern flank of the apparently thin crust beneath the Carpathian orogen. Amplitude decay curves show penetration of seismic energy to a depth of ~60 km in the vicinity of the sub-orogenic cavity, implying this non- reflective zone is a geologic signature. Rotation of the VSZ about a hinge beneath the foreland basin at a depth of ~50 km restores to fill the lower-crustal cavity under the orogen, suggesting the VSZ represents a portion of brittle lower crust delaminated during continental lithospheric delamination which may have caused regional uplift of the Transylvanian basin. The lack of through-going, dipping crustal-scale boundaries along this composite lithospheric transect would appear to preclude subduction as an explanation for seismicity in the VSZ, consistent with abundant surface geologic data. These
Moisture-Induced Delamination Video of an Oxidized Thermal Barrier Coating
Smialek, James L.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.
2008-01-01
PVD TBC coatings were thermally cycled to near-failure at 1150 C. Normal failure occurred after 200 to 300 1-hr cycles with only moderate weight gains (0.5 mg/sq cm). Delamination and buckling was often delayed until well after cooldown (desktop spallation), but could be instantly induced by the application of water drops, as shown in a video clip which can be viewed by clicking on figure 2 of this report. Moisture therefore plays a primary role in delayed desktop TBC failure. Hydrogen embrittlement is proposed as the underlying mechanism.
Nasouri, Babak; Murphy, Thomas E.; Berberoglu, Halil
2014-07-01
For understanding the mechanisms of low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT), accurate knowledge of light interaction with tissue is necessary. We present a three-dimensional, multilayer reduced-variance Monte Carlo simulation tool for studying light penetration and absorption in human skin. Local profiles of light penetration and volumetric absorption were calculated for uniform as well as Gaussian profile beams with different spreads over the spectral range from 1000 to 1900 nm. The results showed that lasers within this wavelength range could be used to effectively and safely deliver energy to specific skin layers as well as achieve large penetration depths for treating deep tissues, without causing skin damage. In addition, by changing the beam profile from uniform to Gaussian, the local volumetric dosage could increase as much as three times for otherwise similar lasers. We expect that this tool along with the results presented will aid researchers in selecting wavelength and laser power in LLLT.
Failure propagation tests and analysis at PNC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanabe, H.; Miyake, O.; Daigo, Y.; Sato, M.
1984-01-01
Failure propagation tests have been conducted using the Large Leak Sodium Water Reaction Test Rig (SWAT-1) and the Steam Generator Safety Test Facility (SWAT-3) at PNC in order to establish the safety design of the LMFBR prototype Monju steam generators. Test objectives are to provide data for selecting a design basis leak (DBL), data on the time history of failure propagations, data on the mechanism of the failures, and data on re-use of tubes in the steam generators that have suffered leaks. Eighteen fundamental tests have been performed in an intermediate leak region using the SWAT-1 test rig, and ten failure propagation tests have been conducted in the region from a small leak to a large leak using the SWAT-3 test facility. From the test results it was concluded that a dominant mechanism was tube wastage, and it took more than one minute until each failure propagation occurred. Also, the total leak rate in full sequence simulation tests including a water dump was far less than that of one double-ended-guillotine (DEG) failure. Using such experimental data, a computer code, LEAP (Leak Enlargement and Propagation), has been developed for the purpose of estimating the possible maximum leak rate due to failure propagation. This paper describes the results of the failure propagation tests and the model structure and validation studies of the LEAP code. (author)
PROPAGATOR: a synchronous stochastic wildfire propagation model with distributed computation engine
D´Andrea, M.; Fiorucci, P.; Biondi, G.; Negro, D.
2012-04-01
PROPAGATOR is a stochastic model of forest fire spread, useful as a rapid method for fire risk assessment. The model is based on a 2D stochastic cellular automaton. The domain of simulation is discretized using a square regular grid with cell size of 20x20 meters. The model uses high-resolution information such as elevation and type of vegetation on the ground. Input parameters are wind direction, speed and the ignition point of fire. The simulation of fire propagation is done via a stochastic mechanism of propagation between a burning cell and a non-burning cell belonging to its neighbourhood, i.e. the 8 adjacent cells in the rectangular grid. The fire spreads from one cell to its neighbours with a certain base probability, defined using vegetation types of two adjacent cells, and modified by taking into account the slope between them, wind direction and speed. The simulation is synchronous, and takes into account the time needed by the burning fire to cross each cell. Vegetation cover, slope, wind speed and direction affect the fire-propagation speed from cell to cell. The model simulates several mutually independent realizations of the same stochastic fire propagation process. Each of them provides a map of the area burned at each simulation time step. Propagator simulates self-extinction of the fire, and the propagation process continues until at least one cell of the domain is burning in each realization. The output of the model is a series of maps representing the probability of each cell of the domain to be affected by the fire at each time-step: these probabilities are obtained by evaluating the relative frequency of ignition of each cell with respect to the complete set of simulations. Propagator is available as a module in the OWIS (Opera Web Interfaces) system. The model simulation runs on a dedicated server and it is remote controlled from the client program, NAZCA. Ignition points of the simulation can be selected directly in a high-resolution, three
Abdullah, A. B.; Zain, M. S. M.; Abdullah, M. S.; Samad, Z.
2017-07-01
Structural materials, such as composite panels, must be assembled, and such panels are typically constructed via the insertion of a fastener through a drilled hole. The main problem encountered in drilling is delamination, which affects assembly strength. The cost of drilling is also high because of the severe wear on drill bits. The main goal of this research is to develop a new punching method as an alternative to drilling during hole preparation. In this study, the main objective is to investigate the effect of different puncher profiles on the quality of holes punched into carbon fiber reinforcement polymer (CFRP) composite panels. Six types of puncher profiles were fabricated with minimum die clearance (1%), and two quality aspects, namely, incomplete shearing and delamination factor, were measured. The conical puncher incurred the least defects in terms of delamination and yielded an acceptable amount of incomplete shearing in comparison with the other punchers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belver, C., E-mail: carolina.belver@uam.es; Bedia, J.; Rodriguez, J.J.
2017-01-15
Highlights: • Novel Zr-doped TiO{sub 2} delaminated clay materials were prepared by a sol-gel process. • Zr is incorporated into the anatase lattice. • Zr-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are homogenously distributed over the delaminated clay. • Zr doping enhances the photoactivity by reducing the band gap. • Degradation rates were favored at low concentrations and high radiation intensities. - Abstract: Solar light-active Zr-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were successfully immobilized on delaminated clay materials by a one-step sol-gel route. Fixing the amount of TiO{sub 2} at 65 wt.%, this work studies the influence of Zr loading (up to 2%) on the photocatalytic activity of the resulting Zr-doped TiO{sub 2}/clay materials. The structural characterization demonstrates that all samples were formed by a delaminated clay with nanostructured anatase assembled on its surface. The Zr dopant was successfully incorporated into the anatase lattice, resulting in a slight deformation of the anatase crystal and the reduction of the band gap. These materials exhibit high surface area with a disordered mesoporous structure formed by TiO{sub 2} particles (15–20 nm) supported on a delaminated clay. They were tested in the solar photodegradation of antipyrine, usually used as an analgesic drug and selected as an example of emerging pollutant. High degradation rates have been obtained at low antipyrine concentrations and high solar irradiation intensities with the Zr-doped TiO{sub 2}/clay catalyst, more effective than the undoped one. This work demonstrates the potential application of the synthesis method for preparing novel and efficient solar-light photocatalysts based on metal-doped anatase and a delaminated clay.
Ballistic protection performance of curved armor systems with or without debondings/delaminations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan, Ping
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Influence of pre-existing defect in an armor system on its ballistic performance. • Development of finite element models for the ballistic performance of armor systems. • Prediction of the ballistic limit and back face deformation of curved armor systems. - Abstract: In order to discern how pre-existing defects such as single or multiple debondings/delaminations in a curved armor system may affect its ballistic protection performance, two-dimensional axial finite element models were generated using the commercial software ANSYS/Autodyn. The armor systems considered in this investigation are composed of boron carbide front component and Kevlar/epoxy backing component. They are assumed to be perfectly bonded at the interface without defects. The parametric study shows that for the cases considered, the maximum back face deformation of a curved armor system with or without defects is more sensitive to its curvature, material properties of the ceramic front component, and pre-existing defect size and location than the ballistic limit velocity. Additionally, both the ballistic limit velocity and maximum back face deformation are significantly affected by the backing component thickness, front/backing component thickness ratio and the number of delaminations
EVALUATION OF STRENGTH TO SHEAR AND DELAMINATION IN GLUED LAMINATED WOOD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlito Calil Neto
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The Glued Laminated Wood has a large range of applications. In Brazil, its employment as cross-piece poles for overhead electrical power has attracted the attention of companies in the industry, motivated by the potential use of this material. Among the factors that influence the mechanical performance of Glulam solutions stand out efficiency and affinity of the adhesives to the species of wood used, the type of treatment and moisture content of wood veneer, motivating the development of new research on this topic. This research aimed to investigate, by Design of Experiments (DOE, the influence of wood (pinus, teca, eucalipto, adhesive (Purbond; Cascophen and treatment (CCA, CCB, CCBS in the variable responses shear strength and delamination, consisting in the same combination factors evaluated in ANEEL/EESC-PD220-07 project: Head Crosshead Glulam Series. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the species factor expressed significant effect for both response variables evaluated, did not occur with adhesive and treatment factors. Moisture content was significant in the wood evaluated when analyzed the shear strength, and the teca wood showed the highest shear strength and also relating to the delamination.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farzad Sadeghi-Tohidi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The fatigue properties of ultrathin protective coatings on silicon thin films were investigated. The cohesive and delamination fatigue properties of 22 nm-thick atomic-layered-deposited (ALD titania were characterized and compared to that of 25 nm-thick alumina. Both coatings were deposited at 200 °C. The fatigue rates are comparable at 30 °C, 50% relative humidity (RH while they are one order of magnitude larger for alumina compared to titania at 80 °C, 90% RH. The improved fatigue performance is believed to be related to the improved stability of the ALD titania coating with water compared to ALD alumina, which may in part be related to the fact that ALD titania is crystalline, while ALD alumina is amorphous. Static fatigue crack nucleation and propagation was not observed. The underlying fatigue mechanism is different from previously documented mechanisms, such as stress corrosion cracking, and appears to result from the presence of compressive stresses and a rough coating–substrate interface.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. I. Kiselev
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The lower part of lithosphere in collisional orogens may delaminate due to density inversion between the asthenosphere and the cold thickened lithospheric mantle. Generally, standard delamination models have neglected density changes within the crust and the lithospheric mantle, which occur due to phase transitions and compositional variations upon changes of P-T parameters. Our attention is focused on effects of phase and density changes that may be very important and even dominant when compared with the effect of a simple change of the thermal mantle structure. The paper presents the results of numerical modeling for eclogitization of basalts of the lower crust as well as phase composition changes and density of underlying peridotite resulted from tectonic thickening of the lithosphere and its foundering into the asthenosphere. As the thickness of the lower crust increases, the mafic granulite (basalt passes into eclogite, and density inversion occurs at the accepted crust-mantle boundary (P=20 kbar because the newly formed eclogite is heavier than the underlying peridotite by 6 % (abyssal peridotite, according to [Boyd, 1989]. The density difference is a potential energy for delamination of the eclogitic portion of the crust. According to the model, P=70 kbar and T=1300 °C correspond to conditions at the lower boundary of the lithosphere. Assuming the temperature adiabatic distribution within the asthenosphere, its value at the given parameters ranges from 1350 °C to 1400 °C. Density inversion at dry conditions occurs with the identical lithospheric and asthenospheric compositions at the expense of the temperature difference at 100 °C with the density difference of only 0.0022 %. Differences of two other asthenospheric compositions (primitive mantle, and lherzolite KH as compared to the lithosphere (abyssal peridotite are not compensated for by a higher temperature. The asthenospheric density is higher than that of the lithospheric base
Al-Jabr, Haytham M.
The effects of microstructure and crystallographic texture in four commercially-produced API X70 pipeline steels and their relation to planar anisotropy of toughness and delamination were evaluated. The experimental steels were processed through either a hot strip mill, a Steckel mill, or a compact strip mill. Different processing routes were selected to obtain plates with potential variations in the microstructure and anisotropic characteristics. Tensile and Charpy impact testing were used to evaluate the mechanical properties in three orientations: longitudinal (L), transverse (T) and diagonal (D) with respect to the rolling direction to evaluate mechanical property anisotropy. The yield and tensile strengths were higher in the T orientation and toughness was lower in the D orientation for all plates. Delamination was observed in some of the ductile fracture surfaces of the impact samples. To further study the splitting behavior and effects on impact toughness, a modified impact test (MCVN) specimen with side grooves was designed to intensify induced stresses parallel to the notch root and thus facilitate evaluation of delamination. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) were used to evaluate the grain size, microstructural constituents, and crystallographic texture to determine the factors leading to delamination and the anisotropy in toughness. The ferrite grain size is mainly responsible for the differences in DBTTs between the L and T orientations. The higher DBTT in the D orientation observed in pipeline steels is attributed to crystallographic texture. The higher DBTT in the D direction is due to the higher volume fraction of grains having their {100} planes parallel or close to the primary fracture plane for the D orientation. An equation based on a new "brittleness parameter," based on an assessment of grain orientations based on EBSD data, was developed to predict the changes in DBTTs with respect to sample
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chin, Eric Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); English, Shawn Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Briggs, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-09-01
V arious phenomenological delamination initiation criteria are analyzed in quasi - static punch - shear tests conducted on six different geometries. These six geometries are modeled and analyzed using elastic, large - deformation finite element analysis. Analysis output is post - processed to assess different delamination initiation criteria, and their applicability to each of the geometries. These criteria are compared to test results to assess whether or not they are appropriate based on what occurred in testing. Further, examinations of CT scans and ultrasonic images o f test specimens are conducted in the appendix to determine the sequence of failure in each test geometry.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaiotti, Marco; Rizzo, Cesare M.; Branner, Kim
2014-01-01
This paper describes the experimental and numerical studies carried out on delaminated fiberglass epoxy resin laminates made-up by different fabrication methods, namely by vacuum infusion and prepreg. While the tested specimens were originally intended for the assessment of buckling behavior...... of composite laminates of wind turbine blades, results were found valuable for the marine industry as well, because similar laminates are used for the hull shell and stiffeners. Systematic calculations were carried out to assess the effects of an embedded delamination on the buckling load, varying the size...
Error propagation analysis for a sensor system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeater, M.L.; Hockenbury, R.W.; Hawkins, J.; Wilkinson, J.
1976-01-01
As part of a program to develop reliability methods for operational use with reactor sensors and protective systems, error propagation analyses are being made for each model. An example is a sensor system computer simulation model, in which the sensor system signature is convoluted with a reactor signature to show the effect of each in revealing or obscuring information contained in the other. The error propagation analysis models the system and signature uncertainties and sensitivities, whereas the simulation models the signatures and by extensive repetitions reveals the effect of errors in various reactor input or sensor response data. In the approach for the example presented, the errors accumulated by the signature (set of ''noise'' frequencies) are successively calculated as it is propagated stepwise through a system comprised of sensor and signal processing components. Additional modeling steps include a Fourier transform calculation to produce the usual power spectral density representation of the product signature, and some form of pattern recognition algorithm
Database for propagation models
Kantak, Anil V.
1991-07-01
A propagation researcher or a systems engineer who intends to use the results of a propagation experiment is generally faced with various database tasks such as the selection of the computer software, the hardware, and the writing of the programs to pass the data through the models of interest. This task is repeated every time a new experiment is conducted or the same experiment is carried out at a different location generating different data. Thus the users of this data have to spend a considerable portion of their time learning how to implement the computer hardware and the software towards the desired end. This situation may be facilitated considerably if an easily accessible propagation database is created that has all the accepted (standardized) propagation phenomena models approved by the propagation research community. Also, the handling of data will become easier for the user. Such a database construction can only stimulate the growth of the propagation research it if is available to all the researchers, so that the results of the experiment conducted by one researcher can be examined independently by another, without different hardware and software being used. The database may be made flexible so that the researchers need not be confined only to the contents of the database. Another way in which the database may help the researchers is by the fact that they will not have to document the software and hardware tools used in their research since the propagation research community will know the database already. The following sections show a possible database construction, as well as properties of the database for the propagation research.
Vertical laser beam propagation through the troposphere
Minott, P. O.; Bufton, J. L.; Schaefer, W. H.; Grolemund, D. A.
1974-01-01
The characteristics of the earth's atmosphere and its effects upon laser beams was investigated in a series of balloon borne, optical propagation experiments. These experiments were designed to simulate the space to ground laser link. An experiment to determine the amplitude fluctuation, commonly called scintillation, caused by the atmosphere was described.
E3D, 3-D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larsen, S.; Harris, D.; Schultz, C.; Maddix, D.; Bakowsky, T.; Bent, L.
2004-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output. 2 - Methods: The software simulates wave propagation by solving the elasto-dynamic formulation of the full wave equation on a staggered grid. The solution scheme is 4-order accurate in space, 2-order accurate in time
Propagation velocity analysis of a single blob in the SOL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugita, Satoru; Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Itoh, Kimitaka
2008-01-01
Nonlinear simulation of plasma blob propagation in the tokamak scrape-off layer is reported. Three types of model equations are introduced and the simulation results are compared. It is found that in the parameter regime where the intercharge instability appears during the propagation process, the theoretical model of propagation velocity determined by the initial blob size provides a good approximation of the simulation results. In the regime where the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability appears, however, the blob velocity saturates at a lower value. (author)
Propagation of positional error in 3D GIS
Biljecki, Filip; Heuvelink, Gerard B.M.; Ledoux, Hugo; Stoter, Jantien
2015-01-01
While error propagation in GIS is a topic that has received a lot of attention, it has not been researched with 3D GIS data. We extend error propagation to 3D city models using a Monte Carlo simulation on a use case of annual solar irradiation estimation of building rooftops for assessing the
The quark propagator in a covariant gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonnet, F.D.R.; Leinweber, D.B.; Williams, A.G.; Zanotti, J.M.
2000-01-01
Full text: The quark propagator is one of the fundamental building blocks of QCD. Results strongly depend on the ansatz for the propagator. Direct simulations of QCD on a space time lattice can provide guidance and constraints on the analytic structure of the quark propagator. On the lattice the infrared and asymptotic behaviour of the quark propagator is of particular interest since it is a reflection of the accuracy of the discretised quark action. In the deep infrared region, artefacts associated with the finite size of the lattice spacing become small. This is the most interesting region as nonperturbative physics lies here. However, the ultraviolet behaviour at large momentum of the propagator will in general strongly deviate from the correct continuum behaviour. This behaviour will be action dependent. Some interesting progress has been made in improving the ultraviolet behaviour of the propagator. A method, recently developed and referred to as tree-level correction, consists of using the knowledge of the tree-level behaviour to eliminate the obvious lattice artefacts. Tree-level correction represents a crucial step in extracting meaningful results for the mass function and the renormalisation function outside of the deep infrared region. The mass function is particularly interesting as it provides insights into the constituent quark mass as a measure of the nonperturbative physics. In this poster I will present results from the analytic structure of the propagator in recent lattice studies for a variety of fermion actions in lattice QCD. I will also present the new ratio method used to tree-level correct these quark propagators